Numerical techniques for large cosmological N-body simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Efstathiou, G.; Davis, M.; White, S. D. M.; Frenk, C. S.
1985-01-01
Techniques for carrying out large N-body simulations of the gravitational evolution of clustering in the fundamental cube of an infinite periodic universe are described and compared. The accuracy of the forces derived from several commonly used particle mesh schemes is examined, showing how submesh resolution can be achieved by including short-range forces between particles by direct summation techniques. The time integration of the equations of motion is discussed, and the accuracy of the codes for various choices of 'time' variable and time step is tested by considering energy conservation as well as by direct analysis of particle trajectories. Methods for generating initial particle positions and velocities corresponding to a growing mode representation of a specified power spectrum of linear density fluctuations are described. The effects of force resolution are studied and different simulation schemes are compared. An algorithm is implemented for generating initial conditions by varying the number of particles, the initial amplitude of density fluctuations, and the initial peculiar velocity field.
Concurrent numerical simulation of flow and blood clotting using the lattice Boltzmann technique.
Bernsdorf, Jorg; Harrison, Sarah E; Smith, Stephen M; Lawford, Patricia V; Hose, D Rodney
2006-01-01
In this paper, we describe a novel approach for a concurrent numerical simulation of the unsteady flow within an idealised stenosed artery and a simplified blood clotting process based on a residence time model. The applied numerical scheme is the lattice Boltzmann technique, which proved to be highly efficient particularly for transient flows and complex or varying geometries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saad, Pascinthe
The Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics approach widely used for damage characterization of ductile materials cannot be accurately used for cementitious composites which undergo a substantial amount of localized microcracking prior to peak load. The Multicutting Technique offers a reasonably sound experimental means of obtaining the size of the damage zone for cementitious, concrete-like materials. The method, however, has many theoretical deficiencies and its sensitivity to experimental errors renders it occasionally unpredictable. The presented work is an attempt to study these deficiencies while providing a means of obtaining the size of the damage zone through the numerical simulation of the Multicutting Technique. Three modifications were made in an attempt to circumvent the deficiencies of the original technique: (1) Nonlinear axial elements are used to represent the localized strain-softening occurring near the cracktip in the introduced numerically based model. (2) A nonlinear crack opening profile is obtained rather than the linear relation assumed in the original theory. This crack opening profile is then used to obtain more adequate cohesive stress relations. (3) The stress redistribution factor is obtained and is found to be a function of the crack length as well as the location where the cut is performed. Results of the introduced model were found to be mesh and loading pattern independent, provided an adequately fine mesh is selected (size of elements < characteristic length) and a relatively small time step is used. Once the dependency on numerical parameters is eliminated with the proper choice of mesh configuration, time step and cohesive stress distribution function, the numerically simulated P-CMOD curve was very similar to the experimentally obtained curve. This similarity tends to validate, to a certain extent, the presented model as a sound, numerically based, means of assessing damage in cementitious composites.
Klishin, G.S.; Seleznev, V.E.; Aleoshin, V.V.
1997-12-31
Gas industry enterprises such as main pipelines, compressor gas transfer stations, gas extracting complexes belong to the energy intensive industry. Accidents there can result into the catastrophes and great social, environmental and economic losses. Annually, according to the official data several dozens of large accidents take place at the pipes in the USA and Russia. That is why prevention of the accidents, analysis of the mechanisms of their development and prediction of their possible consequences are acute and important tasks nowadays. The accidents reasons are usually of a complicated character and can be presented as a complex combination of natural, technical and human factors. Mathematical and computer simulations are safe, rather effective and comparatively inexpensive methods of the accident analysis. It makes it possible to analyze different mechanisms of a failure occurrence and development, to assess its consequences and give recommendations to prevent it. Besides investigation of the failure cases, numerical simulation techniques play an important role in the treatment of the diagnostics results of the objects and in further construction of mathematical prognostic simulations of the object behavior in the period of time between two inspections. While solving diagnostics tasks and in the analysis of the failure cases, the techniques of theoretical mechanics, of qualitative theory of different equations, of mechanics of a continuous medium, of chemical macro-kinetics and optimizing techniques are implemented in the Conversion Design Bureau {number_sign}5 (DB{number_sign}5). Both universal and special numerical techniques and software (SW) are being developed in DB{number_sign}5 for solution of such tasks. Almost all of them are calibrated on the calculations of the simulated and full-scale experiments performed at the VNIIEF and MINATOM testing sites. It is worth noting that in the long years of work there has been established a fruitful and effective
Numerical Simulation on Joining of Ceramics with Metal by Friction Welding Technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jesudoss Hynes, N. Rajesh; Nagaraj, P.; Basil, S. Joshua
The joining of ceramic and metals can be done by different techniques such as ultrasonic joining, brazing, transient liquid phase diffusion bonding, and friction welding. Friction Welding is a solid state joining process that generates heat through mechanical friction between a moving workpiece and a stationary component. In this article, numerical simulation on thermal analysis of friction welded ceramic/metal joint has been carried out by using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software. The finite element analysis helps in better understanding of the friction welding process of joining ceramics with metals and it is important to calculate temperature and stress fields during the welding process. Based on the obtained temperature distribution the graphs were plotted between the lengths of the joint corresponding to the temperatures. To increase the wettability, aluminium sheet was used as an interlayer. Hence, numerical simulation of friction welding process is done by varying the interlayer sheet thickness. Transient thermal analysis had been carried out for each cases and temperature distribution was studied. From the simulation studies, it is found that the increase in interlayer thickness reduces the heat affected zone and eventually improves the joint efficiency of alumina/aluminum alloy joints.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takabayashi, Masanori; Eto, Taisuke; Okamoto, Takashi
2016-08-01
For increasing the data density of holographic data storage (HDS), combining more than two multiplexing techniques is effective. This is also true in self-referential holographic data storage (SR-HDS) that enables holographic recording purely with a single beam. In this paper, a focus-shift multiplexing technique is applied to xy -shift multiplexed SR-HDS, the feasibility of which has been shown in our previous work. The focus-shift multiplexing technique enables the multiplexing of datapages by slightly changing the focal length of the objective lens. However, the required focus-shift distance for multiplexing and the implementation method of the focus-shift have not been clarified. First, the focus-shift selectivity is investigated by the numerical simulations. In the case where the focus-shift multiplexing technique is applied to xy -shift multiplexed SR-HDS, the inter-page crosstalk properties are clarified to decide the recording layout that can achieve a low-crosstalk readout. Second, the technique of displaying an additional phase pattern onto the spatial light modulator (SLM) is introduced, which is a focus-shift method without any special optical components, such as varifocal lenses. Finally, we investigate the relationship between the accuracy of the focus-shift and the parameters of SLM.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dieudonne, J. E.
1978-01-01
A numerical technique was developed which generates linear perturbation models from nonlinear aircraft vehicle simulations. The technique is very general and can be applied to simulations of any system that is described by nonlinear differential equations. The computer program used to generate these models is discussed, with emphasis placed on generation of the Jacobian matrices, calculation of the coefficients needed for solving the perturbation model, and generation of the solution of the linear differential equations. An example application of the technique to a nonlinear model of the NASA terminal configured vehicle is included.
Numerical Techniques in Acoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumeister, K. J. (Compiler)
1985-01-01
This is the compilation of abstracts of the Numerical Techniques in Acoustics Forum held at the ASME's Winter Annual Meeting. This forum was for informal presentation and information exchange of ongoing acoustic work in finite elements, finite difference, boundary elements and other numerical approaches. As part of this forum, it was intended to allow the participants time to raise questions on unresolved problems and to generate discussions on possible approaches and methods of solution.
Development of numerical techniques for simulation of magnetogasdynamics and hypersonic chemistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damevin, Henri-Marie
Magnetogasdynamics, the science concerned with the mutual interaction between electromagnetic field and flow of electrically conducting gas, offers promising advances in flow control and propulsion of future hypersonic vehicles. Numerical simulations are essential for understanding phenomena, and for research and development. The current dissertation is devoted to the development and validation of numerical algorithms for the solution of multidimensional magnetogasdynamic equations and the simulation of hypersonic high-temperature effects. Governing equations are derived, based on classical magnetogasdynamic assumptions. Two sets of equations are considered, namely the full equations and equations in the low magnetic Reynolds number approximation. Equations are expressed in a suitable formulation for discretization by finite differences in a computational space. For the full equations, Gauss law for magnetism is enforced using Powell's methodology. The time integration method is a four-stage modified Runge-Kutta scheme, amended with a Total Variation Diminishing model in a postprocessing stage. The eigensystem, required for the Total Variation Diminishing scheme, is derived in generalized three-dimensional coordinate system. For the simulation of hypersonic high-temperature effects, two chemical models are utilized, namely a nonequilibrium model and an equilibrium model. A loosely coupled approach is implemented to communicate between the magnetogasdynamic equations and the chemical models. The nonequilibrium model is a one-temperature, five-species, seventeen-reaction model solved by an implicit flux-vector splitting scheme. The chemical equilibrium model computes thermodynamics properties using curve fit procedures. Selected results are provided, which explore the different features of the numerical algorithms. The shock-capturing properties are validated for shock-tube simulations using numerical solutions reported in the literature. The computations of
The Development of High Order Numerical Techniques for Reentry Simulation of Hypersonic Spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sanders, Richard
1991-01-01
The primary difficulty encountered when simulating hypersonic flow is that the flow normally includes strong nonlinear discontinuities. These discontinuities fall into three broad classes: shocks, slip-lines, and rarefaction waves. Moreover, in the hypersonic flow regime, the chemistry of hot gases plays a vital role and can not be neglected. These facts combine to make the numerical treatment of spacecraft reentry a most challenging problem. In this work, we develop a class of finite difference schemes that accurately resolve discontinuous solutions to spacecraft reentry flow and are simple to incorporate into existing spacecraft reentry codes.
Protostellar Jets: Numerical Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vitorino, B. F.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.; Opher, R.
1998-11-01
Numerical simulations of astrophysical jets have been made in order to study their collimation and internal structure. Recently Ouyed & Pudritz (1997) did numerical simulations of axi-simetric magnetocentrifugal jets from a keplerian acretion disk employing the eulerian finite difference code Zeus-2D. During their simulation, it was raised a steady state jet confirming a lot of results of the MHD winds steady state theory. Following this scenario we did tridimensional numerial simulations of this model allowing the jet, after a perturbation, evolve into a not steady state producing the helical features observed in some protostellar jets.
Numerical simulations of plasmas
Dnestrovskii, Y.N.; Kostomarov, D.P.
1986-01-01
This book presents a modern, consistent, and systematic development of numerical computer simulation of plasmas in controlled thermonuclear fusion. The authors focus on recent Soviet research in mathematical modeling of Tokomak plasmas and present kinetic hydrodynamic and transport models.
Rocket engine numerical simulator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davidian, Ken
1993-01-01
The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: a rocket engine numerical simulator (RENS) definition; objectives; justification; approach; potential applications; potential users; RENS work flowchart; RENS prototype; and conclusion.
Rocket engine numerical simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davidian, Ken
1993-01-01
The topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: a definition of the rocket engine numerical simulator (RENS); objectives; justification; approach; potential applications; potential users; RENS work flowchart; RENS prototype; and conclusions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinze, Thomas; Jansen, Gunnar; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.
2016-08-01
Numerical modeling is a well established tool in rock mechanics studies investigating a wide range of problems. Implicit methods for solving linear equations have the advantage of being unconditionally stable, while explicit methods, although limited by the time step, are often used because of their limited memory demand, their scalability in parallel computing, and simple implementation of complex boundary conditions. In numerical modeling of explicit elastoplastic dynamics where the time step is limited by the material density, mass scaling techniques can be used to overcome this limit and significantly reduce computation time. While often used, the effect of mass and time scaling and how it may influence the numerical results is rarely-mentioned in publications, and choosing the right scaling technique is typically performed by trial and error. To our knowledge, no systematic studies have addressed how mass scaling might affect the numerical results. In this paper, we present results from an extensive and systematic study of the influence of mass and time scaling on the behavior of a variety of rock-mechanical models. We employ a finite difference scheme to model uniaxial and biaxial compression experiments using different mass and time scaling factors, and with physical models of increasing complexity up to a cohesion-weakening frictional-strengthening model (CWFS). We also introduce a normalized energy ratio to assist analyzing mass scaling effects. We find the tested models to be less sensitive to time scaling than to mass scaling, so mass scaling has higher potential for decreasing computational costs. However, we also demonstrate that mass scaling may lead to quantitatively wrong results, so care must be taken in interpreting stress values when mass scaling is used in complicated rock mechanics simulations. Mass scaling significantly influences the stress-strain response of numerical rocks because mass scaling acts as an artificial hardening agent on rock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinze, Thomas; Jansen, Gunnar; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.
2016-04-01
Numerical modeling is a well established tool in rock mechanics studies investigating a wide range of problems. Especially for estimating seismic risk of a geothermal energy plants a realistic rock mechanical model is needed. To simulate a time evolving system, two different approaches need to be separated: Implicit methods for solving linear equations are unconditionally stable, while explicit methods are limited by the time step. However, explicit methods are often preferred because of their limited memory demand, their scalability in parallel computing, and simple implementation of complex boundary conditions. In numerical modeling of explicit elastoplastic dynamics the time step is limited by the rock density. Mass scaling techniques, which increase the rock density artificially by several orders, can be used to overcome this limit and significantly reduce computation time. In the context of geothermal energy this is of great interest because in a coupled hydro-mechanical model the time step of the mechanical part is significantly smaller than for the fluid flow. Mass scaling can also be combined with time scaling, which increases the rate of physical processes, assuming that processes are rate independent. While often used, the effect of mass and time scaling and how it may influence the numerical results is rarely-mentioned in publications, and choosing the right scaling technique is typically performed by trial and error. Also often scaling techniques are used in commercial software packages, hidden from the untrained user. To our knowledge, no systematic studies have addressed how mass scaling might affect the numerical results. In this work, we present results from an extensive and systematic study of the influence of mass and time scaling on the behavior of a variety of rock-mechanical models. We employ a finite difference scheme to model uniaxial and biaxial compression experiments using different mass and time scaling factors, and with physical models
Numerical simulation of shock-induced combustion past blunt bodies using shock-fitting technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahuja, J. K.; Singh, D. J.; Tiwari, S. N.
1994-01-01
Two-dimensional axisymmetric, reacting viscous flow over blunt projectiles is computed to study shock-induced combustion at Mach 5.11 and Mach 6.46 in hydrogen-air mixture. A finite-difference, shock-fitting method is used to solve the complete set of Navier-Stokes and species conservation equations. In this approach, the bow shock represents a boundary of the computational domain and is treated as a discontinuity across which Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are applied. All interior details of the flow such as compression waves, reaction front, and the wall boundary layer are captured automatically in the solution. Since shock-fitting approach reduces the amount of artificial dissipation, all the intricate details of the flow are captured much more clearly than has been possible with the shock-capturing approach. This has allowed an improved understanding of the physics of shock-induced combustion over blunt projectiles and the numerical results can now be explained more readily with one-dimensional wave-interaction model than before.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masciotta, Maria-Giovanna; Ramos, Luís F.; Lourenço, Paulo B.; Vasta, Marcello; De Roeck, Guido
2016-03-01
The present paper focuses on a damage identification method based on the use of the second order spectral properties of the nodal response processes. The explicit dependence on the frequency content of the outputs power spectral densities makes them suitable for damage detection and localization. The well-known case study of the Z24 Bridge in Switzerland is chosen to apply and further investigate this technique with the aim of validating its reliability. Numerical simulations of the dynamic response of the structure subjected to different types of excitation are carried out to assess the variability of the spectrum-driven method with respect to both type and position of the excitation sources. The simulated data obtained from random vibrations, impulse, ramp and shaking forces, allowed to build the power spectrum matrix from which the main eigenparameters of reference and damage scenarios are extracted. Afterwards, complex eigenvectors and real eigenvalues are properly weighed and combined and a damage index based on the difference between spectral modes is computed to pinpoint the damage. Finally, a group of vibration-based damage identification methods are selected from the literature to compare the results obtained and to evaluate the performance of the spectral index.
Numerical simulations in combustion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chung, T. J.
1989-01-01
This paper reviews numerical simulations in reacting flows in general and combustion phenomena in particular. It is shown that use of implicit schemes and/or adaptive mesh strategies can improve convergence, stability, and accuracy of the solution. Difficulties increase as turbulence and multidimensions are considered, particularly when finite-rate chemistry governs the given combustion problem. Particular attention is given to the areas of solid-propellant combustion dynamics, turbulent diffusion flames, and spray droplet vaporization.
Numerical Propulsion System Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Naiman, Cynthia
2006-01-01
The NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with the aerospace industry, other government agencies, and academia, is leading the effort to develop an advanced multidisciplinary analysis environment for aerospace propulsion systems called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. The initial development of NPSS focused on the analysis and design of airbreathing aircraft engines, but the resulting NPSS framework may be applied to any system, for example: aerospace, rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and even human system modeling. NPSS provides increased flexibility for the user, which reduces the total development time and cost. It is currently being extended to support the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Fundamental Aeronautics Program and the Advanced Virtual Engine Test Cell (AVETeC). NPSS focuses on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, and heat transfer with numerical zooming on component codes. Zooming is the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail. NPSS development includes capabilities to facilitate collaborative engineering. The NPSS will provide improved tools to develop custom components and to use capability for zooming to higher fidelity codes, coupling to multidiscipline codes, transmitting secure data, and distributing simulations across different platforms. These powerful capabilities extend NPSS from a zero-dimensional simulation tool to a multi-fidelity, multidiscipline system-level simulation tool for the full development life cycle.
Confidence in Numerical Simulations
Hemez, Francois M.
2015-02-23
This PowerPoint presentation offers a high-level discussion of uncertainty, confidence and credibility in scientific Modeling and Simulation (M&S). It begins by briefly evoking M&S trends in computational physics and engineering. The first thrust of the discussion is to emphasize that the role of M&S in decision-making is either to support reasoning by similarity or to “forecast,” that is, make predictions about the future or extrapolate to settings or environments that cannot be tested experimentally. The second thrust is to explain that M&S-aided decision-making is an exercise in uncertainty management. The three broad classes of uncertainty in computational physics and engineering are variability and randomness, numerical uncertainty and model-form uncertainty. The last part of the discussion addresses how scientists “think.” This thought process parallels the scientific method where by a hypothesis is formulated, often accompanied by simplifying assumptions, then, physical experiments and numerical simulations are performed to confirm or reject the hypothesis. “Confidence” derives, not just from the levels of training and experience of analysts, but also from the rigor with which these assessments are performed, documented and peer-reviewed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seshadri, Banavara R.; Smith, Stephen W.
2007-01-01
Variation in constraint through the thickness of a specimen effects the cyclic crack-tip-opening displacement (DELTA CTOD). DELTA CTOD is a valuable measure of crack growth behavior, indicating closure development, constraint variations and load history effects. Fatigue loading with a continual load reduction was used to simulate the load history associated with fatigue crack growth threshold measurements. The constraint effect on the estimated DELTA CTOD is studied by carrying out three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element simulations. The analysis involves numerical simulation of different standard fatigue threshold test schemes to determine how each test scheme affects DELTA CTOD. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) prescribes standard load reduction procedures for threshold testing using either the constant stress ratio (R) or constant maximum stress intensity (K(sub max)) methods. Different specimen types defined in the standard, namely the compact tension, C(T), and middle cracked tension, M(T), specimens were used in this simulation. The threshold simulations were conducted with different initial K(sub max) values to study its effect on estimated DELTA CTOD. During each simulation, the DELTA CTOD was estimated at every load increment during the load reduction procedure. Previous numerical simulation results indicate that the constant R load reduction method generates a plastic wake resulting in remote crack closure during unloading. Upon reloading, this remote contact location was observed to remain in contact well after the crack tip was fully open. The final region to open is located at the point at which the load reduction was initiated and at the free surface of the specimen. However, simulations carried out using the constant Kmax load reduction procedure did not indicate remote crack closure. Previous analysis results using various starting K(sub max) values and different load reduction rates have indicated DELTA CTOD is
Numerical techniques for lattice gauge theories
Creutz, M.
1981-02-06
The motivation for formulating gauge theories on a lattice is reviewed. Monte Carlo simulation techniques are then discussed for these systems. Finally, the Monte Carlo methods are combined with renormalization group analysis to give strong numerical evidence for confinement of quarks by non-Abelian gauge fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weimann, H.; Amon, J.; Jung, Th.; Müller, G.
1997-10-01
We present a global two-dimensional model of a multi-zone-furnace for the growth of GaAs using the bottom-seeded vertical gradient freeze (VGF) technique. The finite element code FIDAP was used to perform calculations of the heat transfer due to radiation and conduction in the whole furnace. The numerical results show a good agreement between measured and calculated temperature distributions in the furnace and calculated/measured power consumptions of the heaters. Quasi-steady-state calculations for a typical growth process were performed and the influence of different growth velocities on the interface shape was analyzed.
Numerical Simulations of Thermographic Responses in Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winfree, William P.; Cramer, K. Elliot; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Howell, Patricia A.
2015-01-01
Numerical simulations of thermographic responses in composite materials have been a useful for evaluating and optimizing thermographic analysis techniques. Numerical solutions are particularly beneficial for thermographic techniques, since the fabrication of specimens with realistic flaws is difficult. Simulations are presented with different ply layups that incorporated the anisotropic thermal properties that exist in each ply. The results are compared to analytical series solutions and thermal measurements on composites with flat bottom holes and delaminations.
Numerical simulation of dusty plasmas
Winske, D.
1995-09-01
The numerical simulation of physical processes in dusty plasmas is reviewed, with emphasis on recent results and unresolved issues. Three areas of research are discussed: grain charging, weak dust-plasma interactions, and strong dust-plasma interactions. For each area, we review the basic concepts that are tested by simulations, present some appropriate examples, and examine numerical issues associated with extending present work.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, H.; Fan, C.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, J.; Qiao, C.; Wang, H.
2012-03-01
An adaptive optics system utilizing a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror can successfully correct a distorted wavefront by the conjugation principle. However, if a wave propagates over such a path that scintillation is not negligible, the appearance of branch points makes least-squares reconstruction fail to estimate the wavefront effectively. An adaptive optics technique based on the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) control algorithm is an alternative approach which does not need wavefront information but optimizes the performance metric directly. Performance was evaluated by simulating a SPGD control system and conventional adaptive correction with least-squares reconstruction in the context of a laser beam projection system. We also examined the relative performance of coping with branch points by the SPGD technique through an example. All studies were carried out under the conditions of assuming the systems have noise-free measurements and infinite time control bandwidth. Results indicate that the SPGD adaptive system always performs better than the system based on the least-squares wavefront reconstruction technique in the presence of relatively serious intensity scintillations. The reason is that the SPGD adaptive system has the ability of compensating a discontinuous phase, although the phase is not detected and reconstructed.
Numerical simulation of cocontinuous morphologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Junseok
2005-11-01
In strongly sheared emulsions, experiments (e.g., Galloway and Macosko 2001) have shown that systems consisting of one continuous (matrix) and one dispersed (drops) phase may undergo a coalescence cascade leading to a system in which both phases are continuous, i.e., cocontinuous, (sponge-like). Such configurations may have desirable diffusional, mechanical and electrical properties and thus have wide-ranging applications. Using a diffuse interface method developed by Kim and Lowengrub 2001, we perform numerical simulations of the interface length per unit area as a function of volume fractions in 2-d. In this approach, interfaces have small but finite thickness and limited chemical diffusion is used to change the topology of interfaces. In this presentation, we discuss the effects of the viscosity ratio, surface tension, and flow on interface length per unit area and compare it with experiment results. The use of adaptive mesh refinement techniques recently developed by Kim, Wise and Lowengrub will also be discussed.
Simulation verification techniques study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schoonmaker, P. B.; Wenglinski, T. H.
1975-01-01
Results are summarized of the simulation verification techniques study which consisted of two tasks: to develop techniques for simulator hardware checkout and to develop techniques for simulation performance verification (validation). The hardware verification task involved definition of simulation hardware (hardware units and integrated simulator configurations), survey of current hardware self-test techniques, and definition of hardware and software techniques for checkout of simulator subsystems. The performance verification task included definition of simulation performance parameters (and critical performance parameters), definition of methods for establishing standards of performance (sources of reference data or validation), and definition of methods for validating performance. Both major tasks included definition of verification software and assessment of verification data base impact. An annotated bibliography of all documents generated during this study is provided.
Numerical Simulation of Nix's Rotation
This is a numerical simulation of the orientation of Nix as seen from the center of the Pluto system. It has been sped up so that one orbit of Nix around Pluto takes 2 seconds instead of 25 days. L...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henry, Robert
1989-12-01
As part of the research on aircraft icing protection, a numerical simulation of an electrothermal deicer for a helicopter was developed. For validation, it was necessary to measure the skin temperature of the blade, during the deicing process in real conditions. The infrared techniques was used. The measurements required calibration at low temperatures, the determination of the different emissivity factors and the calculation of the icing cloud transmission factor. Infrared pictures were recorded and digitized to obtain the time variation of the skin temperature during a dry air test and two tests under icing conditions. The results show that the numerical simulation must take the ice/water phase change into account. In new code, the grid follows a flat plate geometry and the deicer is supposed to be covered by an ice layer of constant thickness. The simulated results are in good agreement with the results obtained by similar codes and with those obtained by a finite element code. The measured temperatures are consistent with the results of the code. Numerical results depend on the material thermal properties of the deicer.
Requirements definition by numerical simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hickman, James J.; Kostas, Chris; Tsang, Kang T.
1994-10-01
We are investigating the issues involved in requirements definition for narcotics interdiction: how much of a particular signature is possible, how does this amount change for different conditions, and what is the temporal relationship in various scenarios. Our approach has been to simulate numerically the conditions that arise during vapor or particulate transport. The advantages of this approach are that (1) a broad range of scenarios can be rapidly and inexpensively analyzed by simulation, and (2) simulations can display quantities that are difficult or impossible to measure. The drawback of this approach is that simulations cannot include all of the phenomena present in a real measurement, and therefore the fidelity of the simulation results is always an issue. To address this limitation, we will ultimately combine the results of numerical simulations with measurements of physical parameters for inclusion in the simulation. In this paper, we discuss these issues and how they apply to the current problems in narcotics interdictions, especially cargo containers. We also show the results of 1D and 3D numerical simulations, and compare these results with analytical solutions. The results indicate that this approach is viable. We also present data from 3D simulations of vapor transport in a loaded cargo container and some of the issues present in this ongoing work.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahuja, J. K.; Kumar, A.; Singh, D. J.; Tiwari, S. N.
1994-01-01
Two-dimensional axisymmetric, reacting viscous flow over blunt projectiles is computed to study shock induced combustion at Mach 5.11 and Mach 6.46 in hydrogen-air mixture. A finite-difference, shock-fitting method is used to solve the complete set of Navier Stokes and species conservation equations. In this approach, the bow shock represents a boundary of the computational domain and is treated as a discontinuity across which Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are applied. All interior details of the flow such as compression waves, reaction front, and the wall boundary layer are captured automatically in the solution. Since shock-fitting approach reduces the amount of artificial dissipation, all the intricate details of the flow are captured much more clearly than has been possible with the shock-capturing approach. This has allowed an improved understanding of the physics of shock-induced combustion over blunt projectiles and the numerical results can now be explained more readily with one dimensional wave-interaction model than before.
Numerical grid generation techniques. [conference
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1980-01-01
The state of the art in topology and flow geometry is presented. Solution techniques for partial differential equations are reviewed and included developments in coordinate transformations, conformal mapping, and invariant imbeddings. Applications of these techniques in fluid mechanics, flow geometry, boundary value problems, and fluidics are presented.
Numerical simulation of Ulysses nutation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garciamarirrodriga, C.; Zeischka, J.; Boslooper, E. C.
1993-04-01
The in-orbit instability of the Ulysses spacecraft was numerically simulated. The thermal excitation from the solar flux, the flexible axial boom, and the deployment mechanism were modeled and analyzed. In order to model a non-isolated mechanical system, the link between thermal, structural, and multibody dynamics packages is considered. The simulation shows that the nutation build-up was originated by the solar input on the axial boom coupled with the nutational frequency of the spacecraft. The results agree with the observed behavior.
Numerical simulation of electrochemical desalination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hlushkou, D.; Knust, K. N.; Crooks, R. M.; Tallarek, U.
2016-05-01
We present an effective numerical approach to simulate electrochemically mediated desalination of seawater. This new membraneless, energy efficient desalination method relies on the oxidation of chloride ions, which generates an ion depletion zone and local electric field gradient near the junction of a microchannel branch to redirect sea salt into the brine stream, consequently producing desalted water. The proposed numerical model is based on resolution of the 3D coupled Navier-Stokes, Nernst-Planck, and Poisson equations at non-uniform spatial grids. The model is implemented as a parallel code and can be employed to simulate mass-charge transport coupled with surface or volume reactions in 3D systems showing an arbitrarily complex geometrical configuration.
Numerical simulation of electrochemical desalination.
Hlushkou, D; Knust, K N; Crooks, R M; Tallarek, U
2016-05-18
We present an effective numerical approach to simulate electrochemically mediated desalination of seawater. This new membraneless, energy efficient desalination method relies on the oxidation of chloride ions, which generates an ion depletion zone and local electric field gradient near the junction of a microchannel branch to redirect sea salt into the brine stream, consequently producing desalted water. The proposed numerical model is based on resolution of the 3D coupled Navier-Stokes, Nernst-Planck, and Poisson equations at non-uniform spatial grids. The model is implemented as a parallel code and can be employed to simulate mass-charge transport coupled with surface or volume reactions in 3D systems showing an arbitrarily complex geometrical configuration.
Numerical simulation of electrochemical desalination.
Hlushkou, D; Knust, K N; Crooks, R M; Tallarek, U
2016-05-18
We present an effective numerical approach to simulate electrochemically mediated desalination of seawater. This new membraneless, energy efficient desalination method relies on the oxidation of chloride ions, which generates an ion depletion zone and local electric field gradient near the junction of a microchannel branch to redirect sea salt into the brine stream, consequently producing desalted water. The proposed numerical model is based on resolution of the 3D coupled Navier-Stokes, Nernst-Planck, and Poisson equations at non-uniform spatial grids. The model is implemented as a parallel code and can be employed to simulate mass-charge transport coupled with surface or volume reactions in 3D systems showing an arbitrarily complex geometrical configuration. PMID:27089841
Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Architecture
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Naiman, Cynthia G.
2004-01-01
The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. Because the NPSS was developed using the object-oriented paradigm, the resulting architecture is an extensible and flexible framework that is currently being used by a diverse set of participants in government, academia, and the aerospace industry. NPSS is being used by over 15 different institutions to support rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and aerospace. Full system-level simulations as well as subsystems may be modeled using NPSS. The NPSS architecture enables the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail, which is called numerical zooming. The middleware used to enable zooming and distributed simulations is the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). The NPSS Developer's Kit offers tools for the developer to generate CORBA-based components and wrap codes. The Developer's Kit enables distributed multi-fidelity and multi-discipline simulations, preserves proprietary and legacy codes, and facilitates addition of customized codes. The platforms supported are PC, Linux, HP, Sun, and SGI.
Numerical simulation of heat exchanger
Sha, W.T.
1985-01-01
Accurate and detailed knowledge of the fluid flow field and thermal distribution inside a heat exchanger becomes invaluable as a large, efficient, and reliable unit is sought. This information is needed to provide proper evaluation of the thermal and structural performance characteristics of a heat exchanger. It is to be noted that an analytical prediction method, when properly validated, will greatly reduce the need for model testing, facilitate interpolating and extrapolating test data, aid in optimizing heat-exchanger design and performance, and provide scaling capability. Thus tremendous savings of cost and time are realized. With the advent of large digital computers and advances in the development of computational fluid mechanics, it has become possible to predict analytically, through numerical solution, the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy for both the shellside and tubeside fluids. The numerical modeling technique will be a valuable, cost-effective design tool for development of advanced heat exchangers.
Numerical Simulation of Cocontinuous Blends
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Junseok; Lowengrub, John
2004-11-01
In strongly sheared emulsions, experiments (Galloway and Macosko 2002) have shown that systems consisting of one continuous (matrix) and one dispersed (drops) phase may undergo a coalescence cascade leading to a system in which both phases are continuous, (sponge-like). Such configurations may have desirable mechanical and electrical properties and thus have wide ranging applications. Using a new and improved diffuse-inteface method (accurate surface tension force formulation, volume-preservation, and efficient nonlinear multigrid solver) developed by Kim and Lowengrub 2004, we perform numerical simulations of cocontinuous blends and determine the conditions for formation. We also characterize their rheology.
Numerical simulation of oscillating magnetrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palevsky, A.; Bekefi, G.; Drobot, A. T.
1981-08-01
The temporal evolution of the current, voltage, and RF fields in magnetron-type devices is simulated by a two-dimensional, electromagnetic, fully relativistic particle-in-cell code. The simulation allows for the complete geometry of the anode vane structure, space-charge-limited cathode emission and the external power source, and is applied to a 54-vane inverted relativistic magnetron at a voltage of 300 kV and a magnetic field of 0.17 T. Fields in the RF structure and the anode-cathode gap are solved from Maxwell's equations so that results contain all the two-dimensional resonances of the system, and the numerical solution yields a complete space-time history of the particle momenta. In the presence of strong RF fields, the conventional definition of voltages is found to be inappropriate, and a definition is developed to reduce to the conventional results.
Issues in Numerical Simulation of Fire Suppression
Tieszen, S.R.; Lopez, A.R.
1999-04-12
This paper outlines general physical and computational issues associated with performing numerical simulation of fire suppression. Fire suppression encompasses a broad range of chemistry and physics over a large range of time and length scales. The authors discuss the dominant physical/chemical processes important to fire suppression that must be captured by a fire suppression model to be of engineering usefulness. First-principles solutions are not possible due to computational limitations, even with the new generation of tera-flop computers. A basic strategy combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation techniques with sub-grid model approximations for processes that have length scales unresolvable by gridding is presented.
Rocket Engine Numerical Simulator (RENS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davidian, Kenneth O.
1997-01-01
Work is being done at three universities to help today's NASA engineers use the knowledge and experience of their Apolloera predecessors in designing liquid rocket engines. Ground-breaking work is being done in important subject areas to create a prototype of the most important functions for the Rocket Engine Numerical Simulator (RENS). The goal of RENS is to develop an interactive, realtime application that engineers can utilize for comprehensive preliminary propulsion system design functions. RENS will employ computer science and artificial intelligence research in knowledge acquisition, computer code parallelization and objectification, expert system architecture design, and object-oriented programming. In 1995, a 3year grant from the NASA Lewis Research Center was awarded to Dr. Douglas Moreman and Dr. John Dyer of Southern University at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, to begin acquiring knowledge in liquid rocket propulsion systems. Resources of the University of West Florida in Pensacola were enlisted to begin the process of enlisting knowledge from senior NASA engineers who are recognized experts in liquid rocket engine propulsion systems. Dr. John Coffey of the University of West Florida is utilizing his expertise in interviewing and concept mapping techniques to encode, classify, and integrate information obtained through personal interviews. The expertise extracted from the NASA engineers has been put into concept maps with supporting textual, audio, graphic, and video material. A fundamental concept map was delivered by the end of the first year of work and the development of maps containing increasing amounts of information is continuing. Find out more information about this work at the Southern University/University of West Florida. In 1996, the Southern University/University of West Florida team conducted a 4day group interview with a panel of five experts to discuss failures of the RL10 rocket engine in conjunction with the Centaur launch vehicle. The
Direct numerical simulation of reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riley, J. J.; Metcalfe, R. W.
1984-01-01
The objectives of this work are: (1) to extend the technique of direct numerical simulations to turbulent, chemically reacting flows, (2) to test the validity of the method by comparing computational results with laboratory data, and (3) to use the simulations to gain a better understanding of the effects of turbulence on chemical reactions. The effects of both the large scale structure and the smaller scale turbulence on the overall reaction rates are addressed. The relationship between infinite reaction rate and finite reaction rate chemistry is compared with some of the results of calculations with existing theories and laboratory data. The direct numerical simulation method involves the numerical solution of the detailed evolution of the complex turbulent velocity and concentration fields. Using very efficient numerical methods (e.g., pseudospectral methods), the fully nonlinear (possibly low pass filtered) equations of motion are solved and no closure assumptions or turbulence models are used. Statistical data are obtained by performing spatial, temporal, and/or ensemble averages over the computed flow fields.
Numerical simulations of pendant droplets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pena, Carlos; Kahouadji, Lyes; Matar, Omar; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir; Shin, Seungwon
2015-11-01
We simulate the evolution of a three-dimensional pendant droplet through pinch-off using a new parallel two-phase flow solver called BLUE. The parallelization of the code is based on the technique of algebraic domain decomposition where the velocity field is solved by a parallel GMRes method for the viscous terms and the pressure by a parallel multigrid/GMRes method. Communication is handled by MPI message passing procedures. The method for the treatment of the fluid interfaces uses a hybrid Front Tracking/Level Set technique which defines the interface both by a discontinuous density field as well as by a local triangular Lagrangian mesh. This structure allows the interface to undergo large deformations including the rupture and coalescence of fluid interfaces. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.
Numerical simulation of sprites halo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bochkov, E. I.; Babich, L. P.; Kutsyk, I. M.
2014-03-01
In the framework of C. Wilson's hypothesis substantiating a possibility of electric discharge development in the Earth's atmosphere at high altitudes above thunderclouds, numerical simulations were executed of the discharge exciting the sprite halo with realistic variations of thundercloud dipole moment transferred to the ground by positive lightning discharge. For various values of time and altitude, at which the avalanche-to-streamer transition occurs, optical radiation was calculated in the 1 P, 2 P, and 1 N bands of the nitrogen molecule and Meinel's band of the N{2/+} ion. The calculated brightness and space-time evolution of the luminescence are consistent with the data of the field observations of the halo luminescence.
The numerical simulation of accelerator components
Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Hanerfeld, H.
1987-05-01
The techniques of the numerical simulation of plasmas can be readily applied to problems in accelerator physics. Because the problems usually involve a single component ''plasma,'' and times that are at most, a few plasma oscillation periods, it is frequently possible to make very good simulations with relatively modest computation resources. We will discuss the methods and illustrate them with several examples. One of the more powerful techniques of understanding the motion of charged particles is to view computer-generated motion pictures. We will show several little movie strips to illustrate the discussions. The examples will be drawn from the application areas of Heavy Ion Fusion, electron-positron linear colliders and injectors for free-electron lasers. 13 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.
Numerical simulation of magma energy extraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hickox, C. E.
The Magma Energy Program is a speculative endeavor regarding practical utility of electrical power production from the thermal energy which resides in magma. The systematic investigation has identified a number of research areas which have application to the utilization of magma energy and to the field of geothermal energy. Eight topics were identified which involve thermal processes and which are areas for the application of the techniques of numerical simulation. These areas are (1) two-phase flow of the working fluid in the wellbore, (2) thermodynamic cycles for the production of electrical power, (3) optimization of the entire system, (4) solidification and fracturing of the magma caused by the energy extraction process, (5) heat transfer and fluid flow within an open, direct-contact, heat-exchanger, (6) thermal convection in the overlying geothermal region, (7) thermal convection within the magma body, and (8) induced natural convection near the thermal energy extraction device. Modeling issues have been identified which will require systematic investigation in order to develop the most appropriate strategies for numerical simulation. It appears that numerical simulations will be of ever increasing importance to the study of geothermal processes as the size and complexity of the systems of interest increase. It is anticipated that, in the future, greater emphasis will be placed on the numerical simulation of large-scale, three-dimensional, transient, mixed convection in viscous flows and porous media. Increased computational capabilities, e.g.; massively parallel computers, will allow for the detailed study of specific processes in fractured media, non-Darcy effects in porous media, and non-Newtonian effects.
Numerical Simulations of Thermobaric Explosions
Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E; Khasainov, B
2007-05-04
A Model of the energy evolution in thermobaric explosions is presented. It is based on the two-phase formulation: conservation laws for the gas and particle phases along with inter-phase interaction terms. It incorporates a Combustion Model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gas dynamic fields. The Model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the booster with air, and the combustion of the fuel (Al or TNT detonation products) with air. Numerical simulations were performed for 1.5-g thermobaric explosions in five different chambers (volumes ranging from 6.6 to 40 liters and length-to-diameter ratios from 1 to 12.5). Computed pressure waveforms were very similar to measured waveforms in all cases - thereby proving that the Model correctly predicts the energy evolution in such explosions. The computed global fuel consumption {mu}(t) behaved as an exponential life function. Its derivative {dot {mu}}(t) represents the global rate of fuel consumption. It depends on the rate of turbulent mixing which controls the rate of energy release in thermobaric explosions.
Numerical Simulations of Granular Processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richardson, Derek C.; Michel, Patrick; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis; Yu, Yang; Matsumura, Soko
2014-11-01
Spacecraft images and indirect observations including thermal inertia measurements indicate most small bodies have surface regolith. Evidence of granular flow is also apparent in the images. This material motion occurs in very low gravity, therefore in a completely different gravitational environment than on the Earth. Understanding and modeling these motions can aid in the interpretation of imaged surface features that may exhibit signatures of constituent material properties. Also, upcoming sample-return missions to small bodies, and possible future manned missions, will involve interaction with the surface regolith, so it is important to develop tools to predict the surface response. We have added new capabilities to the parallelized N-body gravity tree code pkdgrav [1,2] that permit the simulation of granular dynamics, including multi-contact physics and friction forces, using the soft-sphere discrete-element method [3]. The numerical approach has been validated through comparison with laboratory experiments (e.g., [3,4]). Ongoing and recently completed projects include: impacts into granular materials using different projectile shapes [5]; possible tidal resurfacing of asteroid Apophis during its 2029 encounter [6]; the Brazil-nut effect in low gravity [7]; and avalanche modeling.Acknowledgements: DCR acknowledges NASA (grants NNX08AM39G, NNX10AQ01G, NNX12AG29G) and NSF (AST1009579). PM acknowledges the French agency CNES. SRS works on the NEOShield Project funded under the European Commission’s FP7 program agreement No. 282703. SM acknowledges support from the Center for Theory and Computation at U Maryland and the Dundee Fellowship at U Dundee. Most simulations were performed using the YORP cluster in the Dept. of Astronomy at U Maryland and on the Deepthought High-Performance Computing Cluster at U Maryland.References: [1] Richardson, D.C. et al. 2000, Icarus 143, 45; [2] Stadel, J. 2001, Ph.D. Thesis, U Washington; [3] Schwartz, S.R. et al. 2012, Gran
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abreu, Eduardo; Lambert, Wanderson
2012-05-01
Numerical methods are necessary, and are extremely important, in developing an understanding of the dynamics of multiphase flow of fluids in porous media applications to maximize hydrocarbon recovery as well as to simulate contaminant transport of soluble or insoluble species in groundwater contamination problems. This work deals with a problem very common in water-flooding process in petroleum reservoir to motivate the proposed modeling: the flow of two immiscible and incompressible fluid phases. The system of equations which describe this type of flow is a coupled, highly nonlinear system of time-dependent partial differential equations. The equation for the invading fluid (e.g., water phase) is a convection-dominated, degenerate parabolic partial differential equation whose solutions typically exhibit sharp moving fronts (e.g., moving internal layers with strong gradients) and it is very difficult to approximate numerically. We propose a two-stage numerical method to describe the injection problem for a model of two-phase (water-oil) flow in a porous rock, taking into account both gravity and hysteresis effects for solving transport flow problems in porous media. Indeed, we also investigate the Riemann problem for the one-dimensional, purely hyperbolic system, associated to the full differential model problem at hand. Thus, the use of accurate numerical methods in conjunction with one-dimensional semi-analytical Riemann solutions might provide valuable insight into the qualitative solution behavior of the full nonlinear governing flow system.
