#### Sample records for numerical control

1. What Is Numerical Control?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Goold, Vernell C.

1977-01-01

Numerical control (a technique involving coded, numerical instructions for the automatic control and performance of a machine tool) does not replace fundamental machine tool training. It should be added to the training program to give the student an additional tool to accomplish production rates and accuracy that were not possible before. (HD)

2. Numerical methods in control

Mehrmann, Volker; Xu, Hongguo

2000-11-01

We study classical control problems like pole assignment, stabilization, linear quadratic control and H[infinity] control from a numerical analysis point of view. We present several examples that show the difficulties with classical approaches and suggest reformulations of the problems in a more general framework. We also discuss some new algorithmic approaches.

3. Computerized Numerical Control Curriculum Guide.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reneau, Fred; And Others

This guide is intended for use in a course in programming and operating a computerized numerical control system. Addressed in the course are various aspects of programming and planning, setting up, and operating machines with computerized numerical control, including selecting manual or computer-assigned programs and matching them with…

4. Digital numerically controlled oscillator

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cellier, A.; Huey, D. C.; Ma, L. N. (Inventor)

1980-01-01

The frequency and phase of an output signal from an oscillator circuit are controlled with accuracy by a digital input word. Positive and negative alterations in output frequency are both provided for by translating all values of input words so that they are positive. The oscillator reference frequency is corrected only in one direction, by adding phase to the output frequency of the oscillator. The input control word is translated to a single algebraic sign and the digital 1 is added thereto. The translated input control word is then accumulated. A reference clock signal having a frequency at an integer multiple of the desired frequency of the output signal is generated. The accumulated control word is then compared with a threshold level. The output signal is adjusted in a single direction by dividing the frequency of the reference clock signal by a first integer or by an integer different from the first integer.

5. Descriptive Report on Numerically Controlled Equipment.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Campbell, Clifton P.

This report presents descriptive information on numerically controlled operational devises. The information is designed for the education and training community, manufacturers, supervisors, machine operators, and others who do not have an extensive technical background in numerical control. In the first of three chapters, numerical control…

6. An Introduction to Numerical Control. Problems for Numerical Control Part Programming.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Campbell, Clifton P.

This combination text and workbook is intended to introduce industrial arts students to numerical control part programming. Discussed in the first section are the impact of numerical control, training efforts, numerical control in established programs, related information for drafting, and the Cartesian Coordinate System and dimensioning…

7. Numerical Control--An Industry View

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Miller, Edward E.

1975-01-01

The author discusses rapid changes in the fields of numerical control (N/C) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) and offers suggestions for vocational educators in meeting the need for trained workers and technically educated professionals and managers. (EA)

8. Value-Engineering Review for Numerical Control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Warner, J. L.

1984-01-01

Selecting parts for conversion from conventional machining to numerical control, value-engineering review performed for every part to identify potential changes to part design that result in increased production efficiency.

9. Numerically Controlled Machine Tools and Worker Skills.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Keefe, Jeffrey H.

1991-01-01

Analysis of data from "Industry Wage Surveys of Machinery Manufacturers" on the skill levels of 57 machining jobs found that introduction of numerically controlled machine tools has resulted in a very small reduction in skill levels or no significant change, supporting neither the deskilling argument nor argument that skill levels…

10. A History of Computer Numerical Control.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Haggen, Gilbert L.

Computer numerical control (CNC) has evolved from the first significant counting method--the abacus. Babbage had perhaps the greatest impact on the development of modern day computers with his analytical engine. Hollerith's functioning machine with punched cards was used in tabulating the 1890 U.S. Census. In order for computers to become a…

11. Computerized Numerical Control Test Item Bank.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reneau, Fred; And Others

This guide contains 285 test items for use in teaching a course in computerized numerical control. All test items were reviewed, revised, and validated by incumbent workers and subject matter instructors. Items are provided for assessing student achievement in such aspects of programming and planning, setting up, and operating machines with…

12. Multiaxis Computer Numerical Control Internship Report

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rouse, Sharon M.

2012-01-01

(Purpose) The purpose of this paper was to examine the issues associated with bringing new technology into the classroom, in particular, the vocational/technical classroom. (Methodology) A new Haas 5 axis vertical Computer Numerical Control machining center was purchased to update the CNC machining curriculum at a community college and the process…

13. Adapting Inspection Data for Computer Numerical Control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hutchison, E. E.

1986-01-01

Machining time for repetitive tasks reduced. Program converts measurements of stub post locations by coordinate-measuring machine into form used by numerical-control computer. Work time thus reduced by 10 to 15 minutes for each post. Since there are 600 such posts on each injector, time saved per injector is 100 to 150 hours. With modifications this approach applicable to machining of many precise holes on large machine frames and similar objects.

14. 22 CFR 42.51 - Department control of numerical limitations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Department control of numerical limitations. 42... THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Numerical Controls and Priority Dates § 42.51 Department control of numerical limitations. (a) Centralized control. Centralized control of the...

15. Operating System For Numerically Controlled Milling Machine

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ray, R. B.

1992-01-01

OPMILL program is operating system for Kearney and Trecker milling machine providing fast easy way to program manufacture of machine parts with IBM-compatible personal computer. Gives machinist "equation plotter" feature, which plots equations that define movements and converts equations to milling-machine-controlling program moving cutter along defined path. System includes tool-manager software handling up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts to account for each tool. Developed on IBM PS/2 computer running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of random-access memory.

16. SNARC Struggles: Instant Control over Spatial-Numerical Associations

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pfister, Roland; Schroeder, Philipp A.; Kunde, Wilfried

2013-01-01

Numbers and space are tightly linked--a phenomenon that is referred to as the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect (Dehaene, Bossini, & Giraux, 1993). The present study investigates how quickly and flexibly the behavioral impact of such spatial-numerical associations can be controlled. Participants performed a parity…

17. A method of numerically controlled machine part programming

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1970-01-01

Computer program is designed for automatically programmed tools. Preprocessor computes desired tool path and postprocessor computes actual commands causing machine tool to follow specific path. It is used on a Cincinnati ATC-430 numerically controlled machine tool.

18. Numerical methods for control optimization in linear systems

Tyatyushkin, A. I.

2015-05-01

Numerical methods are considered for solving optimal control problems in linear systems, namely, terminal control problems with control and phase constraints and time-optimal control problems. Several algorithms with various computer storage requirements are proposed for solving these problems. The algorithms are intended for finding an optimal control in linear systems having certain features, for example, when the reachable set of a system has flat faces.

19. A Numerical Optimization Approach for Tuning Fuzzy Logic Controllers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Woodard, Stanley E.; Garg, Devendra P.

1998-01-01

This paper develops a method to tune fuzzy controllers using numerical optimization. The main attribute of this approach is that it allows fuzzy logic controllers to be tuned to achieve global performance requirements. Furthermore, this approach allows design constraints to be implemented during the tuning process. The method tunes the controller by parameterizing the membership functions for error, change-in-error and control output. The resulting parameters form a design vector which is iteratively changed to minimize an objective function. The minimal objective function results in an optimal performance of the system. A spacecraft mounted science instrument line-of-sight pointing control is used to demonstrate results.

20. Computer numerical control grinding of spiral bevel gears

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scott, H. Wayne

1991-01-01

The development of Computer Numerical Control (CNC) spiral bevel gear grinding has paved the way for major improvement in the production of precision spiral bevel gears. The object of the program was to decrease the setup, maintenance of setup, and pattern development time by 50 percent of the time required on conventional spiral bevel gear grinders. Details of the process are explained.

1. Integrated product definition representation for agile numerical control applications

SciTech Connect

Simons, W.R. Jr.; Brooks, S.L.; Kirk, W.J. III; Brown, C.W.

1994-11-01

Realization of agile manufacturing capabilities for a virtual enterprise requires the integration of technology, management, and work force into a coordinated, interdependent system. This paper is focused on technology enabling tools for agile manufacturing within a virtual enterprise specifically relating to Numerical Control (N/C) manufacturing activities and product definition requirements for these activities.

2. Computer used to program numerically controlled milling machine

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Harris, T. C.

1967-01-01

Computer program automatically directs a numerically controlled milling machine through a series of cutting and trimming actions. It accepts engineering data points, passes smooth curve segments through the points, breaks the resulting curves into a series of closely spaced points, and transforms these points into the form required by the mechanism.

3. Numerical methods for solving terminal optimal control problems

Gornov, A. Yu.; Tyatyushkin, A. I.; Finkelstein, E. A.

2016-02-01

Numerical methods for solving optimal control problems with equality constraints at the right end of the trajectory are discussed. Algorithms for optimal control search are proposed that are based on the multimethod technique for finding an approximate solution of prescribed accuracy that satisfies terminal conditions. High accuracy is achieved by applying a second-order method analogous to Newton's method or Bellman's quasilinearization method. In the solution of problems with direct control constraints, the variation of the control is computed using a finite-dimensional approximation of an auxiliary problem, which is solved by applying linear programming methods.

4. Program Helps Specify Paths For Numerically Controlled Tools

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Premack, Timothy; Poland, James, Jr.

1996-01-01

ESDAPT computer program provides graphical programming environment for developing APT (Automatically Programmed Tool) programs for controlling numerically controlled machine tools. Establishes graphical user interface providing user with APT syntax-sensitive text-editing subprogram and windows for displaying geometry and tool paths. APT geometry statements also created by use of menus and screen picks. Written in C language, yacc, lex, and XView for use on Sun4-series computers running SunOS.

5. Numerical and experimental exploration of phase control of chaos.

PubMed

Zambrano, Samuel; Allaria, Enrico; Brugioni, Stefano; Leyva, Immaculada; Meucci, Riccardo; Sanjuán, Miguel A F; Arecchi, Fortunato T

2006-03-01

A well-known method to suppress chaos in a periodically forced chaotic system is to add a harmonic perturbation. The phase control of chaos scheme uses the phase difference between a small added harmonic perturbation and the main driving to suppress chaos, leading the system to different periodic orbits. Using the Duffing oscillator as a paradigm, we present here an in-depth study of this technique. A thorough numerical exploration has been made focused in the important role played by the phase, from which new interesting patterns in parameter space have appeared. On the other hand, our novel experimental implementation of phase control in an electronic circuit confirms both the well-known features of this method and the new ones detected numerically. All this may help in future implementations of phase control of chaos, which is globally confirmed here to be robust and easy to implement experimentally.

6. Numerical Solution of Some Types of Fractional Optimal Control Problems

PubMed Central

Sweilam, Nasser Hassan; Al-Ajami, Tamer Mostafa; Hoppe, Ronald H. W.

2013-01-01

We present two different approaches for the numerical solution of fractional optimal control problems (FOCPs) based on a spectral method using Chebyshev polynomials. The fractional derivative is described in the Caputo sense. The first approach follows the paradigm “optimize first, then discretize” and relies on the approximation of the necessary optimality conditions in terms of the associated Hamiltonian. In the second approach, the state equation is discretized first using the Clenshaw and Curtis scheme for the numerical integration of nonsingular functions followed by the Rayleigh-Ritz method to evaluate both the state and control variables. Two illustrative examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the suggested approaches. PMID:24385874

7. Editing of EIA coded, numerically controlled, machine tool tapes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weiner, J. M.

1975-01-01

Editing of numerically controlled (N/C) machine tool tapes (8-level paper tape) using an interactive graphic display processor is described. A rapid technique required for correcting production errors in N/C tapes was developed using the interactive text editor on the IMLAC PDS-ID graphic display system and two special programs resident on disk. The correction technique and special programs for processing N/C tapes coded to EIA specifications are discussed.

8. Teaching Thermal Hydraulics & Numerical Methods: An Introductory Control Volume Primer

SciTech Connect

Lucas, D.S.

2004-10-03

This paper covers the basics of the implementation of the control volume method in the context of the Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM)(T/H) code using the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy. This primer uses the advection equation as a template. The discussion will cover the basic equations of the control volume portion of the course in the primer, which includes the advection equation, numerical methods, along with the implementation of the various equations via FORTRAN into computer programs and the final result for a three equation HEM code and its validation.

9. Aspects of Numerical Simulation of Circulation Control Airfoils

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Swanson, R. C.; Rumsey, C. L.; Anders, S. G.

2005-01-01

The mass-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved for circulation control airfoils. Numerical solutions are computed with a multigrid method that uses an implicit approximate factorization smoother. The effects of flow conditions (e.g., free-stream Mach number, angle of attack, momentum coefficient) and mesh on the prediction of circulation control airfoil flows are considered. In addition, the impact of turbulence modeling, including curvature effects and modifications to reduce eddy viscosity levels in the wall jet (i.e., Coanda flow), is discussed. Computed pressure distributions are compared with available experimental data.

10. Numerical Studies of a Fluidic Diverter for Flow Control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Culley, Dennis E.; Raghu, Surya

2009-01-01

The internal flow structure in a specific fluidic diverter is studied over a range from low subsonic to sonic inlet conditions by a time-dependent numerical analysis. The understanding will aid in the development of fluidic diverters with minimum pressure losses and advanced designs of flow control actuators. The velocity, temperature and pressure fields are calculated for subsonic conditions and the self-induced oscillatory behavior of the flow is successfully predicted. The results of our numerical studies have excellent agreement with our experimental measurements of oscillation frequencies. The acoustic speed in the gaseous medium is determined to be a key factor for up to sonic conditions in governing the mechanism of initiating the oscillations as well as determining its frequency. The feasibility of employing plasma actuation with a minimal perturbation level is demonstrated in steady-state calculations to also produce oscillation frequencies of our own choosing instead of being dependent on the fixed-geometry fluidic device.

11. Numerical simulation of flow separation control by oscillatory fluid injection

Resendiz Rosas, Celerino

2005-07-01

In this work, numerical simulations of flow separation control are performed. The separation control technique studied is called "synthetic jet actuation". The developed code employs a cell centered finite volume scheme which handles viscous, steady and unsteady compressible turbulent flows. The pulsating zero mass jet flow is simulated by imposing a harmonically varying transpiration boundary condition on the airfoil's surface. Turbulence is modeled with the algebraic model of Baldwin and Lomax. The application of synthetic jet actuators is based in their ability to energize the boundary layer, thereby providing significant increase in the lift coefficient. This has been corroborated experimentally and it is corroborated numerically in this research. The performed numerical simulation investigates the flow over a NACA0015 airfoil. For this flow Re = 9 x 105 and the reduced frequency and momentum coefficient are F + = 1.1 and Cmu = 0.04 respectively. The oscillatory injection takes place at 12.27% chord from the leading edge. A maximum increase in the mean lift coefficient of 93% is predicted by the code. A discrepancy of approximately 10% is observed with corresponding experimental data from the literature. The general trend is, however, well captured. The discrepancy is attributed to the modeling of the injection boundary condition and to the turbulence model. A sensitivity analysis of the lift coefficient to different values of the oscillation parameters is performed. It is concluded that tangential injection, F+ ≈ O(1) and the utilized grid resolution around the site of injection are optimal. Streamline fields obtained for different angles of injection are analyzed. Flow separation and attachment as functions of the injection angle and of the velocity of injection can be observed. It is finally concluded that a reliable numerical tool has been developed which can be utilized as a support tool in the optimization of the synthetic jet operation and in the

12. Semi Active Control of Civil Structures, Analytical and Numerical Studies

Kerboua, M.; Benguediab, M.; Megnounif, A.; Benrahou, K. H.; Kaoulala, F.

numerical example of the parallel R-L piezoelectric vibration shunt control simulated with MATLAB® is presented. An analytical study of the resistor-inductor (R-L) passive piezoelectric vibration shunt control of a cantilever beam was undertaken. The modal and strain analyses were performed by varying the material properties and geometric configurations of the piezoelectric transducer in relation to the structure in order to maximize the mechanical strain produced in the piezoelectric transducer.

13. A Numerical Investigation of Controllably Flexible Hydrofoil in Laminar Flows

He, G. Y.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, S. G.; He, G. W.

Aquatic animals, such as fishes, whales, seals and penguins, are naturally born to be flexible and deformable, which promise their effective locomotion through water. They are able to produce hydrodynamic thrust by active control of their body configurations. That is, the aquatic animals could wiggle their flexible bodies at an appropriate frequency and amplitude suitable to the hydrodynamics surrounding them. However, the mechanism for the active controls has not been adequately understood yet and attracts current research. One obstacle which hinders such investigation is the difficulty in experimental measurements of the flows around the wiggling bodies, and thus numerical simulation is becoming an indispensable alternative. In the paper, an immersed boundary method is developed to simulate the NACA 65-10 hydrofoil. It is observed that a wiggling hydrofoil exhibits a higher thrust while a stationary hydrofoil offers little improvement.

14. Numerical Simulations of Plasma Based Flow Control Applications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Suzen, Y. B.; Huang, P. G.; Jacob, J. D.; Ashpis, D. E.

2005-01-01

A mathematical model was developed to simulate flow control applications using plasma actuators. The effects of the plasma actuators on the external flow are incorporated into Navier Stokes computations as a body force vector. In order to compute this body force vector, the model solves two additional equations: one for the electric field due to the applied AC voltage at the electrodes and the other for the charge density representing the ionized air. The model is calibrated against an experiment having plasma-driven flow in a quiescent environment and is then applied to simulate a low pressure turbine flow with large flow separation. The effects of the plasma actuator on control of flow separation are demonstrated numerically.

15. Numerical optimization of laser fields to control molecular orientation

SciTech Connect

Ben Haj-Yedder, A.; Auger, A.; Dion, C.M.; Cances, E.; Le Bris, C.; Keller, A.; Atabek, O.

2002-12-01

A thorough numerical illustration of an optimal control scenario dealing with the laser-induced orientation of a diatomic molecule (LiF) is presented. Special emphasis is laid on the definition of the various targets dealing with different orientation characteristics, identified in terms of maximum efficiency (i.e., molecular axis direction closest to the direction of the laser polarization vector), maximum duration (i.e., the time interval during which this orientation is maintained), or of a compromise between efficiency and duration. Excellent postpulse orientation is achieved by sudden, intense pulses. Thermal effects are also studied with an extension of the control scenarios to Boltzmann averaged orientation dynamics at T=5 K.

16. Interferometric correction system for a numerically controlled machine

DOEpatents

Burleson, Robert R.

1978-01-01

An interferometric correction system for a numerically controlled machine is provided to improve the positioning accuracy of a machine tool, for example, for a high-precision numerically controlled machine. A laser interferometer feedback system is used to monitor the positioning of the machine tool which is being moved by command pulses to a positioning system to position the tool. The correction system compares the commanded position as indicated by a command pulse train applied to the positioning system with the actual position of the tool as monitored by the laser interferometer. If the tool position lags the commanded position by a preselected error, additional pulses are added to the pulse train applied to the positioning system to advance the tool closer to the commanded position, thereby reducing the lag error. If the actual tool position is leading in comparison to the commanded position, pulses are deleted from the pulse train where the advance error exceeds the preselected error magnitude to correct the position error of the tool relative to the commanded position.

17. Management of numerical control data from the ICEM DDN products

SciTech Connect

Rossini, B.F.

1987-04-01

NCPART is a procedure developed by the Numerical Control Department at Bendix Kansas City Division to handle the entry to and exit from ICEM DDN, and process all of the local files output by ICEM DDN. The NCPART procedure is menu driven, and provides automatic access to ICEM DDN and any files necessary to process information with ICEM for Numerical Control users. Basically, the procedure handles all of the ICEM DDN operations that involve operating system commands, and frees the NC Programmer to concentrate on his/her work as a programmer. Most NC Programmers at BKC are well versed in the use of operating system commands for attaching and cataloging files, but the use of procedures makes the programmer's job much simpler, especially in the case of ICEM, where multiple files must be present in order to take advantage of the available features. Also, much is dependent on what an individual plans to do once in ICEM, because different applications require different files, and all of these files may not be needed at any given user session.

18. Teaching Thermal Hydraulics & Numerical Methods: An Introductory Control Volume Primer

SciTech Connect

D. S. Lucas

2004-10-01

A graduate level course for Thermal Hydraulics (T/H) was taught through Idaho State University in the spring of 2004. A numerical approach was taken for the content of this course since the students were employed at the Idaho National Laboratory and had been users of T/H codes. The majority of the students had expressed an interest in learning about the Courant Limit, mass error, semi-implicit and implicit numerical integration schemes in the context of a computer code. Since no introductory text was found the author developed notes taught from his own research and courses taught for Westinghouse on the subject. The course started with a primer on control volume methods and the construction of a Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) (T/H) code. The primer was valuable for giving the students the basics behind such codes and their evolution to more complex codes for Thermal Hydraulics and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The course covered additional material including the Finite Element Method and non-equilibrium (T/H). The control volume primer and the construction of a three-equation (mass, momentum and energy) HEM code are the subject of this paper . The Fortran version of the code covered in this paper is elementary compared to its descendants. The steam tables used are less accurate than the available commercial version written in C Coupled to a Graphical User Interface (GUI). The Fortran version and input files can be downloaded at www.microfusionlab.com.

19. Emulation of multi-axis numerically controlled machine tools

SciTech Connect

Burd, W.C.

1983-04-01

The MULTAX-PLOT program provides a method for verification of numerical control part programs. Combined with other tools, such as postprocessor listings and center line (CL) pen plots generated from the CL data files, the interactive MULTAX-PLOT program provides the machinist, the parts programmer and the postprocessor implementor a tool to visualize and troubleshoot machining commands. The MULTAX-PLOT program fills a significant void in the numerically controlled (NC) machining process. The center line pen plots are made from the CL data by one postprocessor, whereas the machine command file is generated by a different postprocessor. These two postprocessors may not produce identical results. However, the MULTAX-PLOT program displays the data from the machine tool's command file that will actually drive the machine tool. The principle benefits of the MULTAX-PLOT program are: A reduction in verification times by the system programmers, the NC parts programmers and the machnists; An early error detection method that reduces possible machine tool damage and scrapped parts; and Improved machine tool utilization. MULTAX-PLOT has been implemented and has aided in the development of two multi-axis postprocessors. It has proved to be a powerful diagnostic tool for the postprocessor implementor. The parts programmers and machinists have had favorable results with their initial use of MULTAX-PLOT for verification. However, the full potential of MULTAX-PLOT will be realized as terminals are installed at the NC machine tools.

20. Discomfort Analysis in Computerized Numeric Control Machine Operations

PubMed Central

Sankaranarayanasamy, Krishnasamy; Ganguli, Anindya Kumar

2012-01-01

Objectives The introduction of computerized numeric control (CNC) technology in manufacturing industries has revolutionized the production process, but there are some health and safety problems associated with these machines. The present study aimed to investigate the extent of postural discomfort in CNC machine operators, and the relationship of this discomfort to the display and control panel height, with a view to validate the anthropometric recommendation for the location of the display and control panel in CNC machines. Methods The postural discomforts associated with CNC machines were studied in 122 male operators using Corlett and Bishop's body part discomfort mapping, subject information, and discomfort level at various time intervals from starting to end of a shift. This information was collected using a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was carried out using ANOVA. Results Neck discomfort due to the positioning of the machine displays, and shoulder and arm discomfort due to the positioning of controls were identified as common health issues in the operators of these machines. The study revealed that 45.9% of machine operators reported discomfort in the lower back, 41.8% in the neck, 22.1% in the upper-back, 53.3% in the shoulder and arm, and 21.3% of the operators reported discomfort in the leg. Conclusion Discomfort increased with the progress of the day and was highest at the end of a shift; subject age had no effect on patient tendency to experience discomfort levels. PMID:22993720

1. Pulse shape control in a dual cavity laser: numerical modeling

Yashkir, Yuri

2006-04-01

We present a numerical model of the laser system for generating a special shape of the pulse: a steep peak at the beginning followed by a long pulse tail. Laser pulses of this nature are required for various applications (laser material processing, optical breakdown spectroscopy, etc.). The laser system consists of two "overlapped" cavities with different round-trip times. The laser crystal, the Q-switching element, the back mirror, and the output coupler are shared. A shorter pulse is generated in a short cavity. A small fraction of this pulse is injected into the long cavity as a seed. It triggers generation of the longer pulse. The output emission from this hybrid laser produces a required pulse shape. Parameters of the laser pulse (ratios of durations and energies of short- and long- pulse components) can be controlled through cavity length and the output coupler reflection. Modelling of the laser system is based on a set of coupled rate equations for dynamic variables of the system: the inverse population in an active laser media and photon densities in coupled cavities. Numerical experiments were provided with typical parameters of a Nd:YAG laser to study the system behaviour for different combinations of parameters.

2. Computer numeric control subaperture aspheric surface polishing-microroughness evaluation

Prochaska, Frantisek; Polak, Jaroslav; Matousek, Ondrej; Tomka, David

2014-09-01

The aim of this work was an investigation of surface microroughness and shape accuracy achieved on an aspheric lens by subaperture computer numeric control (CNC) polishing. Different optical substrates were polished (OHARA S-LAH 58, SF4, ZERODUR) using a POLITEX™ polishing pad, synthetic pitch, and the natural optical pitch. Surface roughness was measured by light interferometer. The best results were achieved on the S-LAH58 glass and the ZERODUR™ using the natural optical pitch. In the case of SF4 glass, the natural optical pitch showed a tendency to scratch the surface. Experiments also indicated a problem in surface form deterioration when using the natural optical pitch, regardless of the type of optical material.

3. LQR Control of Thin Shell Dynamics: Formulation and Numerical Implementation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

delRosario, R. C. H.; Smith, R. C.

1997-01-01

A PDE-based feedback control method for thin cylindrical shells with surface-mounted piezoceramic actuators is presented. Donnell-Mushtari equations modified to incorporate both passive and active piezoceramic patch contributions are used to model the system dynamics. The well-posedness of this model and the associated LQR problem with an unbounded input operator are established through analytic semigroup theory. The model is discretized using a Galerkin expansion with basis functions constructed from Fourier polynomials tensored with cubic splines, and convergence criteria for the associated approximate LQR problem are established. The effectiveness of the method for attenuating the coupled longitudinal, circumferential and transverse shell displacements is illustrated through a set of numerical examples.

4. Numerical investigation of vibration in a steam turbine control valve

Novak, Luke Michael

A numerical analysis is performed at North Dakota State University to investigate and resolve steam inlet control valve vibration in a Minnkota Power Cooperative turbine. Pressure fluctuations resulting from an unstable flow pattern are found to cause vibration. Multiple valve disc and seat design modifications to stabilize the flow are made and tested. The full scale geometry is used with steam as the working material. Both steady-state and transient analyses are completed. Analytical calculations are used for verification. Investigation of all modifications is discussed. Results from the original valve configuration show vortex shedding off of the disc. A currently installed cutoff disc has not removed flow-induced vibration. Flow expansion generates unstable flow, creating an unsteady separation bubble on the valve seat at the throat exit. Changing the throat from a converging-diverging to a purely converging nozzle stabilizes the flow, removing the flow-induced pressure forces causing disc vibration.

5. Multiresolution strategies for the numerical solution of optimal control problems

Jain, Sachin

There exist many numerical techniques for solving optimal control problems but less work has been done in the field of making these algorithms run faster and more robustly. The main motivation of this work is to solve optimal control problems accurately in a fast and efficient way. Optimal control problems are often characterized by discontinuities or switchings in the control variables. One way of accurately capturing the irregularities in the solution is to use a high resolution (dense) uniform grid. This requires a large amount of computational resources both in terms of CPU time and memory. Hence, in order to accurately capture any irregularities in the solution using a few computational resources, one can refine the mesh locally in the region close to an irregularity instead of refining the mesh uniformly over the whole domain. Therefore, a novel multiresolution scheme for data compression has been designed which is shown to outperform similar data compression schemes. Specifically, we have shown that the proposed approach results in fewer grid points in the grid compared to a common multiresolution data compression scheme. The validity of the proposed mesh refinement algorithm has been verified by solving several challenging initial-boundary value problems for evolution equations in 1D. The examples have demonstrated the stability and robustness of the proposed algorithm. The algorithm adapted dynamically to any existing or emerging irregularities in the solution by automatically allocating more grid points to the region where the solution exhibited sharp features and fewer points to the region where the solution was smooth. Thereby, the computational time and memory usage has been reduced significantly, while maintaining an accuracy equivalent to the one obtained using a fine uniform mesh. Next, a direct multiresolution-based approach for solving trajectory optimization problems is developed. The original optimal control problem is transcribed into a

6. Controlling Reflections from Mesh Refinement Interfaces in Numerical Relativity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Baker, John G.; Van Meter, James R.

2005-01-01

A leading approach to improving the accuracy on numerical relativity simulations of black hole systems is through fixed or adaptive mesh refinement techniques. We describe a generic numerical error which manifests as slowly converging, artificial reflections from refinement boundaries in a broad class of mesh-refinement implementations, potentially limiting the effectiveness of mesh- refinement techniques for some numerical relativity applications. We elucidate this numerical effect by presenting a model problem which exhibits the phenomenon, but which is simple enough that its numerical error can be understood analytically. Our analysis shows that the effect is caused by variations in finite differencing error generated across low and high resolution regions, and that its slow convergence is caused by the presence of dramatic speed differences among propagation modes typical of 3+1 relativity. Lastly, we resolve the problem, presenting a class of finite-differencing stencil modifications which eliminate this pathology in both our model problem and in numerical relativity examples.

7. Numerical Solution of Optimal Control Problem under SPDE Constraints

DTIC Science & Technology

2011-10-14

equations, Advances in Com- putational Mathematics. Vol. 33, 215–230, (2010). [3] Feng Bao, Yanzhao Cao and Weidong Zhao, Numerical solutions for forward...Visiting Scholar, Zhongshan University, China 4 Publications 1 Feng Bao, Yanzhao Cao and Weidong Zhao, Numerical solutions for forward backward doubly...Li Yin , Spectral method for nonlinear stochastic partial differ- ential equations of elliptic type, accepted by Numer. Math. Theo. Meth. App., Vol. 4

8. Numerical modeling of active separation control by synthetic jets

Aram, Shawn

Zero-Net Mass-Flux (ZNMF) actuators or synthetic jet actuators are versatile micro scale devices with numerous applications in the field of fluid mechanics. The primary focus of the current work is to use time-accurate simulations to study the interaction of these jets with cross flows and to optimize their performance for the control of boundary layer separation. This study consists of four parts. In the first part, a class of phenomenology-based models is proposed to reproduce the flow associated with synthetic jets in grazing flows and simplify the task of ZNMF-based flow control simulations. The proposed models have a non-uniform jet velocity profile with only two spatial degrees of freedom and a uniform slip velocity on the slot-flow boundary. A comparison of key integral quantities associated with the momentum, energy and vorticity fluxes shows that the models with a non-uniform jet velocity during the expulsion phase and uniform jet velocity during the ingestion phase can predict these quantities with good accuracy, whereas a simple plug flow model with a zero slip and uniform jet velocity under-predicts these three quantities during the expulsion phase. Based on our initial analysis, three of the simplest models are selected for further study, including an assessment of their performance for a canonical separated flow at different forcing frequencies. A key finding is that a simple plug-flow type model can predict incorrect trends for separation reduction with the jet frequency. A preliminary attempt is also made to provide empirical closure to these models. The effect of synthetic jets orientation on its interaction with a zero pressure gradient laminar boundary layer is explored in the second part. A rectangular slot is chosen in this study and streamwise and spanwise orientations of this slot are examined. The orientation of the slot is found to have a significant impact on its interaction with the boundary layer. The dominant feature in the streamwise

9. Numerical controlled polishing, continued force wear and part correction experiments

SciTech Connect

Hannah, P.R.; Day, R.D.; Hatch, D.J.; McClure, E.R.

1994-09-01

This abstract reports the near completion of the first phase of this program. It is the aim of this program to provide the operator of a N/C diamond turning machine or N/C grinding machine (jig grinder) with the wear characteristics necessary to achieve uniform material removal. The second phase of this program addresses a different problem, although solving this problem is highly dependent on the results of the first phase. Diamond turned, or any lathe turned surface, exhibits regular tool marks due to the tool passing over the surface being cut. Changes in depth of cut, feed rate and work rpm will change the character of these groves, but will not eliminate them. Optical surfaces produced by this process exhibit increased scattering as the light wavelength decreases limiting their use; at least for optical purposes, to IR and some visible applications. Utilizing wear information gathered in the first part of this program we will attempt to reduce these residual tool marks by polishing. The polishing of diamond turned surfaces is not new. Diamond turned metal surfaces, especially in electroless nickel and high phosphorus nickel electroplate have been polished to improve their scatter characteristics. What we believe is unique is the use of a spherical wheel, rotating on axis and being moved over the part in a prescribed manner by numerical control. Over the past year we have made some major changes in our polishing methods and procedures. We have listed below these changes, as a refresher for the reader as to our previous procedures. These changes will be addressed in the body of the text.

10. Lateral Control Jets for Finned Bodies: A Numerical Investigation

Graham, Mary Jane; Weinacht, Paul; Brandeis, Julius

1999-11-01

The typical jet interaction flow field is complicated due to the jet's interruption of the oncoming external flow. The qualitative features of the jet interaction flow field include regions of shock/boundary layer interaction and flow separation that have an effect on the large regions of the flow field around the body. A detailed numerical study of the interaction between a lateral jet and the external flow has been performed for a variety of missile body geometries at varying Mach numbers. The missile geometries include non-finned axisymmetric bodies and finned bodies with either strakes or aft-mounted tail fins. To obtain the numerical results, both Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and Euler techniques have been applied. The computational results were compared with results from a previously published wind tunnel study that consisted primarily of global force and moment measurements. Good agreement between numerical prediction and experimental results is found.

11. Numerical Modeling of Compressible Flow and Its Control

DTIC Science & Technology

2014-03-01

numerical methods are described here. 2.1.1 Plasma Modeling A reduced plasma kinetic model (23 species and 50 processes ) was developed by...carrying out a sensitivity analysis of a zero-dimensional plasma computation with an extended chemical kinetic model (46 species and 395 processes ). The...interpolation scheme with the following form: 2 8 15 45 (3) Here is the scalar (dot) product of the gradient of in Cell i and the vector

12. Numerical research of the optimal control problem in the semi-Markov inventory model

SciTech Connect

Gorshenin, Andrey K.

2015-03-10

This paper is devoted to the numerical simulation of stochastic system for inventory management products using controlled semi-Markov process. The results of a special software for the system’s research and finding the optimal control are presented.

13. Technical Report on Occupations in Numerically Controlled Metal-Cutting Machining.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Employment Service.

At the present time, only 5 percent of the short-run metal-cutting machining in the United States is done by numerically controlled machined tools, but within the next decade it is expected to increase by 50 percent. Numerically controlled machines use taped data which is changed into instructions and directs the machine to do certain steps…

14. Computer Numerical Control: Instructional Manual. The North Dakota High Technology Mobile Laboratory Project.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sinn, John W.

This instructional manual contains five learning activity packets for use in a workshop on computer numerical control for computer-aided manufacturing. The lessons cover the following topics: introduction to computer-aided manufacturing, understanding the lathe, using the computer, computer numerically controlled part programming, and executing a…

15. Forbidden Zones for Numerically-Controlled Machine Tools

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Philpot, D.

1986-01-01

Computer-controlled machine tool prevented from striking and damaging protruding members on workpiece by creating forbidden zone in control program. With aid of computer graphics, tool profile and coordinates of forbidden zone digitized and stored in computer memory as part of tool path.

16. Numerical Modeling of Active Flow Control in a Boundary Layer Ingesting Offset Inlet

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Allan, Brian G.; Owens, Lewis R.; Berrier, Bobby L.

2004-01-01

This investigation evaluates the numerical prediction of flow distortion and pressure recovery for a boundary layer ingesting offset inlet with active flow control devices. The numerical simulations are computed using a Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes code developed at NASA. The numerical results are validated by comparison to experimental wind tunnel tests conducted at NASA Langley Research Center at both low and high Mach numbers. Baseline comparisons showed good agreement between numerical and experimental results. Numerical simulations for the inlet with passive and active flow control also showed good agreement at low Mach numbers where experimental data has already been acquired. Numerical simulations of the inlet at high Mach numbers with flow control jets showed an improvement of the flow distortion. Studies on the location of the jet actuators, for the high Mach number case, were conducted to provide guidance for the design of a future experimental wind tunnel test.

17. A numerical approach to controller design for the ACES facility

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Frazier, W. Garth; Irwin, R. Dennis

1993-01-01

In recent years the employment of active control techniques for improving the performance of systems involving highly flexible structures has become a topic of considerable research interest. Most of these systems are quite complicated, using multiple actuators and sensors, and possessing high order models. The majority of analytical controller synthesis procedures capable of handling multivariable systems in a systematic way require considerable insight into the underlying mathematical theory to achieve a successful design. This insight is needed in selecting the proper weighting matrices or weighting functions to cast what is naturally a multiple constraint satisfaction problem into an unconstrained optimization problem. Although designers possessing considerable experience with these techniques have a feel for the proper choice of weights, others may spend a significant amount of time attempting to find an acceptable solution. Another disadvantage of such procedures is that the resulting controller has an order greater than or equal to that of the model used for the design. Of course, the order of these controllers can often be reduced, but again this requires a good understanding of the theory involved.

18. Numerical Simulation of Fluidic Actuators for Flow Control Applications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vasta, Veer N.; Koklu, Mehti; Wygnanski, Israel L.; Fares, Ehab

2012-01-01

Active flow control technology is finding increasing use in aerospace applications to control flow separation and improve aerodynamic performance. In this paper we examine the characteristics of a class of fluidic actuators that are being considered for active flow control applications for a variety of practical problems. Based on recent experimental work, such actuators have been found to be more efficient for controlling flow separation in terms of mass flow requirements compared to constant blowing and suction or even synthetic jet actuators. The fluidic actuators produce spanwise oscillating jets, and therefore are also known as sweeping jets. The frequency and spanwise sweeping extent depend on the geometric parameters and mass flow rate entering the actuators through the inlet section. The flow physics associated with these actuators is quite complex and not fully understood at this time. The unsteady flow generated by such actuators is simulated using the lattice Boltzmann based solver PowerFLOW R . Computed mean and standard deviation of velocity profiles generated by a family of fluidic actuators in quiescent air are compared with experimental data. Simulated results replicate the experimentally observed trends with parametric variation of geometry and inflow conditions.

19. Numerical solution of control problems governed by nonlinear differential equations

SciTech Connect

Heinkenschloss, M.

1994-12-31

In this presentation the author investigates an iterative method for the solution of optimal control problems. These problems are formulated as constrained optimization problems with constraints arising from the state equation and in the form of bound constraints on the control. The method for the solution of these problems uses the special structure of the problem arising from the bound constraint and the state equation. It is derived from SQP methods and projected Newton methods and combines the advantages of both methods. The bound constraint is satisfied by all iterates using a projection, the nonlinear state equation is satisfied in the limit. Only a linearized state equation has to be solved in every iteration. The solution of the linearized problems are done using multilevel methods and GMRES.

20. Numerical aspects of optimal control of penicillin production.

PubMed

Pčolka, Matej; Celikovský, Sergej

2014-01-01

Since their discovery, fermentation processes have gone along not only with the industrial beverages production and breweries, but since the times of Alexander Fleming, they have become a crucial part of the health care due to antibiotics production. However, complicated dynamics and strong nonlinearities cause that the production with the use of linear control methods achieves only suboptimal yields. From the variety of nonlinear approaches, gradient method has proved the ability to handle these issues--nevertheless, its potential in the field of fermentation processes has not been revealed completely. This paper describes constant vaporization control strategy based on a double-input optimization approach with a successful reduction to a single-input optimization task. To accomplish this, model structure used in the previous work is modified so that it corresponds with the new optimization strategy. Furthermore, choice of search step is explored and various alternatives are evaluated and compared.

1. Numerical Algorithms and Mathematical Software for Linear Control and Estimation Theory.

DTIC Science & Technology

1985-05-30

RD -R157 525 NUMERICAL ALGORITHMS AND MATHEMATICAL SOFTWJARE FOR i/i LINEAR CONTROL AND EST..U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE STATISTICS...PERIOD COVERED"~~ "ia--Dec. 14, 1981-- LD Numerical Algorithms and Mathematical Dec. 13, 1984*Software for Linear Control and 1.0 Estimation Theory...THIS PAGE (Wten Date Entered) .. :..0 70 FINAL REPORT--ARO Grant DAAG29-82-K-0028,"Numerical Algorithms and Mathematical Software for Linear Control and

2. Numerical control system of battery welding with pulsed YAG laser

Zhang, Guoshun; Yang, Zhaoxia; Zhang, Taishi; Wei, Zhigang; Li, Chaoyang

1999-09-01

This article briefly introduces the pulse YAG laser welding system, a new research achievement of my section. This system can weld the electric pole, the holly board and other aluminum parts of lithium battery, and the process of loading, unloading, compressing and welding can be completed automatically. Moreover, the software proprietary of the system is very good, and its interface is friendly too. In order to achieve optimum welding effect, we have designed special laser discharging waveform. Its rise delay time, fall delay time, and width are all designed specially. With this special technology, the welding spot we get is smooth like mirror, and the welding intensity can be controlled conveniently.

3. Numerical solutions of a control problem governed by functional differential equations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Banks, H. T.; Thrift, P. R.; Burns, J. A.; Cliff, E. M.

1978-01-01

A numerical procedure is proposed for solving optimal control problems governed by linear retarded functional differential equations. The procedure is based on the idea of 'averaging approximations', due to Banks and Burns (1975). For illustration, numerical results generated on an IBM 370/158 computer, which demonstrate the rapid convergence of the method are presented.

4. Optimal control in NMR spectroscopy: numerical implementation in SIMPSON.

PubMed

Tosner, Zdenek; Vosegaard, Thomas; Kehlet, Cindie; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J; Nielsen, Niels Chr

2009-04-01

We present the implementation of optimal control into the open source simulation package SIMPSON for development and optimization of nuclear magnetic resonance experiments for a wide range of applications, including liquid- and solid-state NMR, magnetic resonance imaging, quantum computation, and combinations between NMR and other spectroscopies. Optimal control enables efficient optimization of NMR experiments in terms of amplitudes, phases, offsets etc. for hundreds-to-thousands of pulses to fully exploit the experimentally available high degree of freedom in pulse sequences to combat variations/limitations in experimental or spin system parameters or design experiments with specific properties typically not covered as easily by standard design procedures. This facilitates straightforward optimization of experiments under consideration of rf and static field inhomogeneities, limitations in available or desired rf field strengths (e.g., for reduction of sample heating), spread in resonance offsets or coupling parameters, variations in spin systems etc. to meet the actual experimental conditions as close as possible. The paper provides a brief account on the relevant theory and in particular the computational interface relevant for optimization of state-to-state transfer (on the density operator level) and the effective Hamiltonian on the level of propagators along with several representative examples within liquid- and solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

5. Evaluating the Controls on Magma Ascent Rates Through Numerical Modelling

Thomas, M. E.; Neuberg, J. W.

2015-12-01

The estimation of the magma ascent rate is a key factor in predicting styles of volcanic activity and relies on the understanding of how strongly the ascent rate is controlled by different magmatic parameters. The ability to link potential changes in such parameters to monitoring data is an essential step to be able to use these data as a predictive tool. We present the results of a suite of conduit flow models that assess the influence of individual model parameters such as the magmatic water content, temperature or bulk magma composition on the magma flow in the conduit during an extrusive dome eruption. By systematically varying these parameters we assess their relative importance to changes in ascent rate. The results indicate that potential changes to conduit geometry and excess pressure in the magma chamber are amongst the dominant controlling variables that effect ascent rate, but the single most important parameter is the volatile content (assumed in this case as only water). Modelling this parameter across a range of reported values causes changes in the calculated ascent velocities of up to 800%, triggering fluctuations in ascent rates that span the potential threshold between effusive and explosive eruptions.

6. Research on prognostics and health management technology of numerical control equipment

Zheng, Rui; Sun, Hongwei; Zhang, Yingzhi

2014-03-01

Scheduled maintenance and corrective maintenance both construct the tradition l maintenance policy of numerical control equipment, which may bring some problems such as excessive maintenance and inadequate maintenance. Aiming at this phenomena, Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) technology is introduced to improve the reliability and availability of numerical control equipment. Before using this technology, Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA)should be firstly made for all the subsystems of numerical control equipment. FMECA is indispensable before PHM, and its purpose is to identify the key subsystems which are suitable for using PHM technology, find out the failure mechanisms of this subsystems, and provide references for building failure mechanism models and defining conditional parameters being monitored. Then a PHM system of numerical control equipment is designed. In this system, every conditional parameter of key subsystems is monitored by various sensors according to its respective failure mechanisms. A method based on multi - sensor data fusion is built to process information from sensors. The method uses the neural network algorithm. Applying the method can analyze the operation condition of numerical control equipment, and then prognoses its performance degradation, life evaluation, machining accuracy, and reliability. All the results can supply helpful evidence for making maintenance policy. Finally, key issues of implementing PHM theology in numerical control equipment are cited with the goal of better practical uses.

7. Numerical approximation of null controls for the heat equation: Ill-posedness and remedies

Münch, Arnaud; Zuazua, Enrique

2010-08-01

The numerical approximation of exact or trajectory controls for the wave equation is known to be a delicate issue, since the pioneering work of Glowinski-Lions in the nineties, because of the anomalous behavior of the high-frequency spurious numerical waves. Various efficient remedies have been developed and analyzed in the last decade to filter out these high-frequency components: Fourier filtering, Tychonoff's regularization, mixed finite-element methods, multi-grid strategies, etc. Recently convergence rate results have also been obtained. This work is devoted to analyzing this issue for the heat equation, which is the opposite paradigm because of its strong dissipativity and smoothing properties. The existing analytical results guarantee that, at least in some simple situations, as in the finite-difference scheme in 1 - d, the null or trajectory controls for numerical approximation schemes converge. This is due to the intrinsic high-frequency damping of the heat equation that is inherited by its numerical approximation schemes. But when developing numerical simulations the topic appears to be much more subtle and difficult. In fact, efficiently computing the null control for a numerical approximation scheme of the heat equation is a difficult problem in itself. The difficulty is strongly related to the regularizing effect of the heat kernel. The controls of minimal L2-norm are characterized as minima of quadratic functionals on the solutions of the adjoint heat equation, or its numerical versions. These functionals are shown to be coercive in very large spaces of solutions, sufficient to guarantee the L2 character of controls, but very far from being identifiable as energy spaces for the adjoint system. The very weak coercivity of the functionals under consideration makes the approximation problem exponentially ill-posed and the functional framework far from being well adapted to standard techniques in numerical analysis. In practice, the controls of the

8. Neural computing for numeric-to-symbolic conversion in control systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Passino, Kevin M.; Sartori, Michael A.; Antsaklis, Panos J.

1989-01-01

A type of neural network, the multilayer perceptron, is used to classify numeric data and assign appropriate symbols to various classes. This numeric-to-symbolic conversion results in a type of information extraction, which is similar to what is called data reduction in pattern recognition. The use of the neural network as a numeric-to-symbolic converter is introduced, its application in autonomous control is discussed, and several applications are studied. The perceptron is used as a numeric-to-symbolic converter for a discrete-event system controller supervising a continuous variable dynamic system. It is also shown how the perceptron can implement fault trees, which provide useful information (alarms) in a biological system and information for failure diagnosis and control purposes in an aircraft example.

9. Numerical Approximations for Stochastic Systems With Delays in the State and Control

DTIC Science & Technology

2005-12-26

the boundary conditions (A2.1) and (A2.2). The interpretation of the stochastic partial differential equation (3.2), as well as of the relaxed control...Berlin and New York, 2001. [9] H.J. Kushner and D. Barnea. On the control of linear functional- differential equations with quadratic cost. SIAM J. Control... equations , numerical methods for delayed controlled diffusions, Markov chain approximation method. 2000 Mathematics Subject classifications: AMS

10. Force-controlled absorption in a fully-nonlinear numerical wave tank

SciTech Connect

Spinneken, Johannes Christou, Marios; Swan, Chris

2014-09-01

An active control methodology for the absorption of water waves in a numerical wave tank is introduced. This methodology is based upon a force-feedback technique which has previously been shown to be very effective in physical wave tanks. Unlike other methods, an a-priori knowledge of the wave conditions in the tank is not required; the absorption controller being designed to automatically respond to a wide range of wave conditions. In comparison to numerical sponge layers, effective wave absorption is achieved on the boundary, thereby minimising the spatial extent of the numerical wave tank. In contrast to the imposition of radiation conditions, the scheme is inherently capable of absorbing irregular waves. Most importantly, simultaneous generation and absorption can be achieved. This is an important advance when considering inclusion of reflective bodies within the numerical wave tank. In designing the absorption controller, an infinite impulse response filter is adopted, thereby eliminating the problem of non-causality in the controller optimisation. Two alternative controllers are considered, both implemented in a fully-nonlinear wave tank based on a multiple-flux boundary element scheme. To simplify the problem under consideration, the present analysis is limited to water waves propagating in a two-dimensional domain. The paper presents an extensive numerical validation which demonstrates the success of the method for a wide range of wave conditions including regular, focused and random waves. The numerical investigation also highlights some of the limitations of the method, particularly in simultaneously generating and absorbing large amplitude or highly-nonlinear waves. The findings of the present numerical study are directly applicable to related fields where optimum absorption is sought; these include physical wavemaking, wave power absorption and a wide range of numerical wave tank schemes.

11. Numerical solution of the state dependent noise problem. [optimal stationary control of linear systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kleinman, D. L.

1976-01-01

A numerical technique is given for solving the matrix quadratic equation that arises in the optimal stationary control of linear systems with state (and/or control) dependent noise. The technique exploits fully existing, efficient algorithms for the matrix Lyapunov and Ricatti equations. The computational requirements are discussed, with an associated example.

12. A numerical method for solving optimal control problems using state parametrization

2006-06-01

A numerical method for solving a special class of optimal control problems is given. The solution is based on state parametrization as a polynomial with unknown coefficients. This converts the problem to a non-linear optimization problem. To facilitate the computation of optimal coefficients, an improved iterative method is suggested. Convergence of this iterative method and its implementation for numerical examples are also given.

13. Finite difference numerical methods for boundary control problems governed by hyperbolic partial differential equations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chen, G.; Zheng, Q.; Coleman, M.; Weerakoon, S.

1983-01-01

This paper briefly reviews convergent finite difference schemes for hyperbolic initial boundary value problems and their applications to boundary control systems of hyperbolic type which arise in the modelling of vibrations. These difference schemes are combined with the primal and the dual approaches to compute the optimal control in the unconstrained case, as well as the case when the control is subject to inequality constraints. Some of the preliminary numerical results are also presented.

14. Adaptive Numerical Dissipation Control in High Order Schemes for Multi-D Non-Ideal MHD

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yee, H. C.; Sjoegreen, B.

2005-01-01

The required type and amount of numerical dissipation/filter to accurately resolve all relevant multiscales of complex MHD unsteady high-speed shock/shear/turbulence/combustion problems are not only physical problem dependent, but also vary from one flow region to another. In addition, proper and efficient control of the divergence of the magnetic field (Div(B)) numerical error for high order shock-capturing methods poses extra requirements for the considered type of CPU intensive computations. The goal is to extend our adaptive numerical dissipation control in high order filter schemes and our new divergence-free methods for ideal MHD to non-ideal MHD that include viscosity and resistivity. The key idea consists of automatic detection of different flow features as distinct sensors to signal the appropriate type and amount of numerical dissipation/filter where needed and leave the rest of the region free from numerical dissipation contamination. These scheme-independent detectors are capable of distinguishing shocks/shears, flame sheets, turbulent fluctuations and spurious high-frequency oscillations. The detection algorithm is based on an artificial compression method (ACM) (for shocks/shears), and redundant multiresolution wavelets (WAV) (for the above types of flow feature). These filters also provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of Div(B) numerical error.

15. Numerical investigation on feedback control of flow around an oscillating hydrofoil by Lorentz force

Liu, Zong-Kai; Zhou, Ben-Mou; Liu, Hui-Xing; Ji, Yan-Liang; Huang, Ya-Dong

2013-06-01

In order to improve the hydrodynamic characteristics of a hydrofoil (NACA0012), this paper investigates an oscillating hydrofoil immersed in seawater (an electrically poorly conducting fluid) with feedback control of electromagnetic force (Lorentz force). This method is used in the iterative process, by forecasting the location of boundary layer separation points and attack angle at the next time step and figuring out the optimal force distribution function based on these parameters, then returns to the current time step and applies the optimal force onto the leeside to control the flow separation. Based on the basic flow governing equations, the flow field structures, lift evolutions and energy consumptions (the input impulse of Lorentz force) have been numerically investigated. Numerical results show that with this control, the flow separation could be fully suppressed. Meanwhile, the lift increases dramatically and oscillation is suppressed successfully. Furthermore, under similar lift improvement and control effects, the feedback control optimal ratio is 72.58%.

16. Analytical and numerical investigations on spacecraft formation control by using electrostatic forces

Felicetti, Leonard; Palmerini, Giovanni B.

2016-06-01

The paper investigates some analytical and numerical aspects of the formation control exploited by means of inter-spacecraft electrostatic actions. The analysis is based on the evaluation and check of the stability issues by using a sequence of purposely defined Lyapunov functions. The same Lyapunov approach can also define a specific under-actuate control strategy for controlling selected "virtual links" of the formation. Two different selection criteria for these links are then discussed, showing the implications on the control chain. An optimal charge distribution strategy, which assigns univocally the charges to all the spacecraft starting from the charge products computed by the control, is also presented and discussed. Numerical simulations prove the suitability of the proposed approach to a formation of 4 satellites.

17. Numerical experiments on transition control in wall-bounded shear flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biringen, S.; Caruso, M. J.

1987-01-01

Results are presented from a numerical simulation of transition control in plane channel and boundary layer flows. The analysis is based on a pseudo-spectral/finite difference semi-implicit solution procedure employed to numerically integrate the time-dependent, three-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in a doubly periodic domain. In the channel flow, it was found that the active periodic suction/blowing method was effective in controlling strongly three-dimensional disturbances. In the boundary layer, the preliminary analysis indicated that in the early stages, passive control by suction is as effective as active control to suppress instabilities. The current work is focused on a detailed comparison of active and passive control by suction/blowing in the boundary layer.

18. A stochastic regulator for integrated communication and control systems. I - Formulation of control law. II - Numerical analysis and simulation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liou, Luen-Woei; Ray, Asok

1991-01-01

A state feedback control law for integrated communication and control systems (ICCS) is formulated by using the dynamic programming and optimality principle on a finite-time horizon. The control law is derived on the basis of a stochastic model of the plant which is augmented in state space to allow for the effects of randomly varying delays in the feedback loop. A numerical procedure for synthesizing the control parameters is then presented, and the performance of the control law is evaluated by simulating the flight dynamics model of an advanced aircraft. Finally, recommendations for future work are made.

19. Numerical magnitude affects online execution, and not planning of visuomotor control.

PubMed

Namdar, Gal; Ganel, Tzvi

2017-01-20

Recent literature has established a directional influence of irrelevant numerical magnitude on actions performed toward neutral objects. For example, fingers' aperture during grasping is larger when associated with large compared with small numerical digits. This interaction between symbolic magnitude and visuomotor control has been attributed to the planning stage of the action prior to motor execution. However, this assumption has not been directly tested. In two experiments, we tested whether the effects of numerical magnitude on grasping derive from action planning or from action execution. Participants were asked to grasp an object following a short visual (Experiment 1) or auditory (Experiment 2) presentation of small (1/2) or large (8/9) digits. Grasping was performed under either closed-loop (CL) or open-loop (OL) visuomotor control, for which online vision was prevented during action execution. Digit magnitude affected grip apertures in the CL condition, when online vision was allowed. However, magnitude had no effects on grip aperture in the OL condition. This pattern of results strongly suggests that the processing of numerical magnitude originates from interactions between numerical magnitude and real object size during online motor execution. Unlike previously assumed, the findings also suggest that the effect of magnitude on visuomotor control is not likely to be attributed to the motor planning stage prior to action initiation.

20. VERSE-Guided Numerical RF Pulse Design: A Fast Method for Peak RF Power Control

PubMed Central

Lee, Daeho; Grissom, William A.; Lustig, Michael; Kerr, Adam B.; Stang, Pascal P.; Pauly, John M.