Numerical recipes for mold filling simulation
Kothe, D.; Juric, D.; Lam, K.; Lally, B.
1998-07-01
Has the ability to simulate the filling of a mold progressed to a point where an appropriate numerical recipe achieves the desired results? If results are defined to be topological robustness, computational efficiency, quantitative accuracy, and predictability, all within a computational domain that faithfully represents complex three-dimensional foundry molds, then the answer unfortunately remains no. Significant interfacial flow algorithm developments have occurred over the last decade, however, that could bring this answer closer to maybe. These developments have been both evolutionary and revolutionary, will continue to transpire for the near future. Might they become useful numerical recipes for mold filling simulations? Quite possibly. Recent progress in algorithms for interface kinematics and dynamics, linear solution methods, computer science issues such as parallelization and object-oriented programming, high resolution Navier-Stokes (NS) solution methods, and unstructured mesh techniques, must all be pursued as possible paths toward higher fidelity mold filling simulations. A detailed exposition of these algorithmic developments is beyond the scope of this paper, hence the authors choose to focus here exclusively on algorithms for interface kinematics. These interface tracking algorithms are designed to model the movement of interfaces relative to a reference frame such as a fixed mesh. Current interface tracking algorithm choices are numerous, so is any one best suited for mold filling simulation? Although a clear winner is not (yet) apparent, pros and cons are given in the following brief, critical review. Highlighted are those outstanding interface tracking algorithm issues the authors feel can hamper the reliable modeling of today`s foundry mold filling processes.
Relativistic positioning systems: Numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puchades Colmenero, Neus
The position of users located on the Earth's surface or near it may be found with the classic positioning systems (CPS). Certain information broadcast by satellites of global navigation systems, as GPS and GALILEO, may be used for positioning. The CPS are based on the Newtonian formalism, although relativistic post-Newtonian corrections are done when they are necessary. This thesis contributes to the development of a different positioning approach, which is fully relativistic from the beginning. In the relativistic positioning systems (RPS), the space-time position of any user (ship, spacecraft, and so on) can be calculated with the help of four satellites, which broadcast their proper times by means of codified electromagnetic signals. In this thesis, we have simulated satellite 4-tuples of the GPS and GALILEO constellations. If a user receives the signals from four satellites simultaneously, the emission proper times read -after decoding- are the user "emission coordinates". In order to find the user "positioning coordinates", in an appropriate almost inertial reference system, there are two possibilities: (a) the explicit relation between positioning and emission coordinates (broadcast by the satellites) is analytically found or (b) numerical codes are designed to calculate the positioning coordinates from the emission ones. Method (a) is only viable in simple ideal cases, whereas (b) allows us to consider realistic situations. In this thesis, we have designed numerical codes with the essential aim of studying two appropriate RPS, which may be generalized. Sometimes, there are two real users placed in different positions, which receive the same proper times from the same satellites; then, we say that there is bifurcation, and additional data are needed to choose the real user position. In this thesis, bifurcation is studied in detail. We have analyzed in depth two RPS models; in both, it is considered that the satellites move in the Schwarzschild's space
Simulation verification techniques study. Subsystem simulation validation techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duncan, L. M.; Reddell, J. P.; Schoonmaker, P. B.
1974-01-01
Techniques for validation of software modules which simulate spacecraft onboard systems are discussed. An overview of the simulation software hierarchy for a shuttle mission simulator is provided. A set of guidelines for the identification of subsystem/module performance parameters and critical performance parameters are presented. Various sources of reference data to serve as standards of performance for simulation validation are identified. Environment, crew station, vehicle configuration, and vehicle dynamics simulation software are briefly discussed from the point of view of their interfaces with subsystem simulation modules. A detailed presentation of results in the area of vehicle subsystems simulation modules is included. A list of references, conclusions and recommendations are also given.
Numerical wind speed simulation model
Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F.; Ballinger, M.Y.
1981-09-01
A relatively simple stochastic model for simulating wind speed time series that can be used as an alternative to time series from representative locations is described in this report. The model incorporates systematic seasonal variation of the mean wind, its standard deviation, and the correlation speeds. It also incorporates systematic diurnal variation of the mean speed and standard deviation. To demonstrate the model capabilities, simulations were made using model parameters derived from data collected at the Hanford Meteorology Station, and results of analysis of simulated and actual data were compared.
Numerical Simulations of the Wake of Kauai
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lane, Todd P.; Sharman, Robert D.; Frehlich, Rod G.; Brown, John M.
2006-09-01
This study uses a series of numerical simulations to examine the structure of the wake of the Hawaiian island of Kauai. The primary focus is on the conditions on 26 June 2003, which was the day of the demise of the Helios aircraft within Kauai’s wake. The simulations show that, in an east-northeasterly trade wind flow, Kauai produces a well-defined wake that can extend 40 km downstream of the island. The wake is bounded to the north and south by regions of strong vertical and horizontal shear—that is, shear lines. These shear lines mark the edge of the wake in the horizontal plane and are aligned approximately parallel to the upstream flow direction at each respective height. The highest-resolution simulations show that these shear lines can become unstable and break down through Kelvin Helmholtz instability. The breakdown generates turbulent eddies that are advected both downstream and into the recirculating wake flow. Turbulence statistics are estimated from the simulation using a technique that analyzes model-derived structure functions. A number of sensitivity studies are also completed to determine the influence of the upstream conditions on the structure of the wake. These simulations show that directional shear controls the tilt of the wake in the north south plane with height. These simulations also show that at lower incident wind speeds the wake has a qualitatively similar structure but is less turbulent. At higher wind speeds, the flow regime changes, strong gravity waves are generated, and the wake is poorly defined. These results are consistent with previous idealized studies of stratified flow over isolated obstacles.
Numerical simulation of conservation laws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Sin-Chung; To, Wai-Ming
1992-01-01
A new numerical framework for solving conservation laws is being developed. This new approach differs substantially from the well established methods, i.e., finite difference, finite volume, finite element and spectral methods, in both concept and methodology. The key features of the current scheme include: (1) direct discretization of the integral forms of conservation laws, (2) treating space and time on the same footing, (3) flux conservation in space and time, and (4) unified treatment of the convection and diffusion fluxes. The model equation considered in the initial study is the standard one dimensional unsteady constant-coefficient convection-diffusion equation. In a stability study, it is shown that the principal and spurious amplification factors of the current scheme, respectively, are structurally similar to those of the leapfrog/DuFort-Frankel scheme. As a result, the current scheme has no numerical diffusion in the special case of pure convection and is unconditionally stable in the special case of pure diffusion. Assuming smooth initial data, it will be shown theoretically and numerically that, by using an easily determined optimal time step, the accuracy of the current scheme may reach a level which is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the MacCormack scheme, with virtually identical operation count.
Numerical simulation of the countercurrent flow in a gas centrifuge
Cloutman, L.D.; Gentry, R.A.
1981-01-01
A finite difference method is presented for the numerical simulation of the axisymmetric countercurrent flows in gas centrifuge. A time-marching technique is used to relax an arbitrary initial condition to the desired steady-state solution. All boundary layers may be resolved, and nonlinear effects may be included. Numerical examples are presented. It is concluded that this technique is capable of accurately predicting the performance of a wide variety of machines under all operating conditions of interest.
Numerical simulation of premixed turbulent methane combustion
Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Grcar, Joseph F.
2001-12-14
In this paper we study the behavior of a premixed turbulent methane flame in three dimensions using numerical simulation. The simulations are performed using an adaptive time-dependent low Mach number combustion algorithm based on a second-order projection formulation that conserves both species mass and total enthalpy. The species and enthalpy equations are treated using an operator-split approach that incorporates stiff integration techniques for modeling detailed chemical kinetics. The methodology also incorporates a mixture model for differential diffusion. For the simulations presented here, methane chemistry and transport are modeled using the DRM-19 (19-species, 84-reaction) mechanism derived from the GRIMech-1.2 mechanism along with its associated thermodynamics and transport databases. We consider a lean flame with equivalence ratio 0.8 for two different levels of turbulent intensity. For each case we examine the basic structure of the flame including turbulent flame speed and flame surface area. The results indicate that flame wrinkling is the dominant factor leading to the increased turbulent flame speed. Joint probability distributions are computed to establish a correlation between heat release and curvature. We also investigate the effect of turbulent flame interaction on the flame chemistry. We identify specific flame intermediates that are sensitive to turbulence and explore various correlations between these species and local flame curvature. We identify different mechanisms by which turbulence modulates the chemistry of the flame.
High order hybrid numerical simulations of two dimensional detonation waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cai, Wei
1993-01-01
In order to study multi-dimensional unstable detonation waves, a high order numerical scheme suitable for calculating the detailed transverse wave structures of multidimensional detonation waves was developed. The numerical algorithm uses a multi-domain approach so different numerical techniques can be applied for different components of detonation waves. The detonation waves are assumed to undergo an irreversible, unimolecular reaction A yields B. Several cases of unstable two dimensional detonation waves are simulated and detailed transverse wave interactions are documented. The numerical results show the importance of resolving the detonation front without excessive numerical viscosity in order to obtain the correct cellular patterns.
Numerical simulation of shrouded propellers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Afjeh, Abdollah A.
1991-01-01
A numerical model was developed for the evaluation of the performance characteristics of a shrouded propeller. Using this model, a computational study was carried out to investigate the feasibility of improving the aerodynamic performance of a propeller by encasing it in a shroud. The propeller blade was modeled by a segmented bound vortex positioned along the span of the blade at its quarter-chord-line. The shroud was modeled by a number of discrete vortex rings. Due to the mutual dependence of shroud and propeller vortex strengths and the propeller vortex wake an iterative scheme was employed. Three shroud configurations were considered: a cylindrical and two conical shrouds. The computed performance of the shrouded propeller was compared with that of a free propeller of identical propeller geometry. The numerical results indicated that the cylindrical shroud outperformed the conical shroud configurations for the cases considered. Furthermore, when compared to the free propeller performance, the cylindrical shroud showed a considerable performance enhancement over the free propeller. However, the improvements were found to decrease with an increase in the advance ratio and to virtually diminish at advance ratios of about 2.5.
NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF CHROMOSPHERIC MICROFLARES
Jiang, R. L.; Fang, C.; Chen, P. F.
2010-02-20
With gravity, ionization, and radiation being considered, we perform 2.5 dimensional (2.5D) compressible resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of chromospheric magnetic reconnection using the CIP-MOCCT scheme. The temperature distribution of the quiet-Sun atmospheric model VALC and the helium abundance (10%) are adopted. Our 2.5D MHD simulation reproduces qualitatively the temperature enhancement observed in chromospheric microflares. The temperature enhancement DELTAT is demonstrated to be sensitive to the background magnetic field, whereas the total evolution time DELTAt is sensitive to the magnitude of the anomalous resistivity. Moreover, we found a scaling law, which is described as DELTAT/DELTAt {approx} n{sub H} {sup -1.5} B {sup 2.1}eta{sub 0} {sup 0.88}. Our results also indicate that the velocity of the upward jet is much greater than that of the downward jet, and the X-point may move up or down.
Numerical tools for atomistic simulations.
Fang, H.; Gullett, Philip Michael; Slepoy, Alexander; Horstemeyer, Mark F.; Baskes, Michael I.; Wagner, Gregory John; Li, Mo
2004-01-01
The final report for a Laboratory Directed Research and Development project entitled 'Parallel Atomistic Computing for Failure Analysis of Micromachines' is presented. In this project, atomistic algorithms for parallel computers were developed to assist in quantification of microstructure-property relations related to weapon micro-components. With these and other serial computing tools, we are performing atomistic simulations of various sizes, geometries, materials, and boundary conditions. These tools provide the capability to handle the different size-scale effects required to predict failure. Nonlocal continuum models have been proposed to address this problem; however, they are phenomenological in nature and are difficult to validate for micro-scale components. Our goal is to separately quantify damage nucleation, growth, and coalescence mechanisms to provide a basis for macro-scale continuum models that will be used for micromachine design. Because micro-component experiments are difficult, a systematic computational study that employs Monte Carlo methods, molecular statics, and molecular dynamics (EAM and MEAM) simulations to compute continuum quantities will provide mechanism-property relations associated with the following parameters: specimen size, number of grains, crystal orientation, strain rates, temperature, defect nearest neighbor distance, void/crack size, chemical state, and stress state. This study will quantify sizescale effects from nanometers to microns in terms of damage progression and thus potentially allow for optimized micro-machine designs that are more reliable and have higher fidelity in terms of strength. In order to accomplish this task, several atomistic methods needed to be developed and evaluated to cover the range of defects, strain rates, temperatures, and sizes that a material may see in micro-machines. Therefore we are providing a complete set of tools for large scale atomistic simulations that include pre-processing of
Numerical simulation of vortex breakdown
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shi, X.
1985-01-01
The breakdown of an isolated axisymmetric vortex embedded in an unbounded uniform flow is examined by numerical integration of the complete Navier-Stokes equations for unsteady axisymmetric flow. Results show that if the vortex strength is small, the solution approaches a steady flow and the vortex is stable. If the strength is large enough, the solution remains unsteady and a recirculating zone will appear near the axis, its form and internal structure resembling those of the axisymmetric breakdown bubbles with multi-cells observed by Faler and Leibovich (1978). For apppropriate combinations of flow parameters, the flow reveals quasi-periodicity. Parallel calculations with the quasi-cylindrical approximation indicate that so far as predicting of breakdown is concerned, its results coincide quite well with the results mentioned above. Both show that the vortex breakdown has little concern with the Reynolds number or with the critical classification of the upstream flow, at least for the lower range of Reynolds numbers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, L. C.; Tang, C. A.; Li, G.; Wang, S. Y.; Liang, Z. Z.; Zhang, Y. B.
2012-09-01
The failure mechanism of hydraulic fractures in heterogeneous geological materials is an important topic in mining and petroleum engineering. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model that considers the coupled effects of seepage, damage, and the stress field is introduced. This model is based on a previously developed two-dimensional (2D) version of the model (RFPA2D-Rock Failure Process Analysis). The RFPA3D-Parallel model is developed using a parallel finite element method with a message-passing interface library. The constitutive law of this model considers strength and stiffness degradation, stress-dependent permeability for the pre-peak stage, and deformation-dependent permeability for the post-peak stage. Using this model, 3D modelling of progressive failure and associated fluid flow in rock are conducted and used to investigate the hydro-mechanical response of rock samples at laboratory scale. The responses investigated are the axial stress-axial strain together with permeability evolution and fracture patterns at various stages of loading. Then, the hydraulic fracturing process inside a rock specimen is numerically simulated. Three coupled processes are considered: (1) mechanical deformation of the solid medium induced by the fluid pressure acting on the fracture surfaces and the rock skeleton, (2) fluid flow within the fracture, and (3) propagation of the fracture. The numerically simulated results show that the fractures from a vertical wellbore propagate in the maximum principal stress direction without branching, turning, and twisting in the case of a large difference in the magnitude of the far-field stresses. Otherwise, the fracture initiates in a non-preferred direction and plane then turns and twists during propagation to become aligned with the preferred direction and plane. This pattern of fracturing is common when the rock formation contains multiple layers with different material properties. In addition, local heterogeneity of the rock
Douglas W. Marshall; Changhu Xing; Charles Folsom; Colby Jensen; Heng Ban
2014-05-01
As an important factor affecting the accuracy of the thermal conductivity measurement, systematic (bias) error in the guarded comparative axial heat flow (cut-bar) method was mostly neglected by previous researches. This bias is due primarily to the thermal conductivity mismatch between sample and meter bars (reference), which is common for a sample of unknown thermal conductivity. A correction scheme, based on a finite element simulation of the measurement system, was proposed to reduce the magnitude of the overall measurement uncertainty. This scheme was experimentally validated by applying corrections on four types of sample measurements in which the specimen thermal conductivity is much smaller, slightly smaller, equal and much larger than that of the meter bar. As an alternative to the optimum guarding technique proposed before, the correction scheme can be used to minimize uncertainty contribution from the measurement system with non-optimal guarding conditions. It is especially necessary for large thermal conductivity mismatches between sample and meter bars.
Numerical simulations of disordered superconductors
Bedell, K.S.; Gubernatis, J.E.; Scalettar, R.T.; Zimanyi, G.T.
1997-12-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors carried out Monte Carlo studies of the critical behavior of superfluid {sup 4}He in aerogel. They found the superfluid density exponent increases in the presence of fractal disorder with a value roughly consistent with experimental results. They also addressed the localization of flux lines caused by splayed columnar pins. Using a Sine-Gordon-type of renormalization group study they obtained an analytic form for the critical temperature. They also determined the critical temperature from I-V characteristics obtained from a molecular dynamics simulation. The combined studies enabled one to construct the phase diagram as a function of interaction strength, temperature, and disorder. They also employed the recently developed mapping between boson world-lines and the flux motion to use quantum Monte Carlo simulations to analyze localization in the presence of disorder. From measurements of the transverse flux line wandering, they determined the critical ratio of columnar to point disorder strength needed to localize the bosons.
Aerodynamics. [numerical simulation using supercomputers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Graves, Randolph A., Jr.
1988-01-01
A projection is made of likely improvements in the economics of commercial aircraft operation due to developments in aerodynamics in the next half-century. Notable among these improvements are active laminar flow control techniques' application to third-generation SSTs, in order to achieve an L/D value of about 20; this is comparable to current subsonic transports, and has the further consequence of reducing cabin noise. Wave-cancellation systems may also be used to eliminate sonic boom overpressures, and rapid-combustion systems may be able to eliminate all pollutants from jet exhausts other than CO2.
Aerodynamics. [Numerical simulation using supercomputers
Graves, R.A. Jr.
1988-01-01
A projection is made of likely improvements in the economics of commercial aircraft operation due to developments in aerodynamics in the next half-century. Notable among these improvements are active laminar flow control techniques' application to third-generation SSTs, in order to achieve an L/D value of about 20; this is comparable to current subsonic transports, and has the further consequence of reducing cabin noise. Wave-cancellation systems may also be used to eliminate sonic boom overpressures, and rapid-combustion systems may be able to eliminate all pollutants from jet exhausts other than CO/sub 2/.
Numerical Propulsion System Simulation: An Overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lytle, John K.
2000-01-01
The cost of implementing new technology in aerospace propulsion systems is becoming prohibitively expensive and time consuming. One of the main contributors to the high cost and lengthy time is the need to perform many large-scale hardware tests and the inability to integrate all appropriate subsystems early in the design process. The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing the technologies required to enable simulations of full aerospace propulsion systems in sufficient detail to resolve critical design issues early in the design process before hardware is built. This concept, called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS), is focused on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structures and heat transfer with computing and communication technologies to capture complex physical processes in a timely and cost-effective manner. The vision for NPSS, as illustrated, is to be a "numerical test cell" that enables full engine simulation overnight on cost-effective computing platforms. There are several key elements within NPSS that are required to achieve this capability: 1) clear data interfaces through the development and/or use of data exchange standards, 2) modular and flexible program construction through the use of object-oriented programming, 3) integrated multiple fidelity analysis (zooming) techniques that capture the appropriate physics at the appropriate fidelity for the engine systems, 4) multidisciplinary coupling techniques and finally 5) high performance parallel and distributed computing. The current state of development in these five area focuses on air breathing gas turbine engines and is reported in this paper. However, many of the technologies are generic and can be readily applied to rocket based systems and combined cycles currently being considered for low-cost access-to-space applications. Recent accomplishments include: (1) the development of an industry-standard engine cycle analysis program and plug 'n play
Numerical simulations of protostellar jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suttner, Gerhard; Smith, Michael D.; Yorke, Harold W.; Zinnecker, Hans
Molecular jets announce the successful birth of a protostar. We develop here a model for the jets and their environments, adapting a multi-dimensional hydrocode to follow the molecular-atomic transitions of hydrogen. We examine powerful outflows into dense gas. The cocoon which forms around a jet is a very low density cavity of atomic gas. These atoms originate from strong shocks which dissociate the molecules. The rest of the molecules are either within the jet or swept up into very thin layers. Pulsed jets produce wider cavities and molecular layers which can grow onto resolvable jet knots. Three-dimensional simulations produce shocked molecular knots, distorted and multiple bow shocks and arclike structures. Spectroscopic and excitation properties of the hydrogen molecules are calculated. In the infrared, strong emission is seen from shocks within the jet (when pulsed) as well as from discrete regions along the cavity walls. Excitation, as measured by line ratios, is not generally constant. Broad double-peaked, shifted emission lines are predicted. The jet model for protostellar outflows is confronted with the constraints imposed by CO spectroscopic observations. From the three dimensional simulations we calculate line profiles and construct position-velocity diagrams for the (low-J) CO transitions. We find (1) the profiles imply power law variation of integrated brightness with velocity over a wide range of velocities, (2) the velocity field resembles a `Hubble Law' and (3) a hollow-shell structure at low velocities becomes an elongated lobe at high velocities. Deviations from the simple power law dependence of integrated brightness versus velocity occur at high velocities in our simulations. The curve first dips to a shallow minimum and then rises rapidly and peaks sharply. Reanalysis of the NGC 2264G and Cepheus E data confirm these predictions. We identify these two features with a jet-ambient shear layer and the jet itself. A deeper analysis reveals that
Numerical Simulations of Drop Collisions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nobari, M. R. H.; Tryggvason, G.
1994-01-01
Three-dimensional simulations of the off-axis collisions of two drops are presented. The full Navier-Stokes equations are solved by a Front-Tracking/Finite-Difference method that allows a fully deformable fluid interface and the inclusion of surface tension. The drops are accelerated towards each other by a body force that is turned off before the drops collide. Depending on whether the interface between the drops is ruptured or not, the drops either bounce or coalesce. For drops that coalesce, the impact parameter, which measures how far the drops are off the symmetry line, determines the eventual outcome of the collision. For low impact parameters, the drops coalesce permanently, but for higher impact parameters, a grazing collision, where the drops coalesce and then stretch apart again is observed. The results are in agreement with experimental observations.
Numerical simulation of turbulence over tensegrity fabric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Haoxiang; Bewley, Thomas
2003-11-01
In this research we aim to reduce turbulent skin friction by designing and optimizing tensegrity fabrics. Such fabrics form a new class of compliant surfaces consisting of a weave of both members under tension and members under compression. Boundary conditions on the flow are handled with a time-dependent coordinate transformation. We first note that, when designing the numerical algorithm for approximating the Navier-Stokes equation in the flow domain (with moving boundaries), special care (intrinsic differentiation of a contravariant vector) is needed to handle the temporal differentiation of the momentum term when using a contravariant formulation. A Cartesian-based formulation may also be used, and has proven to be more tractable in the 3D setting. The spectral DNS flow code is coupled with a tensegrity simulation code to compute the flow/structure interaction; recent simulation results will be presented. A complex-step derivative (CSD) technique may then be used to optimize the response characteristics of the tensegrity structure in order to minimize the drag at the flow/structure interface; this strategy will also be discussed.
NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF SPICULE ACCELERATION
Guerreiro, N.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V. E-mail: mats.carlsson@astro.uio.no
2013-04-01
Observations in the H{alpha} line of hydrogen and the H and K lines of singly ionized calcium on the solar limb reveal the existence of structures with jet-like behavior, usually designated as spicules. The driving mechanism for such structures remains poorly understood. Sterling et al. shed some light on the problem mimicking reconnection events in the chromosphere with a one-dimensional code by injecting energy with different spatial and temporal distributions and tracing the thermodynamic evolution of the upper chromospheric plasma. They found three different classes of jets resulting from these injections. We follow their approach but improve the physical description by including non-LTE cooling in strong spectral lines and non-equilibrium hydrogen ionization. Increased cooling and conversion of injected energy into hydrogen ionization energy instead of thermal energy both lead to weaker jets and smaller final extent of the spicules compared with Sterling et al. In our simulations we find different behavior depending on the timescale for hydrogen ionization/recombination. Radiation-driven ionization fronts also form.
Numerical Simulation of Nanostructure Growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hwang, Helen H.; Bose, Deepak; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.
2004-01-01
Nanoscale structures, such as nanowires and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), are often grown in gaseous or plasma environments. Successful growth of these structures is defined by achieving a specified crystallinity or chirality, size or diameter, alignment, etc., which in turn depend on gas mixture ratios. pressure, flow rate, substrate temperature, and other operating conditions. To date, there has not been a rigorous growth model that addresses the specific concerns of crystalline nanowire growth, while demonstrating the correct trends of the processing conditions on growth rates. Most crystal growth models are based on the Burton, Cabrera, and Frank (BCF) method, where adatoms are incorporated into a growing crystal at surface steps or spirals. When the supersaturation of the vapor is high, islands nucleate to form steps, and these steps subsequently spread (grow). The overall bulk growth rate is determined by solving for the evolving motion of the steps. Our approach is to use a phase field model to simulate the growth of finite sized nanowire crystals, linking the free energy equation with the diffusion equation of the adatoms. The phase field method solves for an order parameter that defines the evolving steps in a concentration field. This eliminates the need for explicit front tracking/location, or complicated shadowing routines, both of which can be computationally expensive, particularly in higher dimensions. We will present results demonstrating the effect of process conditions, such as substrate temperature, vapor supersaturation, etc. on the evolving morphologies and overall growth rates of the nanostructures.
Multistage Turbomachinery Flows Simulated Numerically
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hathaway, Michael D.; Adamczyk, John J.; Shabbir, Aamir; Wellborn, Steven R.
1999-01-01
At the NASA Lewis Research Center, a comprehensive assessment was made of the predictive capability of the average passage flow model as applied to multistage axial-flow compressors. This model, which describes the time-averaged flow field within a typical passage of a blade row embedded in a multistage configuration, is being widely used throughout U.S. aircraft industry as an integral part of their design systems. Rotor flow-angle deviation. In this work, detailed data taken within a four and one-half stage large low-speed compressor were used to assess the weaknesses and strengths of the predictive capabilities of the average passage flow model. The low-speed compressor blading is of modern design and employs stator end-bends. Measurements were made with slow- and high response instrumentation. The high-response measurements revealed the velocity components of both the rotor and stator wakes. From the measured wake profiles, we found that the flow exiting the rotors deviated from the rotor exit metal angle to a lesser degree than was predicted by the average passage flow model. This was found to be due to blade boundary layer transition, which recently has been shown to exist on multistage axial compressor rotor and stator blades, but was not accounted for in the average passage model. Consequently, a model that mimics the effects of blade boundary layer transition, Shih k-epsilon model, was incorporated into the average passage model. Simulations that incorporated this transition model showed a dramatic improvement in agreement with data. The altered model thus improved predictive capability for multistage axial-flow compressors, and this was verified by detailed experimental measurement.
Numerical simulation of gravitational lenses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherniak, Yakov
Gravitational lens is a massive body or system of bodies with gravitational field that bends directions of light rays propagating nearby. This may cause an observer to see multiple images of a light source, e.g. a star, if there is a gravitational lens between the star and the observer. Light rays that form each individual image may have different distances to travel, which creates time delays between them. In complex gravitational fields generated by the system of stars, analytical calculation of trajectories and light intensities is virtually impossible. Gravitational lens of two massive bodies, one behind another, are able to create four images of a light source. Furthermore, the interaction between the four light beams can form a complicated interference pattern. This article provides a brief theory of light behavior in a gravitational field and describes the algorithm for constructing the trajectories of light rays in a gravitational field, calculating wave fronts and interference pattern of light. If you set gravitational field by any number of transparent and non- transparent objects (stars) and set emitters of radio wave beams, it is possible to calculate the interference pattern in any region of space. The proposed method of calculation can be applied even in the case of the lack of continuity between the position of the emitting stars and position of the resulting image. In this paper we propose methods of optimization, as well as solutions for some problems arising in modeling of gravitational lenses. The simulation of light rays in the sun's gravitational field is taken as an example. Also caustic is constructed for objects with uniform mass distribution.
Numerical Simulations of Disk-Planet Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Angelo, Gennaro
2003-06-01
The aim of this thesis is the study the dynamical interactions occurring between a forming planet and its surrounding protostellar environment. This task is accomplished by means of both 2D and 3D numerical simulations. The first part of this work concerned global simulations in 3D. These were intended to investigate large-scale effects caused by a Jupiter-size body still in the process of accreting matter from its surroundings. Simulations show that, despite a density gap forms along the orbital path, Jupiter-mass protoplanets still accrete at a rate on the order of 0.01 Earth's masses per year when they are embedded in a minimum-mass Solar nebula. In the same conditions, the migration time scale due to gravitational torques by the disk is around 100000 years. The second part of the work was dedicated to perform 2D calculations, by employing a nested-grid technique. This method allows to carry out global simulations of planets orbiting in disks and, at the same time, to resolve in great detail the dynamics of the flow inside the Roche lobe of both massive and low-mass planets. Regardless of the planet mass, the high resolution supplied by the nested-grid technique permits an evaluation of the torques, resulting from short and very short range gravitational interactions, more reliable than the one previously estimated with the aid of numerical methods. Likewise, the mass flow onto the planet is computed in a more accurate fashion. Resulting migration time scales are in the range from 20000 years, for intermediate-mass planets, to 1000000 years, for very low-mass as well as high-mass planets. Circumplanetary disks form inside of the Roche lobe of Jupiter-size secondaries. In order to evaluate the consequences of the flat geometry on the local flow structure around planets, 3D nested-grid simulations were carried out to investigate a range of planetary masses spanning from 1.5 Earth's masses to one Jupiter's mass. Outcomes show that migration rates are relatively
3D Numerical simulations of oblique subduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malatesta, C.; Gerya, T.; Scambelluri, M.; Crispini, L.; Federico, L.; Capponi, G.
2012-04-01
In the past 2D numerical studies (e.g. Gerya et al., 2002; Gorczyk et al., 2007; Malatesta et al., 2012) provided evidence that during intraoceanic subduction a serpentinite channel forms above the downgoing plate. This channel forms as a result of hydration of the mantle wedge by uprising slab-fluids. Rocks buried at high depths are finally exhumed within this buoyant low-viscosity medium. Convergence rate in these 2D models was described by a trench-normal component of velocity. Several present and past subduction zones worldwide are however driven by oblique convergence between the plates, where trench-normal motion of the subducting slab is coupled with trench-parallel displacement of the plates. Can the exhumation mechanism and the exhumation rates of high-pressure rocks be affected by the shear component of subduction? And how uprise of these rocks can vary along the plate margin? We tried to address these questions performing 3D numerical models that simulate an intraoceanic oblique subduction. The models are based on thermo-mechanical equations that are solved with finite differences method and marker-in-cell techniques combined with multigrid approach (Gerya, 2010). In most of the models a narrow oceanic basin (500 km-wide) surrounded by continental margins is depicted. The basin is floored by either layered or heterogeneous oceanic lithosphere with gabbro as discrete bodies in serpentinized peridotite and a basaltic layer on the top. A weak zone in the mantle is prescribed to control the location of subduction initiation and therefore the plate margins geometry. Finally, addition of a third dimension in the simulations allowed us to test the role of different plate margin geometries on oblique subduction dynamics. In particular in each model we modified the dip angle of the weak zone and its "lateral" geometry (e.g. continuous, segmented). We consider "continuous" weak zones either parallel or increasingly moving away from the continental margins
Boundary acquisition for setup of numerical simulation
Diegert, C.
1997-12-31
The author presents a work flow diagram that includes a path that begins with taking experimental measurements, and ends with obtaining insight from results produced by numerical simulation. Two examples illustrate this path: (1) Three-dimensional imaging measurement at micron scale, using X-ray tomography, provides information on the boundaries of irregularly-shaped alumina oxide particles held in an epoxy matrix. A subsequent numerical simulation predicts the electrical field concentrations that would occur in the observed particle configurations. (2) Three-dimensional imaging measurement at meter scale, again using X-ray tomography, provides information on the boundaries fossilized bone fragments in a Parasaurolophus crest recently discovered in New Mexico. A subsequent numerical simulation predicts acoustic response of the elaborate internal structure of nasal passageways defined by the fossil record. The author must both add value, and must change the format of the three-dimensional imaging measurements before the define the geometric boundary initial conditions for the automatic mesh generation, and subsequent numerical simulation. The author applies a variety of filters and statistical classification algorithms to estimate the extents of the structures relevant to the subsequent numerical simulation, and capture these extents as faceted geometries. The author will describe the particular combination of manual and automatic methods used in the above two examples.
Numerical simulations of cryogenic cavitating flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Hyunji; Kim, Hyeongjun; Min, Daeho; Kim, Chongam
2015-12-01
The present study deals with a numerical method for cryogenic cavitating flows. Recently, we have developed an accurate and efficient baseline numerical scheme for all-speed water-gas two-phase flows. By extending such progress, we modify the numerical dissipations to be properly scaled so that it does not show any deficiencies in low Mach number regions. For dealing with cryogenic two-phase flows, previous EOS-dependent shock discontinuity sensing term is replaced with a newly designed EOS-free one. To validate the proposed numerical method, cryogenic cavitating flows around hydrofoil are computed and the pressure and temperature depression effect in cryogenic cavitation are demonstrated. Compared with Hord's experimental data, computed results are turned out to be satisfactory. Afterwards, numerical simulations of flow around KARI turbopump inducer in liquid rocket are carried out under various flow conditions with water and cryogenic fluids, and the difference in inducer flow physics depending on the working fluids are examined.
Reliability of Complex Nonlinear Numerical Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yee, H. C.
2004-01-01
This work describes some of the procedure to ensure a higher level of confidence in the predictability and reliability (PAR) of numerical simulation of multiscale complex nonlinear problems. The focus is on relating PAR of numerical simulations with complex nonlinear phenomena of numerics. To isolate sources of numerical uncertainties, the possible discrepancy between the chosen partial differential equation (PDE) model and the real physics and/or experimental data is set aside. The discussion is restricted to how well numerical schemes can mimic the solution behavior of the underlying PDE model for finite time steps and grid spacings. The situation is complicated by the fact that the available theory for the understanding of nonlinear behavior of numerics is not at a stage to fully analyze the nonlinear Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. The discussion is based on the knowledge gained for nonlinear model problems with known analytical solutions to identify and explain the possible sources and remedies of numerical uncertainties in practical computations. Examples relevant to turbulent flow computations are included.
A numerical comparison of sensitivity analysis techniques
Hamby, D.M.
1993-12-31
Engineering and scientific phenomena are often studied with the aid of mathematical models designed to simulate complex physical processes. In the nuclear industry, modeling the movement and consequence of radioactive pollutants is extremely important for environmental protection and facility control. One of the steps in model development is the determination of the parameters most influential on model results. A {open_quotes}sensitivity analysis{close_quotes} of these parameters is not only critical to model validation but also serves to guide future research. A previous manuscript (Hamby) detailed many of the available methods for conducting sensitivity analyses. The current paper is a comparative assessment of several methods for estimating relative parameter sensitivity. Method practicality is based on calculational ease and usefulness of the results. It is the intent of this report to demonstrate calculational rigor and to compare parameter sensitivity rankings resulting from various sensitivity analysis techniques. An atmospheric tritium dosimetry model (Hamby) is used here as an example, but the techniques described can be applied to many different modeling problems. Other investigators (Rose; Dalrymple and Broyd) present comparisons of sensitivity analyses methodologies, but none as comprehensive as the current work.
Simple Numerical Simulation of Strain Measurement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tai, H.
2002-01-01
By adopting the basic principle of the reflection (and transmission) of a plane polarized electromagnetic wave incident normal to a stack of films of alternating refractive index, a simple numerical code was written to simulate the maximum reflectivity (transmittivity) of a fiber optic Bragg grating corresponding to various non-uniform strain conditions including photo-elastic effect in certain cases.
IRIS Spectrum Line Plot - Numeric Simulation
This video is similar to the IRIS Spectrum Line Plot video at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E4V_vF3qMSI, but now as derived from a numerical simulation of the Sun by the University of Oslo. Credit...
Microprocessor Simulation: A Training Technique.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oscarson, David J.
1982-01-01
Describes the design and application of a microprocessor simulation using BASIC for formal training of technicians and managers and as a management tool. Illustrates the utility of the modular approach for the instruction and practice of decision-making techniques. (SK)
Comparison of deaerator performance using experimental and numerical techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majji, Sri Harsha
Deaerator is a component of integrated drive generator (IDG), which is used to separate air from oil. Integrated drive generator is the main power generation unit used in aircrafts to generate electric-power and must be cooled to give maximum efficiency. Mob Jet Oil II is used in these IDGs as a lubricant and coolant. So, in order to get high-quality oil, a deaerator is used to remove trapped air from this Mob Jet Oil II using the centrifugal principle. The reason for entrapment of air may be due to operation of vacuum and high-pressure pumps. In this study, 75/90 IDG generic and A320 classic deaerator performance evaluation was done based on both experimental and numerical techniques. Experimental data was collected from deaerator test rig and numerical data was attained using CFD simulations (software used for CFD simulation is ANSYS CFX). Both experimental and numerical results were compared and also deaerator 75/90 generic and A320 classic was compared in this study. A parametric study on deaerators flow separation and inner geometry was also done in this study. This work also includes a comparison study of different multiphase models and different meshes applied on deaerator numerical test methodology.
Numerical Simulation of Incompressible Flows with Moving Interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medale, Marc; Jaeger, Marc
1997-03-01
A numerical model has been developed for the 2D simulation of free surface flows or, more generally speaking, moving interface ones. The bulk fluids on both sides of the interface are taken into account in simulating the incompressible laminar flow state. In the case of heat transfer the whole system, i.e. walls as well as possible obstacles, is considered. This model is based on finite element analysis with an Eulerian approach and an unstructured fixed mesh. A special technique to localize the interface allows its temporal evolution through this mesh. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the model.
Numerical simulation of wall-bounded turbulent shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moin, P.
1982-01-01
Developments in three dimensional, time dependent numerical simulation of turbulent flows bounded by a wall are reviewed. Both direct and large eddy simulation techniques are considered within the same computational framework. The computational spatial grid requirements as dictated by the known structure of turbulent boundary layers are presented. The numerical methods currently in use are reviewed and some of the features of these algorithms, including spatial differencing and accuracy, time advancement, and data management are discussed. A selection of the results of the recent calculations of turbulent channel flow, including the effects of system rotation and transpiration on the flow are included.
Numerical Techniques for Scattering from Submerged Objects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Werby, M. F.; Tango, G. J.; Gaunaurd, G. C.
1985-01-01
To represent the final results in terms of matrices, one expands all appropriate physical quantities in terms of partial wave basis states. This includes expansions for the incident and scattered fields and the surface quantities. The method then utilizes the Huygen-Poincare integral representation for both the exterior and interior solutions, leading to the required matrix equations. One thus deals with matrix equations, the complexity of which depends on the nature of the problem. It is shown that in general a transition matrix T can be obtained relating the incident field A with the scattered field f having the form T = PQ(-1), where f = TA. The structure of Q can be quite complicated and can itself be composed of other matrix inversions such as arise from layered objects. Recent improvements in this method appropriate for a variety of physical problems are focused on, and on their implementation. Results are outlined from scattering simulations for very elongated submerged objects and resonance scattering from elastic solids and shells. The final improvement concerns eigenfunction expansions of surface terms, arising from solution of the interior problem, obtained via a preconditioning technique. This effectively reduces the problem to that of obtaining eigenvalues of a Hermitian operator. This formalism is reviewed for scattering from targets that are rigid, sound-soft, acoustic, elastic solids, elastic shells, and elastic layered objects. Two sets of the more interesting results are presented. The first concerns scattering from elongated objects, and the second to thin elastic spheroids.
Numerical Simulations of the Digital Microfluidic Manipulation of Single Microparticles.
Lan, Chuanjin; Pal, Souvik; Li, Zhen; Ma, Yanbao
2015-09-01
Single-cell analysis techniques have been developed as a valuable bioanalytical tool for elucidating cellular heterogeneity at genomic, proteomic, and cellular levels. Cell manipulation is an indispensable process for single-cell analysis. Digital microfluidics (DMF) is an important platform for conducting cell manipulation and single-cell analysis in a high-throughput fashion. However, the manipulation of single cells in DMF has not been quantitatively studied so far. In this article, we investigate the interaction of a single microparticle with a liquid droplet on a flat substrate using numerical simulations. The droplet is driven by capillary force generated from the wettability gradient of the substrate. Considering the Brownian motion of microparticles, we utilize many-body dissipative particle dynamics (MDPD), an off-lattice mesoscopic simulation technique, in this numerical study. The manipulation processes (including pickup, transport, and drop-off) of a single microparticle with a liquid droplet are simulated. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the effects on the manipulation processes from the droplet size, wettability gradient, wetting properties of the microparticle, and particle-substrate friction coefficients. The numerical results show that the pickup, transport, and drop-off processes can be precisely controlled by these parameters. On the basis of the numerical results, a trap-free delivery of a hydrophobic microparticle to a destination on the substrate is demonstrated in the numerical simulations. The numerical results not only provide a fundamental understanding of interactions among the microparticle, the droplet, and the substrate but also demonstrate a new technique for the trap-free immobilization of single hydrophobic microparticles in the DMF design. Finally, our numerical method also provides a powerful design and optimization tool for the manipulation of microparticles in DMF systems.
Numerical Simulations of the Digital Microfluidic Manipulation of Single Microparticles.
Lan, Chuanjin; Pal, Souvik; Li, Zhen; Ma, Yanbao
2015-09-01
Single-cell analysis techniques have been developed as a valuable bioanalytical tool for elucidating cellular heterogeneity at genomic, proteomic, and cellular levels. Cell manipulation is an indispensable process for single-cell analysis. Digital microfluidics (DMF) is an important platform for conducting cell manipulation and single-cell analysis in a high-throughput fashion. However, the manipulation of single cells in DMF has not been quantitatively studied so far. In this article, we investigate the interaction of a single microparticle with a liquid droplet on a flat substrate using numerical simulations. The droplet is driven by capillary force generated from the wettability gradient of the substrate. Considering the Brownian motion of microparticles, we utilize many-body dissipative particle dynamics (MDPD), an off-lattice mesoscopic simulation technique, in this numerical study. The manipulation processes (including pickup, transport, and drop-off) of a single microparticle with a liquid droplet are simulated. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the effects on the manipulation processes from the droplet size, wettability gradient, wetting properties of the microparticle, and particle-substrate friction coefficients. The numerical results show that the pickup, transport, and drop-off processes can be precisely controlled by these parameters. On the basis of the numerical results, a trap-free delivery of a hydrophobic microparticle to a destination on the substrate is demonstrated in the numerical simulations. The numerical results not only provide a fundamental understanding of interactions among the microparticle, the droplet, and the substrate but also demonstrate a new technique for the trap-free immobilization of single hydrophobic microparticles in the DMF design. Finally, our numerical method also provides a powerful design and optimization tool for the manipulation of microparticles in DMF systems. PMID:26241832
Linking Paleomagnetic Observations to Numerical Dynamo Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Constable, C.