2013-01-01

In parallel excitation, the computational speed of numerical radiofrequency (RF) pulse design methods is critical when subject dependencies and system nonidealities need to be incorporated on-the-fly. One important concern with optimization-based methods is high peak RF power exceeding hardware or safety limits. Hence, online controllability of the peak RF power is essential. Variable-rate selective excitation pulse reshaping is ideally suited to this problem due to its simplicity and low computational cost. In this work, we first improve the fidelity of variable-rate selective excitation implementation for discrete-time waveforms through waveform oversampling such that variable-rate selective excitation can be robustly applied to numerically designed RF pulses. Then, a variable-rate selective excitation-guided numerical RF pulse design is suggested as an online RF pulse design framework, aiming to simultaneously control peak RF power and compensate for off-resonance. PMID:22135085

1. Application of numerical optimization techniques to control system design for nonlinear dynamic models of aircraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lan, C. Edward; Ge, Fuying

1989-01-01

Control system design for general nonlinear flight dynamic models is considered through numerical simulation. The design is accomplished through a numerical optimizer coupled with analysis of flight dynamic equations. The general flight dynamic equations are numerically integrated and dynamic characteristics are then identified from the dynamic response. The design variables are determined iteratively by the optimizer to optimize a prescribed objective function which is related to desired dynamic characteristics. Generality of the method allows nonlinear effects to aerodynamics and dynamic coupling to be considered in the design process. To demonstrate the method, nonlinear simulation models for an F-5A and an F-16 configurations are used to design dampers to satisfy specifications on flying qualities and control systems to prevent departure. The results indicate that the present method is simple in formulation and effective in satisfying the design objectives.

2. Numerical Investigation of Flow Control Feasibility with a Trailing Edge Flap

Zhu, W. J.; Shen, W. Z.; Sørensen, J. N.

2014-06-01

This paper concerns a numerical study of employing an adaptive trailing edge flap to control the lift of an airfoil subject to unsteady inflow conditions. The periodically varying inflow is generated by two oscillating airfoils, which are located upstream of the controlled airfoil. To establish the control system, a standard PID controller is implemented in a finite volume based incompressible flow solver. An immersed boundary method is applied to treat the problem of simulating a deformable airfoil trailing edge. The flow field is solved using a 2D Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes finite volume solver. In order to more accurately simulate wall bounded flows around the immersed boundary, a modified boundary condition is introduced in the k- ω turbulence model. As an example, turbulent flow over a NACA 64418 airfoil with a deformable trailing edge is investigated. Results from numerical simulations are convincing and may give some highlights for practical implementations of trailing edge flap to a wind turbine rotor blade

3. CNC Turning Center Operations and Prove Out. Computer Numerical Control Operator/Programmer. 444-334.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Skowronski, Steven D.

This student guide provides materials for a course designed to instruct the student in the recommended procedures used when setting up tooling and verifying part programs for a two-axis computer numerical control (CNC) turning center. The course consists of seven units. Unit 1 discusses course content and reviews and demonstrates set-up procedures…

4. CNC Turning Center Advanced Operations. Computer Numerical Control Operator/Programmer. 444-332.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Skowronski, Steven D.; Tatum, Kenneth

This student guide provides materials for a course designed to introduce the student to the operations and functions of a two-axis computer numerical control (CNC) turning center. The course consists of seven units. Unit 1 presents course expectations and syllabus, covers safety precautions, and describes the CNC turning center components, CNC…

5. Lateral control required for satisfactory flying qualities based on flight tests of numerous airplanes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gilruth, R R; Turner, W N

1941-01-01

Report presents the results of an analysis made of the aileron control characteristics of numerous airplanes tested in flight by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. By the use of previously developed theory, the observed values of pb/2v for the various wing-aileron arrangements were examined to determine the effective section characteristics of the various aileron types.

6. Technology and Jobs: Computer-Aided Design. Numerical-Control Machine-Tool Operators. Office Automation.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stanton, Michael; And Others

1985-01-01

Three reports on the effects of high technology on the nature of work include (1) Stanton on applications and implications of computer-aided design for engineers, drafters, and architects; (2) Nardone on the outlook and training of numerical-control machine tool operators; and (3) Austin and Drake on the future of clerical occupations in automated…

7. Numerical Study of Active Flow Control for a Transitional Highly-Loaded Low-Pressure Turbine

DTIC Science & Technology

2008-02-01

Count Using Vortex Generator Jet Separation Control,” ASME Paper GT-2002-30602, Jun. 2002. [16] Eulitz, F. and Engel , K., “Numerical Investigation of...Around a Low Pressure Turbine Blade,” Direct and Large-Eddy Simulation IV, ERCOFTAC Series Vol. 8 , edited by B. J. Guerts, R. Friedrich , and O

8. A numerical study of transition control by periodic suction-blowing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biringen, Sedat

1987-01-01

The applicability of active control of transition by periodic suction-blowing is investigated via direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations. The time-evolution of finite-amplitude disturbances in plane channel flow is compared in detail with and without control. The analysis indicates that, for relatively small three dimensional amplitudes, a two dimensional control effectively reduces disturbance growth rates even for linearly unstable Reynolds numbers. After the flow goes through secondary instability, three dimensional control seems necessary to stabilize the flow. An investigation of the temperature field suggests that passive temperature contamination is operative to reflect the flow dynamics during transition.

9. Advanced numerical study of the three-axis magnetic attitude control and determination with uncertainties

Ivanov, D. S.; Ovchinnikov, M. Yu.; Penkov, V. I.; Roldugin, D. S.; Doronin, D. M.; Ovchinnikov, A. V.

2017-03-01

Attitude motion of a satellite equipped with magnetic control system is considered. System comprises of three magnetorquers and one three-axis magnetometer. Satellite is stabilized in orbital reference frame using PD controller and extended Kalman filter. Three-axis attitude is analyzed numerically with advanced assumptions: inertia tensor uncertainty, disturbances of unknown nature, magnetometer errors are taken into account. Stabilization and determination accuracy dependence on orbit inclination is studied.

10. Shaking table test and numerical analysis of offshore wind turbine tower systems controlled by TLCD

Chen, Jianbing; Liu, Youkun; Bai, Xueyuan

2015-03-01

A wind turbine system equipped with a tuned liquid column damper (TLCD) is comprehensively studied via shaking table tests using a 1/13-scaled model. The effects of wind and wave actions are considered by inputting response-equivalent accelerations on the shaking table. The test results show that the control effect of the TLCD system is significant in reducing the responses under both wind-wave equivalent loads and ground motions, but obviously varies for different inputs. Further, a blade-hub-tower integrated numerical model for the wind turbine system is established. The model is capable of considering the rotational effect of blades by combining Kane's equation with the finite element method. The responses of the wind tower equipped with TLCD devices are numerically obtained and compared to the test results, showing that under both controlled and uncontrolled conditions with and without blades' rotation, the corresponding responses exhibit good agreement. This demonstrates that the proposed numerical model performs well in capturing the wind-wave coupled response of the offshore wind turbine systems under control. Both numerical and experimental results show that the TLCD system can significantly reduce the structural response and thus improve the safety and serviceability of the offshore wind turbine tower systems. Additional issues that require further study are discussed.

11. Numerical Investigation of Rotorcraft Fuselage Drag Reduction Using Active Flow Control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Allan, Brian G.; Schaeffler, Norman W.

2011-01-01

The effectiveness of unsteady zero-net-mass-flux jets for fuselage drag reduction was evaluated numerically on a generic rotorcraft fuselage in forward flight with a rotor. Previous efforts have shown significant fuselage drag reduction using flow control for an isolated fuselage by experiment and numerical simulation. This work will evaluate a flow control strategy, that was originally developed on an isolated fuselage, in a more relevant environment that includes the effects of a rotor. Evaluation of different slot heights and jet velocity ratios were performed. Direct comparisons between an isolated fuselage and rotor/fuselage simulations were made showing similar flow control performance at a -3deg fuselage angle-of-attack condition. However, this was not the case for a -5deg angle-of-attack condition where the performance between the isolated fuselage and rotor/fuselage were different. The fuselage flow control resulted in a 17% drag reduction for a peak C(sub mu) of 0.0069 in a forward flight simulation where mu = 0:35 and CT/sigma = 0:08. The CFD flow control results also predicted a favorable 22% reduction of the fuselage download at this same condition, which can have beneficial compounding effects on the overall performance of the vehicle. This numerical investigation was performed in order to provide guidance for a future 1/3 scale wind tunnel experiment to be performed at the NASA 14-by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel.

12. A numerical study for design of depth, pitch and roll control system of a towed vehicle

SciTech Connect

Koterayama, W.; Yamaguchi, S.; Nakamura, M.; Moriyama, A.; Akamatsu, T.

1994-12-31

A towed vehicle system, FLYING FISH, is under development for use in making chemical and physical measurements which enable the authors to obtain spacially continuous and real time data in an ocean mixed layer. The heave, pitch and roll of FLYING FISH are controlled by a main wing and horizontal tail wings which permit its stable attitudes and assure accurate measurements. The numerical simulation of motions was carried out to design the optimal control system of this towed vehicle system and the results gave the data for the design of the mechanical parts of the control system.

13. Numerical calculation of the operation wavelength range of a polarization controller based on rotatable wave plates

2016-12-01

We calculate the operation wavelength range of polarization controllers based on rotating wave plates such as paddle-type optical fiber devices. The coverages over arbitrary polarization conversion or arbitrary birefringence compensation are numerically estimated. The results present the acceptable phase retardation range of polarization controllers composed of two quarter-wave plates or a quarter-half-quarter-wave plate combination, and thereby determines the operation wavelength range of a given design. We further prove that a quarter-quarter-half-wave-plate combination is also an arbitrary birefringence compensator as well as a conventional quarter-half-quarter-wave-plate combination, and show that the two configurations have the identical range of acceptable phase retardance within the uncertainty of our numerical method.

14. Numerical analysis of a variable camber rotor blade as a lift control device

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Awani, A. O.; Stroub, R. H.

1984-01-01

A new rotor configuration called the variable camber rotor was numerically investigated as a lift control device. This rotor differs from a conventional (baseline) rotor only in the blade aft section. In this configuration, the aft section or flap is attached to the forward section by pin joint arrangement, and also connected to the rotor control system for the control of rotor thrust level and vectoring. Pilot action to the flap deflection controls rotor lift and tip path plane tilt. The drag due to flaps is presented and the theoretical result correlated with test data. The assessment of payoff for the variable camber rotor in comparison with conventional (baseline) rotor was examined in hover. The variable camber rotor is shown to increase hover power required by 1.35%, but such a minimal power penalty is not significant enough to be considered a negative result. In forward flight, the control needs of the variable camber rotor were evaluated.

15. Research on temperature control with numerical regulators in electric resistance furnaces with indirect heating

Diniş, C. M.; Popa, G. N.; Iagăr, A.

2016-02-01

The paper is an analysis of two-positions (hysteresis) regulators, self-tuned PID controller and PID controller for temperature control used for indirect heat resistance furnaces. For PID controller was used three methods of tuning: Ziegler-Nichols step response model, Cohen-Coon tuning rules and Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules. In experiments it used an electric furnace with indirect heating with active power of resistance of 1 kW/230V AC and a numerical temperature regulator AT-503 type (ANLY). It got a much better temperature control when using the Cohen-Coon tuning rules method than those of Ziegler-Nichols step response method and Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules method.

16. Numerical investigations of passive flow control elements for vertical axis wind turbine

Frunzulica, Florin; Dumitrache, Alexandru; Suatean, Bogdan

2014-12-01

In this paper we numerically investigate the possibilities to control the dynamic stall phenomenon, with application to vertical axis wind turbines. The dynamic stall appears at low tip speed ratio (TSR<4) and it has a great impact on structural integrity of the wind turbine and power performances. For this reason we performed a CFD 2D analysis of the dynamic stall phenomenon around NACA 0012 airfoil equipped with a passive flow control device, in pitching motion at relative low Reynolds number (˜105). Three passive flow control devices are numerically investigated: a turbulence promoter mounted on the leading edge, a thin channel and a step on the upper surface of the airfoil. For the present studies, the unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model is the suitable approach to perform the dynamic stall simulations with an acceptable computational cost and reasonable accuracy. The results are compared to those of an existing experimental case test for unmodified NACA 0012 airfoil. The capability of this device was investigated numerically on a vertical axis wind turbine (2D model), where blades are generated with NACA 0018 airfoil.

17. Multiresolution Wavelet Based Adaptive Numerical Dissipation Control for Shock-Turbulence Computations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sjoegreen, B.; Yee, H. C.

2001-01-01

The recently developed essentially fourth-order or higher low dissipative shock-capturing scheme of Yee, Sandham and Djomehri (1999) aimed at minimizing nu- merical dissipations for high speed compressible viscous flows containing shocks, shears and turbulence. To detect non smooth behavior and control the amount of numerical dissipation to be added, Yee et al. employed an artificial compression method (ACM) of Harten (1978) but utilize it in an entirely different context than Harten originally intended. The ACM sensor consists of two tuning parameters and is highly physical problem dependent. To minimize the tuning of parameters and physical problem dependence, new sensors with improved detection properties are proposed. The new sensors are derived from utilizing appropriate non-orthogonal wavelet basis functions and they can be used to completely switch to the extra numerical dissipation outside shock layers. The non-dissipative spatial base scheme of arbitrarily high order of accuracy can be maintained without compromising its stability at all parts of the domain where the solution is smooth. Two types of redundant non-orthogonal wavelet basis functions are considered. One is the B-spline wavelet (Mallat & Zhong 1992) used by Gerritsen and Olsson (1996) in an adaptive mesh refinement method, to determine regions where re nement should be done. The other is the modification of the multiresolution method of Harten (1995) by converting it to a new, redundant, non-orthogonal wavelet. The wavelet sensor is then obtained by computing the estimated Lipschitz exponent of a chosen physical quantity (or vector) to be sensed on a chosen wavelet basis function. Both wavelet sensors can be viewed as dual purpose adaptive methods leading to dynamic numerical dissipation control and improved grid adaptation indicators. Consequently, they are useful not only for shock-turbulence computations but also for computational aeroacoustics and numerical combustion. In addition, these

18. Numerical Comparison of Active Acoustic and Structural Noise Control in a Stiffened Double Wall Cylinder

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

1996-01-01

The active acoustic and structural noise control characteristics of a double wall cylinder with and without ring stiffeners were numerically evaluated. An exterior monopole was assumed to acoustically excite the outside of the double wall cylinder at an acoustic cavity resonance frequency. Structural modal vibration properties of the inner and outer shells were analyzed by post-processing the results from a finite element analysis. A boundary element approach was used to calculate the acoustic cavity response and the coupled structural-acoustic interaction. In the frequency region of interest, below 500 Hz, all structural resonant modes were found to be acoustically slow and the nonresonant modal response to be dominant. Active sound transmission control was achieved by control forces applied to the inner or outer shell, or acoustic control monopoles placed just outside the inner or outer shell. A least mean square technique was used to minimize the interior sound pressures at the nodes of a data recovery mesh. Results showed that single acoustic control monopoles placed just outside the inner or outer shells resulted in better sound transmission control than six distributed point forces applied to either one of the shells. Adding stiffeners to the double wall structure constrained the modal vibrations of the shells, making the double wall stiffer with associated higher modal frequencies. Active noise control obtained for the stiffened double wall configurations was less than for the unstiffened cylinder. In all cases, the acoustic control monopoles controlled the sound transmission into the interior better than the structural control forces.

19. Geometric versus numerical optimal control of a dissipative spin-(1)/(2) particle

Lapert, M.; Zhang, Y.; Braun, M.; Glaser, S. J.; Sugny, D.

2010-12-01

We analyze the saturation of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal using optimal magnetic fields. We consider both the problems of minimizing the duration of the control and its energy for a fixed duration. We solve the optimal control problems by using geometric methods and a purely numerical approach, the grape algorithm, the two methods being based on the application of the Pontryagin maximum principle. A very good agreement is obtained between the two results. The optimal solutions for the energy-minimization problem are finally implemented experimentally with available NMR techniques.

20. Numerical solution of optimal control problems using multiple-interval integral Gegenbauer pseudospectral methods

Tang, Xiaojun

2016-04-01

The main purpose of this work is to provide multiple-interval integral Gegenbauer pseudospectral methods for solving optimal control problems. The latest developed single-interval integral Gauss/(flipped Radau) pseudospectral methods can be viewed as special cases of the proposed methods. We present an exact and efficient approach to compute the mesh pseudospectral integration matrices for the Gegenbauer-Gauss and flipped Gegenbauer-Gauss-Radau points. Numerical results on benchmark optimal control problems confirm the ability of the proposed methods to obtain highly accurate solutions.

1. Geometric versus numerical optimal control of a dissipative spin-(1/2) particle

SciTech Connect

Lapert, M.; Sugny, D.; Zhang, Y.; Braun, M.; Glaser, S. J.

2010-12-15

We analyze the saturation of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal using optimal magnetic fields. We consider both the problems of minimizing the duration of the control and its energy for a fixed duration. We solve the optimal control problems by using geometric methods and a purely numerical approach, the grape algorithm, the two methods being based on the application of the Pontryagin maximum principle. A very good agreement is obtained between the two results. The optimal solutions for the energy-minimization problem are finally implemented experimentally with available NMR techniques.

2. Formulation and numerical solution of finite-level quantum optimal control problems

Borzi, A.; Salomon, J.; Volkwein, S.

2008-06-01

Optimal control of finite-level quantum systems is investigated, and iterative solution schemes for the optimization of a control representing laser pulses are developed. The purpose of this external field is to channel the system's wavefunction between given states in its most efficient way. Physically motivated constraints, such as limited laser resources or population suppression of certain states, are accounted for through an appropriately chosen cost functional. First-order necessary optimality conditions and second-order sufficient optimality conditions are investigated. For solving the optimal control problems, a cascadic non-linear conjugate gradient scheme and a monotonic scheme are discussed. Results of numerical experiments with a representative finite-level quantum system demonstrate the effectiveness of the optimal control formulation and efficiency and robustness of the proposed approaches.

3. A numerical study of the controlled flow tunnel for a high lift model

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parikh, P. C.

1984-01-01

A controlled flow tunnel employs active control of flow through the walls of the wind tunnel so that the model is in approximately free air conditions during the test. This improves the wind tunnel test environment, enhancing the validity of the experimentally obtained test data. This concept is applied to a three dimensional jet flapped wing with full span jet flap. It is shown that a special treatment is required for the high energy wake associated with this and other V/STOL models. An iterative numerical scheme is developed to describe the working of an actual controlled flow tunnel and comparisons are shown with other available results. It is shown that control need be exerted over only part of the tunnel walls to closely approximate free air flow conditions. It is concluded that such a tunnel is able to produce a nearly interference free test environment even with a high lift model in the tunnel.

4. Numerical dissipation control in high order shock-capturing schemes for LES of low speed flows

Kotov, D. V.; Yee, H. C.; Wray, A. A.; Sjögreen, B.; Kritsuk, A. G.

2016-02-01

The Yee & Sjögreen adaptive numerical dissipation control in high order scheme (High Order Filter Methods for Wide Range of Compressible Flow Speeds, ICOSAHOM 09, 2009) is further improved for DNS and LES of shock-free turbulence and low speed turbulence with shocklets. There are vastly different requirements in the minimization of numerical dissipation for accurate turbulence simulations of different compressible flow types and flow speeds. Traditionally, the method of choice for shock-free turbulence and low speed turbulence are by spectral, high order central or high order compact schemes with high order linear filters. With a proper control of a local flow sensor, appropriate amount of numerical dissipation in high order shock-capturing schemes can have spectral-like accuracy for compressible low speed turbulent flows. The development of the method includes an adaptive flow sensor with automatic selection on the amount of numerical dissipation needed at each flow location for more accurate DNS and LES simulations with less tuning of parameters for flows with a wide range of flow speed regime during the time-accurate evolution, e.g., time varying random forcing. An automatic selection of the different flow sensors catered to the different flow types is constructed. A Mach curve and high-frequency oscillation indicators are used to reduce the tuning of parameters in controlling the amount of shock-capturing numerical dissipation to be employed for shock-free turbulence, low speed turbulence and turbulence with strong shocks. In Kotov et al. (High Order Numerical Methods for LES of Turbulent Flows with Shocks, ICCFD8, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, July 14-18, 2014) the LES of a turbulent flow with a strong shock by the Yee & Sjögreen scheme indicated a good agreement with the filtered DNS data. A work in progress for the application of the adaptive flow sensor for compressible turbulence with time-varying random forcing is forthcoming. The present study examines the

5. Numerical studies of electrokinetic control of DNA concentration in a closed-end microchannel.

PubMed

Daghighi, Yasaman; Li, Dongqing

2010-03-01

A major challenge in lab-on-a-chip devices is how to concentrate sample molecules from a dilute solution, which is critical to the effectiveness and the detection limit of on-chip bio-chemical reactions. A numerical study of sample concentration control by electrokinetic microfluidic means in a closed-end microchannel is presented in this paper. The present method provides a simple and efficient way of concentration control by using electrokinetic trapping of a charged species of interest, controlling liquid flow and separating different sample molecules in the microchannel. The electrokinetic-concentration process and the controlled transport of the sample molecules are numerically studied. In this system, in addition to the electroosmotic flow and the electrophoresis, the closed-end of the chamber causes velocity variation at both ends of the channel and induces a pressure gradient and the associated fluid movement in the channel. The combined effects determine the final concentration field of the sample molecules. The influences of a number of parameters such as the channel dimensions, electrode size and the applied electric field are investigated.

6. Investigation of Numerical Upscaling Techniques for Mixing-Controlled Reactions in Heterogeneous Media

Valocchi, A. J.; Nakshatrala, K. B.

2007-12-01

Mixing of chemical species across plume boundaries has a major influence upon reactive pollutant fate in the subsurface. Small-scale heterogeneity leads to irregular plume boundaries which enhances mixing-controlled reactions through increasing the interfacial area of the plume. Therefore, it is crucial to capture this small-scale heterogeneity in order to properly model reactive transport. Unfortunately, computational limitations do not permit full resolution of the smallest scales of heterogeneity, and thus it is necessary to use a coarse numerical grid, particularly for cases with a large number of reactive species. In order to capture the sub-grid scale heterogeneity effects, we investigate the extension of multi-scale numerical techniques (which have been proved successful for diffusion and Darcy flow problems) to mixing-controlled reactive transport. The proposed upscaling technique is based on the multi-scale decomposition of the solution (which is similar to that proposed by Arbogast [1] for Darcy flow). We divide the governing system into two sub- problems - coarse-scale and fine-scale. We assume that the solute concentration has two components - coarse-scale (which is defined at the grid scale) and fine-scale (which is defined at the smallest modeled scale). The fine-scale sub-problems are solved locally by constructing numerical Green's functions, which are independent of the coarse-scale problem. The localization of fine-scale sub-problems is achieved by the closure assumption, which is enforced by prescribing appropriate boundary conditions for the fine-scale sub-problem. In this study, we investigate the effect of various closure approximations (i.e., boundary conditions for fine-scale sub- problem) on the overall accuracy of the numerical solution. We apply our multi-scale methods to several canonical problems for fast bi-molecular reactions. [1] T. Arbogast. Numerical subgrid upscaling of two-phase flow in porous media. In Z. Chen, R. E. Ewing, and

7. Development of an Intelligent Monitoring and Control System for a Heterogeneous Numerical Propulsion System Simulation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reed, John A.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.; Lewandowski, Henry; Homer, Patrick T.; Schlichting, Richard D.

1996-01-01

The NASA Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) project is exploring the use of computer simulation to facilitate the design of new jet engines. Several key issues raised in this research are being examined in an NPSS-related research project: zooming, monitoring and control, and support for heterogeneity. The design of a simulation executive that addresses each of these issues is described. In this work, the strategy of zooming, which allows codes that model at different levels of fidelity to be integrated within a single simulation, is applied to the fan component of a turbofan propulsion system. A prototype monitoring and control system has been designed for this simulation to support experimentation with expert system techniques for active control of the simulation. An interconnection system provides a transparent means of connecting the heterogeneous systems that comprise the prototype.

8. Numerical simulation of drop impact on a controlled falling liquid film

Che, Zhizhao; Adebayo, Idris; Xie, Zhihua; Pavlidis, Dimitrios; Salinas, Pablo; Matar, Omar

2016-11-01

We study the impact process of droplets falling obliquely on controlled films using a numerical simulation approach. This approach is based on a finite element discretisation of the Navier Stokes equations on fully unstructured anisotropic and adaptive meshes, which are capable of representing the underlying physics of multiphase problems accurately while also reducing computational effort. Liquid film control here is applied to ensure that droplet impact occurs on different, targeted regions of a controlled film surface viz. capillary waves preceding a large-amplitude wave, flat film regions, and wave humps. The outcomes of droplet impact on these different regions are then compared and the differences discussed. The effect of varying the film flow rate, droplet speed, and droplet size on a number of droplet impact outcomes is also studied and the results further compared with those from uncontrolled as well as quiescent liquid films. EPSRC UK Programme Grant MEMPHIS (EP/K003976/1).

9. Real time control and numerical simulation of pipeline subjected to landslide

SciTech Connect

Cuscuna, S.; Giusti, G.; Gramola, C.

1984-06-01

This paper describes SNAM research activity in the study of behaviour and real-time control of pipelines in landslide areas. The subject can be delt considering three different aspects: 1. Geotechnical characterization of unstable soils. The mechanical parameters of soil and the landslide types are defined; 2. Structural analysis of pipe-soil system. By means of a finite element program it's possible to study the pipe-soil interaction; in this numerical code the soil parameters attend by the non-linear elastic behaviour of pipe restraints. The results of this analysis are the location of the expected most stressed sections of pipe and the global behaviour of pipe inside the soil. 3. Instrumental control. The adoption of a suitable appliance of vibrating wire strain gauges allows the strain control of pipe in time. The aim is to make possible timely interventions in order to guarantee the installation safety.

10. Numerical simulation about orthogonal single frequency dithering technique used in tilt control of fiber laser array

Zhang, Zhixin; Zhi, Dong; Ma, Yanxing; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei

2017-01-01

Beam combination of fiber laser array is an effective technique contributed to improve the brightness of fiber lasers. In order to realize high-efficiency CBC, challenges like phase distortion (mainly including piston and tilt phase aberrations) should be taken into consideration. Resent years, tilt phase aberrations control has been come true by adaptive fiber optics collimator using the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm. However, the convergence rate of tilt control system still cannot satisfy the needs of practical application. In order to increase the tilt control bandwidth, a new idea is put forward that applying the orthogonal single frequency dithering (OSFD) technique into tilt control, and numerical simulation has been completed. A hexagonal laser array with 7 elements has been simulated, and each element has a pair of initial tilt angles in horizontal and vertical direction. The initial tilt angles comply with normal distribution. In the same condition, tilt phase control has been realized through SPGD and OSFD individually, and the convergence steps (defined as the iteration steps that improve the normalized PIB above 0.9) with appropriate parameters are respectively about 20 (SPGD) and 7 (OSFD). Furthermore, tilt phase control of large number hexagonal array is simulated, and the results are as follows: for 19/37 elements, the least convergence steps are about 80/160(SPGD) and 19/55(OSFD). Comparing with SPGD algorithm, it is obvious that the OSFD has higher convergence rate and greater potential for tilt control application in large number coherent fiber laser array.

11. Numerical Simulation of Non-Equilibrium Plasma Discharge for High Speed Flow Control

Balasubramanian, Ramakrishnan; Anandhanarayanan, Karupannasamy; Krishnamurthy, Rajah; Chakraborty, Debasis

2016-06-01

Numerical simulation of hypersonic flow control using plasma discharge technique is carried out using an in-house developed code CERANS-TCNEQ. The study is aimed at demonstrating a proof of concept futuristic aerodynamic flow control device. The Kashiwa Hypersonic and High Temperature wind tunnel study of plasma discharge over a flat plate had been considered for numerical investigation. The 7-species, 18-reaction thermo-chemical non-equilibrium, two-temperature air-chemistry model due Park is used to model the weakly ionized flow. Plasma discharge is modeled as Joule heating source terms in both the translation-rotational and vibrational energy equations. Comparison of results for plasma discharge at Mach 7 over a flat plate with the reference data reveals that the present study is able to mimic the exact physics of complex flow such as formation of oblique shock wave ahead of the plasma discharge region with a resultant rise in surface pressure and vibrational temperature up to 7000 K demonstrating the use of non-equilibrium plasma discharge for flow control at hypersonic speeds.

12. Numerical investigation of sintering of Ti and Cu powders in the controlled heating conditions

Sorokova, Svetlana N.

2016-11-01

The model of sintering Ti and Cu powders substrate under controlled heating, taking into account the kinetic and thermal phenomena are proposed and studied. The system of chemical reactions is written according to the phase diagram of Ti-Cu. The model takes into account that the chemical reactions are slowed layer product. The problem is solved numerically. The temperature distribution and concentration of elements or compounds at different times for different synthesis conditions are determined. It is shown that at any process organization the synthesized material becomes chemically heterogeneous.

13. Numerical study of three-dimensional separation and flow control at a wing/body junction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ash, Robert L.; Lakshmanan, Balakrishnan

1989-01-01

The problem of three-dimensional separation and flow control at a wing/body junction has been investigated numerically using a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code. The numerical code employs an algebraic grid generation technique for generating the grid for unmodified junction and an elliptic grid generation technique for filleted fin junction. The results for laminar flow past a blunt fin/flat plate junction demonstrate that after grid refinement, the computations agree with experiment and reveal a strong dependency of the number of vortices at the junction on Mach number and Reynolds number. The numerical results for pressure distribution, particle paths and limiting streamlines for turbulent flow past a swept fin show a decrease in the peak pressure and in the extent of the separated flow region compared to the laminar case. The results for a filleted juncture indicate that the streamline patterns lose much of their vortical character with proper filleting. Fillets with a radius of three and one-half times the fin leading edge diameter or two times the incoming boundary layer thickness, significantly weaken the usual necklace interaction vortex for the Mach number and Reynolds number considered in the present study.

14. One tamed at a time: A new approach for controlling continuous magnitudes in numerical comparison tasks.

PubMed

Salti, Moti; Katzin, Naama; Katzin, David; Leibovich, Tali; Henik, Avishai

2016-07-20

Non-symbolic stimuli (i.e., dot arrays) are commonly used to study numerical cognition. However, in addition to numerosity, non-symbolic stimuli entail continuous magnitudes (e.g., total surface area, convex-hull, etc.) that correlate with numerosity. Several methods for controlling for continuous magnitudes have been suggested, all with the same underlying rationale: disassociating numerosity from continuous magnitudes. However, the different continuous magnitudes do not fully correlate; therefore, it is impossible to disassociate them completely from numerosity. Moreover, relying on a specific continuous magnitude in order to create this disassociation may end up in increasing or decreasing numerosity saliency, pushing subjects to rely on it more or less, respectively. Here, we put forward a taxonomy depicting the relations between the different continuous magnitudes. We use this taxonomy to introduce a new method with a complimentary Matlab toolbox that allows disassociating numerosity from continuous magnitudes and equating the ratio of the continuous magnitudes to the ratio of the numerosity in order to balance the saliency of numerosity and continuous magnitudes. A dot array comparison experiment in the subitizing range showed the utility of this method. Equating different continuous magnitudes yielded different results. Importantly, equating the convex hull ratio to the numerical ratio resulted in similar interference of numerical and continuous magnitudes.

15. A numerical model of controlled bioinduced mineralization in a porous medium to prevent corrosion

Afanasyev, Michael; van Paassen, Leon; Heimovaara, Timo

2013-04-01

This paper presents a numerical model of controlled bioinduced mineralization in a porous medium as a possible corrosion protection mechanism. Corrosion is a significant economic problem - recent reports evaluate the annual cost of metal corrosion as 3-4% of the gross domestic product (GDP), in both developed and developing countries. Corrosion control methods currently used are costly and unsustainable as they require the use of larger volumes of materials, hazardous chemicals and regular inspections. As an alternative corrosion control method, bioinduced deposition of protective mineral layers has been proposed. Bioinduced precipitation of calcite has already been investigated for CO2 geological sequestration and soil improvement. To our knowledge, though, no numerical study of biomineralization for corrosion protection has been described yet. Our model includes three phases - solid, biofilm and mobile water. In the latter the reactive elements are dissolved, which are involved in the precipitation and the biofilm growth. The equations that describe the pore water flow, chemical reactions in the mobile water, consumption of substrate and expulsion of metabolic products by the biofilm are briefly presented. Also, the changes in porosity and permeability of the porous medium through biofilm growth and solids precipitation are included. Our main assumptions are that the biofilm is uniform, has a constant density and composition, that all chemical reactions except for substrate consumption occur in the mobile water, and that the precipitates are uniformly distributed on the surface of the solids. We validate the model with simple analytical solutions and against experimental data. The metabolism of the micro-organisms introduces changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the environment, such as concentrations of chemicals and pH levels. As an extension to the model, we couple these changes to the rates of biofilm growth and precipitation rates. The

16. Adaptive Numerical Dissipative Control in High Order Schemes for Multi-D Non-Ideal MHD

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yee, H. C.; Sjoegreen, B.

2004-01-01

The goal is to extend our adaptive numerical dissipation control in high order filter schemes and our new divergence-free methods for ideal MHD to non-ideal MHD that include viscosity and resistivity. The key idea consists of automatic detection of different flow features as distinct sensors to signal the appropriate type and amount of numerical dissipation/filter where needed and leave the rest of the region free of numerical dissipation contamination. These scheme-independent detectors are capable of distinguishing shocks/shears, flame sheets, turbulent fluctuations and spurious high-frequency oscillations. The detection algorithm is based on an artificial compression method (ACM) (for shocks/shears), and redundant multi-resolution wavelets (WAV) (for the above types of flow feature). These filter approaches also provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of Div(B) numerical error. The filter scheme consists of spatially sixth order or higher non-dissipative spatial difference operators as the base scheme for the inviscid flux derivatives. If necessary, a small amount of high order linear dissipation is used to remove spurious high frequency oscillations. For example, an eighth-order centered linear dissipation (AD8) might be included in conjunction with a spatially sixth-order base scheme. The inviscid difference operator is applied twice for the viscous flux derivatives. After the completion of a full time step of the base scheme step, the solution is adaptively filtered by the product of a 'flow detector' and the 'nonlinear dissipative portion' of a high-resolution shock-capturing scheme. In addition, the scheme independent wavelet flow detector can be used in conjunction with spatially compact, spectral or spectral element type of base schemes. The ACM and wavelet filter schemes using the dissipative portion of a second-order shock-capturing scheme with sixth-order spatial central base scheme for both the inviscid and viscous MHD flux

17. Numerical Study of Control of Flow Separation Over a Ramp with Nanosecond Plasma Actuator

Zheng, J. G.; Khoo, B. C.; Cui, Y. D.; Zhao, Z. J.; Li, J.

2016-06-01

The nanosecond plasma discharge actuator driven by high voltage pulse with typical rise and decay time of several to tens of nanoseconds is emerging as a promising active flow control means in recent years and is being studied intensively. The characterization study reveals that the discharge induced shock wave propagates through ambient air and introduces highly transient perturbation to the flow. On the other hand, the residual heat remaining in the discharge volume may trigger the instability of external flow. In this study, this type of actuator is used to suppress flow separation over a ramp model. Numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the interaction of the discharge induced disturbance with the external flow. It is found that the flow separation region over the ramp can be reduced significantly. Our work may provide some insights into the understanding of the control mechanism of nanosecond pulse actuator.

18. Numerical Studies of an Array of Fluidic Diverter Actuators for Flow Control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Culley, Dennis E.; Raghu, Surya

2011-01-01

In this paper, we study the effect of boundary conditions on the behavior of an array of uniformly-spaced fluidic diverters with an ultimate goal to passively control their output phase. This understanding will aid in the development of advanced designs of actuators for flow control applications in turbomachinery. Computations show that a potential design is capable of generating synchronous outputs for various inlet boundary conditions if the flow inside the array is initiated from quiescence. However, when the array operation is originally asynchronous, several approaches investigated numerically demonstrate that re-synchronization of the actuators in the array is not practical since it is very sensitive to asymmetric perturbations and imperfections. Experimental verification of the insights obtained from the present study is currently being pursued.

19. Numerical algorithms for computations of feedback laws arising in control of flexible systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lasiecka, Irena

1989-01-01

Several continuous models will be examined, which describe flexible structures with boundary or point control/observation. Issues related to the computation of feedback laws are examined (particularly stabilizing feedbacks) with sensors and actuators located either on the boundary or at specific point locations of the structure. One of the main difficulties is due to the great sensitivity of the system (hyperbolic systems with unbounded control actions), with respect to perturbations caused either by uncertainty of the model or by the errors introduced in implementing numerical algorithms. Thus, special care must be taken in the choice of the appropriate numerical schemes which eventually lead to implementable finite dimensional solutions. Finite dimensional algorithms are constructed on a basis of a priority analysis of the properties of the original, continuous (infinite diversional) systems with the following criteria in mind: (1) convergence and stability of the algorithms and (2) robustness (reasonable insensitivity with respect to the unknown parameters of the systems). Examples with mixed finite element methods and spectral methods are provided.

20. Numerical simulation of tandem-cylinder noise-reduction using plasma-based flow control

Wang, Meng; Eltaweel, Ahmed; Thomas, Flint; Kozlov, Alexey; Kim, Dongjoo

2011-11-01

The noise of low-Mach-number flow over tandem cylinders at ReD = 22 , 000 and its reduction using plasma actuators are simulated numerically to confirm and extend earlier experimental results. The numerical approach is based on large-eddy simulation for the turbulent flow field, a semi-empirical plasma actuation model, and Lighthill's theory for acoustic calculation. Excellent agreement between LES and experimental results is obtained for both the baseline flow and flow with plasma control in terms of wake velocity profiles, turbulence intensity, and frequency spectra of pressure fluctuations on the downstream cylinder. The validated flow-field results allow an accurate acoustic analysis based on Lighthill's equation, which is solved using a boundary-element method. The effectiveness of plasma actuators for reducing noise is demonstrated. In the baseline flow, the acoustic field is dominated by the interaction of the downstream cylinder with the upstream wake. With flow control the interaction noise is reduced drastically through suppression of vortex shedding from the upstream cylinder, and the vortex-shedding noise from the downstream cylinder becomes dominant. The peak sound pressure level is reduced by approximately 15 dB. Supported by NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX07AO09A.

1. Numerical simulations and analyses of temperature control loop heat pipe for space CCD camera

Meng, Qingliang; Yang, Tao; Li, Chunlin

2016-10-01

As one of the key units of space CCD camera, the temperature range and stability of CCD components affect the image's indexes. Reasonable thermal design and robust thermal control devices are needed. One kind of temperature control loop heat pipe (TCLHP) is designed, which highly meets the thermal control requirements of CCD components. In order to study the dynamic behaviors of heat and mass transfer of TCLHP, particularly in the orbital flight case, a transient numerical model is developed by using the well-established empirical correlations for flow models within three dimensional thermal modeling. The temperature control principle and details of mathematical model are presented. The model is used to study operating state, flow and heat characteristics based upon the analyses of variations of temperature, pressure and quality under different operating modes and external heat flux variations. The results indicate that TCLHP can satisfy the thermal control requirements of CCD components well, and always ensure good temperature stability and uniformity. By comparison between flight data and simulated results, it is found that the model is to be accurate to within 1°C. The model can be better used for predicting and understanding the transient performance of TCLHP.

2. Numerical analysis of phase change materials for thermal control of power battery of high power dissipations

Xia, X.; Zhang, H. Y.; Deng, Y. C.

2016-08-01

Solid-fluid phase change materials have been of increasing interest in various applications due to their high latent heat with minimum volume change. In this work, numerical analysis of phase change materials is carried out for the purpose of thermal control of the cylindrical power battery cells for applications in electric vehicles. Uniform heat density is applied at the battery cell, which is surrounded by phase change material (PCM) of paraffin wax type and contained in a metal housing. A two-dimensional geometry model is considered due to the model symmetry. The effects of power densities, heat transfer coefficients and onset melting temperatures are examined for the battery temperature evolution. Temperature plateaus can be observed from the present numerical analysis for the pure PCM cases, with the temperature level depending on the power densities, heat transfer coefficients, and melting temperatures. In addition, the copper foam of high thermal conductivity is inserted into the copper foam to enhance the heat transfer. In the modeling, the local thermal non-equilibrium between the metal foam and the PCM is taken into account and the temperatures for the metal foam and PCM are obtained respectively.

3. Fabrication of ultrathin and highly uniform silicon on insulator by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining.

PubMed

Sano, Yasuhisa; Yamamura, Kazuya; Mimura, Hidekazu; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Mori, Yuzo

2007-08-01

Metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer operate faster and at a lower power than those fabricated on a bulk silicon wafer. Scaling down, which improves their performances, demands thinner SOI wafers. In this article, improvement on the thinning of SOI wafers by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining (PCVM) is described. PCVM is a gas-phase chemical etching method in which reactive species generated in atmospheric-pressure plasma are used. Some factors affecting uniformity are investigated and methods for improvements are presented. As a result of thinning a commercial 8 in. SOI wafer, the initial SOI layer thickness of 97.5+/-4.7 nm was successfully thinned and made uniform at 7.5+/-1.5 nm.

4. Experimental study and numerical simulation of flow separation control with pulsed nanosecond discharge actuator

Correale, Guiseppe; Popov, Ilya; Nikipelov, Andrey; Pancheshnyi, Sergey; Hulshoff, Seo; Veldhuis, Leo; Starikovskiy, Andrey; neqlab Team; TUDelft Team

2011-10-01

Active flow separation control with a nanosecond pulse plasma actuator, which is essentially a simple electrode system on the surface of an airfoil, introducing low-energy gas discharge into the boundary layer, with little extra weight and no mechanical parts, was performed in wind-tunnel experiments on various airfoil models. In stall conditions the significant lift increase up to 30% accompanied by drag reduction (up to 3 times) was observed. The critical angle of attack shifted up to 5{7 degrees. Schlieren imaging shown the shock wave propagation and formation of large-scale vortex structure in the separation zone, which led to separation elimination. The experimental work is supported by numerical simulations of the phenomena. The formation of vortex similar to that observed in experiments was simulated in the case of laminar leading edge separation. Model simulations of free shear layer shown intensification of shear layer instabilities due to shock wave to shear layer interaction.

5. A homotopy approach for combined control-structure optimization - Constructive analysis and numerical examples

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheid, R. E.; Milman, M. H.; Salama, M.; Bruno, R.; Gibson, J. S.

1990-01-01

This paper outlines the development of methods for the combined control-structure optimization of physical systems encountered in the technology of large space structures. The objectives of the approach taken in this paper is not to produce the 'best' optimized design, but rather to efficiently produce a family of design options so as to assist in early trade studies, typically before hard design constraints are imposed. The philosophy is that these are candidate designs to be passed on for further considerations, and their function is more to guide the development of the system design rather than to represent the ultimate product. A homotopy approach involving multi-objective functions is developed for this purpose. Analytical and numerical examples are also presented.

6. Numerical Studies of a Supersonic Fluidic Diverter Actuator for Flow Control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Culley, Dennis e.; Raghu, Surya

2010-01-01

The analysis of the internal flow structure and performance of a specific fluidic diverter actuator, previously studied by time-dependent numerical computations for subsonic flow, is extended to include operation with supersonic actuator exit velocities. The understanding will aid in the development of fluidic diverters with minimum pressure losses and advanced designs of flow control actuators. The self-induced oscillatory behavior of the flow is successfully predicted and the calculated oscillation frequencies with respect to flow rate have excellent agreement with our experimental measurements. The oscillation frequency increases with Mach number, but its dependence on flow rate changes from subsonic to transonic to supersonic regimes. The delay time for the initiation of oscillations depends on the flow rate and the acoustic speed in the gaseous medium for subsonic flow, but is unaffected by the flow rate for supersonic conditions

7. Numerical Simulation of Stall Flow Control Using a DBD Plasma Actuator in Pulse Mode

Khoshkhoo, R.; Jahangirian, A.

2016-09-01

A numerical simulation method is employed to investigate the effects of the unsteady plasma body force over the stalled NACA 0015 airfoil at low Reynolds number flow conditions. The plasma body force created by a dielectric barrier discharge actuator is modeled with a phenomenological method for plasma simulation coupled with the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The governing equations are solved using an efficient implicit finitevolume method. The responses of the separated flow field to the effects of an unsteady body force in various inter-pulses and duty cycles as well as different locations and magnitudes are studied. It is shown that the duty cycle and inter-pulse are key parameters for flow separation control. Additionally, it is concluded that the body force is able to attach the flow and can affect boundary layer grow that Mach number 0.1 and Reynolds number of 45000.

8. Numerical investigation of sound transmission through double wall cylinders with respect to active noise control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coats, T. J.; Silcox, R. J.; Lester, H. C.

1993-01-01

Market pressure for more fuel efficient air travel has led to increased use of turboprop and higher bypass turbofan engines. The low frequency components of propeller, jet and boundary layer noise are difficult to attenuate with conventional passive techniques. Weight and geometric restrictions for sound absorbing meterials limit the amount and type of treatment that may be applied. An active noise control (ANC) method is providing to be an attractive alternative. The approach taken in this paper uses a numerical finite/boundary element method (FEM/BEM) that may be easilty adapted to arbitrary geometries. A double walled cylinder is modeled using commercially available software. The outer shell is modeled as an aluminum cylinder, similar to that of aircraft skins. The inner shell is modeled as a composite material representative of a lightweight, stiff trim panel. Two different inner shell materials are used. The first is representative of current trim structure, the second a much stiffer composite. The primary source is generated by an exterior acoustic monopole. Control fields are generated using normal force inputs to the inner cylindrical shell. A linear least mean square (LMS) algorithm is used to determine amplitudes of control forces that minimize the interior acoustic field. Coupling of acoustic and structural modes and noise reductions are discussed for each of the inner shell materials.

9. Numerical investigation of sound transmission through double wall cylinders with respect to active noise control

Coats, T. J.; Silcox, R. J.; Lester, H. C.

Market pressure for more fuel efficient air travel has led to increased use of turboprop and higher bypass turbofan engines. The low frequency components of propeller, jet and boundary layer noise are difficult to attenuate with conventional passive techniques. Weight and geometric restrictions for sound absorbing meterials limit the amount and type of treatment that may be applied. An active noise control (ANC) method is providing to be an attractive alternative. The approach taken in this paper uses a numerical finite/boundary element method (FEM/BEM) that may be easilty adapted to arbitrary geometries. A double walled cylinder is modeled using commercially available software. The outer shell is modeled as an aluminum cylinder, similar to that of aircraft skins. The inner shell is modeled as a composite material representative of a lightweight, stiff trim panel. Two different inner shell materials are used. The first is representative of current trim structure, the second a much stiffer composite. The primary source is generated by an exterior acoustic monopole. Control fields are generated using normal force inputs to the inner cylindrical shell. A linear least mean square (LMS) algorithm is used to determine amplitudes of control forces that minimize the interior acoustic field. Coupling of acoustic and structural modes and noise reductions are discussed for each of the inner shell materials.

10. Numerical simulation on edge localized mode control capability of resonant magnetic perturbation in the KSTAR tokamak

Kim, Doohyun; Han, Hyunsun; Kim, Ki Min; Park, Jong Kyu; Jeon, Young Mu; Na, Yong-Su; Hong, Sang Hee

2010-09-01

Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the applicability of resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) to KSTAR plasmas for a possible control of edge localized mode (ELM) to suppress or mitigate its damages to divertor materials. For the verification of the feasibility of RMP application, magnetic island configurations, resonant normal fields, magnetic island widths and Chirikov parameters are calculated for two types of KSTAR operation scenarios: steady state and hybrid. Field error correction (FEC) coils in KSTAR are considered to produce externally perturbed magnetic fields for RMP, and the directions of coil currents determine the toroidal mode n and the parity (even or odd). The RMP configurations are described by vacuum superposition of the equilibrium magnetic fields and the perturbed ones induced by FEC coils. The numerical simulations for n = 2 toroidal mode in both operation scenarios show that when the pitches of the equilibrium and perturbed magnetic fields are well aligned, magnetic islands are formed for a series of m poloidal modes and the adjacent islands are overlapped to generate a stochastic layer in the edge region. Even parity turns out to be more effective in making the magnetic islands overlapped to become stochastic field lines in the steady-state operation, while odd parity in the hybrid operation. The formation of the stochastic layer is verified by the calculated Chirikov parameters, which also give basic information on the current requirement of FEC coils. Additionally, lobe structures of stochastic field lines are found in the edge region extended to the divertor plate in the hybrid scenario. Based on the standard vacuum criteria for RMP, the simulation results indicate that the FEC coils will be feasible for control of ELMs and mitigation of divertor heat load by RMP in both steady-state and hybrid operation scenarios.

11. Numerical investigation of tandem-cylinder aerodynamic noise and its control with application to airframe noise

Eltaweel, Ahmed

Prediction and reduction of airframe noise are critically important to the development of quieter civil transport aircraft. The key to noise reduction is a full understanding of the underlying noise source mechanisms. In this study, tandem cylinders in cross-flow as an idealization of a complex aircraft landing gear configuration are considered to investigate the noise generation and its reduction by flow control using single dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators. The flow over tandem cylinders at ReD = 22, 000 with and without plasma actuation is computed using large-eddy simulation. The plasma effect is modeled as a body force obtained from a semi-empirical model. The flow statistics and surface pressure frequency spectra show excellent agreement with previous experimental measurements. For acoustic calculations, a boundary-element method is implemented to solve the convected Lighthill equation. The solution method is validated in a number of benchmark problems including flows over a cylinder, a rod-airfoil configuration, and a sphere. With validated flow field and acoustic solver, acoustic analysis is performed for the tandem-cylinder configuration to extend the experimental results and understand the mechanisms of noise generation and its control. Without flow control, the acoustic field is dominated by the interaction between the downstream cylinder and the upstream wake. Through suppression of vortex shedding from the upstream cylinder, the interaction noise is reduced drastically by the plasma flow control, and the vortex-shedding noise from the downstream cylinder becomes equally important. At a free-stream Mach number of 0.2, the peak sound pressure level is reduced by approximately 16 dB. This suggests the viability of plasma actuation for active control of airframe noise. The numerical investigation is extended to the noise from a realistic landing gear experimental model. Coarse-mesh computations are performed, and preliminary results are

12. Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) for optimal control in direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow

Badreddine, Hassan; Vandewalle, Stefan; Meyers, Johan

2014-01-01

The current work focuses on the development and application of an efficient algorithm for optimization of three-dimensional turbulent flows, simulated using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) or Large-Eddy Simulations, and further characterized by large-dimensional optimization-parameter spaces. The optimization algorithm is based on Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) in combination with a damped formulation of the limited-memory BFGS method. The latter is suitable for solving large-scale constrained optimization problems whose Hessian matrices cannot be computed and stored at a reasonable cost. We combine the algorithm with a line-search merit function based on an L1-norm to enforce the convergence from any remote point. It is first shown that the proposed form of the damped L-BFGS algorithm is suitable for solving equality constrained Rosenbrock type functions. Then, we apply the algorithm to an optimal-control test problem that consists of finding the optimal initial perturbations to a turbulent temporal mixing layer such that mixing is improved at the end of a simulation time horizon T. The controls are further subject to a non-linear equality constraint on the total control energy. DNSs are used to resolve all turbulent scales of motion, and a continuous adjoint formulation is employed to calculate the gradient of the cost functionals. We compare the convergence speed of the SQP L-BFGS algorithm to a conventional non-linear conjugate-gradient method (i.e. the current standard in DNS-based optimal control), and find that the SQP algorithm is more than an order of magnitude faster than the conjugate-gradient method.

13. The Effectiveness of Actuators Used in Active Flow Controls: Numerical Simulations, Analysis and Experiments

Fasel, Hermann; Wygnanksi, Israel J.; Gaster, Michael

2002-05-01

Acquiring the ability to effectively modify and control the behavior of fluid flow continues to be a pervasive and important aspiration in many areas of engineering. The present research continues to advance the technology of various schemes that employ the use of wall-mounted actuators for active flow control. Any design in which fluid-flow characteristics are important (aircraft, turbomachinery, ships, etc.) stands to benefit from this new technology of manipulating the flow behavior by time dependent forcing. Research completed to date promises reduced cost, complexity, and weight along with significant improvement in design performance. A summary of this research indicates however, that the details of the disturbance excitation process have still not been completely explored, and hence an understanding of the important parameters in actuator design is currently unavailable to the engineer. Only with this knowledge will it be possible to design devices for specific tasks that are efficient and effective in their performance. Our program of research examines boundary value periodic point source excitations of laminar boundary layers, and considers how some more complex actuators might be modeled numerically. The study is carried out in three parts: 1. linear theory, and 2. wind tunnel measurements, iii. full Navier-Stokes modeling.

14. Numerical simulation of MEMS-based blade load distribution control in centrifugal compressor surge suppression

Beneda, Károly

2012-11-01

The utilization of turbomachines requires up-to-date technologies to ensure safe operation throughout the widest possible range that makes novel ideas necessary to cope with classic problems. One of the most dangerous instability in compression systems is surge that has to be suppressed before its onset to avoid structural damages as well as other adverse consequences in the system. As surge occurs at low delivered mass flow rates the conventional widely spread surge control is based on bypassing the unnecessary airflow back to the atmosphere. This method has been implemented on a large number of aircraft and provides a robust control on suppressing compressor surge while creating a significant efficiency loss. This paper deals with an idea that has been originally designed as a fixed geometry that could be realized using up-to-date MEMS technology resulting in moderate losses but comparable stability enhancement. Previously the author has established the one-dimensional mathematical model of the concept, but it is indispensable - before the real instrument can be developed - to carry out detailed numerical simulation of the device. The aim of the paper is to acquaint the efforts of this CFD simulation.

15. Numerical Investigation of Active Flow Control on Wind Turbines under Yaw Misalignment

Tran, Steven; Corson, David; Sahni, Onkar

2012-11-01

16. Pore-scale controls on calcite dissolution rates from flow-through laboratory and numerical experiments.

PubMed

Molins, Sergi; Trebotich, David; Yang, Li; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B; Ligocki, Terry J; Shen, Chaopeng; Steefel, Carl I

2014-07-01

A combination of experimental, imaging, and modeling techniques were applied to investigate the pore-scale transport and surface reaction controls on calcite dissolution under elevated pCO2 conditions. The laboratory experiment consisted of the injection of a solution at 4 bar pCO2 into a capillary tube packed with crushed calcite. A high resolution pore-scale numerical model was used to simulate the experiment based on a computational domain consisting of reactive calcite, pore space, and the capillary wall constructed from volumetric X-ray microtomography images. Simulated pore-scale effluent concentrations were higher than those measured by a factor of 1.8, with the largest component of the discrepancy related to uncertainties in the reaction rate model and its parameters. However, part of the discrepancy was apparently due to mass transport limitations to reactive surfaces, which were most pronounced near the inlet where larger diffusive boundary layers formed around grains and in slow-flowing pore spaces that exchanged mass by diffusion with fast flow paths. Although minor, the difference between pore- and continuum-scale results due to transport controls was discernible with the highly accurate methods employed and is expected to be more significant where heterogeneity is greater, as in natural subsurface materials.

17. Method to control depth error when ablating human dentin with numerically controlled picosecond laser: a preliminary study.

PubMed

Sun, Yuchun; Yuan, Fusong; Lv, Peijun; Wang, Dangxiao; Wang, Lei; Wang, Yong

2015-07-01

A three-axis numerically controlled picosecond laser was used to ablate dentin to investigate the quantitative relationships among the number of additive pulse layers in two-dimensional scans starting from the focal plane, step size along the normal of the focal plane (focal plane normal), and ablation depth error. A method to control the ablation depth error, suitable to control stepping along the focal plane normal, was preliminarily established. Twenty-four freshly removed mandibular first molars were cut transversely along the long axis of the crown and prepared as 48 tooth sample slices with approximately flat surfaces. Forty-two slices were used in the first section. The picosecond laser was 1,064 nm in wavelength, 3 W in power, and 10 kHz in repetition frequency. For a varying number (n = 5-70) of focal plane additive pulse layers (14 groups, three repetitions each), two-dimensional scanning and ablation were performed on the dentin regions of the tooth sample slices, which were fixed on the focal plane. The ablation depth, d, was measured, and the quantitative function between n and d was established. Six slices were used in the second section. The function was used to calculate and set the timing of stepwise increments, and the single-step size along the focal plane normal was d micrometer after ablation of n layers (n = 5-50; 10 groups, six repetitions each). Each sample underwent three-dimensional scanning and ablation to produce 2 × 2-mm square cavities. The difference, e, between the measured cavity depth and theoretical value was calculated, along with the difference, e 1, between the measured average ablation depth of a single-step along the focal plane normal and theoretical value. Values of n and d corresponding to the minimum values of e and e 1, respectively, were obtained. In two-dimensional ablation, d was largest (720.61 μm) when n = 65 and smallest when n = 5 (45.00 μm). Linear regression yielded the quantitative

18. Controls on the height and spacing of eolian ripples and transverse dunes: A numerical modeling investigation

Pelletier, Jon D.

2009-04-01

Ripples and transverse dunes in areas of abundant sand supply increase in height and spacing as a function of time, grain size, and excess shear velocity. How and why each of these factors influence ripple and transverse dune size, however, is not precisely known. In this paper, the controls on the height and spacing of ripples and transverse dunes in areas of abundant sand supply are investigated using a numerical model for the formation of eolian bedforms from an initially flat surface. This bedform evolution model combines the basic elements of Werner's [Werner, B.T., 1995. Eolian dunes: Computer simulations and attractor interpretation. Geology 23, 1107-1110.] cellular automaton model of dune formation with a model for boundary layer flow over complex topography. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between bed shear stress and slope on the windward (stoss) side of evolving bedforms. Nonlinear boundary layer model results indicate that bed shear stresses on stoss slopes increase with increasing slope angle up to approximately 20°, then decrease with increasing slope angle as backpressure effects become limiting. In the bedform evolution model, the linear boundary layer flow model of Jackson and Hunt [Jackson, P.S., Hunt, J.C.R., 1975. Turbulent wind flow over a low hill. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 101, 929-955.], generalized to 3D, is modified to include the nonlinear relationship between bed shear stress and slope. Bed shear stresses predicted by the modified Jackson and Hunt flow model are then used to predict rates of erosion and deposition iteratively through time within a mass-conservative framework similar to Werner [Werner, B.T., 1995. Eolian dunes: Computer simulations and attractor interpretation. Geology 23, 1107-1110.]. Beginning with a flat bed, the model forms ripples that grow in height and spacing until a dynamic steady-state condition is achieved in which bedforms migrate downwind without further growth

19. Improvement in thickness uniformity of thick SOI by numerically controlled local wet etching.

PubMed

Yamamura, Kazuya; Ueda, Kazuaki; Hosoda, Mao; Zettsu, Nobuyuki

2011-04-01

Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers are promising semiconductor materials for high-speed LSIs, low-power-consumption electric devices and micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). The thickness distribution of an SOI causes the variation of threshold voltage in electronic devices manufactured on the SOI wafer. The thickness distribution of a thin SOI, which is manufactured by applying a smart cut technique, is comparatively uniform. On the other hand, a thick SOI has a large thickness distribution because a bonded wafer is thinned by conventional grinding and polishing. For a thick SOI wafer with a thickness of 1 microm, it is required that the tolerance of thickness variation is less than 50 nm. However, improving the thickness uniformity of a thick SOI layer to a tolerance of +/- 5% is difficult by conventional machining because of the fundamental limitations of these techniques. We have developed numerically controlled local wet etching (NC-LWE) technique as a novel deterministic subaperture figuring and finishing technique, which utilizes a localized chemical reaction between the etchant and the surface of the workpiece. We demonstrated an improvement in the thickness distribution of a thick SOI by NC-LWE using an HF/HNO3 mixture, and thickness variation improved from 480 nm to 200 nm within a diameter of 170 mm.

20. Numerical Study Comparing RANS and LES Approaches on a Circulation Control Airfoil

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rumsey, Christopher L.; Nishino, Takafumi

2011-01-01

A numerical study over a nominally two-dimensional circulation control airfoil is performed using a large-eddy simulation code and two Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes codes. Different Coanda jet blowing conditions are investigated. In addition to investigating the influence of grid density, a comparison is made between incompressible and compressible flow solvers. The incompressible equations are found to yield negligible differences from the compressible equations up to at least a jet exit Mach number of 0.64. The effects of different turbulence models are also studied. Models that do not account for streamline curvature effects tend to predict jet separation from the Coanda surface too late, and can produce non-physical solutions at high blowing rates. Three different turbulence models that account for streamline curvature are compared with each other and with large eddy simulation solutions. All three models are found to predict the Coanda jet separation location reasonably well, but one of the models predicts specific flow field details near the Coanda surface prior to separation much better than the other two. All Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computations produce higher circulation than large eddy simulation computations, with different stagnation point location and greater flow acceleration around the nose onto the upper surface. The precise reasons for the higher circulation are not clear, although it is not solely a function of predicting the jet separation location correctly.

1. Numerical Simulations of the Steady and Unsteady Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Circulation Control Wing Airfoil

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liu, Yi; Sankar, Lakshmi N.; Englar, Robert J.; Ahuja, Krishan K.

2003-01-01

The aerodynamic characteristics of a Circulation Control Wing (CCW) airfoil have been numerically investigated, and comparisons with experimental data have been made. The configuration chosen was a supercritical airfoil with a 30 degree dual-radius CCW flap. Steady and pulsed jet calculations were performed. It was found that the use of steady jets, even at very small mass flow rates, yielded a lift coefficient that is comparable or superior to conventional high-lift systems. The attached flow over the flap also gave rise to lower drag coefficients, and high L/D ratios. Pulsed jets with a 50% duty cycle were also studied. It was found that they were effective in generating lift at lower reduced mass flow rates compared to a steady jet, provided the pulse frequency was sufficiently high. This benefit was attributable to the fact that the momentum coefficient of the pulsed jet, during the portions of the cycle when the jet was on, was typically twice as much as that of a steady jet.

2. Numerical approach of collision avoidance and optimal control on robotic manipulators

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wang, Jyhshing Jack

1990-01-01

Collision-free optimal motion and trajectory planning for robotic manipulators are solved by a method of sequential gradient restoration algorithm. Numerical examples of a two degree-of-freedom (DOF) robotic manipulator are demonstrated to show the excellence of the optimization technique and obstacle avoidance scheme. The obstacle is put on the midway, or even further inward on purpose, of the previous no-obstacle optimal trajectory. For the minimum-time purpose, the trajectory grazes by the obstacle and the minimum-time motion successfully avoids the obstacle. The minimum-time is longer for the obstacle avoidance cases than the one without obstacle. The obstacle avoidance scheme can deal with multiple obstacles in any ellipsoid forms by using artificial potential fields as penalty functions via distance functions. The method is promising in solving collision-free optimal control problems for robotics and can be applied to any DOF robotic manipulators with any performance indices and mobile robots as well. Since this method generates optimum solution based on Pontryagin Extremum Principle, rather than based on assumptions, the results provide a benchmark against which any optimization techniques can be measured.

3. Numerical investigation of spontaneous flame propagation under Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) conditions

Bhagatwala, Ankit; Sankaran, Ramanan; Kokjohn, Sage; Chen, Jacqueline

2014-11-01

Results from one and two-dimensional direct numerical simulations under dual-fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) conditions will be presented. These simulations employ an improved model of compression heating through mass source/sink terms developed in a previous work, which incorporates feedback from the flow to follow a predetermined experimental pressure trace. One-dimensional simulations explored the effect of temperature and fuel concentration gradients on the combustion mode. Two-dimensional simulations explored parametric variation in temperature stratification, pressure profiles and n-heptane concentration. Statistics derived from analysis of local diffusion/reaction balances were used to elucidate combustion characteristics for the different cases. Both deflagration and spontaneous ignition modes were observed to co-exist. Higher n-heptane concentration and higher level of thermal stratification resulted in a greater degree of flame propagation, whereas lower n-heptane concentration (higher fraction of iso-octane) and higher pressure resulted in more prevalent autoignition. Starting with a uniform initial temperature and a stratified n-heptane concentration also resulted in a large fraction of combustion occurring through flame propagation.

4. A Method of Numerical Control Equipment Appearance Design Based on Product Identity

Zhu, Zhijuan; Zhou, Qi; Li, Bin; Visser, Steve

Research on numerical control (NC) equipment has been more and more abundant; however, there are few existing studies in the field of appearance design for NC equipments. This paper provided a method to generate new appearance design of NC equipments based on product identity (PI). For the purpose of providing guidelines to generate new concept of NC equipment design, this paper, therefore, took the DMG Company (a Germen NC equipment company) as a case, examined the total products of this company from two aspects: Product Image and Product Family. Task 1 was an evaluate task about the Product Image by using the semantic differential (SD) evaluation method; Task 2 was a study task about Product Family to find out features of the products and classify these features. During the Task 2, several features have been found out and summarized, and these features were classified into 3 different levels according to their frequency and importance. In the end, two appearance design samples have been generated based on the analysis above to prove the application of the research.

5. Controls on Yardang Morphology: Insights from Field Measurements, Lidar Topographic Analyses, and Numerical Modeling

Pelletier, J. D.; Kapp, P. A.

2014-12-01

Yardangs are streamlined bedforms sculpted by the wind and wind-blown sand. They can form as relatively resistant exposed rocks erode more slowly than surrounding exposed rocks, thus causing the more resistant rocks to stand higher in the landscape and deflect the wind and wind-blown sand into adjacent troughs in a positive feedback. How this feedback gives rise to streamlined forms that locally have a consistent size is not well understood theoretically. In this study we combine field measurements in the yardangs of Ocotillo Wells SVRA with analyses of airborne and terrestrial lidar datasets and numerical modeling to quantify and understand the controls on yardang morphology. The classic model for yardang morphology is that they evolve to an ideal 4:1 length-to-width aspect ratio that minimizes aerodynamic drag. We show using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling that this model is incorrect: the 4:1 aspect ratio is the value corresponding to minimum drag for free bodies, i.e. obstacles around which air flows on all sides. Yardangs, in contrast, are embedded in Earth's surface. For such rough streamlined half-bodies, the aspect ratio corresponding to minimum drag is larger than 20:1. As an alternative to the minimum-drag model, we propose that the aspect ratio of yardangs not significantly influenced by structural controls is controlled by the angle of dispersion of the aerodynamic jet created as deflected wind and wind-blown sand exits the troughs between incipient yardang noses. Aerodynamic jets have a universal dispersion angle of 11.8 degrees, thus predicting a yardang aspect ratio of ~5:1. We developed a landscape evolution model that combines the physics of boundary layer flow with aeolian saltation and bedrock erosion to form yardangs with a range of sizes and aspect ratios similar to those observed in nature. Yardangs with aspect ratios both larger and smaller than 5:1 occur in the model since the strike and dip of the resistant rock unit also exerts

6. Ore controls in the Charters Towers goldfield, NE Australia: Constraints from geological, geophysical and numerical analyses

USGS Publications Warehouse

Kreuzer, O.P.; Blenkinsop, T.G.; Morrison, R.J.; Peters, S.G.

2007-01-01

The approach taken in this paper, namely synthesising a wealth of previous information with new data and a genetic model, in combination with integrated numerical analyses, led to new insights into the geological controls on the localisation of auriferous veins and residual prospectivity of the Charters Towers goldfield, NE Australia. The method also has implications for the assessment of other "mature" goldfields worldwide. Despite a number of different ore controls having operated within the Charters Towers goldfield, the controlling factors can be linked to a single genetic model for orogenic, granitoid-hosted lode-gold mineralisation in a brittle deformation regime (D4) of NE-SW to NNE-SSW shortening, under conditions of supralithostatic fluid pressure and low stress difference. Spatial autocorrelation results suggest district-scale alignment of the auriferous veins parallel to and overlapping with the ESE-WNW- to E-W-striking Charters Towers-Ravenswood lineament, a major crustal boundary in the basement to the Ravenswood batholith. At the camp-scale, auriferous veins have abundance and proximity relationships with NW-SE-, NNW-SSE-, NE-SW- and ENE-WSW-oriented lineaments, suggesting that structures that controlled gold deposition in one camp did not necessarily control mineralisation in other camps. Fractal dimensions obtained with the box-counting method range from 1.02 to 1.10, whereas veins in the Charters Towers City camp are characterised by a significantly higher fractal dimension of 1.28. This discrepancy may be taken to imply that most or all outcropping and near-surface deposits within the Charters Towers City camp have been found and that new discoveries are more likely to occur at greater levels of depth, or outside the boundaries of this camp. The new understanding has implications for the assessment of the residual prospectivity of the Charters Towers goldfield, where large areas of prospective rock types and structures (e.g., approximately 40% of

7. What controls the geometry of mountain ranges: insights from numerical modelling

Vogt, Katharina; Matenco, Liviu; Gerya, Taras; Cloetingh, Sierd

2015-04-01

When continents collide mountain ranges with high topographies and complex geometries are formed. Compressional stresses during ongoing convergence result in crustal thickening, localized deformation, and material transport at which crustal material is transported and redistributed within the orogen. We use numerical high-resolution thermo-mechanical models to investigate the physical processes of continent collision zones and its implications on crustal scale deformation and geometry. We demonstrate that compression of two continental blocks, separated by a rheologically weak suture zone can result in (i) double-vergent or (ii) single-vergent orogens, with distinct geometries, deformation and exhumation patterns. Double-vergent orogens are formed in response to the gradual accretion of crustal material to the upper plate along retro-shears (back thrusts) and are characterized by deformation of both upper and lower plate material. Typical examples include the collision recorded by the Swiss Alps and the Pyrenees. In contrast, single-vergent orogens are characterized by large-scale lower plate deformation and are accompanied by the subduction of lower crustal material. In this situation, no significant retro-shear formation is observed, which is in agreement with recent physical modelling studies on deformation of the continental lithosphere. Natural examples of such single vergent orogens are common in the Mediterranean (Carpathians, Dinarides, Apennines, Betics) or the SE Asia subduction zones. The transition between these different modes of collision is strongly controlled by the rheology of the continental lithosphere. Coupled crustal layers form double vergent orogens, while decoupled crustal layers result in single-vergent orogens. We conclude that deformation and exhumation in continent-continent collision zones may occur in foreland or hinterland settings, depending on the rheological structure of the continental lithosphere, forming single-vergent or double

8. Numerical natural rubber curing simulation, obtaining a controlled gradient of the state of cure in a thick-section part

El Labban, A.; Mousseau, P.; Bailleul, J. L.; Deterre, R.

2007-04-01

Although numerical simulation has proved to be a useful tool to predict the rubber vulcanization process, few applications in the process control have been reported. Because the end-use rubber properties depend on the state of cure distribution in the parts thickness, the prediction of the optimal distribution remains a challenge for the rubber industry. The analysis of the vulcanization process requires the determination of the thermal behavior of the material and the cure kinetics. A nonisothermal vulcanization model with nonisothermal induction time is used in this numerical study. Numerical results are obtained for natural rubber (NR) thick-section part curing. A controlled gradient of the state of cure in the part thickness is obtained by a curing process that consists not only in mold heating phase, but also a forced convection mold cooling phase in order to stop the vulcanization process and to control the vulcanization distribution. The mold design that allows this control is described. In the heating phase, the state of cure is mainly controlled by the chemical kinetics (the induction time), but in the cooling phase, it is the heat diffusion that controls the state of cure distribution. A comparison among different cooling conditions is shown and a good state of cure gradient control is obtained.

9. A Numerical and Analytic Analysis of Nonlinear Implicit Differential Equations Arising in Control and Circuit Problems

DTIC Science & Technology

1991-01-15

This research project was to develop methods for the numerical and analytic analysis of implicit systems of differential equations, (DAE)- F(x’, z ,t...0 (1) which are not equivalent to an explicit ordinary differential equation (ODE), (ODE) z ’ = G( z , t) (2) That is, the Jacobian Fe of (1) is...structure theorems and a general numerical procedure for the linear time varying DAE E(t)w’(t) + F(t) z (t) = f(t) (3) This numerical algorithm was the

10. Computer numerically controlled (CNC) aspheric shaping with toroidal Wheels (Abstract Only)

Ketelsen, D.; Kittrell, W. C.; Kuhn, W. M.; Parks, R. E.; Lamb, George L.; Baker, Lynn

1987-01-01

Contouring with computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines can be accomplished with several different tool geometries and coordinated machine axes. To minimize the number of coordinated axes for nonsymmetric work to three, it is common practice to use a spherically shaped tool such as a ball-end mill. However, to minimize grooving due to the feed and ball radius, it is desirable to use a long ball radius, but there is clearly a practical limit to ball diameter with the spherical tool. We have found that the use of commercially available toroidal wheels permits long effective cutting radii, which in turn improve finish and minimize grooving for a set feed. In addition, toroidal wheels are easier than spherical wheels to center accurately. Cutting parameters are also easier to control because the feed rate past the tool does not change as the slope of the work changes. The drawback to the toroidal wheel is the more complex calculation of the tool path. Of course, once the algorithm is worked out, the tool path is as easily calculated as for a spherical tool. We have performed two experiments with the Large Optical Generator (LOG) that were ideally suited to three-axis contouring--surfaces that have no axis of rotational symmetry. By oscillating the cutting head horizontally or vertically (in addition to the motions required to generate the power of the surface) , and carefully coordinating those motions with table rotation, the mostly astigmatic departure for these surfaces is produced. The first experiment was a pair of reflector molds that together correct the spherical aberration of the Arecibo radio telescope. The larger of these was 5 m in diameter and had a 12 cm departure from the best-fit sphere. The second experiment was the generation of a purely astigmatic surface to demonstrate the feasibility of producing axially symmetric asphe.rics while mounted and rotated about any off-axis point. Measurements of the latter (the first experiment had relatively

11. An Experiment Comparing the Effectiveness of Low Cost Instructional Simulation Against High Cost Equipment Utilization in Teaching Numerical Control Principles.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rummell, Winfield Raymond

This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of low cost instructional simulation, with numerical control (N/C) used as the subject vehicle. A unit of study was developed that included a detailed list of the behavioral changes which were desired for the students and the instructional materials and procedures deemed necessary for aiding…

12. Curriculums in Industrial Technology. Plastics Technology. Industrial Maintenance. Computer Numerical Control. Teacher's Manuals and Student Learning Guides.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

El Paso Community Coll., TX.

Curriculum guides are provided for plastics technology, industrial maintenance, and computer numerical control. Each curriculum is divided into a number of courses. For each course these instructor materials are presented in the official course outline: course description, course objectives, unit titles, texts and materials, instructor resources,…

13. CO2 migration in the vadose zone: experimental and numerical modelling of controlled gas injection

gasparini, andrea; credoz, anthony; grandia, fidel; garcia, david angel; bruno, jordi

2014-05-01

The mobility of CO2 in the vadose zone and its subsequent transfer to the atmosphere is a matter of concern in the risk assessment of the geological storage of CO2. In this study the experimental and modelling results of controlled CO2 injection are reported to better understanding of the physical processes affecting CO2 and transport in the vadose zone. CO2 was injected through 16 micro-injectors during 49 days of experiments in a 35 m3 experimental unit filled with sandy material, in the PISCO2 facilities at the ES.CO2 centre in Ponferrada (North Spain). Surface CO2 flux were monitored and mapped periodically to assess the evolution of CO2 migration through the soil and to the atmosphere. Numerical simulations were run to reproduce the experimental results, using TOUGH2 code with EOS7CA research module considering two phases (gas and liquid) and three components (H2O, CO2, air). Five numerical models were developed following step by step the injection procedure done at PISCO2. The reference case (Model A) simulates the injection into a homogeneous soil(homogeneous distribution of permeability and porosity in the near-surface area, 0.8 to 0.3 m deep from the atmosphere). In another model (Model B), four additional soil layers with four specific permeabilities and porosities were included to predict the effect of differential compaction on soil. To account for the effect of higher soil temperature, an isothermal simulation called Model C was also performed. Finally, the assessment of the rainfall effects (soil water saturation) on CO2 emission on surface was performed in models called Model D and E. The combined experimental and modelling approach shows that CO2 leakage in the vadose zone quickly comes out through preferential migration pathways and spots with the ranges of fluxes in the ground/surface interface from 2.5 to 600 g·m-2·day-1. This gas channelling is mainly related to soil compaction and climatic perturbation. This has significant implications to

14. A quartic B-spline based explicit time integration scheme for structural dynamics with controllable numerical dissipation

Wen, W. B.; Duan, S. Y.; Yan, J.; Ma, Y. B.; Wei, K.; Fang, D. N.

2017-03-01

An explicit time integration scheme based on quartic B-splines is presented for solving linear structural dynamics problems. The scheme is of a one-parameter family of schemes where free algorithmic parameter controls stability, accuracy and numerical dispersion. The proposed scheme possesses at least second-order accuracy and at most third-order accuracy. A 2D wave problem is analyzed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in reducing high-frequency modes and retaining low-frequency modes. Except for general structural dynamics, the proposed scheme can be used effectively for wave propagation problems in which numerical dissipation is needed to reduce spurious oscillations.

15. Numerical simulation of rifting controlled by magmatic underplating in the South China Sea

Xu, Hehua

2016-04-01

the approach that it suggests re-meshing at every time time step, which can be easily done with marker-in-cell algorithm. Based on the numerical model behaviour in this study, the role of underplated magmatic bodies in localization is linked with an anomalously high temperature and rock melting. The most important factor in controlling localization of deformation is the strength contrast between the weakened and non-weakened regions. Studies show that the deformation can be redistributed into a different region if the underplated magmatic bodies emplacement in multiple multiple regions during the extensional process. we have discussed the microcontinent formations observed in the South China Sea.

16. Décollement controls on strain distribution in mountain belts: insights from numerical models.

Grool, Arjan R.; Huismans, Ritske S.; Ford, Mary

2016-04-01

Doubly vergent orogens have a pro-wedge (lower plate) and a retro-wedge (upper plate). Most shortening is accommodated in the pro-wedge while retro-wedge shortening is typically limited. For example, the Eastern Pyrenees have experienced about 145 km of convergence, of which about 125 km (86%) was accommodated in the pro-wedge and about 20 km (14%) in the retro-wedge. Strain partitioning between pro- and retro-wedge is influenced by several factors, some of which have been identified in past work: Extensional inheritance and syn-orogenic sedimentation can help to increase the percentage of total shortening accommodated in the retro-wedge while erosion promotes pro-wedge shortening. We use high-resolution 2D numerical models to investigate factors that control pro- versus retro-wedge shortening. For a total convergence similar to the Eastern Pyrenees, our models predict that variations in extensional inheritance and syn-orogenic sedimentation will result in a maximum of 10% of total shortening being accommodated in the retro-wedge. Here, we investigate the role of 1) the rheology and 2) distribution of a décollement layer. Our models show that: 1) Décollement rheology has a first order control on strain distribution between the pro- and the retro-wedge. After 145 km of total convergence, a model with a weak frictional (ϕ=2, shale-like) décollement will only accommodate 10% of total shortening in the retro-wedge. In contrast, in models with a weak viscous (μ=1018, salt-like) décollement retro-wedge shortening amounts to 18% and a stronger, but still weak, viscous décollement (μ=1019) leads to 21%. 2) Décollement distribution influences the timing of the first outward propagation of thick-skinned deformation in the retro-wedge. In the Eastern Pyrenees, thick-skinned deformation propagated out into the retro-wedge within 145 km of total convergence. In models with a décollement on both sides of the orogen this only occurred after 240 km. If, as in the Eastern

17. Hydrogeologic controls on saturation profiles in heat-pipe-like hydrothermal systems: numerical study

Pervin, Mollika; Ghergut, Iulia; Graf, Thomas; Peche, Aaron

2016-04-01

work, we explore some mechanisms and geologic controls that can lead to the formation of extensive vapor-dominated zones within a two-phase system. In particular, we investigate the effect of vertical heterogeneity of permeability (stratified reservoir, containing a permeability barrier) on the liquid water saturation profile within a modified HP model. Though in field observations liquid water has been directly encountered only within the condensation zone at reservoir top, it was speculated that large amounts of liquid water might also exist below the condensation zone. This is of great practical significance to the exploitation of vapor-dominated reservoirs, as their longevity depends on the fluid reserves in place. Within this work, we demonstrate by numerical simulations of a modified HP model that high values of liquid water saturation (>0.8) can prevail even far below the condensation zone. Such findings are useful as a baseline for future calculations regarding the economic exploitation of vapor-dominated systems, where premature productivity drop (or dry-out) is the main issue of concern. References: Eastman, G. Y:, 1968: The heat pipe. Scientific American, 218(5):38-46. Preuss, K. A., 1985: A quantitative model of vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs as heat pipes in fractured porous rock, Transactions, Geothermal Resources. Council, 9(2), 353-361. Truesdell, A. H., and White, D.E. 1973: Production of superheated Steam from Vapor- dominated geothermal reservoirs. Geothermics, 2(3-4), 154-173

18. Numerical Study of Ram Air Airfoils and Upper Surface Bleed-Air Control

DTIC Science & Technology

2014-06-16

of ram -air parachute systems to complement the design and analysis of new and existing airdrop systems. In this paper an unsteady numerical study of...two-dimensional, rigid, ram -air sections with an array of upper surface bleed-air actuators is presented. Aerodynamic forces and lift-to-drag ratios of...a modified Clark-Y ram -air airfoil are calculated from unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations, using the Kestrel and Cobalt flow

19. A constrained-gradient method to control divergence errors in numerical MHD

Hopkins, Philip F.

2016-10-01

In numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), a major challenge is maintaining nabla \\cdot {B}=0. Constrained transport (CT) schemes achieve this but have been restricted to specific methods. For more general (meshless, moving-mesh, ALE) methods, divergence-cleaning' schemes reduce the nabla \\cdot {B} errors; however they can still be significant and can lead to systematic errors which converge away slowly. We propose a new constrained gradient (CG) scheme which augments these with a projection step, and can be applied to any numerical scheme with a reconstruction. This iteratively approximates the least-squares minimizing, globally divergence-free reconstruction of the fluid. Unlike locally divergence free' methods, this actually minimizes the numerically unstable nabla \\cdot {B} terms, without affecting the convergence order of the method. We implement this in the mesh-free code GIZMO and compare various test problems. Compared to cleaning schemes, our CG method reduces the maximum nabla \\cdot {B} errors by ˜1-3 orders of magnitude (˜2-5 dex below typical errors if no nabla \\cdot {B} cleaning is used). By preventing large nabla \\cdot {B} at discontinuities, this eliminates systematic errors at jumps. Our CG results are comparable to CT methods; for practical purposes, the nabla \\cdot {B} errors are eliminated. The cost is modest, ˜30 per cent of the hydro algorithm, and the CG correction can be implemented in a range of numerical MHD methods. While for many problems, we find Dedner-type cleaning schemes are sufficient for good results, we identify a range of problems where using only Powell or 8-wave' cleaning can produce order-of-magnitude errors.

20. Numerical and experimental investigation of VG flow control for a low-boom inlet

Rybalko, Michael

The application of vortex generators (VGs) for shock/boundary layer interaction flow control in a novel external compression, axisymmetric, low-boom concept inlet was studied using numerical and experimental methods. The low-boom inlet design features a zero-angle cowl and relaxed isentropic compression centerbody spike, resulting in defocused oblique shocks and a weak terminating normal shock. This allows reduced external gas dynamic waves at high mass flow rates but suffers from flow separation near the throat and a large hub-side boundary layer at the Aerodynamic Interface Plane (AIP), which marks the inflow to the jet engine turbo-machinery. Supersonic VGs were investigated to reduce the shock-induced flow separation near the throat while subsonic VGs were investigated to reduce boundary layer radial distortion at the AIP. To guide large-scale inlet experiments, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations using three-dimensional, structured, chimera (overset) grids and the WIND-US code were conducted. Flow control cases included conventional and novel types of vortex generators at positions both upstream of the terminating normal shock (supersonic VGs) and downstream (subsonic VGs). The performance parameters included incompressible axisymmetric shape factor, post-shock separation area, inlet pressure recovery, and mass flow ratio. The design of experiments (DOE) methodology was used to select device size and location, analyze the resulting data, and determine the optimal choice of device geometry. Based on the above studies, a test matrix of supersonic and subsonic VGs was adapted for a large-scale inlet test to be conducted at the 8'x6' supersonic wind tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Comparisons of RANS simulations with data from the Fall 2010 8'x6' inlet test showed that predicted VG performance trends and case rankings for both supersonic and subsonic devices were consistent with experimental results. For example, experimental surface oil

1. Assessing Geometric Controls on Tidewater Glacier Sensitivity to Frontal Perturbations Using a Numerical Ice Flow Model

McFadden, E. M.; Howat, I. M.

2010-12-01

Marine-terminating glaciers worldwide have undergone rapid changes in their dynamics in response to external forcing. Observations from the Greenland coast, however, reveal that outlet glaciers in close proximity to each other, likely sharing a similar external forcing, can exhibit dramatically different behavior. These behavioral differences may result from differences in glacier shape, such as the presence of basal overdeepenings and lateral constrictions near the terminus. Understanding how shape influences glacier response to forcing at the terminus is critical for predicting future change. The dependence of ice flow on shape is non-linear and complex and, therefore, best examined using numerical methods. We employ a numerical ice flow model to investigate how the shape of marine-terminating glaciers (i.e. basal topography, thickness and width) influences the dynamic response to perturbations in the stress boundary condition at the front caused by front retreat and thinning. Governing model equations are compiled from various numerical models derived for a lightly grounded outlet glaciers, grounded retreat through basal over-deepenings, and calving of marine-terminating outlet glaciers. The model is designed for tidewater glaciers confined to narrow channels so that the stress balance components consist of substantial longitudinal and lateral stresses in addition to basal drag. Emphasis is placed on conditions at the grounding zone, as it is particularly sensitive to changes in basal drag and longitudinal stress. The effect of ice softening at the shear margins as a result of glacial acceleration is also considered. Boundary conditions at the front are categorized by two different calving criteria: (1) the buoyancy stress criterion prescribed by Durand et al. (2009), and (2) the modified flotation criterion derived by Vieli et al. (2001). The model is applied to a range of glacier bed and width geometries and perturbed from steady state by prescribing increased

2. Numerical Modeling of Flow Control in a Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Offset Inlet Diffuser at Transonic Mach Numbers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Allan Brian G.; Owens, Lewis, R.

2006-01-01

This paper will investigate the validation of a NASA developed, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver, OVERFLOW, for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) offset (S-shaped) inlet in transonic flow with passive and active flow control devices as well as the baseline case. Numerical simulations are compared to wind tunnel results of a BLI inlet conducted at the NASA Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. Comparisons of inlet flow distortion, pressure recovery, and inlet wall pressures are performed. The numerical simulations are compared to the BLI inlet data at a freestream Mach number of 0.85 and a Reynolds number of approximately 2 million based on the length of the fan-face diameter. The numerical simulations with and without wind tunnel walls are performed, quantifying effects of the tunnel walls on the BLI inlet flow measurements. The wind tunnel test evaluated several different combinations of jet locations and mass flow rates as well as a vortex generator (VG) vane case. The numerical simulations will be performed on a single jet configuration for varying actuator mass flow rates at a fix inlet mass flow condition. Validation of the numerical simulations for the VG vane case will also be performed for varying inlet mass flow rates. Overall, the numerical simulations were able to predict the baseline circumferential flow distortion, DPCPavg, very well for comparisons made within the designed operating range of the BLI inlet. However the CFD simulations did predict a total pressure recovery that was 0.01 lower than the experiment. Numerical simulations of the baseline inlet flow also showed good agreement with the experimental inlet centerline surface pressures. The vane case showed that the CFD predicted the correct trends in the circumferential distortion for varying inlet mass flow but had a distortion level that was nearly twice as large as the experiment. Comparison to circumferential distortion measurements for a 15 deg clocked 40 probe

3. Ponderomotive stabilization of flute modes in mirrors Feedback control and numerical results

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Similon, P. L.

1987-01-01

Ponderomotive stabilization of rigid plasma flute modes is numerically investigated by use of a variational principle, for a simple geometry, without eikonal approximation. While the near field of the studied antenna can be stabilizing, the far field has a small contribution only, because of large cancellation by quasi mode-coupling terms. The field energy for stabilization is evaluated and is a nonnegligible fraction of the plasma thermal energy. A new antenna design is proposed, and feedback stabilization is investigated. Their use drastically reduces power requirements.

4. Numerical simulation of spatially-evolving instability control in plane channel flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Danabasoglu, G.; Biringen, S.; Streett, C. L.

1990-01-01

The applicability of active control by periodic suction-blowing in spatially evolving plane Poiseuille flow is investigated by the direct simulations of the two-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. All the computations were performed for Reynolds number (Re = 7500) which is linearly unstable for this flow. The result reveal that significant reductions in perturbation amplitudes can be obtained by a proper choice of the control wave amplitude and phase even for large disturbance amplitudes. The upstream influence of the control wave is also investigated.

5. Numerical study of active flow control over a hypersonic backward-facing step using supersonic jet in near space

Guo, Guang-ming; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Bin

2017-03-01

Near space has been paid more and more attentions in recent years due to its militarily application value. Direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) which is one of the most successful particle simulation methods in treating rarefied gas dynamics is employed to investigate the flow characteristics of a hypersonic backward-facing step (BFS) under active flow control using supersonic jet in near space. The numerical tool is validated by an experimental flow of dual cusped-plate model, shock wave structures from the numerical simulation are shown in quite good agreement with the experimental result. The influence of altitude and active flow control on BFS flow are then studied in detail. Three parameters, i.e. boundary layer thickness, recirculation region length, and lean angle of the primary recirculation region that is first defined to describe recirculation region shape, are used to evaluate the flow characteristics of every case computed. The numerical results indicate that the main effect of vertical jet upstream of the step is the enhancement of boundary layer thickness downstream of the jet slot, then, it shows a weak influence on recirculation region length and a negligible effect on lean angle. Conversely, the horizontal jet near the step edge can greatly change the recirculation region length by adjusting jetting angle, but it only has a weak influence both on boundary layer thickness and on lean angle for every jetting angle considered. A significant finding is that the recirculation region length is decreased severely in near space compared with experimental and numerical results presented in the open literature.

6. Numerical Modeling of Flow Control in a Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Offset Inlet Diffuser at Transonic Mach Numbers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Allan, Brian G.; Owens, Lewis R.

2006-01-01

This paper will investigate the validation of the NASA developed, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver, OVERFLOW, for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) offset (S-shaped) inlet in transonic flow with passive and active flow control devices as well as a baseline case. Numerical simulations are compared to wind tunnel results of a BLI inlet experiment conducted at the NASA Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. Comparisons of inlet flow distortion, pressure recovery, and inlet wall pressures are performed. The numerical simulations are compared to the BLI inlet data at a free-stream Mach number of 0.85 and a Reynolds number of approximately 2 million based on the fanface diameter. The numerical simulations with and without tunnel walls are performed, quantifying tunnel wall effects on the BLI inlet flow. A comparison is made between the numerical simulations and the BLI inlet experiment for the baseline and VG vane cases at various inlet mass flow rates. A comparison is also made to a BLI inlet jet configuration for varying actuator mass flow rates at a fixed inlet mass flow rate. Overall, the numerical simulations were able to predict the baseline circumferential flow distortion, DPCP avg, very well within the designed operating range of the BLI inlet. A comparison of the average total pressure recovery showed that the simulations were able to predict the trends but had a negative 0.01 offset when compared to the experimental levels. Numerical simulations of the baseline inlet flow also showed good agreement with the experimental inlet centerline surface pressures. The vane case showed that the CFD predicted the correct trends in the circumferential distortion levels for varying inlet mass flow but had a distortion level that was nearly twice as large as the experiment. Comparison to circumferential distortion measurements for a 15 deg clocked 40 probe rake indicated that the circumferential distortion levels are very sensitive to the symmetry of

7. Analysis of control system responses for aircraft stability and efficient numerical techniques for real-time simulations

Stroe, Gabriela; Andrei, Irina-Carmen; Frunzulica, Florin

2017-01-01

The objectives of this paper are the study and the implementation of both aerodynamic and propulsion models, as linear interpolations using look-up tables in a database. The aerodynamic and propulsion dependencies on state and control variable have been described by analytic polynomial models. Some simplifying hypotheses were made in the development of the nonlinear aircraft simulations. The choice of a certain technique to use depends on the desired accuracy of the solution and the computational effort to be expended. Each nonlinear simulation includes the full nonlinear dynamics of the bare airframe, with a scaled direct connection from pilot inputs to control surface deflections to provide adequate pilot control. The engine power dynamic response was modeled with an additional state equation as first order lag in the actual power level response to commanded power level was computed as a function of throttle position. The number of control inputs and engine power states varied depending on the number of control surfaces and aircraft engines. The set of coupled, nonlinear, first-order ordinary differential equations that comprise the simulation model can be represented by the vector differential equation. A linear time-invariant (LTI) system representing aircraft dynamics for small perturbations about a reference trim condition is given by the state and output equations present. The gradients are obtained numerically by perturbing each state and control input independently and recording the changes in the trimmed state and output equations. This is done using the numerical technique of central finite differences, including the perturbations of the state and control variables. For a reference trim condition of straight and level flight, linearization results in two decoupled sets of linear, constant-coefficient differential equations for longitudinal and lateral / directional motion. The linearization is valid for small perturbations about the reference trim

8. Developing a Control Strategy for Jets in Crossflow Using Direct Numerical Simulation

DTIC Science & Technology

2010-03-29

described in detail by Mahesh et al. (2004). The algorithm stores the Cartesian ve- locities and the pressure at the centroids of the cells (control...Mahesh et al. (2004). The algorithm stores the Cartesian velocities and pressure at the centroids of the cells (control volumes), and stores the face... separates two regimes of flow in the presence of crossflow. The dotted line represents the transition line in stationary flow . between single vortex

9. Numerical simulations of flow fields through conventionally controlled wind turbines & wind farms

Emre Yilmaz, Ali; Meyers, Johan

2014-06-01

In the current study, an Actuator-Line Model (ALM) is implemented in our in-house pseudo-spectral LES solver SP-WIND, including a turbine controller. Below rated wind speed, turbines are controlled by a standard-torque-controller aiming at maximum power extraction from the wind. Above rated wind speed, the extracted power is limited by a blade pitch controller which is based on a proportional-integral type control algorithm. This model is used to perform a series of single turbine and wind farm simulations using the NREL 5MW turbine. First of all, we focus on below-rated wind speed, and investigate the effect of the farm layout on the controller calibration curves. These calibration curves are expressed in terms of nondimensional torque and rotational speed, using the mean turbine-disk velocity as reference. We show that this normalization leads to calibration curves that are independent of wind speed, but the calibration curves do depend on the farm layout, in particular for tightly spaced farms. Compared to turbines in a lone-standing set-up, turbines in a farm experience a different wind distribution over the rotor due to the farm boundary-layer interaction. We demonstrate this for fully developed wind-farm boundary layers with aligned turbine arrangements at different spacings (5D, 7D, 9D). Further we also compare calibration curves obtained from full farm simulations with calibration curves that can be obtained at a much lower cost using a minimal flow unit.

10. Numerically controlled atmospheric-pressure plasma sacrificial oxidation using electrode arrays for improving silicon-on-insulator layer uniformity

Takei, Hiroyasu; Yoshinaga, Keinosuke; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Sano, Yasuhisa

2015-01-01

Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers are important semiconductor substrates in high-performance devices. In accordance with device miniaturization requirements, ultrathin and highly uniform top silicon layers (SOI layers) are required. A novel method involving numerically controlled (NC) atmospheric-pressure plasma sacrificial oxidation using an electrode array system was developed for the effective fabrication of an ultrathin SOI layer with extremely high uniformity. Spatial resolution and oxidation properties are the key factors controlling ultraprecision machining. The controllability of plasma oxidation and the oxidation properties of the resulting experimental electrode array system were examined. The results demonstrated that the method improved the thickness uniformity of the SOI layer over one-sixth of the area of an 8-in. wafer area.

11. Nonlinear Numerical Modeling of Shape Control in IGNITOR in the Presence of 3D Structures

Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.; de Tommasi, G.; Pironti, A.; Rubinacci, G.; Villone, F.; Ramogida, G.; Coppi, B.

2014-10-01

IGNITOR is a high field compact machine designed for the investigation of fusion burning plasmas at or close to ignition. The integrated plasma position, shape and current control plays an important role in its safe operation. The analysis of its behavior taking into account nonlinear and 3D effects can be of great interest for assessing its performances. In fact, the system was designed on the basis of an axisymmetric linearized model. To this purpose, we use a computational tool, called CarMa0NL, with the unprecedented capability of simultaneously considering three-dimensional effects of conductors surrounding the plasma and the inherent nonlinearity of the plasma behaviour itself, in the presence of the complex set of circuit equations describing the control system. Preliminary results already lead to the conclusion that the vertical position response is not much influenced by nonlinear and 3D effects, as the vertical stabilization controller is able to hide'' the differences in open-loop models. Here we assess the performance of the shape controller, by coupling the nonlinear plasma evolution in the presence of the 3D vessel with ports to the complex circuit dynamics simulating the integrated closed loop control system.

12. Optimal control of the Lotka-Volterra system: turnpike property and numerical simulations.

PubMed

Ibañez, Aitziber

2017-12-01

The Lotka-Volterra model is a differential system of two coupled equations representing the interaction of two species: a prey one and a predator one. We formulate an optimal control problem adding the effect of hunting both species as the control variable. We analyse the optimal hunting problem paying special attention to the nature of the optimal state and control trajectories in long time intervals. To do that, we apply recent theoretical results on the frame to show that, when the time horizon is large enough, optimal strategies are nearly steady-state. Such path is known as turnpike property. Some experiments are performed to observe such turnpike phenomenon in the hunting problem. Based on the turnpike property, we implement a variant of the single shooting method to solve the previous optimisation problem, taking the middle of the time interval as starting point.

13. Fitting Microphysical Observations to a Numerical Model Through AN Optimal Control Theory Technique

Verlinde, Johannes

Rapid advances in the quality and quantity of atmospheric observations have placed a demand for the development of techniques to assimilate these data sources into numerical forecasting models. Four-dimensional variational assimilation is a promising technique that has been applied to atmospheric and oceanic dynamical models, and also to the retrieval of three-dimensional wind fields from single Doppler radar observations. This study investigates the feasibility of using four-dimensional variational assimilation for a complex discontinuous numerical model. Three test models were developed, a positive definite advection scheme, a one -dimensional liquid physics kinematic microphysical model with a positive definite advection scheme, and a two-dimensional liquid physics kinematic microphysical model. These models were used in identical twin experiments, with observations taken intermittently. Small random errors were introduced into the observations. The retrieval runs were initialized with a large perturbation of the observation run initial conditions. All the models were able to retrieve the original initial conditions to a satisfactory degree when observations of all the model prognostic variables were used. Greater overdetermination of the degrees of freedom (the initial condition being retrieved) resulted in greater improvement of the errors in the observations of the initial conditions, but at a rapid increase in computational cost. Experiments where only some of the prognostic variables were observed also improved the initial conditions, but at a greater cost. To substantially improve the first guess of the field not observed, some spot observations are needed. The proper scaling of the variables was found to be important for the rate of convergence. This study suggests that scaling factors related to the error variance of the observations give good convergence rates. To show how this technique can be used when observations are general functions of the

14. Numerical modeling and passive thermal control of external lighting systems for Space Station Freedom

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Buck, Gregory A.; Li, Weiming; Tong, Timothy W.

1993-01-01

Consideration is given to three generic families of luminaries with lamp power ranging from 11 to 150 watts. A concept of an equivalent radiation node boundary temperature was used to impose worst hot and cold environments, and transient finite difference models were developed to study the effects of geometry and optical properties of thermal control coatings. Minimum and maximum transient temperatures were computed at the critical location during 90 minute orbit and were compared with allowable limits. Results show that with the proper choice of optical properties, the luminaries can be passively controlled to within acceptable limits.

15. Laryngeal muscular control of vocal fold posturing: Numerical modeling and experimental validation

PubMed Central

Yin, Jun; Zhang, Zhaoyan

2016-01-01

A three-dimensional continuum model of vocal fold posturing was developed to investigate laryngeal muscular control of vocal fold geometry, stiffness, and tension, which are difficult to measure in live humans or in vivo models. This model was able to qualitatively reproduce in vivo experimental observations of laryngeal control of vocal fold posturing, despite the many simplifications which are necessary due to the lack of accurate data of laryngeal geometry and material properties. The results present a first comprehensive study of the co-variations between glottal width, vocal fold length, stiffness, tension at different conditions of individual, and combined laryngeal muscle activation. PMID:27914396

16. Final Technical Report: Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Transport Control via Shaping of Radial Plasma Flow Profiles

SciTech Connect

Schuster, Eugenio

2014-05-02

The strong coupling between the different physical variables involved in the plasma transport phenomenon and the high complexity of its dynamics call for a model-based, multivariable approach to profile control where those predictive models could be exploited. The overall objective of this project has been to extend the existing body of work by investigating numerically and experimentally active control of unstable fluctuations, including fully developed turbulence and the associated cross-field particle transport, via manipulation of flow profiles in a magnetized laboratory plasma device. Fluctuations and particle transport can be monitored by an array of electrostatic probes, and Ex B flow profiles can be controlled via a set of biased concentric ring electrodes that terminate the plasma column. The goals of the proposed research have been threefold: i- to develop a predictive code to simulate plasma transport in the linear HELCAT (HELicon-CAThode) plasma device at the University of New Mexico (UNM), where the experimental component of the proposed research has been carried out; ii- to establish the feasibility of using advanced model-based control algorithms to control cross-field turbulence-driven particle transport through appropriate manipulation of radial plasma flow profiles, iii- to investigate the fundamental nonlinear dynamics of turbulence and transport physics. Lehigh University (LU), including Prof. Eugenio Schuster and one full-time graduate student, has been primarily responsible for control-oriented modeling and model-based control design. Undergraduate students have also participated in this project through the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) program. The main goal of the LU Plasma Control Group has been to study the feasibility of controlling turbulence-driven transport by shaping the radial poloidal flow profile (i.e., by controlling flow shear) via biased concentric ring electrodes.

17. A numerical model for heat and pressure propagation for temperature controlled retinal photocoagulation

Baade, Alexander; Schlott, Kerstin; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf

2013-06-01

Retinal photocoagulation is an established treatment for various retinal diseases. The temperature development during a treatment can be monitored by applying short laser pulses in addition to the treatment laser light. The laser pulses induce thermoelastic pressure waves that can be detected at the cornea. We present a numerical model to examine the temperature development during the treatment as well as the formation and propagation of the ultrasonic waves. Using the model, it is possible to determine the peak temperature during retinal photocoagulation from the measured signal, and investigate the behaviour of the temperature profile and the accuracy of the temperature determination under varying conditions such as inhomogeneous pigmentation or change in irradiation parameters. It was shown that there is an uncertainty of 2.5 -9% in the determination of the peak temperature when the absorption coefficient between the absorbing layers is varied by a factor of 2. Furthermore the model was extended in order to incorporate the photoacoustic pressure generation and wave propagation. It was shown that for an irradiation pulse duration of 75 ns the resulting pressure wave energy is attenuated by 76 % due to frequency dependent attenuation in water.

18. Permeability-control on volcanic hydrothermal system: case study for Mt. Tokachidake, Japan, based on numerical simulation and field observation

Tanaka, Ryo; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Matsushima, Nobuo; Ishido, Tsuneo

2017-03-01

We investigate a volcanic hydrothermal system by using numerical simulation with three key observables as reference: the magnetic total field, vent temperature, and heat flux. We model the shallow hydrothermal system of Mt. Tokachidake, central Hokkaido, Japan, as a case study. At this volcano, continuous demagnetization has been observed since at least 2008, suggesting heat accumulation beneath the active crater area. The surficial thermal manifestation has been waning since 2000. We perform numerical simulations of heat and mass flow within a modeled edifice at various conditions and calculate associated magnetic total field changes due to the thermomagnetic effect. We focus on the system's response for up to a decade after permeability is reduced at a certain depth in the modeled conduit. Our numerical simulations reveal that (1) conduit obstruction (i.e., permeability reduction in the conduit) tends to bring about a decrease in vent temperature and heat flux, as well as heat accumulation below the level of the obstruction, (2) the recorded changes cannot be consistently explained by changing heat supply from depth, and (3) caprock structure plays a key role in controlling the location of heating and pressurization. Although conduit obstruction may be caused by either physical or chemical processes in general, the latter seems more likely in the case of Mt. Tokachidake.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

19. A Numerical Process Control Method for Circular-Tube Hydroforming Prediction

SciTech Connect

Johnson, Kenneth I.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Davies, Richard W.; Grant, Glenn J.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2004-03-01

This paper describes the development of a solution control method that tracks the stresses, strains and mechanical behavior of a tube during hydroforming to estimate the proper axial feed (end-feed) and internal pressure loads through time. The analysis uses the deformation theory of plasticity and Hill?s criterion to describe the plastic flow. Before yielding, the pressure and end-feed increments are estimated based on the initial tube geometry, elastic properties and yield stress. After yielding, the pressure increment is calculated based on the tube geometry at the previous solution increment and the current hoop stress increment. The end-feed increment is computed from the increment of the axial plastic strain. Limiting conditions such as column buckling (of long tubes), local axi-symmetric wrinkling of shorter tubes, and bursting due to localized wall thinning are considered. The process control method has been implemented in the Marc finite element code. Hydroforming simulations using this process control method were conducted to predict the load histories for controlled expansion of 6061-T4 aluminum tubes within a conical die shape and under free hydroforming conditions. The predicted loading paths were transferred to the hydroforming equipment to form the conical and free-formed tube shapes. The model predictions and experimental results are compared for deformed shape, strains and the extent of forming at rupture.

20. Numerical and Experimental Characterizations of Damping Properties of SMAs Composite for Vibration Control Systems

Biffi, Carlo Alberto; Bassani, P.; Tuissi, A.; Carnevale, M.; Lecis, N.; LoConte, A.; Previtali, B.

2012-12-01

Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are very interesting smart materials not only for their shape memory and superelastic effects but also because of their significant intrinsic damping capacity. The latter is exhibited upon martensitic transformations and especially in martensitic state. The combination of these SMA properties with the mechanical and the lightweight of fiberglass-reinforced polymer (FGRP) is a promising solution for manufacturing of innovative composites for vibration suppression in structural applications. CuZnAl sheets, after laser patterning, were embedded in a laminated composite between a thick FGRP core and two thin outer layers with the aim of maximizing the damping capacity of the beam for passive vibration suppression. The selected SMA Cu66Zn24Al10 at.% was prepared by vacuum induction melting; the ingot was subsequently hot-and-cold rolled down to 0.2 mm thickness tape. The choice of a copper alloy is related to some advantages in comparison with NiTiCu SMA alloys, which was tested for the similar presented application in a previous study: lower cost, higher storage modulus and consequently higher damping properties in martensitic state. The patterning of the SMA sheets was performed by means of a pulsed fiber laser. After the laser processing, the SMA sheets were heat treated to obtain the desired martensitic state at room temperature. The transformation temperatures were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The damping properties were determined, at room temperature, on full-scale sheet, using a universal testing machine (MTS), with cyclic tensile tests at different deformation amplitudes. Damping properties were also determined as a function of the temperature on miniature samples with a dynamical mechanical analyzer (DMA). Numerical modeling of the laminated composite, done with finite element method analysis and modal strain energy approaches, was performed to estimate the corresponding total damping capacity and then

1. Application of Control Volume Method Using the Voronoi Tessellation in Numerical Modelling of Solidification Process

Domański, Zbigniew; Ciesielski, Mariusz; Mochnacki, Bohdan

2010-03-01

The paper presents the method to analyse the thermal processes occurring in the cast composite solidification. The cast is formed by a bundle of parallel fibres randomly immersed in a host metal matrix. The heat is transferred from the metal matrix and absorbed by the fibres. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the volumetric fraction of the fibres for which the solidification of the metal matrix occurs only due to the presence of fibres playing a role of internal chills. Our method is to compute Voronoi diagrams with Voronoi regions representing the geometric location of the fibres in the metal matrix and to use these regions as control volumes within a variant of the Control Volume Method.

2. Fundamental Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Active Control of 3-D Flows

DTIC Science & Technology

2011-10-06

Farnsworth, J., Gressick, W. and Amitay, M., 2009, “Active Control of Flow Separation and Structural Vibrations of Wind Turbine Blades ”, Wind Energy, DOI...Ciuryla et. al., 2007). More recently it has been used for vibration suppression in wind turbines by Maldonado et. al. (2009). Synthetic jets have...10.1002/we.336 (in print ). Mallinson, S.G., Hong, G. and Reizes, J.A., 1999, “Some Characterstics of Synthetic Jets”, AIAA Paper 99-3651. Mallinson

3. Numerical analysis of the hydrogeologic controls in a layered coastal aquifer system, Oahu, Hawaii, USA

USGS Publications Warehouse

Oki, D.S.; Souza, W.R.; Bolke, E.L.; Bauer, G.R.

1998-01-01

The coastal aquifer system of southern Oahu, Hawaii, USA, consists of highly permeable volcanic aquifers overlain by weathered volcanic rocks and interbedded marine and terrestrial sediments of both high and low permeability. The weathered volcanic rocks and sediments are collectively known as caprock, because they impede the free discharge of groundwater from the underlying volcanic aquifers. A cross-sectional groundwater flow and transport model was used to evaluate the hydrogeologic controls on the regional flow system in southwestern Oahu. Controls considered were: (a) overall caprock hydraulic conductivity; and (b) stratigraphic variations of hydraulic conductivity in the caprock. Within the caprock, variations in hydraulic conductivity, caused by stratigraphy or discontinuities of the stratigraphic units, are a major control on the direction of groundwater flow and the distribution of water levels and salinity. Results of cross-sectional modeling confirm the general groundwater flow pattern that would be expected in a layered coastal system. Ground-water flow is: (a) predominantly upward in the low-permeability sedimentary units; and (b) predominantly horizontal in the high-permeability sedimentary units.

4. Analytical and numerical aspects in solving the controlled 3D Gross-Pitaevskii equation

Fedele, R.; Jovanović, D.; De Nicola, S.; Eliasson, B.; Shukla, P. K.

2009-11-01

The results of recently developed investigations, that have been carried out within the framework of the controlling potential method (CPM), are reviewed. This method allows one to decompose a three dimensional (3D) Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) into the pair of coupled Schrödinger-type equations. Under suitable mathematical conditions, the solutions of the 3D controlled GPE can be constructed from the solutions of a 2D linear Schrödinger equation (the transverse component of the GPE) coupled with a 1D nonlinear Schrödinger equation (the longitudinal component of the GPE). Such decomposition allows one to cast the solutions in the form of the product of the solutions of the transverse and the longitudinal components of the GPE. The coupling between these two equations is the functional of both the transverse and the longitudinal profiles. It is shown that the CPM can be used to obtain a new class of three-dimensional solitary waves solutions of the GPE, which governs the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates. By imposing an external controlling potential, the desired time-dependent shape of the localized BECs is obtained. The stability of the exact solutions was checked with direct simulations of the time -dependent, three-dimensional GPE. Our simulations show that the localized condensates are stable with respect to perturbed initial conditions.

5. A modified elastance model to control mock ventricles in real-time: numerical and experimental validation.

PubMed

Colacino, Francesco Maria; Moscato, Francesco; Piedimonte, Fabio; Danieli, Guido; Nicosia, Salvatore; Arabia, Maurizio

2008-01-01

This article describes an elastance-based mock ventricle able to reproduce the correct ventricular pressure-volume relationship and its correct interaction with the hydraulic circuit connected to it. A real-time control of the mock ventricle was obtained by a new left ventricular mathematical model including resistive and inductive terms added to the classical Suga-Sagawa elastance model throughout the whole cardiac cycle. A valved piston pump was used to mimic the left ventricle. The pressure measured into the pump chamber was fed back into the mathematical model and the calculated reference left ventricular volume was used to drive the piston. Results show that the classical model is very sensitive to pressure disturbances, especially during the filling phase, while the modified model is able to filter out the oscillations thus eliminating their detrimental effects. The presented model is thus suitable to control mock ventricles in real-time, where sudden pressure disturbances represent a key issue and are not negligible. This real-time controlled mock ventricle is able to reproduce the elastance mechanism of a natural ventricle by mimicking its preload (mean atrial pressure) and afterload (mean aortic pressure) sensitivity, i.e., the Starling law. Therefore, it can be used for designing and testing cardiovascular prostheses due to its capability to reproduce the correct ventricle-vascular system interaction.