2006-05-01
Over the past decade a number of numerical dynamo simulations have successfully mimicked properties considered important for the geomagnetic field. These include predominantly dipolar surface field structures and the ability to reverse polarity, along with some sensitivities to the presence and size of a conductive inner core and to spatial variations in core-mantle boundary conditions. The surface manifestations of geomagnetic excursions and reversals in these models are spatially and temporally variable as in paleomagnetic data. Detailed comparisons with paleosecular variation models lead to less satisfying comparisons in many cases. A huge advantage in studying the geodynamo from a numerical perspective is the detailed knowledge available about physical processes going on throughout the simulated core, instead of non-unique interpretations of inexact and incomplete actual surface observations. The well-known disadvantage to such simulations is that the parameter regime in which they operate is still far from that of Earth (resulting in viscous boundary layers that are too thick) despite concerted efforts to approach the appropriate numerical regime. The importance of these limitations in reproducing Earth-like geomagnetic field variations remains in doubt, but an optimistic view is that although the dynamics at short time scales may not be realistic, one can hope for viable comparisons on sufficiently long time scales, with the definition of sufficiently long dependent on the parameter regime. Both paleomagnetic and numerical studies appear to support the idea that the same kind of processes contribute to very long term secular variations, geomagnetic excursions, and reversals. This work attempts to link the statistical descriptions of long term paleomagnetic observations with physical descriptions from numerical simulations, and identify conditions associated with geomagnetic reversals and excursions.
Numerical Simulation of a Tornado Generating Supercell
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.
2012-01-01
The development of tornadoes from a tornado generating supercell is investigated with a large eddy simulation weather model. Numerical simulations are initialized with a sounding representing the environment of a tornado producing supercell that affected North Carolina and Virginia during the Spring of 2011. The structure of the simulated storm was very similar to that of a classic supercell, and compared favorably to the storm that affected the vicinity of Raleigh, North Carolina. The presence of mid-level moisture was found to be important in determining whether a supercell would generate tornadoes. The simulations generated multiple tornadoes, including cyclonic-anticyclonic pairs. The structure and the evolution of these tornadoes are examined during their lifecycle.
Numerical simulations of iced airfoils and wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Jianping
A numerical study was conducted to understand the effects of simulated ridge and leading-edge ice shapes on the aerodynamic performance of airfoils and wings. In the first part of this study, a range of Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers, as well as ice-shape sizes and ice-shape locations were examined for various airfoils with the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes approach. Comparisons between simulation results and experimental force data showed favorable comparison up to stall conditions. At and past stall condition, the aerodynamic forces were typically not predicted accurately for large upper-surface ice shapes. A lift-break (pseudo-stall) condition was then defined based on the lift curve slope change. The lift-break angles compared reasonably with experimental stall angles, and indicated that the critical ice-shape location tended to be near the location of minimum pressure and the location of the most adverse pressure gradient. With the aim of improving the predictive ability of the stall behavior for iced airfoils, simulations using the Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) approach were conducted in the second part of this numerical investigation. Three-dimensional DES computations were performed for a series of angles of attack around stall for the iced NACA 23012 and NLF 0414 airfoils. The simulations for both iced airfoils provided the maximum lift coefficients and stall behaviors qualitatively consistent with experiments.
Numerical simulations of catastrophic disruption: Recent results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benz, W.; Asphaug, E.; Ryan, E. V.
1994-12-01
Numerical simulations have been used to study high velocity two-body impacts. In this paper, a two-dimensional Largrangian finite difference hydro-code and a three-dimensional smooth particle hydro-code (SPH) are described and initial results reported. These codes can be, and have been, used to make specific predictions about particular objects in our solar system. But more significantly, they allow us to explore a broad range of collisional events. Certain parameters (size, time) can be studied only over a very restricted range within the laboratory; other parameters (initial spin, low gravity, exotic structure or composition) are difficult to study at all experimentally. The outcomes of numerical simulations lead to a more general and accurate understanding of impacts in their many forms.
Numerical simulation of swept-wing flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, Helen L.
1991-01-01
The transition process characteristics of flows over swept wings were computationally modelled. The crossflow instability and crossflow/T-S wave interaction are analyzed through the numerical solution of the full three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations including unsteadiness, curvature, and sweep. The leading-edge region of a swept wing is considered in a three-dimensional spatial simulation with random disturbances as the initial conditions.
Numerical simulation of droplet impact on interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kahouadji, Lyes; Che, Zhizhao; Matar, Omar; Shin, Seungwon; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir
2015-11-01
Simulations of three-dimensional droplet impact on interfaces are carried out using BLUE, a massively-parallel code based on a hybrid Front-Tracking/Level-Set algorithm for Lagrangian tracking of arbitrarily deformable phase interfaces. High resolution numerical results show fine details and features of droplet ejection, crown formation and rim instability observed under similar experimental conditions. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.
Numerical Simulations of Ion Cloud Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sillitoe, Nicolas; Hilico, Laurent
We explain how to perform accurate numerical simulations of ion cloud dynamics by discussing the relevant orders of magnitude of the characteristic times and frequencies involved in the problem and the computer requirement with respect to the ion cloud size. We then discuss integration algorithms and Coulomb force parallelization. We finally explain how to take into account collisions, cooling laser interaction and chemical reactions in a Monte Carlo approach and discuss how to use random number generators to that end.
Numerical simulation of orbiting black holes.
Brügmann, Bernd; Tichy, Wolfgang; Jansen, Nina
2004-05-28
We present numerical simulations of binary black hole systems which for the first time last for about one orbital period for close but still separate black holes as indicated by the absence of a common apparent horizon. An important part of the method is the construction of comoving coordinates, in which both the angular and the radial motion are minimized through a dynamically adjusted shift condition. We use fixed mesh refinement for computational efficiency. PMID:15245270
Numerical simulation of spherical plasma focus diode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, W.; Masugata, K.; Yatsui, K.
1995-06-01
A self-magnetically insulated, three-dimensionally-focused ion-beam diode, spherical plasma focus diode (SPFD), is studied by numerical simulation using a two-dimensional, electromagnetic, relativistic particle-in-cell computer code. The calculated results of the diode impedance, the ion-current efficiency, and the focusing characteristics of the ion beam are presented. These results, except the data of the ion-beam current, are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Numerical Propulsion System Simulation for Space Transportation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owen, Karl
2000-01-01
Current system simulations are mature, difficult to modify, and poorly documented. Probabilistic life prediction techniques for space applications are in their early application stage. Many parts of the full system, variable fidelity simulation, have been demonstrated individually or technology is available from aeronautical applications. A 20% reduction in time to design with improvements in performance and risk reduction is anticipated. GRC software development will proceed with similar development efforts in aeronautical simulations. Where appropriate, parallel efforts will be encouraged/tracked in high risk areas until success is assured.
2000 Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Review
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lytle, John; Follen, Greg; Naiman, Cynthia; Veres, Joseph; Owen, Karl; Lopez, Isaac
2001-01-01
The technologies necessary to enable detailed numerical simulations of complete propulsion systems are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with industry, academia, and other government agencies. Large scale, detailed simulations will be of great value to the nation because they eliminate some of the costly testing required to develop and certify advanced propulsion systems. In addition, time and cost savings will be achieved by enabling design details to be evaluated early in the development process before a commitment is made to a specific design. This concept is called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS consists of three main elements: (1) engineering models that enable multidisciplinary analysis of large subsystems and systems at various levels of detail, (2) a simulation environment that maximizes designer productivity, and (3) a cost-effective. high-performance computing platform. A fundamental requirement of the concept is that the simulations must be capable of overnight execution on easily accessible computing platforms. This will greatly facilitate the use of large-scale simulations in a design environment. This paper describes the current status of the NPSS with specific emphasis on the progress made over the past year on air breathing propulsion applications. Major accomplishments include the first formal release of the NPSS object-oriented architecture (NPSS Version 1) and the demonstration of a one order of magnitude reduction in computing cost-to-performance ratio using a cluster of personal computers. The paper also describes the future NPSS milestones, which include the simulation of space transportation propulsion systems in response to increased emphasis on safe, low cost access to space within NASA'S Aerospace Technology Enterprise. In addition, the paper contains a summary of the feedback received from industry partners on the fiscal year 1999 effort and the actions taken over the past year to
2001 Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Review
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lytle, John; Follen, Gregory; Naiman, Cynthia; Veres, Joseph; Owen, Karl; Lopez, Isaac
2002-01-01
The technologies necessary to enable detailed numerical simulations of complete propulsion systems are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with industry, academia and other government agencies. Large scale, detailed simulations will be of great value to the nation because they eliminate some of the costly testing required to develop and certify advanced propulsion systems. In addition, time and cost savings will be achieved by enabling design details to be evaluated early in the development process before a commitment is made to a specific design. This concept is called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS consists of three main elements: (1) engineering models that enable multidisciplinary analysis of large subsystems and systems at various levels of detail, (2) a simulation environment that maximizes designer productivity, and (3) a cost-effective, high-performance computing platform. A fundamental requirement of the concept is that the simulations must be capable of overnight execution on easily accessible computing platforms. This will greatly facilitate the use of large-scale simulations in a design environment. This paper describes the current status of the NPSS with specific emphasis on the progress made over the past year on air breathing propulsion applications. Major accomplishments include the first formal release of the NPSS object-oriented architecture (NPSS Version 1) and the demonstration of a one order of magnitude reduction in computing cost-to-performance ratio using a cluster of personal computers. The paper also describes the future NPSS milestones, which include the simulation of space transportation propulsion systems in response to increased emphasis on safe, low cost access to space within NASA's Aerospace Technology Enterprise. In addition, the paper contains a summary of the feedback received from industry partners on the fiscal year 2000 effort and the actions taken over the past year to
Numerical simulation of freeway traffic flow
Liu, G.; Lyrintzis, A.S.; Michalopoulos, P.G.
1997-11-01
A new high-order continuum model is presented in this paper. This high-order model exhibits smooth solutions rather than discontinuities, is able to describe the amplification of small disturbances on heavy traffic, and allows fluctuations of speed around the equilibrium values. Furthermore, unlike some earlier high-order models, it does not result in negative speeds at the tail of congested regions and disturbance propagation speeds greater than the flow speed. The model takes into account the relaxation time as a function of density and, in the equilibrium limit, it is consistent with the simple continuum model. A Riemann-problem-based numerical method is proposed for the solution of the new high-order model. Modeling of interrupted flow behavior such as merging, diverging, and weaving is also investigated. Based on the new high order model, the proposed numerical method and the modeling of interrupted flow, a versatile code is developed for the numerical simulation of freeway traffic flow that includes several freeway geometries. The authors compare the high-order model with the simple continuum model and the proposed numerical method with the Lax method based on 30-s and 5-min field data. The model is tested in interrupted flow situations (e.g., pipeline, merging, diverging, and weaving areas). A comparison of numerical results with limited field data shows that the high-order model performs better than the simple continuum model and describes better than a previously proposed method.
Cochlear implant simulator for surgical technique analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turok, Rebecca L.; Labadie, Robert F.; Wanna, George B.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Noble, Jack H.
2014-03-01
Cochlear Implant (CI) surgery is a procedure in which an electrode array is inserted into the cochlea. The electrode array is used to stimulate auditory nerve fibers and restore hearing for people with severe to profound hearing loss. The primary goals when placing the electrode array are to fully insert the array into the cochlea while minimizing trauma to the cochlea. Studying the relationship between surgical outcome and various surgical techniques has been difficult since trauma and electrode placement are generally unknown without histology. Our group has created a CI placement simulator that combines an interactive 3D visualization environment with a haptic-feedback-enabled controller. Surgical techniques and patient anatomy can be varied between simulations so that outcomes can be studied under varied conditions. With this system, we envision that through numerous trials we will be able to statistically analyze how outcomes relate to surgical techniques. As a first test of this system, in this work, we have designed an experiment in which we compare the spatial distribution of forces imparted to the cochlea in the array insertion procedure when using two different but commonly used surgical techniques for cochlear access, called round window and cochleostomy access. Our results suggest that CIs implanted using round window access may cause less trauma to deeper intracochlear structures than cochleostomy techniques. This result is of interest because it challenges traditional thinking in the otological community but might offer an explanation for recent anecdotal evidence that suggests that round window access techniques lead to better outcomes.
Numerical Simulation of Delamination Growth in Composite Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Camanho, P. P.; Davila, C. G.; Ambur, D. R.
2001-01-01
The use of decohesion elements for the simulation of delamination in composite materials is reviewed. The test methods available to measure the interfacial fracture toughness used in the formulation of decohesion elements are described initially. After a brief presentation of the virtual crack closure technique, the technique most widely used to simulate delamination growth, the formulation of interfacial decohesion elements is described. Problems related with decohesion element constitutive equations, mixed-mode crack growth, element numerical integration and solution procedures are discussed. Based on these investigations, it is concluded that the use of interfacial decohesion elements is a promising technique that avoids the need for a pre-existing crack and pre-defined crack paths, and that these elements can be used to simulate both delamination onset and growth.
Numeric Modified Adomian Decomposition Method for Power System Simulations
Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D; Simunovic, Srdjan; Pannala, Sreekanth
2016-01-01
This paper investigates the applicability of numeric Wazwaz El Sayed modified Adomian Decomposition Method (WES-ADM) for time domain simulation of power systems. WESADM is a numerical method based on a modified Adomian decomposition (ADM) technique. WES-ADM is a numerical approximation method for the solution of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The non-linear terms in the differential equations are approximated using Adomian polynomials. In this paper WES-ADM is applied to time domain simulations of multimachine power systems. WECC 3-generator, 9-bus system and IEEE 10-generator, 39-bus system have been used to test the applicability of the approach. Several fault scenarios have been tested. It has been found that the proposed approach is faster than the trapezoidal method with comparable accuracy.
Numerical Simulations of Radar Acoustic Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boluriaan, Said; Morris, Philip J.
1998-11-01
Wake vortices are produced by the lifting surfaces of all aircraft. The vortex created by a large aircraft can have a catastrophic effect on a small plane following closely behind. A vortex detection system would not only increase airport productivity by allowing adaptive spacing, but would also increase the safety of all aircraft operating around the airport by alerting controllers to hazardous conditions that might exist near the runways. In the present research, one and two-dimensional models have been considered for the study of wake vortex detection using a Radar Acoustic Sounding System (RASS). The permittivity perturbation caused by the vortex is modeled as a traveling wave with a Gaussian envelope and a variable propagation speed. The model equations are solved numerically. The one-dimensional model is also solved analytically. The main problem with a time domain simulation is the number of samples required to resolve the Doppler shift. Even for a 1D model with a typical scatterer size, the CPU time required to run the code is far beyond the currently available computer resources. One way to make the time domain simulation feasible is to recast the governing differential equation in order to remove the carrier frequency and solve only for the frequency shift in the scattered wave. The numerical stability characteristics of the resulting equation with complex coefficients are discussed. In order to validate the numerical scheme, the code is run for a fictitious speed of light.
Numerical simulation of platelet margination in microcirculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Hong; Shaqfeh, Eric
2009-11-01
The adhesion of platelets to vascular walls is the first step in clotting. This process critically depends on the preferential concentration of platelets near walls. The presence of red blood cells, which are the predominant blood constituents, is known to affect the steady state platelet concentration and the dynamic platelet margination, but the underlying mechanism is not well understood to-day. We use a direct numerical simulation to study the platelet margination process, with particular emphasis on the Stokesian hydrodynamic interactions among red cells, platelets, and vessel walls. Well-known mechanical models are used for the shearing and bending stiffness of red cell membranes, and the stiffer platelets are modeled as rigid discoids. A boundary integral formulation is used to solve the flow field, where the numerical solution procedure is accelerated by a parallel O(N N) smooth particle-mesh Ewald method. The effects of red cell hematocrit and deformability will be discussed.
Interpreting Observations of GRBs with Numerical Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aloy, M. A.; Cuesta-Martínez, C.; Mimica, P.; Obergaulinger, M.; Thöne, C. C.; Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fryer, C.; Page, K. L.; Gorosabel, J.; Perley, D. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Janka, H. T.; Racusin, J. L.; Christmas Burts Collaboration
2013-04-01
We show how numerical simulations have triggered the interpretation of GRB 101225A, so-called, the “Christmas burst.” This event is unusual because of its extremely long γ-ray emission and optical counterpart. The X-ray spectrum shows a black-body component which is present on a handful of nearby gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Numerical models have shown that the atypical properties of this GRB can be explained by the interaction between an ultrarelativistic jet and high-density ejecta, which naturally results after the dynamical common-envelope phase of the merger between a neutron star and the He core of a red giant binary system.
Numerical simulation of cross-country skiing.
Carlsson, Peter; Tinnsten, Mats; Ainegren, Mats
2011-08-01
A program for numerical simulation of a whole ski race, from start to finish, is developed in MATLAB. The track is modelled by a set of cubical splines in two dimensions and can be used to simulate a track in a closed loop or with the start and finish at different locations. The forces considered in the simulations are gravitational force, normal force between snow and skis, drag force from the wind, frictional force between snow and ski and driving force from the skier. The differential equations of motion are solved from start to finish with the Runge-Kutta method. Different wind situations during the race can be modelled, as well as different glide conditions on different parts of the track. It is also possible to vary the available power during the race. The simulation program's output is the total time of the race, together with the forces and speed during different parts of the race and intermediate times at selected points. Some preliminary simulations are also presented.
Numerical simulation and prediction of implosion phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, J.; Dietrich, R. A.
1992-10-01
Using gas-liquid two phase flow theory, a modified mathematical model based on the computational fluid dynamics method SIMPLE (Semi Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations) is introduced to investigate implosion phenomena in high pressure chambers. For a characteristic physical model, the numerical results are obtained and analyzed, without referring to experimental data. Extensive calculations to predict the highest pressure on the chamber wall are performed under varying conditions such as the implosion pressure, the dimensions of the test models, and the height of the upper air layer. The efficiency of different highest pressure reduction methods is analyzed. The results of these simulations and predictions are shown in a series of plots.
Numerical simulation of coupler cavities for linacs
Ng, C.K.; Derutyer, H.; Ko, K.
1993-04-01
We present numerical procedures involved in the evaluation of the performance of coupler cavities for linacs. The MAFIA code is used to simulate an X-Band accelerator section in the time domain. The input/output coupler cavities for the structure arc of the symmetrical double-input design. We calculate the transmission properties of the coupler and compare the results with measurements. We compare the performance of the symmetrical double-input design with that of the conventional single-input type by evaluating the field amplitude and phase asymmetries. We also evaluate the peak field gradient in the computer.
Numerical simulation of flow through orifice meters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barry, J. J.; Sheikholeslami, M. Z.; Patel, B. R.
1992-05-01
The FLUENT and FLUENT/BFC computer programs have been used to numerically model turbulent flow through orifice meters. These simulations were based on solution of the Navier-Stokes equations incorporating a k-epsilon turbulence model. For ideal installations, trends in the discharge coefficient with Reynolds number, beta ratio, and surface roughness have been reproduced, and the value of the discharge coefficient has been computed to within 2 percent. Nonideal installations have also been simulated, including the effects of expanders, reducers, valves, and bends. Detailed modeling of flow through a bend has yielded results in good agreement with experimental data. The trend in discharge coefficient shifts for orifice meters downstream of bends has been predicted reasonably well.
Numerical simulations of collisions between rotating particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salo, H.
1987-04-01
Numerical simulations of Keplerian systems consisting of 200 mutually colliding rotating particles show that friction and surface irregularity reduce the equilibrium velocity dispersion and transfer some of the energy of random velocities to rotational velocities. The results confirm the theoretical predictions of Salo (1987). Simulations are performed for identical and different particle sizes, and for a power-law distribution of sizes. Taking rotation into account is not found to alter the previously observed Rayleigh distribution of eccentricities and inclinations, while the components of the rotational velocities are found to follow a Gaussian distribution. Application to the rarefied regions of Saturn's rings suggests that friction is able to reduce the equilibrium geometric thickness by about one-half.
Numerical Simulations of Wing-Body Junction Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krishnamurthy, R.; Cagle, C.; Chandra, S.
1996-01-01
The goal of the research project is to contribute to the optimized design of fan bypass systems in advanced turbofan engines such as the Advanced Ducted Propulsors (ADP). The immediate objective is to perform numerical simulation of duct-strut interactions to elucidate the loss mechanisms associated with this configuration that is characteristic of ADP. These numerical simulations would complement an experimental study being undertaken at Purdue University. As the first step in the process, a numerical study of wing-body junction flow is being undertaken as it shares a number of characteristics with the duct-strut interaction flow. The presence of the characteristic horseshoe vortex and the associated secondary flow are the salient features that contribute to making this flow a challenge to predict numerically. The simulations will be performed with the NPARC code on the CRAY Y-MP platform at LeRC. The grids for the simulation have been generated using an algebraic mapping technique with a multisurface algorithm.
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent reacting flows
Chen, J.H.
1993-12-01
The development of turbulent combustion models that reflect some of the most important characteristics of turbulent reacting flows requires knowledge about the behavior of key quantities in well defined combustion regimes. In turbulent flames, the coupling between the turbulence and the chemistry is so strong in certain regimes that is is very difficult to isolate the role played by one individual phenomenon. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is an extremely useful tool to study in detail the turbulence-chemistry interactions in certain well defined regimes. Globally, non-premixed flames are controlled by two limiting cases: the fast chemistry limit, where the turbulent fluctuations. In between these two limits, finite-rate chemical effects are important and the turbulence interacts strongly with the chemical processes. This regime is important because industrial burners operate in regimes in which, locally the flame undergoes extinction, or is at least in some nonequilibrium condition. Furthermore, these nonequilibrium conditions strongly influence the production of pollutants. To quantify the finite-rate chemistry effect, direct numerical simulations are performed to study the interaction between an initially laminar non-premixed flame and a three-dimensional field of homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of extinction and on transient effects on the fine scale mixing process. Differential molecular diffusion among species is also examined with this approach, both for nonreacting and reacting situations. To address the problem of large-scale mixing and to examine the effects of mean shear, efforts are underway to perform large eddy simulations of round three-dimensional jets.
Evolution of Planetesimals. II. Numerical Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aarseth, S. J.; Lin, D. N. C.; Palmer, P. L.
1993-01-01
We continue our investigation of the dynamical evolution and coagulation process of planetesimals With a numerical N-body scheme, we simulate gravitational scattering and physical collisions among a system of planetesimals. The results of these simulations confirm our earlier analytical results that dynamical equilibrium is attained with a velocity dispersion comparable to the surface escape velocity of those planetesimals which contribute most of the system mass. In such an equilibrium, the rate of energy transfer from the systematic shear to dispersive motion, induced by gravitational scattering, is balanced by the rate of energy dissipation resulting from physical collisions. We also confirm that dynamical friction can lead to energy equipartition between an abundant population of low-mass field planetesimals and a few collisionally induced mergers with larger masses. These effects produce mass segregation in phase space and runaway coagulation. Collisions also lead to coagulation and evolution of the mass spectrum. The mergers of two field planetesimals can provide sufficient mass differential with other planetesimals for dynamical friction to induce energy equipartition and mass segregation. For small velocity dispersions, the more massive planetesimals produce relatively large gravitational focusing factors. Consequently, the growth time scale decreases with mass and runaway coagulation is initiated. Our numerical simulations show that, provided there is sufficient supply of low-mass planetesimals, runaway coagulation can lead to the formation of protoplanetary cores with masses comparable to a significant fraction of an Earth mass. We estimate that, at 1 AU, the characteristic time scale for the initial stages of planetesimal growth is ˜104 yr and ˜105 yr for the growth to protoplanetary cores. At Jupiter's present distance, these time scales are an order of magnitude longer.
Numerical Simulations of High Enthalpy Pulse Facilities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, Gregory J.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
Axisymmetric flows within shock tubes and expansion tubes are simulated including the effects of finite rate chemistry and both laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The simulations demonstrate the usefulness of computational fluid dynamics for characterizing the flows in high enthalpy pulse facilities. The modeling and numerical requirements necessary to simulate these flows accurately are also discussed. Although there is a large body of analysis which explains and quantifies the boundary layer growth between the shock and the interface in a shock tube, there is a need for more detailed solutions. Phenomena such as thermochemical nonequilibrium. or turbulent transition behind the shock are excluded in the assumptions of Mirels' analysis. Additionally there is inadequate capability to predict the influence of the boundary layer on the expanded gas behind the interface. Quantifying the gas in this region is particularly important in expansion tubes because it is the location of the test gas. Unsteady simulations of the viscous flow in shock tubes are computationally expensive because they must follow features such as a shock wave over the length of the facility and simultaneously resolve the small length scales within the boundary layer. As a result, efficient numerical algorithms are required. The numerical approach of the present work is to solve the axisymmetric gas dynamic equations using an finite-volume formulation where the inviscid fluxes are computed with a upwind TVD scheme. Multiple species equations are included in the formulation so that finite-rate chemistry can be modeled. The simulations cluster grid points at the shock and interface and translate this clustered grid with these features to minimize numerical errors. The solutions are advanced at a CFL number of less than one based on the inviscid gas dynamics. To avoid limitations on the time step due to the viscous terms, these terms are treated implicitly. This requires a block tri
The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation: An Overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lytle, John K.
2000-01-01
Advances in computational technology and in physics-based modeling are making large-scale, detailed simulations of complex systems possible within the design environment. For example, the integration of computing, communications, and aerodynamics has reduced the time required to analyze major propulsion system components from days and weeks to minutes and hours. This breakthrough has enabled the detailed simulation of major propulsion system components to become a routine part of designing systems, providing the designer with critical information about the components early in the design process. This paper describes the development of the numerical propulsion system simulation (NPSS), a modular and extensible framework for the integration of multicomponent and multidisciplinary analysis tools using geographically distributed resources such as computing platforms, data bases, and people. The analysis is currently focused on large-scale modeling of complete aircraft engines. This will provide the product developer with a "virtual wind tunnel" that will reduce the number of hardware builds and tests required during the development of advanced aerospace propulsion systems.
Numerical model for learning concepts of streamflow simulation
DeLong, L.L.; ,
1993-01-01
Numerical models are useful for demonstrating principles of open-channel flow. Such models can allow experimentation with cause-and-effect relations, testing concepts of physics and numerical techniques. Four PT is a numerical model written primarily as a teaching supplement for a course in one-dimensional stream-flow modeling. Four PT options particularly useful in training include selection of governing equations, boundary-value perturbation, and user-programmable constraint equations. The model can simulate non-trivial concepts such as flow in complex interconnected channel networks, meandering channels with variable effective flow lengths, hydraulic structures defined by unique three-parameter relations, and density-driven flow.The model is coded in FORTRAN 77, and data encapsulation is used extensively to simplify maintenance and modification and to enhance the use of Four PT modules by other programs and programmers.
Thermal numerical simulator for laboratory evaluation of steamflood oil recovery
Sarathi, P.
1991-04-01
A thermal numerical simulator running on an IBM AT compatible personal computer is described. The simulator was designed to assist laboratory design and evaluation of steamflood oil recovery. An overview of the historical evolution of numerical thermal simulation, NIPER's approach to solving these problems with a desk top computer, the derivation of equations and a description of approaches used to solve these equations, and verification of the simulator using published data sets and sensitivity analysis are presented. The developed model is a three-phase, two-dimensional multicomponent simulator capable of being run in one or two dimensions. Mass transfer among the phases and components is dictated by pressure- and temperature-dependent vapor-liquid equilibria. Gravity and capillary pressure phenomena were included. Energy is transferred by conduction, convection, vaporization and condensation. The model employs a block centered grid system with a five-point discretization scheme. Both areal and vertical cross-sectional simulations are possible. A sequential solution technique is employed to solve the finite difference equations. The study clearly indicated the importance of heat loss, injected steam quality, and injection rate to the process. Dependence of overall recovery on oil volatility and viscosity is emphasized. The process is very sensitive to relative permeability values. Time-step sensitivity runs indicted that the current version is time-step sensitive and exhibits conditional stability. 75 refs., 19 figs., 19 tabs.
Numerical Simulation of DC Coronal Heating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dahlburg, Russell B.; Einaudi, G.; Taylor, Brian D.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Warren, Harry; Rappazzo, A. F.; Velli, Marco
2016-05-01
Recent research on observational signatures of turbulent heating of a coronal loop will be discussed. The evolution of the loop is is studied by means of numerical simulations of the fully compressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations using the HYPERION code. HYPERION calculates the full energy cycle involving footpoint convection, magnetic reconnection, nonlinear thermal conduction and optically thin radiation. The footpoints of the loop magnetic field are convected by random photospheric motions. As a consequence the magnetic field in the loop is energized and develops turbulent nonlinear dynamics characterized by the continuous formation and dissipation of field-aligned current sheets: energy is deposited at small scales where heating occurs. Dissipation is non-uniformly distributed so that only a fraction of thecoronal mass and volume gets heated at any time. Temperature and density are highly structured at scales which, in the solar corona, remain observationally unresolved: the plasma of the simulated loop is multi thermal, where highly dynamical hotter and cooler plasma strands are scattered throughout the loop at sub-observational scales. Typical simulated coronal loops are 50000 km length and have axial magnetic field intensities ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 Tesla. To connect these simulations to observations the computed number densities and temperatures are used to synthesize the intensities expected in emission lines typically observed with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode. These intensities are then employed to compute differential emission measure distributions, which are found to be very similar to those derived from observations of solar active regions.
Computing abstraction hierarchies by numerical simulation
Bundy, A.; Giunchiglia, F.; Sebastiani, R.; Walsh, T.
1996-12-31
We present a novel method for building ABSTRIPS-style abstraction hierarchies in planning. The aim of this method is to minimize the amount of backtracking between abstraction levels. Previous approaches have determined the criticality of operator preconditions by reasoning about plans directly. Here, we adopt a simpler and faster approach where we use numerical simulation of the planning process. We demonstrate the theoretical advantages of our approach by identifying some simple properties lacking in previous approaches but possessed by our method. We demonstrate the empirical advantages of our approach by a set of four benchmark experiments using the ABTWEAK system. We compare the quality of the abstraction hierarchies generated with those built by the ALPINE and HIGHPOINT algorithms.
Numerical Simulations of Acoustically Driven, Burning Droplets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, H.-C.; Karagozian, A. R.; Smith, O. I.; Urban, Dave (Technical Monitor)
1999-01-01
This computational study focuses on understanding and quantifying the effects of external acoustical perturbations on droplet combustion. A one-dimensional, axisymmetric representation of the essential diffusion and reaction processes occurring in the vicinity of the droplet stagnation point is used here in order to isolate the effects of the imposed acoustic disturbance. The simulation is performed using a third order accurate, essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) numerical scheme with a full methanol-air reaction mechanism. Consistent with recent microgravity and normal gravity combustion experiments, focus is placed on conditions where the droplet is situated at a velocity antinode in order for the droplet to experience the greatest effects of fluid mechanical straining of flame structures. The effects of imposed sound pressure level and frequency are explored here, and conditions leading to maximum burning rates are identified.
History of the numerical aerodynamic simulation program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peterson, Victor L.; Ballhaus, William F., Jr.
1987-01-01
The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) program has reached a milestone with the completion of the initial operating configuration of the NAS Processing System Network. This achievement is the first major milestone in the continuing effort to provide a state-of-the-art supercomputer facility for the national aerospace community and to serve as a pathfinder for the development and use of future supercomputer systems. The underlying factors that motivated the initiation of the program are first identified and then discussed. These include the emergence and evolution of computational aerodynamics as a powerful new capability in aerodynamics research and development, the computer power required for advances in the discipline, the complementary nature of computation and wind tunnel testing, and the need for the government to play a pathfinding role in the development and use of large-scale scientific computing systems. Finally, the history of the NAS program is traced from its inception in 1975 to the present time.
Numerical simulation of three dimensional transonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sahu, Jubaraj; Steger, Joseph L.
1987-01-01
The three-dimensional flow over a projectile has been computed using an implicit, approximately factored, partially flux-split algorithm. A simple composite grid scheme has been developed in which a single grid is partitioned into a series of smaller grids for applications which require an external large memory device such as the SSD of the CRAY X-MP/48, or multitasking. The accuracy and stability of the composite grid scheme has been tested by numerically simulating the flow over an ellipsoid at angle of attack and comparing the solution with a single grid solution. The flowfield over a projectile at M = 0.96 and 4 deg angle-of-attack has been computed using a fine grid, and compared with experiment.
Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility feasibility study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1979-01-01
There were three major issues examined in the feasibility study. First, the ability of the proposed system architecture to support the anticipated workload was evaluated. Second, the throughput of the computational engine (the flow model processor) was studied using real application programs. Third, the availability reliability, and maintainability of the system were modeled. The evaluations were based on the baseline systems. The results show that the implementation of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility, in the form considered, would indeed be a feasible project with an acceptable level of risk. The technology required (both hardware and software) either already exists or, in the case of a few parts, is expected to be announced this year. Facets of the work described include the hardware configuration, software, user language, and fault tolerance.
Numerical simulation of fueling in tokamaks
Attenberger, S.E.; Houlberg, W.A.; Milora, S.L.
1982-04-01
We describe the numerical simulation of fueling and particle transport in both present and future tokamak plasmas. Models for pellet ablation and plasma density behavior after pellet injection are compared with experimental results in ISX and PDX plasmas and then extended to fusion reactor conditions. The role of fast ion ablation due to intense neutral beam injection and fusion alphas is examined along with pellet size and velocity considerations. In plasmas with high pumping efficiency (which may be obtained with divertor operation), pellet injection can significantly reduce fueling rates while maintaining more flexibility in control of the density profile than afforded by gas puffing. When fueling is dominated by gas puffing or high recycle from the walls or limiter, control of the fueling and density profiles is reduced and particle fluxes to the wall increase.
Numerical simulation of fueling in tokamaks
Attenberger, S.E.; Houlberg, W.A.; Milora, S.L.
1981-01-01
We describe the numerical simulation of fueling and particle transport in both present and future tokamak plasmas. Models for pellet ablation and plasma density behavior after pellet injection are compared with experimental results in ISX and PDX plasmas and then extended to fusion reactor conditions. The role of fast ion ablation due to intense neutral beam injection and fusion alphas is examined along with pellet size and velocity considerations. In plasmas with high pumping efficiency (which may be obtained with divertor operation), pellet injection can significantly reduce fuel handling requirements and interaction of the plasma with the chamber walls while maintaining more flexibility in control of the density profile than afforded by gas puffing. When fueling is dominated by gas puffing or high recycle from the walls or limiter, control of the fueling and density profiles is reduced while plasma/wall interactions increase.
Numerical simulations to study solar wind turbulence
Sharma, R. P.; Sharma, Nidhi; Kumar, Sanjay; Kumar, Sachin; Singh, H. D.
2011-02-15
Numerical simulation of coupled equations of kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) and ion acoustic wave is presented in the solar wind. The nonlinear dynamical equations satisfy the modified Zakharov system of equations by taking the nonadiabatic response of the background density. The ponderomotive nonlinearity is incorporated in the wave dynamics. The effect of Landau damping of KAW is taken into account. Localization of magnetic field intensity and the wavenumber spectra (perpendicular and parallel) of magnetic fluctuations are studied in solar plasmas around 1 a.u. Our results reveal the formation of damped localized structures and the steeper spectra that are in good agreement with the observations. These damped structures and steeper turbulent spectra can be responsible for plasma heating and particle acceleration in solar wind.
Contact line instability: Comparison between experiments and numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diez, J.; González, A. G.; Gomba, J.; Gratton, R.; Kondic, Lou
2003-11-01
We report results of experiments and numerical simulations of the spreading of fixed volumes of silicon oil on vertical substrates. The initial condition is generated from a filament of diameter 0.4 mm and cross section of 10-4 cm^2. By means of two optical techniques, the Schlieren method and the use of an anamorphic lens, we performed a systematic study for a range of cross sections. In particular, we measure the thickness during the early stable stage of the spreading, and analyze the spatial Fourier spectra of the shape of the contact line in the unstable stage, which leads to a finger shaped pattern. The experimental results are compared with numerical simulations within the framework of lubrication approximation. The good agreement found between experiments and simulations strongly supports the hypotheses of the theory and the methods employed in the numerical calculations. This comparison is essential to determine the realistic thickness of the precursor film that must be used in the simulations. Its value (≈ 40 nm) is consistent with measurements in the literature.
The Beam Break-Up Numerical Simulator
Travish, G.A.
1989-11-01
Beam Break-Up (BBU) is a severe constraint in accelerator design, limiting beam current and quality. The control of BBU has become the focus of much research in the design of the next generation collider, recirculating and linear induction accelerators and advanced accelerators. Determining the effect on BBU of modifications to cavities, the focusing elements or the beam is frequently beyond the ability of current analytic models. A computer code was written to address this problem. The Beam Break-Up Numerical Simulator (BBUNS) was designed to numerically solve for beam break-up (BBU) due to an arbitrary transverse wakefield. BBUNS was developed to be as user friendly as possible on the Cray computer series. The user is able to control all aspects of input and output by using a single command file. In addition, the wakefield is specified by the user and read in as a table. The program can model energy variations along and within the beam, focusing magnetic field profiles can be specified, and the graphical output can be tailored. In this note we discuss BBUNS, its structure and application. Included are detailed instructions, examples and a sample session of BBUNS. This program is available for distribution. 50 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.
Direct Numerical Simulation of Automobile Cavity Tones
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kurbatskii, Konstantin; Tam, Christopher K. W.
2000-01-01
The Navier Stokes equation is solved computationally by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme for the flow and acoustic fields associated with a laminar boundary layer flow over an automobile door cavity. In this work, the flow Reynolds number is restricted to R(sub delta*) < 3400; the range of Reynolds number for which laminar flow may be maintained. This investigation focuses on two aspects of the problem, namely, the effect of boundary layer thickness on the cavity tone frequency and intensity and the effect of the size of the computation domain on the accuracy of the numerical simulation. It is found that the tone frequency decreases with an increase in boundary layer thickness. When the boundary layer is thicker than a certain critical value, depending on the flow speed, no tone is emitted by the cavity. Computationally, solutions of aeroacoustics problems are known to be sensitive to the size of the computation domain. Numerical experiments indicate that the use of a small domain could result in normal mode type acoustic oscillations in the entire computation domain leading to an increase in tone frequency and intensity. When the computation domain is expanded so that the boundaries are at least one wavelength away from the noise source, the computed tone frequency and intensity are found to be computation domain size independent.
Visual air quality simulation techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molenar, John V.; Malm, William C.; Johnson, Christopher E.
Visual air quality is primarily a human perceptual phenomenon beginning with the transfer of image-forming information through an illuminated, scattering and absorbing atmosphere. Visibility, especially the visual appearance of industrial emissions or the degradation of a scenic view, is the principal atmospheric characteristic through which humans perceive air pollution, and is more sensitive to changing pollution levels than any other air pollution effect. Every attempt to quantify economic costs and benefits of air pollution has indicated that good visibility is a highly valued and desired environmental condition. Measurement programs can at best approximate the state of the ambient atmosphere at a few points in a scenic vista viewed by an observer. To fully understand the visual effect of various changes in the concentration and distribution of optically important atmospheric pollutants requires the use of aerosol and radiative transfer models. Communication of the output of these models to scientists, decision makers and the public is best done by applying modern image-processing systems to generate synthetic images representing the modeled air quality conditions. This combination of modeling techniques has been under development for the past 15 yr. Initially, visual air quality simulations were limited by a lack of computational power to simplified models depicting Gaussian plumes or uniform haze conditions. Recent explosive growth in low cost, high powered computer technology has allowed the development of sophisticated aerosol and radiative transfer models that incorporate realistic terrain, multiple scattering, non-uniform illumination, varying spatial distribution, concentration and optical properties of atmospheric constituents, and relative humidity effects on aerosol scattering properties. This paper discusses these improved models and image-processing techniques in detail. Results addressing uniform and non-uniform layered haze conditions in both
Simulation of guided wave propagation near numerical Brillouin zones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kijanka, Piotr; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Packo, Pawel
2016-04-01
Attractive properties of guided waves provides very unique potential for characterization of incipient damage, particularly in plate-like structures. Among other properties, guided waves can propagate over long distances and can be used to monitor hidden structural features and components. On the other hand, guided propagation brings substantial challenges for data analysis. Signal processing techniques are frequently supported by numerical simulations in order to facilitate problem solution. When employing numerical models additional sources of errors are introduced. These can play significant role for design and development of a wave-based monitoring strategy. Hence, the paper presents an investigation of numerical models for guided waves generation, propagation and sensing. Numerical dispersion analysis, for guided waves in plates, based on the LISA approach is presented and discussed in the paper. Both dispersion and modal amplitudes characteristics are analysed. It is shown that wave propagation in a numerical model resembles propagation in a periodic medium. Consequently, Lamb wave propagation close to numerical Brillouin zone is investigated and characterized.
Numerical simulation of solar coronal magnetic fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dahlburg, Russell B.; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Zang, T. A.
1990-01-01
Many aspects of solar activity are believed to be due to the stressing of the coronal magnetic field by footpoint motions at the photosphere. The results are presented of a fully spectral numerical simulation which is the first 3-D time dependent simulation of footpoint stressing in a geometry appropriate for the corona. An arcade is considered that is initially current-free and impose a smooth footpoint motion that produces a twist in the field of approx 2 pi. The footprints were fixed and the evolution was followed until the field relaxes to another current-free state. No evidence was seen for any instability, either ideal or resistive and no evidence for current sheet formation. The most striking feature of the evolution is that in response to photospheric motions, the field expands rapidly upward to minimize the stress. The expansion has two important effects. First, it suppresses the development of dips in the field that could support dense, cool material. For the motions assumed, the magnetic field does not develop a geometry suitable for prominence formation. Second, the expansion inhibits ideal instabilities such as kinking. The results indicate that simple stearing of a single arcade is unlikely to lead to solar activity such as flares or prominences. Effects are discussed that might possibly lead to such activity.
Erythrocyte shape simulation by numerical optimization.
Grebe, R; Zuckermann, M J
1990-01-01
In a recent paper we examined the morphology of erythrocytes in terms of the mean mean curvature (MMC) of their cell membranes. A computer simulation of these shapes based on the different geometries showed that the MMC increased from the sphero-stomatocyte to the spheroechinocyte via the discocyte. In this work we extend this analysis by using a numerical optimization method based on importance sampling and the principle of adiabatic cooling. The erythrocyte membrane is treated as a single closed fluid lamina exhibiting viscoelastic characteristics. The energy function of the lamina includes the following terms: (i) Curvature-elastic energy terms which depend on both local and global curvature. (ii) A term describing the compression elasticity of the lamina. (iii) A term which depends on the volume of the cell and which is related to the osmotic pressure across the membrane. In the simulation the cell is assumed to have axial symmetry and it can therefore be described by a finite set of conic sections. So far we have been able to obtain an energy minimum corresponding to a discocyte shape using a sphere as the initial configuration. Our results therefore imply that the well-known sequence of erythrocyte shapes could solely be governed by the above mentioned properties of an ideal fluid forming a closed singly connected lamina.
Numerical simulations of capillary barrier field tests
Morris, C.E.; Stormont, J.C.
1997-12-31
Numerical simulations of two capillary barrier systems tested in the field were conducted to determine if an unsaturated flow model could accurately represent the observed results. The field data was collected from two 7-m long, 1.2-m thick capillary barriers built on a 10% grade that were being tested to investigate their ability to laterally divert water downslope. One system had a homogeneous fine layer, while the fine soil of the second barrier was layered to increase its ability to laterally divert infiltrating moisture. The barriers were subjected first to constant infiltration while minimizing evaporative losses and then were exposed to ambient conditions. The continuous infiltration period of the field tests for the two barrier systems was modelled to determine the ability of an existing code to accurately represent capillary barrier behavior embodied in these two designs. Differences between the field test and the model data were found, but in general the simulations appeared to adequately reproduce the response of the test systems. Accounting for moisture retention hysteresis in the layered system will potentially lead to more accurate modelling results and is likely to be important when developing reasonable predictions of capillary barrier behavior.
Numerical simulation of tulip flame dynamics
Cloutman, L.D.
1991-11-30
A finite difference reactive flow hydrodynamics program based on the full Navier-Stokes equations was used to simulate the combustion process in a homogeneous-charge, constant-volume combustion bomb in which an oddly shaped flame, known as a tulip flame'' in the literature, occurred. The tulip flame'' was readily reproduced in the numerical simulations, producing good agreement with the experimental flame shapes and positions at various times. The calculations provide sufficient detail about the dynamics of the experiment to provide some insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for the peculiar flame shape. Several factors seem to contribute to the tulip formation. The most important process is the baroclinic production of vorticity by the flame front, and this rate of production appears to be dramatically increased by the nonaxial flow generated when the initial semicircular flame front burns out along the sides of the chamber. The vorticity produces a pair of vortices behind the flame that advects the flame into the tulip shape. Boundary layer effects contribute to the details of the flame shape next to the walls of the chamber, but are otherwise not important. 24 refs.
Numerical simulation of tulip flame dynamics
Cloutman, L.D.
1991-11-30
A finite difference reactive flow hydrodynamics program based on the full Navier-Stokes equations was used to simulate the combustion process in a homogeneous-charge, constant-volume combustion bomb in which an oddly shaped flame, known as a ``tulip flame`` in the literature, occurred. The ``tulip flame`` was readily reproduced in the numerical simulations, producing good agreement with the experimental flame shapes and positions at various times. The calculations provide sufficient detail about the dynamics of the experiment to provide some insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for the peculiar flame shape. Several factors seem to contribute to the tulip formation. The most important process is the baroclinic production of vorticity by the flame front, and this rate of production appears to be dramatically increased by the nonaxial flow generated when the initial semicircular flame front burns out along the sides of the chamber. The vorticity produces a pair of vortices behind the flame that advects the flame into the tulip shape. Boundary layer effects contribute to the details of the flame shape next to the walls of the chamber, but are otherwise not important. 24 refs.
Numerical Simulation of Non-Thermal Food Preservation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rauh, C.; Krauss, J.; Ertunc, Ö.; Delgado, a.
2010-09-01
Food preservation is an important process step in food technology regarding product safety and product quality. Novel preservation techniques are currently developed, that aim at improved sensory and nutritional value but comparable safety than in conventional thermal preservation techniques. These novel non-thermal food preservation techniques are based for example on high pressures up to one GPa or pulsed electric fields. in literature studies the high potential of high pressures (HP) and of pulsed electric fields (PEF) is shown due to their high retention of valuable food components as vitamins and flavour and selective inactivation of spoiling enzymes and microorganisms. for the design of preservation processes based on the non-thermal techniques it is crucial to predict the effect of high pressure and pulsed electric fields on the food components and on the spoiling enzymes and microorganisms locally and time-dependent in the treated product. Homogenous process conditions (especially of temperature fields in HP and PEF processing and of electric fields in PEF) are aimed at to avoid the need of over-processing and the connected quality loss and to minimize safety risks due to under-processing. the present contribution presents numerical simulations of thermofluiddynamical phenomena inside of high pressure autoclaves and pulsed electric field treatment chambers. in PEF processing additionally the electric fields are considered. Implementing kinetics of occurring (bio-) chemical reactions in the numerical simulations of the temperature, flow and electric fields enables the evaluation of the process homogeneity and efficiency connected to different process parameters of the preservation techniques. Suggestions to achieve safe and high quality products are concluded out of the numerical results.
Characterizing Electron Temperature Gradient Turbulence Via Numerical Simulation
Nevins, W M; Candy, J; Cowley, S; Dannert, T; Dimits, A; Dorland, W; Estrada-Mila, C; Hammett, G W; Jenko, F; Pueschel, M J; Shumaker, D E
2006-05-22
Numerical simulations of electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence are presented which characterize the ETG fluctuation spectrum, establish limits to the validity of the adiabatic ion model often employed in studying ETG turbulence, and support the tentative conclusion that plasmaoperating regimes exist in which ETG turbulence produces sufficient electron heat transport to be experimentally relevant. We resolve prior controversies regarding simulation techniques and convergence by benchmarking simulations of ETG turbulence from four microturbulence codes, demonstrating agreement on the electron heat flux, correlation functions, fluctuation intensity, and rms flow shear at fixed simulation cross section and resolution in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. Excellent convergence of both continuum and particle-in-cell codes with time step and velocity-space resolution is demonstrated, while numerical issues relating to perpendicular (to the magnetic field) simulation dimensions and resolution are discussed. A parameter scan in the magnetic shear, s, demonstrates that the adiabatic ion model is valid at small values of s (s < 0.4 for the parameters used in this scan) but breaks down at higher magnetic shear. A proper treatment employing gyrokinetic ions reveals a steady increase in the electron heat transport with increasing magnetic shear, reaching electron heat transport rates consistent with analyses of experimental tokamak discharges.
Numerical simulation of evaporating liquid jet in crossflow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soteriou, Marios; Li, Xiaoyi
2014-11-01
Atomization of liquid fuel jets by cross-flowing air is critical to combustor performance. Ability to experimentally probe the fundamentals of this multiscale two phase flows has been hampered by limitations in experimental techniques and the challenges posed by operating conditions. Direct numerical simulation has recently emerged as a promising alternative due to advances in computer hardware and numerical methods. Using this approach, we recently demonstrated the ability to reproduce the physics of atomization of a liquid jet in cross-flow (LJIC) under ambient conditions. In this work we consider this flow in a high temperature environment. The inclusion of evaporation is the major new element. The numerical approach employs the CLSVOF method to capture the liquid-gas interface. Interface evaporation is solved directly with proper treatment of interface conditions and reproduces the relevant species/temperature fields there. A Lagrangian droplet tracking approach is used for the small droplets which are transferred from the Eulerian phase and evaporate using a traditional d2 law model. Other key algorithms of the massively parallelized solver include a ghost fluid method, a multi-grid preconditioned conjugate gradient approach and an adaptive mesh refinement technique. The overall method is verified using canonical problems. Simulations of evaporating LJIC point to the significant effect that evaporation has on the evolution of this flow and elucidate the downstream fuel species patterns.
Numerical simulation of turbulent particle diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bocksell, Todd Leslie
Understanding particle diffusion and dispersion in multi-phase flows is important to a variety of engineering environments. In the present study, a Continuous Random Walk (CRW) model was constructed that can predict turbulent particle diffusion based on commonly available turbulence statistical correlations that may be obtained with Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (BANS) solutions. To evaluate this model, several test flows were considered including a theoretical channel flow, a wake flow, a jet flow, and a turbulent boundary layer. For the first three flows it was shown that proper correction of the Markov chain velocity fluctuations involving gradients in turbulence intensity significantly improved solution accuracy. For the turbulent boundary layer simulations, the flow is significantly more inhomogeneous (high gradients of turbulent kinetic energy and integral time-scale near the wall) and significantly more anisotropic (the root-mean-square of the velocity perturbations differs by several-fold depending on the direction). The particles were injected in the near-wall region for a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and mean particle concentration profiles are obtained without the empiricism associated with RANS methods (turbulence modeling) or uncertainties associated with experiments (near-wall resolution difficulties). These results were compared to the CRW predictions that employed the mean turbulent statistics measured from the DNS results, so that a self-consistent comparison could be made. To accurately simulate particles in wall-bounded flows with the CRW model, a modified Markov chain based on a normalized velocity fluctuation was found to be important to avoid unphysical wall-ward particle fluxes. Also, the incremental drift velocity for the Markov chain (required for inhomogeneous turbulent flows) was extended to include effects of particle inertia and virtual mass to enable simulation for a wide range of Stokes numbers. The CRW results with the finite
Numerical simulation of "an American haboob"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vukovic, A.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Andric, J.; Kumjian, M. R.; Djurdjevic, V.; Dacic, M.; Prasad, A. K.; El-Askary, H. M.; Paris, B. C.; Petkovic, S.; Nickovic, S.; Sprigg, W. A.
2014-04-01
A dust storm of fearful proportions hit Phoenix in the early evening hours of 5 July 2011. This storm, an American haboob, was predicted hours in advance because numerical, land-atmosphere modeling, computing power and remote sensing of dust events have improved greatly over the past decade. High-resolution numerical models are required for accurate simulation of the small scales of the haboob process, with high velocity surface winds produced by strong convection and severe downbursts. Dust productive areas in this region consist mainly of agricultural fields, with soil surfaces disturbed by plowing and tracks of land in the high Sonoran Desert laid barren by ongoing draught. Model simulation of the 5 July 2011 dust storm uses the coupled atmospheric-dust model NMME-DREAM (Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model on E grid, Janjic et al., 2001; Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Nickovic et al., 2001; Pérez et al., 2006) with 4 km horizontal resolution. A mask of the potentially dust productive regions is obtained from the land cover and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The scope of this paper is validation of the dust model performance, and not use of the model as a tool to investigate mechanisms related to the storm. Results demonstrate the potential technical capacity and availability of the relevant data to build an operational system for dust storm forecasting as a part of a warning system. Model results are compared with radar and other satellite-based images and surface meteorological and PM10 observations. The atmospheric model successfully hindcasted the position of the front in space and time, with about 1 h late arrival in Phoenix. The dust model predicted the rapid uptake of dust and high values of dust concentration in the ensuing storm. South of Phoenix, over the closest source regions (~25 km), the model PM10 surface dust concentration reached ~2500 μg m-3, but
Numerical simulation of "An American Haboob"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vukovic, A.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Andric, J.; Kumjian, M. R.; Djurdjevic, V.; Dacic, M.; Prasad, A. K.; El-Askary, H. M.; Paris, B. C.; Petkovic, S.; Nickovic, S.; Sprigg, W. A.
2013-10-01
A dust storm of fearful proportions hit Phoenix in the early evening hours of 5 July 2011. This storm, an American haboob, was predicted hours in advance because numerical, land-atmosphere modeling, computing power and remote sensing of dust events have improved greatly over the past decade. High resolution numerical models are required for accurate simulation of the small-scales of the haboob process, with high velocity surface winds produced by strong convection and severe downbursts. Dust productive areas in this region consist mainly of agricultural fields, with soil surfaces disturbed by plowing and tracks of land in the high Sonoran desert laid barren by ongoing draught. Model simulation of the 5 July 2011 dust storm uses the coupled atmospheric-dust model NMME-DREAM with 3.5 km horizontal resolution. A mask of the potentially dust productive regions is obtained from the land cover and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Model results are compared with radar and other satellite-based images and surface meteorological and PM10 observations. The atmospheric model successfully hindcasted the position of the front in space and time, with about 1 h late arrival in Phoenix. The dust model predicted the rapid uptake of dust and high values of dust concentration in the ensuing storm. South of Phoenix, over the closest source regions (~ 25 km), the model PM10 surface dust concentration reached ~ 2500 μg m-3, but underestimated the values measured by the PM10stations within the city. Model results are also validated by the MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD), employing deep blue (DB) algorithms for aerosol loadings. Model validation included Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), equipped with the lidar instrument, to disclose the vertical structure of dust aerosols as well as aerosol subtypes. Promising results encourage further research and
Numerical simulations of unsteady flows in turbomachines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorney, Daniel Joseph
The performance of axial and centrifugal turbomachines is significantly affected by the presence of unsteady and viscous flow mechanisms. Most contemporary design systems, however, use steady or linearized unsteady inviscid flow analyses to generate new blade shapes. In an effort to increase the understanding of unsteady viscous flows in turbomachinery blade rows, and to determine the limitations of linearized inviscid flow analyses, a two-part investigation was conducted. In the first portion of this investigation, a nonlinear viscous flow analysis was developed for the prediction of unsteady flows in two dimensional axial turbomachinery blade rows. The boundary conditions were formulated to allow the specification of vortical, entropic and acoustic excitations at the inlet, and acoustic excitations at exit, of a cascade. Numerical simulations were performed for flat plate and compressor exit guide vane cascades, and the predicted results were compared with solutions from classical linearized theory and linearized inviscid flow analysis. The unsteady pressure fields predicted with the current analysis showed close agreement with the linearized solutions for low to moderate temporal frequency vortical and acoustic excitations. As the temporal frequency of the excitations was increased, nonlinear effects caused discrepancies to develop between the linearized and Navier-Stokes solution sets. The inclusion of viscosity had a significant impact on the unsteady vorticity field, but only a minimal effect on the unsteady pressure field. In the second part of this investigation, a quasi-three-dimensional Navier-Stokes analysis was modified and applied to flows in centrifugal turbomachinery blade rows. Inviscid and viscous flow simulations were performed for a centrifugal impeller at three operating conditions. By comparing the predicted and experimental circumferential distributions of the relative frame velocity and flow angle downstream of the impeller, it was
Diffusive mesh relaxation in ALE finite element numerical simulations
Dube, E.I.
1996-06-01
The theory for a diffusive mesh relaxation algorithm is developed for use in three-dimensional Arbitary Lagrange/Eulerian (ALE) finite element simulation techniques. This mesh relaxer is derived by a variational principle for an unstructured 3D grid using finite elements, and incorporates hourglass controls in the numerical implementation. The diffusive coefficients are based on the geometric properties of the existing mesh, and are chosen so as to allow for a smooth grid that retains the general shape of the original mesh. The diffusive mesh relaxation algorithm is then applied to an ALE code system, and results from several test cases are discussed.
Numerical simulation of condensation on structured surfaces.
Fu, Xiaowu; Yao, Zhaohui; Hao, Pengfei
2014-11-25
Condensation of liquid droplets on solid surfaces happens widely in nature and industrial processes. This phase-change phenomenon has great effect on the performance of some microfluidic devices. On the basis of micro- and nanotechnology, superhydrophobic structured surfaces can be well-fabricated. In this work, the nucleating and growth of droplets on different structured surfaces are investigated numerically. The dynamic behavior of droplets during the condensation is simulated by the multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), which has the ability to incorporate the microscopic interactions, including fluid-fluid interaction and fluid-surface interaction. The results by the LBM show that, besides the chemical properties of surfaces, the topography of structures on solid surfaces influences the condensation process. For superhydrophobic surfaces, the spacing and height of microridges have significant influence on the nucleation sites. This mechanism provides an effective way for prevention of wetting on surfaces in engineering applications. Moreover, it suggests a way to prevent ice formation on surfaces caused by the condensation of subcooled water. For hydrophilic surfaces, however, microstructures may be submerged by the liquid films adhering to the surfaces. In this case, microstructures will fail to control the condensation process. Our research provides an optimized way for designing surfaces for condensation in engineering systems.
Direct numerical simulation of active fiber composite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Seung J.; Hwang, Joon S.; Paik, Seung H.
2003-08-01
Active Fiber Composites (AFC) possess desirable characteristics for smart structure applications. One major advantage of AFC is the ability to create anisotropic laminate layers useful in applications requiring off-axis or twisting motions. AFC is naturally composed of two different constituents: piezoelectric fiber and matrix. Therefore, homogenization method, which is utilized in the analysis of laminated composite material, has been used to characterize the material properties. Using this approach, the global behaviors of the structures are predicted in an averaged sense. However, this approach has intrinsic limitations in describing the local behaviors in the level of the constituents. Actually, the failure analysis of AFC requires the knowledge of the local behaviors. Therefore, microscopic approach is necessary to predict the behaviors of AFC. In this work, a microscopic approach for the analysis of AFC was performed. Piezoelectric fiber and matrix were modeled separately and finite element method using three-dimensional solid elements was utilized. Because fine mesh is essential, high performance computing technology was applied to the solution of the immense degree-of-freedom problem. This approach is called Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of structure. Through the DNS of AFC, local stress distribution around the interface of fiber and matrix was analyzed.
Cloud interactions and merging - Numerical simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tao, W.-K.; Simpson, J.
1984-01-01
A total of 48 numerical experiments have been performed to study cloud interactions adn merging by means of a two-dimensional multi-cell model. Two soundings of deep convection during GATE and two different magnitudes of large-scale lifting have been used as the initial conditions and as the main forcing on the model. Over two hundred groups of cloud systems with a life history of over sixty minutes have been generated under the influence of different combinations of the stratification and large-scale lifting. The results demonstrate the increase in convective activity and in amount of precipitation with increased intensity of large-scale lifting. The results also show increased occurrence of cloud merger with increased intensity of large-scale lifting. The most unfavorable environmental conditions for cloud merging are (1) less unstable stratification of the atmosphere and (2) weaker large-scale lifting. A total of fourteen cloud systems qualify as mergers. Two selected cases will be described dynamically and thermodynamically in this paper. Although these cloud mergers have been simulated under the influence of different synoptic-scale conditions, the major physical mechanism related to the cloud merging process is the same as that proposed by Simpson. Cumulus downdrafts and associated cold outflows play a dominant role in the merging process in all cases studied.
Numerical simulation of ball-racket impact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Yingpang
The collision of a ball with a tennis racket is usually modeled in terms of rigid body dynamics or an elastic system involving only a few springs. In this paper, we study the impact between a tennis ball and racket, by modeling the tennis ball in two different yaws. One method models the tennis ball as a Hertz elastic body and the other one models the ball by a more accurate finite element analysis. In the first model, we assume that the elastic properties of the ball obeys Hertz's law. In the finite element model, we consider the tennis ball as a shell witch is a elastic system constructed out of many isotropic small linear flat, elements, witch have both elastic and damping properties. The damping in each way is approximated as viscous term. In both methods, we study the static condition of deformation against a rigid surface before applying these models to dynamical processes. We compare these two methods and eventually determine how the racket parameters effect the performance of the racket, using numerical simulations. Comparison with experiment are show to confirm the general conclusion of the model.
Numerical simulations of drainage flows on Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parish, Thomas R.; Howard, Alan D.
1992-01-01
Data collected by Viking Landers have shown that the meteorology of the near surface Martian environment is analogous to desertlike terrestrial conditions. Geological evidence such as dunes and frost streaks indicate that the surface wind is a potentially important factor in scouring of the martian landscape. In particular, the north polar basin shows erosional features that suggest katabatic wind convergence into broad valleys near the margin of the polar cap. The pattern of katabatic wind drainage off the north polar cap is similar to that observed on Earth over Antarctica or Greenland. The sensitivity is explored of Martian drainage flows to variations in terrain slope and diurnal heating using a numerical modeling approach. The model used is a 2-D sigma coordinate primitive equation system that has been used for simulations of Antarctic drainage flows. Prognostic equations include the flux forms of the horizontal scalar momentum equations, temperature, and continuity. Parameterization of both longwave (terrestrial) and shortwave (solar) radiation is included. Turbulent transfer of heat and momentum in the Martian atmosphere remains uncertain since relevant measurements are essentially nonexistent.
Direct Numerical Simulation of Cell Printing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiao, Rui; He, Ping
2010-11-01
Structural cell printing, i.e., printing three dimensional (3D) structures of cells held in a tissue matrix, is gaining significant attention in the biomedical community. The key idea is to use desktop printer or similar devices to print cells into 3D patterns with a resolution comparable to the size of mammalian cells, similar to that in living organs. Achieving such a resolution in vitro can lead to breakthroughs in areas such as organ transplantation and understanding of cell-cell interactions in truly 3D spaces. Although the feasibility of cell printing has been demonstrated in the recent years, the printing resolution and cell viability remain to be improved. In this work, we investigate one of the unit operations in cell printing, namely, the impact of a cell-laden droplet into a pool of highly viscous liquids using direct numerical simulations. The dynamics of droplet impact (e.g., crater formation and droplet spreading and penetration) and the evolution of cell shape and internal stress are quantified in details.
Numerical simulation of noninvasive blood pressure measurement.
Hayashi, Satoru; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Shirai, Atsushi; Maruyama, Masaru
2006-10-01
In this paper, a simulation model based on the partially pressurized collapsible tube model for reproducing noninvasive blood pressure measurement is presented. The model consists of a collapsible tube, which models the pressurized part of the artery, rigid pipes connected to the collapsible tube, which model proximal and distal region far from the pressurized part, and the Windkessel model, which represents the capacitance and the resistance of the distal part of the circulation. The blood flow is simplified to a one-dimensional system. Collapse and expansion of the tube is represented by the change in the cross-sectional area of the tube considering the force balance acting on the tube membrane in the direction normal to the tube axis. They are solved using the Runge-Kutta method. This simple model can easily reproduce the oscillation of inner fluid and corresponding tube collapse typical for the Korotkoff sounds generated by the cuff pressure. The numerical result is compared with the experiment and shows good agreement. PMID:16995754
Numerical simulations of shocks encountering clumpy regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alūzas, R.; Pittard, J. M.; Hartquist, T. W.; Falle, S. A. E. G.; Langton, R.
2012-09-01
We present numerical simulations of the adiabatic interaction of a shock with a clumpy region containing many individual clouds. Our work incorporates a sub-grid turbulence model which for the first time makes this investigation feasible. We vary the Mach number of the shock, the density contrast of the clouds and the ratio of total cloud mass to intercloud mass within the clumpy region. Cloud material becomes incorporated into the flow. This 'mass loading' reduces the Mach number of the shock and leads to the formation of a dense shell. In cases in which the mass loading is sufficient the flow slows enough that the shock degenerates into a wave. The interaction evolves through up to four stages: initially the shock decelerates; then its speed is nearly constant; next the shock accelerates as it leaves the clumpy region; finally, it moves at a constant speed close to its initial speed. Turbulence is generated in the post-shock flow as the shock sweeps through the clumpy region. Clouds exposed to turbulence can be destroyed more rapidly than a similar cloud in an 'isolated' environment. The lifetime of a downstream cloud decreases with increasing cloud-to-intercloud mass ratio. We briefly discuss the significance of these results for starburst superwinds and galaxy evolution.
Transonic aeroelastic numerical simulation in aeronautical engineering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Guowei
2006-06-01
A lower upper symmetric Gauss Seidel (LU-SGS) subiteration scheme is constructed for time-marching of the fluid equations. The Harten Lax van Leer Einfeldt Wada (HLLEW) scheme is used for the spatial discretization. The same subiteration formulation is applied directly to the structural equations of motion in generalized coordinates. Through subiteration between the fluid and structural equations, a fully implicit aeroelastic solver is obtained for the numerical simulation of fluid/structure interaction. To improve the ability for application to complex configurations, a multiblock grid is used for the flow field calculation and transfinite interpolation (TFI) is employed for the adaptive moving grid deformation. The infinite plate spline (IPS) and the principal of virtual work are utilized for the data transformation between the fluid and structure. The developed code was first validated through the comparison of experimental and computational results for the AGARD 445.6 standard aeroelastic wing. Then, the flutter character of a tail wing with control surface was analyzed. Finally, flutter boundaries of a complex aircraft configuration were predicted.
Numerical simulation of condensation on structured surfaces.
Fu, Xiaowu; Yao, Zhaohui; Hao, Pengfei
2014-11-25
Condensation of liquid droplets on solid surfaces happens widely in nature and industrial processes. This phase-change phenomenon has great effect on the performance of some microfluidic devices. On the basis of micro- and nanotechnology, superhydrophobic structured surfaces can be well-fabricated. In this work, the nucleating and growth of droplets on different structured surfaces are investigated numerically. The dynamic behavior of droplets during the condensation is simulated by the multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), which has the ability to incorporate the microscopic interactions, including fluid-fluid interaction and fluid-surface interaction. The results by the LBM show that, besides the chemical properties of surfaces, the topography of structures on solid surfaces influences the condensation process. For superhydrophobic surfaces, the spacing and height of microridges have significant influence on the nucleation sites. This mechanism provides an effective way for prevention of wetting on surfaces in engineering applications. Moreover, it suggests a way to prevent ice formation on surfaces caused by the condensation of subcooled water. For hydrophilic surfaces, however, microstructures may be submerged by the liquid films adhering to the surfaces. In this case, microstructures will fail to control the condensation process. Our research provides an optimized way for designing surfaces for condensation in engineering systems. PMID:25347594
Numeric simulation of plant signaling networks.
Genoud, T; Trevino Santa Cruz, M B; Métraux, J P
2001-08-01
Plants have evolved an intricate signaling apparatus that integrates relevant information and allows an optimal response to environmental conditions. For instance, the coordination of defense responses against pathogens involves sophisticated molecular detection and communication systems. Multiple protection strategies may be deployed differentially by the plant according to the nature of the invading organism. These responses are also influenced by the environment, metabolism, and developmental stage of the plant. Though the cellular signaling processes traditionally have been described as linear sequences of events, it is now evident that they may be represented more accurately as network-like structures. The emerging paradigm can be represented readily with the use of Boolean language. This digital (numeric) formalism allows an accurate qualitative description of the signal transduction processes, and a dynamic representation through computer simulation. Moreover, it provides the required power to process the increasing amount of information emerging from the fields of genomics and proteomics, and from the use of new technologies such as microarray analysis. In this review, we have used the Boolean language to represent and analyze part of the signaling network of disease resistance in Arabidopsis. PMID:11500542
Numerical simulation of carpet cloaking device in terahertz frequency range
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gill, V. V.; Vozianova, A. V.; Khodzitsky, M. K.
2015-11-01
This work is devoted to the numerical calculation of the effective constitutive parameters of the carpet cloaking device and to the numerical simulation of this cloak using finite element method (FEM) for the terahertz frequency range.
An Object Model for a Rocket Engine Numerical Simulator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mitra, D.; Bhalla, P. N.; Pratap, V.; Reddy, P.
1998-01-01
Rocket Engine Numerical Simulator (RENS) is a packet of software which numerically simulates the behavior of a rocket engine. Different parameters of the components of an engine is the input to these programs. Depending on these given parameters the programs output the behaviors of those components. These behavioral values are then used to guide the design of or to diagnose a model of a rocket engine "built" by a composition of these programs simulating different components of the engine system. In order to use this software package effectively one needs to have a flexible model of a rocket engine. These programs simulating different components then should be plugged into this modular representation. Our project is to develop an object based model of such an engine system. We are following an iterative and incremental approach in developing the model, as is the standard practice in the area of object oriented design and analysis of softwares. This process involves three stages: object modeling to represent the components and sub-components of a rocket engine, dynamic modeling to capture the temporal and behavioral aspects of the system, and functional modeling to represent the transformational aspects. This article reports on the first phase of our activity under a grant (RENS) from the NASA Lewis Research center. We have utilized Rambaugh's object modeling technique and the tool UML for this purpose. The classes of a rocket engine propulsion system are developed and some of them are presented in this report. The next step, developing a dynamic model for RENS, is also touched upon here. In this paper we will also discuss the advantages of using object-based modeling for developing this type of an integrated simulator over other tools like an expert systems shell or a procedural language, e.g., FORTRAN. Attempts have been made in the past to use such techniques.
Numerical simulation and experimental verification of extended source interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Yinlong; Li, Lin; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Xiao; Zang, Haijun; Zhu, Qiudong
2013-12-01
Extended source interferometer, compared with the classical point source interferometer, can suppress coherent noise of environment and system, decrease dust scattering effects and reduce high-frequency error of reference surface. Numerical simulation and experimental verification of extended source interferometer are discussed in this paper. In order to provide guidance for the experiment, the modeling of the extended source interferometer is realized by using optical design software Zemax. Matlab codes are programmed to rectify the field parameters of the optical system automatically and get a series of interferometric data conveniently. The communication technique of DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange) was used to connect Zemax and Matlab. Then the visibility of interference fringes can be calculated through adding the collected interferometric data. Combined with the simulation, the experimental platform of the extended source interferometer was established, which consists of an extended source, interference cavity and image collection system. The decrease of high-frequency error of reference surface and coherent noise of the environment is verified. The relation between the spatial coherence and the size, shape, intensity distribution of the extended source is also verified through the analysis of the visibility of interference fringes. The simulation result is in line with the result given by real extended source interferometer. Simulation result shows that the model can simulate the actual optical interference of the extended source interferometer quite well. Therefore, the simulation platform can be used to guide the experiment of interferometer which is based on various extended sources.
Numerical simulation of a liquid propellant rocket motor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salvador, Nicolas M. C.; Morales, Marcelo M.; Migueis, Carlos E. S. S.; Bastos-Netto, Demétrio
2001-03-01
This work presents a numerical simulation of the flow field in a liquid propellant rocket engine chamber and exit nozzle using techniques to allow the results to be taken as starting points for designing those propulsive systems. This was done using a Finite Volume method simulating the different flow regimes which usually take place in those systems. As the flow field has regions ranging from the low subsonic to the supersonic regimes, the numerical code used, initially developed for compressible flows only, was modified to work proficiently in the whole velocity range. It is well known that codes have been developed in CFD, for either compressible or incompressible flows, the joint treatment of both together being complex even today, given the small number of references available in this area. Here an existing code for compressible flow was used and primitive variables, the pressure, the Cartesian components of the velocity and the temperature instead of the conserved variables were introduced in the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. This was done to permit the treatment at any Mach number. Unstructured meshes with adaptive refinements were employed here. The convective terms were treated with upwind first and second order methods. The numerical stability was kept with artificial dissipation and in the spatial coverage one used a five stage Runge-Kutta scheme for the Fluid Mechanics and the VODE (Value of Ordinary Differential Equations) scheme along with the Chemkin II in the chemical reacting solution. During the development of this code simulating the flow in a rocket engine, comparison tests were made with several different types of internal and external flows, at different velocities, seeking to establish the confidence level of the techniques being used. These comparisons were done with existing theoretical results and with other codes already validated and well accepted by the CFD community.
Modeling turbulent flow over fractal trees with renormalized numerical simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chester, Stuart; Meneveau, Charles; Parlange, Marc B.
2007-07-01
High-Reynolds number flow over tree-like fractals is considered, with emphasis on the drag forces produced. Fractal objects display large scale-disparity and complexity while being amenable to a simple and standardized description. Hence, they offer an elegant idealization of the actual boundaries in practical applications where turbulence interacts with boundaries that are characterized by multiple length-scales. First, using large-eddy-simulation of flow over prefractal shapes with increasing numbers of branch generations, the dependence of the tree drag on the inner cutoff-scale of the fractal is studied. It is found that the convergence of the drag coefficient towards a value that is independent of inner cutoff-scale is very slow. In order to address this fundamental difficulty and avoid the need to resolve all the small-scale branches of the fractal, a new numerical modeling technique called renormalized numerical simulation (RNS) is introduced. RNS models the drag of the unresolved branches using drag coefficients measured from both resolved branches and unresolved branches as modeled in previous iterations of the procedure. The RNS technique and its convergence properties are tested by means of a series of simulations using different levels of resolution. Then, RNS is used to investigate the influence of the tree fractal dimension on the drag coefficient. The increase of the drag with fractal dimension is quantified for two types of tree geometry, in two flow configurations. Results illustrate that RNS enables numerical modeling of physical processes associated with fractal geometries using affordable computational resolution.
Numerical Simulation of Complex Turbomachinery Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chernobrovkin, A. A.; Lakshiminarayana, B.
1999-01-01
An unsteady, multiblock, Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes solver based on Runge-Kutta scheme and Pseudo-time step for turbo-machinery applications was developed. The code was validated and assessed against analytical and experimental data. It was used to study a variety of physical mechanisms of unsteady, three-dimensional, turbulent, transitional, and cooling flows in compressors and turbines. Flow over a cylinder has been used to study effects of numerical aspects on accuracy of prediction of wake decay and transition, and to modify K-epsilon models. The following simulations have been performed: (a) Unsteady flow in a compressor cascade: Three low Reynolds number turbulence models have been assessed and data compared with Euler/boundary layer predictions. Major flow features associated with wake induced transition were predicted and studied; (b) Nozzle wake-rotor interaction in a turbine: Results compared to LDV data in design and off-design conditions, and cause and effect of unsteady flow in turbine rotors were analyzed; (c) Flow in the low-pressure turbine: Assessed capability of the code to predict transitional, attached and separated flows at a wide range of low Reynolds numbers and inlet freestream turbulence intensity. Several turbulence and transition models have been employed and comparisons made to experiments; (d) leading edge film cooling at compound angle: Comparisons were made with experiments, and the flow physics of the associated vortical structures were studied; and (e) Tip leakage flow in a turbine. The physics of the secondary flow in a rotor was studied and sources of loss identified.
Multidisciplinary propulsion simulation using the numerical propulsion system simulator (NPSS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Claus, Russel W.
1994-01-01
Implementing new technology in aerospace propulsion systems is becoming prohibitively expensive. One of the major contributions to the high cost is the need to perform many large scale system tests. The traditional design analysis procedure decomposes the engine into isolated components and focuses attention on each single physical discipline (e.g., fluid for structural dynamics). Consequently, the interactions that naturally occur between components and disciplines can be masked by the limited interactions that occur between individuals or teams doing the design and must be uncovered during expensive engine testing. This overview will discuss a cooperative effort of NASA, industry, and universities to integrate disciplines, components, and high performance computing into a Numerical propulsion System Simulator (NPSS).
Numerical simulation of turbulent gas flames in tubes.
Salzano, E; Marra, F S; Russo, G; Lee, J H S
2002-12-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is an emerging technique to predict possible consequences of gas explosion and it is often considered a powerful and accurate tool to obtain detailed results. However, systematic analyses of the reliability of this approach to real-scale industrial configurations are still needed. Furthermore, few experimental data are available for comparison and validation. In this work, a set of well documented experimental data related to the flame acceleration obtained within obstacle-filled tubes filled with flammable gas-air mixtures, has been simulated. In these experiments, terminal steady flame speeds corresponding to different propagation regimes were observed, thus, allowing a clear and prompt characterisation of the numerical results with respect to numerical parameters, as grid definition, geometrical parameters, as blockage ratio and to mixture parameters, as mixture reactivity. The CFD code AutoReagas was used for the simulations. Numerical predictions were compared with available experimental data and some insights into the code accuracy were determined. Computational results are satisfactory for the relatively slower turbulent deflagration regimes and became fair when choking regime is observed, whereas transition to quasi-detonation or Chapman-Jogouet (CJ) were never predicted. PMID:12423940
Numerical simulation of turbulent gas flames in tubes.
Salzano, E; Marra, F S; Russo, G; Lee, J H S
2002-12-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is an emerging technique to predict possible consequences of gas explosion and it is often considered a powerful and accurate tool to obtain detailed results. However, systematic analyses of the reliability of this approach to real-scale industrial configurations are still needed. Furthermore, few experimental data are available for comparison and validation. In this work, a set of well documented experimental data related to the flame acceleration obtained within obstacle-filled tubes filled with flammable gas-air mixtures, has been simulated. In these experiments, terminal steady flame speeds corresponding to different propagation regimes were observed, thus, allowing a clear and prompt characterisation of the numerical results with respect to numerical parameters, as grid definition, geometrical parameters, as blockage ratio and to mixture parameters, as mixture reactivity. The CFD code AutoReagas was used for the simulations. Numerical predictions were compared with available experimental data and some insights into the code accuracy were determined. Computational results are satisfactory for the relatively slower turbulent deflagration regimes and became fair when choking regime is observed, whereas transition to quasi-detonation or Chapman-Jogouet (CJ) were never predicted.
Batman-cracks. Observations and numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selvadurai, A. P. S.; Busschen, A. Ten; Ernst, L. J.
1991-05-01
To ensure mechanical strength of fiber reinforced plastics (FRP), good adhesion between fibers and the matrix is considered to be an essential requirement. An efficient test of fiber-matrix interface characterization is the fragmentation test which provides information about the interface slip mechanism. This test consists of the longitudinal loading of a single fiber which is embedded in a matrix specimen. At critical loads the fiber experiences fragmentation. This fragmentation will terminate depending upon the shear-slip strength of the fiber-matrix adhesion, which is inversely proportional to average fragment lengths. Depending upon interface strength characteristics either bond or slip matrix fracture can occur at the onset of fiber fracture. Certain particular features of matrix fracture are observed at the locations of fiber fracture in situations where there is sufficient interface bond strength. These refer to the development of fractures with a complex surface topography. The experimental procedure involved in the fragmentation tests is discussed and the boundary element technique to examine the development of multiple matrix fractures at the fiber fracture locations is examined. The mechanics of matrix fracture is examined. When bond integrity is maintained, a fiber fracture results in a matrix fracture. The matrix fracture topography in a fragmentation test is complex; however, simplified conoidal fracture patterns can be used to investigate the crack extension phenomena. Via a mixed-mode fracture criterion, the generation of a conoidal fracture pattern in the matrix is investigated. The numerical results compare favorably with observed experimental data derived from tests conducted on fragmentation test specimens consisting of a single glass fiber which is embedded in a polyester matrix.
Numerical simulation of small perturbation transonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seebass, A. R.; Yu, N. J.
1976-01-01
The results of a systematic study of small perturbation transonic flows are presented. Both the flow over thin airfoils and the flow over wedges were investigated. Various numerical schemes were employed in the study. The prime goal of the research was to determine the efficiency of various numerical procedures by accurately evaluating the wave drag, both by computing the pressure integral around the body and by integrating the momentum loss across the shock. Numerical errors involved in the computations that affect the accuracy of drag evaluations were analyzed. The factors that effect numerical stability and the rate of convergence of the iterative schemes were also systematically studied.
Numerical simulation of transient hypervelocity flow in an expansion tube
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobs, P. A.
1992-01-01
Several numerical simulations of the transient flow of helium in an expansion tube are presented. The aim of the exercise is to provide further information on the operational problems of the NASA Langley expansion tube. The calculations were performed with an axisymmetric Navier-Stokes code based on a finite-volume formulation and upwinding techniques. Although laminar flow and ideal bursting of the diaphragms was assumed, the simulations showed some of the important features seen in the experiments. In particular, the discontinuity in the tube diameter at the primary diaphragm station introduced a transverse perturbation to the expanding driver gas, and this perturbation was seen to propagate into the test gas under some flow conditions. The disturbances seen in the test flow can be characterized as either 'small-amplitude' noise possibly introduced during shock compression or 'large-amplitude' noise associated with the passage of the reflected head of the unsteady expansion.
Numerical simulation of transient hypervelocity flow in an expansion tube
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobs, P. A.
1992-01-01
Several numerical simulations of the transient flow of helium in an expansion tube are presented in an effort to identify some of the basic mechanisms which cause the noisy test flows seen in experiments. The calculations were performed with an axisymmetric Navier-Stokes code based on a finite volume formulation and upwinding techniques. Although laminar flow and ideal bursting of the diaphragms was assumed, the simulations showed some of the important features seen in experiments. In particular, the discontinuity in tube diameter of the primary diaphragm station introduced a transverse perturbation to the expanding driver gas and this perturbation was seen to propagate into the test gas under some flow conditions. The disturbances seen in the test flow can be characterized as either small amplitude, low frequency noise possibly introduced during shock compression or large amplitude, high frequency noise associated with the passage of the reflected head of the unsteady expansion.
Numerical simulations of ultrasimple ultrashortlaser-pulse measurement.
Liu, Xuan; Trebino, Rick; Smith, Arlee V
2007-04-16
We numerically simulate the performance of the ultrasimple frequency-resolved-optical-gating (FROG) technique, GRENOUILLE, for measuring ultrashort laser pulses. While simple in practice, GRENOUILLE has many theoretical subtleties because it involves the second-harmonic generation of relatively tightly focused and broadband pulses. In addition, these processes occur in a thick crystal, in which the phase-matching bandwidth is deliberately made narrow compared to the pulse bandwidth. In these simulations, we include all sum-frequency-generation processes, both collinear and noncollinear. We also include dispersion using the Sellmeier equation for the crystal BBO. Working in the frequency domain, we compute the GRENOUILLE trace for practical-and impractical- examples and show that accurate measurements are easily obtained for properly designed devices.
NUMERICAL NOISE PM SIMULATION IN CMAQ
We have found that numerical noise in the latest release of CMAQ using the yamo advection scheme when compiled on Linux cluster with pgf90 (5.0 or 6.0). We recommend to use -C option to eliminate the numerical noise.
Numerical simulation of the 1988 midwestern drought
Chern, Jiun-Dar; Sun, Wen-Yih
1997-11-01
In this study, the Purdue Regional Model (PRM) is utilized to simulate the monthly evolution of the weather patterns during the summer of 1988. The primary goal of this study is to develop and validate the PRM. The PRM, a regional climate model, is a hydrostatic primitive-equation model that uses the Arakawa C staggered grid in the horizontal and a terrain-following vertical coordinate. The model was used to simulate the 1988 drought for one month with lateral boundary conditions. The simulation reproduced the driest events in the Midwest; however, the simulated precipitation along the Gulf coast and Florida was underestimated. This suggests that the 60 km model resolution used in the simulation was not high enough to simulate the convective precipitation associated with the sea breeze circulations. 10 refs., 5 figs.
Numerical Simulation Of Cutting Of Gear Teeth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oswald, Fred B.; Huston, Ronald L.; Mavriplis, Dimitrios
1994-01-01
Shapes of gear teeth produced by gear cutters of specified shape simulated computationally, according to approach based on principles of differential geometry. Results of computer simulation displayed as computer graphics and/or used in analyses of design, manufacturing, and performance of gears. Applicable to both standard and non-standard gear-tooth forms. Accelerates and facilitates analysis of alternative designs of gears and cutters. Simulation extended to study generation of surfaces other than gears. Applied to cams, bearings, and surfaces of arbitrary rolling elements as well as to gears. Possible to develop analogous procedures for simulating manufacture of skin surfaces like automobile fenders, airfoils, and ship hulls.