6. Numerical Investigation of Bending-Body Projectile Aerodynamics for Maneuver Control

Youn, Eric; Silton, Sidra

2015-11-01

Precision munitions are an active area of research for the U.S. Army. Canard-control actuators have historically been the primary mechanism used to maneuver fin-stabilized, gun-launched munitions. Canards are small, fin-like control surfaces mounted at the forward section of the munition to provide the pitching moment necessary to rotate the body in the freestream flow. The additional lift force due to the rotated body and the canards then alters the flight path toward the intended target. As velocity and maneuverability requirements continue to increase, investigation of other maneuver mechanisms becomes necessary. One option for a projectile with a large length-to-diameter ratio (L/D) is a bending-body design, which imparts a curvature to the projectile body along its axis. This investigation uses full Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics simulations to evaluate the effectiveness of an 8-degree bent nose tip on an 8-degree bent forward section of an L/D =10 projectile. The aerodynamic control effectiveness of the bending-body concept is compared to that of a standard L/D =10 straight-body projectile as well as that of the same projectile with traditional canards. All simulations were performed at supersonic velocities between Mach 2-4.

7. Analytical and numerical aspects in solving the controlled 3D Gross-Pitaevskii equation

SciTech Connect

Fedele, R.; Jovanovic, D.; De Nicola, S.; Eliasson, B.; Shukla, P. K.

2009-11-10

The results of recently developed investigations, that have been carried out within the framework of the controlling potential method (CPM), are reviewed. This method allows one to decompose a three dimensional (3D) Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) into the pair of coupled Schroedinger-type equations. Under suitable mathematical conditions, the solutions of the 3D controlled GPE can be constructed from the solutions of a 2D linear Schroedinger equation (the transverse component of the GPE) coupled with a 1D nonlinear Schroedinger equation (the longitudinal component of the GPE). Such decomposition allows one to cast the solutions in the form of the product of the solutions of the transverse and the longitudinal components of the GPE. The coupling between these two equations is the functional of both the transverse and the longitudinal profiles. It is shown that the CPM can be used to obtain a new class of three-dimensional solitary waves solutions of the GPE, which governs the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates. By imposing an external controlling potential, the desired time-dependent shape of the localized BECs is obtained. The stability of the exact solutions was checked with direct simulations of the time -dependent, three-dimensional GPE. Our simulations show that the localized condensates are stable with respect to perturbed initial conditions.

8. Controls on and effects of armoring and vertical sorting in aeolian dune fields: A numerical simulation study

Gao, Xin; Narteau, Clément; Rozier, Olivier

2016-03-01

Unlike ripples, there are only few numerical studies on grain size segregation at the scale of dunes in aeolian environments. Here we use a cellular automaton model to analyze vertical sorting in granular mixtures under steady unidirectional flow conditions. We investigate the feedbacks between dune growth and the segregation mechanisms by varying the size of coarse grains and their proportion within the bed. We systematically observe the development of a horizontal layer of coarse grains at the top of which sorted bed forms may grow by amalgamation. The formation of such an armor layer controls the overall sediment transport and availability. The emergence of dunes and the transition from barchan to transverse dune fields depend only on the grain size distribution of the initial sediment layer. As confirmed by observation, this result indicates that armor layers should be present in most arid deserts, where they are likely to control dune morphodynamics.

9. Diastolic Calcium Release Controls the Beating Rate of Rabbit Sinoatrial Node Cells: Numerical Modeling of the Coupling Process

PubMed Central

Maltsev, Victor A.; Vinogradova, Tatiana M.; Bogdanov, Konstantin Y.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Stern, Michael D.

2004-01-01

Recent studies employing Ca2+ indicators and confocal microscopy demonstrate substantial local Ca2+ release beneath the cell plasma membrane (subspace) of sinoatrial node cells (SANCs) occurring during diastolic depolarization. Pharmacological and biophysical experiments have suggested that the released Ca2+ interacts with the plasma membrane via the ion current (INaCa) produced by the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and constitutes an important determinant of the pacemaker rate. This study provides a numerical validation of the functional importance of diastolic Ca2+ release for rate control. The subspace Ca2+ signals in rabbit SANCs were measured by laser confocal microscopy, averaged, and calibrated. The time course of the subspace [Ca2+] displayed both diastolic and systolic components. The diastolic component was mainly due to the local Ca2+ releases; it was numerically approximated and incorporated into a SANC cellular electrophysiology model. The model predicts that the diastolic Ca2+ release strongly interacts with plasma membrane via INaCa and thus controls the phase of the action potential upstroke and ultimately the final action potential rate. PMID:15041695

10. Multiple-source multiple-harmonic active vibration control of variable section cylindrical structures: A numerical study

Liu, Jinxin; Chen, Xuefeng; Gao, Jiawei; Zhang, Xingwu

2016-12-01

Air vehicles, space vehicles and underwater vehicles, the cabins of which can be viewed as variable section cylindrical structures, have multiple rotational vibration sources (e.g., engines, propellers, compressors and motors), making the spectrum of noise multiple-harmonic. The suppression of such noise has been a focus of interests in the field of active vibration control (AVC). In this paper, a multiple-source multiple-harmonic (MSMH) active vibration suppression algorithm with feed-forward structure is proposed based on reference amplitude rectification and conjugate gradient method (CGM). An AVC simulation scheme called finite element model in-loop simulation (FEMILS) is also proposed for rapid algorithm verification. Numerical studies of AVC are conducted on a variable section cylindrical structure based on the proposed MSMH algorithm and FEMILS scheme. It can be seen from the numerical studies that: (1) the proposed MSMH algorithm can individually suppress each component of the multiple-harmonic noise with an unified and improved convergence rate; (2) the FEMILS scheme is convenient and straightforward for multiple-source simulations with an acceptable loop time. Moreover, the simulations have similar procedure to real-life control and can be easily extended to physical model platform.

11. Alternating irrigation water quality as a method to control solute concentrations and mass fluxes below irrigated fields: A numerical study

Russo, David

2016-05-01

The aim of the present numerical study was to extend the data-driven protocol for the control of soil salinity, to control chloride and nitrate concentrations and mass fluxes below agricultural fields irrigated with treated waste water (TWW). The protocol is based on alternating irrigation water quality between TWW and desalinized water (DSW), guided by solute concentrations at soil depth, zs. Two different schemes, the first requires measurements of soil solution concentrations of chloride and nitrate at zs, while, the second scheme requires only measurements of soil solution EC at zs, were investigated. For this purpose, 3-D numerical simulations of flow and transport were performed for variably saturated, spatially heterogeneous, flow domains located at two different field sites. The sites differ in crop type, irrigation method, and in their lithology; these differences, in turn, considerably affect the performance of the proposed schemes, expressed in terms of their ability to reduce solute concentrations that drained below the root zone. Results of the analyses suggest that the proposed data-driven schemes allow the use of low-quality water for irrigation, while minimizing the consumption of high-quality water to a level, which, for given climate, soil, crop, irrigation method, and water quality, may be determined by the allowable nitrate and chloride concentrations in the groundwater. The results of the present study indicate that with respect to the diminution of groundwater contamination by chloride and nitrate, the more data demanding, first scheme is superior the second scheme.

12. On the control of propagating acoustic waves in sonic crystals: analytical, numerical and optimization techniques

Garcia, D. Vincent Romero

The control of the acoustical properties of the sonic crystals (SC) needs the study of both the distribution of the scatterers in the structure and the intrinsic acoustical properties of the scatterers. In this work an exhaustive analysis of the distribution of the scatterers as well as the improvement of the acoustical properties of the SC made of scatterers with absorbent and/or resonant properties is presented. Both procedures, working together or independently, provide real possibilities to control the propagation of acoustic waves through SC. From the theoretical point of view, the wave propagation through periodic and quasiperiodic structures has been analysed by means of the multiple scattering theory, the plane wave expansion and the finite elements method. A novel extension of the plane wave expansion allowing the complex relation dispersion for SC is presented in this work. This technique complements the provided information using the classical methods and it allows us to analyse the evanescent behaviour of the modes inside of the band gaps as well as the evanescent behaviour of localized modes around the point defects in SC. The necessity of accurate measurements of the acoustical properties of the SC has motivated the development of a novel three-dimensional acquisition system that synchronises the motion of the receiver and acquisition of the temporal signals. A good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data is shown in this work. The joint work between the optimized structures of scatterers and the intrinsic properties of the scatterers themselves is applied to generate devices that present wide ranges of attenuated frequencies. These systems are presented as an alternative to the classic acoustic barrier where the propagation of waves through SC can be controlled. The results help to correctly understand the behaviour of SC for the localization of sound and for the design of both wave guides and acoustic filters.

13. Model reduction for the dynamics and control of large structural systems via neutral network processing direct numerical optimization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Becus, Georges A.; Chan, Alistair K.

1993-01-01

Three neural network processing approaches in a direct numerical optimization model reduction scheme are proposed and investigated. Large structural systems, such as large space structures, offer new challenges to both structural dynamicists and control engineers. One such challenge is that of dimensionality. Indeed these distributed parameter systems can be modeled either by infinite dimensional mathematical models (typically partial differential equations) or by high dimensional discrete models (typically finite element models) often exhibiting thousands of vibrational modes usually closely spaced and with little, if any, damping. Clearly, some form of model reduction is in order, especially for the control engineer who can actively control but a few of the modes using system identification based on a limited number of sensors. Inasmuch as the amount of 'control spillover' (in which the control inputs excite the neglected dynamics) and/or 'observation spillover' (where neglected dynamics affect system identification) is to a large extent determined by the choice of particular reduced model (RM), the way in which this model reduction is carried out is often critical.

14. A numerical and experimental investigation of crystalline silica exposure control during tuck pointing.

PubMed

Heitbrink, William; Bennett, James

2006-07-01

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health researchers investigated control measures for the removal of mortar between bricks, using a grinder. This task, "tuck pointing," is associated with crystalline silica exposures many times greater than the permissible exposure limit enforced by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Previous studies showed that local exhaust ventilation (LEV) of the grinding wheel through a shroud was often ineffective. Tuck pointing occurs on a scaffold. For practical purposes, this limits the size and power of the LEV system. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop a recommended flow rate for exposure control. Flow induced by the rotating grinding wheel, flow induced by the mortar particle stream, and particle momentum are potential control challenges. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation of the grinder, supported by some experimental measurements, showed the relative importance of these factors through varying parameters and tracking particles. In a simulation of the shroud and grinding wheel, with the wheel inserted to a cutting depth of 0.750 inch flush into the brick wall, -0.461 cubic feet per meter (0.461 into the exhaust takeoff) was induced by the rotating wheel. The more realistic situation of the wheel in a cut in the wall 1.25 inches deep (forming a trench circumferentially 0.500 inch below the wheel edge) induced an airflow of 8.24 cfm out of the shroud exhaust. Experimental measurements taken for validation were 7.3% lower than the CFD value. The trench effect disappeared when a stream of 10-mu m particles was launched from the grinding wheel edge, as the simulations with and without the trench had nearly identical induced flow rates, 10.8 cfm and 10.9 cfm. We thus interpreted the particle stream as more important than the wheel in inducing flow. This insight was possible because of the power of CFD, compared to intuition and classical boundary layer analysis. In this situation of no forced

15. Experimental and numerical evaluations on palm microwave heating for Red Palm Weevil pest control

PubMed Central

Massa, Rita; Panariello, Gaetano; Pinchera, Daniele; Schettino, Fulvio; Caprio, Emilio; Griffo, Raffaele; Migliore, Marco Donald

2017-01-01

The invasive Red Palm Weevil is the major pest of palms. Several control methods have been applied, however concern is raised regarding the treatments that can cause significant environmental pollution. In this context the use of microwaves is particularly attractive. Microwave heating applications are increasingly proposed in the management of a wide range of agricultural and wood pests, exploiting the thermal death induced in the insects that have a thermal tolerance lower than that of the host matrices. This paper describes research aiming to combat the Red Palm pest using microwave heating systems. An electromagnetic-thermal model was developed to better control the temperature profile inside the palm tissues. In this process both electromagnetic and thermal parameters are involved, the latter being particularly critical depending on plant physiology. Their evaluation was carried out by fitting experimental data and the thermal model with few free parameters. The results obtained by the simplified model well match with both that of a commercial software 3D model and measurements on treated Phoenix canariensis palms with a ring microwave applicator. This work confirms that microwave heating is a promising, eco-compatible solution to fight the spread of weevil. PMID:28361964

16. A biochemical network can control formation of a synthetic material by sensing numerous specific stimuli

Hun Yeon, Ju; Chan, Karen Y. T.; Wong, Ting-Chia; Chan, Kelvin; Sutherland, Michael R.; Ismagilov, Rustem F.; Pryzdial, Edward L. G.; Kastrup, Christian J.

2015-05-01

Developing bio-compatible smart materials that assemble in response to environmental cues requires strategies that can discriminate multiple specific stimuli in a complex milieu. Synthetic materials have yet to achieve this level of sensitivity, which would emulate the highly evolved and tailored reaction networks of complex biological systems. Here we show that the output of a naturally occurring network can be replaced with a synthetic material. Exploiting the blood coagulation system as an exquisite biological sensor, the fibrin clot end-product was replaced with a synthetic material under the biological control of a precisely regulated cross-linking enzyme. The functions of the coagulation network remained intact when the material was incorporated. Clot-like polymerization was induced in indirect response to distinct small molecules, phospholipids, enzymes, cells, viruses, an inorganic solid, a polyphenol, a polysaccharide, and a membrane protein. This strategy demonstrates for the first time that an existing stimulus-responsive biological network can be used to control the formation of a synthetic material by diverse classes of physiological triggers.

17. Numerical simulation of volume-controlled mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs.

PubMed

Shi, Yan; Zhang, Bolun; Cai, Maolin; Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas

2016-11-09

Mechanical ventilation is a key therapy for patients who cannot breathe adequately by themselves, and dynamics of mechanical ventilation system is of great significance for life support of patients. Recently, models of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 1 lung are used to simulate the respiratory system of patients. However, humans have 2 lungs. When the respiratory characteristics of 2 lungs are different, a single-lung model cannot reflect real respiratory system. In this paper, to illustrate dynamic characteristics of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs, we propose a mathematical model of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs and conduct experiments to verify the model. Furthermore, we study the dynamics of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs. This research study can be used for improving the efficiency and safety of volume-controlled mechanical ventilation system.

18. A study of numerical methods of solution of the equations of motion of a controlled satellite under the influence of gravity gradient torque

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thompson, J. F.; Mcwhorter, J. C.; Siddiqi, S. A.; Shanks, S. P.

1973-01-01

Numerical methods of integration of the equations of motion of a controlled satellite under the influence of gravity-gradient torque are considered. The results of computer experimentation using a number of Runge-Kutta, multi-step, and extrapolation methods for the numerical integration of this differential system are presented, and particularly efficient methods are noted. A large bibliography of numerical methods for initial value problems for ordinary differential equations is presented, and a compilation of Runge-Kutta and multistep formulas is given. Less common numerical integration techniques from the literature are noted for further consideration.

19. A combined experimental and numerical approach for the control and monitoring of the SPES target during operation at high temperature

Ballan, Michele; Manzolaro, Mattia; Meneghetti, Giovanni; Andrighetto, Alberto; Monetti, Alberto; Bisoffi, Giovanni; Prete, Gianfranco

2016-06-01

The SPES project at INFN-LNL aims at the production of neutron-rich Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) using the ISOL (Isotope Separation On Line) technique. A 40 MeV 200 μA proton beam will directly impinge a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 1013 fissions per second. The target system is installed under vacuum inside a water-cooled chamber, and have to maintain high working temperatures, close to 2000 °C. During operation the proton beam provides the heating power required to keep the target at the desired temperature level. As a consequence, its characteristics have to be strictly controlled in order to avoid undesired overheating. According to the original design of the control system, the proton beam can be suddenly interrupted in case of out of range vacuum or cooling water flow levels. With the aim to improve the reliability of the control system a set of temperature sensors has been installed close to the target. Their types and installation positions were defined taking into consideration the detailed information coming from a dedicated thermal-electric model that allowed to investigate the most critical and inaccessible target hot-spots. This work is focused on the definition and experimental validation of the aforementioned numerical model. Its results were used to appropriately install two type C thermocouples, a PT100 thermo-resistance and a residual primary beam current detector. In addition the numerical model will be used for the definition of appropriate thresholds for each installed temperature sensor, since it allows to define a relationship between the locally measured values with the overall calculated temperature field. In case of over temperatures the monitoring system will send warning signals or in case interrupt the proton beam.

20. Numerical analysis of the primary processes controlling oxygen dynamics on the Louisiana Shelf

Yu, L.; Fennel, K.; Laurent, A.; Murrell, M. C.; Lehrter, J. C.

2014-10-01

The Louisiana shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico receives large amounts of freshwater and nutrients from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River system. These river inputs contribute to widespread bottom-water hypoxia every summer. In this study, we use a physical-biogeochemical model that explicitly simulates oxygen sources and sinks on the Louisiana shelf to identify the key mechanisms controlling hypoxia development. First, we validate the model simulation against observed dissolved oxygen concentrations, primary production, water column respiration, and sediment oxygen consumption. In the model simulation, heterotrophy is prevalent in shelf waters throughout the year except near the mouths of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers where primary production exceeds respiratory oxygen consumption during June and July. During this time, efflux of oxygen to the atmosphere, driven by photosynthesis and surface warming, becomes a significant oxygen sink while the well-developed pycnocline isolates autotrophic surface waters from the heterotrophic and hypoxic waters below. A substantial fraction of primary production occurs below the pycnocline in summer. We investigate whether this primary production below the pycnocline is mitigating the development of hypoxic conditions with the help of a sensitivity experiment where we disable biological processes in the water column (i.e. primary production and water column respiration). In this experiment below-pycnocline primary production reduces the spatial extent of hypoxic bottom waters only slightly. Our results suggest that the combination of physical processes and sediment oxygen consumption largely determine the spatial extent and dynamics of hypoxia on the Louisiana shelf.

1. Numerical analysis of the primary processes controlling oxygen dynamics on the Louisiana shelf

Yu, L.; Fennel, K.; Laurent, A.; Murrell, M. C.; Lehrter, J. C.

2015-04-01

The Louisiana shelf, in the northern Gulf of Mexico, receives large amounts of freshwater and nutrients from the Mississippi-Atchafalaya river system. These river inputs contribute to widespread bottom-water hypoxia every summer. In this study, we use a physical-biogeochemical model that explicitly simulates oxygen sources and sinks on the Louisiana shelf to identify the key mechanisms controlling hypoxia development. First, we validate the model simulation against observed dissolved oxygen concentrations, primary production, water column respiration, and sediment oxygen consumption. In the model simulation, heterotrophy is prevalent in shelf waters throughout the year, except near the mouths of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers, where primary production exceeds respiratory oxygen consumption during June and July. During this time, efflux of oxygen to the atmosphere, driven by photosynthesis and surface warming, becomes a significant oxygen sink. A substantial fraction of primary production occurs below the pycnocline in summer. We investigate whether this primary production below the pycnocline is mitigating the development of hypoxic conditions with the help of a sensitivity experiment where we disable biological processes in the water column (i.e., primary production and water column respiration). With this experiment we show that below-pycnocline primary production reduces the spatial extent of hypoxic bottom waters only slightly. Our results suggest that the combination of physical processes (advection and vertical diffusion) and sediment oxygen consumption largely determine the spatial extent and dynamics of hypoxia on the Louisiana shelf.

2. Identification of the origin of odour episodes through social participation, chemical control and numerical modelling

Gallego, E.; Soriano, C.; Roca, F. X.; Perales, J. F.; Alarcón, M.; Guardino, X.

Odour episodes and environmental air quality are topics of worldwide concern, mainly due to the fact that industrial facilities are often located very close to inhabited areas. Several atmospheric pollutants, mainly volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are responsible for odour episodes of varying degrees of annoyance. A methodology based on the simultaneous application of social participation (by building databases of odour episodes and acquiring air samples), chemical control and the computation of back trajectories allows us to identify the origin of odour episodes. A validated analytical method, based on thermal desorption (TD) coupled with gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS), is used to identify and determine a wide range of VOCs that cause odour nuisance and affect air quality in outdoor air. Back-trajectory modelling is used to track the origin of the air mass responsible for the discomfort backwards in time, mainly to find possible VOC sources outside the urban area. The procedure combines, on one hand, an analytical approach based on the acquisition of samples, which requires the participation of the affected population (which means that social participation is used as a scientific tool), and on the other hand, a modelling approach. Three examples are described to illustrate the methodology.

3. Numerical Simulations of Flow Separation Control in Low-Pressure Turbines using Plasma Actuators

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Suzen, Y. B.; Huang, P. G.; Ashpis, D. E.

2007-01-01

A recently introduced phenomenological model to simulate flow control applications using plasma actuators has been further developed and improved in order to expand its use to complicated actuator geometries. The new modeling approach eliminates the requirement of an empirical charge density distribution shape by using the embedded electrode as a source for the charge density. The resulting model is validated against a flat plate experiment with quiescent environment. The modeling approach incorporates the effect of the plasma actuators on the external flow into Navier Stokes computations as a body force vector which is obtained as a product of the net charge density and the electric field. The model solves the Maxwell equation to obtain the electric field due to the applied AC voltage at the electrodes and an additional equation for the charge density distribution representing the plasma density. The new modeling approach solves the charge density equation in the computational domain assuming the embedded electrode as a source therefore automatically generating a charge density distribution on the surface exposed to the flow similar to that observed in the experiments without explicitly specifying an empirical distribution. The model is validated against a flat plate experiment with quiescent environment.

4. Numerical analysis of the hydrogeologic controls in a layered coastal aquifer system, Oahu, Hawaii, USA

Oki, Delwyn S.; Souza, William R.; Bolke, Edward L.; Bauer, Glenn R.

The coastal aquifer system of southern Oahu, Hawaii, USA, consists of highly permeable volcanic aquifers overlain by weathered volcanic rocks and interbedded marine and terrestrial sediments of both high and low permeability. The weathered volcanic rocks and sediments are collectively known as caprock, because they impede the free discharge of groundwater from the underlying volcanic aquifers. A cross-sectional groundwater flow and transport model was used to evaluate the hydrogeologic controls on the regional flow system in southwestern Oahu. Controls considered were: (a) overall caprock hydraulic conductivity; and (b) stratigraphic variations of hydraulic conductivity in the caprock. Within the caprock, variations in hydraulic conductivity, caused by stratigraphy or discontinuities of the stratigraphic units, are a major control on the direction of groundwater flow and the distribution of water levels and salinity. Results of cross-sectional modeling confirm the general groundwater flow pattern that would be expected in a layered coastal system. Groundwater flow is: (a) predominantly upward in the low-permeability sedimentary units; and (b) predominantly horizontal in the high-permeability sedimentary units. Résumé Le système aquifère littoral du sud d'Oahu (Hawaii, États-Unis) est constitué par des aquifères de terrains volcaniques très perméables, recouverts par des roches volcaniques altérées, et interstratifiés avec des sédiments marins et continentaux de perméabilité aussi bien forte que faible. Les roches volcaniques altérées et les sédiments sont globalement considérés comme une couverture, parce qu'ils s'opposent à l'écoulement de l'eau souterraine provenant des aquifères volcaniques sous-jacents. Les contrôles hydrogéologiques sur le système aquifère régional du sud-ouest d'Oahu ont étéévaluées au moyen d'un modèle d'écoulement et de transport sur une section transversale. Ces contrôles prennent en compte la conductivit

5. The Numerical Study with Dynamic Mesh on the Pollution Control Effect of Operating Table Protected by Laminar Flow Screen

Fan, Juli; Tian, Lu; Jia, Xudong

2016-06-01

Transmission of airborne bacteria is the main factor causing surgical site infection (SSI). Horizontal laminar flow screen is a kind of new clean equipment, which can prevent SSI effectively. Numerical simulation is conducted on the pollution control effect of operating table protected by horizontal laminar flow screen. A three-dimensional model is established, discrete phase model (DPM) is used for calculation. Numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate the particle trajectories with the Lagrange approach, and the dynamic mesh is used. Air movement in the case with and without people’s walking is analyzed. As a result, people’s walking would not affect the distribution of pollutants at the key area of the operating table, the vertex caused by the walking person does little influence on flow field of the whole operating room and the influence area is about 0.24m to 0.75m around the walking person. The protective effect of pollutants with horizontal laminar flow screen for the key areas of operating table is excellent. This work provides references for the study on the depuration of operating room or other occasion.

6. Factors controlling the spatiotemporal variation of (137)Cs in seabed sediment off the Fukushima coast: implications from numerical simulations.

PubMed

Misumi, Kazuhiro; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Tateda, Yutaka; Aoyama, Michio; Kobayashi, Takuya; Hirose, Katsumi

2014-10-01

We used numerical simulations to investigate major controls on spatiotemporal variations of (137)Cs activities in seabed sediments off the Fukushima coast during the first year after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The numerical model we used includes (137)Cs transfer between bottom water and sediment by adsorption and desorption, and radioactive decay. The model successfully reproduced major features of the observed spatiotemporal variations of (137)Cs activities in sediments. The spatial pattern of (137)Cs in sediments, which mainly reflected the history of (137)Cs activities in bottom water overlying the sediments and the sediment particle size distribution, became established during the first several months after the accident. The simulated temporal persistence of the (137)Cs activity in the sediments was due to adsorption of (137)Cs onto the sediment mineral fraction having a long desorption timescale of (137)Cs. The simulated total (137)Cs inventory in sediments integrated over the offshore area, where most of the monitoring stations were located, was on the order of 10(13) Bq; this value is consistent with a previous estimate based on observed data. Taking into account (137)Cs activities in sediments in both the coastal area and in the vicinity of the power plant, the simulated total inventory of (137)Cs in sediments off the Fukushima coast increased to a value on the order of 10(14) Bq.

7. A Numerically Subdominant CD8 T Cell Response to Matrix Protein of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Controls Infection with Limited Immunopathology

PubMed Central

Liu, Jie; Haddad, Elias K.; Marceau, Joshua; Morabito, Kaitlyn M.; Rao, Srinivas S.; Filali-Mouhim, Ali; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Graham, Barney S.

2016-01-01

CD8 T cells are involved in pathogen clearance and infection-induced pathology in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Studying bulk responses masks the contribution of individual CD8 T cell subsets to protective immunity and immunopathology. In particular, the roles of subdominant responses that are potentially beneficial to the host are rarely appreciated when the focus is on magnitude instead of quality of response. Here, by evaluating CD8 T cell responses in CB6F1 hybrid mice, in which multiple epitopes are recognized, we found that a numerically subdominant CD8 T cell response against DbM187 epitope of the virus matrix protein expressed high avidity TCR and enhanced signaling pathways associated with CD8 T cell effector functions. Each DbM187 T effector cell lysed more infected targets on a per cell basis than the numerically dominant KdM282 T cells, and controlled virus replication more efficiently with less pulmonary inflammation and illness than the previously well-characterized KdM282 T cell response. Our data suggest that the clinical outcome of viral infections is determined by the integrated functional properties of a variety of responding CD8 T cells, and that the highest magnitude response may not necessarily be the best in terms of benefit to the host. Understanding how to induce highly efficient and functional T cells would inform strategies for designing vaccines intended to provide T cell-mediated immunity. PMID:26943673

8. Online machining error estimation method of numerical control gear grinding machine tool based on data analysis of internal sensors

Zhao, Fei; Zhang, Chi; Yang, Guilin; Chen, Chinyin

2016-12-01

This paper presents an online estimation method of cutting error by analyzing of internal sensor readings. The internal sensors of numerical control (NC) machine tool are selected to avoid installation problem. The estimation mathematic model of cutting error was proposed to compute the relative position of cutting point and tool center point (TCP) from internal sensor readings based on cutting theory of gear. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed model, it was simulated and experimented in gear generating grinding process. The cutting error of gear was estimated and the factors which induce cutting error were analyzed. The simulation and experiments verify that the proposed approach is an efficient way to estimate the cutting error of work-piece during machining process.

9. Development of array-type atmospheric-pressure RF plasma generator with electric on-off control for high-throughput numerically controlled processes

Takei, H.; Kurio, S.; Matsuyama, S.; Yamauchi, K.; Sano, Y.

2016-10-01

An array-type atmospheric-pressure radio-frequency (RF) plasma generator is proposed for high-precision and high-throughput numerically controlled (NC) processes. We propose the use of a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) circuit for direct RF switching to achieve plasma on-off control. We confirmed that this type of circuit works correctly using a MOSFET with a small parasitic capacitance between its source and gate. We examined the design method for the distance between adjacent electrodes, which corresponds to the parasitic capacitance between adjacent electrodes and is very important in the individual on-off control of each electrode. We developed a prototype array-type plasma generator apparatus with 19 electrodes and the same number of MOSFET circuits; we then confirmed that each electrode could control its plasma on-off state individually. We also demonstrated that the thickness uniformity of the surface Si layer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer could be processed to less than 1 nm peak to valley by the NC sacrificial oxidation method using the apparatus.

10. Numerical modeling of self-pressurization and pressure control by a thermodynamic vent system in a cryogenic tank

Majumdar, Alok; Valenzuela, Juan; LeClair, Andre; Moder, Jeff

2016-03-01

This paper presents a numerical model of a system-level test bed-the multipurpose hydrogen test bed (MHTB) using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). MHTB is representative in size and shape of a space transportation vehicle liquid hydrogen propellant tank, and ground-based testing was performed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to generate data for cryogenic storage. GFSSP is a finite volume-based network flow analysis software developed at MSFC and used for thermofluid analysis of propulsion systems. GFSSP has been used to model the self-pressurization and ullage pressure control by the Thermodynamic Vent System (TVS). A TVS typically includes a Joule-Thompson (J-T) expansion device, a two-phase heat exchanger (HEX), and a mixing pump and liquid injector to extract thermal energy from the tank without significant loss of liquid propellant. For the MHTB tank, the HEX and liquid injector are combined into a vertical spray bar assembly. Two GFSSP models (Self-Pressurization and TVS) were separately developed and tested and then integrated to simulate the entire system. The Self-Pressurization model consists of multiple ullage nodes, a propellant node, and solid nodes; it computes the heat transfer through multilayer insulation blankets and calculates heat and mass transfer between the ullage and liquid propellant and the ullage and tank wall. A TVS model calculates the flow through a J-T valve, HEX, and spray and vent systems. Two models are integrated by exchanging data through User Subroutines of both models. Results of the integrated models have been compared with MHTB test data at a 50% fill level. Satisfactory comparison was observed between tests and numerical predictions.

11. Numerical Evaluation of the "Dual-Kernel Counter-flow" Matric Convolution Integral that Arises in Discrete/Continuous (D/C) Control Theory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nixon, Douglas D.

2009-01-01

Discrete/Continuous (D/C) control theory is a new generalized theory of discrete-time control that expands the concept of conventional (exact) discrete-time control to create a framework for design and implementation of discretetime control systems that include a continuous-time command function generator so that actuator commands need not be constant between control decisions, but can be more generally defined and implemented as functions that vary with time across sample period. Because the plant/control system construct contains two linear subsystems arranged in tandem, a novel dual-kernel counter-flow convolution integral appears in the formulation. As part of the D/C system design and implementation process, numerical evaluation of that integral over the sample period is required. Three fundamentally different evaluation methods and associated algorithms are derived for the constant-coefficient case. Numerical results are matched against three available examples that have closed-form solutions.

12. Detection of early landscape evolution through controlled experimentation, data analysis, and numerical modeling at the Landscape Evolution Observatory

Troch, Peter A.; Pangle, Luke; Niu, Guo-Yue; Dontsova, Katerina; Barron-Gafford, Greg; van Haren, Joost; Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitch

2014-05-01

The Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO) at Biosphere 2-The University of Arizona consists of three identical, sloping, 333 m2 convergent landscapes inside a 5,000 m2 environmentally controlled facility. These engineered landscapes contain 1-meter depth of basaltic tephra, ground to homogenous loamy sand that will undergo physical, chemical, and mineralogical changes over many years. Each landscape contains a spatially dense sensor and sampler network capable of resolving meter-scale lateral heterogeneity and sub-meter scale vertical heterogeneity in moisture, energy and carbon states and fluxes. The density of sensors and frequency at which they can be polled allows for data collection at spatial and temporal scales that are impossible in natural field settings. Embedded solution and gas samplers allow for quantification of biogeochemical processes, and facilitate the use of chemical tracers to study water movement at very high spatial resolutions. Each ~600 metric ton landscape has load cells embedded into the structure to measure changes in total system mass with 0.05% full-scale repeatability (equivalent to less than 1 cm of precipitation). This facilitates the real time accounting of hydrological partitioning at the hillslope scale. Each hillslope is equipped with an engineered rain system capable of raining at rates between 3 and 45 mm/hr in a range of spatial patterns. The rain systems are capable of creating long-term steady state conditions or running complex simulations. The precipitation water supply storage system is flexibly designed to facilitate addition of tracers at constant or time-varying rates for any of the three hillslopes. This presentation will discuss detection of early landscape evolution in terms of hydrological, geochemical and microbial processes through controlled experimentation, data analysis, and numerical modeling during the commissioning phase of the first hillslope at LEO.

13. Computer numerical control (CNC) lithography: light-motion synchronized UV-LED lithography for 3D microfabrication

Kim, Jungkwun; Yoon, Yong-Kyu; Allen, Mark G.

2016-03-01

This paper presents a computer-numerical-controlled ultraviolet light-emitting diode (CNC UV-LED) lithography scheme for three-dimensional (3D) microfabrication. The CNC lithography scheme utilizes sequential multi-angled UV light exposures along with a synchronized switchable UV light source to create arbitrary 3D light traces, which are transferred into the photosensitive resist. The system comprises a switchable, movable UV-LED array as a light source, a motorized tilt-rotational sample holder, and a computer-control unit. System operation is such that the tilt-rotational sample holder moves in a pre-programmed routine, and the UV-LED is illuminated only at desired positions of the sample holder during the desired time period, enabling the formation of complex 3D microstructures. This facilitates easy fabrication of complex 3D structures, which otherwise would have required multiple manual exposure steps as in the previous multidirectional 3D UV lithography approach. Since it is batch processed, processing time is far less than that of the 3D printing approach at the expense of some reduction in the degree of achievable 3D structure complexity. In order to produce uniform light intensity from the arrayed LED light source, the UV-LED array stage has been kept rotating during exposure. UV-LED 3D fabrication capability was demonstrated through a plurality of complex structures such as V-shaped micropillars, micropanels, a micro-‘hi’ structure, a micro-‘cat’s claw,’ a micro-‘horn,’ a micro-‘calla lily,’ a micro-‘cowboy’s hat,’ and a micro-‘table napkin’ array.

14. Post-Gondwana geomorphic evolution of southwestern Africa: Implications for hte controls on landscape development from observations and numerical experiments

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gilchrist, Alan R.; Kooi, Henk; Beaumont, Christopher

1994-01-01

The relationship between morphology and surficial geology is used to quantify the denudation that has occurred across southwestern Africa sicne the fragmentation of Gondwana during the Early Mesozoic. Two main points emerge. Signficant denudation, of the order of kilometers, is widespread except in the Kalahari region of the continental interior. The denudation is systematically distributed so that the continental exterior catchment, draining directly to the Cape basin, is denuded to a greater depth than the interior catchment inland of the Great Escarpment. The analysis also implies tha the majority of the denudation occurred before the beginning of the Cenozoic for both teh exerior and interior catchments. Existing models of landscape development are reviewed, and implications of the denudation chronology are incorporated into a revised conceptual model. This revision implies tha thte primary effect of rifting on the subsequent landscape evolution is that it generates two distinct drainage regimes. A marginal upwarp, or rift flank uplift, separates rejuvenated rivers that drain into the subsiding rift from rivers in the continetal interior that are deflected but not rejuvenated. The two catchments evolve independently unless they are integrated by breaching of hte marginal upwarp. If this occurs, the exterior baselevel is communicated to the interior catchment that is denuded accordingly. Denudation rates generally decrease as the margin evolves, and this decrease is reinforced by the exposure of substrate that is resistant to denudation and/or a change to a more arid climate. The observations do not reveal a particular style of smaller-scale landscape evolution, sucha s escarpment retreat, that is responsible for the differential denudation across the region. It is proposed that numerical model experiments, which reflect the observational insights at the large scale, may identify the smaller-scale controls on escarpment development if the model and natural

15. The Impact of Numerical Control Technology and Computer Aided Manufacturing on Curriculum Development in Industrial Education and Technology. A Final Report.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bauch, Klaus Dieter

The study was designed to investigate the effects of Numerical Control Technology and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (NC/CAM) in American industry on industrial education and engineering technology education. The specific purpose was to identify a data base and rationale for curriculum development in NC/CAM through a comparison of views by…

16. Numerical and experimental investigation of an airfoil with load control in the wake of an active grid

Fischer, A.; Lutz, T.; Kramer, E.; Cordes, U.; Hufnagel, K.; Tropea, C.; Kampers, G.; Hölling, M.; Peinke, J.

2016-09-01

A new passive load reduction system, using coupled leading and trailing edge flaps, was developed at TU Darmstadt and investigated experimentally and numerically. The experiments were performed in the wind tunnel of the University of Oldenburg, where sinusoidal inflow conditions, representing for example the tower blockage effect, were created by means of an active grid. The numerical investigations were performed at the University of Stuttgart, using a quasi two-dimensional setup and a block structured CFD solver. In the present paper, a brief description of the experimental setup is given, whereas the numerical setup, in particular the realisation of the wind tunnel conditions, is presented in more detail. Moreover, a comparison between the measured and simulated loads for an airfoil with and without adaptive camber concept is discussed.

17. The Milling Assistant, Case-Based Reasoning, and machining strategy: A report on the development of automated numerical control programming systems at New Mexico State University

SciTech Connect

Burd, W.; Culler, D.; Eskridge, T.; Cox, L.; Slater, T.

1993-08-01

The Milling Assistant (MA) programming system demonstrates the automated development of tool paths for Numerical Control (NC) machine tools. By integrating a Case-Based Reasoning decision processor with a commercial CAD/CAM software, intelligent tool path files for milled and point-to-point features can be created. The operational system is capable of reducing the time required to program a variety of parts and improving product quality by collecting and utilizing best of practice machining strategies.

18. Numerical evaluation of passive control of shock wave/boundary layer interaction on NACA0012 airfoil using jagged wall

2016-10-01

Shock formation due to flow compressibility and its interaction with boundary layers has adverse effects on aerodynamic characteristics, such as drag increase and flow separation. The objective of this paper is to appraise the practicability of weakening shock waves and, hence, reducing the wave drag in transonic flight regime using a two-dimensional jagged wall and thereby to gain an appropriate jagged wall shape for future empirical study. Different shapes of the jagged wall, including rectangular, circular, and triangular shapes, were employed. The numerical method was validated by experimental and numerical studies involving transonic flow over the NACA0012 airfoil, and the results presented here closely match previous experimental and numerical results. The impact of parameters, including shape and the length-to-spacing ratio of a jagged wall, was studied on aerodynamic forces and flow field. The results revealed that applying a jagged wall method on the upper surface of an airfoil changes the shock structure significantly and disintegrates it, which in turn leads to a decrease in wave drag. It was also found that the maximum drag coefficient decrease of around 17 % occurs with a triangular shape, while the maximum increase in aerodynamic efficiency (lift-to-drag ratio) of around 10 % happens with a rectangular shape at an angle of attack of 2.26°.

19. Numerical Development

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Siegler, Robert S.; Braithwaite, David W.

2016-01-01

In this review, we attempt to integrate two crucial aspects of numerical development: learning the magnitudes of individual numbers and learning arithmetic. Numerical magnitude development involves gaining increasingly precise knowledge of increasing ranges and types of numbers: from non-symbolic to small symbolic numbers, from smaller to larger…

20. Hindi Numerals.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bright, William

In most languages encountered by linguists, the numerals, considered as a paradigmatic set, constitute a morpho-syntactic problem of only moderate complexity. The Indo-Aryan language family of North India, however, presents a curious contrast. The relatively regular numeral system of Sanskrit, as it has developed historically into the modern…

1. Using PASCAL for numerical analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volper, D.; Miller, T. C.

1978-01-01

The data structures and control structures of PASCAL enhance the coding ability of the programmer. Proposed extensions to the language further increase its usefulness in writing numeric programs and support packages for numeric programs.

2. Numerical generation of two-dimensional grids by the use of Poisson equations with grid control at boundaries

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sorenson, R. L.; Steger, J. L.

1980-01-01

A method for generating boundary-fitted, curvilinear, two dimensional grids by the use of the Poisson equations is presented. Grids of C-type and O-type were made about airfoils and other shapes, with circular, rectangular, cascade-type, and other outer boundary shapes. Both viscous and inviscid spacings were used. In all cases, two important types of grid control can be exercised at both inner and outer boundaries. First is arbitrary control of the distances between the boundaries and the adjacent lines of the same coordinate family, i.e., stand-off distances. Second is arbitrary control of the angles with which lines of the opposite coordinate family intersect the boundaries. Thus, both grid cell size (or aspect ratio) and grid cell skewness are controlled at boundaries. Reasonable cell size and shape are ensured even in cases wherein extreme boundary shapes would tend to cause skewness or poorly controlled grid spacing. An inherent feature of the Poisson equations is that lines in the interior of the grid smoothly connect the boundary points (the grid mapping functions are second order differentiable).

3. 3D Numerical Simulation versus Experimental Assessment of Pressure Pulsations Using a Passive Method for Swirling Flow Control in Conical Diffusers of Hydraulic Turbines

TANASA, C.; MUNTEAN, S.; CIOCAN, T.; SUSAN-RESIGA, R. F.

2016-11-01

The hydraulic turbines operated at partial discharge (especially hydraulic turbines with fixed blades, i.e. Francis turbine), developing a swirling flow in the conical diffuser of draft tube. As a result, the helical vortex breakdown, also known in the literature as “precessing vortex rope” is developed. A passive method to mitigate the pressure pulsations associated to the vortex rope in the draft tube cone of hydraulic turbines is presented in this paper. The method involves the development of a progressive and controlled throttling (shutter), of the flow cross section at the bottom of the conical diffuser. The adjustable cross section is made on the basis of the shutter-opening of circular diaphragms, while maintaining in all positions the circular cross-sectional shape, centred on the axis of the turbine. The stagnant region and the pressure pulsations associated to the vortex rope are mitigated when it is controlled with the turbine operating regime. Consequently, the severe flow deceleration and corresponding central stagnant are diminished with an efficient mitigation of the precessing helical vortex. Four cases (one without diaphragm and three with diaphragm), are numerically and experimentally investigated, respectively. The present paper focuses on a 3D turbulent swirling flow simulation in order to evaluate the control method. Numerical results are compared against measured pressure recovery coefficient and Fourier spectra. The results prove the vortex rope mitigation and its associated pressure pulsations when employing the diaphragm.

4. A field programmable gate array-based reconfigurable smart-sensor network for wireless monitoring of new generation computer numerically controlled machines.

PubMed

Moreno-Tapia, Sandra Veronica; Vera-Salas, Luis Alberto; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Aurelio; Stiharu, Ion; Romero-Troncoso, Rene de Jesus

2010-01-01

Computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines have evolved to adapt to increasing technological and industrial requirements. To cover these needs, new generation machines have to perform monitoring strategies by incorporating multiple sensors. Since in most of applications the online Processing of the variables is essential, the use of smart sensors is necessary. The contribution of this work is the development of a wireless network platform of reconfigurable smart sensors for CNC machine applications complying with the measurement requirements of new generation CNC machines. Four different smart sensors are put under test in the network and their corresponding signal processing techniques are implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based sensor node.

5. Preformulation considerations for controlled release dosage forms. Part III. Candidate form selection using numerical weighting and scoring.

PubMed

Chrzanowski, Frank

2008-01-01

Two numerical methods, Decision Analysis (DA) and Potential Problem Analysis (PPA) are presented as alternative selection methods to the logical method presented in Part I. In DA properties are weighted and outcomes are scored. The weighted scores for each candidate are totaled and final selection is based on the totals. Higher scores indicate better candidates. In PPA potential problems are assigned a seriousness factor and test outcomes are used to define the probability of occurrence. The seriousness-probability products are totaled and forms with minimal scores are preferred. DA and PPA have never been compared to the logical-elimination method. Additional data were available for two forms of McN-5707 to provide complete preformulation data for five candidate forms. Weight and seriousness factors (independent variables) were obtained from a survey of experienced formulators. Scores and probabilities (dependent variables) were provided independently by Preformulation. The rankings of the five candidate forms, best to worst, were similar for all three methods. These results validate the applicability of DA and PPA for candidate form selection. DA and PPA are particularly applicable in cases where there are many candidate forms and where each form has some degree of unfavorable properties.

6. Importance of root HTO uptake in controlling land-surface tritium dynamics after an-acute HT deposition: a numerical experiment.

PubMed

Ota, Masakazu; Nagai, Haruyasu; Koarashi, Jun

2012-07-01

To investigate the role of belowground root uptake of tritiated water (HTO) in controlling land-surface tritium (T) dynamics, a sophisticated numerical model predicting tritium behavior in an atmosphere-vegetation-soil system was developed, and numerical experiments were conducted using the model. The developed model covered physical tritiated hydrogen (HT) transport in a multilayered atmosphere and soil, as well as microbial oxidation of HT to HTO in the soil, and it was incorporated into a well-established HTO-transfer organically bound tritium (OBT)-formation model. The model performance was tested through the simulation of an existing HT-release experiment. Numerical experiments involving a hypothetical acute HT exposure to a grassland field with a range of rooting depths showed that the HTO release from the leaves to the atmosphere, driven by the root uptake of the deposited HTO, can exceed the HTO evaporation from the ground surface to the atmosphere when root water absorption preferentially occurs beneath the ground surface. Such enhanced soil-leaf-atmosphere HTO transport, caused by the enhanced root HTO uptake, increased HTO concentrations in both the surface atmosphere and in the cellular water of the leaf. Consequently, leaf OBT assimilation calculated for shallow rooting depths increased by nearly an order of magnitude compared to that for large rooting depths.

7. Improved Antishock Air-Gap Control Algorithm with Acceleration Feedforward Control for High-Numerical Aperture Near-Field Storage System Using Solid Immersion Lens

Kim, Jung-Gon; Shin, Won-Ho; Hwang, Hyun-Woo; Jeong, Jun; Park, Kyoung-Su; Park, No-Cheol; Yang, Hyunseok; Park, Young-Pil; Moo Park, Jin; Son, Do Hyeon; Kyo Seo, Jeong; Choi, In Ho

2010-08-01

A near-field storage system using a solid immersion lens (SIL) has been studied as a high-density optical disc drive system. The major goal of this research is to improve the robustness of the air-gap controller for a SIL-based near-field recording (NFR) system against dynamic disturbances, such as external shocks. The servo system is essential in near-field (NF) technology because the nanogap distance between the SIL and the disc is 50 nm or less. Also, the air-gap distance must be maintained without collision between the SIL and the disc to detect a stable gap error and read-out signals when an external shock is applied. Therefore, we propose an improved air-gap control algorithm using only an acceleration feedforward controller (AFC) to maintain the air-gap distance without contact for a 4.48 G at 10 ms shock. Thus, the antishock control performance for the SIL-based NF storage system in the presence of external shocks is markedly improved. Furthermore, to enhance the performance of the antishock air-gap control, we use the AFC with a double disturbance observer and a dead-zone nonlinear controller. As a result, the air-gap distance is maintained without contact for a 6.56 G@10 ms shock.

8. Numerical Integration

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sozio, Gerry

2009-01-01

Senior secondary students cover numerical integration techniques in their mathematics courses. In particular, students would be familiar with the "midpoint rule," the elementary "trapezoidal rule" and "Simpson's rule." This article derives these techniques by methods which secondary students may not be familiar with and an approach that…

9. Numerical Relativity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Baker, John G.

2009-01-01

Recent advances in numerical relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.

10. Numerical Investigation of the Control of Separation from Curved and Blunt Trailing Edges Using DNS and LES

Fasel, Hermann F.

2002-07-01

Wall jets over a curved wall geometry (Coanda flows) are investigated using DNS and turbulence modeling. In experiments large coherent structures have enhanced the effectiveness of wall jets in delaying or preventing flow separation on airfoils. Understanding the behavior of these structures is essential for utilizing wall jets for separation control. The research objective is to investigate curvature effects on large coherent structures, in particular the development of longitudinal (Goertler-type) vortices and their interaction with 2D vortices. The focus is on Coanda cylinders using two computational approaches. With the Flow Simulation Methodology (FSM), a turbulent wall jet is computed over a cylinder segment on a body-fitted grid. In FSM, the contribution of the turbulence model depends on the grid resolution relative to a local turbulent length scale. For a flat-plate reference case, FSM is employed as DNS, LES, and URANS. In all cases the large 2D vortices are captured. For the curved-wall geometry, FSM is employed as a DNS. Goertler-type vortices emerge in the simulation but remain weak due to the narrow computational domain. In the second approach, Coanda flows including nozzle and separated region are computed using immersed boundary techniques (IBT). The feasibility of IBT for Coanda Flows is established.

11. Numerical Investigation of Aerodynamics of Canard-Controlled Missile Using Planar and Grid Tail Fins. Part 1. Supersonic Flow

DeSpirito, James; Vaughn, Milton E., Jr.; Washington, W. D.

2002-09-01

Viscous computational fluid dynamic simulations were used to predict the aerodynamic coefficients and flowfield around a generic canard-controlled missile configuration in supersonic flow. Computations were performed for Mach 1.5 and 3.0, at six angles of attack between 0 and 10, with 0 and 10 canard deflection, and with planar and grid tail fins, for a total of 48 cases. Validation of the computed results was demonstrated by the very good agreement between the computed aerodynamic coefficients and those obtained from wind tunnel measurements. Visualizations of the flowfield showed that the canard trailing vortices and downwash produced a low-pressure region on the starboard side of the missile that in turn produced an adverse side force. The pressure differential on the leeward fin produced by the interaction with the canard trailing vortices is primarily responsible for the adverse roll effect observed when planar fins are used. Grid tail fins improved the roll effectiveness of the canards at low supersonic speed. No adverse rolling moment was observed with no canard deflection, or at the higher supersonic speed for either tail fin type due to the lower intensity of the canard trailing vortices in these cases. Flow visualizations from the simulations performed in this study help in the understanding of the flow physics and can lead to improved canard and tail fin designs for missiles and rockets.

12. Numerical study of micro-ramp vortex generator for supersonic ramp flow control at Mach 2.5

Yan, Y.; Chen, L.; Li, Q.; Liu, C.

2017-01-01

An implicit large eddy simulation, implemented using a fifth-order, bandwidth-optimized weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme, was used to study the flow past a compression ramp at Mach 2.5 and {Re}_{θ } = 5760 with and without a micro-ramp vortex generator (MVG) upstream. The MVG serves as a passive flow control device. The results suggested that MVGs may distinctly reduce the separation zone at the ramp corner and lower the boundary layer shape factor. New findings regarding the MVG-ramp interacting flow included the surface pressure distribution, three-dimensional structures of the re-compression shock waves, surface separation topology, and a new secondary vortex system. The formation of the momentum deficit was studied in depth. A new mechanism was observed wherein a series of vortex rings originated from the MVG-generated high shear at the boundary of the momentum deficit zone. Vortex rings strongly interact with the shock-separated flow and play an important role in the separation zone reduction.

13. Hydrologic discovery through controlled experimentation, data analysis, and numerical and analytical modeling at the Landscape Evolution Observatory (Invited)

Troch, P. A.; Gevaert, A.; Smit, Y.; Niu, G.; Nakolan, L.; Kyzivat, E.

2013-12-01

The Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO) at Biosphere 2-The University of Arizona consists of three identical, sloping, 333 m2 convergent landscapes inside a 5,000 m2 environmentally controlled facility. These engineered landscapes contain 1-meter depth of basaltic tephra, ground to homogenous loamy sand that will undergo physical, chemical, and mineralogical changes over many years. Each landscape contains a spatially dense sensor and sampler network capable of resolving meter-scale lateral heterogeneity and sub-meter scale vertical heterogeneity in moisture, energy and carbon states and fluxes. The density of sensors and frequency at which they can be polled allows for data collection at spatial and temporal scales that are impossible in natural field settings. Embedded solution and gas samplers allow for quantification of biogeochemical processes, and facilitate the use of chemical tracers to study water movement at very high spatial resolutions. Each ~600 metric ton landscape has load cells embedded into the structure to measure changes in total system mass with 0.05% full-scale repeatability (equivalent to less than 1 cm of precipitation). This facilitates the real time accounting of hydrological partitioning at the hillslope scale. Each hillslope is equipped with an engineered rain system capable of raining at rates between 3 and 45 mm/hr in a range of spatial patterns. The rain systems are capable of creating long-term steady state conditions or running complex simulations. The precipitation water supply storage system is flexibly designed to facilitate addition of tracers at constant or time-varying rates for any of the three hillslopes. Six trenches measure subsurface flow via tipping bucket gauges and electromagnetic flowmeters. This presentation will give an overview of lessons learned during the commissioning phase of the first hillslope of LEO, and will indicate several opportunities for collaborative research at Biosphere 2.

14. Numerical Optimization

DTIC Science & Technology

1992-12-01

fisica matematica . ABSTRACT - We consider a new method for the numerical solution both of non- linear systems of equations and of cornplementauity... Matematica , Serie V11 Volume 9 , Roma (1989), 521-543 An Inexact Continuous Method for the Solution of Large Systems of Equations and Complementarity...34 - 00185 Roma - Italy APPENDIX 2 A Quadratically Convergent Method for Unear Programming’ Stefano Herzel Dipartimento di Matematica -G. Castelnuovo

15. Vineyard weeds control practices impact on surface water transfers: using numerical tracer experiment coupled to a distributed hydrological model to manage agricultural practices spatial arrangements.

Colin, F.; Moussa, R.

2009-04-01

In rural basins, agricultural landscape management highly influences water and pollutants transfers. Landuse, agricultural practices and their spatial arrangements are at issue. Hydrological model are widely used to explore impacts of anthropogenic influences on experimental catchments. But planning all spatial arrangements leads to a possible cases count which cannot be considered. On the basis of the recent « numerical experiment » approach, we propose a « numerical tracer function » which had to be coupled to a distributed rainfall-runoff model. This function simulate the transfer of a virtual tracer successively spread on each distributed unit inside the catchment. It allows to rank hydrological spatial units according to their hydrological contribution to the surface flows, particularly at the catchment outlet. It was used with the distributed model MHYDAS in an agricultural context. The case study concerns the experimental Roujan vine-growing catchment (1km², south of France) studied since 1992. In this Mediterranean context, we focus on the soil hydraulic conductivity distributed parameter because it highly depends on weed control practices (chemical weeding induces a lot more runoff than mechanical weeding). We checked model sensitivity analysis to soil hydraulic conductivity spatial arrangement on runoff coefficient, peak discharge and catchment lag-time. Results show (i) the use of the tracer function is more efficient than a random approach to improve sensitivity to spatial arrangements from point of view of simulated discharge range, (ii) the first factor explaining hydrological simulations variability was practices area ratio, (iii) variability induced by practices spatial arrangements was significant on runoff coefficient and peak discharge for balanced practices area ratio and on lag-time for low area ratio of chemical weeding practices. From the actual situation on the experimental Roujan catchment (40% of tilled and 60% of non tilled vineyard

16. A Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Reconfigurable Smart-Sensor Network for Wireless Monitoring of New Generation Computer Numerically Controlled Machines

PubMed Central

Moreno-Tapia, Sandra Veronica; Vera-Salas, Luis Alberto; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Aurelio; Stiharu, Ion; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene

2010-01-01

Computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines have evolved to adapt to increasing technological and industrial requirements. To cover these needs, new generation machines have to perform monitoring strategies by incorporating multiple sensors. Since in most of applications the online Processing of the variables is essential, the use of smart sensors is necessary. The contribution of this work is the development of a wireless network platform of reconfigurable smart sensors for CNC machine applications complying with the measurement requirements of new generation CNC machines. Four different smart sensors are put under test in the network and their corresponding signal processing techniques are implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based sensor node. PMID:22163602

17. Fast numerical design of spatial-selective rf pulses in MRI using Krotov and quasi-Newton based optimal control methods.

PubMed

Vinding, Mads S; Maximov, Ivan I; Tošner, Zdenĕk; Nielsen, Niels Chr

2012-08-07

The use of increasingly strong magnetic fields in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) improves sensitivity, susceptibility contrast, and spatial or spectral resolution for functional and localized spectroscopic imaging applications. However, along with these benefits come the challenges of increasing static field (B(0)) and rf field (B(1)) inhomogeneities induced by radial field susceptibility differences and poorer dielectric properties of objects in the scanner. Increasing fields also impose the need for rf irradiation at higher frequencies which may lead to elevated patient energy absorption, eventually posing a safety risk. These reasons have motivated the use of multidimensional rf pulses and parallel rf transmission, and their combination with tailoring of rf pulses for fast and low-power rf performance. For the latter application, analytical and approximate solutions are well-established in linear regimes, however, with increasing nonlinearities and constraints on the rf pulses, numerical iterative methods become attractive. Among such procedures, optimal control methods have recently demonstrated great potential. Here, we present a Krotov-based optimal control approach which as compared to earlier approaches provides very fast, monotonic convergence even without educated initial guesses. This is essential for in vivo MRI applications. The method is compared to a second-order gradient ascent method relying on the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) quasi-Newton method, and a hybrid scheme Krotov-BFGS is also introduced in this study. These optimal control approaches are demonstrated by the design of a 2D spatial selective rf pulse exciting the letters "JCP" in a water phantom.

18. Unusual Rh nanocrystal morphology control by hetero-epitaxially growing Rh on Au@Pt nanowires with numerous vertical twinning boundaries

An, Hyohyun; Khi, Nguyen Tien; Yoon, Jisun; Lee, Hyunkyung; Baik, Hionsuck; Sohn, Jeong-Hun; Lee, Kwangyeol

2015-04-01

Simultaneously growing multiple nanocrystallites in a crowded space can cause a shortage of precursors, and this can lead to a vertical growth of nanocrystallites on a given substrate. The presence of surfactant-surfactant interactions among adjacent nanocrystals can also place a unique structural constraint on the growing nanocrystallites, resulting in novel nanocrystal facet control. Herein, we report the growth of Rh on Au@Pt nanowires with multiple twinning boundaries, which are found along the entire nanowire length. The Au@Pt nanowires exhibit numerous bead-like structures, resulting from the preferred Pt deposition on the twinning boundaries, which can serve as nucleation sites for Rh. The heteroepitaxial growth of Rh on the Au@Pt nanowires results in unusual crystal growth behaviours. First, novel morphologies of Rh nanorods, nanoplates, and tangled manes are obtained temperature-dependently, which are not obtained in the absence of the Au@Pt nanowire substrate. Secondly, the thickness of vertically grown nanorods and nanoplates is tightly controlled. We also report the structure-catalytic activity relationship on the catalytic hydrogenation of phthalimides by the new Rh nanostructures.Simultaneously growing multiple nanocrystallites in a crowded space can cause a shortage of precursors, and this can lead to a vertical growth of nanocrystallites on a given substrate. The presence of surfactant-surfactant interactions among adjacent nanocrystals can also place a unique structural constraint on the growing nanocrystallites, resulting in novel nanocrystal facet control. Herein, we report the growth of Rh on Au@Pt nanowires with multiple twinning boundaries, which are found along the entire nanowire length. The Au@Pt nanowires exhibit numerous bead-like structures, resulting from the preferred Pt deposition on the twinning boundaries, which can serve as nucleation sites for Rh. The heteroepitaxial growth of Rh on the Au@Pt nanowires results in unusual crystal

19. Heuristic numerical and analytical models of the hydrologic controls over vertical solute transport in a domed peat bog, Jura Mountains, Switzerland

McKenzie, Jeffrey M.; Siegel, Donald I.; Shotyk, William; Steinmann, Philipp; Pfunder, Gabriele

2002-04-01

We report the results of numerical and analytical simulations to test the hypothesis that downward vertical flow of porewater from the crests of domed alpine and kettle bogs controls vertical porewater distributions of major solutes such as Ca and Mg. The domed Etang de la Gruère bog (EGr), Switzerland, characterized by a vertical downward gradient of 0·04 and stratified layers of peat, is chosen as a field site for the model calibration and evaluation. The middle 4-m section of the 6·5 m thick bog peat is heavily humified and has a hydraulic conductivity of 10-5·6 cm s-1. Above and below, peat is less humified with a hydraulic conductivity of 10-3 cm s-1. Heuristic finite difference simulations, using Visual MODFLOW, of the bog hydraulics show that the higher conductivity peat at the bog base is critical to create the observed deep, local flow cells that substantively recharge porewater.Model results and Peclet number calculations show that before 7000 14C yr BP diffusion of solutes from underlying mineral soils controlled the vertical distribution of porewater chemistry. From 7000 to 1250 14C BP the porewater chemistry was probably controlled by both upward diffusion and downward advection, and after 1250 14C yr BP porewater chemistry was probably controlled by downward advection. Concentrations of conservative major solutes in the porewaters of alpine, ombrotrophic bogs are the net effect of both downward vertical porewater movement and upward vertical diffusion, the magnitudes of which are delicately poised to the configuration of the bog water table over time and subsurface peat stratigraphy.

20. Active Control of Fan Noise: Feasibility Study. Volume 5; Numerical Computation of Acoustic Mode Reflection Coefficients for an Unflanged Cylindrical Duct

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kraft, R. E.

1996-01-01

A computational method to predict modal reflection coefficients in cylindrical ducts has been developed based on the work of Homicz, Lordi, and Rehm, which uses the Wiener-Hopf method to account for the boundary conditions at the termination of a thin cylindrical pipe. The purpose of this study is to develop a computational routine to predict the reflection coefficients of higher order acoustic modes impinging on the unflanged termination of a cylindrical duct. This effort was conducted wider Task Order 5 of the NASA Lewis LET Program, Active Noise Control of aircraft Engines: Feasibility Study, and will be used as part of the development of an integrated source noise, acoustic propagation, ANC actuator coupling, and control system algorithm simulation. The reflection coefficient prediction will be incorporated into an existing cylindrical duct modal analysis to account for the reflection of modes from the duct termination. This will provide a more accurate, rapid computation design tool for evaluating the effect of reflected waves on active noise control systems mounted in the duct, as well as providing a tool for the design of acoustic treatment in inlet ducts. As an active noise control system design tool, the method can be used preliminary to more accurate but more numerically intensive acoustic propagation models such as finite element methods. The resulting computer program has been shown to give reasonable results, some examples of which are presented. Reliable data to use for comparison is scarce, so complete checkout is difficult, and further checkout is needed over a wider range of system parameters. In future efforts the method will be adapted as a subroutine to the GEAE segmented cylindrical duct modal analysis program.

1. Numerical Control Lathe Language Study.

DTIC Science & Technology

1979-10-01

CLC !IUU!a! x x *lsiw x OIM3 0 ODV ae 𔃻N a .2O3 E - 00 r- o) z 0 U. c C. LL. U- CO) z _ _ _ U. C r-’ 0120 Aig, "WW unolbIIu!"OA x x is~m 90L s~ed...Initially a set of test parts was designed and then programmed at six government installa- tions (Army, Navy , and Air Force). This served to check the part

2. Software For Numerically Controlled Machining

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Premo, D. A.

1990-01-01

APT (Automatically Programmable Tools) system represents an adaptation, with enhancements, of public-domain version of APT IV/SSX8 to DEC VAX-11/780 computer for use by Engineering Services Division of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Enhancements include super pocket feature, which allows concave polygon pockets. Recent modifications include expansion of sizes of arrays and buffers to accommodate larger part programs, insertion of user-friendly error messages, and correction of programming errors that affect POCKET command and some of sculptured-surface commands (notably SSURF and SCURV). Consists of four components: translator, execution complex, subroutine library, and CL editor. Written in FORTRAN 77.

3. Factors controlling the configuration of the fresh-saline water interface in the Dead Sea coastal aquifers: Synthesis of TDEM surveys and numerical groundwater modeling

USGS Publications Warehouse

Yechieli, Y.; Kafri, U.; Goldman, M.; Voss, C.I.

2001-01-01

TDEM (time domain electromagnetic) traverses in the Dead Sea (DS) coastal aquifer help to delineate the configuration of the interrelated fresh-water and brine bodies and the interface in between. A good linear correlation exists between the logarithm of TDEM resistivity and the chloride concentration of groundwater, mostly in the higher salinity range, close to that of the DS brine. In this range, salinity is the most important factor controlling resistivity. The configuration of the fresh-saline water interface is dictated by the hydraulic gradient, which is controlled by a number of hydrological factors. Three types of irregularities in the configuration of fresh-water and saline-water bodies were observed in the study area: 1. Fresh-water aquifers underlying more saline ones ("Reversal") in a multi-aquifer system. 2. "Reversal" and irregular residual saline-water bodies related to historical, frequently fluctuating DS base level and respective interfaces, which have not undergone complete flushing. A rough estimate of flushing rates may be obtained based on knowledge of the above fluctuations. The occurrence of salt beds is also a factor affecting the interface configuration. 3. The interface steepens towards and adjacent to the DS Rift fault zone. Simulation analysis with a numerical, variable-density flow model, using the US Geological Survey's SUTRA code, indicates that interface steep- ening may result from a steep water-level gradient across the zone, possibly due to a low hydraulic conductivity in the immediate vicinity of the fault.

4. Cleaveage domains control the orientation of mylonitic shear zones at the brittle-viscous transition (Cap de Creus, NE Spain) - a combined field and numerical study

Poulet, T.; Fusseis, F.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.

2009-04-01

Propagation of greenschist-facies shear zones is often preceded by the formation of fractures in their tip process zones. These fractures tend to have a tensile nature and are generally considered as having triggered the formation of mylonites by focusing fluid flow and locally accelerating strain softening. The often-observed parallelism between the tensile fractures and the mylonitic shear zones indicates that the fractures not only control the position but also the orientation of the shear zones. The mechanical antagonism in this parallelism is usually resolved with a reorientation of the stress field between fracture formation and mylonitic shearing. Where fractures were clearly shown to form parallel to the shear zone in the same deformation, this might be due to the influence of mechanical anisotropies in the host rock. In our combined numerical and field study, we test the potential of a foliation to influence the orientation of a microfracture. We designed a numerical experiment using the finite element code Abaqus® (Hibbit et al. 2003) to simulate strain localization in metapelitic and metapsammitic rocks at greenschist-facies conditions. The experimental setup comprises a 2D parametric model with two rheological phases (‘cleavage domains' and ‘microlithons' consisting of muscovite and quartz respectively). The geometry of the model is described in terms of probability distributions which allow us to quickly generate different realizations of 2D sections with prescribed muscovite content, cleavage domains size, orientation and distribution. We consider the specific heat, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity of both materials, as well as anisotropic elastic properties for the muscovite. The plasticity flow laws used consider the temperature, pressure and strain rate dependencies. Our models are deformed under simple shear applied with velocity boundary conditions on a thin buffer zone surrounding the sample, at 450°C and under a confining

5. Autogenic versus allogenic controls on the evolution of a coupled fluvial megafan-mountainous catchment system: numerical modelling and comparison with the Lannemezan megafan system (northern Pyrenees, France)

Mouchené, Margaux; van der Beek, Peter; Carretier, Sébastien; Mouthereau, Frédéric

2017-02-01

Alluvial megafans are sensitive recorders of landscape evolution, controlled by both autogenic processes and allogenic forcing, and they are influenced by the coupled dynamics of the fan with its mountainous catchment. The Lannemezan megafan in the northern Pyrenean foreland was abandoned by its mountainous feeder stream during the Quaternary and subsequently incised, leaving a flight of alluvial terraces along the stream network. We use numerical models to explore the relative roles of autogenic processes and external forcing in the building, abandonment and incision of a foreland megafan, and we compare the results with the inferred evolution of the Lannemezan megafan. Autogenic processes are sufficient to explain the building of a megafan and the long-term entrenchment of its feeding river on time and space scales that match the Lannemezan setting. Climate, through temporal variations in precipitation rate, may have played a role in the episodic pattern of incision on a shorter timescale. In contrast, base-level changes, tectonic activity in the mountain range or tilting of the foreland through flexural isostatic rebound do not appear to have played a role in the abandonment of the megafan.

6. Effect of clearance on wrinkling of 21-6-9 high-strength stainless steel tubes in numerical control rotary draw bending process

Cheng, Lu; Fang, Jun; Li, Yuan; Dai, Li; Xiong, Mengsi; Lu, Shiqiang

2017-03-01

Clearance between tube and all kinds of dies has a significant and complicated influence on wrinkling of 21-6-9 high-strength stainless steel tubes (HSST) during numerical control (NC) rotary draw bending process. To explore the effect of that, a three dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model of the whole process for 21-6-9 HSST was build based on FE platform of ABAQUS and validated by the experiment. Then, simulation and study of the process was carried out based on the FE model and the influence laws of clearance on wrinkling of 21-6-9 HSST in NC rotary draw bending were obtained. The results show that the wrinkling wave degree increases obviously with the increase of clearance between mandrel and tube Cm and clearance between bending die and tube Cb, while decreases with increase of clearance between pressure die and tube Cp; the wrinkling wave degree decreases sharply when clearance between wiper die and tube Cw is less than 0.2mm, and the wrinkling wave degree hardly has no variation when Cw is greater than 0.2mm.

7. Numerical simulation of a powered-lift landing, tracking flow features using overset grids, and simulation of high lift devices on a fighter-lift-and-control wing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chawla, Kalpana

1993-01-01

Attached as appendices to this report are documents describing work performed on the simulation of a landing powered-lift delta wing, the tracking of flow features using overset grids, and the simulation of flaps on the Wright Patterson Lab's fighter-lift-and-control (FLAC) wing. Numerical simulation of a powered-lift landing includes the computation of flow about a delta wing at four fixed heights as well as a simulated landing, in which the delta wing descends toward the ground. Comparison of computed and experimental lift coefficients indicates that the simulations capture the qualitative trends in lift-loss encountered by thrust-vectoring aircraft operating in ground effect. Power spectra of temporal variations of pressure indicate computed vortex shedding frequencies close to the jet exit are in the experimentally observed frequency range; the power spectra of pressure also provide insights into the mechanisms of lift oscillations. Also, a method for using overset grids to track dynamic flow features is described and the method is validated by tracking a moving shock and vortices shed behind a circular cylinder. Finally, Chimera gridding strategies were used to develop pressure coefficient contours for the FLAC wing for a Mach no. of 0.18 and Reynolds no. of 2.5 million.

8. Numerical Optimization.

DTIC Science & Technology

1988-01-01

Dipartimento di Fisica , II Universit L di Romna (Tor Vergata), 00173 Roma (Italy) Francesco Zirilli * m .Dipartieto di Matematica 1G. Castelnuovo", UnT.rsit... Fisica II UniversitA di Roma (Tor Vergata) 00173 Roma - Italy Francesco Zirilli Dipartimento di Matematica G. Castelnuovo Universita di Roma "La...TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Dipartimento di Matematica -G.--iattelnuoz .’ Universita di Roma "La Sapienze" rlnlRr% Pnmaq (Tt-al’g) I\$. CONTROLLING

9. Salinity control in a clay soil beneath an orchard irrigated with treated waste water in the presence of a high water table: A numerical study

Russo, David; Laufer, Asher; Bardhan, Gopali; Levy, Guy J.

2015-12-01

A citrus orchard planted on a structured, clay soil associated with a high water table, irrigated by drip irrigation system using treated waste water (TWW) and local well water (LWW) was considered here. The scope of the present study was to analyze transport of mixed-ion, interacting salts in a combined vadose zone-groundwater flow system focusing on the following issues: (i) long-term effects of irrigation with TWW on the response of the flow system, identifying the main factors (e.g., soil salinity, soil sodicity) that control these effects, and (ii) salinity control aiming at improving both crop productivity and groundwater quality. To pursue this two-fold goal, 3-D numerical simulations of field-scale flow and transport were performed for an extended period of time, considering realistic features of the soil, water table, crop, weather and irrigation, and the coupling between the flow and the transport through the dependence of the soil hydraulic functions, K(ψ) and θ(ψ), on soil solution concentration C, and sodium adsorption ratio, SAR. Results of the analyses suggest that in the case studied, the long-term effect of irrigation with TWW on the response of the flow system is attributed to the enhanced salinity of the TWW, and not to the increase in soil sodicity. The latter findings are attributed to: (i) the negative effect of soil salinity on water uptake, and the tradeoff between water uptake and drainage flux, and, concurrently, solute discharge below the root zone; and, (ii) the tradeoff between the effects of C and SAR on K(ψ) and θ(ψ). Furthermore, it was demonstrated that a data-driven protocol for soil salinity control, based on alternating irrigation water quality between TWW and desalinized water, guided by the soil solution salinity at the centroid of the soil volume active in water uptake, may lead to a substantial increase in crop yield, and to a substantial decrease in the salinity load in the groundwater.

10. Free convective controls on sequestration of salts into low-permeability strata: Insights from sand tank laboratory experiments and numerical modelling

Simmons, C. T.; Post, V.

2008-12-01

Vertical reflux of dense brines may occur in hydrogeologic situations including seawater intrusion, transgression-regression cycles, leachate migration from landfills and brine reflux beneath salt lakes. The critical control that geologic heterogeneity plays in the free convective process is still an area which requires significant exploration. To date, no studies have been published that focus on the effect that discrete low- permeability structures have on the free convection process at the scale of individual lenses. The precise local scale solute transport mechanisms that affect solute exchange between the layers of lower and higher permeability have not been reported. Using sand tank experiments and numerical models, we explore local scale solute transport processes associated with free convection in the region both surrounding and within discrete low-permeability strata. Different permeability geometries and contrasts between high- and low- permeability regions are explored. Results show that the free convective processes are inherently complex and not intuitively obvious. In the high-permeability region, salinization was rapid and occurred predominantly by free convective flow around the low-permeability blocks, a process we refer to as 'interlayer convection'. Fresh water originally present within the overall domain considered became trapped both below and within the low-permeability structures. A free convection flow field also became concurrently established within the low-permeability lenses, a process we refer to as 'intralayer convection'. This smaller sublayer scale process is driven by both larger scale interlayer convection and by the buoyancy of the fresh water within the low permeability lenses. It was found that upward vertical flow retards salinization of the lenses as these buoyant freshwater displacements oppose the downward penetration of dissolved salts by diffusion and free convection from above. Due to the presence of vertical upward flow

11. Numerical study of groundwater flow cycling controlled by seawater/freshwater interaction in a coastal karst aquifer through conduit network using CFPv2

Xu, Zexuan; Hu, Bill X.; Davis, Hal; Kish, Stephen

2015-11-01

In this study, a groundwater flow cycling in a karst springshed and an interaction between two springs, Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs, through a subground conduit network are numerically simulated using CFPv2, the latest research version of MODFLOW-CFP (Conduit Flow Process). The Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs, located in a marine estuary and 11 miles inland, respectively, are two major groundwater discharge spots in the Woodville Karst Plain (WKP), North Florida, USA. A three-phase conceptual model of groundwater flow cycling between the two springs and surface water recharge from a major surface creek (Lost Creek) was proposed in various rainfall conditions. A high permeable subground karst conduit network connecting the two springs was found by tracer tests and cave diving. Flow rate of discharge, salinity, sea level and tide height at Spring Creek Springs could significantly affect groundwater discharge and water stage at Wakulla Springs simultaneously. Based on the conceptual model, a numerical hybrid discrete-continuum groundwater flow model is developed using CFPv2 and calibrated by field measurements. Non-laminar flows in conduits and flow exchange between conduits and porous medium are implemented in the hybrid coupling numerical model. Time-variable salinity and equivalent freshwater head boundary conditions at the submarine spring as well as changing recharges have significant impacts on seawater/freshwater interaction and springs' discharges. The developed numerical model is used to simulate the dynamic hydrological process and quantitatively represent the three-phase conceptual model from June 2007 to June 2010. Simulated results of two springs' discharges match reasonably well to measurements with correlation coefficients 0.891 and 0.866 at Spring Creeks Springs and Wakulla Springs, respectively. The impacts of sea level rise on regional groundwater flow field and relationship between the inland springs and submarine springs are

12. Numerical study of groundwater flow cycling controlled by seawater/freshwater interaction in a coastal karst aquifer through conduit network using CFPv2.

PubMed

Xu, Zexuan; Hu, Bill X; Davis, Hal; Kish, Stephen

2015-11-01

In this study, a groundwater flow cycling in a karst springshed and an interaction between two springs, Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs, through a subground conduit network are numerically simulated using CFPv2, the latest research version of MODFLOW-CFP (Conduit Flow Process). The Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs, located in a marine estuary and 11 miles inland, respectively, are two major groundwater discharge spots in the Woodville Karst Plain (WKP), North Florida, USA. A three-phase conceptual model of groundwater flow cycling between the two springs and surface water recharge from a major surface creek (Lost Creek) was proposed in various rainfall conditions. A high permeable subground karst conduit network connecting the two springs was found by tracer tests and cave diving. Flow rate of discharge, salinity, sea level and tide height at Spring Creek Springs could significantly affect groundwater discharge and water stage at Wakulla Springs simultaneously. Based on the conceptual model, a numerical hybrid discrete-continuum groundwater flow model is developed using CFPv2 and calibrated by field measurements. Non-laminar flows in conduits and flow exchange between conduits and porous medium are implemented in the hybrid coupling numerical model. Time-variable salinity and equivalent freshwater head boundary conditions at the submarine spring as well as changing recharges have significant impacts on seawater/freshwater interaction and springs' discharges. The developed numerical model is used to simulate the dynamic hydrological process and quantitatively represent the three-phase conceptual model from June 2007 to June 2010. Simulated results of two springs' discharges match reasonably well to measurements with correlation coefficients 0.891 and 0.866 at Spring Creeks Springs and Wakulla Springs, respectively. The impacts of sea level rise on regional groundwater flow field and relationship between the inland springs and submarine springs are

13. Numerical derivation of linear perturbation model from nonlinear real-time vehicle simulations - A means of validation and increased credibility. [computerized simulation for aircraft control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dieudonne, J. E.

1978-01-01

A numerical technique has been developed which generates linear perturbation models from nonlinear real-time aircraft vehicle simulations at Langley Research Center. The technique is very general and can be applied to simulations of any system described by nonlinear differential equations. Linear models about various trim conditions have been obtained from simulations of the Boeing 737, Northrop F5-E, Cessna 180, Sikorsky CH-54, and NASA/Army Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA). One use of the derived linear models is as a validation and verification tool for the nonlinear simulation.

14. Design and numerical evaluation of full-authority flight control systems for conventional and thruster-augmented helicopters employed in NOE operations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perri, Todd A.; Mckillip, R. M., Jr.; Curtiss, H. C., Jr.

1987-01-01

The development and methodology is presented for development of full-authority implicit model-following and explicit model-following optimal controllers for use on helicopters operating in the Nap-of-the Earth (NOE) environment. Pole placement, input-output frequency response, and step input response were used to evaluate handling qualities performance. The pilot was equipped with velocity-command inputs. A mathematical/computational trajectory optimization method was employed to evaluate the ability of each controller to fly NOE maneuvers. The method determines the optimal swashplate and thruster input histories from the helicopter's dynamics and the prescribed geometry and desired flying qualities of the maneuver. Three maneuvers were investigated for both the implicit and explicit controllers with and without auxiliary propulsion installed: pop-up/dash/descent, bob-up at 40 knots, and glideslope. The explicit controller proved to be superior to the implicit controller in performance and ease of design.

15. A numerical framework for diffusion-controlled bimolecular-reactive systems to enforce maximum principles and the non-negative constraint

Nakshatrala, K. B.; Mudunuru, M. K.; Valocchi, A. J.

2013-11-01

We present a novel computational framework for diffusive-reactive systems that satisfies the non-negative constraint and maximum principles on general computational grids. The governing equations for the concentration of reactants and product are written in terms of tensorial diffusion-reaction equations. We restrict our studies to fast irreversible bimolecular reactions. If one assumes that the reaction is diffusion-limited and all chemical species have the same diffusion coefficient, one can employ a linear transformation to rewrite the governing equations in terms of invariants, which are unaffected by the reaction. This results in two uncoupled tensorial diffusion equations in terms of these invariants, which are solved using a novel non-negative solver for tensorial diffusion-type equations. The concentrations of the reactants and the product are then calculated from invariants using algebraic manipulations. The novel aspect of the proposed computational framework is that it will always produce physically meaningful non-negative values for the concentrations of all chemical species. Several representative numerical examples are presented to illustrate the robustness, convergence, and the numerical performance of the proposed computational framework. We will also compare the proposed framework with other popular formulations. In particular, we will show that the Galerkin formulation (which is the standard single-field formulation) does not produce reliable solutions, and the reason can be attributed to the fact that the single-field formulation does not guarantee non-negative solutions. We will also show that the clipping procedure (which produces non-negative solutions but is considered as a variational crime) does not give accurate results when compared with the proposed computational framework.

16. Bidirectional Modulation of Numerical Magnitude.

PubMed

Arshad, Qadeer; Nigmatullina, Yuliya; Nigmatullin, Ramil; Asavarut, Paladd; Goga, Usman; Khan, Sarah; Sander, Kaija; Siddiqui, Shuaib; Roberts, R E; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Malhotra, Paresh A

2016-05-01

Numerical cognition is critical for modern life; however, the precise neural mechanisms underpinning numerical magnitude allocation in humans remain obscure. Based upon previous reports demonstrating the close behavioral and neuro-anatomical relationship between number allocation and spatial attention, we hypothesized that these systems would be subject to similar control mechanisms, namely dynamic interhemispheric competition. We employed a physiological paradigm, combining visual and vestibular stimulation, to induce interhemispheric conflict and subsequent unihemispheric inhibition, as confirmed by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). This allowed us to demonstrate the first systematic bidirectional modulation of numerical magnitude toward either higher or lower numbers, independently of either eye movements or spatial attention mediated biases. We incorporated both our findings and those from the most widely accepted theoretical framework for numerical cognition to present a novel unifying computational model that describes how numerical magnitude allocation is subject to dynamic interhemispheric competition. That is, numerical allocation is continually updated in a contextual manner based upon relative magnitude, with the right hemisphere responsible for smaller magnitudes and the left hemisphere for larger magnitudes.

17. Bidirectional Modulation of Numerical Magnitude

PubMed Central

Arshad, Qadeer; Nigmatullina, Yuliya; Nigmatullin, Ramil; Asavarut, Paladd; Goga, Usman; Khan, Sarah; Sander, Kaija; Siddiqui, Shuaib; Roberts, R. E.; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Bronstein, Adolfo M.; Malhotra, Paresh A.

2016-01-01

Numerical cognition is critical for modern life; however, the precise neural mechanisms underpinning numerical magnitude allocation in humans remain obscure. Based upon previous reports demonstrating the close behavioral and neuro-anatomical relationship between number allocation and spatial attention, we hypothesized that these systems would be subject to similar control mechanisms, namely dynamic interhemispheric competition. We employed a physiological paradigm, combining visual and vestibular stimulation, to induce interhemispheric conflict and subsequent unihemispheric inhibition, as confirmed by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). This allowed us to demonstrate the first systematic bidirectional modulation of numerical magnitude toward either higher or lower numbers, independently of either eye movements or spatial attention mediated biases. We incorporated both our findings and those from the most widely accepted theoretical framework for numerical cognition to present a novel unifying computational model that describes how numerical magnitude allocation is subject to dynamic interhemispheric competition. That is, numerical allocation is continually updated in a contextual manner based upon relative magnitude, with the right hemisphere responsible for smaller magnitudes and the left hemisphere for larger magnitudes. PMID:26879093

18. Numerical modeling of simultaneous tracer release and piscicide treatment for invasive species control in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago, Illinois

USGS Publications Warehouse

Zhu, Zhenduo; Motta, Davide; Jackson, P. Ryan; Garcia, Marcelo H.

2017-01-01

In December 2009, during a piscicide treatment targeting the invasive Asian carp in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Rhodamine WT dye was released to track and document the transport and dispersion of the piscicide. In this study, two modeling approaches are presented to reproduce the advection and dispersion of the dye tracer (and piscicide), a one-dimensional analytical solution and a three-dimensional numerical model. The two approaches were compared with field measurements of concentration and their applicability is discussed. Acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements were used to estimate the longitudinal dispersion coefficients at ten cross sections, which were taken as reference for calibrating the longitudinal dispersion coefficient in the one-dimensional analytical solution. While the analytical solution is fast, relatively simple, and can fairly accurately predict the core of the observed concentration time series at points downstream, it does not capture the tail of the breakthrough curves. These tails are well reproduced by the three-dimensional model, because it accounts for the effects of dead zones and a power plant which withdraws nearly 80 % of the water from the canal for cooling purposes before returning it back to the canal.

19. Numerical Boundary Condition Procedures

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1981-01-01

Topics include numerical procedures for treating inflow and outflow boundaries, steady and unsteady discontinuous surfaces, far field boundaries, and multiblock grids. In addition, the effects of numerical boundary approximations on stability, accuracy, and convergence rate of the numerical solution are discussed.

20. Numerical Stability and Control Analysis Towards Falling-Leaf Prediction Capabilities of Splitflow for Two Generic High-Performance Aircraft Models

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Charlton, Eric F.

1998-01-01

Aerodynamic analysis are performed using the Lockheed-Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems (LMTAS) Splitflow computational fluid dynamics code to investigate the computational prediction capabilities for vortex-dominated flow fields of two different tailless aircraft models at large angles of attack and sideslip. These computations are performed with the goal of providing useful stability and control data to designers of high performance aircraft. Appropriate metrics for accuracy, time, and ease of use are determined in consultations with both the LMTAS Advanced Design and Stability and Control groups. Results are obtained and compared to wind-tunnel data for all six components of forces and moments. Moment data is combined to form a "falling leaf" stability analysis. Finally, a handful of viscous simulations were also performed to further investigate nonlinearities and possible viscous effects in the differences between the accumulated inviscid computational and experimental data.

1. The Science of and Advanced Technology for Cost-Effective Manufacture of High Precision Engineering Products. Volume 4. Thermal Effects on the Accuracy of Numerically Controlled Machine Tools.

DTIC Science & Technology

1985-10-01

Corporation ; Cummiins Engine Co.; Control - Data Corporation ; ALCOA. ." .." . .. .’ ... i . .v CHATE 1.ITOUTABEOF. CONENT LIS OF TeeABL..................o...2 2 - -a-c (a + X)t- G( ytl ’ ,y ,T E E e t nm ab -m ini sin(O x)sin(n Y)sin(B x )sin(n (4.37) in n in n 85 In Equation (4.37), 83 and nn are the

2. Numerical investigation on the generation of high-order Laguerre-Gaussian beams in end-pumped solid-state lasers by introducing loss control.

PubMed

Hu, Ajian; Lei, Jian; Chen, Peifeng; Wang, Ying; Li, Shumo

2014-11-20

This paper reports a robust and systematic approach to generate high-order scalar Laguerre-Gaussian (LGp,l) beams in end-pumped solid-state lasers by introducing loss control. Based on the spatial distributions of Laguerre-Gaussian modes and the theory of transverse mode selection, the "loss control" is implemented by an amplitude mask in the resonator. This proposed mechanism can be divided into three categories: radial loss, azimuthal loss, and the combination of radial and azimuthal loss, which correspond to excite radial high-order modes (LGp,0), azimuthal high-order modes (LG0,l), and regular high-order modes (LGp,l), respectively. By controlling the locations and thicknesses of opaque rings and lines on the mask, all kinds of LGp,l modes can be obtained. With the application of mode purity, all the generated modes possess high mode purities greater than 93% in simulation.

3. Numerical accuracy assessment

Boerstoel, J. W.

1988-12-01

A framework is provided for numerical accuracy assessment. The purpose of numerical flow simulations is formulated. This formulation concerns the classes of aeronautical configurations (boundaries), the desired flow physics (flow equations and their properties), the classes of flow conditions on flow boundaries (boundary conditions), and the initial flow conditions. Next, accuracy and economical performance requirements are defined; the final numerical flow simulation results of interest should have a guaranteed accuracy, and be produced for an acceptable FLOP-price. Within this context, the validation of numerical processes with respect to the well known topics of consistency, stability, and convergence when the mesh is refined must be done by numerical experimentation because theory gives only partial answers. This requires careful design of text cases for numerical experimentation. Finally, the results of a few recent evaluation exercises of numerical experiments with a large number of codes on a few test cases are summarized.

4. A numerical method of regenerator

Zhu, Shaowei; Matsubara, Yoichi

2004-02-01

A numerical method for regenerators is introduced in this paper. It is not only suitable for the regenerators in cryocoolers and Stirling engines, but also suitable for the stacks in acoustic engines and the pulse tubes in pulse tube refrigerators. The numerical model is one dimensional periodic unsteady flow model. The numerical method is based on the control volume concept with the implicitly solve method. The iteration acceleration method, which considers the one-dimensional periodic unsteady problem as the steady two-dimensional problem, is used for decreasing the calculation time. By this method, the regenerator in an inertance tube pulse tube refrigerator was simulated. The result is useful for understanding how the inefficiency of the regenerator changes with the inertance effect.

5. First-order kinetics-controlled multiple species reactive transport of dissolved organic compounds in groundwater: Development and application of a numerical model

SciTech Connect

McNab, W.W. Jr.

1990-05-01

Reactive chemical transport models developed over the past decade have generally relied on the assumption that local thermodynamic equilibrium is achieved at all times between aqueous species in a given system. Consequently, homogeneous aqueous systems characterized by a number of kinetically slow reactions, particularly problems involving organic species, cannot be satisfactorily modeled. In this study, we present a prototype computer model, KINETRAN, which is designed to handle kinetically-controlled homogeneous reactions in the aqueous phase, along with the transport of the various species involved, through geologic media. 31 refs., 53 figs., 10 tabs.

6. Numerical Algorithm for Delta of Asian Option.

PubMed

Zhang, Boxiang; Yu, Yang; Wang, Weiguo

2015-01-01

We study the numerical solution of the Greeks of Asian options. In particular, we derive a close form solution of Δ of Asian geometric option and use this analytical form as a control to numerically calculate Δ of Asian arithmetic option, which is known to have no explicit close form solution. We implement our proposed numerical method and compare the standard error with other classical variance reduction methods. Our method provides an efficient solution to the hedging strategy with Asian options.

7. Experimental and Numerical Optimization of a High-Lift System to Improve Low-Speed Performance, Stability, and Control of an Arrow-Wing Supersonic Transport

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hahne, David E.; Glaab, Louis J.

1999-01-01

8. Comparison of the Structurally Controlled Landslides Numerical Model Results to the M 7.2 2013 Bohol Earthquake Co-seismic Landslides

Macario Galang, Jan Albert; Narod Eco, Rodrigo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

2015-04-01

The M 7.2 October 15, 2013 Bohol earthquake is the most destructive earthquake to hit the Philippines since 2012. The epicenter was located in Sagbayan municipality, central Bohol and was generated by a previously unmapped reverse fault called the "Inabanga Fault". Its name, taken after the barangay (village) where the fault is best exposed and was first seen. The earthquake resulted in 209 fatalities and over 57 billion USD worth of damages. The earthquake generated co-seismic landslides most of which were related to fault structures. Unlike rainfall induced landslides, the trigger for co-seismic landslides happen without warning. Preparedness against this type of landslide therefore, relies heavily on the identification of fracture-related unstable slopes. To mitigate the impacts of co-seismic landslide hazards, morpho-structural orientations or discontinuity sets were mapped in the field with the aid of a 2012 IFSAR Digital Terrain Model (DTM) with 5-meter pixel resolution and < 0.5 meter vertical accuracy. Coltop 3D software was then used to identify similar structures including measurement of their dip and dip directions. The chosen discontinuity sets were then keyed into Matterocking software to identify potential rock slide zones due to planar or wedged discontinuities. After identifying the structurally-controlled unstable slopes, the rock mass propagation extent of the possible rock slides was simulated using Conefall. The results were compared to a post-earthquake landslide inventory of 456 landslides. Out the total number of landslides identified from post-earthquake high-resolution imagery, 366 or 80% intersect the structural-controlled hazard areas of Bohol. The results show the potential of this method to identify co-seismic landslide hazard areas for disaster mitigation. Along with computer methods to simulate shallow landslides, and debris flow paths, located structurally-controlled unstable zones can be used to mark unsafe areas for settlement. The

9. Interpolator for numerically controlled machine tools

DOEpatents

Bowers, Gary L.; Davenport, Clyde M.; Stephens, Albert E.

1976-01-01

A digital differential analyzer circuit is provided that depending on the embodiment chosen can carry out linear, parabolic, circular or cubic interpolation. In the embodiment for parabolic interpolations, the circuit provides pulse trains for the X and Y slide motors of a two-axis machine to effect tool motion along a parabolic path. The pulse trains are generated by the circuit in such a way that parabolic tool motion is obtained from information contained in only one block of binary input data. A part contour may be approximated by one or more parabolic arcs. Acceleration and initial velocity values from a data block are set in fixed bit size registers for each axis separately but simultaneously and the values are integrated to obtain the movement along the respective axis as a function of time. Integration is performed by continual addition at a specified rate of an integrand value stored in one register to the remainder temporarily stored in another identical size register. Overflows from the addition process are indicative of the integral. The overflow output pulses from the second integration may be applied to motors which position the respective machine slides according to a parabolic motion in time to produce a parabolic machine tool motion in space. An additional register for each axis is provided in the circuit to allow "floating" of the radix points of the integrand registers and the velocity increment to improve position accuracy and to reduce errors encountered when the acceleration integrand magnitudes are small when compared to the velocity integrands. A divider circuit is provided in the output of the circuit to smooth the output pulse spacing and prevent motor stall, because the overflow pulses produced in the binary addition process are spaced unevenly in time. The divider has the effect of passing only every nth motor drive pulse, with n being specifiable. The circuit inputs (integrands, rates, etc.) are scaled to give exactly n times the desired number of pulses out, in order to compensate for the divider.

10. Rocket engine numerical simulation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Davidian, Ken

1993-01-01

The topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: a definition of the rocket engine numerical simulator (RENS); objectives; justification; approach; potential applications; potential users; RENS work flowchart; RENS prototype; and conclusions.

11. Rocket engine numerical simulator

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Davidian, Ken

1993-01-01

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: a rocket engine numerical simulator (RENS) definition; objectives; justification; approach; potential applications; potential users; RENS work flowchart; RENS prototype; and conclusion.

12. Numerical simulation of gravel packing

SciTech Connect

Winterfeld, P.H.; Schroeder, D.E. Jr. )

1992-08-01

To obtain maximum productivity from unconsolidated formations where sand control is required, it is important to understand the mechanics of gravel packing. This paper describes a finite-element, numerical simulator that can predict gravel placement in the perforations and annulus of a wellbore. The equations for the simulator include mass and momentum conservation. Wellbore geometry, physical properties, and fluid and gravel-pack properties are simulator input. Experiments in a 100-ft full-scale wellbore model for three gravel-packing configurations have been successfully simulated. These configurations are a circulating pack with a washpipe, a squeeze pack, and a circulating/squeeze pack with a washpipe and a lower telltale screen. The low cost, speed, and extrapolation capabilities of the numerical simulator will greatly enhance our ability to predict gravel placement in a wellbore.

13. Numerical Techniques in Acoustics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Baumeister, K. J. (Compiler)

1985-01-01

This is the compilation of abstracts of the Numerical Techniques in Acoustics Forum held at the ASME's Winter Annual Meeting. This forum was for informal presentation and information exchange of ongoing acoustic work in finite elements, finite difference, boundary elements and other numerical approaches. As part of this forum, it was intended to allow the participants time to raise questions on unresolved problems and to generate discussions on possible approaches and methods of solution.

14. Probabilistic numerics and uncertainty in computations

PubMed Central

Hennig, Philipp; Osborne, Michael A.; Girolami, Mark

2015-01-01

We deliver a call to arms for probabilistic numerical methods: algorithms for numerical tasks, including linear algebra, integration, optimization and solving differential equations, that return uncertainties in their calculations. Such uncertainties, arising from the loss of precision induced by numerical calculation with limited time or hardware, are important for much contemporary science and industry. Within applications such as climate science and astrophysics, the need to make decisions on the basis of computations with large and complex data have led to a renewed focus on the management of numerical uncertainty. We describe how several seminal classic numerical methods can be interpreted naturally as probabilistic inference. We then show that the probabilistic view suggests new algorithms that can flexibly be adapted to suit application specifics, while delivering improved empirical performance. We provide concrete illustrations of the benefits of probabilistic numeric algorithms on real scientific problems from astrometry and astronomical imaging, while highlighting open problems with these new algorithms. Finally, we describe how probabilistic numerical methods provide a coherent framework for identifying the uncertainty in calculations performed with a combination of numerical algorithms (e.g. both numerical optimizers and differential equation solvers), potentially allowing the diagnosis (and control) of error sources in computations. PMID:26346321

15. Probabilistic numerics and uncertainty in computations.

PubMed

Hennig, Philipp; Osborne, Michael A; Girolami, Mark

2015-07-08

We deliver a call to arms for probabilistic numerical methods: algorithms for numerical tasks, including linear algebra, integration, optimization and solving differential equations, that return uncertainties in their calculations. Such uncertainties, arising from the loss of precision induced by numerical calculation with limited time or hardware, are important for much contemporary science and industry. Within applications such as climate science and astrophysics, the need to make decisions on the basis of computations with large and complex data have led to a renewed focus on the management of numerical uncertainty. We describe how several seminal classic numerical methods can be interpreted naturally as probabilistic inference. We then show that the probabilistic view suggests new algorithms that can flexibly be adapted to suit application specifics, while delivering improved empirical performance. We provide concrete illustrations of the benefits of probabilistic numeric algorithms on real scientific problems from astrometry and astronomical imaging, while highlighting open problems with these new algorithms. Finally, we describe how probabilistic numerical methods provide a coherent framework for identifying the uncertainty in calculations performed with a combination of numerical algorithms (e.g. both numerical optimizers and differential equation solvers), potentially allowing the diagnosis (and control) of error sources in computations.

16. Frontiers in Numerical Relativity

Evans, Charles R.; Finn, Lee S.; Hobill, David W.

2011-06-01

Preface; Participants; Introduction; 1. Supercomputing and numerical relativity: a look at the past, present and future David W. Hobill and Larry L. Smarr; 2. Computational relativity in two and three dimensions Stuart L. Shapiro and Saul A. Teukolsky; 3. Slowly moving maximally charged black holes Robert C. Ferrell and Douglas M. Eardley; 4. Kepler's third law in general relativity Steven Detweiler; 5. Black hole spacetimes: testing numerical relativity David H. Bernstein, David W. Hobill and Larry L. Smarr; 6. Three dimensional initial data of numerical relativity Ken-ichi Oohara and Takashi Nakamura; 7. Initial data for collisions of black holes and other gravitational miscellany James W. York, Jr.; 8. Analytic-numerical matching for gravitational waveform extraction Andrew M. Abrahams; 9. Supernovae, gravitational radiation and the quadrupole formula L. S. Finn; 10. Gravitational radiation from perturbations of stellar core collapse models Edward Seidel and Thomas Moore; 11. General relativistic implicit radiation hydrodynamics in polar sliced space-time Paul J. Schinder; 12. General relativistic radiation hydrodynamics in spherically symmetric spacetimes A. Mezzacappa and R. A. Matzner; 13. Constraint preserving transport for magnetohydrodynamics John F. Hawley and Charles R. Evans; 14. Enforcing the momentum constraints during axisymmetric spacelike simulations Charles R. Evans; 15. Experiences with an adaptive mesh refinement algorithm in numerical relativity Matthew W. Choptuik; 16. The multigrid technique Gregory B. Cook; 17. Finite element methods in numerical relativity P. J. Mann; 18. Pseudo-spectral methods applied to gravitational collapse Silvano Bonazzola and Jean-Alain Marck; 19. Methods in 3D numerical relativity Takashi Nakamura and Ken-ichi Oohara; 20. Nonaxisymmetric rotating gravitational collapse and gravitational radiation Richard F. Stark; 21. Nonaxisymmetric neutron star collisions: initial results using smooth particle hydrodynamics

17. Numerical Investigation of Boiling

Sagan, Michael; Tanguy, Sebastien; Colin, Catherine

2012-11-01

In this work, boiling is numerically investigated, using two phase flow direct numerical simulation based on a level set / Ghost Fluid method. Nucleate boiling implies both thermal issue and multiphase dynamics issues at different scales and at different stages of bubble growth. As a result, the different phenomena are investigated separately, considering their nature and the scale at which they occur. First, boiling of a static bubble immersed in an overheated liquid is analysed. Numerical simulations have been performed at different Jakob numbers in the case of strong density discontinuity through the interface. The results show a good agreement on bubble radius evolution between the theoretical evolution and numerical simulation. After the validation of the code for the Scriven test case, interaction of a bubble with a wall is studied. A numerical method taking into account contact angle is evaluated by comparing simulations of the spreading of a liquid droplet impacting on a plate, with experimental data. Then the heat transfer near the contact line is investigated, and simulations of nucleate boiling are performed considering different contact angles values. Finally, the relevance of including a model to take into account the evaporation of the micro layer is discussed.

18. Numerical pole assignment by eigenvalue Jacobian inversion

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sevaston, George E.

1986-01-01

A numerical procedure for solving the linear pole placement problem is developed which operates by the inversion of an analytically determined eigenvalue Jacobian matrix. Attention is given to convergence characteristics and pathological situations. It is not concluded that the algorithm developed is suitable for computer-aided control system design with particular reference to the scan platform pointing control system for the Galileo spacecraft.

19. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default.

PubMed

Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

2013-07-09

Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage.

20. Toward Scientific Numerical Modeling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kleb, Bil

2007-01-01

Ultimately, scientific numerical models need quantified output uncertainties so that modeling can evolve to better match reality. Documenting model input uncertainties and verifying that numerical models are translated into code correctly, however, are necessary first steps toward that goal. Without known input parameter uncertainties, model sensitivities are all one can determine, and without code verification, output uncertainties are simply not reliable. To address these two shortcomings, two proposals are offered: (1) an unobtrusive mechanism to document input parameter uncertainties in situ and (2) an adaptation of the Scientific Method to numerical model development and deployment. Because these two steps require changes in the computational simulation community to bear fruit, they are presented in terms of the Beckhard-Harris-Gleicher change model.

1. Introduction to Numerical Methods

SciTech Connect

Schoonover, Joseph A.

2016-06-14

These are slides for a lecture for the Parallel Computing Summer Research Internship at the National Security Education Center. This gives an introduction to numerical methods. Repetitive algorithms are used to obtain approximate solutions to mathematical problems, using sorting, searching, root finding, optimization, interpolation, extrapolation, least squares regresion, Eigenvalue problems, ordinary differential equations, and partial differential equations. Many equations are shown. Discretizations allow us to approximate solutions to mathematical models of physical systems using a repetitive algorithm and introduce errors that can lead to numerical instabilities if we are not careful.

2. Numerical-Optimization Program

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vanderplaats, Garret N.

1991-01-01

Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) computer program is general-purpose numerical-optimization program for design engineering. Provides wide range of options for solution of constrained and unconstrained function minimization problems. Suitable for such applications as minimum-weight design. Written in FORTRAN 77.

3. Numerical Estimation in Preschoolers

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Piazza, Manuela; Dehaene, Stanislas; Zorzi, Marco

2010-01-01

Children's sense of numbers before formal education is thought to rely on an approximate number system based on logarithmically compressed analog magnitudes that increases in resolution throughout childhood. School-age children performing a numerical estimation task have been shown to increasingly rely on a formally appropriate, linear…

4. Information Based Numerical Practice.

DTIC Science & Technology

1987-02-01

N I IIi I2 LA 1.6 liii I~JIIN MARYLAND COLLEGE PARK CAMPUS INSTITUTE FOR PHYSICAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Technical Note S1-1059 INFORMATION BASED...K-0169 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NMEU AMC ADDRESS 16. PROGRAM CELEMNT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUNSERS, Institute for Physical Science and...BASED NUMERICAL PRACTICE I. Babuska Institute for Physical Science and Technology University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740 a Partially supported by

5. Numerical Relativistic Quantum Optics

DTIC Science & Technology

2013-11-08

Introduction 1 II. Relativistic Wave Equations 2 III. Stationary States 4 A. Analytical Solutions for Coulomb Potentials 4 B. Numerical Solutions...C. Relativistic Ionization Example 15 V. Computational Performance 18 VI. Conclusions 21 VII. Acknowledgements 22 References 23 1 I. INTRODUCTION ...peculiar result that B0 = 1 TG is a weak field. At present, such fields are observed only in connection with astrophysical phenomena [14]. The highest

6. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

SciTech Connect

Hairetdinov, A.H.; Zukov, A.A.

1995-12-31

3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

7. Numerical Modeling of Airblast.

DTIC Science & Technology

1987-06-01

REPORT SAIC 87/1701 June 1987 Dr.. Submitted to: cp Dr. Jay Boris Laboratory for Computational Physics Accet F4,r Naval Research Laboratory I...boundary layer physical assumptions provides an unsteady prediction of the mass flux emerging from the ground. This model was first proposed by Mirels...the physics modeled will be explained. High explosive dust cloud simulation provides a research path when combined with numerical calculations can lead

8. Recent advances in numerical PDEs

Zuev, Julia Michelle

standard algorithm and is just as accurate. Topic 3. The well-known ADI-FDTD method for solving Maxwell's curl equations is second-order accurate in space/time, unconditionally stable, and computationally efficient. We research Richardson extrapolation -based techniques to improve time discretization accuracy for spatially oversampled ADI-FDTD. A careful analysis of temporal accuracy, computational efficiency, and the algorithm's overall stability is presented. Given the context of wave- type PDEs, we find that only a limited number of extrapolations to the ADI-FDTD method are beneficial, if its unconditional stability is to be preserved. We propose a practical approach for choosing the size of a time step that can be used to improve the efficiency of the ADI-FDTD algorithm, while maintaining its accuracy and stability. Topic 4. Shock waves and their energy dissipation properties are critical to understanding the dynamics controlling the MHD turbulence. Numerical advection algorithms used in MHD solvers (e.g. the ZEUS package) introduce undesirable numerical viscosity. To counteract its effects and to resolve shocks numerically, Richtmyer and von Neumann's artificial viscosity is commonly added to the model. We study shock power by analyzing the influence of both artificial and numerical viscosity on energy decay rates. Also, we analytically characterize the numerical diffusivity of various advection algorithms by quantifying their diffusion coefficients e.

9. The Hamilton-Jacobi theory for solving two-point boundary value problems: Theory and numerics with application to spacecraft formation flight, optimal control and the study of phase space structure

Guibout, Vincent M.

This dissertation has been motivated by the need for new methods to address complex problems that arise in spacecraft formation design. As a direct result of this motivation, a general methodology for solving two-point boundary value problems for Hamiltonian systems has been found. Using the Hamilton-Jacobi theory in conjunction with the canonical transformation induced by the phase flow, it is shown that generating functions solve two-point boundary value problems. Traditional techniques for addressing these problems are iterative and require an initial guess. The method presented in this dissertation solves boundary value problems at the cost of a single function evaluation, although it requires knowledge of at least one generating function. Properties of this method are presented. Specifically, we show that it includes perturbation theory and generalizes it to nonlinear systems. Most importantly, it predicts the existence of multiple solutions and allows one to recover all of these solutions. To demonstrate the efficiency of this approach, an algorithm for computing the generating functions is proposed and its convergence properties are studied. As the method developed in this work is based on the Hamiltonian structure of the problem, particular attention must be paid to the numerics of the algorithm. To address this, a general framework for studying the discretization of certain dynamical systems is developed. This framework generalizes earlier work on discretization of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems on tangent and cotangent bundles respectively. In addition, it provides new insights into some symplectic integrators and leads to a new discrete Hamilton-Jacobi theory. Most importantly, it allows one to discretize optimal control problems. In particular, a discrete maximum principle is presented. This dissertation also investigates applications of the proposed method to solve two-point boundary value problems. In particular, new techniques for designing

10. "Recognizing Numerical Constants"

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bailey, David H.; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

The advent of inexpensive, high performance computer and new efficient algorithms have made possible the automatic recognition of numerically computed constants. In other words, techniques now exist for determining, within certain limits, whether a computed real or complex number can be written as a simple expression involving the classical constants of mathematics. In this presentation, some of the recently discovered techniques for constant recognition, notably integer relation detection algorithms, will be presented. As an application of these methods, the author's recent work in recognizing "Euler sums" will be described in some detail.

11. Confidence in Numerical Simulations

SciTech Connect

Hemez, Francois M.

2015-02-23

This PowerPoint presentation offers a high-level discussion of uncertainty, confidence and credibility in scientific Modeling and Simulation (M&S). It begins by briefly evoking M&S trends in computational physics and engineering. The first thrust of the discussion is to emphasize that the role of M&S in decision-making is either to support reasoning by similarity or to “forecast,” that is, make predictions about the future or extrapolate to settings or environments that cannot be tested experimentally. The second thrust is to explain that M&S-aided decision-making is an exercise in uncertainty management. The three broad classes of uncertainty in computational physics and engineering are variability and randomness, numerical uncertainty and model-form uncertainty. The last part of the discussion addresses how scientists “think.” This thought process parallels the scientific method where by a hypothesis is formulated, often accompanied by simplifying assumptions, then, physical experiments and numerical simulations are performed to confirm or reject the hypothesis. “Confidence” derives, not just from the levels of training and experience of analysts, but also from the rigor with which these assessments are performed, documented and peer-reviewed.

12. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Naiman, Cynthia

2006-01-01

The NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with the aerospace industry, other government agencies, and academia, is leading the effort to develop an advanced multidisciplinary analysis environment for aerospace propulsion systems called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. The initial development of NPSS focused on the analysis and design of airbreathing aircraft engines, but the resulting NPSS framework may be applied to any system, for example: aerospace, rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and even human system modeling. NPSS provides increased flexibility for the user, which reduces the total development time and cost. It is currently being extended to support the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Fundamental Aeronautics Program and the Advanced Virtual Engine Test Cell (AVETeC). NPSS focuses on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, and heat transfer with numerical zooming on component codes. Zooming is the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail. NPSS development includes capabilities to facilitate collaborative engineering. The NPSS will provide improved tools to develop custom components and to use capability for zooming to higher fidelity codes, coupling to multidiscipline codes, transmitting secure data, and distributing simulations across different platforms. These powerful capabilities extend NPSS from a zero-dimensional simulation tool to a multi-fidelity, multidiscipline system-level simulation tool for the full development life cycle.

13. Perspectives in numerical astrophysics:

Reverdy, V.

2016-12-01

In this discussion paper, we investigate the current and future status of numerical astrophysics and highlight key questions concerning the transition to the exascale era. We first discuss the fact that one of the main motivation behind high performance simulations should not be the reproduction of observational or experimental data, but the understanding of the emergence of complexity from fundamental laws. This motivation is put into perspective regarding the quest for more computational power and we argue that extra computational resources can be used to gain in abstraction. Then, the readiness level of present-day simulation codes in regard to upcoming exascale architecture is examined and two major challenges are raised concerning both the central role of data movement for performances and the growing complexity of codes. Software architecture is finally presented as a key component to make the most of upcoming architectures while solving original physics problems.

14. Numerical relativity beyond astrophysics.

PubMed

Garfinkle, David

2017-01-01

Though the main applications of computer simulations in relativity are to astrophysical systems such as black holes and neutron stars, nonetheless there are important applications of numerical methods to the investigation of general relativity as a fundamental theory of the nature of space and time. This paper gives an overview of some of these applications. In particular we cover (i) investigations of the properties of spacetime singularities such as those that occur in the interior of black holes and in big bang cosmology. (ii) investigations of critical behavior at the threshold of black hole formation in gravitational collapse. (iii) investigations inspired by string theory, in particular analogs of black holes in more than 4 spacetime dimensions and gravitational collapse in spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant.

15. Numerical relativity beyond astrophysics

Garfinkle, David

2017-01-01

Though the main applications of computer simulations in relativity are to astrophysical systems such as black holes and neutron stars, nonetheless there are important applications of numerical methods to the investigation of general relativity as a fundamental theory of the nature of space and time. This paper gives an overview of some of these applications. In particular we cover (i) investigations of the properties of spacetime singularities such as those that occur in the interior of black holes and in big bang cosmology. (ii) investigations of critical behavior at the threshold of black hole formation in gravitational collapse. (iii) investigations inspired by string theory, in particular analogs of black holes in more than 4 spacetime dimensions and gravitational collapse in spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant.