Numerical Simulation of Two Phase Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, Meng-Sing
2001-01-01
Two phase flows can be found in broad situations in nature, biology, and industry devices and can involve diverse and complex mechanisms. While the physical models may be specific for certain situations, the mathematical formulation and numerical treatment for solving the governing equations can be general. Hence, we will require information concerning each individual phase as needed in a single phase. but also the interactions between them. These interaction terms, however, pose additional numerical challenges because they are beyond the basis that we use to construct modern numerical schemes, namely the hyperbolicity of equations. Moreover, due to disparate differences in time scales, fluid compressibility and nonlinearity become acute, further complicating the numerical procedures. In this paper, we will show the ideas and procedure how the AUSM-family schemes are extended for solving two phase flows problems. Specifically, both phases are assumed in thermodynamic equilibrium, namely, the time scales involved in phase interactions are extremely short in comparison with those in fluid speeds and pressure fluctuations. Details of the numerical formulation and issues involved are discussed and the effectiveness of the method are demonstrated for several industrial examples.
A Comparison of Metamodeling Techniques via Numerical Experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.
2016-01-01
This paper presents a comparative analysis of a few metamodeling techniques using numerical experiments for the single input-single output case. These experiments enable comparing the models' predictions with the phenomenon they are aiming to describe as more data is made available. These techniques include (i) prediction intervals associated with a least squares parameter estimate, (ii) Bayesian credible intervals, (iii) Gaussian process models, and (iv) interval predictor models. Aspects being compared are computational complexity, accuracy (i.e., the degree to which the resulting prediction conforms to the actual Data Generating Mechanism), reliability (i.e., the probability that new observations will fall inside the predicted interval), sensitivity to outliers, extrapolation properties, ease of use, and asymptotic behavior. The numerical experiments describe typical application scenarios that challenge the underlying assumptions supporting most metamodeling techniques.
Numerical solution techniques for unsteady transonic aerodynamics problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ballhaus, W. F.; Bridgeman, J. O.
1980-01-01
Basic concepts of finite difference solution techniques for unsteady transonic flows are presented. The hierarchy of mathematical forumulations that approximate the Navier-Stokes equations are reviewed. The basic concepts involved in constructing numerical algorthms to solve these formulations are given. Semi-implicit and implicit schemes are constructed and analyzed. The discussion focuses primarily on techniques for solving the low frequency transonic small disturbance equation. This is the simplest formulation that contains the essence of inviscid unsteady transonic flow physics. The low frequency formulation is emphasized here because codes based on this theory can be run in minutes of processor time on currently available computers. Furthermore, numerical techniques involved in solving this simple formulation also apply to the more complicated formulations. Extensions to these formulations are briefly described. An indication of the present capability for solving unsteady transonic flows is provided. Important areas of future research for the advancement of computational unsteady transonic aerodynamics are described.
Numerical simulation of nonlinear dynamical systems driven by commutative noise
Carbonell, F. Biscay, R.J.; Jimenez, J.C.; Cruz, H. de la
2007-10-01
The local linearization (LL) approach has become an effective technique for the numerical integration of ordinary, random and stochastic differential equations. One of the reasons for this success is that the LL method achieves a convenient trade-off between numerical stability and computational cost. Besides, the LL method reproduces well the dynamics of nonlinear equations for which other classical methods fail. However, in the stochastic case, most of the reported works has been focused in Stochastic Differential Equations (SDE) driven by additive noise. This limits the applicability of the LL method since there is a number of interesting dynamics observed in equations with multiplicative noise. On the other hand, recent results show that commutative noise SDEs can be transformed into a random differential equation (RDE) by means of a random diffeomorfism (conjugacy). This paper takes advantages of such conjugacy property and the LL approach for defining a LL scheme for SDEs driven by commutative noise. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated by means of numerical simulations.
Numerical simulations of non-homogeneous viscoelastic turbulent channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Housiadas, Kostas; Beris, Antony
2004-11-01
The effect of the polymer mixing in turbulent channel flow is studied through numerical simulations, using a spectral technique. In particular, we simulate injection of polymeric material through a slit very close to the wall and parallel to it in pre-established Newtonian turbulent flow. The governing equations consist of the mass conservation, the modified Navier-Stokes equation (in order to take into account the polymer extra-stress), the evolution equation for the conformation tensor and an advection-diffusion equation for the polymer concentration. The injection process is simulated by dividing the computational domain in three different regions: (a) the entrance region where the polymer is introduced (b) the developing region where the polymer is allowed to convect freely interacting/modifying the turbulent flow and (c) the recovering region where we use a reacting sink to force the removal of the polymer from the solvent in order to re-establish the inlet conditions. A fully spectral method is used in order to solve the set of governing equations similar to that developed for homogenous viscoelastic turbulent DNS (Housiadas & Beris, Phys. Fluids, 15, (2003)). Although a significantly improved numerical algorithm has been successfully used before (Housiadas & Beris, to appear in J. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech. (2004)) a further improved version of that algorithm is presented in this work. The new algorithm has enabled us to extend the simulations for much wider range of viscoelasticity parameter values as well as for many viscoelastic models like the FENE-P, Giesekus, Oldroyd-B and the modified Giesekus/FENE-P model. Results for illustrative sets of parameter values are going to be presented.
Detailed numerical simulations of laser cooling processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramirez-Serrano, J.; Kohel, J.; Thompson, R.; Yu, N.
2001-01-01
We developed a detailed semiclassical numerical code of the forces applied on atoms in optical and magnetic fields to increase the understanding of the different roles that light, atomic collisions, background pressure, and number of particles play in experiments with laser cooled and trapped atoms.
Polarization transmission at RHIC, numerical simulations
Meot F.; Bai, M.; Liu, C.; Minty, M.; Ranjbar, V.
2012-05-20
Typical tracking simulations regarding the transmission of the polarization in the proton-proton collider RHIC are discussed. They participate in general studies aimed at understanding and improving polarization performances during polarized proton-proton runs.
Stability of numerical integration techniques for transient rotor dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kascak, A. F.
1977-01-01
A finite element model of a rotor bearing system was analyzed to determine the stability limits of the forward, backward, and centered Euler; Runge-Kutta; Milne; and Adams numerical integration techniques. The analysis concludes that the highest frequency mode determines the maximum time step for a stable solution. Thus, the number of mass elements should be minimized. Increasing the damping can sometimes cause numerical instability. For a uniform shaft, with 10 mass elements, operating at approximately the first critical speed, the maximum time step for the Runge-Kutta, Milne, and Adams methods is that which corresponds to approximately 1 degree of shaft movement. This is independent of rotor dimensions.
Techniques and resources for storm-scale numerical weather prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Droegemeier, Kelvin; Grell, Georg; Doyle, James; Soong, Su-Tzai; Skamarock, William; Bacon, David; Staniforth, Andrew; Crook, Andrew; Wilhelmson, Robert
1993-01-01
The topics discussed include the following: multiscale application of the 5th-generation PSU/NCAR mesoscale model, the coupling of nonhydrostatic atmospheric and hydrostatic ocean models for air-sea interaction studies; a numerical simulation of cloud formation over complex topography; adaptive grid simulations of convection; an unstructured grid, nonhydrostatic meso/cloud scale model; efficient mesoscale modeling for multiple scales using variable resolution; initialization of cloud-scale models with Doppler radar data; and making effective use of future computing architectures, networks, and visualization software.
Numerical Simulation of Low Mach Number Fluid - Phenomena.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reitsma, Scott H.
A method for the numerical simulation of low Mach number (M) fluid-acoustic phenomena is developed. This computational fluid-acoustic (CFA) methodology is based upon a set of conservation equations, termed finite-compressible, derived from the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The finite-compressible and more familiar pseudo-compressible equations are compared. The impact of derivation assumptions are examined theoretically and through numerical experimentation. The error associated with these simplifications is shown to be of O(M) and proportional to the amplitude of unsteady phenomena. A computer code for the solution of the finite -compressible equations is developed from an existing pseudo -compressible code. Spatial and temporal discretization issues relevant in the context of near field fluid-acoustic simulations are discussed. The finite volume code employs a MUSCL based third order upwind biased flux difference splitting algorithm for the convective terms. An explicit, three stage, second order Runge-Kutta temporal integration is employed for time accurate simulations while an implicit, approximately factored time quadrature is available for steady state convergence acceleration. The CFA methodology is tested in a series of problems which examine the appropriateness of the governing equations, the exacerbation of spatial truncation errors and the degree of temporal accuracy. Characteristic based boundary conditions employing a spatial formulation are developed. An original non-reflective boundary condition based upon the generalization and extension of existing methods is derived and tested in a series of multi-dimensional problems including those involving viscous shear flows and propagating waves. The final numerical experiment is the simulation of boundary layer receptivity to acoustic disturbances. This represents the first simulation of receptivity at a surface inhomogeneity in which the acoustic phenomena is modeled using physically appropriate
Design of motorcycle rider protection systems using numerical techniques.
Miralbes, R
2013-10-01
The goal of this paper is the development of a design methodology, based on the use of finite elements numerical tools and dummies in order to study the damages and injuries that appear during a motorcyclist collision against a motorcyclist protection system (MPS). According to the existing regulation, a Hybrid III dummy FEM model has been used as a starting point and some modifications have been included. For instance a new finite element helmet model has been developed and later added to the dummy model. Moreover, some structural elements affecting the simulation results such as the connecting bolts or the ground have been adequately modeled. Finally there have been analyzed diverse types of current motorcyclists protection systems, for which it has been made a comparative numerical-experiment analysis to validate the numerical results and the methodology used.
Design of motorcycle rider protection systems using numerical techniques.
Miralbes, R
2013-10-01
The goal of this paper is the development of a design methodology, based on the use of finite elements numerical tools and dummies in order to study the damages and injuries that appear during a motorcyclist collision against a motorcyclist protection system (MPS). According to the existing regulation, a Hybrid III dummy FEM model has been used as a starting point and some modifications have been included. For instance a new finite element helmet model has been developed and later added to the dummy model. Moreover, some structural elements affecting the simulation results such as the connecting bolts or the ground have been adequately modeled. Finally there have been analyzed diverse types of current motorcyclists protection systems, for which it has been made a comparative numerical-experiment analysis to validate the numerical results and the methodology used. PMID:23792610
Numerical simulation of in situ bioremediation
Travis, B.J.
1998-12-31
Models that couple subsurface flow and transport with microbial processes are an important tool for assessing the effectiveness of bioremediation in field applications. A numerical algorithm is described that differs from previous in situ bioremediation models in that it includes: both vadose and groundwater zones, unsteady air and water flow, limited nutrients and airborne nutrients, toxicity, cometabolic kinetics, kinetic sorption, subgridscale averaging, pore clogging and protozoan grazing.
Numerical simulation of hemorrhage in human injury
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chong, Kwitae; Jiang, Chenfanfu; Santhanam, Anand; Benharash, Peyman; Teran, Joseph; Eldredge, Jeff
2015-11-01
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is adapted to simulate hemorrhage in the injured human body. As a Lagrangian fluid simulation, SPH uses fluid particles as computational elements and thus mass conservation is trivially satisfied. In order to ensure anatomical fidelity, a three-dimensional reconstruction of a portion of the human body -here, demonstrated on the lower leg- is sampled as skin, bone and internal tissue particles from the CT scan image of an actual patient. The injured geometry is then generated by simulation of ballistic projectiles passing through the anatomical model with the Material Point Method (MPM) and injured vessel segments are identified. From each such injured segment, SPH is used to simulate bleeding, with inflow boundary condition obtained from a coupled 1-d vascular tree model. Blood particles interact with impermeable bone and skin particles through the Navier-Stokes equations and with permeable internal tissue particles through the Brinkman equations. The SPH results are rendered in post-processing for improved visual fidelity. The overall simulation strategy is demonstrated on several injury scenarios in the lower leg.
Numerical simulations of thin film thermal flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Hung; Cale, Timothy S.
1994-12-01
The thin film thermal flow process in long trenches is analyzed using a simulator which solves the equations which govern viscous, incompressible fluid flow. The total thermal baking process is divided into small time steps. At each time step, we solve the governing equations using the penalty function formulation and the Galerkin finite element method to obtain local velocity vectors. The free surface of the flowing film is updated according to these local velocity vectors. As an example application, we simulate the flow of boron and phosphorus doped silicon dioxide glass films in 2 micrometer high by 2 micrometer wide, infinitely long trenches, for which two-dimensional profile evolution is appropriate. The simulated film profiles show that the local leveling rate of a film is a sensitive function of surface curvature. The simulation program predicts that lower viscosity and thicker films have superior planarization properties compared with higher viscosity and thinner films. These trends are in agreement with empirical observations and previous modeling and simulation work on glass film planarization processes.
Numerical Simulation of Dual-Mode Scramjet Combustors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rodriguez, C. G.; Riggins, D. W.; Bittner, R. D.
2000-01-01
Results of a numerical investigation of a three-dimensional dual-mode scramjet isolator-combustor flow-field are presented. Specifically, the effect of wall cooling on upstream interaction and flow-structure is examined for a case assuming jet-to-jet symmetry within the combustor. Comparisons are made with available experimental wall pressures. The full half-duct for the isolator-combustor is then modeled in order to study the influence of side-walls. Large scale three-dimensionality is observed in the flow with massive separation forward on the side-walls of the duct. A brief review of convergence-acceleration techniques useful in dual-mode simulations is presented, followed by recommendations regarding the development of a reliable and unambiguous experimental data base for guiding CFD code assessments in this area.
Numerical simulation of magmatic hydrothermal systems
Ingebritsen, S.E.; Geiger, S.; Hurwitz, S.; Driesner, T.
2010-01-01
The dynamic behavior of magmatic hydrothermal systems entails coupled and nonlinear multiphase flow, heat and solute transport, and deformation in highly heterogeneous media. Thus, quantitative analysis of these systems depends mainly on numerical solution of coupled partial differential equations and complementary equations of state (EOS). The past 2 decades have seen steady growth of computational power and the development of numerical models that have eliminated or minimized the need for various simplifying assumptions. Considerable heuristic insight has been gained from process-oriented numerical modeling. Recent modeling efforts employing relatively complete EOS and accurate transport calculations have revealed dynamic behavior that was damped by linearized, less accurate models, including fluid property control of hydrothermal plume temperatures and three-dimensional geometries. Other recent modeling results have further elucidated the controlling role of permeability structure and revealed the potential for significant hydrothermally driven deformation. Key areas for future reSearch include incorporation of accurate EOS for the complete H2O-NaCl-CO2 system, more realistic treatment of material heterogeneity in space and time, realistic description of large-scale relative permeability behavior, and intercode benchmarking comparisons. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.
Numerical simulations in the development of propellant management devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaulke, Diana; Winkelmann, Yvonne; Dreyer, Michael
Propellant management devices (PMDs) are used for positioning the propellant at the propel-lant port. It is important to provide propellant without gas bubbles. Gas bubbles can inflict cavitation and may lead to system failures in the worst case. Therefore, the reliable operation of such devices must be guaranteed. Testing these complex systems is a very intricate process. Furthermore, in most cases only tests with downscaled geometries are possible. Numerical sim-ulations are used here as an aid to optimize the tests and to predict certain results. Based on these simulations, parameters can be determined in advance and parts of the equipment can be adjusted in order to minimize the number of experiments. In return, the simulations are validated regarding the test results. Furthermore, if the accuracy of the numerical prediction is verified, then numerical simulations can be used for validating the scaling of the experiments. This presentation demonstrates some selected numerical simulations for the development of PMDs at ZARM.
Numerical simulations of a filament in a flowing soap film
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farnell, D. J. J.; David, T.; Barton, D. C.
2004-01-01
Experiments concerning the properties of soap films have recently been carried out and these systems have been proposed as experimental versions of theoretical two-dimensional liquids. A silk filament introduced into a flowing soap film, was seen to demonstrate various stable modes, and these were, namely, a mode in which the filament oscillates and one in which the filament is stationary and aligns with the flow of the liquid. The system could be forced from the oscillatory mode into the non- oscillatory mode by varying the length of the filament. In this article we use numerical and computational techniques in order to simulate the strongly coupled behaviour of the filament and the fluid. Preliminary results are presented for the specific case in which the filament is seen to oscillate continuously for the duration of our simulation. We also find that the filament oscillations are strongly suppressed when we reduce the effective length of the filament. We believe that these results are reminiscent of the different oscillatory and non-oscillatory modes observed in experiment. The numerical solutions show that, in contrast to experiment, vortices are created at the leading edge of the filament and are preferentially grown in the curvature of the filament and are eventually released from the trailing edge of the filament. In a similar manner to oscillating hydrofoils, it seems that the oscillating filaments are in a minimal energy state, extracting sufficient energy from the fluid to oscillate. In comparing numerical and experimental results it is possible that the soap film does have an effect on the fluid flow especially in the boundary layer where surface tension forces are large.
Numerical Simulations of Complex Three-Dimensional Viscous Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinthorsson, Erlendur
Four issues related to accurate numerical simulations of three-dimensional, viscous, compressible flows in complex -shaped geometries are addressed. First, a new formulation of the "compressible" Navier-Stokes equations for rotating reference frames was developed, which can easily be implemented into existing computer codes. The equations developed have the same form as the governing equations for inertial reference frames except for source terms that account for the effects of the rotation of the reference frame. The governing equations were tested by simulating the flow of air through a coolant passage inside a radial turbine blade. Second, new techniques were developed to enhance control over grid-point distribution in algebraic grid generation. These techniques are (a) a modified way to control orthogonality of the grid at boundaries, (b) a new interpolation function based on tension splines that improves control over grid-line curvature, and (c) multidimensional stretching functions that allow arbitrary clustering of grid points. Also, compatibility conditions were identified, which must be satisfied by the data that define the geometry and control grid-point distribution. The new techniques were used to generate a grid system for a complex-shaped coolant passage geometry with U-bends and pin fins. Third, several iterative techniques were developed for reducing or eliminating approximate-factorization errors in implicit finite-difference and finite-volume methods. The convergence of the iteration processes was analyzed. Also analyzed was the stability of the techniques when used with the ADI three-factored scheme. The techniques were tested by applying them to stabilize and accelerate convergence in the ADI three-factored scheme for the linear advection equation. Finally, three flux-vector splitting schemes were tested in a simulation of complex, low Mach number, viscous flow. The artificial dissipation created by these schemes at low Mach numbers was analyzed
Numerical simulation of quasi-multifractal diffusion process
Saichev, A. I. Filimonov, V. A.
2008-08-15
The properties of quasi-multifractal diffusion process are discussed. A discrete model of the process is constructed, and a method is proposed for calculating the quasi-multifractal spectrum, based on statistical processing of its realizations. An analysis of multifractal properties performed by numerical simulation of the quasi-multifractal spectrum is qualitatively substantiated by examining realizations of the simulated process. The results of numerical simulations suggest that there are three distinct scaling regions. Special attention is given to comparative analyses between numerical and analytical results and between realizations of the proposed process and the well-known multifractal random walk.
Numerical simulation of a self-propelled copepod during escape
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Borazjani, Iman; Malkiel, Edwin; Katz, Josef
2008-11-01
Obtaining the 3D flow field, forces, and power is essential for understanding the high accelerations of a copepod during the escap. We carry out numerical simulations to study a free swimming copepod using the sharp-interface immersed boundary, fluid-structure interaction (FSI) approach of Borazjani et al. (J Compu Phys, 2008, 227, p 7587-7620). We use our previous tethered copepod model with a realistic copepod-like body, including all the appendages with the appendages motion prescribed from high-resolution, cinematic dual digital holography. The simulations are performed in a frame of reference attached to the copepod whose velocity is calculated by considering the forces acting on the copepod. The self-propelled simulations are challenging due to the destabilizing effects of the large added mass resulting from the low copepod mass and fast acceleration during the escape. Strongly-coupled FSI with under-relaxation and the Aitken acceleration technique is used to obtain stable and robust FSI iterations. The computed results for the self-propelled model are analyzed and compared with our earlier results for the tethered model.
Numerical simulation of cross field amplifiers
Eppley, K.
1990-01-01
Cross field amplifiers (CFA) have been used in many applications where high power, high frequency microwaves are needed. Although these tubes have been manufactured for decades, theoretical analysis of their properties is not as highly developed as for other microwave devices such as klystrons. One feature distinguishing cross field amplifiers is that the operating current is produced by secondary emission from a cold cathode. This removes the need for a heater and enables the device to act as a switch tube, drawing no power until the rf drive is applied. However, this method of generating the current does complicate the simulation. We are developing a simulation model of cross field amplifiers using the PIC code CONDOR. We simulate an interaction region, one traveling wavelength long, with periodic boundary conditions. An electric field with the appropriate phase velocity is imposed on the upper boundary of the problem. Evaluation of the integral of E{center dot}J gives the power interchanged between the wave and the beam. Given the impedance of the structure, we then calculate the change in the traveling wave field. Thus we simulate the growth of the wave through the device. The main advance of our model over previous CFA simulations is the realistic tracking of absorption and secondary emission. The code uses experimental curves to calculate secondary production as a function of absorbed energy, with a theoretical expression for the angular dependence. We have used this code to model the 100 MW X-band CFA under construction at SLAC, as designed by Joseph Feinstein and Terry Lee. We are examining several questions of practical interest, such as the power and spectrum of absorbed electrons, the minimum traveling wave field needed to initiate spoke formation, and the variation of output power with dc voltage, anode-cathode gap, and magnetic field. 5 refs., 8 figs.
Brush seal numerical simulation: Concepts and advances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Braun, M. J.; Kudriavtsev, V. V.
1994-01-01
The development of the brush seal is considered to be most promising among the advanced type seals that are presently in use in the high speed turbomachinery. The brush is usually mounted on the stationary portions of the engine and has direct contact with the rotating element, in the process of limiting the 'unwanted' leakage flows between stages, or various engine cavities. This type of sealing technology is providing high (in comparison with conventional seals) pressure drops due mainly to the high packing density (around 100 bristles/sq mm), and brush compliance with the rotor motions. In the design of modern aerospace turbomachinery leakage flows between the stages must be minimal, thus contributing to the higher efficiency of the engine. Use of the brush seal instead of the labyrinth seal reduces the leakage flow by one order of magnitude. Brush seals also have been found to enhance dynamic performance, cost less, and are lighter than labyrinth seals. Even though industrial brush seals have been successfully developed through extensive experimentation, there is no comprehensive numerical methodology for the design or prediction of their performance. The existing analytical/numerical approaches are based on bulk flow models and do not allow the investigation of the effects of brush morphology (bristle arrangement), or brushes arrangement (number of brushes, spacing between them), on the pressure drops and flow leakage. An increase in the brush seal efficiency is clearly a complex problem that is closely related to the brush geometry and arrangement, and can be solved most likely only by means of a numerically distributed model.
Brush seal numerical simulation: Concepts and advances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braun, M. J.; Kudriavtsev, V. V.
1994-07-01
The development of the brush seal is considered to be most promising among the advanced type seals that are presently in use in the high speed turbomachinery. The brush is usually mounted on the stationary portions of the engine and has direct contact with the rotating element, in the process of limiting the 'unwanted' leakage flows between stages, or various engine cavities. This type of sealing technology is providing high (in comparison with conventional seals) pressure drops due mainly to the high packing density (around 100 bristles/sq mm), and brush compliance with the rotor motions. In the design of modern aerospace turbomachinery leakage flows between the stages must be minimal, thus contributing to the higher efficiency of the engine. Use of the brush seal instead of the labyrinth seal reduces the leakage flow by one order of magnitude. Brush seals also have been found to enhance dynamic performance, cost less, and are lighter than labyrinth seals. Even though industrial brush seals have been successfully developed through extensive experimentation, there is no comprehensive numerical methodology for the design or prediction of their performance. The existing analytical/numerical approaches are based on bulk flow models and do not allow the investigation of the effects of brush morphology (bristle arrangement), or brushes arrangement (number of brushes, spacing between them), on the pressure drops and flow leakage. An increase in the brush seal efficiency is clearly a complex problem that is closely related to the brush geometry and arrangement, and can be solved most likely only by means of a numerically distributed model.
Numerical simulation of oil pool boundary evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khudobina, Yulia; Bubenchikov, Aleksey; Bubenchikov, Mikhail; Matvienko, Oleg; Libin, Eduard
2016-01-01
The study of spatial distribution of hydrocarbon resources and forecasting their geographical location is of great importance for the most complete recovery of hydrocarbons from deposits. The present study gives new mathematical results in the theory of stratified fluid flow in a porous medium. This paper analyzes the evolution of oil pool boundary basing on vortex numerical model for movement of the boundary separating fluids of different densities. It presents the investigation of how the location of light fluid regarding the heavier fluid influences on the changes in the boundary between two media in case of various shifting of the well.
Numerical Simulation of Rocket Exhaust Interaction with Lunar Soil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liever, Peter; Tosh, Abhijit; Curtis, Jennifer
2012-01-01
This technology development originated from the need to assess the debris threat resulting from soil material erosion induced by landing spacecraft rocket plume impingement on extraterrestrial planetary surfaces. The impact of soil debris was observed to be highly detrimental during NASA s Apollo lunar missions and will pose a threat for any future landings on the Moon, Mars, and other exploration targets. The innovation developed under this program provides a simulation tool that combines modeling of the diverse disciplines of rocket plume impingement gas dynamics, granular soil material liberation, and soil debris particle kinetics into one unified simulation system. The Unified Flow Solver (UFS) developed by CFDRC enabled the efficient, seamless simulation of mixed continuum and rarefied rocket plume flow utilizing a novel direct numerical simulation technique of the Boltzmann gas dynamics equation. The characteristics of the soil granular material response and modeling of the erosion and liberation processes were enabled through novel first principle-based granular mechanics models developed by the University of Florida specifically for the highly irregularly shaped and cohesive lunar regolith material. These tools were integrated into a unique simulation system that accounts for all relevant physics aspects: (1) Modeling of spacecraft rocket plume impingement flow under lunar vacuum environment resulting in a mixed continuum and rarefied flow; (2) Modeling of lunar soil characteristics to capture soil-specific effects of particle size and shape composition, soil layer cohesion and granular flow physics; and (3) Accurate tracking of soil-borne debris particles beginning with aerodynamically driven motion inside the plume to purely ballistic motion in lunar far field conditions. In the earlier project phase of this innovation, the capabilities of the UFS for mixed continuum and rarefied flow situations were validated and demonstrated for lunar lander rocket
Numerical Simulation of Taylor Cone-Jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toledo, Ronne
The Taylor cone-jet is a particular type of electrohydrodynamic phenomenon where electrostatic stresses and surface tension effects shape the interface of the jet in a peculiar conical shape. A thin jet is issued from the cone apex that further breaks up into a fine aerosol. Due to its monodispersive properties, this fine aerosol has found a number of applications, ranging from mass spectrometry, colloidal space propulsion, combustion, nano-fabrication, coating/painting, and many others. In this study, a general non-dimensional analysis is performed to derive the governing equations and boundary conditions. In accordance with the observations of Gamero-Castano (2010), noting that droplet electric potential is insensitive to the flow rate conditions, a particular set of characteristic parameters is proposed, based on the terminal jet diameter. In order to solve the non-dimensional set of governing equations and boundary conditions, a numerical method combining the Boundary Element Method and the Finite Volume Method is developed. Results of electric current have shown good agreement with numerical and experimental data available in the literature. The main feature of the algorithm developed is related to the decoupling of the electrostatic from the hydrodynamic problem, allowing us to accurately prescribe the far field electric potential boundary conditions away from the hydrodynamic computational domain used to solve the hydrodynamics of the transition region near the cone apex.
Retinal Image Simulation of Subjective Refraction Techniques.
Perches, Sara; Collados, M Victoria; Ares, Jorge
2016-01-01
Refraction techniques make it possible to determine the most appropriate sphero-cylindrical lens prescription to achieve the best possible visual quality. Among these techniques, subjective refraction (i.e., patient's response-guided refraction) is the most commonly used approach. In this context, this paper's main goal is to present a simulation software that implements in a virtual manner various subjective-refraction techniques--including Jackson's Cross-Cylinder test (JCC)--relying all on the observation of computer-generated retinal images. This software has also been used to evaluate visual quality when the JCC test is performed in multifocal-contact-lens wearers. The results reveal this software's usefulness to simulate the retinal image quality that a particular visual compensation provides. Moreover, it can help to gain a deeper insight and to improve existing refraction techniques and it can be used for simulated training.
Numerical simulation of imaging laser radar system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Shaokun; Lu, Bo; Jiang, Ming; Liu, Xunliang
2008-03-01
Rational and effective design of imaging laser radar systems is the key of imaging laser radar system research. Design must fully consider the interrelationship between various parameters. According to the parameters, choose suitable laser, detector and other components. To use of mathematical modeling and computer simulation is an effective imaging laser radar system design methods. This paper based on the distance equation, using the detection statistical methods, from the laser radar range coverage, detection probability, false-alarm rate, SNR to build the laser radar system mathematical models. In the process of setting up the mathematical models to fully consider the laser, atmosphere, detector and other factors on the performance that is to make the models be able to respond accurately the real situation. Based on this using C# and Matlab designed a simulation software.
Studying Spacecraft Charging via Numerical Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delzanno, G. L.; Moulton, D.; Meierbachtol, C.; Svyatskiy, D.; Vernon, L.
2015-12-01
The electrical charging of spacecraft due to bombarding charged particles can affect their performance and operation. We study this charging using CPIC; a particle-in-cell code specifically designed for studying plasma-material interactions [1]. CPIC is based on multi-block curvilinear meshes, resulting in near-optimal computational performance while maintaining geometric accuracy. Relevant plasma parameters are imported from the SHIELDS framework (currently under development at LANL), which simulates geomagnetic storms and substorms in the Earth's magnetosphere. Simulated spacecraft charging results of representative Van Allen Probe geometries using these plasma parameters will be presented, along with an overview of the code. [1] G.L. Delzanno, E. Camporeale, J.D. Moulton, J.E. Borovsky, E.A. MacDonald, and M.F. Thomsen, "CPIC: A Curvilinear Particle-In-Cell Code for Plasma-Material Interaction Studies," IEEE Trans. Plas. Sci., 41 (12), 3577 (2013).
Numerical Simulation of Ion Thruster Optics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rawlin, Vincent K. (Technical Monitor); Farnell, Cody C.; Williams, John D.; Wilbur, Paul J.
2003-01-01
A three-dimensional simulation code (ffx) designed to analyze ion thruster optics is described. It is an extension of an earlier code and includes special features like the ability to model a wide range of grid geometries, cusp details, and mis-aligned aperture pairs to name a few. However, the principle reason for advancing the code was in the study of ion optics erosion. Ground based testing of ion thruster optics, essential to the understanding of the processes of grid erosion, can be time consuming and costly. Simulation codes that can accurately predict grid lifetimes and the physical mechanisms of grid erosion can be of great utility in the development of future ion thruster optics designed for more ambitious applications. Results of simulations are presented that describe wear profiles for several standard and nonstandard aperture geometries, such as those grid sets with square- or slotted-hole layout patterns. The goal of this paper will be to introduce the methods employed in the ffx code and to briefly demonstrate their use.
Numerical Simulations of Plasma Jets for PLX
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, L.; Messer, S.; Case, A.; Phillips, M.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Welch, D.; Thoma, C.; Bogatu, I. N.; Galkin, S.; Thompson, J. R.; Kim, J. S.; Macfarlane, J.; Golovkin, I.
2011-10-01
Two and three-dimensional simulations are performed using the hybrid particle-in-cell code LSP to study liner formation for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX). These include studies of plasma transport within small parallel-plate MiniRailguns, issues related to detachment of the jet from the nozzle, and the subsequent propagation of single jets in Cartesian coordinates. Merging of plasma jets is studied mainly in cylindrical coordinates at present. Varied number of railguns (or jets) are used in this study with initial velocity of 50-100 km/s, initial argon number density of 1016 cm-3 to 1017 cm-3, and initial temperature of ~3 eV. The effects on liner formation from jet initial profiles (density, velocity and temperature distribution) are studied to explore behavior. Simulation results are presented and compared with experimental data from merging jet experiments currently being conducted at HyperV using 1cm bore MiniRailguns. The LSP code is used to perform the simulations using improved fluid algorithms and equation-of-state models from Voss and atomic data from Prism.
Validation of scramjet exhaust simulation technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hopkins, H. B.; Konopka, W.; Leng, J.
1976-01-01
Scramjet/airframe integration design philosophy for hypersonic aircraft results in configurations having lower aft surfaces that serve as exhaust nozzles. There is a strong coupling between the exhaust plume and the aerodynamics of the vehicle, making accurate simulation of the engine exhaust mandatory. The experimental verification of the simulation procedure is described. The detonation tube simulator was used to produce an exact simulation of the scramjet exhaust for a Mach 8 flight condition. The pressure distributions produced by the exact exhaust flow were then duplicated by a cool mixture Argon and Freon 13B1. Such a substitute gas mixture validated by the detonation tube technique could be used in conventional wind tunnel tests. The results presented show the substitute gas simulation technique to be valid for shockless expansions.
Classical MHD shocks: theory and numerical simulation
Pogorelov, Nikolai V.
2005-08-01
Recent results are surveyed in the investigation of the behavior of shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and corresponding structures in dissipative/resistive plasma flows. In contrast to evolutionary shocks, a solution of the problem of the nonevolutionary shock interaction with small perturbations is either nonunique or does not exist. The peculiarity of non-ideal MHD is in that some nonevolutionary shocks have dissipative structures. Since this structure is always non-plane, it can reveal itself in problems where transverse perturbations do not exist due to symmetries restrictions. We discuss the numerical behavior of nonevolutionary shocks and argue that they necessarily disappear once the problem is solved in a genuinely three-dimensional statement.
Numerical simulation of electrophoresis separation processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ganjoo, D. K.; Tezduyar, T. E.
1986-01-01
A new Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation has been proposed for transient convection-diffusion problems. Most Petrov-Galerkin formulations take into account the spatial discretization, and the weighting functions so developed give satisfactory solutions for steady state problems. Though these schemes can be used for transient problems, there is scope for improvement. The schemes proposed here, which consider temporal as well as spatial discretization, provide improved solutions. Electrophoresis, which involves the motion of charged entities under the influence of an applied electric field, is governed by equations similiar to those encountered in fluid flow problems, i.e., transient convection-diffusion equations. Test problems are solved in electrophoresis and fluid flow. The results obtained are satisfactory. It is also expected that these schemes, suitably adapted, will improve the numerical solutions of the compressible Euler and the Navier-Stokes equations.
Floret Test, Numerical Simulations of the Dent, Comparison with Experiments
Lefrancois, A.; Cutting, J.; Gagliardi, F.; Tarver, C.; Tran, T.
2006-02-14
The Floret test has been developed as a screening test to study the performance of a small amount of HE. Numerical simulations have been performed recently using CTH. The objective of this study is to perform numerical simulations in order to better understand the shock waves interactions, involved in the dent formation. Different 3D wedge configurations have been tested using the Ignition and Growth reactive flow model for the HE receptor with Ls-Dyna.
NUMERICAL METHODS FOR THE SIMULATION OF HIGH INTENSITY HADRON SYNCHROTRONS.
LUCCIO, A.; D'IMPERIO, N.; MALITSKY, N.
2005-09-12
Numerical algorithms for PIC simulation of beam dynamics in a high intensity synchrotron on a parallel computer are presented. We introduce numerical solvers of the Laplace-Poisson equation in the presence of walls, and algorithms to compute tunes and twiss functions in the presence of space charge forces. The working code for the simulation here presented is SIMBAD, that can be run as stand alone or as part of the UAL (Unified Accelerator Libraries) package.
The numerical simulation of multistage turbomachinery flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamczyk, J. J.; Beach, T. A.; Celestina, M. L.; Mulac, R. A.; To, W. M.
1990-01-01
The need to account for momentum and energy transport by the unsteady deterministic flow field in modeling the time-averaged flow state within a blade row passage embedded in a multistage compressor is assessed. It was found that, within the endwall regions, large-scale three-dimensional unsteady structures existed which caused significant transport of momentum and energy across the time-averaged stream surface of a stator flow field. These experiments confirmed that the tranport process is dominated by turbulent diffusion in the midspan region. A model was then proposed for simulating this transport process, and a limited study was undertaken to assess its validity.
Numerical simulations of two-dimensional QED
Carson, S.R.; Kenway, R.D.
1986-02-01
We describe the computer simulation of two-dimensional QED on a 64 x 64 Euclidean space-time lattice using the Susskind lattice fermion action. Theorder parameter for chiral symmetry breaking and the low-lying meson masses are calculated for both the model with two continuum flavours, which arises naturally in this formulation, and the model with one continuum falvour obtained by including a nonsymmetric mass term and setting one fermion mass equal to the cut-off. Results are compared with those obtined using the quenched approximation, and with analytic predictions.
Application of Metamodelling Techniques for Mechanized Tunnel Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khaledi, Kavan; Schanz, Tom; Miro, Shorash
2014-03-01
Complex engineering problems require using computation- ally expensive simulations which take relatively long time. In such cases, routine tasks such as design optimization, parameter identification, or sensitivity analysis become impractical since they require thousands or even millions of simulations. A common practice for engineers to solve this problem is to use metamodels in place of actual simulation models. In this paper, we investigate the performance of four metamodelling approaches, namely, Response Surface Methodology, Moving Least Squares, POD-RBF, and Neighborhood Approximation considering the effect of sample size and sampling methods. Our main goal in this work is to find a reliable and robust metamodel technique in order to construct an approximated function for mechanized tunnel simulation. For this reason, a numerical study is carried out on a 3D tunnel modeled in Plaxis3D and the accuracy and robustness of the aforementioned metamodelling techniques are discussed
Numerical and laboratory simulations of auroral acceleration
Gunell, H.; De Keyser, J.; Mann, I.
2013-10-15
The existence of parallel electric fields is an essential ingredient of auroral physics, leading to the acceleration of particles that give rise to the auroral displays. An auroral flux tube is modelled using electrostatic Vlasov simulations, and the results are compared to simulations of a proposed laboratory device that is meant for studies of the plasma physical processes that occur on auroral field lines. The hot magnetospheric plasma is represented by a gas discharge plasma source in the laboratory device, and the cold plasma mimicking the ionospheric plasma is generated by a Q-machine source. In both systems, double layers form with plasma density gradients concentrated on their high potential sides. The systems differ regarding the properties of ion acoustic waves that are heavily damped in the magnetosphere, where the ion population is hot, but weakly damped in the laboratory, where the discharge ions are cold. Ion waves are excited by the ion beam that is created by acceleration in the double layer in both systems. The efficiency of this beam-plasma interaction depends on the acceleration voltage. For voltages where the interaction is less efficient, the laboratory experiment is more space-like.
Numerical simulation of the SOFIA flow field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klotz, Stephen P.
1995-01-01
This report provides a concise summary of the contribution of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to the SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) project at NASA Ames and presents results obtained from closed- and open-cavity SOFIA simulations. The aircraft platform is a Boeing 747SP and these are the first SOFIA simulations run with the aircraft empennage included in the geometry database. In the open-cavity runs the telescope is mounted behind the wings. Results suggest that the cavity markedly influences the mean pressure distribution on empennage surfaces and that 110-140 decibel (db) sound pressure levels are typical in the cavity and on the horizontal and vertical stabilizers. A strong source of sound was found to exist on the rim of the open telescope cavity. The presence of this source suggests that additional design work needs to be performed in order to minimize the sound emanating from that location. A fluid dynamic analysis of the engine plumes is also contained in this report. The analysis was part of an effort to quantify the degradation of telescope performance resulting from the proximity of the port engine exhaust plumes to the open telescope bay.
Simulations of motor unit number estimation techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Major, Lora A.; Jones, Kelvin E.
2005-06-01
Motor unit number estimation (MUNE) is an electrodiagnostic procedure used to evaluate the number of motor axons connected to a muscle. All MUNE techniques rely on assumptions that must be fulfilled to produce a valid estimate. As there is no gold standard to compare the MUNE techniques against, we have developed a model of the relevant neuromuscular physiology and have used this model to simulate various MUNE techniques. The model allows for a quantitative analysis of candidate MUNE techniques that will hopefully contribute to consensus regarding a standard procedure for performing MUNE.
Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Gap Flow
Jing, Xu; Haiming, Huang; Guo, Huang; Song, Mo
2015-01-01
Various gaps in the surface of the supersonic aircraft have a significant effect on airflows. In order to predict the effects of attack angle, Mach number and width-to-depth ratio of gap on the local aerodynamic heating environment of supersonic flow, two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the finite volume method, where convective flux of space term adopts the Roe format, and discretization of time term is achieved by 5-step Runge-Kutta algorithm. The numerical results reveal that the heat flux ratio is U-shaped distribution on the gap wall and maximum at the windward corner of the gap. The heat flux ratio decreases as the gap depth and Mach number increase, however, it increases as the attack angle increases. In addition, it is important to find that chamfer in the windward corner can effectively reduce gap effect coefficient. The study will be helpful for the design of the thermal protection system in reentry vehicles. PMID:25635395
Understanding disordered systems through numerical simulation and algorithm development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sweeney, Sean Michael
Disordered systems arise in many physical contexts. Not all matter is uniform, and impurities or heterogeneities can be modeled by fixed random disorder. Numerous complex networks also possess fixed disorder, leading to applications in transportation systems, telecommunications, social networks, and epidemic modeling, to name a few. Due to their random nature and power law critical behavior, disordered systems are difficult to study analytically. Numerical simulation can help overcome this hurdle by allowing for the rapid computation of system states. In order to get precise statistics and extrapolate to the thermodynamic limit, large systems must be studied over many realizations. Thus, innovative algorithm development is essential in order reduce memory or running time requirements of simulations. This thesis presents a review of disordered systems, as well as a thorough study of two particular systems through numerical simulation, algorithm development and optimization, and careful statistical analysis of scaling properties. Chapter 1 provides a thorough overview of disordered systems, the history of their study in the physics community, and the development of techniques used to study them. Topics of quenched disorder, phase transitions, the renormalization group, criticality, and scale invariance are discussed. Several prominent models of disordered systems are also explained. Lastly, analysis techniques used in studying disordered systems are covered. In Chapter 2, minimal spanning trees on critical percolation clusters are studied, motivated in part by an analytic perturbation expansion by Jackson and Read that I check against numerical calculations. This system has a direct mapping to the ground state of the strongly disordered spin glass. We compute the path length fractal dimension of these trees in dimensions d = {2, 3, 4, 5} and find our results to be compatible with the analytic results suggested by Jackson and Read. In Chapter 3, the random bond Ising
Identification of DVT diseases using numerical simulations.