16. Numerical processing efficiency improved in children using mental abacus: ERP evidence utilizing a numerical Stroop task

PubMed Central

Yao, Yuan; Du, Fenglei; Wang, Chunjie; Liu, Yuqiu; Weng, Jian; Chen, Feiyan

2015-01-01

This study examined whether long-term abacus-based mental calculation (AMC) training improved numerical processing efficiency and at what stage of information processing the effect appeard. Thirty-three children participated in the study and were randomly assigned to two groups at primary school entry, matched for age, gender and IQ. All children went through the same curriculum except that the abacus group received a 2-h/per week AMC training, while the control group did traditional numerical practice for a similar amount of time. After a 2-year training, they were tested with a numerical Stroop task. Electroencephalographic (EEG) and event related potential (ERP) recording techniques were used to monitor the temporal dynamics during the task. Children were required to determine the numerical magnitude (NC) (NC task) or the physical size (PC task) of two numbers presented simultaneously. In the NC task, the AMC group showed faster response times but similar accuracy compared to the control group. In the PC task, the two groups exhibited the same speed and accuracy. The saliency of numerical information relative to physical information was greater in AMC group. With regards to ERP results, the AMC group displayed congruity effects both in the earlier (N1) and later (N2 and LPC (late positive component) time domain, while the control group only displayed congruity effects for LPC. In the left parietal region, LPC amplitudes were larger for the AMC than the control group. Individual differences for LPC amplitudes over left parietal area showed a positive correlation with RTs in the NC task in both congruent and neutral conditions. After controlling for the N2 amplitude, this correlation also became significant in the incongruent condition. Our results suggest that AMC training can strengthen the relationship between symbolic representation and numerical magnitude so that numerical information processing becomes quicker and automatic in AMC children. PMID:26042012

17. Numeric Databases in the Sciences.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meschel, S. V.

1984-01-01

Provides exploration into types of numeric databases available (also known as source databases, nonbibliographic databases, data-files, data-banks, fact banks); examines differences and similarities between bibliographic and numeric databases; identifies disciplines that utilize numeric databases; and surveys representative examples in the…

18. Reliable numerical computation in an optimal output-feedback design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vansteenwyk, Brett; Ly, Uy-Loi

1991-01-01

A reliable algorithm is presented for the evaluation of a quadratic performance index and its gradients with respect to the controller design parameters. The algorithm is a part of a design algorithm for optimal linear dynamic output-feedback controller that minimizes a finite-time quadratic performance index. The numerical scheme is particularly robust when it is applied to the control-law synthesis for systems with densely packed modes and where there is a high likelihood of encountering degeneracies in the closed-loop eigensystem. This approach through the use of an accurate Pade series approximation does not require the closed-loop system matrix to be diagonalizable. The algorithm was included in a control design package for optimal robust low-order controllers. Usefulness of the proposed numerical algorithm was demonstrated using numerous practical design cases where degeneracies occur frequently in the closed-loop system under an arbitrary controller design initialization and during the numerical search.

19. Numerical orbit generators of artificial earth satellites

Kugar, H. K.; Dasilva, W. C. C.

1984-04-01

A numerical orbit integrator containing updatings and improvements relative to the previous ones that are being utilized by the Departmento de Mecanica Espacial e Controle (DMC), of INPE, besides incorporating newer modellings resulting from the skill acquired along the time is presented. Flexibility and modularity were taken into account in order to allow future extensions and modifications. Characteristics of numerical accuracy, processing quickness, memory saving as well as utilization aspects were also considered. User's handbook, whole program listing and qualitative analysis of accuracy, processing time and orbit perturbation effects were included as well.

20. Personalized numerical observer

Brankov, Jovan G.; Pretorius, P. Hendrik

2010-02-01

It is widely accepted that medical image quality should be assessed using task-based criteria, such as humanobserver (HO) performance in a lesion-detection (scoring) task. HO studies are time consuming and cost prohibitive to be used for image quality assessment during development of either reconstruction methods or imaging systems. Therefore, a numerical observer (NO), a HO surrogate, is highly desirable. In the past, we have proposed and successfully tested a NO based on a supervised-learning approach (namely a support vector machine) for cardiac gated SPECT image quality assessment. In the supervised-learning approach, the goal is to identify the relationship between measured image features and HO myocardium defect likelihood scores. Thus far we have treated multiple HO readers by simply averaging or pooling their respective scores. Due to observer variability, this may be suboptimal and less accurate. Therefore, in this work, we are setting our goal to predict individual observer scores independently in the hope to better capture some relevant lesion-detection mechanism of the human observers. This is even more important as there are many ways to get equivalent observer performance (measured by area under receiver operating curve), and simply predicting some joint (average or pooled) score alone is not likely to succeed.

1. Numerical Relativity and Astrophysics

Lehner, Luis; Pretorius, Frans

2014-08-01

Throughout the Universe many powerful events are driven by strong gravitational effects that require general relativity to fully describe them. These include compact binary mergers, black hole accretion, and stellar collapse, where velocities can approach the speed of light and extreme gravitational fields (ΦNewt/c2≃1) mediate the interactions. Many of these processes trigger emission across a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Compact binaries further source strong gravitational wave emission that could directly be detected in the near future. This feat will open up a gravitational wave window into our Universe and revolutionize our understanding of it. Describing these phenomena requires general relativity, and—where dynamical effects strongly modify gravitational fields—the full Einstein equations coupled to matter sources. Numerical relativity is a field within general relativity concerned with studying such scenarios that cannot be accurately modeled via perturbative or analytical calculations. In this review, we examine results obtained within this discipline, with a focus on its impact in astrophysics.

2. Numerical Modeling of Ablation Heat Transfer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ewing, Mark E.; Laker, Travis S.; Walker, David T.

2013-01-01

A unique numerical method has been developed for solving one-dimensional ablation heat transfer problems. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the method, along with detailed derivations of the governing equations. This methodology supports solutions for traditional ablation modeling including such effects as heat transfer, material decomposition, pyrolysis gas permeation and heat exchange, and thermochemical surface erosion. The numerical scheme utilizes a control-volume approach with a variable grid to account for surface movement. This method directly supports implementation of nontraditional models such as material swelling and mechanical erosion, extending capabilities for modeling complex ablation phenomena. Verifications of the numerical implementation are provided using analytical solutions, code comparisons, and the method of manufactured solutions. These verifications are used to demonstrate solution accuracy and proper error convergence rates. A simple demonstration of a mechanical erosion (spallation) model is also provided to illustrate the unique capabilities of the method.

3. Numerical methods used in fusion science numerical modeling

Yagi, M.

2015-04-01

The dynamics of burning plasma is very complicated physics, which is dominated by multi-scale and multi-physics phenomena. To understand such phenomena, numerical simulations are indispensable. Fundamentals of numerical methods used in fusion science numerical modeling are briefly discussed in this paper. In addition, the parallelization technique such as open multi processing (OpenMP) and message passing interface (MPI) parallel programing are introduced and the loop-level parallelization is shown as an example.

4. Numerical estimation of densities

Ascasibar, Y.; Binney, J.

2005-01-01

We present a novel technique, dubbed FIESTAS, to estimate the underlying density field from a discrete set of sample points in an arbitrary multidimensional space. FIESTAS assigns a volume to each point by means of a binary tree. Density is then computed by integrating over an adaptive kernel. As a first test, we construct several Monte Carlo realizations of a Hernquist profile and recover the particle density in both real and phase space. At a given point, Poisson noise causes the unsmoothed estimates to fluctuate by a factor of ~2 regardless of the number of particles. This spread can be reduced to about 1dex (~26 per cent) by our smoothing procedure. The density range over which the estimates are unbiased widens as the particle number increases. Our tests show that real-space densities obtained with an SPH kernel are significantly more biased than those yielded by FIESTAS. In phase space, about 10 times more particles are required in order to achieve a similar accuracy. As a second application we have estimated phase-space densities in a dark matter halo from a cosmological simulation. We confirm the results of Arad, Dekel & Klypin that the highest values of f are all associated with substructure rather than the main halo, and that the volume function v(f) ~f-2.5 over about four orders of magnitude in f. We show that a modified version of the toy model proposed by Arad et al. explains this result and suggests that the departures of v(f) from power-law form are not mere numerical artefacts. We conclude that our algorithm accurately measures the phase-space density up to the limit where discreteness effects render the simulation itself unreliable. Computationally, FIESTAS is orders of magnitude faster than the method based on Delaunay tessellation that Arad et al. employed, making it practicable to recover smoothed density estimates for sets of 109 points in six dimensions.

5. Numerical Simulations of Thermobaric Explosions

SciTech Connect

Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E; Khasainov, B

2007-05-04

A Model of the energy evolution in thermobaric explosions is presented. It is based on the two-phase formulation: conservation laws for the gas and particle phases along with inter-phase interaction terms. It incorporates a Combustion Model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gas dynamic fields. The Model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the booster with air, and the combustion of the fuel (Al or TNT detonation products) with air. Numerical simulations were performed for 1.5-g thermobaric explosions in five different chambers (volumes ranging from 6.6 to 40 liters and length-to-diameter ratios from 1 to 12.5). Computed pressure waveforms were very similar to measured waveforms in all cases - thereby proving that the Model correctly predicts the energy evolution in such explosions. The computed global fuel consumption {mu}(t) behaved as an exponential life function. Its derivative {dot {mu}}(t) represents the global rate of fuel consumption. It depends on the rate of turbulent mixing which controls the rate of energy release in thermobaric explosions.

6. On Some Numerical Dissipation Schemes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Swanson, R. C.; Radespiel, R.; Turkel, E.

1998-01-01

Several schemes for introducing an artificial dissipation into a central difference approximation to the Euler and Navier Stokes equations are considered. The focus of the paper is on the convective upwind and split pressure (CUSP) scheme, which is designed to support single interior point discrete shock waves. This scheme is analyzed and compared in detail with scalar dissipation and matrix dissipation (MATD) schemes. Resolution capability is determined by solving subsonic, transonic, and hypersonic flow problems. A finite-volume discretization and a multistage time-stepping scheme with multigrid are used to compute solutions to the flow equations. Numerical solutions are also compared with either theoretical solutions or experimental data. For transonic airfoil flows the best accuracy on coarse meshes for aerodynamic coefficients is obtained with a simple MATD scheme. The coarse-grid accuracy for the original CUSP scheme is improved by modifying the limiter function used with the scheme, giving comparable accuracy to that obtained with the MATD scheme. The modifications reduce the background dissipation and provide control over the regions where the scheme can become first order.

7. Numerical simulation of Bootstrap Current

SciTech Connect

Wu, Yanlin; White, R.B.

1993-05-01

The neoclassical theory of Bootstrap Current in toroidal systems is calculated in magnetic flux coordinates and confirmed by numerical simulation. The effects of magnetic ripple, loop voltage, and magnetic and electrostatic perturbations on bootstrap current for the cases of zero and finite plasma pressure are studied. The numerical results are in reasonable agreement with analytical estimates.

8. Numerical simulation of dusty plasmas

SciTech Connect

Winske, D.

1995-09-01

The numerical simulation of physical processes in dusty plasmas is reviewed, with emphasis on recent results and unresolved issues. Three areas of research are discussed: grain charging, weak dust-plasma interactions, and strong dust-plasma interactions. For each area, we review the basic concepts that are tested by simulations, present some appropriate examples, and examine numerical issues associated with extending present work.

9. Numerical Approaches to Spacetime Singularities.

PubMed

Berger, Beverly K

1998-01-01

This review updates a previous review article [22]. Numerical exploration of the properties of singularities could, in principle, yield detailed understanding of their nature in physically realistic cases. Examples of numerical investigations into the formation of naked singularities, critical behavior in collapse, passage through the Cauchy horizon, chaos of the Mixmaster singularity, and singularities in spatially inhomogeneous cosmologies are discussed.

10. A study of methods to predict and measure the transmission of sound through the walls of light aircraft. Numerical method for analyzing the optimal performance of active noise controllers. Thesis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mollo, Christopher G.; Bernhard, Robert J.

1987-01-01

An optimal active noise controller is formulated and analyzed for three different active noise control problems. The first problem formulated is the active control of enclosed or partially enclosed harmonic sound fields where the noise source strengths and enclosure boundary description are known. The enclosure boundary is described by either pressure, velocity, or impedance boundary conditions. The second problem formulated is the active control of the free field power radiated from a distributed noise source with a known time harmonic surface velocity. The third problem formulated is the active control of enclosed or partially enclosed harmonic sound field where the noise source strengths of enclosure boundary description may not be known. All three formulations are derived using an indirect boundary element technique. Formulation and verification of an indirect boundary element method is presented. The active noise controller formulations for enclosures are capable of analyzing systems with generalized enclosure shapes, point noise sources, and/or locally reacting impedance boundary conditions. For each formulation, representative results of optimal active noise controller case studies are presented, and some general conclusions are drawn.

11. Numerical Hydrodynamics in General Relativity.

PubMed

Font, José A

2000-01-01

The current status of numerical solutions for the equations of ideal general relativistic hydrodynamics is reviewed. Different formulations of the equations are presented, with special mention of conservative and hyperbolic formulations well-adapted to advanced numerical methods. A representative sample of available numerical schemes is discussed and particular emphasis is paid to solution procedures based on schemes exploiting the characteristic structure of the equations through linearized Riemann solvers. A comprehensive summary of relevant astrophysical simulations in strong gravitational fields, including gravitational collapse, accretion onto black holes and evolution of neutron stars, is also presented.

12. Numerical simulation of magmatic hydrothermal systems

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ingebritsen, S.E.; Geiger, S.; Hurwitz, S.; Driesner, T.

2010-01-01

The dynamic behavior of magmatic hydrothermal systems entails coupled and nonlinear multiphase flow, heat and solute transport, and deformation in highly heterogeneous media. Thus, quantitative analysis of these systems depends mainly on numerical solution of coupled partial differential equations and complementary equations of state (EOS). The past 2 decades have seen steady growth of computational power and the development of numerical models that have eliminated or minimized the need for various simplifying assumptions. Considerable heuristic insight has been gained from process-oriented numerical modeling. Recent modeling efforts employing relatively complete EOS and accurate transport calculations have revealed dynamic behavior that was damped by linearized, less accurate models, including fluid property control of hydrothermal plume temperatures and three-dimensional geometries. Other recent modeling results have further elucidated the controlling role of permeability structure and revealed the potential for significant hydrothermally driven deformation. Key areas for future reSearch include incorporation of accurate EOS for the complete H2O-NaCl-CO2 system, more realistic treatment of material heterogeneity in space and time, realistic description of large-scale relative permeability behavior, and intercode benchmarking comparisons. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

13. Numerical Simulation of Nix's Rotation

NASA Video Gallery

This is a numerical simulation of the orientation of Nix as seen from the center of the Pluto system. It has been sped up so that one orbit of Nix around Pluto takes 2 seconds instead of 25 days. L...

14. Numerical Approaches to Spacetime Singularities.

PubMed

Berger, Beverly K

2002-01-01

This Living Review updates a previous version [25] which is itself an update of a review article [31]. Numerical exploration of the properties of singularities could, in principle, yield detailed understanding of their nature in physically realistic cases. Examples of numerical investigations into the formation of naked singularities, critical behavior in collapse, passage through the Cauchy horizon, chaos of the Mixmaster singularity, and singularities in spatially inhomogeneous cosmologies are discussed.

15. Numerical Optimization Using Computer Experiments

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trosset, Michael W.; Torczon, Virginia

1997-01-01

Engineering design optimization often gives rise to problems in which expensive objective functions are minimized by derivative-free methods. We propose a method for solving such problems that synthesizes ideas from the numerical optimization and computer experiment literatures. Our approach relies on kriging known function values to construct a sequence of surrogate models of the objective function that are used to guide a grid search for a minimizer. Results from numerical experiments on a standard test problem are presented.

16. Numerical modeling of preburner flowfield

Chow, A. S.; Mo, J. D.; Jin, K. R.

1993-06-01

This work is intended to numerically predict the flowfields inside the preburner of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The computer code (FDNS) based on pressure correction method is modified and adapted with an elliptic grid generator. The original configuration of the preburner in conjunction with downstream gas turbines has been simplified geometrically and numerically modeled at its full power in this work. The computational results are presented and qualitatively discussed with test data collected in NASA/MSFC.

17. Numerical anomalies mimicking physical effects

SciTech Connect

Menikoff, R.

1995-09-01

Numerical simulations of flows with shock waves typically use finite-difference shock-capturing algorithms. These algorithms give a shock a numerical width in order to generate the entropy increase that must occur across a shock wave. For algorithms in conservation form, steady-state shock waves are insensitive to the numerical dissipation because of the Hugoniot jump conditions. However, localized numerical errors occur when shock waves interact. Examples are the excess wall heating in the Noh problem (shock reflected from rigid wall), errors when a shock impacts a material interface or an abrupt change in mesh spacing, and the start-up error from initializing a shock as a discontinuity. This class of anomalies can be explained by the entropy generation that occurs in the transient flow when a shock profile is formed or changed. The entropy error is localized spatially but under mesh refinement does not decrease in magnitude. Similar effects have been observed in shock tube experiments with partly dispersed shock waves. In this case, the shock has a physical width due to a relaxation process. An entropy anomaly from a transient shock interaction is inherent in the structure of the conservation equations for fluid flow. The anomaly can be expected to occur whenever heat conduction can be neglected and a shock wave has a non-zero width, whether the width is physical or numerical. Thus, the numerical anomaly from an artificial shock width mimics a real physical effect.

18. Binocular device for displaying numerical information in field of view

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuller, H. V. (Inventor)

1977-01-01

An apparatus is described for superimposing numerical information on the field of view of binoculars. The invention has application in the flying of radio-controlled model airplanes. Information such as airspeed and angle of attack are sensed on a model airplane and transmitted back to earth where this information is changed into numerical form. Optical means are attached to the binoculars that a pilot is using to track the model air plane for displaying the numerical information in the field of view of the binoculars. The device includes means for focusing the numerical information at infinity whereby the user of the binoculars can see both the field of view and the numerical information without refocusing his eyes.

19. Numerical investigation of bubble nonlinear dynamics characteristics

SciTech Connect

Shi, Jie Yang, Desen; Shi, Shengguo; Hu, Bo; Zhang, Haoyang; Jiang, Wei

2015-10-28

The complicated dynamical behaviors of bubble oscillation driven by acoustic wave can provide favorable conditions for many engineering applications. On the basis of Keller-Miksis model, the influences of control parameters, including acoustic frequency, acoustic pressure and radius of gas bubble, are discussed by utilizing various numerical analysis methods, Furthermore, the law of power spectral variation is studied. It is shown that the complicated dynamic behaviors of bubble oscillation driven by acoustic wave, such as bifurcation and chaos, further the stimulated scattering processes are revealed.

20. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ktejik, Mish

2013-01-01

This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

1. Numerical prediction of airplane trailing vortices

Czech, M. J.; Crouch, J. D.; Miller, G. D.; Strelets, M.

2004-11-01

The accurate prediction of airplane trailing vortices is of great interest for both cruise conditions in conjunction with the formation of contrails as well as approach conditions for reasons of flight safety and active vortex control. A numerical approach is introduced based on a quasi-3D Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes formulation with a one-equation turbulence model. The numerical results show good agreement with wind-tunnel data out to ten spans for a range of wing and tail loadings typical of commercial airplanes in a landing configuration. The results show a one-, two- and three-pair system in the near-field with only minor changes to the initial lift distribution. The CFD correctly predicts the strength, demise and position of the individual vortex pairs over a range of test cases. The approach is further extended by considering thrust effects. For cruise conditions, far field predictions show the entrainment of the jet plume into the wake and provide the potential for coupling with a micro-physics model to predict the formation and early evolution of contrails. Potential influences of configuration details on the plume entrainment are considered. This numerical method also offers an attractive approach for assessing active schemes designed to accelerate the break-up of airplane trailing vortices.

2. Numerical abilities in fish: A methodological review.

PubMed

Agrillo, Christian; Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Bisazza, Angelo

2017-02-03

The ability to utilize numerical information can be adaptive in a number of ecological contexts including foraging, mating, parental care, and anti-predator strategies. Numerical abilities of mammals and birds have been studied both in natural conditions and in controlled laboratory conditions using a variety of approaches. During the last decade this ability was also investigated in some fish species. Here we reviewed the main methods used to study this group, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each of the methods used. Fish have only been studied under laboratory conditions and among the methods used with other species, only two have been systematically used in fish-spontaneous choice tests and discrimination learning procedures. In the former case, the choice between two options is observed in a biologically relevant situation and the degree of preference for the larger/smaller group is taken as a measure of the capacity to discriminate the two quantities (e.g., two shoals differing in number). In discrimination learning tasks, fish are trained to select the larger or the smaller of two sets of abstract objects, typically two-dimensional geometric figures, using food or social companions as reward. Beyond methodological differences, what emerges from the literature is a substantial similarity of the numerical abilities of fish with those of other vertebrates studied.

3. Inhomogeneous cosmology with numerical relativity

Macpherson, Hayley J.; Lasky, Paul D.; Price, Daniel J.

2017-03-01

We perform three-dimensional numerical relativity simulations of homogeneous and inhomogeneous expanding spacetimes, with a view toward quantifying nonlinear effects from cosmological inhomogeneities. We demonstrate fourth-order convergence with errors less than one part in 1 06 in evolving a flat, dust Friedmann-Lemaître-Roberston-Walker spacetime using the Einstein Toolkit within the Cactus framework. We also demonstrate agreement to within one part in 1 03 between the numerical relativity solution and the linear solution for density, velocity and metric perturbations in the Hubble flow over a factor of ˜350 change in scale factor (redshift). We simulate the growth of linear perturbations into the nonlinear regime, where effects such as gravitational slip and tensor perturbations appear. We therefore show that numerical relativity is a viable tool for investigating nonlinear effects in cosmology.

4. Numerical Simulation of Black Holes

Teukolsky, Saul

2003-04-01

Einstein's equations of general relativity are prime candidates for numerical solution on supercomputers. There is some urgency in being able to carry out such simulations: Large-scale gravitational wave detectors are now coming on line, and the most important expected signals cannot be predicted except numerically. Problems involving black holes are perhaps the most interesting, yet also particularly challenging computationally. One difficulty is that inside a black hole there is a physical singularity that cannot be part of the computational domain. A second difficulty is the disparity in length scales between the size of the black hole and the wavelength of the gravitational radiation emitted. A third difficulty is that all existing methods of evolving black holes in three spatial dimensions are plagued by instabilities that prohibit long-term evolution. I will describe the ideas that are being introduced in numerical relativity to deal with these problems, and discuss the results of recent calculations of black hole collisions.

5. Numerical Package in Computer Supported Numeric Analysis Teaching

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tezer, Murat

2007-01-01

At universities in the faculties of Engineering, Sciences, Business and Economics together with higher education in Computing, it is stated that because of the difficulty, calculators and computers can be used in Numerical Analysis (NA). In this study, the learning computer supported NA will be discussed together with important usage of the…

6. Numerical relativity and spectral methods

Grandclement, P.

2016-12-01

The term numerical relativity denotes the various techniques that aim at solving Einstein's equations using computers. Those computations can be divided into two families: temporal evolutions on the one hand and stationary or periodic solutions on the other one. After a brief presentation of those two classes of problems, I will introduce a numerical tool designed to solve Einstein's equations: the KADATH library. It is based on the the use of spectral methods that can reach high accuracy with moderate computational resources. I will present some applications about quasicircular orbits of black holes and boson star configurations.

7. The representation of numerical magnitude

PubMed Central

Brannon, Elizabeth M

2006-01-01

The combined efforts of many fields are advancing our understanding of how number is represented. Researchers studying numerical reasoning in adult humans, developing humans and non-human animals are using a suite of behavioral and neurobiological methods to uncover similarities and differences in how each population enumerates and compares quantities to identify the neural substrates of numerical cognition. An important picture emerging from this research is that adult humans share with non-human animals a system for representing number as language-independent mental magnitudes and that this system emerges early in development. PMID:16546373

8. Research in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1984-01-01

Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science is summarized and abstracts of published reports are presented. The major categories of the ICASE research program are: (1) numerical methods, with particular emphasis on the development and analysis of basic numerical algorithms; (2) control and parameter identification; (3) computational problems in engineering and the physical sciences, particularly fluid dynamics, acoustics, and structural analysis; and (4) computer systems and software, especially vector and parallel computers.

9. Summary of research in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer sciences

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1986-01-01

The major categories of current ICASE research programs addressed include: numerical methods, with particular emphasis on the development and analysis of basic numerical algorithms; control and parameter identification problems, with emphasis on effective numerical methods; computational problems in engineering and physical sciences, particularly fluid dynamics, acoustics, and structural analysis; and computer systems and software, especially vector and parallel computers.

10. Conditional Convergence of Numerical Series

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gomez, E.; Plaza, A.

2002-01-01

One of the most astonishing properties when studying numerical series is that the sum is not commutative, that is the sum may change when the order of its elements is altered. In this note an example is given of such a series. A well-known mathematical proof is given and a MATLAB[C] program used for different rearrangements of the series…

11. Numerical calculations of flow fields

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anderson, D.; Vogel, J. M.

1973-01-01

Numerical calculations were made of flow fields generated by various aerodynamic configurations. Data cover flow fields generated by a finitely thick lifting three dimensional wing with subsonic tips moving at supersonic speeds, cross flow instability associated with lifting delta wing configurations such as space shuttles, and flow fields produced by a lifting elliptic cone. Finite difference techniques were used to determine elliptic cone flow.

12. Multivariable Control Systems

DTIC Science & Technology

1968-01-01

one). Examples abound of systems with numerous controlled variables, and the modern tendency is toward ever greater utilization of systems and plants of this kind. We call them multivariable control systems (MCS).

13. Numerical simulation of real-world flows

Hayase, Toshiyuki

2015-10-01

Obtaining real flow information is important in various fields, but is a difficult issue because measurement data are usually limited in time and space, and computational results usually do not represent the exact state of real flows. Problems inherent in the realization of numerical simulation of real-world flows include the difficulty in representing exact initial and boundary conditions and the difficulty in representing unstable flow characteristics. This article reviews studies dealing with these problems. First, an overview of basic flow measurement methodologies and measurement data interpolation/approximation techniques is presented. Then, studies on methods of integrating numerical simulation and measurement, namely, four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var), Kalman filters (KFs), state observers, etc are discussed. The first problem is properly solved by these integration methodologies. The second problem can be partially solved with 4D-Var in which only initial and boundary conditions are control parameters. If an appropriate control parameter capable of modifying the dynamical structure of the model is included in the formulation of 4D-Var, unstable modes are properly suppressed and the second problem is solved. The state observer and KFs also solve the second problem by modifying mathematical models to stabilize the unstable modes of the original dynamical system by applying feedback signals. These integration methodologies are now applied in simulation of real-world flows in a wide variety of research fields. Examples are presented for basic fluid dynamics and applications in meteorology, aerospace, medicine, etc.

14. The Beam Break-Up Numerical Simulator

SciTech Connect

Travish, G.A.

1989-11-01

Beam Break-Up (BBU) is a severe constraint in accelerator design, limiting beam current and quality. The control of BBU has become the focus of much research in the design of the next generation collider, recirculating and linear induction accelerators and advanced accelerators. Determining the effect on BBU of modifications to cavities, the focusing elements or the beam is frequently beyond the ability of current analytic models. A computer code was written to address this problem. The Beam Break-Up Numerical Simulator (BBUNS) was designed to numerically solve for beam break-up (BBU) due to an arbitrary transverse wakefield. BBUNS was developed to be as user friendly as possible on the Cray computer series. The user is able to control all aspects of input and output by using a single command file. In addition, the wakefield is specified by the user and read in as a table. The program can model energy variations along and within the beam, focusing magnetic field profiles can be specified, and the graphical output can be tailored. In this note we discuss BBUNS, its structure and application. Included are detailed instructions, examples and a sample session of BBUNS. This program is available for distribution. 50 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

15. New Numerical Integrators Based on Solvability and Splitting

DTIC Science & Technology

2007-11-02

display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 03 JAN 2005 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE New...Group Methods And Control Theory Workshop Held on 28 June 2004 - 1 July 2004., The original document contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT 15...Mechanics, NMR spectroscopy, infrared divergences in QED, control theory,... 1.1 Magnus expansion (IV) NEW NUMERICAL INTEGRATORS BASED ON SOLVABILITY AND

16. Numerical Modelling of Electrical Discharges

Durán-Olivencia, F. J.; Pontiga, F.; Castellanos, A.

2014-03-01

The problem of the propagation of an electrical discharge between a spherical electrode and a plane has been solved by means of finite element methods (FEM) using a fluid approximation and assuming weak ionization and local equilibrium with the electric field. The numerical simulation of this type of problems presents the usual difficulties of convection-diffusion-reaction problems, in addition to those associated with the nonlinearities of the charged species velocities, the formation of steep gradients of the electric field and particle densities, and the coexistence of very different temporal scales. The effect of using different temporal discretizations for the numerical integration of the corresponding system of partial differential equations will be here investigated. In particular, the so-called θ-methods will be used, which allows to implement implicit, semi-explicit and fully explicit schemes in a simple way.

17. Numerical simulation of heat exchanger

SciTech Connect

Sha, W.T.

1985-01-01

Accurate and detailed knowledge of the fluid flow field and thermal distribution inside a heat exchanger becomes invaluable as a large, efficient, and reliable unit is sought. This information is needed to provide proper evaluation of the thermal and structural performance characteristics of a heat exchanger. It is to be noted that an analytical prediction method, when properly validated, will greatly reduce the need for model testing, facilitate interpolating and extrapolating test data, aid in optimizing heat-exchanger design and performance, and provide scaling capability. Thus tremendous savings of cost and time are realized. With the advent of large digital computers and advances in the development of computational fluid mechanics, it has become possible to predict analytically, through numerical solution, the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy for both the shellside and tubeside fluids. The numerical modeling technique will be a valuable, cost-effective design tool for development of advanced heat exchangers.

18. Numerical Hydrodynamics in Special Relativity.

PubMed

Martí, José Maria; Müller, Ewald

2003-01-01

This review is concerned with a discussion of numerical methods for the solution of the equations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD). Particular emphasis is put on a comprehensive review of the application of high-resolution shock-capturing methods in SRHD. Results of a set of demanding test bench simulations obtained with different numerical SRHD methods are compared. Three applications (astrophysical jets, gamma-ray bursts and heavy ion collisions) of relativistic flows are discussed. An evaluation of various SRHD methods is presented, and future developments in SRHD are analyzed involving extension to general relativistic hydrodynamics and relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics. The review further provides FORTRAN programs to compute the exact solution of a 1D relativistic Riemann problem with zero and nonzero tangential velocities, and to simulate 1D relativistic flows in Cartesian Eulerian coordinates using the exact SRHD Riemann solver and PPM reconstruction.

19. Moore's Law and Numerical Modeling

Voller, V. R.; Porté-Agel, F.

2002-07-01

An estimate of the rate of increase in numerical simulation grid sizes with time is obtained by counting the grids (measured in terms of number of node points) reported in the nine volumes of an established proceedings on the numerical modeling of solidification phenomena dating back to 1980. It is shown that the largest grids used in a given year increase at a rate consistent with the well-known Moore's law on computing power, i.e., the number of nodes in the grids double every 18 months. From this observation, approximate bounds on the available grid size in a current year are established. This approximation is used to provide projections as to when, assuming Moore's law continues to hold, direct simulations of physical phenomena, which resolve to the smallest scale present, will be achievable.

20. Numerical simulation of Ulysses nutation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marirrodriga, C. Garcia; Zeischka, J.; Boslooper, E. C.

1993-01-01

A numerical simulation has been performed on the in-orbit instability of the Ulysses Spacecraft. The thermal excitation from the solar flux, the flexible axial boom and its deployment mechanism have been modeled and analyzed. The simulation shows that the nutation build-up has been originated by the solar input on the axial boom coupled with the system nutation frequency of the spacecraft. The results agree with the observed behavior.

1. Numerical Simulation of Protoplanetary Vortices

DTIC Science & Technology

2003-12-01

UNCLASSIFIED Center for Turbulence Research 81 Annual Research Briefs 2003 Numerical simulation of protoplanetary vortices By H. Lin, J.A. Barranco t AND P.S...planetesimals and planets. In earlier works ( Barranco & Marcus 2000; Barranco et al. 2000; Lin et al. 2000) we have briefly described the possible physical...transport. In particular, Barranco et al. (2000) provided a general mathe- matical framework that is suitable for the asymptotic regime of the disk

2. Cuba: Multidimensional numerical integration library

Hahn, Thomas

2016-08-01

The Cuba library offers four independent routines for multidimensional numerical integration: Vegas, Suave, Divonne, and Cuhre. The four algorithms work by very different methods, and can integrate vector integrands and have very similar Fortran, C/C++, and Mathematica interfaces. Their invocation is very similar, making it easy to cross-check by substituting one method by another. For further safeguarding, the output is supplemented by a chi-square probability which quantifies the reliability of the error estimate.

3. Requirements definition by numerical simulation

Hickman, James J.; Kostas, Chris; Tsang, Kang T.

1994-10-01

We are investigating the issues involved in requirements definition for narcotics interdiction: how much of a particular signature is possible, how does this amount change for different conditions, and what is the temporal relationship in various scenarios. Our approach has been to simulate numerically the conditions that arise during vapor or particulate transport. The advantages of this approach are that (1) a broad range of scenarios can be rapidly and inexpensively analyzed by simulation, and (2) simulations can display quantities that are difficult or impossible to measure. The drawback of this approach is that simulations cannot include all of the phenomena present in a real measurement, and therefore the fidelity of the simulation results is always an issue. To address this limitation, we will ultimately combine the results of numerical simulations with measurements of physical parameters for inclusion in the simulation. In this paper, we discuss these issues and how they apply to the current problems in narcotics interdictions, especially cargo containers. We also show the results of 1D and 3D numerical simulations, and compare these results with analytical solutions. The results indicate that this approach is viable. We also present data from 3D simulations of vapor transport in a loaded cargo container and some of the issues present in this ongoing work.

4. In Praise of Numerical Computation

Yap, Chee K.

Theoretical Computer Science has developed an almost exclusively discrete/algebraic persona. We have effectively shut ourselves off from half of the world of computing: a host of problems in Computational Science & Engineering (CS&E) are defined on the continuum, and, for them, the discrete viewpoint is inadequate. The computational techniques in such problems are well-known to numerical analysis and applied mathematics, but are rarely discussed in theoretical algorithms: iteration, subdivision and approximation. By various case studies, I will indicate how our discrete/algebraic view of computing has many shortcomings in CS&E. We want embrace the continuous/analytic view, but in a new synthesis with the discrete/algebraic view. I will suggest a pathway, by way of an exact numerical model of computation, that allows us to incorporate iteration and approximation into our algorithms’ design. Some recent results give a peek into how this view of algorithmic development might look like, and its distinctive form suggests the name “numerical computational geometry” for such activities.

5. Numerical simulation of conservation laws

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chang, Sin-Chung; To, Wai-Ming

1992-01-01

A new numerical framework for solving conservation laws is being developed. This new approach differs substantially from the well established methods, i.e., finite difference, finite volume, finite element and spectral methods, in both concept and methodology. The key features of the current scheme include: (1) direct discretization of the integral forms of conservation laws, (2) treating space and time on the same footing, (3) flux conservation in space and time, and (4) unified treatment of the convection and diffusion fluxes. The model equation considered in the initial study is the standard one dimensional unsteady constant-coefficient convection-diffusion equation. In a stability study, it is shown that the principal and spurious amplification factors of the current scheme, respectively, are structurally similar to those of the leapfrog/DuFort-Frankel scheme. As a result, the current scheme has no numerical diffusion in the special case of pure convection and is unconditionally stable in the special case of pure diffusion. Assuming smooth initial data, it will be shown theoretically and numerically that, by using an easily determined optimal time step, the accuracy of the current scheme may reach a level which is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the MacCormack scheme, with virtually identical operation count.

6. Numerical methods for turbulent flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Turner, James C., Jr.

1988-01-01

It has generally become accepted that the Navier-Strokes equations predict the dynamic behavior of turbulent as well as laminar flows of a fluid at a point in space away form a discontinuity such as a shock wave. Turbulence is also closely related to the phenomena of non-uniqueness of solutions of the Navier-Strokes equations. These second order, nonlinear partial differential equations can be solved analytically for only a few simple flows. Turbulent flow fields are much to complex to lend themselves to these few analytical methods. Numerical methods, therefore, offer the only possibility of achieving a solution of turbulent flow equations. In spite of recent advances in computer technology, the direct solution, by discrete methods, of the Navier-Strokes equations for turbulent flow fields is today, and in the foreseeable future, impossible. Thus the only economically feasible way to solve practical turbulent flow problems numerically is to use statistically averaged equations governing mean-flow quantities. The objective is to study some recent developments relating to the use of numerical methods to study turbulent flow.

7. Entropy Splitting and Numerical Dissipation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yee, H. C.; Vinokur, M.; Djomehri, M. J.

1999-01-01

A rigorous stability estimate for arbitrary order of accuracy of spatial central difference schemes for initial-boundary value problems of nonlinear symmetrizable systems of hyperbolic conservation laws was established recently by Olsson and Oliger (1994) and Olsson (1995) and was applied to the two-dimensional compressible Euler equations for a perfect gas by Gerritsen and Olsson (1996) and Gerritsen (1996). The basic building block in developing the stability estimate is a generalized energy approach based on a special splitting of the flux derivative via a convex entropy function and certain homogeneous properties. Due to some of the unique properties of the compressible Euler equations for a perfect gas, the splitting resulted in the sum of a conservative portion and a non-conservative portion of the flux derivative. hereafter referred to as the "Entropy Splitting." There are several potential desirable attributes and side benefits of the entropy splitting for the compressible Euler equations that were not fully explored in Gerritsen and Olsson. The paper has several objectives. The first is to investigate the choice of the arbitrary parameter that determines the amount of splitting and its dependence on the type of physics of current interest to computational fluid dynamics. The second is to investigate in what manner the splitting affects the nonlinear stability of the central schemes for long time integrations of unsteady flows such as in nonlinear aeroacoustics and turbulence dynamics. If numerical dissipation indeed is needed to stabilize the central scheme, can the splitting help minimize the numerical dissipation compared to its un-split cousin? Extensive numerical study on the vortex preservation capability of the splitting in conjunction with central schemes for long time integrations will be presented. The third is to study the effect of the non-conservative proportion of splitting in obtaining the correct shock location for high speed complex shock

8. Development of a numerical pump testing framework.

PubMed

Kaufmann, Tim A S; Gregory, Shaun D; Büsen, Martin R; Tansley, Geoff D; Steinseifer, Ulrich

2014-09-01

It has been shown that left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) increase the survival rate in end-stage heart failure patients. However, there is an ongoing demand for an increased quality of life, fewer adverse events, and more physiological devices. These challenges necessitate new approaches during the design process. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), lumped parameter (LP) modeling, mock circulatory loops (MCLs), and particle image velocimetry (PIV) are combined to develop a numerical Pump Testing Framework (nPTF) capable of analyzing local flow patterns and the systemic response of LVADs. The nPTF was created by connecting a CFD model of the aortic arch, including an LVAD outflow graft to an LP model of the circulatory system. Based on the same geometry, a three-dimensional silicone model was crafted using rapid prototyping and connected to an MCL. PIV studies of this setup were performed to validate the local flow fields (PIV) and the systemic response (MCL) of the nPTF. After validation, different outflow graft positions were compared using the nPTF. Both the numerical and the experimental setup were able to generate physiological responses by adjusting resistances and systemic compliance, with mean aortic pressures of 72.2-132.6 mm Hg for rotational speeds of 2200-3050 rpm. During LVAD support, an average flow to the distal branches (cerebral and subclavian) of 24% was found in the experiments and the nPTF. The flow fields from PIV and CFD were in good agreement. Numerical and experimental tools were combined to develop and validate the nPTF, which can be used to analyze local flow fields and the systemic response of LVADs during the design process. This allows analysis of physiological control parameters at early development stages and may, therefore, help to improve patient outcomes.

9. Constraining Numerical Geodynamo Modeling with Surface Observations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kuang, Weijia; Tangborn, Andrew

2006-01-01

Numerical dynamo solutions have traditionally been generated entirely by a set of self-consistent differential equations that govern the spatial-temporal variation of the magnetic field, velocity field and other fields related to dynamo processes. In particular, those solutions are obtained with parameters very different from those appropriate for the Earth s core. Geophysical application of the numerical results therefore depends on correct understanding of the differences (errors) between the model outputs and the true states (truth) in the outer core. Part of the truth can be observed at the surface in the form of poloidal magnetic field. To understand these differences, or errors, we generate new initial model state (analysis) by assimilating sequentially the model outputs with the surface geomagnetic observations using an optimal interpolation scheme. The time evolution of the core state is then controlled by our MoSST core dynamics model. The final outputs (forecasts) are then compared with the surface observations as a means to test the success of the assimilation. We use the surface geomagnetic data back to year 1900 for our studies, with 5-year forecast and 20-year analysis periods. We intend to use the result; to understand time variation of the errors with the assimilation sequences, and the impact of the assimilation on other unobservable quantities, such as the toroidal field and the fluid velocity in the core.

10. Numerical models of complex diapirs

Podladchikov, Yu.; Talbot, C.; Poliakov, A. N. B.

1993-12-01

Numerically modelled diapirs that rise into overburdens with viscous rheology produce a large variety of shapes. This work uses the finite-element method to study the development of diapirs that rise towards a surface on which a diapir-induced topography creeps flat or disperses ("erodes") at different rates. Slow erosion leads to diapirs with "mushroom" shapes, moderate erosion rate to "wine glass" diapirs and fast erosion to "beer glass"- and "column"-shaped diapirs. The introduction of a low-viscosity layer at the top of the overburden causes diapirs to develop into structures resembling a "Napoleon hat". These spread lateral sheets.

11. Gyrotactic trapping: A numerical study

Ghorai, S.

2016-04-01

Gyrotactic trapping is a mechanism proposed by Durham et al. ["Disruption of vertical motility by shear triggers formation of thin Phytoplankton layers," Science 323, 1067-1070 (2009)] to explain the formation of thin phytoplankton layer just below the ocean surface. This mechanism is examined numerically using a rational model based on the generalized Taylor dispersion theory. The crucial role of sedimentation speed in the thin layer formation is demonstrated. The effects of variation in different parameters on the thin layer formation are also investigated.

12. Discrete observability and numerical quadrature

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Martin, Clyde F.; Wang, Xiaochang; Stamp, Mark

1991-01-01

The authors consider the problem of approximate observability of a one-dimensional diffusion equation on a finite spatial domain with spatial point measurements. The problem of the optimal selection of the measurement points is considered under three conditions: (1) no preassigned measurement nodes; (2) one preassigned node and; (3) two preassigned nodes. The main observation is that the optimal choice is related to three classical procedures in numerical analysis: (1) Gaussian quadrature; (2) Radau quadrature and; (3) Lobatto quadrature. It is shown that the existence of the Radau and Lobatto quadrature is closely related to classical root locus theory.

13. Disruptive Innovation in Numerical Hydrodynamics

SciTech Connect

Waltz, Jacob I.

2012-09-06

We propose the research and development of a high-fidelity hydrodynamic algorithm for tetrahedral meshes that will lead to a disruptive innovation in the numerical modeling of Laboratory problems. Our proposed innovation has the potential to reduce turnaround time by orders of magnitude relative to Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) codes; reduce simulation setup costs by millions of dollars per year; and effectively leverage Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) and future Exascale computing hardware. If successful, this work will lead to a dramatic leap forward in the Laboratory's quest for a predictive simulation capability.

14. Results from Numerical General Relativity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Baker, John G.

2011-01-01

For several years numerical simulations have been revealing the details of general relativity's predictions for the dynamical interactions of merging black holes. I will review what has been learned of the rich phenomenology of these mergers and the resulting gravitational wave signatures. These wave forms provide a potentially observable record of the powerful astronomical events, a central target of gravitational wave astronomy. Asymmetric radiation can produce a thrust on the system which may accelerate the single black hole resulting from the merger to high relative velocity.

15. Numerical methods for multibody systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Glowinski, Roland; Nasser, Mahmoud G.

1994-01-01

This article gives a brief summary of some results obtained by Nasser on modeling and simulation of inequality problems in multibody dynamics. In particular, the augmented Lagrangian method discussed here is applied to a constrained motion problem with impulsive inequality constraints. A fundamental characteristic of the multibody dynamics problem is the lack of global convexity of its Lagrangian. The problem is transformed into a convex analysis problem by localization (piecewise linearization), where the augmented Lagrangian has been successfully used. A model test problem is considered and a set of numerical experiments is presented.

16. Numerical MHD codes for modeling astrophysical flows

Koldoba, A. V.; Ustyugova, G. V.; Lii, P. S.; Comins, M. L.; Dyda, S.; Romanova, M. M.; Lovelace, R. V. E.

2016-05-01

We describe a Godunov-type magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code based on the Miyoshi and Kusano (2005) solver which can be used to solve various astrophysical hydrodynamic and MHD problems. The energy equation is in the form of entropy conservation. The code has been implemented on several different coordinate systems: 2.5D axisymmetric cylindrical coordinates, 2D Cartesian coordinates, 2D plane polar coordinates, and fully 3D cylindrical coordinates. Viscosity and diffusivity are implemented in the code to control the accretion rate in the disk and the rate of penetration of the disk matter through the magnetic field lines. The code has been utilized for the numerical investigations of a number of different astrophysical problems, several examples of which are shown.

17. Numerical Study of Tip Vortex Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dacles-Mariani, Jennifer; Hafez, Mohamed

1998-01-01

This paper presents an overview and summary of the many different research work related to tip vortex flows and wake/trailing vortices as applied to practical engineering problems. As a literature survey paper, it outlines relevant analytical, theoretical, experimental and computational study found in literature. It also discusses in brief some of the fundamental aspects of the physics and its complexities. An appendix is also included. The topics included in this paper are: 1) Analytical Vortices; 2) Experimental Studies; 3) Computational Studies; 4) Wake Vortex Control and Management; 5) Wake Modeling; 6) High-Lift Systems; 7) Issues in Numerical Studies; 8) Instabilities; 9) Related Topics; 10) Visualization Tools for Vertical Flows; 11) Further Work Needed; 12) Acknowledgements; 13) References; and 14) Appendix.

18. Numerical simulation of excited jet mixing layers

Scott, J. N.; Hankey, W. L.

1987-01-01

A numerical simulation of unsteady flow in jet mixing layers, both with and without external excitation, has been performed by solving the time-dependent compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Computations were performed on a CRAY X-MP computer using MacCormick's explicit finite difference algorithm. Different excitation methods were investigated and were shown to be very effective in controlling the well organized periodic production, shedding and pairing of large scale vortex structures. It is found that pressure excitation was generally more effective than temperature excitation, and that grid refinement results in substantial improvement in the resolution of unsteady features. The location and orientation, in addition to the frequency, of the excitation source are shown to have a significant influence on the production and interaction of large scale vortex structures in the jet mixing layer.

19. Numerical simulation of centrifugal casting of pipes

Kaschnitz, E.

2012-07-01

A numerical simulation model for the horizontal centrifugal pipe casting process was developed with the commercial simulation package Flow3D. It considers - additionally to mass, energy and momentum conservation equations and free surface tracking - the fast radial and slower horizontal movement of the mold. The iron inflow is not steady state but time dependent. Of special importance is the friction between the liquid and the mold in connection with the viscosity and turbulence of the iron. Experiments with the mold at controlled revolution speeds were carried out using a high-speed camera. From these experiments friction coefficients for the description of the interaction between mold and melt were obtained. With the simulation model, the influence of typical process parameters (e.g. melts inflow, mold movement, melt temperature, cooling media) on the wall thickness of the pipes can be studied. The comparison to results of pipes from production shows a good agreement between simulation and reality.

20. High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses

SciTech Connect

Morgan, Andrew J.; Prasciolu, Mauro; Andrejczuk, Andrzej; Krzywinski, Jacek; Meents, Alke; Pennicard, David; Graafsma, Heinz; Barty, Anton; Bean, Richard J.; Barthelmess, Miriam; Oberthuer, Dominik; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Aquila, Andrew; Chapman, Henry N.; Bajt, Saša

2015-06-01

The ever-increasing brightness of synchrotron radiation sources demands improved X-ray optics to utilise their capability for imaging and probing biological cells, nanodevices, and functional matter on the nanometer scale with chemical sensitivity. Here we demonstrate focusing a hard X-ray beam to an 8 nm focus using a volume zone plate (also referred to as a wedged multilayer Laue lens). This lens was constructed using a new deposition technique that enabled the independent control of the angle and thickness of diffracting layers to microradian and nanometer precision, respectively. This ensured that the Bragg condition is satisfied at each point along the lens, leading to a high numerical aperture that is limited only by its extent. We developed a phase-shifting interferometric method based on ptychography to characterise the lens focus. The precision of the fabrication and characterisation demonstrated here provides the path to efficient X-ray optics for imaging at 1 nm resolution.

1. Numerical Studies of Impurities in Fusion Plasmas

DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

Hulse, R. A.

1982-09-01

The coupled partial differential equations used to describe the behavior of impurity ions in magnetically confined controlled fusion plasmas require numerical solution for cases of practical interest. Computer codes developed for impurity modeling at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory are used as examples of the types of codes employed for this purpose. These codes solve for the impurity ionization state densities and associated radiation rates using atomic physics appropriate for these low-density, high-temperature plasmas. The simpler codes solve local equations in zero spatial dimensions while more complex cases require codes which explicitly include transport of the impurity ions simultaneously with the atomic processes of ionization and recombination. Typical applications are discussed and computational results are presented for selected cases of interest.

2. Wake redirection: comparison of analytical, numerical and experimental models

Wang, Jiangang; Bottasso, Carlo L.; Campagnolo, Filippo

2016-09-01

This paper focuses on wake redirection techniques for wind farm control. Two control strategies are investigated: yaw misalignment and cyclic pitch control. First, analytical formulas are derived for both techniques, with the goal of providing a simple physical interpretation of the behavior of the two methods. Next, more realistic results are obtained by numerical simulations performed with CFD and by experiments conducted with scaled wind turbine models operating in a boundary layer wind tunnel. Comparing the analytical, numerical and experimental models allows for a cross-validation of the results and a better understanding of the two wake redirection techniques. Results indicate that yaw misalignment is more effective than cyclic pitch control in displacing the wake laterally, although the latter may have positive effects on wake recovery.

3. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Architecture

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Naiman, Cynthia G.

2004-01-01

The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. Because the NPSS was developed using the object-oriented paradigm, the resulting architecture is an extensible and flexible framework that is currently being used by a diverse set of participants in government, academia, and the aerospace industry. NPSS is being used by over 15 different institutions to support rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and aerospace. Full system-level simulations as well as subsystems may be modeled using NPSS. The NPSS architecture enables the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail, which is called numerical zooming. The middleware used to enable zooming and distributed simulations is the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). The NPSS Developer's Kit offers tools for the developer to generate CORBA-based components and wrap codes. The Developer's Kit enables distributed multi-fidelity and multi-discipline simulations, preserves proprietary and legacy codes, and facilitates addition of customized codes. The platforms supported are PC, Linux, HP, Sun, and SGI.

4. Numerical micromagnetism of strong inhomogeneities

Andreas, Christian; Gliga, Sebastian; Hertel, Riccardo

2014-08-01

The size of micromagnetic structures, such as domain walls or vortices, is comparable to the exchange length of the ferromagnet. Both, the exchange length of the stray field ls and the magnetocrystalline exchange length lk, are material-dependent quantities that usually lie in the nanometer range. This emphasizes the theoretical challenges associated with the mesoscopic nature of micromagnetism: the magnetic structures are much larger than the atomic lattice constant, but at the same time much smaller than the sample size. In computer simulations, the smallest exchange length serves as an estimate for the largest cell size admissible to prevent appreciable discretization errors. This general rule is not valid in special situations where the magnetization becomes particularly inhomogeneous. When such strongly inhomogeneous structures develop, micromagnetic simulations inevitably contain systematic and numerical errors. It is suggested to combine micromagnetic theory with a Heisenberg model to resolve such problems. We analyze cases where strongly inhomogeneous structures pose limits to standard micromagnetic simulations, arising from fundamental aspects as well as from numerical drawbacks.

5. Numerical Model for Hydrovolcanic Explosions.

2007-03-01

A hydrovolcanic explosion is generated by the interaction of hot magma with ground water. It is called Surtseyan after the 1963 explosive eruption off Iceland. The water flashes to steam and expands explosively. Liquid water becomes water gas at constant volume and generates pressures of about 3GPa. The Krakatoa hydrovolcanic explosion was modeled using the full Navier-Stokes AMR Eulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE [1] which includes the high pressure physics of explosions. The water in the hydrovolcanic explosion was described as liquid water heated by magma to 1100 K. The high temperature water is treated as an explosive with the hot liquid water going to water gas. The BKW [2] steady state detonation state has a peak pressure of 8.9 GPa, a propagation velocity of 5900 meters/sec and the water is compressed to 1.33 g/cc. [1] Numerical Modeling of Water Waves, Second Edition, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 2004. [2] Numerical Modeling of Explosions and Propellants, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 1998.

6. Numerical investigation of dielectric barrier discharges

Li, Jing

1997-12-01

A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is a transient discharge occurring between two electrodes in coaxial or planar arrangements separated by one or two layers of dielectric material. The charge accumulated on the dielectric barrier generates a field in a direction opposite to the applied field. The discharge is quenched before an arc is formed. It is one of the few non-thermal discharges that operates at atmospheric pressure and has the potential for use in pollution control. In this work, a numerical model of the dielectric barrier discharge is developed, along with the numerical approach. Adaptive grids based on the charge distribution is used. A self-consistent method is used to solve for the electric field and charge densities. The Successive Overrelaxation (SOR) method in a non-uniform grid spacing is used to solve the Poisson's equation in the cylindrically-symmetric coordinate. The Flux Corrected Transport (FCT) method is modified to solve the continuity equations in the non-uniform grid spacing. Parametric studies of dielectric barrier discharges are conducted. General characteristics of dielectric barrier discharges in both anode-directed and cathode-directed streamer are studied. Effects of the dielectric capacitance, the applied field, the resistance in external circuit and the type of gases (O2, air, N2) are investigated. We conclude that the SOR method in an adaptive grid spacing for the solution of the Poisson's equation in the cylindrically-symmetric coordinate is convergent and effective. The dielectric capacitance has little effect on the g-factor of radical production, but it determines the strength of the dielectric barrier discharge. The applied field and the type of gases used have a significant role on the current peak, current pulse duration and radical generation efficiency, discharge strength, and microstreamer radius, whereas the external series resistance has very little effect on the streamer properties. The results are helpful in

7. Suppressing the numerical Cherenkov radiation in the Yee numerical scheme

SciTech Connect

2016-01-15

The next generation of laser facilities will routinely produce relativistic particle beams from the interaction of intense laser pulses with solids and/or gases. Their modeling with Particle-In-Cell (PIC) codes needs dispersion-free Maxwell solvers in order to properly describe the interaction of electromagnetic waves with relativistic particles. A particular attention is devoted to the suppression of the numerical Cherenkov instability, responsible for the noise generation. It occurs when the electromagnetic wave is artificially slowed down because of the finite mesh size, thus allowing for the high energy particles to propagate with super-luminous velocities. In the present paper, we show how a slight increase of the light velocity in the Maxwell's equations enables to suppress this instability while keeping a good overall precision of calculations.

8. Robot Manipulator Control.

DTIC Science & Technology

1983-03-07

This report presents a synthetic approach for calculating the control of robot manipulators. The initial control problem is broken down into linear ... control and modelling problems. The approach allows derivation of numerous schemes (adaptive or not) of control proposed in the literature and suggests

9. A new clinical tool for assessing numerical abilities in neurological diseases: numerical activities of daily living

PubMed Central

Semenza, Carlo; Meneghello, Francesca; Arcara, Giorgio; Burgio, Francesca; Gnoato, Francesca; Facchini, Silvia; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Clementi, Maurizio; Butterworth, Brian

2014-01-01

The aim of this study was to build an instrument, the numerical activities of daily living (NADL), designed to identify the specific impairments in numerical functions that may cause problems in everyday life. These impairments go beyond what can be inferred from the available scales evaluating activities of daily living in general, and are not adequately captured by measures of the general deterioration of cognitive functions as assessed by standard clinical instruments like the MMSE and MoCA. We assessed a control group (n = 148) and a patient group affected by a wide variety of neurological conditions (n = 175), with NADL along with IADL, MMSE, and MoCA. The NADL battery was found to have satisfactory construct validity and reliability, across a wide age range. This enabled us to calculate appropriate criteria for impairment that took into account age and education. It was found that neurological patients tended to overestimate their abilities as compared to the judgment made by their caregivers, assessed with objective tests of numerical abilities. PMID:25126077

10. NUMERICAL CONTROL OF MACHINE TOOLS, AN INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Industrial Education.

IN A SUMMER WORKSHOP, JUNIOR COLLEGE INSTRUCTORS AND INDUSTRIAL SUPERVISORS DEVELOPED THIS GUIDE FOR TEACHER USE IN A 3-SEMESTER-HOUR COURSE AT THE JUNIOR COLLEGE LEVEL. THE COURSE OBJECTIVES ARE TO (1) UPGRADE JOURNEYMEN IN MACHINE TOOL OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND TOOLING, AND (2) ACQUAINT MANUFACTURING, SUPERVISORY, PLANNING, AND MAINTENANCE…

11. Numerical Nonlinear Robust Control with Applications to Humanoid Robots

DTIC Science & Technology

2015-07-01

Humanoid robots are designed to imitate the manipulative, locomotive, perceptive, communicative, and cognitive abilities of humans [3]. On one hand... neurodynamic programming, and other variations. We refer readers to Powell [37] for a comprehensive review of these methods. In short, the idea of value... neurodynamic programming algorithm in conjunction with a two-player policy iteration was applied to a nonlinear affine systems with input saturations. The result

12. Nonlocal Control of Fracture Propagation in Numerical Simulations

DTIC Science & Technology

2013-03-01

setting the state variables were implemented in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory code ALE3D.3 The nonlocal method is quite similar to element...Manual for ALE3D: An Arbitrary Lagrange/Eulerian 2-D and 3-D Code System; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Livermore, CA, 2009. 6 3...NIEDERHAUS E STRACK MS 1323 PO BOX 5800 1515 EUBANK SE ALBUQUERQUE NM 87185-1323 3 LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATL LABS (PDF) R MCCALLEN A

13. 22 CFR 42.51 - Department control of numerical limitations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... adjustment of status as reported by officers of the DHS, taking into account the requirements of INA 202(e... visa; (3) An alien having a preference immigrant visa is found not to be a preference immigrant; or...

14. Novel Numerical Algorithms for Sensing, Discrimination, and Control

DTIC Science & Technology

1990-03-09

throughput specifications. At the front end of the imaging data stream, individual pixel level processing for filtering, contrasting, contouring requires...100 MHz clock rates for 32-bit data arriving at 10-40 MHz frame rates. Imaging processing at the back end looks for patterns or "global" parameters and...observations suggest, however, that a CZT requires 2N log N operations whereas the FFT requires only N log N operations. Hence, the CZT is not

15. Numerical accuracy of mean-field calculations in coordinate space

Ryssens, W.; Heenen, P.-H.; Bender, M.

2015-12-01

Background: Mean-field methods based on an energy density functional (EDF) are powerful tools used to describe many properties of nuclei in the entirety of the nuclear chart. The accuracy required of energies for nuclear physics and astrophysics applications is of the order of 500 keV and much effort is undertaken to build EDFs that meet this requirement. Purpose: Mean-field calculations have to be accurate enough to preserve the accuracy of the EDF. We study this numerical accuracy in detail for a specific numerical choice of representation for mean-field equations that can accommodate any kind of symmetry breaking. Method: The method that we use is a particular implementation of three-dimensional mesh calculations. Its numerical accuracy is governed by three main factors: the size of the box in which the nucleus is confined, the way numerical derivatives are calculated, and the distance between the points on the mesh. Results: We examine the dependence of the results on these three factors for spherical doubly magic nuclei, neutron-rich 34Ne , the fission barrier of 240Pu , and isotopic chains around Z =50 . Conclusions: Mesh calculations offer the user extensive control over the numerical accuracy of the solution scheme. When appropriate choices for the numerical scheme are made the achievable accuracy is well below the model uncertainties of mean-field methods.

16. Numerical matching judgments in children with mathematical learning disabilities.

PubMed

Defever, Emmy; De Smedt, Bert; Reynvoet, Bert

2013-10-01

Both deficits in the innate magnitude representation (i.e. representation deficit hypothesis) and deficits in accessing the magnitude representation from symbols (i.e. access deficit hypotheses) have been proposed to explain mathematical learning disabilities (MLD). Evidence for these hypotheses has mainly been accumulated through the use of numerical magnitude comparison tasks. It has been argued that the comparison distance effect might reflect decision processes on activated magnitude representations rather than number processing per se. One way to avoid such decisional processes confounding the numerical distance effect is by using a numerical matching task, in which children have to indicate whether two dot-arrays or a dot-array and a digit are numerically the same or different. Against this background, we used a numerical matching task to examined the representation deficit and access deficit hypotheses in a group children with MLD and controls matched on age, gender and IQ. The results revealed that children with MLD were slower than controls on the mixed notation trials, whereas no difference was found for the non-symbolic trials. This might be in line with the access deficit hypothesis, showing that children with MLD have difficulties in linking a symbol with its quantity representation. However, further investigation is required to exclude the possibility that children with MLD have a deficit in integrating the information from different input notations.

17. Numerical simulation of aneurysm hemodynamics

MacVicar, Stephen; Huynh, Sophia; Rossmann, Jenn

2003-11-01

Rupture of intracranial aneurysms is the leading cause of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage, with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Numerical simulations of flow in a variety of two-dimensional and three-dimensional saccular aneurysm geometries were performed to evaluate possible sites and mechanisms for aneurysm growth and rupture. The governing equations were solved in their finite volume formulation for both steady and pulsatile flows. Recirculation zones and secondary flows were observed in aneurysms and arteries. Regions of elevated and oscillating shear stress were observed, often at the aneurysm's distal shoulder. The influence of several geometric factors, including vessel curvature, branching angle, and aneurysm shape, on flow patterns and fluid mechanical forces was studied, with the goal of assessing the risks posed by given aneurysm geometry.

18. Numerical calculations of flow fields

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anderson, D. M.; Vogel, J. M.

1972-01-01

The solutions to the equations of motion for inviscid fluid flow around a pointed elliptic cone at incidence are presented. The numerical method used, MacCormack's second order preferential predictor-corrector finite difference approximation, is applied to the fluid flow equations derived in conservation-law form. The entropy boundary condition, hitherto unused for elliptic cone problems, is investigated and compared to reflection boundary condition solutions. The stagnation streamline movement of the inclined elliptic cone is noted and surface pressure coefficients are plotted. Also presented are solutions for an elliptic cone and a circular cone at zero incidence and a circular cone at a small angle of attack. Comparisons are made between these present solutions and previously published theory.

19. Numerical classification of coding sequences

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collins, D. W.; Liu, C. C.; Jukes, T. H.

1992-01-01

DNA sequences coding for protein may be represented by counts of nucleotides or codons. A complete reading frame may be abbreviated by its base count, e.g. A76C158G121T74, or with the corresponding codon table, e.g. (AAA)0(AAC)1(AAG)9 ... (TTT)0. We propose that these numerical designations be used to augment current methods of sequence annotation. Because base counts and codon tables do not require revision as knowledge of function evolves, they are well-suited to act as cross-references, for example to identify redundant GenBank entries. These descriptors may be compared, in place of DNA sequences, to extract homologous genes from large databases. This approach permits rapid searching with good selectivity.

20. Numerical computation of Pop plot

SciTech Connect

Menikoff, Ralph

2015-03-23

The Pop plot — distance-of-run to detonation versus initial shock pressure — is a key characterization of shock initiation in a heterogeneous explosive. Reactive burn models for high explosives (HE) must reproduce the experimental Pop plot to have any chance of accurately predicting shock initiation phenomena. This report describes a methodology for automating the computation of a Pop plot for a specific explosive with a given HE model. Illustrative examples of the computation are shown for PBX 9502 with three burn models (SURF, WSD and Forest Fire) utilizing the xRage code, which is the Eulerian ASC hydrocode at LANL. Comparison of the numerical and experimental Pop plot can be the basis for a validation test or as an aid in calibrating the burn rate of an HE model. Issues with calibration are discussed.

1. Numerical Investigations of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

Mueller, W. C.

2006-12-01

Incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence studied by large-scale direct numerical simulations has revealed a number of new interesting facets. The Goldreich-Sridhar phenomenology partly breaks down in turbulence subject to a strong mean magnetic field. This leads to a measureable anisotropy of two-point statistics. The nonlinear dynamics of kinetic (E^K) and magnetic energy (E^M) is the result of a dynamical equilibrium of Alfvén effect and a small-sale dynamo leading to a scaling relation between total and residual energy: (E^M-E^K)~ k(E^K+E^M)2. The probability density functions of cascading quantities are found to exhibit mono-scaling.

2. Numerical reconstruction of optical surfaces.

PubMed

Nam, Jayoung; Rubinstein, Jacob

2008-07-01

There are several problems in optics that involve the reconstruction of surfaces such as wavefronts, reflectors, and lenses. The reconstruction problem often leads to a system of first-order differential equations for the unknown surface. We compare several numerical methods for integrating differential equations of this kind. One class of methods involves a direct integration. It is shown that such a technique often fails in practice. We thus consider one method that provides an approximate direct integration; we show that it is always converging and that it provides a stable, accurate solution even in the presence of measurement noise. In addition, we consider a number of methods that are based on converting the original equation into a minimization problem.

3. On numerically accurate finite element

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nagtegaal, J. C.; Parks, D. M.; Rice, J. R.

1974-01-01

A general criterion for testing a mesh with topologically similar repeat units is given, and the analysis shows that only a few conventional element types and arrangements are, or can be made suitable for computations in the fully plastic range. Further, a new variational principle, which can easily and simply be incorporated into an existing finite element program, is presented. This allows accurate computations to be made even for element designs that would not normally be suitable. Numerical results are given for three plane strain problems, namely pure bending of a beam, a thick-walled tube under pressure, and a deep double edge cracked tensile specimen. The effects of various element designs and of the new variational procedure are illustrated. Elastic-plastic computation at finite strain are discussed.

4. Petrov Classification in Numerical Relativity

Owen, Robert

2010-02-01

The algebraic classification system of Petrov, Pirani, and Penrose provides a method to unambiguously characterize the gravitational degrees of freedom point-by-point throughout a spacetime. It is tempting to apply this system to the numerically-generated spacetimes that have recently proliferated, and some work has already gone in this direction. However, spacetimes of current physical interest --- such as binary black hole mergers --- raise subtleties in that they are generically, strictly speaking, Type I, but approximately, in some sense, Type D. To make any such claims about approximate Petrov class'' meaningful, one must introduce a degeneracy measure'' on the space of null rays. In this talk, I will describe some of the difficulties in this undertaking, and present results applying such degeneracy measures to binary black hole simulations from the Caltech/Cornell/CITA group. )

5. Numerical optimization using flow equations.

PubMed

Punk, Matthias

2014-12-01

We develop a method for multidimensional optimization using flow equations. This method is based on homotopy continuation in combination with a maximum entropy approach. Extrema of the optimizing functional correspond to fixed points of the flow equation. While ideas based on Bayesian inference such as the maximum entropy method always depend on a prior probability, the additional step in our approach is to perform a continuous update of the prior during the homotopy flow. The prior probability thus enters the flow equation only as an initial condition. We demonstrate the applicability of this optimization method for two paradigmatic problems in theoretical condensed matter physics: numerical analytic continuation from imaginary to real frequencies and finding (variational) ground states of frustrated (quantum) Ising models with random or long-range antiferromagnetic interactions.

6. Numerical experiments in homogeneous turbulence

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rogallo, R. S.

1981-01-01

The direct simulation methods developed by Orszag and Patternson (1972) for isotropic turbulence were extended to homogeneous turbulence in an incompressible fluid subjected to uniform deformation or rotation. The results of simulations for irrotational strain (plane and axisymmetric), shear, rotation, and relaxation toward isotropy following axisymmetric strain are compared with linear theory and experimental data. Emphasis is placed on the shear flow because of its importance and because of the availability of accurate and detailed experimental data. The computed results are used to assess the accuracy of two popular models used in the closure of the Reynolds-stress equations. Data from a variety of the computed fields and the details of the numerical methods used in the simulation are also presented.

7. Numerical optimization using flow equations

Punk, Matthias

2014-12-01

We develop a method for multidimensional optimization using flow equations. This method is based on homotopy continuation in combination with a maximum entropy approach. Extrema of the optimizing functional correspond to fixed points of the flow equation. While ideas based on Bayesian inference such as the maximum entropy method always depend on a prior probability, the additional step in our approach is to perform a continuous update of the prior during the homotopy flow. The prior probability thus enters the flow equation only as an initial condition. We demonstrate the applicability of this optimization method for two paradigmatic problems in theoretical condensed matter physics: numerical analytic continuation from imaginary to real frequencies and finding (variational) ground states of frustrated (quantum) Ising models with random or long-range antiferromagnetic interactions.

8. Physical and Relativistic Numerical Cosmology.

PubMed

Anninos, Peter

1998-01-01

In order to account for the observable Universe, any comprehensive theory or model of cosmology must draw from many disciplines of physics, including gauge theories of strong and weak interactions, the hydrodynamics and microphysics of baryonic matter, electromagnetic fields, and spacetime curvature, for example. Although it is difficult to incorporate all these physical elements into a single complete model of our Universe, advances in computing methods and technologies have contributed significantly towards our understanding of cosmological models, the Universe, and astrophysical processes within them. A sample of numerical calculations addressing specific issues in cosmology are reviewed in this article: from the Big Bang singularity dynamics to the fundamental interactions of gravitational waves; from the quark-hadron phase transition to the large scale structure of the Universe. The emphasis, although not exclusively, is on those calculations designed to test different models of cosmology against the observed Universe.

9. Numeric Databases in the 80s.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fried, John B.; Kovacs, Gabor J.

1982-01-01

Defining a numeric database as a computer-readable collection of data predominantly numeric in nature, this article reviews techniques and technologies having a positive influence on the growth of numeric databases, such as videotex, mini- and microcomputers, artificial intelligence, improved software, telecommunications, and office automation.…

10. Revealing Numerical Solutions of a Differential Equation

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Glaister, P.

2006-01-01

In this article, the author considers a student exercise that involves determining the exact and numerical solutions of a particular differential equation. He shows how a typical student solution is at variance with a numerical solution, suggesting that the numerical solution is incorrect. However, further investigation shows that this numerical…

11. Numerical simulation of transition in wall-bounded shear flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kleiser, Leonhard; Zang, Thomas A.

1991-01-01

The current status of numerical simulation techniques for the transition to turbulence in incompressible channel and boundary-layer flows is surveyed, and typical results are presented graphically. The focus is on direct numerical simulations based on the full nonlinear time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations without empirical closure assumptions for prescribed initial and boundary conditions. Topics addressed include the vibrating ribbon problem, space and time discretization, initial and boundary conditions, alternative methods based on the triple-deck approximation, two-dimensional channel and boundary-layer flows, three-dimensional boundary layers, wave packets and turbulent spots, compressible flows, transition control, and transition modeling.

12. 3D Numerical simulations of oblique subduction

Malatesta, C.; Gerya, T.; Scambelluri, M.; Crispini, L.; Federico, L.; Capponi, G.

2012-04-01

In the past 2D numerical studies (e.g. Gerya et al., 2002; Gorczyk et al., 2007; Malatesta et al., 2012) provided evidence that during intraoceanic subduction a serpentinite channel forms above the downgoing plate. This channel forms as a result of hydration of the mantle wedge by uprising slab-fluids. Rocks buried at high depths are finally exhumed within this buoyant low-viscosity medium. Convergence rate in these 2D models was described by a trench-normal component of velocity. Several present and past subduction zones worldwide are however driven by oblique convergence between the plates, where trench-normal motion of the subducting slab is coupled with trench-parallel displacement of the plates. Can the exhumation mechanism and the exhumation rates of high-pressure rocks be affected by the shear component of subduction? And how uprise of these rocks can vary along the plate margin? We tried to address these questions performing 3D numerical models that simulate an intraoceanic oblique subduction. The models are based on thermo-mechanical equations that are solved with finite differences method and marker-in-cell techniques combined with multigrid approach (Gerya, 2010). In most of the models a narrow oceanic basin (500 km-wide) surrounded by continental margins is depicted. The basin is floored by either layered or heterogeneous oceanic lithosphere with gabbro as discrete bodies in serpentinized peridotite and a basaltic layer on the top. A weak zone in the mantle is prescribed to control the location of subduction initiation and therefore the plate margins geometry. Finally, addition of a third dimension in the simulations allowed us to test the role of different plate margin geometries on oblique subduction dynamics. In particular in each model we modified the dip angle of the weak zone and its "lateral" geometry (e.g. continuous, segmented). We consider "continuous" weak zones either parallel or increasingly moving away from the continental margins

13. Revised numerical wrapper for PIES code

Raburn, Daniel; Reiman, Allan; Monticello, Donald

2015-11-01

A revised external numerical wrapper has been developed for the Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver (PIES code), which is capable of calculating 3D MHD equilibria with islands. The numerical wrapper has been demonstrated to greatly improve the rate of convergence in numerous cases corresponding to equilibria in the TFTR device where magnetic islands are present. The numerical wrapper makes use of a Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov solver along with adaptive preconditioning and a sophisticated subspace-restricted Levenberg-Marquardt backtracking algorithm. The details of the numerical wrapper and several sample results are presented.

14. Equivalent beam modeling using numerical reduction techniques

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chapman, J. M.; Shaw, F. H.

1987-01-01

Numerical procedures that can accomplish model reductions for space trusses were developed. Three techniques are presented that can be implemented using current capabilities within NASTRAN. The proposed techniques accomplish their model reductions numerically through use of NASTRAN structural analyses and as such are termed numerical in contrast to the previously developed analytical techniques. Numerical procedures are developed that permit reductions of large truss models containing full modeling detail of the truss and its joints. Three techniques are presented that accomplish these model reductions with various levels of structural accuracy. These numerical techniques are designated as equivalent beam, truss element reduction, and post-assembly reduction methods. These techniques are discussed in detail.

15. Numerical Studies of Topological phases

Geraedts, Scott

The topological phases of matter have been a major part of condensed matter physics research since the discovery of the quantum Hall effect in the 1980s. Recently, much of this research has focused on the study of systems of free fermions, such as the integer quantum Hall effect, quantum spin Hall effect, and topological insulator. Though these free fermion systems can play host to a variety of interesting phenomena, the physics of interacting topological phases is even richer. Unfortunately, there is a shortage of theoretical tools that can be used to approach interacting problems. In this thesis I will discuss progress in using two different numerical techniques to study topological phases. Recently much research in topological phases has focused on phases made up of bosons. Unlike fermions, free bosons form a condensate and so interactions are vital if the bosons are to realize a topological phase. Since these phases are difficult to study, much of our understanding comes from exactly solvable models, such as Kitaev's toric code, as well as Levin-Wen and Walker-Wang models. We may want to study systems for which such exactly solvable models are not available. In this thesis I present a series of models which are not solvable exactly, but which can be studied in sign-free Monte Carlo simulations. The models work by binding charges to point topological defects. They can be used to realize bosonic interacting versions of the quantum Hall effect in 2D and topological insulator in 3D. Effective field theories of ''integer'' (non-fractionalized) versions of these phases were available in the literature, but our models also allow for the construction of fractional phases. We can measure a number of properties of the bulk and surface of these phases. Few interacting topological phases have been realized experimentally, but there is one very important exception: the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE). Though the fractional quantum Hall effect we discovered over 30

16. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent reacting flows

SciTech Connect

Chen, J.H.

1993-12-01

The development of turbulent combustion models that reflect some of the most important characteristics of turbulent reacting flows requires knowledge about the behavior of key quantities in well defined combustion regimes. In turbulent flames, the coupling between the turbulence and the chemistry is so strong in certain regimes that is is very difficult to isolate the role played by one individual phenomenon. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is an extremely useful tool to study in detail the turbulence-chemistry interactions in certain well defined regimes. Globally, non-premixed flames are controlled by two limiting cases: the fast chemistry limit, where the turbulent fluctuations. In between these two limits, finite-rate chemical effects are important and the turbulence interacts strongly with the chemical processes. This regime is important because industrial burners operate in regimes in which, locally the flame undergoes extinction, or is at least in some nonequilibrium condition. Furthermore, these nonequilibrium conditions strongly influence the production of pollutants. To quantify the finite-rate chemistry effect, direct numerical simulations are performed to study the interaction between an initially laminar non-premixed flame and a three-dimensional field of homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of extinction and on transient effects on the fine scale mixing process. Differential molecular diffusion among species is also examined with this approach, both for nonreacting and reacting situations. To address the problem of large-scale mixing and to examine the effects of mean shear, efforts are underway to perform large eddy simulations of round three-dimensional jets.

17. Grasping numbers: evidence for automatic influence of numerical magnitude on grip aperture.

PubMed

Namdar, Gal; Tzelgov, Joseph; Algom, Daniel; Ganel, Tzvi

2014-06-01

Previous research has shown that the fingers' aperture during grasp is affected by the numerical values of numbers embedded in the grasped objects: Numerically larger digits lead to larger grip apertures than do numerically smaller digits during the initial stages of the grasp. The relationship between numerical magnitude and visuomotor control has been taken to support the idea of a common underlying neural system mediating the processing of magnitude and the computation of object size for motor control. The purpose of the present study was to test whether the effect of magnitude on motor preparation is automatic. During grasping, we asked participants to attend to the colors of the digit while ignoring numerical magnitude. The results showed that numerical magnitude affected grip aperture during the initial stages of the grasp, even when magnitude information was irrelevant to the task at hand. These findings suggest that magnitude affects grasping preparation in an automatic fashion.

18. Pitfalls and guidelines for the numerical evaluation of moderate-order system frequency response

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Frisch, H. P.

1981-01-01

The design and evaluation of a feedback control system via frequency response methods relies heavily upon numerical methods. In application, one can usually develop low order simulation models which for the most part are devoid of numerical problems. However, when complex feedback interactions, for example, between instrument control systems and their flexible mounting structure, must be evaluated, simulation models become moderate to large order and numerical problems become common. A large body of relevant numerical error analysis literature is summarized in a large language understandable to nonspecialists. The intent is to provide engineers using simulation models with an engineering feel for potential numerical problems without getting intertwined in the complexities of the associated mathematical theory. Guidelines are also provided by suggesting alternate state of the art methods which have good numerical evaluation characteristics.

19. Numerical calculation of granular entropy.

PubMed

Asenjo, Daniel; Paillusson, Fabien; Frenkel, Daan

2014-03-07

We present numerical simulations that allow us to compute the number of ways in which N particles can pack into a given volume V. Our technique modifies the method of Xu, Frenkel, and Liu [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 245502 (2011)] and outperforms existing direct enumeration methods by more than 200 orders of magnitude. We use our approach to study the system size dependence of the number of distinct packings of a system of up to 128 polydisperse soft disks. We show that, even though granular particles are distinguishable, we have to include a factor 1=N! to ensure that the entropy does not change when exchanging particles between systems in the same macroscopic state. Our simulations provide strong evidence that the packing entropy, when properly defined, is extensive. As different packings are created with unequal probabilities, it is natural to express the packing entropy as S = − Σ(i)p(i) ln pi − lnN!, where pi denotes the probability to generate the ith packing. We can compute this quantity reliably and it is also extensive. The granular entropy thus (re)defined, while distinct from the one proposed by Edwards [J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2, SA63 (1990)], does have all the properties Edwards assumed.

20. Spectral Methods for Numerical Relativity.

PubMed

Grandclément, Philippe; Novak, Jérôme

2009-01-01

Equations arising in general relativity are usually too complicated to be solved analytically and one must rely on numerical methods to solve sets of coupled partial differential equations. Among the possible choices, this paper focuses on a class called spectral methods in which, typically, the various functions are expanded in sets of orthogonal polynomials or functions. First, a theoretical introduction of spectral expansion is given with a particular emphasis on the fast convergence of the spectral approximation. We then present different approaches to solving partial differential equations, first limiting ourselves to the one-dimensional case, with one or more domains. Generalization to more dimensions is then discussed. In particular, the case of time evolutions is carefully studied and the stability of such evolutions investigated. We then present results obtained by various groups in the field of general relativity by means of spectral methods. Work, which does not involve explicit time-evolutions, is discussed, going from rapidly-rotating strange stars to the computation of black-hole-binary initial data. Finally, the evolution of various systems of astrophysical interest are presented, from supernovae core collapse to black-hole-binary mergers.

1. Numerical Calculation of Granular Entropy

Asenjo, Daniel; Paillusson, Fabien; Frenkel, Daan

2014-03-01

We present numerical simulations that allow us to compute the number of ways in which N particles can pack into a given volume V. Our technique modifies the method of Xu, Frenkel, and Liu [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 245502 (2011)] and outperforms existing direct enumeration methods by more than 200 orders of magnitude. We use our approach to study the system size dependence of the number of distinct packings of a system of up to 128 polydisperse soft disks. We show that, even though granular particles are distinguishable, we have to include a factor 1/N! to ensure that the entropy does not change when exchanging particles between systems in the same macroscopic state. Our simulations provide strong evidence that the packing entropy, when properly defined, is extensive. As different packings are created with unequal probabilities, it is natural to express the packing entropy as S=-∑ipilnpi-lnN!, where pi denotes the probability to generate the ith packing. We can compute this quantity reliably and it is also extensive. The granular entropy thus (re)defined, while distinct from the one proposed by Edwards [J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2, SA63 (1990)], does have all the properties Edwards assumed.

2. Numerical modeling of enclosure convection

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Duh, J. C.

1989-01-01

A numerical study on the steady and unsteady natural convection in two-dimensional rectangular enclosures has been performed by a time-accurate ADI finite difference scheme. The study covered a range of Rayleigh numbers between 1000 and 10 to the 7th, aspect ratios between 0.2 and 10.0, and tilt angles between -90 (heating from bottom) and +90 deg (heating from top). Various Prandtl numbers have been studied, but only the results of water (Pr = 7.0) are reported here due to space limitations. The physics revealed, however, includes the convection phenomena and the Rayleigh-Benard stability, as well as the combined mechanism of these two. The onset of secondary cells is determined by using a velocity map, which is simpler and cleaner, instead of a streamline plot. The critical Ra number for the occurrence of these secondary cells is shown to be lower than can be detected by experimental studies. On the Rayleigh-Benard stability part, a second transition from stable single-cell convection to periodic multicellular convection is disclosed.

3. Numerical Modeling of Nanoelectronic Devices

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Klimeck, Gerhard; Oyafuso, Fabiano; Bowen, R. Chris; Boykin, Timothy

2003-01-01

Nanoelectronic Modeling 3-D (NEMO 3-D) is a computer program for numerical modeling of the electronic structure properties of a semiconductor device that is embodied in a crystal containing as many as 16 million atoms in an arbitrary configuration and that has overall dimensions of the order of tens of nanometers. The underlying mathematical model represents the quantummechanical behavior of the device resolved to the atomistic level of granularity. The system of electrons in the device is represented by a sparse Hamiltonian matrix that contains hundreds of millions of terms. NEMO 3-D solves the matrix equation on a Beowulf-class cluster computer, by use of a parallel-processing matrix vector multiplication algorithm coupled to a Lanczos and/or Rayleigh-Ritz algorithm that solves for eigenvalues. In a recent update of NEMO 3-D, a new strain treatment, parameterized for bulk material properties of GaAs and InAs, was developed for two tight-binding submodels. The utility of the NEMO 3-D was demonstrated in an atomistic analysis of the effects of disorder in alloys and, in particular, in bulk In(x)Ga(l-x)As and in In0.6Ga0.4As quantum dots.

4. Playing Linear Numerical Board Games Promotes Low-Income Children's Numerical Development

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Siegler, Robert S.; Ramani, Geetha B.

2008-01-01

The numerical knowledge of children from low-income backgrounds trails behind that of peers from middle-income backgrounds even before the children enter school. This gap may reflect differing prior experience with informal numerical activities, such as numerical board games. Experiment 1 indicated that the numerical magnitude knowledge of…

5. Numerical Simulations of the Digital Microfluidic Manipulation of Single Microparticles.

PubMed

Lan, Chuanjin; Pal, Souvik; Li, Zhen; Ma, Yanbao

2015-09-08

Single-cell analysis techniques have been developed as a valuable bioanalytical tool for elucidating cellular heterogeneity at genomic, proteomic, and cellular levels. Cell manipulation is an indispensable process for single-cell analysis. Digital microfluidics (DMF) is an important platform for conducting cell manipulation and single-cell analysis in a high-throughput fashion. However, the manipulation of single cells in DMF has not been quantitatively studied so far. In this article, we investigate the interaction of a single microparticle with a liquid droplet on a flat substrate using numerical simulations. The droplet is driven by capillary force generated from the wettability gradient of the substrate. Considering the Brownian motion of microparticles, we utilize many-body dissipative particle dynamics (MDPD), an off-lattice mesoscopic simulation technique, in this numerical study. The manipulation processes (including pickup, transport, and drop-off) of a single microparticle with a liquid droplet are simulated. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the effects on the manipulation processes from the droplet size, wettability gradient, wetting properties of the microparticle, and particle-substrate friction coefficients. The numerical results show that the pickup, transport, and drop-off processes can be precisely controlled by these parameters. On the basis of the numerical results, a trap-free delivery of a hydrophobic microparticle to a destination on the substrate is demonstrated in the numerical simulations. The numerical results not only provide a fundamental understanding of interactions among the microparticle, the droplet, and the substrate but also demonstrate a new technique for the trap-free immobilization of single hydrophobic microparticles in the DMF design. Finally, our numerical method also provides a powerful design and optimization tool for the manipulation of microparticles in DMF systems.

6. Numerical Abstraction in Young Domestic Chicks (Gallus gallus)

PubMed Central

Rugani, Rosa; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Regolin, Lucia

2013-01-01

In a variety of circumstances animals can represent numerical values per se, although it is unclear how salient numbers are relative to non-numerical properties. The question is then: are numbers intrinsically distinguished or are they processed as a last resort only when no other properties differentiate stimuli? The last resort hypothesis is supported by findings pertaining to animal studies characterized by extensive training procedures. Animals may, nevertheless, spontaneously and routinely discriminate numerical attributes in their natural habitat, but data available on spontaneous numerical competence usually emerge from studies not disentangling numerical from quantitative cues. In the study being outlined here, we tested animals' discrimination of a large number of elements utilizing a paradigm that did not require any training procedures. During rearing, newborn chicks were presented with two stimuli, each characterized by a different number of heterogeneous (for colour, size and shape) elements and food was found in proximity of one of the two stimuli. At testing 3 day-old chicks were presented with stimuli depicting novel elements (for colour, size and shape) representing either the numerosity associated or not associated with food. The chicks approached the number associated with food in the 5vs.10 and 10vs.20 comparisons both when quantitative cues were unavailable (stimuli were of random sizes) or being controlled. The findings emerging from the study support the hypothesis that numbers are salient information promptly processed even by very young animals. PMID:23776457

7. Numerical simulation of porosity-free titanium dental castings.

PubMed

Wu, M; Augthun, M; Schädlich-Stubenrauch, J; Sahm, P R; Spiekermann, H

1999-08-01

The objective of this research was to analyse, predict and control the porosity in titanium dental castings by the use of numerical simulation. A commercial software package (MAGMASOFT) was used. In the first part of the study, a model casting (two simplified tooth crowns connected by a connector bar) was simulated to analyse shrinkage porosity. Secondly, gas pores were numerically examined by means of a ball specimen with a "snake" sprue. The numerical simulation results were compared with the experimental casting results, which were made on a centrifugal casting machine. The predicted shrinkage levels coincided well with the experimentally determined levels. Based on the above numerical analyses, an optimised running and gating system design for the crown model was proposed. The numerical filling and solidification results of the ball specimen showed that this simulation model could be helpful for the explanation of the experimentally indicated gas pores. It was concluded that shrinkage porosity in titanium dental casting was predictable, and it could be minimised by improving the running and gating system design. Entrapped gas pores can be explained from the simulation results of the mould filling and solidification.

8. SUSY in silico: Numerical D-brane bound state spectroscopy

Anous, Tarek

2016-11-01

We numerically construct the supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric wave functions of an N =4 quiver quantum mechanics with two Abelian nodes and a single arrow. This model captures the dynamics of a pair of wrapped D-branes interacting via a single light string mode. A dimensionless parameter ν , which is inversely proportional to the Fayet-Iliopoulos parameter, controls whether the bulk of the wave functions are supported on the Higgs branch or the Coulomb branch. We demonstrate how the supersymmetric and excited states morph as ν is tuned. We also numerically compute the energy gap between the ground state and the first excited states as a function of ν . An expression for the gap, computed on the Coulomb branch, matches nicely with our numerics at large ν but deviates at small ν where the Higgs branch becomes the relevant description of the physics. In the appendix, we provide the Schrödinger equations fully reduced via symmetries which, in principle, allow for the numerical determination of the entire spectrum at any point in moduli space. For the ground states, this numerical determination of the spectrum can be thought of as the first in silico check of various Witten index calculations.

9. Intentional and automatic numerical processing as predictors of mathematical abilities in primary school children

PubMed Central

Pina, Violeta; Castillo, Alejandro; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Fuentes, Luis J.

2015-01-01

Previous studies have suggested that numerical processing relates to mathematical performance, but it seems that such relationship is more evident for intentional than for automatic numerical processing. In the present study we assessed the relationship between the two types of numerical processing and specific mathematical abilities in a sample of 109 children in grades 1–6. Participants were tested in an ample range of mathematical tests and also performed both a numerical and a size comparison task. The results showed that numerical processing related to mathematical performance only when inhibitory control was involved in the comparison tasks. Concretely, we found that intentional numerical processing, as indexed by the numerical distance effect in the numerical comparison task, was related to mathematical reasoning skills only when the task-irrelevant dimension (the physical size) was incongruent; whereas automatic numerical processing, indexed by the congruency effect in the size comparison task, was related to mathematical calculation skills only when digits were separated by small distance. The observed double dissociation highlights the relevance of both intentional and automatic numerical processing in mathematical skills, but when inhibitory control is also involved. PMID:25873909

10. Intentional and automatic numerical processing as predictors of mathematical abilities in primary school children.

PubMed

Pina, Violeta; Castillo, Alejandro; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Fuentes, Luis J

2015-01-01

Previous studies have suggested that numerical processing relates to mathematical performance, but it seems that such relationship is more evident for intentional than for automatic numerical processing. In the present study we assessed the relationship between the two types of numerical processing and specific mathematical abilities in a sample of 109 children in grades 1-6. Participants were tested in an ample range of mathematical tests and also performed both a numerical and a size comparison task. The results showed that numerical processing related to mathematical performance only when inhibitory control was involved in the comparison tasks. Concretely, we found that intentional numerical processing, as indexed by the numerical distance effect in the numerical comparison task, was related to mathematical reasoning skills only when the task-irrelevant dimension (the physical size) was incongruent; whereas automatic numerical processing, indexed by the congruency effect in the size comparison task, was related to mathematical calculation skills only when digits were separated by small distance. The observed double dissociation highlights the relevance of both intentional and automatic numerical processing in mathematical skills, but when inhibitory control is also involved.

11. Implications of number-space synesthesia on the automaticity of numerical processing.

PubMed

Gertner, Limor; Henik, Avishai; Reznik, Daniel; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

2013-05-01

Number-space synesthetes visualize numbers in specific spatial configurations. Their spatial-numerical perceptions are assumed to be automatic in nature and have been found to affect performance in various numerical tasks. The current study tested whether synesthetic number-space associations can modulate the well-established Size Congruency Effect (SiCE), which is considered to be an indication for the automaticity of numerical processing. Two groups, number-space synesthetes and matched controls, were tested on a numerical Stroop task (Henik and Tzelgov, 1982). In separate blocks, participants were presented with two digits and asked to make comparative judgments regarding either numerical values (numerical comparison) or physical size (physical comparison). Both dimensions were manipulated orthogonally, creating three congruency levels: congruent (e.g., 2 7), incongruent (e.g., 2 7) and neutral (e.g., 2 2 and 2 7 for physical and numerical blocks, respectively). For the numerical block, both synesthetes and controls showed the classic SiCE, indicating similar automatic processing of physical magnitude. However, in the physical block, synesthetes showed a lack of automatic numerical magnitude processing when the numbers to be compared were presented incompatibly with their relative position on the synesthetic number-form. This finding strongly suggests that synesthetes' number-space perceptions affect their ability to automatically process the semantic meaning of numerals. The involvement of space in automatic magnitude processing for number-space synesthetes and non-synesthetes is discussed.

12. Implications of number-space synesthesia on the automaticity of numerical processing

PubMed Central

Gertner, Limor; Henik, Avishai; Reznik, Daniel; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

2013-01-01

Number-space synesthetes visualize numbers in specific spatial configurations. Their spatial-numerical perceptions are assumed to be automatic in nature and have been found to affect performance in various numerical tasks. The current study tested whether synesthetic number-space associations can modulate the well-established Size Congruency Effect (SiCE), which is considered to be an indication for the automaticity of numerical processing. Two groups, number-space synesthetes and matched controls, were tested on a numerical Stroop task (Henik and Tzelgov, 1982). In separate blocks, participants were presented with two digits and asked to make comparative judgments regarding either numerical values (numerical comparison) or physical size (physical comparison). Both dimensions were manipulated orthogonally, creating three congruency levels: congruent (e.g., 2 7), incongruent (e.g., 2 7) and neutral (e.g., 2 2 and 2 7 for physical and numerical blocks, respectively). For the numerical block, both synesthetes and controls showed the classic SiCE, indicating similar automatic processing of physical magnitude. However, in the physical block, synesthetes showed a lack of automatic numerical magnitude processing when the numbers to be compared were presented incompatibly with their relative position on the synesthetic number-form. This finding strongly suggests that synesthetes’ number-space perceptions affect their ability to automatically process the semantic meaning of numerals. The involvement of space in automatic magnitude processing for number-space synesthetes and non-synesthetes is discussed. PMID:22578710

13. Simulating reionization in numerical cosmology

Sokasian, Aaron

2003-11-01

The incorporation of radiative transfer effects into cosmological hydrodynamical simulations is essential for understanding how the intergalactic medium (IGM) makes the transition from a neutral medium to one that is almost fully ionized. I present an approximate numerical method designed to study in a statistical sense how a cosmological density field is ionized by various sets of sources. The method requires relatively few time steps and can be employed with simulations of high resolution. First, I explore the reionization history of Helium II by z < 6 quasars. Comparisons between HeII opacities measured observationally and inferred from our analysis reveal that the uncertainties in the empirical luminosity function provide enough leeway to provide a satisfactory match. A property common to all the calculations is that the epoch of Helium II reionization must have occurred between 3≲z≲4 . I extend my analysis to study the constraints that can be placed on the nature of the cosmic ultraviolet (UV) background in the redshift interval 2.5≲z≲5 . I find that in order to simultaneously match observational estimates of the HI and HeII opacities, galaxies and quasars must contribute about equally to the ionizing background in HI at z ≃ 3. Moreover, my analysis requires the stellar component to rise for z > 3 to compensate for the declining contribution from bright quasars at higher redshift. To investigate how stellar source may have reionized the universe at z > 6, I have combined our 3D radiative transfer code with high resolution hydrodynamical simulations to study how population II and III type stars affected the reionization process. The resulting complex reionization histories are presented and comparisons made with observational constraints on the neutral fraction of hydrogen at z ˜ 6 derived from the z = 6.28 SDSS quasar of Becker and coworkers and the recent WMAP measurements of the electron scattering optical depth analysis of Kogut

14. Numerical Simulation of Protoplanetary Vortices

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lin, H.; Barranco, J. A.; Marcus, P. S.

2003-01-01

The fluid dynamics within a protoplanetary disk has been attracting the attention of many researchers for a few decades. Previous works include, to list only a few among many others, the well-known prescription of Shakura & Sunyaev, the convective and instability study of Stone & Balbus and Hawley et al., the Rossby wave approach of Lovelace et al., as well as a recent work by Klahr & Bodenheimer, which attempted to identify turbulent flow within the disk. The disk is commonly understood to be a thin gas disk rotating around a central star with differential rotation (the Keplerian velocity), and the central quest remains as how the flow behavior deviates (albeit by a small amount) from a strong balance established between gravitational and centrifugal forces, transfers mass and momentum inward, and eventually forms planetesimals and planets. In earlier works we have briefly described the possible physical processes involved in the disk; we have proposed the existence of long-lasting, coherent vortices as an efficient agent for mass and momentum transport. In particular, Barranco et al. provided a general mathematical framework that is suitable for the asymptotic regime of the disk; Barranco & Marcus (2000) addressed a proposed vortex-dust interaction mechanism which might lead to planetesimal formation; and Lin et al. (2002), as inspired by general geophysical vortex dynamics, proposed basic mechanisms by which vortices can transport mass and angular momentum. The current work follows up on our previous effort. We shall focus on the detailed numerical implementation of our problem. We have developed a parallel, pseudo-spectral code to simulate the full three-dimensional vortex dynamics in a stably-stratified, differentially rotating frame, which represents the environment of the disk. Our simulation is validated with full diagnostics and comparisons, and we present our results on a family of three-dimensional, coherent equilibrium vortices.

15. Numerical Investigation of a Fuselage Boundary Layer Ingestion Propulsion Concept

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Fredericks, William J.; Guynn, Mark D.; Campbell, Richard L.

2013-01-01

In the present study, a numerical assessment of the performance of fuselage boundary layer ingestion (BLI) propulsion techniques was conducted. This study is an initial investigation into coupling the aerodynamics of the fuselage with a BLI propulsion system to determine if there is sufficient potential to warrant further investigation of this concept. Numerical simulations of flow around baseline, Boundary Layer Controlled (BLC), and propelled boundary layer controlled airships were performed. Computed results showed good agreement with wind tunnel data and previous numerical studies. Numerical simulations and sensitivity analysis were then conducted on four BLI configurations. The two design variables selected for the parametric study of the new configurations were the inlet area and the inlet to exit area ratio. Current results show that BLI propulsors may offer power savings of up to 85% over the baseline configuration. These interim results include the simplifying assumption that inlet ram drag is negligible and therefore likely overstate the reduction in power. It has been found that inlet ram drag is not negligible and should be included in future analysis.

16. Feedback Stabilization Methods for the Numerical Solution of Systems of Ordinary Differential Equations

Karafyllis, Iasson; Grüne, Lars

2009-09-01

In this work we study the problem of step size selection for numerical schemes, which guarantees that the numerical solution presents the same qualitative behavior as the original system of ordinary differential equations, by means of tools from nonlinear control theory. Lyapunov-based stabilization methods are exploited.

17. Problem-Based Instructional Strategy and Numerical Ability as Determinants of Senior Secondary Achievement in Mathematics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2016-01-01

The study investigated Problem-based Instructional Strategy and Numerical ability as determinants of Senior Secondary Achievement in Mathematics. This study used 4 x 2 x 2 non-randomised control group Pretest-Posttest Quasi-experimental Factorial design. It consisted of two independent variables (treatment and Numerical ability) and one moderating…

18. The Geometric Grids of the Hieratic Numeral.

Aboulfotouh, Hossam M. K.

The paper discusses the geometrical designs of the hieratic numeral signs. It shows the regular-grid-patterns of squares upon which, the shapes of the already decoded hieratic numeral-signs, have been designed. Also, it shows the design of some hieratic numeral signs, based on subdividing the circle; and the hieratic signs of modular notation. It might reveal the basic geometrical level of understanding of anonymous ancient Egyptians who designed them some four thousand years ago.

19. Numerical Methods For Chemically Reacting Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leveque, R. J.; Yee, H. C.

1990-01-01

Issues related to numerical stability, accuracy, and resolution discussed. Technical memorandum presents issues in numerical solution of hyperbolic conservation laws containing "stiff" (relatively large and rapidly changing) source terms. Such equations often used to represent chemically reacting flows. Usually solved by finite-difference numerical methods. Source terms generally necessitate use of small time and/or space steps to obtain sufficient resolution, especially at discontinuities, where incorrect mathematical modeling results in unphysical solutions.

20. Numerical simulation of interplanetary dynamics

Wu, Chin-Chun

This dissertation discusses investigations into the physics of the propagation of solar generated disturbances in the interplanetary medium. The motivation to initiate this study was two-fold: (1) understanding the fundamental physics of the nonlinear interactions of solar generated MHD shocks and non-homogeneous interplanetary medium, and (2) understanding the physics of solar generated disturbance effects on the Earth's environment, (i.e. the solar connection to the geomagnetic storm). In order to achieve these goals, the authors employed two numerical models to encompass these studies. In the first part, a one-dimensional MHD code with adaptive grids is used to study the evolution of interplanetary slow shocks (ISS), the interaction of a forward slow shock with a reverse slow shock, and the interaction of a fast shock with a slow shock. Results show that the slow shocks can be generated by a decreasing density, velocity or temperature perturbation or by a pressure pulse by following a forward fast shock and that slow shocks can propagate over 1 AU; results also show that the ISS never evolves into fast shocks. Interestingly, it is also found that an ISS could be 'eaten up' by an interplanetary fast shock (IFS) catching up from behind. This could be a reason that the slow shock has been difficult to observe near 1 AU. In addition, a forward slow shock could be dissipated by following a strong forward fast shock (Mach number greater than 1.7). In the second part, a fully three-dimensional (3D), time-dependent, MHD interplanetary global model (3D IGM) is used to study the relationship between different forms of solar activity and transient variations of the north-south component, Bx, of the interplanetary magnetic field, IMF, at 1 AU. One form of solar activity, the flare, is simulated by using a pressure pulse at different locations near the solar surface and observing the simulated IMF evolution of Btheta (= -Bx) at 1 AU. Results show that, for a given pressure

1. Numerical Simulations of Granular Processes

Richardson, Derek C.; Michel, Patrick; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis; Yu, Yang; Matsumura, Soko

2014-11-01

Spacecraft images and indirect observations including thermal inertia measurements indicate most small bodies have surface regolith. Evidence of granular flow is also apparent in the images. This material motion occurs in very low gravity, therefore in a completely different gravitational environment than on the Earth. Understanding and modeling these motions can aid in the interpretation of imaged surface features that may exhibit signatures of constituent material properties. Also, upcoming sample-return missions to small bodies, and possible future manned missions, will involve interaction with the surface regolith, so it is important to develop tools to predict the surface response. We have added new capabilities to the parallelized N-body gravity tree code pkdgrav [1,2] that permit the simulation of granular dynamics, including multi-contact physics and friction forces, using the soft-sphere discrete-element method [3]. The numerical approach has been validated through comparison with laboratory experiments (e.g., [3,4]). Ongoing and recently completed projects include: impacts into granular materials using different projectile shapes [5]; possible tidal resurfacing of asteroid Apophis during its 2029 encounter [6]; the Brazil-nut effect in low gravity [7]; and avalanche modeling.Acknowledgements: DCR acknowledges NASA (grants NNX08AM39G, NNX10AQ01G, NNX12AG29G) and NSF (AST1009579). PM acknowledges the French agency CNES. SRS works on the NEOShield Project funded under the European Commission’s FP7 program agreement No. 282703. SM acknowledges support from the Center for Theory and Computation at U Maryland and the Dundee Fellowship at U Dundee. Most simulations were performed using the YORP cluster in the Dept. of Astronomy at U Maryland and on the Deepthought High-Performance Computing Cluster at U Maryland.References: [1] Richardson, D.C. et al. 2000, Icarus 143, 45; [2] Stadel, J. 2001, Ph.D. Thesis, U Washington; [3] Schwartz, S.R. et al. 2012, Gran

2. Numerical studies of surface tensions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hung, R. J.

1995-01-01

Liquid-vapor (bubble) interface disturbances caused by various types of accelerations, including centrifugal, lateral and axial impulses, gravity gradient and g-jitter accelerations associated with spinning and slew motion in microgravity, are reviewed. Understanding of bubble deformations and fluctuations is important in the development of spacecraft orbital and attitude control techniques to secure its normal operation. This review discusses bubble deformations and oscillations driven by various forces in the microgravity environment. The corresponding bubble mass center fluctuations and slosh reaction forces and torques due to bubble deformations are also reviewed.

3. Nonlinear dynamics and numerical uncertainties in CFD

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yee, H. C.; Sweby, P. K.

1996-01-01

The application of nonlinear dynamics to improve the understanding of numerical uncertainties in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is reviewed. Elementary examples in the use of dynamics to explain the nonlinear phenomena and spurious behavior that occur in numerics are given. The role of dynamics in the understanding of long time behavior of numerical integrations and the nonlinear stability, convergence, and reliability of using time-marching, approaches for obtaining steady-state numerical solutions in CFD is explained. The study is complemented with spurious behavior observed in CFD computations.

4. Radiation Hydrodynamics: Numerical Aspects and Applications

Dorfi, Ernst A.

5. High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses

PubMed Central

Morgan, Andrew J.; Prasciolu, Mauro; Andrejczuk, Andrzej; Krzywinski, Jacek; Meents, Alke; Pennicard, David; Graafsma, Heinz; Barty, Anton; Bean, Richard J.; Barthelmess, Miriam; Oberthuer, Dominik; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Aquila, Andrew; Chapman, Henry N.; Bajt, Saša

2015-01-01

The ever-increasing brightness of synchrotron radiation sources demands improved X-ray optics to utilise their capability for imaging and probing biological cells, nanodevices, and functional matter on the nanometer scale with chemical sensitivity. Here we demonstrate focusing a hard X-ray beam to an 8 nm focus using a volume zone plate (also referred to as a wedged multilayer Laue lens). This lens was constructed using a new deposition technique that enabled the independent control of the angle and thickness of diffracting layers to microradian and nanometer precision, respectively. This ensured that the Bragg condition is satisfied at each point along the lens, leading to a high numerical aperture that is limited only by its extent. We developed a phase-shifting interferometric method based on ptychography to characterise the lens focus. The precision of the fabrication and characterisation demonstrated here provides the path to efficient X-ray optics for imaging at 1 nm resolution. PMID:26030003

6. High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses

DOE PAGES

Morgan, Andrew J.; Prasciolu, Mauro; Andrejczuk, Andrzej; ...

2015-06-01

The ever-increasing brightness of synchrotron radiation sources demands improved X-ray optics to utilise their capability for imaging and probing biological cells, nanodevices, and functional matter on the nanometer scale with chemical sensitivity. Here we demonstrate focusing a hard X-ray beam to an 8 nm focus using a volume zone plate (also referred to as a wedged multilayer Laue lens). This lens was constructed using a new deposition technique that enabled the independent control of the angle and thickness of diffracting layers to microradian and nanometer precision, respectively. This ensured that the Bragg condition is satisfied at each point along themore » lens, leading to a high numerical aperture that is limited only by its extent. We developed a phase-shifting interferometric method based on ptychography to characterise the lens focus. The precision of the fabrication and characterisation demonstrated here provides the path to efficient X-ray optics for imaging at 1 nm resolution.« less

7. Numerical simulation of condensation on structured surfaces.

PubMed

Fu, Xiaowu; Yao, Zhaohui; Hao, Pengfei

2014-11-25

Condensation of liquid droplets on solid surfaces happens widely in nature and industrial processes. This phase-change phenomenon has great effect on the performance of some microfluidic devices. On the basis of micro- and nanotechnology, superhydrophobic structured surfaces can be well-fabricated. In this work, the nucleating and growth of droplets on different structured surfaces are investigated numerically. The dynamic behavior of droplets during the condensation is simulated by the multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), which has the ability to incorporate the microscopic interactions, including fluid-fluid interaction and fluid-surface interaction. The results by the LBM show that, besides the chemical properties of surfaces, the topography of structures on solid surfaces influences the condensation process. For superhydrophobic surfaces, the spacing and height of microridges have significant influence on the nucleation sites. This mechanism provides an effective way for prevention of wetting on surfaces in engineering applications. Moreover, it suggests a way to prevent ice formation on surfaces caused by the condensation of subcooled water. For hydrophilic surfaces, however, microstructures may be submerged by the liquid films adhering to the surfaces. In this case, microstructures will fail to control the condensation process. Our research provides an optimized way for designing surfaces for condensation in engineering systems.

8. Seafloor weathering buffering climate: numerical experiments

Farahat, N. X.; Archer, D. E.; Abbot, D. S.

2013-12-01

Continental silicate weathering is widely held to consume atmospheric CO2 at a rate controlled in part by temperature, resulting in a climate-weathering feedback [Walker et al., 1981]. It has been suggested that weathering of oceanic crust of warm mid-ocean ridge flanks also has a CO2 uptake rate that is controlled by climate [Sleep and Zahnle, 2001; Brady and Gislason, 1997]. Although this effect might not be significant on present-day Earth [Caldeira, 1995], seafloor weathering may be more pronounced during snowball states [Le Hir et al., 2008], during the Archean when seafloor spreading rates were faster [Sleep and Zahnle, 2001], and on waterworld planets [Abbot et al., 2012]. Previous studies of seafloor weathering have made significant contributions using qualitative, generally one-box, models, and the logical next step is to extend this work using a spatially resolved model. For example, experiments demonstrate that seafloor weathering reactions are temperature dependent, but it is not clear whether the deep ocean temperature affects the temperature at which the reactions occur, or if instead this temperature is set only by geothermal processes. Our goal is to develop a 2-D numerical model that can simulate hydrothermal circulation and resulting alteration of oceanic basalts, and can therefore address such questions. A model of diffusive and convective heat transfer in fluid-saturated porous media simulates hydrothermal circulation through porous oceanic basalt. Unsteady natural convection is solved for using a Darcy model of porous media flow that has been extensively benchmarked. Background hydrothermal circulation is coupled to mineral reaction kinetics of basaltic alteration and hydrothermal mineral precipitation. In order to quantify seafloor weathering as a climate-weathering feedback process, this model focuses on hydrothermal reactions that influence carbon uptake as well as ocean alkalinity: silicate rock dissolution, calcium and magnesium leaching

9. The development and evaluation of numerical algorithms for MIMD computers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voigt, Robert G.

1990-01-01

Two activities were pursued under this grant. The first was a visitor program to conduct research on numerical algorithms for MIMD computers. The program is summarized in the following attachments. Attachment A - List of Researchers Supported; Attachment B - List of Reports Completed; and Attachment C - Reports. The second activity was a workshop on the Control of fluid Dynamic Systems held on March 28 to 29, 1989. The workshop is summarized in attachments. Attachment D - Workshop Summary; and Attachment E - List of Workshop Participants.

10. Rocket Engine Numerical Simulator (RENS)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Davidian, Kenneth O.

1997-01-01

Work is being done at three universities to help today's NASA engineers use the knowledge and experience of their Apolloera predecessors in designing liquid rocket engines. Ground-breaking work is being done in important subject areas to create a prototype of the most important functions for the Rocket Engine Numerical Simulator (RENS). The goal of RENS is to develop an interactive, realtime application that engineers can utilize for comprehensive preliminary propulsion system design functions. RENS will employ computer science and artificial intelligence research in knowledge acquisition, computer code parallelization and objectification, expert system architecture design, and object-oriented programming. In 1995, a 3year grant from the NASA Lewis Research Center was awarded to Dr. Douglas Moreman and Dr. John Dyer of Southern University at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, to begin acquiring knowledge in liquid rocket propulsion systems. Resources of the University of West Florida in Pensacola were enlisted to begin the process of enlisting knowledge from senior NASA engineers who are recognized experts in liquid rocket engine propulsion systems. Dr. John Coffey of the University of West Florida is utilizing his expertise in interviewing and concept mapping techniques to encode, classify, and integrate information obtained through personal interviews. The expertise extracted from the NASA engineers has been put into concept maps with supporting textual, audio, graphic, and video material. A fundamental concept map was delivered by the end of the first year of work and the development of maps containing increasing amounts of information is continuing. Find out more information about this work at the Southern University/University of West Florida. In 1996, the Southern University/University of West Florida team conducted a 4day group interview with a panel of five experts to discuss failures of the RL10 rocket engine in conjunction with the Centaur launch vehicle. The

11. Dynamical Approach Study of Spurious Numerics in Nonlinear Computations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yee, H. C.; Mansour, Nagi (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

The last two decades have been an era when computation is ahead of analysis and when very large scale practical computations are increasingly used in poorly understood multiscale complex nonlinear physical problems and non-traditional fields. Ensuring a higher level of confidence in the predictability and reliability (PAR) of these numerical simulations could play a major role in furthering the design, understanding, affordability and safety of our next generation air and space transportation systems, and systems for planetary and atmospheric sciences, and in understanding the evolution and origin of life. The need to guarantee PAR becomes acute when computations offer the ONLY way of solving these types of data limited problems. Employing theory from nonlinear dynamical systems, some building blocks to ensure a higher level of confidence in PAR of numerical simulations have been revealed by the author and world expert collaborators in relevant fields. Five building blocks with supporting numerical examples were discussed. The next step is to utilize knowledge gained by including nonlinear dynamics, bifurcation and chaos theories as an integral part of the numerical process. The third step is to design integrated criteria for reliable and accurate algorithms that cater to the different multiscale nonlinear physics. This includes but is not limited to the construction of appropriate adaptive spatial and temporal discretizations that are suitable for the underlying governing equations. In addition, a multiresolution wavelets approach for adaptive numerical dissipation/filter controls for high speed turbulence, acoustics and combustion simulations will be sought. These steps are corner stones for guarding against spurious numerical solutions that are solutions of the discretized counterparts but are not solutions of the underlying governing equations.