Simão, M; Ferreira, J M; Mora-Rodriguez, J; Ramos, H M
2016-10-01
This research provides useful insights for better diagnosis and understanding the vein blockage induced by a deep venous thrombosis and the occurrence of reverse flow in human veins, allowing a proper detection of serious diseases related to deep venous insufficiency. An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation is used in a coupled model (i.e. fluid and structure equations solved together), considering two domains, specifically the blood flow and the flexible structures (i.e. vein and valves). Computational fluid dynamics mathematical model based on finite element method, with special elements and boundary characterization, is addressed to find the best solution. This research presents a novel model to study the interaction between non-Newtonian laminar fluid flows, the blood, within nonlinear structures, the vein walls. Simulation results are validated using in vivo echo-Doppler measurements. PMID:26780462
Numerical simulation of synthesis gas incineration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazakov, A. V.; Khaustov, S. A.; Tabakaev, R. B.; Belousova, Y. A.
2016-04-01
The authors have analysed the expediency of the suggested low-grade fuels application method. Thermal processing of solid raw materials in the gaseous fuel, called synthesis gas, is investigated. The technical challenges concerning the applicability of the existing gas equipment developed and extensively tested exclusively for natural gas were considered. For this purpose computer simulation of three-dimensional syngas-incinerating flame dynamics was performed by means of the ANSYS Multiphysics engineering software. The subjects of studying were: a three-dimensional aerodynamic flame structure, heat-release and temperature fields, a set of combustion properties: a flare range and the concentration distribution of burnout reagents. The obtained results were presented in the form of a time-averaged pathlines with color indexing. The obtained results can be used for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of complex multicomponent gas incineration singularities.
Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility. Preliminary study extension
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1978-01-01
The production of an optimized design of key elements of the candidate facility was the primary objective of this report. This was accomplished by effort in the following tasks: (1) to further develop, optimize and describe the function description of the custom hardware; (2) to delineate trade off areas between performance, reliability, availability, serviceability, and programmability; (3) to develop metrics and models for validation of the candidate systems performance; (4) to conduct a functional simulation of the system design; (5) to perform a reliability analysis of the system design; and (6) to develop the software specifications to include a user level high level programming language, a correspondence between the programming language and instruction set and outline the operation system requirements.
Numerical simulation of the boat growth method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oda, K.; Saito, T.; Nishihama, J.; Ishihara, T.
1989-09-01
This paper presents a three-dimensional mathematical model for thermal convection in molten metals, which is applicable to the heat transfer phenomena in a boat-shaped crucibles. The governing equations are solved using an extended version, developed by Saito et al. (1986), of the Amsden and Harlow (1968) simplified marker and cell method. It is shown that the following parameters must be incorporated for an accurate simulation of melt growth: (1) the radiative heat transfer in the furnace, (2) the complex crucible configuration, (3) the melt flow, and (4) the solid-liquid interface shape. The velocity and temperature distribution calculated from this model are compared with the results of previous studies.
Retinal Image Simulation of Subjective Refraction Techniques
Perches, Sara; Collados, M. Victoria; Ares, Jorge
2016-01-01
Refraction techniques make it possible to determine the most appropriate sphero-cylindrical lens prescription to achieve the best possible visual quality. Among these techniques, subjective refraction (i.e., patient’s response-guided refraction) is the most commonly used approach. In this context, this paper’s main goal is to present a simulation software that implements in a virtual manner various subjective-refraction techniques—including Jackson’s Cross-Cylinder test (JCC)—relying all on the observation of computer-generated retinal images. This software has also been used to evaluate visual quality when the JCC test is performed in multifocal-contact-lens wearers. The results reveal this software’s usefulness to simulate the retinal image quality that a particular visual compensation provides. Moreover, it can help to gain a deeper insight and to improve existing refraction techniques and it can be used for simulated training. PMID:26938648
Numerical simulation of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miglio, E.
2015-12-01
In the Earth's crust, stress can be subdivided into tectonic background stress, overburden pressure, and pore-fluid pressure. The superposition of the first two and the variation of the third part are key factors in controlling movement along faults. Furthermore, stresses due to sedimentation and erosion contribute to the total stress field. In deglaciated regions, an additional stress must be considered: the rebound stress, which is related to rebounding of the crust and mantle after deglaciation. During the growth of a continental ice sheet, the lithosphere under the iceload is deformed and the removal of the ice load during deglaciation initiates a rebound process. The uplift is well known in formerly glaciated areas, e.g.North America and Scandinavia, and in currently deglaciating areas, e.g.Alaska, Antarctica, and Greenland. The whole process of subsiding and uplifting during the growth and melting of an iceload and all related phenomena is known as glacial isostatic adjustment. During the process of glaciation, the surface of the lithosphere is depressed underneath the ice load and compressional flexural stresses are induced in the upper lithosphere, whereas the bottom of the lithosphere experiences extensional flexural stresses; an additional vertical stress due to the ice load is present and it decreases to zero during deglaciation. During rebound, flexural stresses relax slowly. These stresses are able to change the original stress directions and regime.In this work we aim to study the effect of the GIA process in the context of petroleum engineering. The main aspect we will focus on is the mathematical and numerical modeling of the GIA including thermal effects. We plan also to include a preliminary study of the effect of the glacial erosion. All these phenomena are of paramount importance in petroleum engineering: for example some reservoir have been depleted due to tilting caused by both GIA, erosion and thermal effects.
Numerical simulation of electrospray in the cone-jet mode.
Herrada, M A; López-Herrera, J M; Gañán-Calvo, A M; Vega, E J; Montanero, J M; Popinet, S
2012-08-01
We present a robust and computationally efficient numerical scheme for simulating steady electrohydrodynamic atomization processes (electrospray). The main simplification assumed in this scheme is that all the free electrical charges are distributed over the interface. A comparison of the results with those calculated with a volume-of-fluid method showed that the numerical scheme presented here accurately describes the flow pattern within the entire liquid domain. Experiments were performed to partially validate the numerical predictions. The simulations reproduced accurately the experimental shape of the liquid cone jet, providing correct values of the emitted electric current even for configurations very close to the cone-jet stability limit. PMID:23005852
Numerical simulation of electrospray in the cone-jet mode.
Herrada, M A; López-Herrera, J M; Gañán-Calvo, A M; Vega, E J; Montanero, J M; Popinet, S
2012-08-01
We present a robust and computationally efficient numerical scheme for simulating steady electrohydrodynamic atomization processes (electrospray). The main simplification assumed in this scheme is that all the free electrical charges are distributed over the interface. A comparison of the results with those calculated with a volume-of-fluid method showed that the numerical scheme presented here accurately describes the flow pattern within the entire liquid domain. Experiments were performed to partially validate the numerical predictions. The simulations reproduced accurately the experimental shape of the liquid cone jet, providing correct values of the emitted electric current even for configurations very close to the cone-jet stability limit.
Numerical simulation of shock wave propagation in flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rénier, Mathieu; Marchiano, Régis; Gaudard, Eric; Gallin, Louis-Jonardan; Coulouvrat, François
2012-09-01
Acoustical shock waves propagate through flows in many situations. The sonic boom produced by a supersonic aircraft influenced by winds, or the so-called Buzz-Saw-Noise produced by turbo-engine fan blades when rotating at supersonic speeds, are two examples of such a phenomenon. In this work, an original method called FLHOWARD, acronym for FLow and Heterogeneous One-Way Approximation for Resolution of Diffraction, is presented. It relies on a scalar nonlinear wave equation, which takes into account propagation in a privileged direction (one-way approach), with diffraction, flow, heterogeneous and nonlinear effects. Theoretical comparison of the dispersion relations between that equation and parabolic equations (standard or wide angle) shows that this approach is more precise than the parabolic approach because there are no restrictions about the angle of propagation. A numerical procedure based on the standard split-step technique is used. It consists in splitting the nonlinear wave equation into simpler equations. Each of these equations is solved thanks to an analytical solution when it is possible, and a finite differences scheme in other cases. The advancement along the propagation direction is done with an implicit scheme. The validity of that numerical procedure is assessed by comparisons with analytical solutions of the Lilley's equation in waveguides for uniform or shear flows in linear regime. Attention is paid to the advantages and drawbacks of that method. Finally, the numerical code is used to simulate the propagation of sonic boom through a piece of atmosphere with flows and heterogeneities. The effects of the various parameters are analysed.
Enhanced sampling techniques in biomolecular simulations.
Spiwok, Vojtech; Sucur, Zoran; Hosek, Petr
2015-11-01
Biomolecular simulations are routinely used in biochemistry and molecular biology research; however, they often fail to match expectations of their impact on pharmaceutical and biotech industry. This is caused by the fact that a vast amount of computer time is required to simulate short episodes from the life of biomolecules. Several approaches have been developed to overcome this obstacle, including application of massively parallel and special purpose computers or non-conventional hardware. Methodological approaches are represented by coarse-grained models and enhanced sampling techniques. These techniques can show how the studied system behaves in long time-scales on the basis of relatively short simulations. This review presents an overview of new simulation approaches, the theory behind enhanced sampling methods and success stories of their applications with a direct impact on biotechnology or drug design.
Numerical simulation of linear fiction welding (LFW) processes
Fratini, L.; La Spisa, D.
2011-05-04
Solid state welding processes are becoming increasingly important due to a large number of advantages related to joining ''unweldable'' materials and in particular light weight alloys. Linear friction welding (LFW) has been used successfully to bond non-axisymmetric components of a range of materials including titanium alloys, steels, aluminum alloys, nickel, copper, and also dissimilar material combinations. The technique is useful in the research of quality of the joints and in reducing costs of components and parts of the aeronautic and automotive industries.LFW involves parts to be welded through the relative reciprocating motion of two components under an axial force. In such process the heat source is given by the frictional forces work decaying into heat determining a local softening of the material and proper bonding conditions due to both the temperature increase and the local pressure of the two edges to be welded. This paper is a comparative test between the numerical model in two dimensions, i.e. in plane strain conditions, and in three dimensions of a LFW process of AISI1045 steel specimens. It must be observed that the 3D model assures a faithful simulation of the actual threedimensional material flow, even if the two-dimensional simulation computational times are very short, a few hours instead of several ones as the 3D model. The obtained results were compared with experimental values found out in the scientific literature.
Numerical simulation of linear fiction welding (LFW) processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fratini, L.; La Spisa, D.
2011-05-01
Solid state welding processes are becoming increasingly important due to a large number of advantages related to joining "unweldable" materials and in particular light weight alloys. Linear friction welding (LFW) has been used successfully to bond non-axisymmetric components of a range of materials including titanium alloys, steels, aluminum alloys, nickel, copper, and also dissimilar material combinations. The technique is useful in the research of quality of the joints and in reducing costs of components and parts of the aeronautic and automotive industries. LFW involves parts to be welded through the relative reciprocating motion of two components under an axial force. In such process the heat source is given by the frictional forces work decaying into heat determining a local softening of the material and proper bonding conditions due to both the temperature increase and the local pressure of the two edges to be welded. This paper is a comparative test between the numerical model in two dimensions, i.e. in plane strain conditions, and in three dimensions of a LFW process of AISI1045 steel specimens. It must be observed that the 3D model assures a faithful simulation of the actual threedimensional material flow, even if the two-dimensional simulation computational times are very short, a few hours instead of several ones as the 3D model. The obtained results were compared with experimental values found out in the scientific literature.
Numerical Simulations of Canted Nozzle and Scarfed Nozzle Flow Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Javed, Afroz; Chakraborty, Debasis
2016-06-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques are used for the analysis of issues concerning non-conventional (canted and scarfed) nozzle flow fields. Numerical simulations are carried out for the quality of flow in terms of axisymmetric nature at the inlet of canted nozzles of a rocket motor. Two different nozzle geometries are examined. The analysis of these simulation results shows that the flow field at the entry of the nozzles is non axisymmetric at the start of the motor. With time this asymmetry diminishes, also the flow becomes symmetric before the nozzle throat, indicating no misalignment of thrust vector with the nozzle axis. The qualitative flow fields at the inlet of the nozzles are used in selecting the geometry with lesser flow asymmetry. Further CFD methodology is used to analyse flow field of a scarfed nozzle for the evaluation of thrust developed and its direction. This work demonstrates the capability of the CFD based methods for the nozzle analysis problems which were earlier solved only approximately by making simplifying assumptions and semi empirical methods.
Numerical simulation of thermocapillary wetting suppression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jyh-Chen; Kuo, C.-W.; Neitzel, G. Paul
2002-11-01
The commercial code FIDAP, based on the finite-element method, is used to investigate a nonwetting phenomenon that occurs when a liquid drop is pressed against a solid wall held at a sufficiently lower temperature. In this situation, an interstitial gas film is induced by thermocapillary convection and separates the drop from the wall, forming a self-lubricating system. The flow in both the gas and liquid phases must be computed to simulate the non-wetting phenomenon. We explore the velocity and thermal fields of both the interstitial film and the liquid drop. A steady-state solution is discussed, with many parameters being considered, i.e., drop/wall temperature differences and relative displacement from the point of first apparent contact, as well as varying drop liquids. The results of the present study indicate that a silicone-oil drop may experience nonwetting while a water drop may not. The mechanism promoting the existence or non-existence of the nonwetting state is also discussed.
Numerical simulation of the edge tone phenomenon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dougherty, N. S.; Liu, B. L.; Ofarrell, J. M.
1994-01-01
Time accurate Navier-Stokes computations were performed to study a class 2 (acoustic) whistle, the edge tone, and to gain knowledge of the vortex-acoustic coupling mechanisms driving production of these tones. Results were obtained by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations for laminar compressible air flow of a two dimensional jet issuing from a slit interacting with a wedge. Cases considered were determined by varying the distance from the slit to the wedge. Flow speed was kept constant at 1,750 cm/s as was the slit thickness of 0.1 cm, corresponding to conditions in the experiments of Brown. The analytical computations revealed edge tones to be present in four harmonic stages of jet flow instability over the wedge as the jet length was varied from 0.3 to 1.6 cm. Excellent agreement was obtained in all four edge tone stage cases between the present computational results and the experimentally obtained frequencies and flow visualization results of Brown. Specific edge tone generation phenomena and further confirmation of certain theories and empirical formulas concerning these phenomena were brought to light in this analytical simulation of edge tones.
Numerical simulation of reversing buoyancy gravity currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radhakrishnan, Senthil; Lenk, Erik; Boekels, Michael; Meiburg, Eckart
2012-11-01
Sediment laden fluid propagates as an underflow when its bulk density is higher than the density of the ambient fluid. If the density of the interstitial fluid in gravity current is smaller than the density of the ambient fluid, the gravity current can become positively buoyant after sufficient particles have settled. The current then lifts off from the bottom surface and travels as a surface gravity current over the heavier ambient fluid. These types of currents, where the buoyancy reverses its direction, have been observed when sediment laden fresh water enters the sea or during volcanic eruption that creates a pyroclastic flow. We use a lock-exchange configuration with mono-disperse and bi-disperse particles to study the lofting characteristics of reversing buoyancy currents. This talk will focus on results obtained from Large-eddy Simulation of high Reynolds number currents. In particular, the deposit profiles show a sharp decay at the lift-off point unlike a ground hugging turbidity current whose deposit profile has a slow monotonic decay from the lock region.
Validated numerical simulation model of a dielectric elastomer generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foerster, Florentine; Moessinger, Holger; Schlaak, Helmut F.
2013-04-01
Dielectric elastomer generators (DEG) produce electrical energy by converting mechanical into electrical energy. Efficient operation requires homogeneous deformation of each single layer. However, by different internal and external influences like supports or the shape of a DEG the deformation will be inhomogeneous and hence negatively affect the amount of the generated electrical energy. Optimization of the deformation behavior leads to improved efficiency of the DEG and consequently to higher energy gain. In this work a numerical simulation model of a multilayer dielectric elastomer generator is developed using the FEM software ANSYS. The analyzed multilayer DEG consists of 49 active dielectric layers with layer thicknesses of 50 μm. The elastomer is silicone (PDMS) while the compliant electrodes are made of graphite powder. In the simulation the real material parameters of the PDMS and the graphite electrodes need to be included. Therefore, the mechanical and electrical material parameters of the PDMS are determined by experimental investigations of test samples while the electrode parameters are determined by numerical simulations of test samples. The numerical simulation of the DEG is carried out as coupled electro-mechanical simulation for the constant voltage energy harvesting cycle. Finally, the derived numerical simulation model is validated by comparison with analytical calculations and further simulated DEG configurations. The comparison of the determined results show good accordance with regard to the deformation of the DEG. Based on the validated model it is now possible to optimize the DEG layout for improved deformation behavior with further simulations.
Quasineutral particle simulation technique for whistlers
Lampe, Martin . E-mail: lampe@nrl.navy.mil; Joyce, Glenn; Manheimer, Wallace M.; Streltsov, Anatoly; Ganguli, Gurudas
2006-05-01
We present a new hybrid fluid/PIC simulation scheme for whistlers, which eliminates both the speed-of-light time scale and the electron plasma oscillation time scale, and concentrates simulation resources on the resonant parts of electron phase space that control whistler evolution. The code runs with time steps on the order of the electron gyrofrequency, with extremely accurate energy conservation and numerical stability. Examples are shown of application to whistler instability growth and saturation, and ducting of whistlers in density channels.
Numerical simulation of photoexcited polaron states in water
Zemlyanaya, E. V. Volokhova, A. V.; Amirkhanov, I. V.; Puzynin, I. V.; Puzynina, T. P.; Rikhvitskiy, V. S.; Lakhno, V. D.; Atanasova, P. Kh.
2015-10-28
We consider the dynamic polaron model of the hydrated electron state on the basis of a system of three nonlinear partial differential equations with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. A parallel numerical algorithm for the numerical solution of this system has been developed. Its effectiveness has been tested on a few multi-processor systems. A numerical simulation of the polaron states formation in water under the action of the ultraviolet range laser irradiation has been performed. The numerical results are shown to be in a reasonable agreement with experimental data and theoretical predictions.
Hybridizing experimental, numerical, and analytical stress analysis techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rowlands, Robert E.
2001-06-01
Good measurements enjoy the advantage of conveying what actually occurs. However, recognizing that vast amounts of displacement, strain and/or stress-related information can now be recorded at high resolution, effective and reliable means of processing the data become important. It can therefore be advantageous to combine measured result with analytical and computations methods. This presentation will describe such synergism and applications to engineering problems. This includes static and transient analysis, notched and perforated composites, and fracture of composites and fiber-filled cement. Experimental methods of moire, thermo elasticity and strain gages are emphasized. Numerical techniques utilized include pseudo finite-element and boundary-element concepts.
Feasibility study for a numerical aerodynamic simulation facility. Volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lincoln, N. R.; Bergman, R. O.; Bonstrom, D. B.; Brinkman, T. W.; Chiu, S. H. J.; Green, S. S.; Hansen, S. D.; Klein, D. L.; Krohn, H. E.; Prow, R. P.
1979-01-01
A Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF) was designed for the simulation of fluid flow around three-dimensional bodies, both in wind tunnel environments and in free space. The application of numerical simulation to this field of endeavor promised to yield economies in aerodynamic and aircraft body designs. A model for a NASF/FMP (Flow Model Processor) ensemble using a possible approach to meeting NASF goals is presented. The computer hardware and software are presented, along with the entire design and performance analysis and evaluation.
Simulation of wind turbine wakes using the actuator line technique.
Sørensen, Jens N; Mikkelsen, Robert F; Henningson, Dan S; Ivanell, Stefan; Sarmast, Sasan; Andersen, Søren J
2015-02-28
The actuator line technique was introduced as a numerical tool to be employed in combination with large eddy simulations to enable the study of wakes and wake interaction in wind farms. The technique is today largely used for studying basic features of wakes as well as for making performance predictions of wind farms. In this paper, we give a short introduction to the wake problem and the actuator line methodology and present a study in which the technique is employed to determine the near-wake properties of wind turbines. The presented results include a comparison of experimental results of the wake characteristics of the flow around a three-bladed model wind turbine, the development of a simple analytical formula for determining the near-wake length behind a wind turbine and a detailed investigation of wake structures based on proper orthogonal decomposition analysis of numerically generated snapshots of the wake. PMID:25583862
Simulation of wind turbine wakes using the actuator line technique
Sørensen, Jens N.; Mikkelsen, Robert F.; Henningson, Dan S.; Ivanell, Stefan; Sarmast, Sasan; Andersen, Søren J.
2015-01-01
The actuator line technique was introduced as a numerical tool to be employed in combination with large eddy simulations to enable the study of wakes and wake interaction in wind farms. The technique is today largely used for studying basic features of wakes as well as for making performance predictions of wind farms. In this paper, we give a short introduction to the wake problem and the actuator line methodology and present a study in which the technique is employed to determine the near-wake properties of wind turbines. The presented results include a comparison of experimental results of the wake characteristics of the flow around a three-bladed model wind turbine, the development of a simple analytical formula for determining the near-wake length behind a wind turbine and a detailed investigation of wake structures based on proper orthogonal decomposition analysis of numerically generated snapshots of the wake. PMID:25583862
Simulation of wind turbine wakes using the actuator line technique.
Sørensen, Jens N; Mikkelsen, Robert F; Henningson, Dan S; Ivanell, Stefan; Sarmast, Sasan; Andersen, Søren J
2015-02-28
The actuator line technique was introduced as a numerical tool to be employed in combination with large eddy simulations to enable the study of wakes and wake interaction in wind farms. The technique is today largely used for studying basic features of wakes as well as for making performance predictions of wind farms. In this paper, we give a short introduction to the wake problem and the actuator line methodology and present a study in which the technique is employed to determine the near-wake properties of wind turbines. The presented results include a comparison of experimental results of the wake characteristics of the flow around a three-bladed model wind turbine, the development of a simple analytical formula for determining the near-wake length behind a wind turbine and a detailed investigation of wake structures based on proper orthogonal decomposition analysis of numerically generated snapshots of the wake.
A review of flight simulation techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baarspul, Max
After a brief historical review of the evolution of flight simulation techniques, this paper first deals with the main areas of flight simulator applications. Next, it describes the main components of a piloted flight simulator. Because of the presence of the pilot-in-the-loop, the digital computer driving the simulator must solve the aircraft equations of motion in ‘real-time’. Solutions to meet the high required computer power of todays modern flight simulator are elaborated. The physical similarity between aircraft and simulator in cockpit layout, flight instruments, flying controls etc., is discussed, based on the equipment and environmental cue fidelity required for training and research simulators. Visual systems play an increasingly important role in piloted flight simulation. The visual systems now available and most widely used are described, where image generators and display devices will be distinguished. The characteristics of out-of-the-window visual simulation systems pertaining to the perceptual capabilities of human vision are discussed. Faithful reproduction of aircraft motion requires large travel, velocity and acceleration capabilities of the motion system. Different types and applications of motion systems in e.g. airline training and research are described. The principles of motion cue generation, based on the characteristics of the non-visual human motion sensors, are described. The complete motion system, consisting of the hardware and the motion drive software, is discussed. The principles of mathematical modelling of the aerodynamic, flight control, propulsion, landing gear and environmental characteristics of the aircraft are reviewed. An example of the identification of an aircraft mathematical model, based on flight and taxi tests, is presented. Finally, the paper deals with the hardware and software integration of the flight simulator components and the testing and acceptance of the complete flight simulator. Examples of the so
Numerical Simulation of SNCR Technology with Simplified Chemical Kinetics Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blejchař, T.; Dolníčková, D.
2013-04-01
The paper deals with numerical simulation of SNCR method. For numerical modelling was used CFD code Ansys/CFX. SNCR method was described by dominant chemical reaction, which were look up NIST Chemical database. The reactions including reduction of NOx and concentration change of pollutants, like N2O and CO in flue gas too. Proposed chemical kinetics and CFD model was applied to two boilers. Both simulations were compared with experimental measurements. First simulation was used to validation of chemical mechanism. Second simulation was based on first simulation and it was used to verification of compiled SNCR chemical mechanism. Next the new variant of the reagent penetration lance was proposed and compared with the original variants.
Direct Numerical Simulations of Transitional/Turbulent Wakes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rai, Man Mohan
2011-01-01
The interest in transitional/turbulent wakes spans the spectrum from an intellectual pursuit to understand the complex underlying physics to a critical need in aeronautical engineering and other disciplines to predict component/system performance and reliability. Cylinder wakes have been studied extensively over several decades to gain a better understanding of the basic flow phenomena that are encountered in such flows. Experimental, computational and theoretical means have been employed in this effort. While much has been accomplished there are many important issues that need to be resolved. The physics of the very near wake of the cylinder (less than three diameters downstream) is perhaps the most challenging of them all. This region comprises the two detached shear layers, the recirculation region and wake flow. The interaction amongst these three components is to some extent still a matter of conjecture. Experimental techniques have generated a large percentage of the data that have provided us with the current state of understanding of the subject. More recently computational techniques have been used to simulate cylinder wakes, and the data from such simulations are being used to both refine our understanding of such flows as well as provide new insights. A few large eddy and direct numerical simulations (LES and DNS) of cylinder wakes have appeared in the literature in the recent past. These investigations focus on the low Reynolds number range where the cylinder boundary layer is laminar (sub-critical range). However, from an engineering point of view, there is considerable interest in the situation where the upper and/or lower boundary layer of an airfoil is turbulent, and these turbulent boundary layers separate from the airfoil to contribute to the formation of the wake downstream. In the case of cylinders, this only occurs at relatively large unit Reynolds numbers. However, in the case of airfoils, the boundary layer has the opportunity to transition
Space Simulation, 7th. [facilities and testing techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1973-01-01
Space simulation facilities and techniques are outlined that encompass thermal scale modeling, computerized simulations, reentry materials, spacecraft contamination, solar simulation, vacuum tests, and heat transfer studies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duncan, L. M.; Reddell, J. P.; Schoonmaker, P. B.
1975-01-01
Techniques and support software for the efficient performance of simulation validation are discussed. Overall validation software structure, the performance of validation at various levels of simulation integration, guidelines for check case formulation, methods for real time acquisition and formatting of data from an all up operational simulator, and methods and criteria for comparison and evaluation of simulation data are included. Vehicle subsystems modules, module integration, special test requirements, and reference data formats are also described.
Large-scale numerical simulation of rotationally constrained convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sprague, Michael; Julien, Keith; Knobloch, Edgar; Werne, Joseph; Weiss, Jeffrey
2007-11-01
Using direct numerical simulation (DNS), we investigate solutions of an asymptotically reduced system of nonlinear PDEs for rotationally constrained convection. The reduced equations filter fast inertial waves and relax the need to resolve Ekman boundary layers, which allow exploration of a parameter range inaccessible with DNS of the full Boussinesq equations. The equations are applicable to ocean deep convection, which is characterized by small Rossby number and large Rayleigh number. Previous numerical studies of the reduced equations examined upright convection where the gravity vector was anti-parallel to the rotation vector. In addition to the columnar and geostrophic-turbulence regimes, simulations revealed a third regime where Taylor columns were shielded by sleeves of opposite-signed vorticity. We here extend our numerical simulations to examine both upright and tilted convection at high Rayleigh numbers.
Compressible Turbulent Flow Numerical Simulations of Tip Vortex Cavitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khatami, F.; van der Weide, E.; Hoeijmakers, H.
2015-12-01
For an elliptic Arndt's hydrofoil numerical simulations of vortex cavitation are presented. An equilibrium cavitation model is employed. This single-fluid model assumes local thermodynamic and mechanical equilibrium in the mixture region of the flow, is employed. Furthermore, for characterizing the thermodynamic state of the system, precomputed multiphase thermodynamic tables containing data for the appropriate equations of state for each of the phases are used and a fast, accurate, and efficient look-up approach is employed for interpolating the data. The numerical simulations are carried out using the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations for compressible flow. The URANS equations of motion are discretized using an finite volume method for unstructured grids. The numerical simulations clearly show the formation of the tip vortex cavitation in the flow about the elliptic hydrofoil.
Comparison of Nonlinear Random Response Using Equivalent Linearization and Numerical Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rizzi, Stephen A.; Muravyov, Alexander A.
2000-01-01
A recently developed finite-element-based equivalent linearization approach for the analysis of random vibrations of geometrically nonlinear multiple degree-of-freedom structures is validated. The validation is based on comparisons with results from a finite element based numerical simulation analysis using a numerical integration technique in physical coordinates. In particular, results for the case of a clamped-clamped beam are considered for an extensive load range to establish the limits of validity of the equivalent linearization approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Hsiu-Chuan; Hwang, Shin-Feng; Chen, Yuh-Yih; Chen, Tze-Jang
2013-10-01
In this study, a mathematical model of tumor growth with a combination of immunotherapy and chemotherapy is considered. A numerical simulation using human data in clinical literature is conducted. A numerical method based on the continuation technique is employed to locate the unstable fixed-point curve as the dosage varies. A combination of chemotherapy and immunotherapy can employ low dosages of drugs. The effect of the combined dosages is also investigated in this work.
Ben Gur, Hila; Kosa, Gabor; Brand, Moshe
2015-08-01
This paper presents a numerical analysis of the hemodynamics in an abdominal aorta (AA) with an aneurysm repaired by a stent graft (SG) system using the chimney technique. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted in a model of an AA repaired with a chimney stent graft (CSG) inserted into a renal artery parallel to an aortic SG and a model of a healthy AA. Comparing the simulation results of these two cases suggests that the presence of the CSG in the AA causes changes in average wall shear stress (WSS), potentially damaging recirculation zones, and additional changes in flow patterns. PMID:26736427
Preface to advances in numerical simulation of plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parker, Scott E.; Chacon, Luis
2016-10-01
This Journal of Computational Physics Special Issue, titled "Advances in Numerical Simulation of Plasmas," presents a snapshot of the international state of the art in the field of computational plasma physics. The articles herein are a subset of the topics presented as invited talks at the 24th International Conference on the Numerical Simulation of Plasmas (ICNSP), August 12-14, 2015 in Golden, Colorado. The choice of papers was highly selective. The ICNSP is held every other year and is the premier scientific meeting in the field of computational plasma physics.
Numerical simulation of surface waves instability on a homogeneous grid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korotkevich, Alexander O.; Dyachenko, Alexander I.; Zakharov, Vladimir E.
2016-05-01
We performed full-scale numerical simulation of instability of weakly nonlinear waves on the surface of deep fluid. We show that the instability development leads to chaotization and formation of wave turbulence. Instability of both propagating and standing waves was studied. We separately studied pure capillary wave, that was unstable due to three-wave interactions and pure gravity waves, that were unstable due to four-wave interactions. The theoretical description of instabilities in all cases is included in the article. The numerical algorithm used in these and many other previous simulations performed by the authors is described in detail.
Direct numerical simulation of wall turbulent flows with microbubbles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanai, Akihiro; Miyata, Hideaki
2001-03-01
The marker-density-function (MDF) method has been developed to conduct direct numerical simulation (DNS) for bubbly flows. The method is applied to turbulent bubbly channel flows to elucidate the interaction between bubbles and wall turbulence. The simulation is designed to clarify the structure of the turbulent boundary layer containing microbubbles and the mechanism of frictional drag reduction. It is deduced from the numerical tests that the interaction between bubbles and wall turbulence depends on the Weber and Froude numbers. The reduction of the frictional resistance on the wall is attained and its mechanism is explained from the modulation of the three-dimensional structure of the turbulent flow. Copyright
Spur-type instability observed on numerically simulated vortex filaments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rossow, Vernon J.
1988-01-01
An instability observed on vortex filaments during numerical simulations of the three-dimensional, time-dependent dynamics of vortex wakes is studied to determine when and why it occurs. It is concluded that the observed instability is a consequence of the use of straight-line vortex segments of finite length to model continuously curving vortex filaments. The instability appears to occur only when the link length is a sizable fraction of the vortex span and, therefore, is not expected in an experiment. Guidelines are then given that help avoid numerical instabilities when vortex filaments are used in flow simulations.
Numerical simulation of tornado wind loading on structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maiden, D. E.
1976-01-01
A numerical simulation of a tornado interacting with a building was undertaken in order to compare the pressures due to a rotational unsteady wind with that due to steady straight winds used in design of nuclear facilities. The numerical simulations were performed on a two-dimensional compressible hydrodynamics code. Calculated pressure profiles for a typical building were then subjected to a tornado wind field and the results were compared with current quasisteady design calculations. The analysis indicates that current design practices are conservative.
Numerical simulations of the QUELL experiment in SULTAN
Marinucci, C.
1995-03-01
The QUench Experiment on Long Length (QUELL) in the SULTAN Facility is planned to investigate the quench propagation and detection of a conductor with ITER relevant geometry and scaled performance. The objective of this study is to show the ability of QUELL to provide quench conditions relevant for ITER and to simulate the system performance, dealing in particular with the design aspects of the power supply, cryogenic system and heaters. The numerical analysis was performed with GANDALF - a 1-D code to analyze Dual Channel Cable-in-Conduit Conductors. A numerical convergence test and a comparison with another code and with analytical results have confirmed the validity of the simulations.
Numerical simulation of three-dimensional self-gravitating flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shebalin, John V.
1993-01-01
The three-dimensional flow of a self-gravitating fluid is numerically simulated using a Fourier pseudospectral method with a logarithmic variable formulation. Two cases with zero total angular momentum are studied in detail, a 323 simulation (Run B). Other than the grid size, the primary difference between the two cases are that Run A modeled atomic hydrogen and had considerably more compressible motion initially than Run B, which modeled molecular hydrogen. The numerical results indicate that gravitational collapse can proceed in a variety of ways. In the Run A, collapse led to an elongated tube-like structure, while in the Run B, collapse led to a flatter, disklike structure.
Vortical flow aerodynamics - Physical aspects and numerical simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newsome, Richard W.; Kandil, Osama A.
1987-01-01
Progress in the numerical simulation of vortical flow due to three-dimensional flow separation about flight vehicles at high angles of attack and quasi-steady flight conditions is surveyed. Primary emphasis is placed on Euler and Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes methods where the vortices are 'captured' as a solution to the governing equations. A discussion of the relevant flow physics provides a perspective from which to assess numerical solutions. Current numerical prediction capabilities and their evolutionary development are surveyed. Future trends and challenges are identified and discussed.
Simulation verification techniques study: Simulation self test hardware design and techniques report
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1974-01-01
The final results are presented of the hardware verification task. The basic objectives of the various subtasks are reviewed along with the ground rules under which the overall task was conducted and which impacted the approach taken in deriving techniques for hardware self test. The results of the first subtask and the definition of simulation hardware are presented. The hardware definition is based primarily on a brief review of the simulator configurations anticipated for the shuttle training program. The results of the survey of current self test techniques are presented. The data sources that were considered in the search for current techniques are reviewed, and results of the survey are presented in terms of the specific types of tests that are of interest for training simulator applications. Specifically, these types of tests are readiness tests, fault isolation tests and incipient fault detection techniques. The most applicable techniques were structured into software flows that are then referenced in discussions of techniques for specific subsystems.
Building Blocks for Reliable Complex Nonlinear Numerical Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yee, H. C.; Mansour, Nagi N. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This talk describes some of the building blocks to ensure a higher level of confidence in the predictability and reliability (PAR) of numerical simulation of multiscale complex nonlinear problems. The focus is on relating PAR of numerical simulations with complex nonlinear phenomena of numerics. To isolate sources of numerical uncertainties, the possible discrepancy between the chosen partial differential equation (PDE) model and the real physics and/or experimental data is set aside. The discussion is restricted to how well numerical schemes can mimic the solution behavior of the underlying PDE model for finite time steps and grid spacings. The situation is complicated by the fact that the available theory for the understanding of nonlinear behavior of numerics is not at a stage to fully analyze the nonlinear Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. The discussion is based on the knowledge gained for nonlinear model problems with known analytical solutions to identify and explain the possible sources and remedies of numerical uncertainties in practical computations. Examples relevant to turbulent flow computations are included.
Building Blocks for Reliable Complex Nonlinear Numerical Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yee, H. C.
2005-01-01
This chapter describes some of the building blocks to ensure a higher level of confidence in the predictability and reliability (PAR) of numerical simulation of multiscale complex nonlinear problems. The focus is on relating PAR of numerical simulations with complex nonlinear phenomena of numerics. To isolate sources of numerical uncertainties, the possible discrepancy between the chosen partial differential equation (PDE) model and the real physics and/or experimental data is set aside. The discussion is restricted to how well numerical schemes can mimic the solution behavior of the underlying PDE model for finite time steps and grid spacings. The situation is complicated by the fact that the available theory for the understanding of nonlinear behavior of numerics is not at a stage to fully analyze the nonlinear Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. The discussion is based on the knowledge gained for nonlinear model problems with known analytical solutions to identify and explain the possible sources and remedies of numerical uncertainties in practical computations.
Building Blocks for Reliable Complex Nonlinear Numerical Simulations. Chapter 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yee, H. C.; Mansour, Nagi N. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This chapter describes some of the building blocks to ensure a higher level of confidence in the predictability and reliability (PAR) of numerical simulation of multiscale complex nonlinear problems. The focus is on relating PAR of numerical simulations with complex nonlinear phenomena of numerics. To isolate sources of numerical uncertainties, the possible discrepancy between the chosen partial differential equation (PDE) model and the real physics and/or experimental data is set aside. The discussion is restricted to how well numerical schemes can mimic the solution behavior of the underlying PDE model for finite time steps and grid spacings. The situation is complicated by the fact that the available theory for the understanding of nonlinear behavior of numerics is not at a stage to fully analyze the nonlinear Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. The discussion is based on the knowledge gained for nonlinear model problems with known analytical solutions to identify and explain the possible sources and remedies of numerical uncertainties in practical computations. Examples relevant to turbulent flow computations are included.
Numerical simulation of laminar flow in a curved duct
Lopez, A.R.; Oberkampf, W.L.
1995-01-01
This paper describes numerical simulations that were performed to study laminar flow through a square duct with a 900 bend. The purpose of this work was two fold. First, an improved understanding was desired of the flow physics involved in the generation of secondary vortical flows in three-dimensions. Second, adaptive gridding techniques for structured grids in three- dimensions were investigated for the purpose of determining their utility in low Reynolds number, incompressible flows. It was also of interest to validate the commercial computer code CFD-ACE. Velocity predictions for both non-adaptive and adaptive grids are compared with experimental data. Flow visualization was used to examine the characteristics of the flow though the curved duct in order to better understand the viscous flow physics of this problem. Generally, moderate agreement with the experimental data was found but shortcomings in the experiment were demonstrated. The adaptive grids did not produce the same level of accuracy as the non-adaptive grid with a factor of four more grid points.
Numerical simulation of supersonic and hypersonic inlet flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcrae, D. Scott; Kontinos, Dean A.
1995-01-01
This report summarizes the research performed by North Carolina State University and NASA Ames Research Center under Cooperative Agreement NCA2-719, 'Numerical Simulation of Supersonic and Hypersonic Inlet Flow Fields". Four distinct rotated upwind schemes were developed and investigated to determine accuracy and practicality. The scheme found to have the best combination of attributes, including reduction to grid alignment with no rotation, was the cell centered non-orthogonal (CCNO) scheme. In 2D, the CCNO scheme improved rotation when flux interpolation was extended to second order. In 3D, improvements were less dramatic in all cases, with second order flux interpolation showing the least improvement over grid aligned upwinding. The reduction in improvement is attributed to uncertainty in determining optimum rotation angle and difficulty in performing accurate and efficient interpolation of the angle in 3D. The CCNO rotational technique will prove very useful for increasing accuracy when second order interpolation is not appropriate and will materially improve inlet flow solutions.
A numeric model to simulate solar individual ultraviolet exposure.
Vernez, David; Milon, Antoine; Francioli, Laurent; Bulliard, Jean-Luc; Vuilleumier, Laurent; Moccozet, Laurent
2011-01-01
Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) light is the main causative factor for skin cancer. UV exposure depends on environmental and individual factors. Individual exposure data remain scarce and development of alternative assessment methods is greatly needed. We developed a model simulating human exposure to solar UV. The model predicts the dose and distribution of UV exposure received on the basis of ground irradiation and morphological data. Standard 3D computer graphics techniques were adapted to develop a rendering engine that estimates the solar exposure of a virtual manikin depicted as a triangle mesh surface. The amount of solar energy received by each triangle was calculated, taking into account reflected, direct and diffuse radiation, and shading from other body parts. Dosimetric measurements (n = 54) were conducted in field conditions using a foam manikin as surrogate for an exposed individual. Dosimetric results were compared to the model predictions. The model predicted exposure to solar UV adequately. The symmetric mean absolute percentage error was 13%. Half of the predictions were within 17% range of the measurements. This model provides a tool to assess outdoor occupational and recreational UV exposures, without necessitating time-consuming individual dosimetry, with numerous potential uses in skin cancer prevention and research.
Numerical simulation of double-diffusive finger convection
Hughes, J.D.; Sanford, W.E.; Vacher, H.L.
2005-01-01
A hybrid finite element, integrated finite difference numerical model is developed for the simulation of double-diffusive and multicomponent flow in two and three dimensions. The model is based on a multidimensional, density-dependent, saturated-unsaturated transport model (SUTRA), which uses one governing equation for fluid flow and another for solute transport. The solute-transport equation is applied sequentially to each simulated species. Density coupling of the flow and solute-transport equations is accounted for and handled using a sequential implicit Picard iterative scheme. High-resolution data from a double-diffusive Hele-Shaw experiment, initially in a density-stable configuration, is used to verify the numerical model. The temporal and spatial evolution of simulated double-diffusive convection is in good agreement with experimental results. Numerical results are very sensitive to discretization and correspond closest to experimental results when element sizes adequately define the spatial resolution of observed fingering. Numerical results also indicate that differences in the molecular diffusivity of sodium chloride and the dye used to visualize experimental sodium chloride concentrations are significant and cause inaccurate mapping of sodium chloride concentrations by the dye, especially at late times. As a result of reduced diffusion, simulated dye fingers are better defined than simulated sodium chloride fingers and exhibit more vertical mass transfer. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.
Processing biobased polymers using plasticizers: Numerical simulations versus experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desplentere, Frederik; Cardon, Ludwig; Six, Wim; Erkoç, Mustafa
2016-03-01
In polymer processing, the use of biobased products shows lots of possibilities. Considering biobased materials, biodegradability is in most cases the most important issue. Next to this, bio based materials aimed at durable applications, are gaining interest. Within this research, the influence of plasticizers on the processing of the bio based material is investigated. This work is done for an extrusion grade of PLA, Natureworks PLA 2003D. Extrusion through a slit die equipped with pressure sensors is used to compare the experimental pressure values to numerical simulation results. Additional experimental data (temperature and pressure data along the extrusion screw and die are recorded) is generated on a dr. Collin Lab extruder producing a 25mm diameter tube. All these experimental data is used to indicate the appropriate functioning of the numerical simulation tool Virtual Extrusion Laboratory 6.7 for the simulation of both the industrial available extrusion grade PLA and the compound in which 15% of plasticizer is added. Adding the applied plasticizer, resulted in a 40% lower pressure drop over the extrusion die. The combination of different experiments allowed to fit the numerical simulation results closely to the experimental values. Based on this experience, it is shown that numerical simulations also can be used for modified bio based materials if appropriate material and process data are taken into account.
Fast Simulation on Flexible Multibody Dynamics Using Domain Decomposition Technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imanishi, Etsujiro; Nanjo, Takao; Hirooka, Eiko; Sugano, Naoki
Recently, HILS (Hardware in the Loop Simulation) has been investigated in the field of the multibody dynamics (MBD). The fast calculation is necessary for the HILS system in order to require the real time simulation. This paper presents a fast simulation technique using the domain decomposition method. The domain decomposition method is widely used in the dynamic simulation for the mechanical system involving the hydraulic control system. This method is, however, not absolutely stable as the numerical integration. Fujikawa proposed a numerical stable solution scheme by introducing the iteration calculation. This paper applies the method to actual simulations of flexible multibody system in which the flexible linkage system and the hydraulic drive system are coupled with each other, and examines the speedup by parallel computing with the common memory in the calculation time. It is shown that using the present method in a multi-degrees-of freedom model can shorten the computing time. The present method is effective for the speedup in the calculation time by applying the dynamic simulation of the actual digging works on the hydraulic excavator.
Thermoeconomic analysis of a CHP system by iterative numerical techniques
Damshala, P.R.
2000-07-01
This paper deals with the determination of the thermoeconomic optimum conditions for a constant space heat load imposed on the air coil of a combined heating and power (CHP) system using iterative numerical techniques. From the thermodynamic relations and equations derived from the energy balance and heat exchanger characteristics, an objective function and constraining equations are obtained. A computer program is developed based on the Redlich-Kwong equation of state to estimate the thermodynamic properties of the refrigerant fluid R-22. Additional computer subroutines are developed to perform thermodynamic and thermoeconomic optimization. Optimum values of the operating variables are identified at thermodynamic and thermoeconomic optimum conditions. Results show that the total irreversibilities produced in the system and the cost of fuel consumption are minimum at thermodynamic optimum conditions, but the annual cost of owning and operating the system is minimum at the thermoeconomic optimum condition, which is 34% lower than at the thermodynamic optimum condition.
A forestry application simulation of man-machine techniques for analyzing remotely sensed data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berkebile, J.; Russell, J.; Lube, B.
1976-01-01
The typical steps in the analysis of remotely sensed data for a forestry applications example are simulated. The example uses numerically-oriented pattern recognition techniques and emphasizes man-machine interaction.
GPU Accelerated Numerical Simulation of Viscous Flow Down a Slope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gygax, Remo; Räss, Ludovic; Omlin, Samuel; Podladchikov, Yuri; Jaboyedoff, Michel
2014-05-01
Numerical simulations are an effective tool in natural risk analysis. They are useful to determine the propagation and the runout distance of gravity driven movements such as debris flows or landslides. To evaluate these processes an approach on analogue laboratory experiments and a GPU accelerated numerical simulation of the flow of a viscous liquid down an inclined slope is considered. The physical processes underlying large gravity driven flows share certain aspects with the propagation of debris mass in a rockslide and the spreading of water waves. Several studies have shown that the numerical implementation of the physical processes of viscous flow produce a good fit with the observation of experiments in laboratory in both a quantitative and a qualitative way. When considering a process that is this far explored we can concentrate on its numerical transcription and the application of the code in a GPU accelerated environment to obtain a 3D simulation. The objective of providing a numerical solution in high resolution by NVIDIA-CUDA GPU parallel processing is to increase the speed of the simulation and the accuracy on the prediction. The main goal is to write an easily adaptable and as short as possible code on the widely used platform MATLAB, which will be translated to C-CUDA to achieve higher resolution and processing speed while running on a NVIDIA graphics card cluster. The numerical model, based on the finite difference scheme, is compared to analogue laboratory experiments. This way our numerical model parameters are adjusted to reproduce the effective movements observed by high-speed camera acquisitions during the laboratory experiments.
Numerical simulation of deformation and figure quality of precise mirror
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vit, Tomáš; Melich, Radek; Sandri, Paolo
2015-01-01
The presented paper shows results and a comparison of FEM numerical simulations and optical tests of the assembly of a precise Zerodur mirror with a mounting structure for space applications. It also shows how the curing of adhesive film can impact the optical surface, especially as regards deformations. Finally, the paper shows the results of the figure quality analysis, which are based on data from FEM simulation of optical surface deformations.
Numerical simulation of piezoelectric effect of bone under ultrasound irradiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosokawa, Atsushi
2015-07-01
The piezoelectric effect of bone under ultrasound irradiation was numerically simulated using an elastic finite-difference time-domain method with piezoelectric constitutive equations (PE-FDTD method). First, to demonstrate the validity of the PE-FDTD method, the ultrasound propagation in piezoelectric ceramics was simulated and then compared with the experimental results. The simulated and experimental waveforms propagating through the ceramics were in good agreement. Next, the piezoelectric effect of human cortical bone on the ultrasound propagation was investigated by PE-FDTD simulation. The simulated result showed that the difference between the waveforms propagating through the bone without and with piezoelectricity was negligible. Finally, the spatial distributions of the electric fields in a human femur induced by ultrasound irradiation were simulated. The electric fields were changed by a bone fracture, which depended on piezoelectric anisotropy. In conclusion, the PE-FDTD method is considered to be useful for investigating the piezoelectric effect of bone.
A review of numerical simulation of hydrothermal systems.
Mercer, J.W.; Faust, C.R.
1979-01-01
Many advances in simulating single and two-phase fluid flow and heat transport in porous media have recently been made in conjunction with geothermal energy research. These numerical models reproduce system thermal and pressure behaviour and can be used for other heat-transport problems, such as high-level radioactive waste disposal and heat-storage projects. -Authors
Numerical Simulation of the Perrin-Like Experiments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mazur, Zygmunt; Grech, Dariusz
2008-01-01
A simple model of the random Brownian walk of a spherical mesoscopic particle in viscous liquids is proposed. The model can be solved analytically and simulated numerically. The analytic solution gives the known Einstein-Smoluchowski diffusion law r[superscript 2] = 2Dt, where the diffusion constant D is expressed by the mass and geometry of a…
Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility preliminary study: Executive study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1977-01-01
A computing system was designed with the capability of providing an effective throughput of one billion floating point operations per second for three dimensional Navier-Stokes codes. The methodology used in defining the baseline design, and the major elements of the numerical aerodynamic simulation facility are described.
Numerical approaches for multidimensional simulations of stellar explosions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Ke-Jung; Heger, Alexander; Almgren, Ann S.
2013-11-01
We introduce numerical algorithms for initializing multidimensional simulations of stellar explosions with 1D stellar evolution models. The initial mapping from 1D profiles onto multidimensional grids can generate severe numerical artifacts, one of the most severe of which is the violation of conservation laws for physical quantities. We introduce a numerical scheme for mapping 1D spherically-symmetric data onto multidimensional meshes so that these physical quantities are conserved. We verify our scheme by porting a realistic 1D Lagrangian stellar profile to the new multidimensional Eulerian hydro code CASTRO. Our results show that all important features in the profiles are reproduced on the new grid and that conservation laws are enforced at all resolutions after mapping. We also introduce a numerical scheme for initializing multidimensional supernova simulations with realistic perturbations predicted by 1D stellar evolution models. Instead of seeding 3D stellar profiles with random perturbations, we imprint them with velocity perturbations that reproduce the Kolmogorov energy spectrum expected for highly turbulent convective regions in stars. Our models return Kolmogorov energy spectra and vortex structures like those in turbulent flows before the modes become nonlinear. Finally, we describe approaches to determining the resolution for simulations required to capture fluid instabilities and nuclear burning. Our algorithms are applicable to multidimensional simulations besides stellar explosions that range from astrophysics to cosmology.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF NATURAL GAS-SWIRL BURNER
Ala Qubbaj
2005-03-01
A numerical simulation of a turbulent natural gas jet diffusion flame at a Reynolds number of 9000 in a swirling air stream is presented. The numerical computations were carried out using the commercially available software package CFDRC. The instantaneous chemistry model was used as the reaction model. The thermal, composition, flow (velocity), as well as stream function fields for both the baseline and air-swirling flames were numerically simulated in the near-burner region, where most of the mixing and reactions occur. The results were useful to interpret the effects of swirl in enhancing the mixing rates in the combustion zone as well as in stabilizing the flame. The results showed the generation of two recirculating regimes induced by the swirling air stream, which account for such effects. The present investigation will be used as a benchmark study of swirl flow combustion analysis as a step in developing an enhanced swirl-cascade burner technology.
Numerical simulation and experimental progress on plasma window
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, S. Z.; Zhu, K.; Huang, S.; Lu, Y. R.; Shi, B. L.
2016-11-01
In this paper, a numerical 2D FLUENT-based magneto-hydrodynamic simulation on 3mm plasma window using argon, taken as a windowless vacuum device, was developed. The gas inlet, arc creation and developing and plasma expansion segments are all contained in this model. In the axis-symmetry cathode structure, a set of parameters including pressure, temperature, velocity and current distribution were obtained and discussed. The fluid dynamics of plasma in cavities with different shapes was researched. Corresponding experiments was carried out and the result agrees well to the numerical simulation. The validity of sealing ability of plasma window has been verified. Relevant further research upon deuteron gas as neutron production target is to be continued, considering larger diameter plasma window experimentally and numerically.
Numerical simulation of thermal discharge based on FVM method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Yunli; Wang, Deguan; Wang, Zhigang; Lai, Xijun
2006-01-01
A two-dimensional numerical model is proposed to simulate the thermal discharge from a power plant in Jiangsu Province. The equations in the model consist of two-dimensional non-steady shallow water equations and thermal waste transport equations. Finite volume method (FVM) is used to discretize the shallow water equations, and flux difference splitting (FDS) scheme is applied. The calculated area with the same temperature increment shows the effect of thermal discharge on sea water. A comparison between simulated results and the experimental data shows good agreement. It indicates that this method can give high precision in the heat transfer simulation in coastal areas.
Collapse of a Liquid Column: Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cruchaga, Marcela A.; Celentano, Diego J.; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.
2007-03-01
This paper is focused on the numerical and experimental analyses of the collapse of a liquid column. The measurements of the interface position in a set of experiments carried out with shampoo and water for two different initial column aspect ratios are presented together with the corresponding numerical predictions. The experimental procedure was found to provide acceptable recurrence in the observation of the interface evolution. Basic models describing some of the relevant physical aspects, e.g. wall friction and turbulence, are included in the simulations. Numerical experiments are conducted to evaluate the influence of the parameters involved in the modeling by comparing the results with the data from the measurements. The numerical predictions reasonably describe the physical trends.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumeister, Joseph F.
1990-01-01
Analysis of energy emitted from simple or complex cavity designs can lead to intricate solutions due to nonuniform radiosity and irradiation within a cavity. A numerical ray tracing technique was applied to simulate radiation propagating within and from various cavity designs. To obtain the energy balance relationships between isothermal and nonisothermal cavity surfaces and space, the computer code NEVADA was utilized for its statistical technique applied to numerical ray tracing. The analysis method was validated by comparing results with known theoretical and limiting solutions, and the electrical resistance network method. In general, for nonisothermal cavities the performance (apparent emissivity) is a function of cylinder length-to-diameter ratio, surface emissivity, and cylinder surface temperatures. The extent of nonisothermal conditions in a cylindrical cavity significantly affects the overall cavity performance. Results are presented over a wide range of parametric variables for use as a possible design reference.
New efficient optimizing techniques for Kalman filters and numerical weather prediction models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Famelis, Ioannis; Galanis, George; Liakatas, Aristotelis
2016-06-01
The need for accurate local environmental predictions and simulations beyond the classical meteorological forecasts are increasing the last years due to the great number of applications that are directly or not affected: renewable energy resource assessment, natural hazards early warning systems, global warming and questions on the climate change can be listed among them. Within this framework the utilization of numerical weather and wave prediction systems in conjunction with advanced statistical techniques that support the elimination of the model bias and the reduction of the error variability may successfully address the above issues. In the present work, new optimization methods are studied and tested in selected areas of Greece where the use of renewable energy sources is of critical. The added value of the proposed work is due to the solid mathematical background adopted making use of Information Geometry and Statistical techniques, new versions of Kalman filters and state of the art numerical analysis tools.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcmurtry, Patrick A.; Givi, Peyman
1992-01-01
An account is given of the implementation of the spectral-element technique for simulating a chemically reacting, spatially developing turbulent mixing layer. Attention is given to experimental and numerical studies that have investigated the development, evolution, and mixing characteristics of shear flows. A mathematical formulation is presented of the physical configuration of the spatially developing reacting mixing layer, in conjunction with a detailed representation of the spectral-element method's application to the numerical simulation of mixing layers. Results from 2D and 3D calculations of chemically reacting mixing layers are given.
Physical properties of interplanetary dust: laboratory and numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hadamcik, Edith; Lasue, Jeremie; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Buch, Arnaud; Carrasco, Nathalie; Cottin, Hervé; Fray, Nicolas; Guan, Yuan Yong; Szopa, Cyril
Laboratory light scattering measurements with the PROGRA2 experiment, in A300-CNES and ESA dedicated microgravity flights or in ground based configurations, offer an alternative to models for exploring the scattering properties of particles with structures too complex to be easily handled by computer simulations [1,2]. The technique allows the use of large size distributions (nanometers to hundreds of micrometers) and a large variety of materials, similar to those suspected to compose the interplanetary particles [3]. Asteroids are probably the source of compact particles, while comets have been shown to eject compact and fluffy materials [4]. Moreover giant planets provide further a small number of interplanetary particles. Some interstellar particles are also present. To choose the best samples and size distributions, we consider previous numerical models for the interplanetary particles and their evolution with solar distance. In this model, fluffy particles are simulated by fractal aggregates and compact particles by ellipsoids. The materials considered are silicates and carbonaceous compound. The silicate grains can be coated by the organics. Observations are fitted with two parameters: the size distribution of the particles and the ratio of silicates over carbonaceous compounds. From the light scattering properties of the particles, their equilibrium temperature can be calculated for different structures and composition. The variation of their optical properties and temperatures are studied with the heliocentric distance [5,6]. Results on analogs of cometary particles [7] and powdered meteorites as asteroidal particles will be presented and compared to numerical simulations as well as observations. Organics on cometary grains can constitute distributed sources if degraded by solar UV and heat [8, 9]. The optical properties of CxHyNz compounds are studied after thermal evolution [10]. As a first approach, they are used to simulate the evolution of cometary or
Numerical simulation of three-dimensional self-gravitating flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shebalin, J. V.
1994-01-01
The three-dimensional flow of a self-gravitating fluid is numerically simulated using a Fourier pseudospectral method with a logarithmic variable formulation. Two cases with zero total angular momentum are studied in detail, a 32(exp 3) simulation (Run A) and a 64(exp 3) simulation (Run B). Other than the grid size, the primary differences between the two cases are that Run A modeled atomic hydrogen and had considerably more compressible motion initially than Run B, which modeled molecular hydrogen. ('Compressible motion' is that part of the velocity which has zero curl, but non-zero divergence). The numerical results indicate that gravitational collapse can proceed in a variety of ways. In Run A, collapse led to an elongated tube-like structure, while in Run B, collapse led to a flatter, disk-like structure.
Configuration Management File Manager Developed for Numerical Propulsion System Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Follen, Gregory J.
1997-01-01
One of the objectives of the High Performance Computing and Communication Project's (HPCCP) Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is to provide a common and consistent way to manage applications, data, and engine simulations. The NPSS Configuration Management (CM) File Manager integrated with the Common Desktop Environment (CDE) window management system provides a common look and feel for the configuration management of data, applications, and engine simulations for U.S. engine companies. In addition, CM File Manager provides tools to manage a simulation. Features include managing input files, output files, textual notes, and any other material normally associated with simulation. The CM File Manager includes a generic configuration management Application Program Interface (API) that can be adapted for the configuration management repositories of any U.S. engine company.
Numerical simulation of shock interaction with above-ground structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baum, Joseph D.; Lohner, Rainald
1994-05-01
This final report for DNA contract DNA 001-89-C-0098 for the time period May 15, 1989 to Dec 31, 1992 describes the results of several of the computations conducted under this research effort. The numerical simulations conducted simulated shock wave diffraction phenomenon about complex-geometry two-dimensional and three-dimensional structures. Since a significant part of this effort was composed of parametric studies that have been delivered to the sponsors, the Defense Nuclear Agency and the Air Force Ballistic Missile Organization (BMO), and conducted under the now defunct Rail Garrison project, we included in this report a detailed description of the results of the major computations, and a brief summary of all the repetitive computations. The final report is divided into three sections. Chapter 1 describes in detail the two-dimensional numerical methodology and typical two-dimensional computation, i.e., the application of the numerical methodology to the simulation of shock interaction with a typical 2-D train (a 2-D cut at the center of a 3-D train). Chapter 2 describes the numerical development of a passive shock reflector, a major effort undertaken in this project. The objective of this effort was to design a passive device that, while allowing the ventilation of the enclosure under steady conditions, will prevent blast waves impinging on the wall from entering the enclosure when the structure is impacted by a shock.
Nonlinear hydrodynamics of cosmological sheets. 1: Numerical techniques and tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anninos, Wenbo Y.; Norman, Michael J.
1994-07-01
We present the numerical techniques and tests used to construct and validate a computer code designed to study the multidimensional nonlinear hydrodynamics of large-scale sheet structures in the universe, especially the fragmentation of such structures under various instabilities. This code is composed of two codes, the hydrodynamical code ZEUS-2D and a particle-mesh code. The ZEUS-2D code solves the hydrodynamical equations in two dimensions using explicit Eulerian finite-difference techniques, with modifications made to incorporate the expansion of the universe and the gas cooling due to Compton scattering, bremsstrahlung, and hydrogen and helium cooling. The particle-mesh code solves the equation of motion for the collisionless dark matter. The code uses two-dimensional Cartesian coordinates with a nonuniform grid in one direction to provide high resolution for the sheet structures. A series of one-dimensional and two-dimensional linear perturbation tests are presented which are designed to test the hydro solver and the Poisson solver with and without the expansion of the universe. We also present a radiative shock wave test which is designed to ensure the code's capability to handle radiative cooling properly. And finally a series of one-dimensional Zel'dovich pancake tests used to test the dark matter code and the hydro solver in the nonlinear regime are discussed and compared with the results of Bond et al. (1984) and Shapiro & Struck-Marcell (1985). Overall, the code is shown to produce accurate and stable results, which provide us a powerful tool to further our studies.
Investigation of impact crater processes using experimental and numerical techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baldwin, Emily Clare
2008-12-01
Impact events throughout the history of the Solar System have occurred at all scales, from craters produced by the hypervelocity impact of cosmic dust observed on lunar return samples, to the giant planet-sculpting impacts that have shaped the solid bodies of the Solar System. Investigating the impact process in the laboratory allows us to understand crater formation at a small scale where strength effects dominate however, it is difficult to scale directly to planetary sized impacts because gravity governs the cratering process at this large scale. Through computer modeling, it is possible to bridge the gap from small to large scale impact events. The influence of target porosity, saturation and an overlying water layer on crater morphology is investigated in the laboratory using a two-stage light gas gun to fire 1 mm diameter stainless steel projectiles at 5 km s"1 into sandstone targets. Larger craters were formed in the higher porosity targets and saturated targets. A critical water depth of 11.6 0.5 times the projectile diameter was required to prevent cratering in an unsaturated target, compared with 12.7 0.6 for saturated targets. The sensitivity of this critical water depth to impact velocity, projectile diameter and density is examined through use of the AUTODYN numerical code, for both laboratory and planetary scale impact events. Projectile survivability into water and sand targets is investigated in the lab for stainless steel and shale projectiles impacting at 2-5 km s"1 up to 30% of the projectile is found to survive. AUTODYN simulations show that basalt or sandstone meteorites impacting a simulated lunar surface survive the impact at velocities < 5 km s"1 and at a range of angles, which has positive implications for detecting terrestrial meteorites on the Moon. Groundwork has also been laid for the modelling of the deliberate collision of the SMART-1 spacecraft into the Moon. Finally, lunar and terrestrial impact events are simulated in order to
Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) 1999 Industry Review
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lytle, John; Follen, Greg; Naiman, Cynthia; Evans, Austin
2000-01-01
The technologies necessary to enable detailed numerical simulations of complete propulsion systems are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with industry, academia, and other government agencies. Large scale, detailed simulations will be of great value to the nation because they eliminate some of the costly testing required to develop and certify advanced propulsion systems. In addition, time and cost savings will be achieved by enabling design details to be evaluated early in the development process before a commitment is made to a specific design. This concept is called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS consists of three main elements: (1) engineering models that enable multidisciplinary analysis of large subsystems and systems at various levels of detail, (2) a simulation environment that maximizes designer productivity, and (3) a cost-effective, high-performance computing platform. A fundamental requirement of the concept is that the simulations must be capable of overnight execution on easily accessible computing platforms. This will greatly facilitate the use of large-scale simulations in a design environment. This paper describes the current status of the NPSS with specific emphasis on the progress made over the past year on air breathing propulsion applications. In addition, the paper contains a summary of the feedback received from industry partners in the development effort and the actions taken over the past year to respond to that feedback. The NPSS development was supported in FY99 by the High Performance Computing and Communications Program.
Numerical simulation of landfill aeration using computational fluid dynamics.
Fytanidis, Dimitrios K; Voudrias, Evangelos A
2014-04-01
The present study is an application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to the numerical simulation of landfill aeration systems. Specifically, the CFD algorithms provided by the commercial solver ANSYS Fluent 14.0, combined with an in-house source code developed to modify the main solver, were used. The unsaturated multiphase flow of air and liquid phases and the biochemical processes for aerobic biodegradation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste were simulated taking into consideration their temporal and spatial evolution, as well as complex effects, such as oxygen mass transfer across phases, unsaturated flow effects (capillary suction and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity), temperature variations due to biochemical processes and environmental correction factors for the applied kinetics (Monod and 1st order kinetics). The developed model results were compared with literature experimental data. Also, pilot scale simulations and sensitivity analysis were implemented. Moreover, simulation results of a hypothetical single aeration well were shown, while its zone of influence was estimated using both the pressure and oxygen distribution. Finally, a case study was simulated for a hypothetical landfill aeration system. Both a static (steadily positive or negative relative pressure with time) and a hybrid (following a square wave pattern of positive and negative values of relative pressure with time) scenarios for the aeration wells were examined. The results showed that the present model is capable of simulating landfill aeration and the obtained results were in good agreement with corresponding previous experimental and numerical investigations.
Non-robust numerical simulations of analogue extension experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naliboff, John; Buiter, Susanne
2016-04-01
Numerical and analogue models of lithospheric deformation provide significant insight into the tectonic processes that lead to specific structural and geophysical observations. As these two types of models contain distinct assumptions and tradeoffs, investigations drawing conclusions from both can reveal robust links between first-order processes and observations. Recent studies have focused on detailed comparisons between numerical and analogue experiments in both compressional and extensional tectonics, sometimes involving multiple lithospheric deformation codes and analogue setups. While such comparisons often show good agreement on first-order deformation styles, results frequently diverge on second-order structures, such as shear zone dip angles or spacing, and in certain cases even on first-order structures. Here, we present finite-element experiments that are designed to directly reproduce analogue "sandbox" extension experiments at the cm-scale. We use material properties and boundary conditions that are directly taken from analogue experiments and use a Drucker-Prager failure model to simulate shear zone formation in sand. We find that our numerical experiments are highly sensitive to numerous numerical parameters. For example, changes to the numerical resolution, velocity convergence parameters and elemental viscosity averaging commonly produce significant changes in first- and second-order structures accommodating deformation. The sensitivity of the numerical simulations to small parameter changes likely reflects a number of factors, including, but not limited to, high angles of internal friction assigned to sand, complex, unknown interactions between the brittle sand (used as an upper crust equivalent) and viscous silicone (lower crust), highly non-linear strain weakening processes and poor constraints on the cohesion of sand. Our numerical-analogue comparison is hampered by (a) an incomplete knowledge of the fine details of sand failure and sand
Numerical simulation of isolation of cancer cells in a microfluidic chip
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Djukic, T.; Topalovic, M.; Filipovic, N.
2015-08-01
Cancer is a disease that is characterized by the uncontrolled increase of numbers of cells. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are separated from the primary tumor, circulate in the bloodstream and form metastases. Circulating tumor cells can be identified in the blood of a patient by taking a blood sample. Microfluidic chips are a new technique that is used to isolate these cells from the blood sample. In this paper a numerical model is presented that is able to simulate the motion of individual cells through a microfluidic chip. The proposed numerical model gives very valuable insight into the processes happening within a microfluidic chip. The accuracy of the proposed model is compared with experimental results. The experimental setup that is described in literature is used to create identical geometrical domains and define simulation parameters. A good agreement of experimental and numerical results demonstrates that the proposed model can be successfully used to simulate complex behaviour of CTCs inside microfluidic chips.
Simulation for the expansion of the wildfire with numerical weather simulation MM5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimura, K.; Honma, T.
2008-12-01
1. Background Frequent occurrence of wildfires all over the world is considered as one of major resources of greenhouse gases. For example, a lot of wildfires in Alaska occur in summer. Now, the satellites of NOAA and Terra/Aqua are watching the earth and the wildfire are detected. Of course, to detection wildfire is very important, but the influence on inhabitants is more important. Our purpose is to make the numerical simulation of the wildfire spread in the small area with numerical weather simulation MM5. We think this will be useful to help fire fighting and global environment such as the replace of CO2. 2. Numerical Wildfire Spread Simulation There are many type of the numerical simulation of wildfire spread. In our simulation, the wildfire velocity is based on the Rhothermel equation and other parts are made of the cell automata. The area of the wildfire is the uniform vegetation consisted of the boreal forest (Picea mariana). The main factor of the expansion speed is wind velocity and speed. The continuous change of the weather is simulated with regional meteorological simulation MM5. The real spread of the Boundary Fire are observed by Alaska Fire Service. In this study, we validate the simulation result with the AFS data. 3. The Simulation Results We are constructing the simulation with Boundary Fire in 2004 in central Alaska. MM5 is very useful to reconstruct or forecast the distribution of local weather. We show the examples of the results in the poster. 4. Conclusion We constructed the numerical simulation model of wildfire spread with numerical weather simulation MM5. The result of simulation is being verified by the observed data by AFS .
Numerical Simulations of One-dimensional Microstructure Dynamics
Berezovski, M.; Berezovski, A.; Engelbrecht, J.
2010-05-21
Results of numerical simulations of one-dimensional wave propagation in microstructured solids are presented and compared with the corresponding results of wave propagation in given layered media. A linear microstructure model based on Mindlin theory is adopted and represented in the framework of the internal variable theory. Fully coupled systems of equations for macro-motion and microstructure evolution are rewritten in the form of conservation laws. A modification of wave propagation algorithm is used for numerical calculations. It is shown how the initial microstructure model can be improved in order to match the results obtained by both approaches.
Numerical simulation of the flow field around a complete aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shang, J. S.; Scherr, S. J.
1986-01-01
The present effort represents a first attempt of numerical simulation of the flow field around a complete aircraft-like, lifting configuration utilizing the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical solution generated for the experimental aircraft concept X24C-10D at a Mach number of 5.95 not only exhibited accurate prediction of detailed flow properties but also of the integrated aerodynamic coefficients. In addition, the present analysis demonstrated that a page structure of data collected into cyclic blocks is an efficient and viable means for processing the Navier-Stokes equations on the CRAY XMP-22 computer with external memory device.
Graphics interfaces and numerical simulations: Mexican Virtual Solar Observatory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernández, L.; González, A.; Salas, G.; Santillán, A.
2007-08-01
Preliminary results associated to the computational development and creation of the Mexican Virtual Solar Observatory (MVSO) are presented. Basically, the MVSO prototype consists of two parts: the first, related to observations that have been made during the past ten years at the Solar Observation Station (EOS) and at the Carl Sagan Observatory (OCS) of the Universidad de Sonora in Mexico. The second part is associated to the creation and manipulation of a database produced by numerical simulations related to solar phenomena, we are using the MHD ZEUS-3D code. The development of this prototype was made using mysql, apache, java and VSO 1.2. based GNU and `open source philosophy'. A graphic user interface (GUI) was created in order to make web-based, remote numerical simulations. For this purpose, Mono was used, because it is provides the necessary software to develop and run .NET client and server applications on Linux. Although this project is still under development, we hope to have access, by means of this portal, to other virtual solar observatories and to be able to count on a database created through numerical simulations or, given the case, perform simulations associated to solar phenomena.
Numerical Simulation of Air Bubble Characteristics in Stationary Water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, C. X.; Wang, Y. X.
The motion of air bubble in water plays a key role in such diverse aspects as air bubble curtain breakwater, air curtain drag reduction, air cushion isolation, weakening the shock wave in water by air bubble screen, etc. At present, the research on air bubble behaviors can be subdivided into several processes: air bubble formation from submerged orifices; interaction and coalescence during the ascending. The work presented in this paper focuses on numerical simulation of air bubble characteristics in stationary water, for example, air bubble formation, the ascending speed, the departing period, and so on. A series of models to simulate the characteristics of air bubble are developed by the VOF method in the two phase flow module of FLUENT. The numerical simulation results are consistent with the theoretical characteristics of air bubble in many aspects. So it is concluded that numerical simulation of air bubble characteristics in stationary water based on FLUENT is feasible. Due to the fact that the characteristics of air bubble are complicated questions, it is important that study on the air bubble behaviors in stationary water should be conducted on deeply.
Numerical simulations of the thermoacoustic computed tomography breast imaging system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiser, William Lester, Jr.
A thermoacoustic wave is produced when an object absorbs energy and experiences a subsequent thermal expansion. We have developed a Thermoacoustic Computed Tomography (TACT) breast imaging system to exploit the thermoacoustic phenomena as a method of soft tissue imaging. By exposing the breast to short pulses of 434 MHz microwaves, ultrasonic pulses are generated and detected with a hemispherical transducer array submersed in a water bath. Filtering and back projecting the transducer signals generates a 3-D image that maps the localized microwave absorption properties of the breast. In an effort to understand the factors limiting image quality, the TACT system was numerically simulated. The simulations were used to generate the transducer signals that would be collected by the TACT system during a scan of an object. These simulated data streams were then fed into the system image reconstruction software to provide images of simulated phantoms. The effects of transducer diameter, transducer response, transducer array geometry and stimulating pulse width on the spatial and contrast resolution of the system were quantified using the simulations. The spatial resolution was highly dependent upon location in the imaging volume. This was due to the off axis response of transducers of finite aperture. Simulated data were compared with experimental data, obtained by imaging a parallel-piped resolution phantom, to verify the accuracy of the simulation code. A contrast-detail phantom was numerically simulated to determine the ability of the system to image spheres of diameters <1 cm with absorption values on the order of physiologic saline, when located in a background of noise. The results of the contrast-detail analysis were dependent on the location of the spheres in the imaging volume and the diameter of the simulated transducers. This work sets the foundation for the initial image quality studies of the TACT system. Improvements to the current imaging system, based on
Rheometry and numerical simulations of antennas onboard the Resonance spacecraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sampl, M.; Macher, W.; Gruber, Ch.; Oswald, Th.; Rucker, H. O.
2009-04-01
We report on the calibration effort for the monopole antennas onboard the Resonance spacecraft which will be launched in the middle of the next decade. The Resonance mission is dedicated to the study of the wave-particle interactions and plasma dynamics in the inner magnetosphere and the auroral region. It is intended to fly four spacecrafts on specific trajectories, so that on parts of the orbits the four spacecraft fly along the same field line (precisely speaking in the same flux tube) of the geomagnetic field. Time and space correlated measurements are planned which will reveal new insights into processes propagating along the field lines and phenomena which span large parts of the flux tubes. The calibration is performed for four boom antennas and four cylindrical sensors at the boom tips. These antennas are devised for the measurement of electric fields and plasma parameters. We apply two methods for the antenna analysis: First, electrolytic tank measurements (rheometry), which is a method to determine the effective length vectors of electrically short antennas (in this context up to about 1MHz); second, numerical computer simulations which enable us to study also the transition to higher frequencies. The accuracy of the applied methods is about 1 degree for directions of effective axes and some percent for effective lengths and capacitances. With both methods we determined the following antenna parameters which are most relevant in the present context: The effective length vectors (comprising effective axes and effective lengths), and the antenna capacitance matrix. For that purpose the whole antenna-spacecraft system is treated as an 8-port antenna. For the first time this kind of analysis is performed for a spaceborne antenna system consisting of boom monopoles and cylindrical tip antennas. The results show that the effective antenna lengths do not coincide with the physical ones but are tilted away from the solar panels by several degrees. The numerical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilyushin, Ya. A.
2014-03-01
Exploration of subsurface oceans on Jupiter's icy moons is a key issue of the icy moons' geology. Radar is in fact the only sounding technique which is able to penetrate their icy mantles, which can be many kilometers thick. Surface clutter, i.e. scattering of the radio waves on the rough surface, is known to be one of the most important problems of subsurface radar probing. Adequate numerical modeling of this scattering is required on all stages of subsurface radar experiment, including design of an instrument, operational strategy planning and data interpretation. In the present paper, a computer simulation technique for numerical simulations of radar sounding of rough surfaces is formulated in general form. Subsurface radar location of the ocean beneath Ganymedian ice with chirp radar signals has been simulated.
Numerical simulations of blast-impact problems using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Anupam
There is an increasing need to design protective structures that can withstand or mitigate the impulsive loading due to the impact of a blast or a shock wave. A preliminary step in designing such structures is the prediction of the pressure loading on the structure. This is called the "load definition." This thesis is focused on a numerical approach to predict the load definition on arbitrary geometries for a given strength of the incident blast/shock wave. A particle approach, namely the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, is used as the numerical model. A three-dimensional, time-accurate DSMC flow solver is developed as a part of this study. Embedded surfaces, modeled as triangulations, are used to represent arbitrary-shaped structures. Several techniques to improve the computational efficiency of the algorithm of particle-structure interaction are presented. The code is designed using the Object Oriented Programming (OOP) paradigm. Domain decomposition with message passing is used to solve large problems in parallel. The solver is extensively validated against analytical results and against experiments. Two kinds of geometries, a box and an I-shaped beam are investigated for blast impact. These simulations are performed in both two- and three-dimensions. A major portion of the thesis is dedicated to studying the uncoupled fluid dynamics problem where the structure is assumed to remain stationary and intact during the simulation. A coupled, fluid-structure dynamics problem is solved in one spatial dimension using a simple, spring-mass-damper system to model the dynamics of the structure. A parametric study, by varying the mass, spring constant, and the damping coefficient, to study their effect on the loading and the displacement of the structure is also performed. Finally, the parallel performance of the solver is reported for three sample-size problems on two Beowulf clusters.
Simulation of an electronic countermeasure technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Russell, J. W.
1984-06-01
An apparatus for use in evaluating the effectiveness of an ECM technique, such as the Cross Eye technique, which transmits RF signals from spatially separated antennas against a hostile radar system, such as a monopulse radar. The invention splits the radar transmit RF signal into separate paths, applies the ECM signal, and calibrates the combined radar-ECM signal for phase and amplitude balance after every pulse repitition interval. The signal is down converted to an intermediate frequency where a radar receive antenna is simulated. Following the antenna, an injection network up converts the frequency of the signal and adds computer controlled inputs (including echoes) prior to sending it to the radar receiver for final processing.
A new technique for simulating composite material
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Volakis, John L.
1991-01-01
This project dealt with the development on new methodologies and algorithms for the multi-spectrum electromagnetic characterization of large scale nonmetallic airborne vehicles and structures. A robust, low memory, and accurate methodology was developed which is particularly suited for modern machine architectures. This is a hybrid finite element method that combines two well known numerical solution approaches. That of the finite element method for modeling volumes and the boundary integral method which yields exact boundary conditions for terminating the finite element mesh. In addition, a variety of high frequency results were generated (such as diffraction coefficients for impedance surfaces and material layers) and a class of boundary conditions were developed which hold promise for more efficient simulations. During the course of this project, nearly 25 detailed research reports were generated along with an equal number of journal papers. The reports, papers, and journal articles are listed in the appendices along with their abstracts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Masa-Aki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Monji, Hideaki
At the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the simulation code “MUGTHES (MUlti Geometry simulation code for THErmal-hydraulic and Structure heat conduction analysis in boundary fitted coordinate)” has been developed to evaluate thermal striping phenomena that are caused by the turbulence mixing of fluids at different temperatures. In this paper, numerical schemes for thermal-hydraulic simulation employed in MUGTHES are described, including the LES model. A simple method to limit numerical oscillation is adopted in energy equation solutions. A new iterative method to solve the Poisson equation in the BFC system is developed for effective transient calculations. This method is based on the BiCGSTAB method and the SOR technique. As the code validation of MUGTHES, a numerical simulation in a T-junction piping system with the LES approach was conducted. Numerical results related to velocity and fluid temperature distributions were compared with existing water experimental data and the applicability of numerical schemes with the LES model in MUGTHES to the thermal striping phenomenon was confirmed.
Direct Numerical Simulation of Liquid Transport Through Fibrous Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palakurthi, Nikhil Kumar
Fluid flow through fibrous media occurs in many industrial processes, including, but not limited, to fuel cell technology, drug delivery patches, sanitary products, textile reinforcement, filtration, heat exchangers, and performance fabrics. Understanding the physical processes involved in fluid flow through fibrous media is essential for their characterization as well as for the optimization and development of new products. Macroscopic porous-media equations require constitutive relations, which account for the physical processes occurring at the micro-scale, to predict liquid transport at the macro-scale. In this study, micro-scale simulations were conducted using conventional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique (finite-volume method) to determine the macroscopic constitutive relations. The first part of this thesis deals with the single-phase flow in fibrous media, following which multi-phase flow through fibrous media was studied. Darcy permeability is an important parameter that characterizes creeping flow through a fibrous porous medium. It has a complex dependence on the medium's properties such as fibers' in-plane and through-plane orientation, diameter, aspect ratio, curvature, and porosity. A suite of 3D virtual fibrous structures with a wide range of geometric properties were constructed, and the permeability values of the structures were calculated by solving the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The through-plane permeability was found to be a function of only the fiber diameter, the fibers' through-plane orientation, and the porosity of the medium. The numerical results were used to extend a permeability-porosity relation, developed in literature for 3D isotropic fibrous media, to a wide range of fibers' through-plane orientations. In applications where rate of capillary penetration is important, characterization of porous media usually involves determination of either the effective pore radius from capillary penetration experiments
Numerical simulation of steady supersonic flow. [spatial marching
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schiff, L. B.; Steger, J. L.
1981-01-01
A noniterative, implicit, space-marching, finite-difference algorithm was developed for the steady thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations in conservation-law form. The numerical algorithm is applicable to steady supersonic viscous flow over bodies of arbitrary shape. In addition, the same code can be used to compute supersonic inviscid flow or three-dimensional boundary layers. Computed results from two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions of the numerical algorithm are in good agreement with those obtained from more costly time-marching techniques.
Expert System Architecture for Rocket Engine Numerical Simulators: A Vision
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mitra, D.; Babu, U.; Earla, A. K.; Hemminger, Joseph A.
1998-01-01
Simulation of any complex physical system like rocket engines involves modeling the behavior of their different components using mostly numerical equations. Typically a simulation package would contain a set of subroutines for these modeling purposes and some other ones for supporting jobs. A user would create an input file configuring a system (part or whole of a rocket engine to be simulated) in appropriate format understandable by the package and run it to create an executable module corresponding to the simulated system. This module would then be run on a given set of input parameters in another file. Simulation jobs are mostly done for performance measurements of a designed system, but could be utilized for failure analysis or a design job such as inverse problems. In order to use any such package the user needs to understand and learn a lot about the software architecture of the package, apart from being knowledgeable in the target domain. We are currently involved in a project in designing an intelligent executive module for the rocket engine simulation packages, which would free any user from this burden of acquiring knowledge on a particular software system. The extended abstract presented here will describe the vision, methodology and the problems encountered in the project. We are employing object-oriented technology in designing the executive module. The problem is connected to the areas like the reverse engineering of any simulation software, and the intelligent systems for simulation.
Numerical simulations of internal wave generation by convection in water.
Lecoanet, Daniel; Le Bars, Michael; Burns, Keaton J; Vasil, Geoffrey M; Brown, Benjamin P; Quataert, Eliot; Oishi, Jeffrey S
2015-06-01
Water's density maximum at 4°C makes it well suited to study internal gravity wave excitation by convection: an increasing temperature profile is unstable to convection below 4°C, but stably stratified above 4°C. We present numerical simulations of a waterlike fluid near its density maximum in a two-dimensional domain. We successfully model the damping of waves in the simulations using linear theory, provided we do not take the weak damping limit typically used in the literature. To isolate the physical mechanism exciting internal waves, we use the spectral code dedalus to run several simplified model simulations of our more detailed simulation. We use data from the full simulation as source terms in two simplified models of internal-wave excitation by convection: bulk excitation by convective Reynolds stresses, and interface forcing via the mechanical oscillator effect. We find excellent agreement between the waves generated in the full simulation and the simplified simulation implementing the bulk excitation mechanism. The interface forcing simulations overexcite high-frequency waves because they assume the excitation is by the "impulsive" penetration of plumes, which spreads energy to high frequencies. However, we find that the real excitation is instead by the "sweeping" motion of plumes parallel to the interface. Our results imply that the bulk excitation mechanism is a very accurate heuristic for internal-wave generation by convection. PMID:26172801
Numerical simulations of internal wave generation by convection in water.
Lecoanet, Daniel; Le Bars, Michael; Burns, Keaton J; Vasil, Geoffrey M; Brown, Benjamin P; Quataert, Eliot; Oishi, Jeffrey S
2015-06-01
Water's density maximum at 4°C makes it well suited to study internal gravity wave excitation by convection: an increasing temperature profile is unstable to convection below 4°C, but stably stratified above 4°C. We present numerical simulations of a waterlike fluid near its density maximum in a two-dimensional domain. We successfully model the damping of waves in the simulations using linear theory, provided we do not take the weak damping limit typically used in the literature. To isolate the physical mechanism exciting internal waves, we use the spectral code dedalus to run several simplified model simulations of our more detailed simulation. We use data from the full simulation as source terms in two simplified models of internal-wave excitation by convection: bulk excitation by convective Reynolds stresses, and interface forcing via the mechanical oscillator effect. We find excellent agreement between the waves generated in the full simulation and the simplified simulation implementing the bulk excitation mechanism. The interface forcing simulations overexcite high-frequency waves because they assume the excitation is by the "impulsive" penetration of plumes, which spreads energy to high frequencies. However, we find that the real excitation is instead by the "sweeping" motion of plumes parallel to the interface. Our results imply that the bulk excitation mechanism is a very accurate heuristic for internal-wave generation by convection.
Numerical simulation of cavitating turbulent flow through a Francis turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, L.; Liu, J. T.; Wu, Y. L.; Liu, S. H.