12. Inter-specific differences in numerical abilities among teleost fish.

PubMed

Agrillo, Christian; Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Tagliapietra, Christian; Bisazza, Angelo

2012-01-01

Adults, infants and non-human primates are thought to possess similar non-verbal numerical systems, but there is considerable debate regarding whether all vertebrates share the same numerical abilities. Despite an abundance of studies, cross-species comparison remains difficult because the methodology employed and the context of species examination vary considerably across studies. To fill this gap, we used the same procedure, stimuli, and numerical contrasts to compare quantity abilities of five teleost fish: redtail splitfin, guppies, zebrafish, Siamese fighting fish, and angelfish. Subjects were trained to discriminate between two sets of geometrical figures using a food reward. Fish initially were trained on an easy numerical ratio (5 vs. 10 and 6 vs. 12). Once they reached the learning criterion, they were subjected to non-reinforced probe trials in which the set size was constant but numerical ratios varied (8 vs. 12 and 9 vs. 12). They also were subjected to probe trials in which the ratio was constant, but the total set size was increased (25 vs. 50) or decreased (2 vs. 4). Overall, fish generalized to numerosities with a 0.67 ratio, but failed with a 0.75 ratio; they generalized to a smaller set size, but not to a larger one. Only minor differences were observed among the five species. However, in one species, zebrafish, the proportion of individuals reaching the learning criterion was much smaller than in the others. In a control experiment, zebrafish showed a similar lower performance in shape discrimination, suggesting that the observed difference resulted from the zebrafish's difficulty in learning this procedure rather than from a cross-species variation in the numerical domain.

13. Inter-Specific Differences in Numerical Abilities Among Teleost Fish

PubMed Central

Agrillo, Christian; Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Tagliapietra, Christian; Bisazza, Angelo

2012-01-01

Adults, infants and non-human primates are thought to possess similar non-verbal numerical systems, but there is considerable debate regarding whether all vertebrates share the same numerical abilities. Despite an abundance of studies, cross-species comparison remains difficult because the methodology employed and the context of species examination vary considerably across studies. To fill this gap, we used the same procedure, stimuli, and numerical contrasts to compare quantity abilities of five teleost fish: redtail splitfin, guppies, zebrafish, Siamese fighting fish, and angelfish. Subjects were trained to discriminate between two sets of geometrical figures using a food reward. Fish initially were trained on an easy numerical ratio (5 vs. 10 and 6 vs. 12). Once they reached the learning criterion, they were subjected to non-reinforced probe trials in which the set size was constant but numerical ratios varied (8 vs. 12 and 9 vs. 12). They also were subjected to probe trials in which the ratio was constant, but the total set size was increased (25 vs. 50) or decreased (2 vs. 4). Overall, fish generalized to numerosities with a 0.67 ratio, but failed with a 0.75 ratio; they generalized to a smaller set size, but not to a larger one. Only minor differences were observed among the five species. However, in one species, zebrafish, the proportion of individuals reaching the learning criterion was much smaller than in the others. In a control experiment, zebrafish showed a similar lower performance in shape discrimination, suggesting that the observed difference resulted from the zebrafish’s difficulty in learning this procedure rather than from a cross-species variation in the numerical domain. PMID:23162517

14. Numerical Integration: One Step at a Time

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Yang, Yajun; Gordon, Sheldon P.

2016-01-01

This article looks at the effects that adding a single extra subdivision has on the level of accuracy of some common numerical integration routines. Instead of automatically doubling the number of subdivisions for a numerical integration rule, we investigate what happens with a systematic method of judiciously selecting one extra subdivision for…

15. An Integrative Theory of Numerical Development

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Siegler, Robert; Lortie-Forgues, Hugues

2014-01-01

Understanding of numerical development is growing rapidly, but the volume and diversity of findings can make it difficult to perceive any coherence in the process. The integrative theory of numerical development posits that a coherent theme is present, however--progressive broadening of the set of numbers whose magnitudes can be accurately…

16. Nonclassicality thresholds for multiqubit states: Numerical analysis

SciTech Connect

Gruca, Jacek; Zukowski, Marek; Laskowski, Wieslaw; Kiesel, Nikolai; Wieczorek, Witlef; Weinfurter, Harald; Schmid, Christian

2010-07-15

States that strongly violate Bell's inequalities are required in many quantum-informational protocols as, for example, in cryptography, secret sharing, and the reduction of communication complexity. We investigate families of such states with a numerical method which allows us to reveal nonclassicality even without direct knowledge of Bell's inequalities for the given problem. An extensive set of numerical results is presented and discussed.

17. NUMERICAL NOISE PM SIMULATION IN CMAQ

EPA Science Inventory

We have found that numerical noise in the latest release of CMAQ using the yamo advection scheme when compiled on Linux cluster with pgf90 (5.0 or 6.0). We recommend to use -C option to eliminate the numerical noise.

18. Food for Thought: A Few Numerical Delicacies

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hong, L.; Thoo, J. B.

2004-01-01

Many students, when they take an elementary differential equations course for the first time, bring with them misconceptions from numerical methods that they had learnt in their calculus courses, most notable of which concerns the mesh width in using a numerical method. It is important that we strive to dispel any of these misconceptions as well…

19. Verbal Interference Suppresses Exact Numerical Representation

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frank, Michael C.; Fedorenko, Evelina; Lai, Peter; Saxe, Rebecca; Gibson, Edward

2012-01-01

Language for number is an important case study of the relationship between language and cognition because the mechanisms of non-verbal numerical cognition are well-understood. When the Piraha (an Amazonian hunter-gatherer tribe who have no exact number words) are tested in non-verbal numerical tasks, they are able to perform one-to-one matching…

20. Structure and Construction of Numeric Databases.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Soergel, Dagobert

1982-01-01

This discussion of the general principles of structure and construction of numeric databases introduces the concept of data points, their relationship to each other, and their storage in a nonredundant way. The collection of numeric data and their integration into the database structure are explained. Eight references are cited. (EJS)

1. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

2013-01-01

Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arranged along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

2. Numerical simulations of cryogenic cavitating flows

Kim, Hyunji; Kim, Hyeongjun; Min, Daeho; Kim, Chongam

2015-12-01

The present study deals with a numerical method for cryogenic cavitating flows. Recently, we have developed an accurate and efficient baseline numerical scheme for all-speed water-gas two-phase flows. By extending such progress, we modify the numerical dissipations to be properly scaled so that it does not show any deficiencies in low Mach number regions. For dealing with cryogenic two-phase flows, previous EOS-dependent shock discontinuity sensing term is replaced with a newly designed EOS-free one. To validate the proposed numerical method, cryogenic cavitating flows around hydrofoil are computed and the pressure and temperature depression effect in cryogenic cavitation are demonstrated. Compared with Hord's experimental data, computed results are turned out to be satisfactory. Afterwards, numerical simulations of flow around KARI turbopump inducer in liquid rocket are carried out under various flow conditions with water and cryogenic fluids, and the difference in inducer flow physics depending on the working fluids are examined.

3. Recommended ALIs and DACs for 10 CFR part 220: A consistent numerical set

SciTech Connect

Eckerman, K.F.

1996-05-01

Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20 contains numerical data for controlling the intake of radionuclides in the workplace or in the environment. These data, derived from the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), do not provide a numerically consistent basis for demonstrating compliance with the limitation on dose stated in the regulation. This situation is largely a consequence of the numerical procedures used by the ICRP which did not maintain, in a strict numerical sense, the hierarchial relationship among the radiation protection quantities. In this work recommended values of the quantities in Appendix B to CFR Part 20 are developed using the dose coefficients of the applicable ICRP publications and a numerical procedure which ensures that the tabulated quantities are numerically consistent.

4. Mapping numerical magnitudes onto symbols: the numerical distance effect and individual differences in children's mathematics achievement.

PubMed

Holloway, Ian D; Ansari, Daniel

2009-05-01

Although it is often assumed that abilities that reflect basic numerical understanding, such as numerical comparison, are related to children's mathematical abilities, this relationship has not been tested rigorously. In addition, the extent to which symbolic and nonsymbolic number processing play differential roles in this relationship is not yet understood. To address these questions, we collected mathematics achievement measures from 6- to 8-year-olds as well as reaction times from a numerical comparison task. Using the reaction times, we calculated the size of the numerical distance effect exhibited by each child. In a correlational analysis, we found that the individual differences in the distance effect were related to mathematics achievement but not to reading achievement. This relationship was found to be specific to symbolic numerical comparison. Implications for the role of basic numerical competency and the role of accessing numerical magnitude information from Arabic numerals for the development of mathematical skills and their impairment are discussed.

5. Advanced Numerical-Algebraic Thinking: Constructing the Concept of Covariation as a Prelude to the Concept of Function

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hitt, Fernando; Morasse, Christian

2009-01-01

Introduction: In this document we stress the importance of developing in children a structure for advanced numerical-algebraic thinking that can provide an element of control when solving mathematical situations. We analyze pupils' conceptions that induce errors in algebra due to a lack of control in connection with their numerical thinking. We…

6. Biofouling in forward osmosis systems: An experimental and numerical study.

PubMed

Bucs, Szilárd S; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S; Picioreanu, Cristian

2016-12-01

This study evaluates with numerical simulations supported by experimental data the impact of biofouling on membrane performance in a cross-flow forward osmosis (FO) system. The two-dimensional numerical model couples liquid flow with solute transport in the FO feed and draw channels, in the FO membrane support layer and in the biofilm developed on one or both sides of the membrane. The developed model was tested against experimental measurements at various osmotic pressure differences and in batch operation without and with the presence of biofilm on the membrane active layer. Numerical studies explored the effect of biofilm properties (thickness, hydraulic permeability and porosity), biofilm membrane surface coverage, and biofilm location on salt external concentration polarization and on the permeation flux. The numerical simulations revealed that (i) when biofouling occurs, external concentration polarization became important, (ii) the biofilm hydraulic permeability and membrane surface coverage have the highest impact on water flux, and (iii) the biofilm formed in the draw channel impacts the process performance more than when formed in the feed channel. The proposed mathematical model helps to understand the impact of biofouling in FO membrane systems and to develop possible strategies to reduce and control biofouling.

7. Numeral-Incorporating Roots in Numeral Systems: A Comparative Analysis of Two Sign Languages

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuentes, Mariana; Massone, Maria Ignacia; Fernandez-Viader, Maria del Pilar; Makotrinsky, Alejandro; Pulgarin, Francisca

2010-01-01

Numeral-incorporating roots in the numeral systems of Argentine Sign Language (LSA) and Catalan Sign Language (LSC), as well as the main features of the number systems of both languages, are described and compared. Informants discussed the use of numerals and roots in both languages (in most cases in natural contexts). Ten informants took part in…

8. Numerical Continuation of Hamiltonian Relative Periodic Orbits

Wulff, Claudia; Schebesch, Andreas

2008-08-01

The bifurcation theory and numerics of periodic orbits of general dynamical systems is well developed, and in recent years, there has been rapid progress in the development of a bifurcation theory for dynamical systems with structure, such as symmetry or symplecticity. But as yet, there are few results on the numerical computation of those bifurcations. The methods we present in this paper are a first step toward a systematic numerical analysis of generic bifurcations of Hamiltonian symmetric periodic orbits and relative periodic orbits (RPOs). First, we show how to numerically exploit spatio-temporal symmetries of Hamiltonian periodic orbits. Then we describe a general method for the numerical computation of RPOs persisting from periodic orbits in a symmetry breaking bifurcation. Finally, we present an algorithm for the numerical continuation of non-degenerate Hamiltonian relative periodic orbits with regular drift-momentum pair. Our path following algorithm is based on a multiple shooting algorithm for the numerical computation of periodic orbits via an adaptive Poincaré section and a tangential continuation method with implicit reparametrization. We apply our methods to continue the famous figure eight choreography of the three-body system. We find a relative period doubling bifurcation of the planar rotating eight family and compute the rotating choreographies bifurcating from it.

9. Reliability of Complex Nonlinear Numerical Simulations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yee, H. C.

2004-01-01

This work describes some of the procedure to ensure a higher level of confidence in the predictability and reliability (PAR) of numerical simulation of multiscale complex nonlinear problems. The focus is on relating PAR of numerical simulations with complex nonlinear phenomena of numerics. To isolate sources of numerical uncertainties, the possible discrepancy between the chosen partial differential equation (PDE) model and the real physics and/or experimental data is set aside. The discussion is restricted to how well numerical schemes can mimic the solution behavior of the underlying PDE model for finite time steps and grid spacings. The situation is complicated by the fact that the available theory for the understanding of nonlinear behavior of numerics is not at a stage to fully analyze the nonlinear Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. The discussion is based on the knowledge gained for nonlinear model problems with known analytical solutions to identify and explain the possible sources and remedies of numerical uncertainties in practical computations. Examples relevant to turbulent flow computations are included.

10. Numerical modeling of atoll island hydrogeology.

PubMed

Bailey, R T; Jenson, J W; Olsen, A E

2009-01-01

We implemented Ayers and Vachers' (1986) inclusive conceptual model for atoll island aquifers in a comprehensive numerical modeling study to evaluate the response of the fresh water lens to selected controlling climatic and geologic variables. Climatic factors include both constant and time-varying recharge rates, with particular attention paid to the effects of El Niño and the associated drought it brings to the western Pacific. Geologic factors include island width; hydraulic conductivity of the uppermost Holocene-age aquifer, which contains the fresh water lens; the depth to the contact with the underlying, and much more conductive, Pleistocene karst aquifer, which transmits tidal signals to the base of the lens; and the presence or absence of a semiconfining reef flat plate on the ocean side. Sensitivity analyses of steady-steady simulations show that lens thickness is most strongly sensitive to the depth to the Holocene-Pleistocene contact and to the hydraulic conductivity of the Holocene aquifer, respectively. Comparisons between modeling results and published observations of atoll island lens thicknesses suggest a hydraulic conductivity of approximately 50 m/d for leeward islands and approximately 400 m/d for windward islands. Results of transient simulations show that lens thickness fluctuations during average seasonal conditions and El Niño events are quite sensitive to island width, recharge rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the Holocene aquifer. In general, the depletion of the lens during drought conditions is most drastic for small, windward islands. Simulation results suggest that recovery from a 6-month drought requires about 1.5 years.

11. Numerical simulation of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment

Miglio, E.

2015-12-01

In the Earth's crust, stress can be subdivided into tectonic background stress, overburden pressure, and pore-fluid pressure. The superposition of the first two and the variation of the third part are key factors in controlling movement along faults. Furthermore, stresses due to sedimentation and erosion contribute to the total stress field. In deglaciated regions, an additional stress must be considered: the rebound stress, which is related to rebounding of the crust and mantle after deglaciation. During the growth of a continental ice sheet, the lithosphere under the iceload is deformed and the removal of the ice load during deglaciation initiates a rebound process. The uplift is well known in formerly glaciated areas, e.g.North America and Scandinavia, and in currently deglaciating areas, e.g.Alaska, Antarctica, and Greenland. The whole process of subsiding and uplifting during the growth and melting of an iceload and all related phenomena is known as glacial isostatic adjustment. During the process of glaciation, the surface of the lithosphere is depressed underneath the ice load and compressional flexural stresses are induced in the upper lithosphere, whereas the bottom of the lithosphere experiences extensional flexural stresses; an additional vertical stress due to the ice load is present and it decreases to zero during deglaciation. During rebound, flexural stresses relax slowly. These stresses are able to change the original stress directions and regime.In this work we aim to study the effect of the GIA process in the context of petroleum engineering. The main aspect we will focus on is the mathematical and numerical modeling of the GIA including thermal effects. We plan also to include a preliminary study of the effect of the glacial erosion. All these phenomena are of paramount importance in petroleum engineering: for example some reservoir have been depleted due to tilting caused by both GIA, erosion and thermal effects.

12. Numerical recipes, The art of scientific computing

SciTech Connect

Press, W.H.; Flannery, B.P.; Teukolsky, S.; Vetterling, W.T.

1986-01-01

Seventeen chapter are divided into 130 sections provide a self-contained treatment that derives, critically discusses, and actually implements over 200 of the most important numerical algorithms for scientific work. Each algorithm is presented both in FORTRAN and Pascal, with the source programs printed in the book itself. The scope of Numerical Recipes ranges from standard areas of numerical analysis (linear algebra, differential equations, roots) through subjects useful to signal processing (Fourier methods, filtering), data analysis (least squares, robust fitting, statistical functions), simulation (random deviates and Monte Carlo). The routines themselves are available for a wide variety of different computers, from personal computers to mainframes, and are largely portable among different machines.

13. Direct Numerical Simulations of Plunging Airfoils

DTIC Science & Technology

2010-01-07

Schmidt and E Turkel, Numerical Solutions of the Euler Equations by Finite Volume Methods Using Runge-Kutta Time-Stepping Schemes, AIAA paper 81-1259...Ω ( p ∂vj ∂xj − σij ∂v i ∂xj ) dV (4) Definition 1 A numerical scheme to solve the viscous Navier-Stokes equations is said to be Kinetic Energy...Direct Numerical Simulations of Plunging Airfoils Yves Allaneau∗ and Antony Jameson† Stanford University, Stanford, California, 94305, USA This paper

14. Eulerian-Lagrangian numerical scheme for simulating advection, dispersion, and transient storage in streams and a comparison of numerical methods

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cox, T.J.; Runkel, R.L.

2008-01-01

Past applications of one-dimensional advection, dispersion, and transient storage zone models have almost exclusively relied on a central differencing, Eulerian numerical approximation to the nonconservative form of the fundamental equation. However, there are scenarios where this approach generates unacceptable error. A new numerical scheme for this type of modeling is presented here that is based on tracking Lagrangian control volumes across a fixed (Eulerian) grid. Numerical tests are used to provide a direct comparison of the new scheme versus nonconservative Eulerian numerical methods, in terms of both accuracy and mass conservation. Key characteristics of systems for which the Lagrangian scheme performs better than the Eulerian scheme include: nonuniform flow fields, steep gradient plume fronts, and pulse and steady point source loadings in advection-dominated systems. A new analytical derivation is presented that provides insight into the loss of mass conservation in the nonconservative Eulerian scheme. This derivation shows that loss of mass conservation in the vicinity of spatial flow changes is directly proportional to the lateral inflow rate and the change in stream concentration due to the inflow. While the nonconservative Eulerian scheme has clearly worked well for past published applications, it is important for users to be aware of the scheme's limitations. ?? 2008 ASCE.

15. Numerical simulation of the tip aerodynamics and acoustics test

Tejero E, F.; Doerffer, P.; Szulc, O.; Cross, J. L.

2016-04-01

The application of an efficient flow control system on helicopter rotor blades may lead to improved aerodynamic performance. Recently, our invention of Rod Vortex Generators (RVGs) has been analyzed for helicopter rotor blades in hover with success. As a step forward, the study has been extended to forward flight conditions. For this reason, a validation of the numerical modelling for a reference helicopter rotor (without flow control) is needed. The article presents a study of the flow-field of the AH-1G helicopter rotor in low-, medium- and high-speed forward flight. The CFD code FLOWer from DLR has proven to be a suitable tool for the aerodynamic analysis of the two-bladed rotor without any artificial wake modelling. It solves the URANS equations with LEA (Linear Explicit Algebraic stress) k-ω model using the chimera overlapping grids technique. Validation of the numerical model uses comparison with the detailed flight test data gathered by Cross J. L. and Watts M. E. during the Tip Aerodynamics and Acoustics Test (TAAT) conducted at NASA in 1981. Satisfactory agreements for all speed regimes and a presence of significant flow separation in high-speed forward flight suggest a possible benefit from the future implementation of RVGs. The numerical results based on the URANS approach are presented not only for a popular, low-speed case commonly used in rotorcraft community for CFD codes validation but preferably for medium- and high-speed test conditions that have not been published to date.

16. Towards direct numerical simulation of freely swimming fish.

Curet, Oscar; Patankar, Neelesh; Maciver, Malcolm

2006-11-01

Swimming mechanisms employed by fish are currently inspiring unique underwater vehicles and robotic devices as well as basic science research into the neural control of movement. Key engineering issues include propulsion efficiency, precise motion control and maneuverability. A numerical scheme that simulates the motion of freely swimming fish will be a valuable design and research tool. We are working towards this goal. In particular we are interested in simulating the motion of a gymnotiform fish that swims by producing undulations of a ventral ribbon fin while keeping its body rigid. We model the fish as a rigid body with an attached undulating membrane. In our numerical scheme the key idea is to assume that the entire fluid-fish domain is a fluid. Then we impose two constraints: the first requires that the fluid in the region occupied by the fish body moves rigidly (a fictitious domain approach), and the second requires that the fluid at the location of the fin has the traveling wave velocity of the fin (an immersed boundary approach). Given the traveling wave form of the fin, the objective is for the numerical scheme to give the swimming velocity of the fish by solving the coupled fluid-fish problem. We will present results for the forces generated by a fin attached to a fixed body and preliminary results for freely swimming fish.

17. Numerical computation of the optimal vector field: Exemplified by a fishery model

PubMed Central

Grass, D.

2012-01-01

Numerous optimal control models analyzed in economics are formulated as discounted infinite time horizon problems, where the defining functions are nonlinear as well in the states as in the controls. As a consequence solutions can often only be found numerically. Moreover, the long run optimal solutions are mostly limit sets like equilibria or limit cycles. Using these specific solutions a BVP approach together with a continuation technique is used to calculate the parameter dependent dynamic structure of the optimal vector field. We use a one dimensional optimal control model of a fishery to exemplify the numerical techniques. But these methods are applicable to a much wider class of optimal control problems with a moderate number of state and control variables. PMID:25505805

18. Fuzzy coordinator in control problems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rueda, A.; Pedrycz, W.

1992-01-01

In this paper a hierarchical control structure using a fuzzy system for coordination of the control actions is studied. The architecture involves two levels of control: a coordination level and an execution level. Numerical experiments will be utilized to illustrate the behavior of the controller when it is applied to a nonlinear plant.

19. Writing arabic numerals in an agraphic patient.

PubMed

Delazer, M; Denes, G

1998-09-01

We report on the writing of Arabic numerals in a patient whose alphabetical script was restricted to graphemic jargon (Schonauer & Denes, 1994). The analysis of writing errors in Arabic script over three testing sessions (4, 10, and 13 months after stroke) confirmed the separate processing of syntactic and lexical information in number production proposed by current models. The changing error pattern over time reflected some difficulties observed in developmental studies on the acquisition of Arabic numeral writing. Errors were mostly of the syntactic type and (at a certain stage) were based on the verbal form of the numerals. As reported in neuropsychological (Noel & Seron, 1995) and developmental (Power & Dal Martello, 1990; Seron & Fayol, 1994) studies, sum relations were more difficult to transcode than product relations within complex numerals.

20. Resolution requirements for numerical simulations of transition

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zang, Thomas A.; Krist, Steven E.; Hussaini, M. Yousuff

1989-01-01

The resolution requirements for direct numerical simulations of transition to turbulence are investigated. A reliable resolution criterion is determined from the results of several detailed simulations of channel and boundary-layer transition.

1. Numerical solution of a tunneling equation

SciTech Connect

Wang, C.Y.; Carter, M.D.; Batchelor, D.B.; Jaeger, E.F.

1994-04-01

A numerical method is presented to solve mode conversion equations resulting from the use of radio frequency (rf) waves to heat plasmas. The solutions of the mode conversion equations contain exponentially growing modes, and ordinary numerical techniques give large errors. To avoid the unphysical growing modes, a set of boundary conditions are found, that eliminate the unphysical modes. The mode conversion equations are then solved with the boundary conditions as a standard two-point boundary value problem. A tunneling equation (one of the mode conversion equations without power absorption) is solved as a specific example of this numerical technique although the technique itself is very general and can be easily applied to solve any mode conversion equation. The results from the numerical calculation agree very well with those found from asymptotic analysis.

2. Development of Pelton turbine using numerical simulation

Patel, K.; Patel, B.; Yadav, M.; Foggia, T.

2010-08-01

This paper describes recent research and development activities in the field of Pelton turbine design. Flow inside Pelton turbine is most complex due to multiphase (mixture of air and water) and free surface in nature. Numerical calculation is useful to understand flow physics as well as effect of geometry on flow. The optimized design is obtained using in-house special optimization loop. Either single phase or two phase unsteady numerical calculation could be performed. Numerical results are used to visualize the flow pattern in the water passage and to predict performance of Pelton turbine at full load as well as at part load. Model tests are conducted to determine performance of turbine and it shows good agreement with numerically predicted performance.

3. Numerical noise in ocean and estuarine models

USGS Publications Warehouse

Walters, R.; Carey, G.F.

1984-01-01

Approximate methods for solving the shallow water equations may lead to solutions exhibiting large fictitious, numerically-induced oscillations. The analysis of the discrete dispersion relation and modal solutions of small wavelengths provides a powerful technique for assessing the sensitivity of alternative numerical schemes to irregular data which may lead to such oscillatory numerical noise. For those schemes where phase speed vanishes at a finite wavenumber or there are multiple roots for wavenumber, oscillation modes can exist which are uncoupled from the dynamics of the problem. The discrete modal analysis approach is used here to identify two classes of spurious oscillation modes associated respectively with the two different asymptotic limits corresponding to estuarine and large scale ocean models. The analysis provides further insight into recent numerical results for models which include large spatial scales and Coriolis acceleration. ?? 1984.

4. Numerical Stimulation of Multicomponent Chromatography Using Spreadsheets.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frey, Douglas D.

1990-01-01

Illustrated is the use of spreadsheet programs for implementing finite difference numerical simulations of chromatography as an instructional tool in a separations course. Discussed are differential equations, discretization and integration, spreadsheet development, computer requirements, and typical simulation results. (CW)

5. Symbolic-numeric interface: A review

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ng, E. W.

1980-01-01

A survey of the use of a combination of symbolic and numerical calculations is presented. Symbolic calculations primarily refer to the computer processing of procedures from classical algebra, analysis, and calculus. Numerical calculations refer to both numerical mathematics research and scientific computation. This survey is intended to point out a large number of problem areas where a cooperation of symbolic and numerical methods is likely to bear many fruits. These areas include such classical operations as differentiation and integration, such diverse activities as function approximations and qualitative analysis, and such contemporary topics as finite element calculations and computation complexity. It is contended that other less obvious topics such as the fast Fourier transform, linear algebra, nonlinear analysis and error analysis would also benefit from a synergistic approach.

6. Numerical models for high beta magnetohydrodynamic flow

SciTech Connect

Brackbill, J.U.

1987-01-01

The fundamentals of numerical magnetohydrodynamics for highly conducting, high-beta plasmas are outlined. The discussions emphasize the physical properties of the flow, and how elementary concepts in numerical analysis can be applied to the construction of finite difference approximations that capture these features. The linear and nonlinear stability of explicit and implicit differencing in time is examined, the origin and effect of numerical diffusion in the calculation of convective transport is described, and a technique for maintaining solenoidality in the magnetic field is developed. Many of the points are illustrated by numerical examples. The techniques described are applicable to the time-dependent, high-beta flows normally encountered in magnetically confined plasmas, plasma switches, and space and astrophysical plasmas. 40 refs.

7. Numerical Study of Tokamak Equilibrium with Toroidal Flow on EAST

Ren, Qilong; Zhang, Cheng

2006-09-01

The effect of the toroidal flow on the equilibrium of tokamak plasmas is a sensitive point for high performance plasma and its precise control. In this paper the effect is studied numerically using the EFIT (Equilibrium Fitting) code on EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak). Firstly, the numerical calculation exhibits a clear outward shift of pressure contour from the magnetic surfaces in the plasma core and the shift grows with the increase of the toroidal velocity. The peak shift of 8% is observed when the ratio between the plasma velocity and the Alfvén speed equals to 0.15. Secondly, it is shown that the magnetic surfaces shift outwards from those without flow. With a certain plasma current the safety factor on the magnetic axis decreases as the plasma flow velocity increases. The magnetic shear increases about 10% on the plasma boundary compared with the case without flow.

8. Numerical simulation of electrified jets: An application to electrospinning

Borzacchiello, D.; Vermiglio, S.; Chinesta, F.; Nabat, S.; Lafdi, K.

2016-10-01

This paper concerns the numerical simulation of electrified jets with application to the electrospinning process for the fabrication of fibers with controllable size, diameter, and cross section shape. Most numerical models used to simulate electrospinning rely on the Upper Convected Maxwell model (UCM) which is fit to model polymer melts. However, in most electrospinning processes the fluid is a polymer solution with a Newtonian solvent that evaporates after the fiber is deposited on the collector. In this work we propose to describe the fluid rheology using Giesekus model, which predicts the properties of polymer solutions more accurately, and show the impact of the rheological model on the prediction of the fiber radius and size.

9. Dynamic behaviour of a rolling tyre: Experimental and numerical analyses

Gonzalez Diaz, Cristobal; Kindt, Peter; Middelberg, Jason; Vercammen, Stijn; Thiry, Christophe; Close, Roland; Leyssens, Jan

2016-03-01

Based on the results of experimental and numerical analyses, the effect of rotation on the tyre dynamic behaviour is investigated. Better understanding of these effects will further improve the ability to control and optimize the noise and vibrations that result from the interaction between the road surface and the rolling tyre. Therefore, more understanding in the complex tyre dynamic properties will contribute to develop tyre design strategies to lower the tyre/road noise while less affecting other tyre performances. The presented work is performed in the framework of the European industry-academia project TIRE-DYN, with partners Goodyear, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and LMS International. The effect of rotation on the tyre dynamic behaviour is quantified for different operating conditions of the tyre, such as load, air pressure and rotation speed. By means of experimental and numerical analyses, the effects of rotation on the tyre dynamic behaviour are studied.

10. An algorithm for the numerical solution of linear differential games

SciTech Connect

Polovinkin, E S; Ivanov, G E; Balashov, M V; Konstantinov, R V; Khorev, A V

2001-10-31

A numerical algorithm for the construction of stable Krasovskii bridges, Pontryagin alternating sets, and also of piecewise program strategies solving two-person linear differential (pursuit or evasion) games on a fixed time interval is developed on the basis of a general theory. The aim of the first player (the pursuer) is to hit a prescribed target (terminal) set by the phase vector of the control system at the prescribed time. The aim of the second player (the evader) is the opposite. A description of numerical algorithms used in the solution of differential games of the type under consideration is presented and estimates of the errors resulting from the approximation of the game sets by polyhedra are presented.

11. Numerical Study of Orbital Trajectories about Phobos

DTIC Science & Technology

1988-12-01

COF NUMERICAL STUDY OF ORBITAL TRAJECTORIES ABOUT PHOBOS THESIS Robert B. Teets Captain, USAF AFIT/GS0/AA/8 8D- 16 ..................D TIC SELECTEh...ful em t%... . 𔄂 9 ... 3 ...29 ...058_... AFIT/GSO/AA/88D-16 0 NUMERICAL STUDY OF ORBITAL TRAJECTORIES ABOUT PHOBOS THESIS Robert B. Teets Captain...ORBITAL TRAJECTORIES ABOUT PHOBOS THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology Air University In

12. Numerical tsunami modeling and the bottom relief

Kulikov, E. A.; Gusiakov, V. K.; Ivanova, A. A.; Baranov, B. V.

2016-11-01

The effect of the quality of bathymetric data on the accuracy of tsunami-wave field calculation is considered. A review of the history of the numerical tsunami modeling development is presented. Particular emphasis is made on the World Ocean bottom models. It is shown that the modern digital bathymetry maps, for example, GEBCO, do not adequately simulate the sea bottom in numerical models of wave propagation, leading to considerable errors in estimating the maximum tsunami run-ups on the coast.

13. Numerical Simulations of Thermographic Responses in Composites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Winfree, William P.; Cramer, K. Elliot; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Howell, Patricia A.

2015-01-01

Numerical simulations of thermographic responses in composite materials have been a useful for evaluating and optimizing thermographic analysis techniques. Numerical solutions are particularly beneficial for thermographic techniques, since the fabrication of specimens with realistic flaws is difficult. Simulations are presented with different ply layups that incorporated the anisotropic thermal properties that exist in each ply. The results are compared to analytical series solutions and thermal measurements on composites with flat bottom holes and delaminations.

14. Numerical quadratures for approximate computation of ERBS

Zanaty, Peter

2013-12-01

In the ground-laying paper [3] on expo-rational B-splines (ERBS), the default numerical method for approximate computation of the integral with C∞-smooth integrand in the definition of ERBS is Romberg integration. In the present work, a variety of alternative numerical quadrature methods for computation of ERBS and other integrals with smooth integrands are studied, and their performance is compared on several benchmark examples.

15. Hardware-Independent Proofs of Numerical Programs

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boldo, Sylvie; Nguyen, Thi Minh Tuyen

2010-01-01

On recent architectures, a numerical program may give different answers depending on the execution hardware and the compilation. Our goal is to formally prove properties about numerical programs that are true for multiple architectures and compilers. We propose an approach that states the rounding error of each floating-point computation whatever the environment. This approach is implemented in the Frama-C platform for static analysis of C code. Small case studies using this approach are entirely and automatically proved

16. Numerical Study of a Convective Turbulence Encounter

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Bowles, Roland L.

2002-01-01

A numerical simulation of a convective turbulence event is investigated and compared with observational data. The specific case was encountered during one of NASA's flight tests and was characterized by severe turbulence. The event was associated with overshooting convective turrets that contained low to moderate radar reflectivity. Model comparisons with observations are quite favorable. Turbulence hazard metrics are proposed and applied to the numerical data set. Issues such as adequate grid size are examined.

17. Reduced-order modelling numerical homogenization.

PubMed

Abdulle, A; Bai, Y

2014-08-06

A general framework to combine numerical homogenization and reduced-order modelling techniques for partial differential equations (PDEs) with multiple scales is described. Numerical homogenization methods are usually efficient to approximate the effective solution of PDEs with multiple scales. However, classical numerical homogenization techniques require the numerical solution of a large number of so-called microproblems to approximate the effective data at selected grid points of the computational domain. Such computations become particularly expensive for high-dimensional, time-dependent or nonlinear problems. In this paper, we explain how numerical homogenization method can benefit from reduced-order modelling techniques that allow one to identify offline and online computational procedures. The effective data are only computed accurately at a carefully selected number of grid points (offline stage) appropriately 'interpolated' in the online stage resulting in an online cost comparable to that of a single-scale solver. The methodology is presented for a class of PDEs with multiple scales, including elliptic, parabolic, wave and nonlinear problems. Numerical examples, including wave propagation in inhomogeneous media and solute transport in unsaturated porous media, illustrate the proposed method.

18. Numerical Models of Ophiolite Genesis and Obduction

Guilmette, C.; Beaumont, C.; Jamieson, R.

2013-12-01

Ophiolites are relics of oceanic lithosphere tectonically emplaced in continental settings. They are diagnostic features of continental suture zones, where they mark past plate boundaries. Even after having been studied for more than 40 years, the mechanisms involved in the genesis and subsequent obduction of ophiolites over continental margins are still debated. We present the results of 2D thermal-mechanical numerical models that successfully reproduce characteristics of natural examples like the Semail, Bay of Islands, Yarlung-Zangbo, and Coast Range ophiolites. The numerical models are upper mantle scale and use pressure-, temperature- and strain-dependent viscous-plastic rheologies. Both divergent and convergent velocity boundary conditions are used and tectonic boundary forces are monitored. The models start with the rifting of a stable continent, followed by development of an ocean ridge and accretion of oceanic lithosphere at a total rate of 3 cm/y. Once a specified ocean size/age is achieved, the velocity boundary conditions are reversed leading to convergence and the spontaneous inception of a suduction zone at the mid-ocean ridge. We present results for models including different ages of oceans (40 to 90 Ma) and different convergence velocities (5 to 15 cm/y). The interaction between the lower plate passive margin and the oceanic upper plate results in 5 different tectonic styles. These differ mainly by the presence or absence of oceanic spreading in the upper plate (back-arc basin), leading to supra-subduction zone ophiolites vs. MORB-type, and by the behaviour of the oceanic slab, e.g., slab rollback vs. breakoff. The evolution of effective slab pull is interpreted to be the major control on the resulting tectonic style. Low effective slab pull models (young oceans and fast convergence rates) fail to obduct an ophiolite. Strong effective slab pull models (old oceans and lower convergence rates) result in subduction zone retreat and spontaneous oceanic

19. Numerical simulation of immiscible viscous fingering using adaptive unstructured meshes

Adam, A.; Salinas, P.; Percival, J. R.; Pavlidis, D.; Pain, C.; Muggeridge, A. H.; Jackson, M.

2015-12-01

Displacement of one fluid by another in porous media occurs in various settings including hydrocarbon recovery, CO2 storage and water purification. When the invading fluid is of lower viscosity than the resident fluid, the displacement front is subject to a Saffman-Taylor instability and is unstable to transverse perturbations. These instabilities can grow, leading to fingering of the invading fluid. Numerical simulation of viscous fingering is challenging. The physics is controlled by a complex interplay of viscous and diffusive forces and it is necessary to ensure physical diffusion dominates numerical diffusion to obtain converged solutions. This typically requires the use of high mesh resolution and high order numerical methods. This is computationally expensive. We demonstrate here the use of a novel control volume - finite element (CVFE) method along with dynamic unstructured mesh adaptivity to simulate viscous fingering with higher accuracy and lower computational cost than conventional methods. Our CVFE method employs a discontinuous representation for both pressure and velocity, allowing the use of smaller control volumes (CVs). This yields higher resolution of the saturation field which is represented CV-wise. Moreover, dynamic mesh adaptivity allows high mesh resolution to be employed where it is required to resolve the fingers and lower resolution elsewhere. We use our results to re-examine the existing criteria that have been proposed to govern the onset of instability.Mesh adaptivity requires the mapping of data from one mesh to another. Conventional methods such as consistent interpolation do not readily generalise to discontinuous fields and are non-conservative. We further contribute a general framework for interpolation of CV fields by Galerkin projection. The method is conservative, higher order and yields improved results, particularly with higher order or discontinuous elements where existing approaches are often excessively diffusive.

20. Computer-based numerical simulations of adsorption in nanostructures

Khashimova, Diana

2014-08-01

Zeolites are crystalline oxides with uniform, molecular-pore diameters of 3-14Å. Significant developments since 1950 made production of synthetic zeolites with high purity and controlled chemical composition possible. In powder-form, zeolites are major role-players in high-tech, industrial catalysis, adsorption, and ion exchange applications. Understanding properties of thin-film zeolites has been a focus of recent research. The ability to fine-tune desired macroscopic properties by controlled alteration at the molecular level is paramount. The relationships between macroscopic and molecular-level properties are established by experimental research. Because generating macroscopic, experimental data in a controlled laboratory can be prohibitively costly and time-consuming, reliable numerical simulations, which remove such difficulties, are an attractive alternative. Using a Configurational Biased Monte Carlo (CBMC) approach in grand canonical ensemble, numerical models for pure component and multicomponent adsorption processes were developed. Theoretical models such as ideal (IAST) and real adsorbed solution theory (RAST) to predict mixture adsorption in nanopores were used for comparison. Activity coefficients used in RAST calculations were determined from the Wilson, spreading pressure and COSMO-RS models. Investigative testing of the method on known materials, represented by all-silica zeolites such as MFI (channel type) and DDR (cage type), proved successful in replicating experimental data on adsorption of light hydrocarbons - alkanes, such as methane, ethane, propane and butane. Additionally, adsorption of binary and ternary mixtures was simulated. The given numerical approach developed can be a powerful, cost and time saving tool to predict process characteristics for different molecular-structure configurations. The approach used here for simulating adsorption properties of nanopore materials including process characteristics, may have great potential for

1. Numerical Simulation of Two Phase Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liou, Meng-Sing

2001-01-01

Two phase flows can be found in broad situations in nature, biology, and industry devices and can involve diverse and complex mechanisms. While the physical models may be specific for certain situations, the mathematical formulation and numerical treatment for solving the governing equations can be general. Hence, we will require information concerning each individual phase as needed in a single phase. but also the interactions between them. These interaction terms, however, pose additional numerical challenges because they are beyond the basis that we use to construct modern numerical schemes, namely the hyperbolicity of equations. Moreover, due to disparate differences in time scales, fluid compressibility and nonlinearity become acute, further complicating the numerical procedures. In this paper, we will show the ideas and procedure how the AUSM-family schemes are extended for solving two phase flows problems. Specifically, both phases are assumed in thermodynamic equilibrium, namely, the time scales involved in phase interactions are extremely short in comparison with those in fluid speeds and pressure fluctuations. Details of the numerical formulation and issues involved are discussed and the effectiveness of the method are demonstrated for several industrial examples.

2. High numerical aperture focusing of singular beams

Normatov, Alexander; Spektor, Boris; Shamir, Joseph

2009-02-01

Rigorous vector analysis of high numerical aperture optical systems encounters severe difficulties. While existing analytic methods, based on the Richards-Wolf approach, allow focusing of nearly planar incident wavefronts, these methods break down for beams possessing considerable phase jumps, such as beams containing phase singularities. This work was motivated by the need to analyze a recently introduced metrological application of singular beams that demonstrated an experimental sensitivity of 20nm under a moderate numerical aperture of 0.4. One of the possibilities to obtain even better sensitivity is by increasing the numerical aperture of the optical system. In this work we address the issue of high numerical aperture focusing of the involved singular beams. Our solution exploits the superposition principle to evaluate the three dimensional focal distribution of the electromagnetic field provided the illuminating wavefront can be described as having piecewise quasi constant phase. A brief overview of singular beam microscopy is followed by deeper discussion of the involved high numerical aperture focusing issue. Further, a few examples of different singular beam focal field distributions are presented.

3. Direct Numerical Simulation of the Leidenfrost Effect

Tanguy, Sebastien; Rueda Villegas, Lucia; Fluid Mechanics Institute of Toulouse Team

2015-11-01

The development of numerical methods for the direct numerical simulation of two-phase flows with phase changes, is the main topic of this study. We propose a novel numerical method which allows dealing with both evaporation and boiling at the interface between a liquid and a gas. For instance it can occur for a Leidenfrost droplet; a water drop levitating above a hot plate which temperature is much higher than the boiling temperature. In this case, boiling occurs in the film of saturated vapor which is entrapped between the bottom of the drop and the plate, whereas the top of the water droplet evaporates in contact of ambient air. Thus, boiling and evaporation can occur simultaneously on different regions of the same liquid interface or occur successively at different times of the history of an evaporating droplet. Usual numerical methods are not able to perform computations in these transient regimes, therefore, we propose in this paper a novel numerical method to achieve this challenging task. Finally, we present several accurate validations against experimental results on Leidenfrost Droplets to strengthen the relevance of this new method.

4. Boundary acquisition for setup of numerical simulation

SciTech Connect

Diegert, C.

1997-12-31

The author presents a work flow diagram that includes a path that begins with taking experimental measurements, and ends with obtaining insight from results produced by numerical simulation. Two examples illustrate this path: (1) Three-dimensional imaging measurement at micron scale, using X-ray tomography, provides information on the boundaries of irregularly-shaped alumina oxide particles held in an epoxy matrix. A subsequent numerical simulation predicts the electrical field concentrations that would occur in the observed particle configurations. (2) Three-dimensional imaging measurement at meter scale, again using X-ray tomography, provides information on the boundaries fossilized bone fragments in a Parasaurolophus crest recently discovered in New Mexico. A subsequent numerical simulation predicts acoustic response of the elaborate internal structure of nasal passageways defined by the fossil record. The author must both add value, and must change the format of the three-dimensional imaging measurements before the define the geometric boundary initial conditions for the automatic mesh generation, and subsequent numerical simulation. The author applies a variety of filters and statistical classification algorithms to estimate the extents of the structures relevant to the subsequent numerical simulation, and capture these extents as faceted geometries. The author will describe the particular combination of manual and automatic methods used in the above two examples.

5. Diffusive mesh relaxation in ALE finite element numerical simulations

SciTech Connect

Dube, E.I.

1996-06-01

The theory for a diffusive mesh relaxation algorithm is developed for use in three-dimensional Arbitary Lagrange/Eulerian (ALE) finite element simulation techniques. This mesh relaxer is derived by a variational principle for an unstructured 3D grid using finite elements, and incorporates hourglass controls in the numerical implementation. The diffusive coefficients are based on the geometric properties of the existing mesh, and are chosen so as to allow for a smooth grid that retains the general shape of the original mesh. The diffusive mesh relaxation algorithm is then applied to an ALE code system, and results from several test cases are discussed.

6. Numerical System Solver Developed for the National Cycle Program

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Binder, Michael P.

1999-01-01

As part of the National Cycle Program (NCP), a powerful new numerical solver has been developed to support the simulation of aeropropulsion systems. This software uses a hierarchical object-oriented design. It can provide steady-state and time-dependent solutions to nonlinear and even discontinuous problems typically encountered when aircraft and spacecraft propulsion systems are simulated. It also can handle constrained solutions, in which one or more factors may limit the behavior of the engine system. Timedependent simulation capabilities include adaptive time-stepping and synchronization with digital control elements. The NCP solver is playing an important role in making the NCP a flexible, powerful, and reliable simulation package.

7. Analytical and numerical modeling of surface morphologies in thin films

SciTech Connect

Genin, F.Y.

1995-05-01

Experimental studies have show that strains due to thermal expansion mismatch between a film and its substrate can produce very large stresses in the film that can lead to the formation of holes and hillocks. Based on a phenomenological description of the evolution of a solid surface under both capillary and stress driving forces and for surface and grain boundary self-diffusion, this article provides analytical and numerical solutions for surface profiles of model geometries in polycrystalline thin films. Results can explain a variety of surface morphologies commonly observed experimentally and are discussed to give some practical insights on how to control the growth of holes and hillocks in thin films.

8. Numerical simulation of water evaporation inside vertical circular tubes

Ocłoń, Paweł; Nowak, Marzena; Majewski, Karol

2013-10-01

In this paper the results of simplified numerical analysis of water evaporation in vertical circular tubes are presented. The heat transfer in fluid domain (water or wet steam) and solid domain (tube wall) is analyzed. For the fluid domain the temperature field is calculated solving energy equation using the Control Volume Method and for the solid domain using the Finite Element Method. The heat transfer between fluid and solid domains is conjugated using the value of heat transfer coefficient from evaporating liquid to the tube wall. It is determined using the analytical Steiner-Taborek correlation. The pressure changes in fluid are computed using Friedel model.

9. Numerical study of nanoparticle formation in a free turbulent jet

Gilfanov, A. K.; Koch, W.; Zaripov, S. K.; Rybdylova, O. D.

2016-11-01

Di-ethyl-hexyl-sebacate (DEHS) aerosol nanoparticle formation in a free turbulent jet as a result of nucleation, condensation and coagulation is studied using fluid flow simulation and the method of moments under the assumption of lognormal particle size distribution. The case of high nucleation rates and the coagulation-controlled growth of particles is considered. The formed aerosol performance is jet is numerically investigated for the various nozzle diameters and two approximations of the saturation pressure dependence on the temperature. It is demonstrated that a higher polydispersity of the aerosol is obtained for smaller nozzle diameters.

10. Numerical simulation of fluid flow around a scramaccelerator projectile

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pepper, Darrell W.; Humphrey, Joseph W.; Sobota, Thomas H.

1991-01-01

Numerical simulations of the fluid motion and temperature distribution around a 'scramaccelerator' projectile are obtained for Mach numbers in the 5-10 range. A finite element method is used to solve the equations of motion for inviscid and viscous two-dimensional or axisymmetric compressible flow. The time-dependent equations are solved explicitly, using bilinear isoparametric quadrilateral elements, mass lumping, and a shock-capturing Petrov-Galerkin formulation. Computed results indicate that maintaining on-design performance for controlling and stabilizing oblique detonation waves is critically dependent on projectile shape and Mach number.

11. Numerical Investigation of Aluminum Burning Behind Blast Waves

DTIC Science & Technology

2010-10-01

Hendrson[8]. 3/1)/6( ps Nd πφ= (4) )/(6 2dNuh gs λφ= (5) where Nu is a Nusselt number calculated from equations derived by Carlson and Hoglund[9...failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number . 1. REPORT DATE OCT 2010 2. REPORT TYPE...N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Numerical Investigation Ofaluminum Burning Behind Blast Waves 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

12. Numerical study of localization length in disordered graphene nanoribbons

Shokri, A. A.; Khoeini, F.

2012-06-01

In this work, we study quantum transport properties of a defective graphene nanoribbon (DGNR) attached to two semi-infinite metallic armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR) leads. A line of defects is considered in the GNR device with different configurations, which affects on the energy spectrum of the system. The calculations are based on the tight-binding model and Green's function method, in which localization length of the system is investigated, numerically. By controlling disorder concentration, the extended states can be separated from the localized states in the system. Our results may have important applications for building blocks in the nano-electronic devices based on GNRs.

13. A numerical cloud model for the support of laboratory experimentation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hagen, D. E.

1979-01-01

A numerical cloud model is presented which can describe the evolution of a cloud starting from moist aerosol-laden air through the diffusional growth regime. The model is designed for the direct support of cloud chamber laboratory experimentation, i.e., experiment preparation, real-time control and data analysis. In the model the thermodynamics is uncoupled from the droplet growth processes. Analytic solutions for the cloud droplet growth equations are developed which can be applied in most laboratory situations. The model is applied to a variety of representative experiments.

14. Numerical calculation of the ion polarization in MEIC

SciTech Connect

Derbenev, Yaroslav; Lin, Fanglei; Morozov, Vasiliy; Zhang, Yuhong; Kondratenko, Anatoliy M.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Filatov, Yury N.

2015-09-01

Ion polarization in the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) is controlled by means of universal 3D spin rotators designed on the basis of "weak" solenoids. We use numerical calculations to demonstrate that the 3D rotators have negligible effect on the orbital properties of the ring. We present calculations of the polarization dynamics along the collider's orbit for both longitudinal and transverse polarization directions at a beam interaction point. We calculate the degree of depolarization due to the longitudinal and transverse beam emittances in case when the zero-integer spin resonance is compensated.

15. A RANS/DES Numerical Procedure for Axisymmetric Flows with and without Strong Rotation

SciTech Connect

2007-01-01

A RANS/DES numerical procedure with an extended Lax-Wendroff control-volume scheme and turbulence model is described for the accurate simulation of internal/external axisymmetric flow with and without strong rotation. This new procedure is an extension, from Cartesian to cylindrical coordinates, of (1) a second order accurate multi-grid, control-volume integration scheme, and (2) a k-ω turbulence model. This paper outlines both the axisymmetric corrections to the mentioned numerical schemes and the developments of techniques pertaining to numerical dissipation, multi-block connectivity, parallelization, etc. Furthermore, analytical and experimental case studies are presented to demonstrate accuracy and computational efficiency. Notes are also made toward numerical stability of highly rotational flows.

16. Neural correlates of the numerical distance effect in children

PubMed Central

Mussolin, Christophe; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Pesenti, Mauro; Grandin, Cécile; De Volder, Anne G.

2013-01-01

In number comparison tasks, the performance is better when the distance between the numbers to compare increases. It has been shown that this so-called numerical distance effect (NDE) decreases with age but the neuroanatomical correlates of these age-related changes are poorly known. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we recorded the brain activity changes in children aged from 8 to 14 years while they performed a number comparison task on pairs of Arabic digits and a control color comparison task on non-numerical symbols. On the one hand, we observed developmental changes in the recruitment of frontal regions and the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS), with lower activation as age increased. On the other hand, we found that a behavioral index of selective sensitivity to the NDE was positively correlated with higher brain activity in a right lateralized occipito-temporo-parietal network including the IPS. This leads us to propose that the left IPS would be engaged in the refinement of cognitive processes involved in number comparison during development, while the right IPS would underlie the semantic representation of numbers and its activation would be mainly affected by the numerical proximity between them. PMID:24151473

17. A numerical study on liquid charging inside electrostatic atomizers

Kashir, Babak; Perri, Anthony; Sankaran, Abhilash; Staszel, Christopher; Yarin, Alexander; Mashayek, Farzad

2016-11-01

The charging of the dielectric liquid inside an electrostatic atomizer is studied numerically by developing codes based on the OpenFOAM platform. Electrostatic atomization is an appealing technology in painting, fuel injection and oil coating systems due to improved particle-size distribution, enhanced controlability of droplets' trajectories and lower power consumption. The numerical study is conducted concurrently to an experimental investigation to facilitate the validation and deliver feedback for further development. The atomizer includes a pin electrode that is placed at the center of a converging chamber. The chamber orifice is located at a known distance from the electrode tip. The pin electrode is connected to a high voltage that leads to the charging of the liquid. In the present work, the theoretical foundations of separated treatment of the polarized layer and the electronuetral bulk flow are set by describing the governing equations, relevant boundary conditions and the matching condition between these two domains. The resulting split domains are solved numerically to find the distribution of velocity and electrostatic fields over the specified regions. National Science Foundation Award Number: 1505276.

18. Deaf Individuals Show a Leftward Bias in Numerical Bisection.

PubMed

Cattaneo, Zaira; Cecchetto, Carlo; Papagno, Costanza

2016-01-01

Consistent evidence suggests that deaf individuals conceive of numerical magnitude as a left-to-right-oriented mental number line, as typically observed in hearing individuals. When accessing this spatial representation of numbers, normally hearing individuals typically show an attentional bias to the left (pseudoneglect), resembling the attentional bias they show in physical space. Deaf individuals do not show pseudoneglect in representing external space, as assessed by a visual line bisection task. However, whether deaf individuals show attentional biases in representing numerical space has never been investigated before. Here we instructed groups of deaf and hearing individuals to quickly estimate (without calculating) the midpoint of a series of numerical intervals presented in ascending and descending order. Both hearing and deaf individuals were significantly biased toward lower numbers (i.e., the leftward side of the mental number line) in their estimations. Nonetheless, the underestimation bias was smaller in deaf individuals than in the hearing when bisecting pairs of numbers given in descending order. This result may depend on the use of different strategies by deaf and hearing participants or a less pronounced lateralization of deaf individuals in the control of spatial attention.

19. Overview: Applications of numerical optimization methods to helicopter design problems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Miura, H.

1984-01-01

There are a number of helicopter design problems that are well suited to applications of numerical design optimization techniques. Adequate implementation of this technology will provide high pay-offs. There are a number of numerical optimization programs available, and there are many excellent response/performance analysis programs developed or being developed. But integration of these programs in a form that is usable in the design phase should be recognized as important. It is also necessary to attract the attention of engineers engaged in the development of analysis capabilities and to make them aware that analysis capabilities are much more powerful if integrated into design oriented codes. Frequently, the shortcoming of analysis capabilities are revealed by coupling them with an optimization code. Most of the published work has addressed problems in preliminary system design, rotor system/blade design or airframe design. Very few published results were found in acoustics, aerodynamics and control system design. Currently major efforts are focused on vibration reduction, and aerodynamics/acoustics applications appear to be growing fast. The development of a computer program system to integrate the multiple disciplines required in helicopter design with numerical optimization technique is needed. Activities in Britain, Germany and Poland are identified, but no published results from France, Italy, the USSR or Japan were found.

20. Numerical Investigation of Laser Propulsion for Transport in Water Environment

SciTech Connect

Han Bing; Li Beibei; Zhang Hongchao; Chen Jun; Shen Zhonghua; Lu Jian; Ni Xiaowu

2010-10-08

Problems that cumber the development of the laser propulsion in atmosphere and vacuum are discussed. Based on the theory of interaction between high-intensity laser and materials, as air and water, it is proved that transport in water environment can be impulsed by laser. The process of laser propulsion in water is investigated theoretically and numerically. It shows that not only the laser induced plasma shock wave, but also the laser induced bubble oscillation shock waves and the pressure induced by the collapsing bubble can be used. Many experimental results show that the theory and the numerical results are valid. The numerical result of the contribution of every propulsion source is given in percentage. And the maximum momentum coupling coefficient Cm is given. Laser propulsion in water environment can be applied in many fields. For example, it can provide highly controllable forces of the order of micro-Newton ({mu}N) in microsystems, such as the MEMS (Micro-electromechanical Systems). It can be used as minimally invasive surgery tools of high temporal and spatial resolution. It can be used as the propulsion source in marine survey and exploitation.