2012-11-01
The unsteady cavitating turbulent flow in a Francis turbine is simulated based on governing equations of the mixture model for cavity-liquid two-phase flows with the RNG k-epsilon turbulence model in the present paper. An improved mass transfer expression in the mixture model is obtained based on evaporation and condensation mechanics with considering the effects of the non-dissolved gas, the turbulence, the tension of interface at cavity and the effect of phase change rate and so on. The governing equations of the mixture model for the unsteady cavitating-liquid flow is solved by a direct coupling method numerically with the finite volume method (FVM) using the unstructured tetrahedron grid and the structured hexahedral grid system. This direct coupling simulation was successfully applied to simulate the cavitating two-phase turbulent flow through a Francis turbine. The simulated external results agreed well with the experimental results.
Numerical simulation of H2/air detonation using unstructured mesh
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Togashi, Fumiya; Löhner, Rainald; Tsuboi, Nobuyuki
2009-06-01
To explore the capability of unstructured mesh to simulate detonation wave propagation phenomena, numerical simulation of H2/air detonation using unstructured mesh was conducted. The unstructured mesh has several adv- antages such as easy mesh adaptation and flexibility to the complicated configurations. To examine the resolution dependency of the unstructured mesh, several simulations varying the mesh size were conducted and compared with a computed result using a structured mesh. The results show that the unstructured mesh solution captures the detailed structure of detonation wave, as well as the structured mesh solution. To capture the detailed detonation cell structure, the unstructured mesh simulations required at least twice, ideally 5times the resolution of structured mesh solution.
Numerical simulations of solar disturbances and their interplanetary consequences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dryer, M.; Wu, S. T.; Detman, T. R.
1990-01-01
Time-dependent MHD numerical simulations are used to study responses of the solar atmosphere and interplanetary medium to simulated solar disturbances. A number of 2D and 3D examples of coronal mass ejection (CME) simulations and some current controversies concerning the basic processes of CME initiation are discussed. Footpoint shearing motion is tested to determine whether it can provide a reasonable mechanism for CME development from arch filament configurations. Possible interplanetary consequences to CME-like disturbances are demonstrated by using 3D simulations to determine the dynamic response of the solar wind to a plasmoid injection from an eruptive filament or prominence. The possibility that a plasmoid may be generated in the interplanetary medium by a solar-generated shock that propagates through a heliospheric current sheet is discussed. Application of the 3D model for the interpretation of interplanetary scintillation observations is addressed.
Numerical simulations of zero-Prandtl-number thermohaline convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prat, V.; Lignières, F.; Lagarde, N.
2015-12-01
Thermohaline (or fingering) convection has been used to explain chemical anomalies at the surface of red giant stars. However, recent numerical simulations suggest that the efficiency of thermohaline convection is lower than expected, and thus not sufficient to explain the observations. One of the uncertainties of these simulations is that they have been performed in a parameter range for the Prandtl number (i.e. the ratio between viscosity and thermal diffusivity) which is far from what can be found in stellar interiors. Using the small-Péclet-number approximation, we are able for the first time to perform simulations of thermohaline convection in a parameter domain which is relevant for stellar physics. In the present paper, we discuss the validity of this approximation and compare our results with previous simulations and models.
Numerical Simulations of Inter-laminar Damage Evolution in a Composite Wing Box
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riccio, A.; Raimondo, A.; Borrelli, R.; Mercurio, U.; Tescione, D.; Scaramuzzino, F.
2014-06-01
In this paper, a numerical study has been carried out on skin delamination and skin-stringer debonding growth in a composite wing-box under compressive loading conditions. The adopted numerical models use the Virtual Crack Closure Technique to simulate the inter-laminar damage evolution and the numerical analyses have been performed by means of the FEM code ABAQUS and B2000++. The obtained numerical results have been assessed and compared each other in terms of delaminated area evolution, delamination growth initiation load and strain distributions. In order to investigate the effectiveness of the adopted numerical platforms in predicting the evolution of inter-laminar damages, comparisons with experimental data, in terms of load displacement curves and strains in the debonding area, have been also introduced.
Incorporation of RAM techniques into simulation modeling
Nelson, S.C. Jr.; Haire, M.J.; Schryver, J.C.
1995-07-01
This work concludes that reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analytical techniques can be incorporated into computer network simulation modeling to yield an important new analytical tool. This paper describes the incorporation of failure and repair information into network simulation to build a stochastic computer model represents the RAM Performance of two vehicles being developed for the US Army: The Advanced Field Artillery System (AFAS) and the Future Armored Resupply Vehicle (FARV). The AFAS is the US Army`s next generation self-propelled cannon artillery system. The FARV is a resupply vehicle for the AFAS. Both vehicles utilize automation technologies to improve the operational performance of the vehicles and reduce manpower. The network simulation model used in this work is task based. The model programmed in this application requirements a typical battle mission and the failures and repairs that occur during that battle. Each task that the FARV performs--upload, travel to the AFAS, refuel, perform tactical/survivability moves, return to logistic resupply, etc.--is modeled. Such a model reproduces a model reproduces operational phenomena (e.g., failures and repairs) that are likely to occur in actual performance. Simulation tasks are modeled as discrete chronological steps; after the completion of each task decisions are programmed that determine the next path to be followed. The result is a complex logic diagram or network. The network simulation model is developed within a hierarchy of vehicle systems, subsystems, and equipment and includes failure management subnetworks. RAM information and other performance measures are collected which have impact on design requirements. Design changes are evaluated through ``what if`` questions, sensitivity studies, and battle scenario changes.
Numerical Simulation of Cast Distortion in Gas Turbine Engine Components
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inozemtsev, A. A.; Dubrovskaya, A. S.; Dongauser, K. A.; Trufanov, N. A.
2015-06-01
In this paper the process of multiple airfoilvanes manufacturing through investment casting is considered. The mathematical model of the full contact problem is built to determine stress strain state in a cast during the process of solidification. Studies are carried out in viscoelastoplastic statement. Numerical simulation of the explored process is implemented with ProCASTsoftware package. The results of simulation are compared with the real production process. By means of computer analysis the optimization of technical process parameters is done in order to eliminate the defect of cast walls thickness variation.
Numerical simulations of accretion disks and astrophysical jets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossi, P.; Bodo, G.; Mignone, A.; Massaglia, S.; Ferrari, A.
We present the results of high resolution numerical simulations concerning accretion disks and relativistic jets. For accretion disks, in the context of the problem of angular momentum transport, we performed simulations of the magnetorotational instability in the shearing box approximation and, on the basis of our results, we discuss its validity. In the case of relativistic jets, we analyse how their interaction with the ambient medium can lead to their deceleration, as it appears to be the case for jets in FRI extragalactic radiosources.
Numerical Simulations and Diagnostics in Astrophysics:. a Few Magnetohydrodynamics Examples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peres, Giovanni; Bonito, Rosaria; Orlando, Salvatore; Reale, Fabio
2007-12-01
We discuss some issues related to numerical simulations in Astrophysics and, in particular, to their use both as a theoretical tool and as a diagnostic tool, to gain insight into the physical phenomena at work. We make our point presenting some examples of Magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) simulations of astrophysical plasmas and illustrating their use. In particular we show the need for appropriate tools to interpret, visualize and present results in an adequate form, and the importance of spectral synthesis for a direct comparison with observations.
Numerical simulation of transition control in boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laurien, E.; Kleiser, L.
The transition process from laminar to turbulent boundary layers is simulated by numerical integration of the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Spatially periodic wave disturbances in a parallel Blasius flow are assumed. A spectral method with real-space Chebyshev collocation in the normal direction is employed. Both the classical K-type and the subharmonic type of transition are investigated. Good agreement with measurements and flow visualizations of transition experiments is obtained. Control of transition by wave superposition is simulated using periodic wall suction/blowing. It is shown that 2D control works well at an early stage but fails after significant 3D disturbances have developed.
Numerical Simulation of a Spatially Evolving Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gatski, T. B.; Erlebacher, G.
2002-01-01
The results from direct numerical simulations of a spatially evolving, supersonic, flat-plate turbulent boundary-layer flow, with free-stream Mach number of 2.25 are presented. The simulated flow field extends from a transition region, initiated by wall suction and blowing near the inflow boundary, into the fully turbulent regime. Distributions of mean and turbulent flow quantities are obtained and an analysis of these quantities is performed at a downstream station corresponding to Re(sub x)= 5.548 x10(exp 6) based on distance from the leading edge.
New prescriptions of turbulent transport from local numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prat, V.; Lignières, F.; Lesur, G.
2015-01-01
Massive stars often experience fast rotation, which is known to induce turbulent mixing with a strong impact on the evolution of these stars. Local direct numerical simulations of turbulent transport in stellar radiative zones are a promising way to constrain phenomenological transport models currently used in many stellar evolution codes. We present here the results of such simulations of stably-stratified sheared turbulence taking notably into account the effects of thermal diffusion and chemical stratification. We also discuss the impact of theses results on stellar evolution theory.
Numerical simulation of phase separation coupled with crystallization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Douglas; Shi, An-Chang; Zhang, Pingwen
2008-10-01
The kinetics of liquid-liquid phase separation and polymer crystallization observed in double-quench experiments with blends of poly(ethylene-co-hexene) and poly(ethylene-co-butene) are studied using time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau Model. Numerical simulations demonstrate that our model can successfully reproduce three experimental phenomena: The decrease in number and size of crystallized spherulites with increasing time in phase separation, the preponderance of nuclei near the domain interface, and the subphase separation and subcrystallization occurring when the second quench is very deep. Moreover, the simulations are consistent with the recently proposed mechanism of "phase separation fluctuation assisted nucleation" in the crystallization process.
Numerical simulation of the shock compaction of copper powder
Benson, D.J. ); Nellis, W.J. )
1994-07-10
The shock compaction of an aggregate of randomly distributed copper particles with a nonuniform size distribution is simulated using an Eulerian hydrocode. A shock Hugoniot for a copper powder is calculated from a series of shock compaction simulations and compared to experimental results. The powder particles are modeled as rods in two dimensions. The particle size distribution is generated from a representative powder size distribution via a simple Monte-Carlo method and is initially numerically packed to a dense powder compact using the pseudo-gravity method. [copyright] 1994 American Institute of Physics
Numerical Relativity Simulations for Black Hole Merger Astrophysics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John G.
2010-01-01
Massive black hole mergers are perhaps the most energetic astronomical events, establishing their importance as gravitational wave sources for LISA, and also possibly leading to observable influences on their local environments. Advances in numerical relativity over the last five years have fueled the development of a rich physical understanding of general relativity's predictions for these events. Z will overview the understanding of these event emerging from numerical simulation studies. These simulations elucidate the pre-merger dynamics of the black hole binaries, the consequent gravitational waveform signatures ' and the resulting state, including its kick velocity, for the final black hole produced by the merger. Scenarios are now being considered for observing each of these aspects of the merger, involving both gravitational-wave and electromagnetic astronomy.
Numerical Simulations of Forming Aluminum Beverage Can End Shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Jing; Yamazaki, Koetsu; Hasegawa, Takashi; Itoh, Ryouiti; Nishiyama, Sadao
2011-08-01
Forming simulations of can end shell have been implemented and compared with the experimental observations of the shell actual forming process. The influences of the loads applied to tools, the clearances between tools, the shapes of the tool profiles and the positions of tools, on the shell forming quality, have then been investigated numerically. The design optimization method based on the numerical simulations has been applied to search optimum design points, in order to reduce the amount of thinning subjected to the constraints of the shell geometric shape and the suppression of wrinkles. The optimization results show that the amount of thinning can be reduced up to 4% by optimizing the forming route, adjusting the clearances and the loads, and modifying the tool shapes.
Numerical aerodynamic simulation program long haul communications prototype
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cmaylo, Bohden K.; Foo, Lee
1987-01-01
This document is a report of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Long Haul Communications Prototype (LHCP). It describes the accomplishments of the LHCP group, presents the results from all LHCP experiments and testing activities, makes recommendations for present and future LHCP activities, and evaluates the remote workstation accesses from Langley Research Center, Lewis Research Center, and Colorado State University to Ames Research Center. The report is the final effort of the Long Haul (Wideband) Communications Prototype Plan (PT-1133-02-N00), 3 October 1985, which defined the requirements for the development, test, and operation of the LHCP network and was the plan used to evaluate the remote user bandwidth requirements for the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Processing System Network.
Direct numerical simulation of double-diffusive gravity currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penney, Jared; Stastna, Marek
2016-08-01
This paper presents three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of laboratory-scale double-diffusive gravity currents. Flow is governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations under the Boussinesq approximation, with salinity and temperature coupled to the equations of motion using a nonlinear approximation to the UNESCO equation of state. The effects of vertical boundary conditions and current volume are examined, with focus on flow pattern development, current propagation speed, three-dimensionalization, dissipation, and stirring and mixing. It was observed that no-slip boundaries cause the gravity current head to take the standard lobe-and-cleft shape and encourage both a greater degree and an earlier onset of three-dimensionalization when compared to what occurs in the case of a free-slip boundary. Additionally, numerical simulations with no-slip boundary conditions experience greater viscous dissipation, stirring, and mixing when compared to similar configurations using free-slip conditions.
Numerical simulations of a diode laser BPH treatment system
Esch, V; London, R A; Papademetriou, S
1999-02-23
Numerical simulations are presented of the laser-tissue interaction of a diode laser system for treating benign prostate hyperplasia. The numerical model includes laser light transport, heat transport, cooling due to blood perfusion, thermal tissue damage, and enthalpy of tissue damage. Comparisons of the simulation results to clinical data are given. We report that a reasonable variation from a standard set of input data produces heating times which match those measured in the clinical trials. A general trend of decreasing damage volume with increasing heating time is described. We suggest that the patient-to- patient variability seen in the data can be explained by differences in fundamental biophysical properties such as the optical coefficients. Further work is identified, including the measurement and input to the model of several specific data parameters such as optical coefficients, blood perfusion cooling rate, and coagulation rates.
Numerical simulation of the circulation of the atmosphere of Titan
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hourdin, F.; Levan, P.; Talagrand, O.; Courtin, Regis; Gautier, Daniel; Mckay, Christopher P.
1992-01-01
A three dimensional General Circulation Model (GCM) of Titan's atmosphere is described. Initial results obtained with an economical two dimensional (2D) axisymmetric version of the model presented a strong superrotation in the upper stratosphere. Because of this result, a more general numerical study of superrotation was started with a somewhat different version of the GCM. It appears that for a slowly rotating planet which strongly absorbs solar radiation, circulation is dominated by global equator to pole Hadley circulation and strong superrotation. The theoretical study of this superrotation is discussed. It is also shown that 2D simulations systemically lead to instabilities which make 2D models poorly adapted to numerical simulation of Titan's (or Venus) atmosphere.
Numerical Simulations of the Geodynamo and Scaling Laws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oruba, L.; Dormy, E.
2013-12-01
State of the art numerical models of the Geodynamo are still performed in a parameter regime extremely remote from the values relevant to the physics of the Earth core. In order to establish a connection between dynamo modeling and the geophysical motivation, it is necessary to use scaling laws. Such laws establish the dependency of essential quantities (such as the magnetic field strength) on measured or controlled quantities. They allow for a direct confrontation of advanced models with geophysical constraints. We will present a detailed analysis of scaling laws based on a wide database of 185 direct numerical simulations (courtesy of U. Christensen) and test various existing scaling laws. Our main concern is to stress the risks of a direct numerical fit free from physical insight. We show that different a priori hypothesis can yield contradictory dependences, in particular concerning the dependence of the magnetic field strength on the rotation rate as well as on the viscosity.
Numerical simulation of shock wave diffraction by TVD schemes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, Victor Y. C.; Yee, H. C.
1987-01-01
An upwind total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme and a predictor-corrector symmetric TVD scheme were used to numerically simulate the blast wave diffraction on a stationary object. The objective is to help design an optimum configuration so that lateral motion is minimized and at the same time vortex shedding and flow separation are reduced during a blast wave encounter. Results are presented for a generic configuration for both a coarse grid and a fine grid to illustrate the global and local diffraction flow fields. Numerical experiments for the shock wave reflection on a wedge are also included to validate the current approach. Numerical study indicated that these TVD schemes are more stable and produced higher shock resolution than classical shock capturing methods such as the explicit MacCormack scheme.
Numerical Simulations of the Metallicity Distribution in Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies
Ripamonti, Emanuele; Tolstoy, E.; Helmi, A.; Battaglia, G.; Abel, T.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park
2006-12-12
Recent observations show that the number of stars with very low metallicities in the dwarf spheroidal satellites of the Milky Way is low, despite the low average metallicities of stars in these systems. We undertake numerical simulations of star formation and metal enrichment of dwarf galaxies in order to verify whether this result can be reproduced with ''standard'' assumptions. The answer is likely to be negative, unless some selection bias against very low metallicity stars is present in the observations.
Numerical simulation of high-gradient magnetic filtration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gusev, B. A.; Semenov, V. G.; Panchuk, V. V.
2016-09-01
We have reported on the results of a numerical simulation of high-gradient magnetic filtration of ultradisperse corrosion products from water coolants. These results have made it possible to establish optimal technical characteristics of high-gradient magnetic filters. The results have been used to develop test samples of high-gradient magnetic filters (HGMFs) with different magnetic systems to purify technological water media of atomic power plants from activated corrosion products.
EXTENDED SCALING LAWS IN NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE
Mason, Joanne; Cattaneo, Fausto; Perez, Jean Carlos; Boldyrev, Stanislav E-mail: cattaneo@flash.uchicago.edu E-mail: boldyrev@wisc.edu
2011-07-10
Magnetized turbulence is ubiquitous in astrophysical systems, where it notoriously spans a broad range of spatial scales. Phenomenological theories of MHD turbulence describe the self-similar dynamics of turbulent fluctuations in the inertial range of scales. Numerical simulations serve to guide and test these theories. However, the computational power that is currently available restricts the simulations to Reynolds numbers that are significantly smaller than those in astrophysical settings. In order to increase computational efficiency and, therefore, probe a larger range of scales, one often takes into account the fundamental anisotropy of field-guided MHD turbulence, with gradients being much slower in the field-parallel direction. The simulations are then optimized by employing the reduced MHD equations and relaxing the field-parallel numerical resolution. In this work we explore a different possibility. We propose that there exist certain quantities that are remarkably stable with respect to the Reynolds number. As an illustration, we study the alignment angle between the magnetic and velocity fluctuations in MHD turbulence, measured as the ratio of two specially constructed structure functions. We find that the scaling of this ratio can be extended surprisingly well into the regime of relatively low Reynolds number. However, the extended scaling easily becomes spoiled when the dissipation range in the simulations is underresolved. Thus, taking the numerical optimization methods too far can lead to spurious numerical effects and erroneous representation of the physics of MHD turbulence, which in turn can affect our ability to identify correctly the physical mechanisms that are operating in astrophysical systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reckinger, Scott J.; Livescu, Daniel; Vasilyev, Oleg V.
2016-05-01
An investigation of compressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) using Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) requires efficient numerical methods, advanced boundary conditions, and consistent initialization in order to capture the wide range of scales and vortex dynamics present in the system, while reducing the computational impact associated with acoustic wave generation and the subsequent interaction with the flow. An advanced computational framework is presented that handles the challenges introduced by considering the compressive nature of RTI systems, which include sharp interfacial density gradients on strongly stratified background states, acoustic wave generation and removal at computational boundaries, and stratification dependent vorticity production. The foundation of the numerical methodology described here is the wavelet-based grid adaptivity of the Parallel Adaptive Wavelet Collocation Method (PAWCM) that maintains symmetry in single-mode RTI systems to extreme late-times. PAWCM is combined with a consistent initialization, which reduces the generation of acoustic disturbances, and effective boundary treatments, which prevent acoustic reflections. A dynamic time integration scheme that can handle highly nonlinear and potentially stiff systems, such as compressible RTI, completes the computational framework. The numerical methodology is used to simulate two-dimensional single-mode RTI to extreme late-times for a wide range of flow compressibility and variable density effects. The results show that flow compressibility acts to reduce the growth of RTI for low Atwood numbers, as predicted from linear stability analysis.
Visualizing Time-Varying Phenomena In Numerical Simulations Of Unsteady Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lane, David A.
1996-01-01
Streamlines, contour lines, vector plots, and volume slices (cutting planes) are commonly used for flow visualization. These techniques are sometimes referred to as instantaneous flow visualization techniques because calculations are based on an instant of the flowfield in time. Although instantaneous flow visualization techniques are effective for depicting phenomena in steady flows,they sometimes do not adequately depict time-varying phenomena in unsteady flows. Streaklines and timelines are effective visualization techniques for depicting vortex shedding, vortex breakdown, and shock waves in unsteady flows. These techniques are examples of time-dependent flow visualization techniques, which are based on many instants of the flowfields in time. This paper describes the algorithms for computing streaklines and timelines. Using numerically simulated unsteady flows, streaklines and timelines are compared with streamlines, contour lines, and vector plots. It is shown that streaklines and timelines reveal vortex shedding and vortex breakdown more clearly than instantaneous flow visualization techniques.
Numerical Relativity Simulations of Magnetized Black Hole-Neutron Star Mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Etienne, Zachariah B.; Liu, Yuk Tung; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Shapiro, Stuart L.
2015-01-01
We present new numerical techniques we developed for launching the first parameter study of magnetized black hole-neutron star (BHNS) mergers, varying the magnetic fields seeded in the initial neutron star. We found that magnetic fields have a negligible impact on the gravitational waveforms and bulk dynamics of the system during merger, regardless of magnetic field strength or BH spin. In a recent simulation, we seeded the remnant disk from an unmagnetized BHNS merger simulation with large-scale, purely poloidal magnetic fields, which are otherwise absent in the full simulation. The outcome appears to be a viable sGRB central engine.
Direct Numerical Simulation of A Shaped Hole Film Cooling Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliver, Todd; Moser, Robert
2015-11-01
The combustor exit temperatures in modern gas turbine engines are generally higher than the melting temperature of the turbine blade material. Film cooling, where cool air is fed through holes in the turbine blades, is one strategy which is used extensively in such engines to reduce heat transfer to the blades and thus reduce their temperature. While these flows have been investigated both numerically and experimentally, many features are not yet well understood. For example, the geometry of the hole is known to have a large impact on downstream cooling performance. However, the details of the flow in the hole, particularly for geometries similar to those used in practice, are generally know well-understood, both because it is difficult to experimentally observe the flow inside the hole and because much of the numerical literature has focused on round hole simulations. In this work, we show preliminary direct numerical simulation results for a film cooling flow passing through a shaped hole into a the boundary layer developing on a flat plate. The case has density ratio 1.6, blowing ratio 2.0, and the Reynolds number (based on momentum thickness) of incoming boundary layer is approximately 600. We compare the new simulations against both previous experiments and LES.
Numerical Homogenization of Jointed Rock Masses Using Wave Propagation Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gasmi, Hatem; Hamdi, Essaïeb; Bouden Romdhane, Nejla
2014-07-01
Homogenization in fractured rock analyses is essentially based on the calculation of equivalent elastic parameters. In this paper, a new numerical homogenization method that was programmed by means of a MATLAB code, called HLA-Dissim, is presented. The developed approach simulates a discontinuity network of real rock masses based on the International Society of Rock Mechanics (ISRM) scanline field mapping methodology. Then, it evaluates a series of classic joint parameters to characterize density (RQD, specific length of discontinuities). A pulse wave, characterized by its amplitude, central frequency, and duration, is propagated from a source point to a receiver point of the simulated jointed rock mass using a complex recursive method for evaluating the transmission and reflection coefficient for each simulated discontinuity. The seismic parameters, such as delay, velocity, and attenuation, are then calculated. Finally, the equivalent medium model parameters of the rock mass are computed numerically while taking into account the natural discontinuity distribution. This methodology was applied to 17 bench fronts from six aggregate quarries located in Tunisia, Spain, Austria, and Sweden. It allowed characterizing the rock mass discontinuity network, the resulting seismic performance, and the equivalent medium stiffness. The relationship between the equivalent Young's modulus and rock discontinuity parameters was also analyzed. For these different bench fronts, the proposed numerical approach was also compared to several empirical formulas, based on RQD and fracture density values, published in previous research studies, showing its usefulness and efficiency in estimating rapidly the Young's modulus of equivalent medium for wave propagation analysis.
The numerical simulation based on CFD of hydraulic turbine pump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, X. H.; Kong, F. Y.; Liu, Y. Y.; Zhao, R. J.; Hu, Q. L.
2016-05-01
As the functions of hydraulic turbine pump including self-adjusting and compensation with each other, it is far-reaching to analyze its internal flow by the numerical simulation based on CFD, mainly including the pressure field and the velocity field in hydraulic turbine and pump.The three-dimensional models of hydraulic turbine pump are made by Pro/Engineer software;the internal flow fields in hydraulic turbine and pump are simulated numerically by CFX ANSYS software. According to the results of the numerical simulation in design condition, the pressure field and the velocity field in hydraulic turbine and pump are analyzed respectively .The findings show that the static pressure decreases systematically and the pressure gradient is obvious in flow area of hydraulic turbine; the static pressure increases gradually in pump. The flow trace is regular in suction chamber and flume without spiral trace. However, there are irregular traces in the turbine runner channels which contrary to that in flow area of impeller. Most of traces in the flow area of draft tube are spiral.
Transient productivity index for numerical well test simulations
Blanc, G.; Ding, D.Y.; Ene, A.
1997-08-01
The most difficult aspect of numerical simulation of well tests is the treatment of the Bottom Hole Flowing (BHF) Pressure. In full field simulations, this pressure is derived from the Well-block Pressure (WBP) using a numerical productivity index which accounts for the grid size and permeability, and for the well completion. This productivity index is calculated assuming a pseudo-steady state flow regime in the vicinity of the well and is therefore constant during the well production period. Such a pseudo-steady state assumption is no longer valid for the early time of a well test simulation as long as the pressure perturbation has not reached several grid-blocks around the well. This paper offers two different solutions to this problem: (1) The first one is based on the derivation of a Numerical Transient Productivity Index (NTPI) to be applied to Cartesian grids; (2) The second one is based on the use of a Corrected Transmissibility and Accumulation Term (CTAT) in the flow equation. The representation of the pressure behavior given by both solutions is far more accurate than the conventional one as shown by several validation examples which are presented in the following pages.
Efficient numerical simulation of heat storage in subsurface georeservoirs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boockmeyer, A.; Bauer, S.
2015-12-01
The transition of the German energy market towards renewable energy sources, e.g. wind or solar power, requires energy storage technologies to compensate for their fluctuating production. Large amounts of energy could be stored in georeservoirs such as porous formations in the subsurface. One possibility here is to store heat with high temperatures of up to 90°C through borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) since more than 80 % of the total energy consumption in German households are used for heating and hot water supply. Within the ANGUS+ project potential environmental impacts of such heat storages are assessed and quantified. Numerical simulations are performed to predict storage capacities, storage cycle times, and induced effects. For simulation of these highly dynamic storage sites, detailed high-resolution models are required. We set up a model that accounts for all components of the BHE and verified it using experimental data. The model ensures accurate simulation results but also leads to large numerical meshes and thus high simulation times. In this work, we therefore present a numerical model for each type of BHE (single U, double U and coaxial) that reduces the number of elements and the simulation time significantly for use in larger scale simulations. The numerical model includes all BHE components and represents the temporal and spatial temperature distribution with an accuracy of less than 2% deviation from the fully discretized model. By changing the BHE geometry and using equivalent parameters, the simulation time is reduced by a factor of ~10 for single U-tube BHEs, ~20 for double U-tube BHEs and ~150 for coaxial BHEs. Results of a sensitivity study that quantify the effects of different design and storage formation parameters on temperature distribution and storage efficiency for heat storage using multiple BHEs are then shown. It is found that storage efficiency strongly depends on the number of BHEs composing the storage site, their distance and
Numerical simulations of localized high field 1H MR spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaiser, Lana G.; Young, Karl; Matson, Gerald B.
2008-11-01
The limited bandwidths of volume selective RF pulses in localized in vivo MRS experiments introduce spatial artifacts that complicate spectral quantification of J-coupled metabolites. These effects are commonly referred to as a spatial interference or "four compartment" artifacts and are more pronounced at higher field strengths. The main focus of this study is to develop a generalized approach to numerical simulations that combines full density matrix calculations with 3D localization to investigate the spatial artifacts and to provide accurate prior knowledge for spectral fitting. Full density matrix calculations with 3D localization using experimental pulses were carried out for PRESS (TE = 20, 70 ms), STEAM (TE = 20, 70 ms) and LASER (TE = 70 ms) pulse sequences and compared to non-localized simulations and to phantom solution data at 4 T. Additional simulations at 1.5 and 7 T were carried out for STEAM and PRESS (TE = 20 ms). Four brain metabolites that represented a range from weak to strong J-coupling networks were included in the simulations (lactate, N-acetylaspartate, glutamate and myo-inositol). For longer TE, full 3D localization was necessary to achieve agreement between the simulations and phantom solution spectra for the majority of cases in all pulse sequence simulations. For short echo time (TE = 20 ms), ideal pulses without localizing gradients gave results that were in agreement with phantom results at 4 T for STEAM, but not for PRESS (TE = 20). Numerical simulations that incorporate volume localization using experimental RF pulses are shown to be a powerful tool for generation of accurate metabolic basis sets for spectral fitting and for optimization of experimental parameters.
Numerical simulations of the subsurface structure of sunspots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rempel, M.; Cheung, M.; Birch, A. C.; Braun, D. C.
2011-12-01
Knowledge of the subsurface magnetic field and flow structure of sunspots is essential for understanding the processes involved in their formation, dynamic evolution and decay. Information on the subsurface structure can be obtained by either direct numerical modeling or helioseismic inversions. Numerical simulations have reached only in recent years the point at which entire sunspots or even active regions can be modeled including all relevant physical processes such as 3D radiative transfer and a realistic equation of state. We present in this talk results from a series of different models: from simulations of individual sunspots (with and without penumbrae) in differently sized computational domains to simulations of the active region formation process (flux emergence). It is found in all models that the subsurface magnetic field fragments on an intermediate scale (larger than the scale of sunspot fine structure such as umbral dots); most of these fragmentations become visible as light bridges or flux separation events in the photosphere. The subsurface field strength is found to be in the 5-10 kG range. The simulated sunspots are surrounded by large scale flows, the most dominant and robust flow component is a deep reaching outflow with an amplitude reaching about 50% of the convective RMS velocity at the respective depth. The simulated sunspots show helioseismic signatures (frequency dependent travel time shifts) similar to those in observed sunspots. On the other hand it is clear from the simulations that these signatures originate in the upper most 2-3 Mm of the convection zone, since only there substantial perturbations of the wave speed are present. The contributions from deeper layers are insignificant, in particular a direct comparison between an 8 Mm and 16 Mm deep simulation leads to indiscernible helioseismic differences. The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation. This work is in part supported
Numerical simulation of flow generated in a closed water areas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Narisu; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Katayama, Yuki; Watanabe, Masaji
2016-02-01
Techniques to analyze the bottom topography in a closed water area are described. Positioning data are recorded with a global positioning system, and depth data are recorded with an echo sounder. Positioning data and depth data are synchronized to generate three-dimensional topographical data. Errors due to ship's movement are corrected using outputs from a clinometer and a compass. The change due to sedimentation is investigated for the bottom topography of Kojima Lake. We describe numerical techniques based on a finite-element method and an explicit time integration method to analyze flow generated in Kojima Lake.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, John A.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.; Lewandowski, Henry; Homer, Patrick T.; Schlichting, Richard D.
1996-01-01
The NASA Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) project is exploring the use of computer simulation to facilitate the design of new jet engines. Several key issues raised in this research are being examined in an NPSS-related research project: zooming, monitoring and control, and support for heterogeneity. The design of a simulation executive that addresses each of these issues is described. In this work, the strategy of zooming, which allows codes that model at different levels of fidelity to be integrated within a single simulation, is applied to the fan component of a turbofan propulsion system. A prototype monitoring and control system has been designed for this simulation to support experimentation with expert system techniques for active control of the simulation. An interconnection system provides a transparent means of connecting the heterogeneous systems that comprise the prototype.
Towards an Automated Full-Turbofan Engine Numerical Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, John A.; Turner, Mark G.; Norris, Andrew; Veres, Joseph P.
2003-01-01
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the high-fidelity numerical simulation of a modern high-bypass turbofan engine. The simulation utilizes the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) thermodynamic cycle modeling system coupled to a high-fidelity full-engine model represented by a set of coupled three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) component models. Boundary conditions from the balanced, steady-state cycle model are used to define component boundary conditions in the full-engine model. Operating characteristics of the three-dimensional component models are integrated into the cycle model via partial performance maps generated automatically from the CFD flow solutions using one-dimensional meanline turbomachinery programs. This paper reports on the progress made towards the full-engine simulation of the GE90-94B engine, highlighting the generation of the high-pressure compressor partial performance map. The ongoing work will provide a system to evaluate the steady and unsteady aerodynamic and mechanical interactions between engine components at design and off-design operating conditions.
Numerical simulation of supersonic wake flow with parallel computers
Wong, C.C.; Soetrisno, M.
1995-07-01
Simulating a supersonic wake flow field behind a conical body is a computing intensive task. It requires a large number of computational cells to capture the dominant flow physics and a robust numerical algorithm to obtain a reliable solution. High performance parallel computers with unique distributed processing and data storage capability can provide this need. They have larger computational memory and faster computing time than conventional vector computers. We apply the PINCA Navier-Stokes code to simulate a wind-tunnel supersonic wake experiment on Intel Gamma, Intel Paragon, and IBM SP2 parallel computers. These simulations are performed to study the mean flow in the near wake region of a sharp, 7-degree half-angle, adiabatic cone at Mach number 4.3 and freestream Reynolds number of 40,600. Overall the numerical solutions capture the general features of the hypersonic laminar wake flow and compare favorably with the wind tunnel data. With a refined and clustering grid distribution in the recirculation zone, the calculated location of the rear stagnation point is consistent with the 2D axisymmetric and 3D experiments. In this study, we also demonstrate the importance of having a large local memory capacity within a computer node and the effective utilization of the number of computer nodes to achieve good parallel performance when simulating a complex, large-scale wake flow problem.
Direct numerical simulation of nonpremixed flame-wall interactions
Wang, Yi; Trouve, Arnaud
2006-02-01
The objective of the present study is to use detailed numerical modeling to obtain basic information on the interaction of nonpremixed flames with cold wall surfaces. The questions of turbulent fuel-air-temperature mixing, flame extinction, and wall-surface heat transfer are studied using direct numerical simulation (DNS). The DNS configuration corresponds to an ethylene-air diffusion flame stabilized in the near-wall region of a chemically inert solid surface. Simulations are performed with adiabatic or isothermal wall boundary conditions and with different turbulence intensities. The simulations feature flame extinction events resulting from excessive wall cooling and convective heat transfer rates up to 90 kW/m{sup 2}. The structure of the simulated wall flames is studied in terms of a classical mass-mixing variable, the fuel-air based mixture fraction, and a less familiar heat loss variable, the excess enthalpy variable, introduced to provide a measure of nonadiabatic behavior due to wall cooling. In addition to the flame structure, extinction events are also studied in detail and a modified flame extinction criterion that combines the concepts of mixture fraction and excess enthalpy is proposed and then tested against the DNS data. (author)
Numerical Simulation of Ferrofluid Flow for Subsurface Environmental Engineering Applications
Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Moridis, George J.
1997-05-05
Ferrofluids are suspensions of magnetic particles of diameter approximately 10 nm stabilized by surfactants in carrier liquids. The large magnetic susceptibility of ferrofluids allows the mobilization of ferrofluid through permeable rock and soil by the application of strong external magnetic fields. We have developed simulation capabilities for both miscible and immiscible conceptualizations of ferrofluid flow through porous media in response to magnetic forces arising from the magnetic field of a rectangular permanent magnet. The flow of ferrofluid is caused by the magnetization of the particles and their attraction toward a magnet, regardless of the orientation of the magnet. The steps involved in calculating the flow of ferrofluid are (1) calculation of the external magnetic field, (2) calculation of the gradient of the external magnetic field, (3) calculation of the magnetization of the ferrofluid, and (4) assembly of the magnetic body force term and addition of this term to the standard pressure gradient and gravity force terms. We compare numerical simulations to laboratory measurements of the magnetic field, fluid pressures, and the two-dimensional flow of ferrofluid to demonstrate the applicability of the methods coded in the numerical simulators. We present an example of the use of the simulator for a field-scale application of ferrofluids for barrier verification.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Seong, Tae-Je
The similarity of item and ability parameter estimations was investigated using two numerical analysis techniques via marginal maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE) with a large simulated data set (n=1,000 examinees) and changing the number of quadrature points. MMLE estimation uses a numerical analysis technique to integrate examinees' abilities…
Numerical Simulation of Liquid Nitrogen Chilldown of a Vertical Tube
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Darr, Samuel; Hu, Hong; Schaeffer, Reid; Chung, Jacob; Hartwig, Jason; Majumdar, Alok
2015-01-01
This paper presents the results of a one-dimensional numerical simulation of the transient chilldown of a vertical stainless steel tube with liquid nitrogen. The direction of flow is downward (with gravity) through the tube. Heat transfer correlations for film, transition, and nucleate boiling, as well as critical heat flux, rewetting temperature, and the temperature at the onset of nucleate boiling were used to model the convection to the tube wall. Chilldown curves from the simulations were compared with data from 55 recent liquid nitrogen chilldown experiments. With these new correlations the simulation is able to predict the time to rewetting temperature and time to onset of nucleate boiling to within 25% for mass fluxes ranging from 61.2 to 1150 kg/(sq m s), inlet pressures from 175 to 817 kPa, and subcooled inlet temperatures from 0 to 14 K below the saturation temperature.
Numerical simulation of radiative heat loss in an experimental burner
Cloutman, L.D.; Brookshaw, L.
1993-09-01
We describe the numerical algorithm used in the COYOTE two-dimensional, transient, Eulerian hydrodynamics program to allow for radiative heat losses in simulations of reactive flows. The model is intended primarily for simulations of industrial burners, but it is not confined to that application. It assumes that the fluid is optically thin and that photons created by the fluid immediately escape to free space or to the surrounding walls, depending upon the application. The use of the model is illustrated by simulations of a laboratory-scale experimental burner. We find that the radiative heat losses reduce the local temperature of the combustion products by a modest amount, typically on the order of 50 K. However, they have a significant impact on NO{sub x} production.
Numerical simulation of experiments in the Giant Planet Facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Green, M. J.; Davy, W. C.
1979-01-01
Utilizing a series of existing computer codes, ablation experiments in the Giant Planet Facility are numerically simulated. Of primary importance is the simulation of the low Mach number shock layer that envelops the test model. The RASLE shock-layer code, used in the Jupiter entry probe heat-shield design, is adapted to the experimental conditions. RASLE predictions for radiative and convective heat fluxes are in good agreement with calorimeter measurements. In simulating carbonaceous ablation experiments, the RASLE code is coupled directly with the CMA material response code. For the graphite models, predicted and measured recessions agree very well. Predicted recession for the carbon phenolic models is 50% higher than that measured. This is the first time codes used for the Jupiter probe design have been compared with experiments.
Numerical simulation of radiative heat loss in an experimental burner
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cloutman, L. D.; Brookshaw, L.
1993-09-01
We describe the numerical algorithm used in the COYOTE two-dimensional, transient, Eulerian hydrodynamics program to allow for radiative heat losses in simulations of reactive flows. The model is intended primarily for simulations of industrial burners, but it is not confined to that application. It assumes that the fluid is optically thin and that photons created by the fluid immediately escape to free space or to the surrounding walls, depending upon the application. The use of the model is illustrated by simulations of a laboratory-scale experimental burner. We find that the radiative heat losses reduce the local temperature of the combustion products by a modest amount, typically on the order of 50 K. However, they have a significant impact on NO(x) production.
Numerical simulation and modeling of combustion in scramjets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Ryan James
In the last fifteen years the development of a viable scramjet has quickly approached the following long term goals: responsive sub-orbital space access; long-range, prompt global strike; and high-speed transportation. Nonetheless, there are significant challenges that need to be resolved. These challenges include high skin friction drag and high heat transfer rates, inherent to vehicles in sustained, hypersonic flight. Another challenge is sustaining combustion. Numerical simulation and modeling was performed to provide insight into reducing skin friction drag and sustaining combustion. Numerical simulation was used to investigate boundary layer combustion, which has been shown to reduce skin friction drag. The objective of the numerical simulations was to quantify the effect of fuel injection parameters on boundary layer combustion and ultimately on the change in the skin friction coefficient and heat transfer rate. A qualitative analysis of the results suggest that the reduction in the skin friction coefficient depends on multiple parameters and potentially an interaction between parameters. Sustained combustion can be achieved through a stabilized detonation wave. Additionally, stabilizing a detonation wave will yield rapid combustion. This will allow for a shorter and lighter-weight engine system, resulting in less required combustor cooling. A stabilized detonation wave was numerically modeled for various inlet and geometric cases. The effect of fuel concentration, inlet Mach number, and geometric configuration on the stability of a detonation wave was quantified. Correlations were established between fuel concentration, inlet speed, geometric configuration and parameters characterizing the detonation wave. A linear relationship was quantified between the fuel concentration and the parameters characterizing the detonation wave.
Numerical simulation of space debris impacts on the Whipple shield
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katayama, M.; Toda, S.; Kibe, S.
1997-06-01
The authors carried out three series of experimental tests of the first bumper perforation and main wall cratering processes directly caused by three types of projectiles with about 2, 4 and 7 km s -1 impact velocities but comparable initial kinetic energies, by using three different accelerators (one-stage powder gun, two-stage light-gas gun and rail gun), for the purpose of investigating space debris hypervelocity impacts onto single-walled Whipple bumper shields [1]. In the present study, after reviewing the numerical simulation method of hydrocode for both Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions, a number of parametric numerical simulation analyses using multiple material Eulerian methods were performed in order to optimize the material properties of bumper and main wall materials through comparison with experimental results of single target impacts by the projectiles. In particular, the material data on the dynamic fracture phenomena are discussed in detail in the first part. Then a couple of numerical calculations using the interactive Lagrangian rezoning method to simulate the overall impact process against the single walled Whipple shield were performed and compared with the corresponding experimental results. Both results indicated fairly good agreement with each other. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the present method is helpful and efficient in understanding the impact phenomena and fracture mechanism in the space debris hypervelocity impact problem. Finally the multiple material Eulerian method was applied to the same problems modeled by the interactive Lagrangian rezoning method used previously, because the former is much easier to use for almost all users, although it is more diffusive and unclear of material boundaries than the latter. Those two kinds of numerical results also indicated fairly good agreements with each other.
Numerical simulations of strongly correlated electron and spin systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Changlani, Hitesh Jaiprakash
Developing analytical and numerical tools for strongly correlated systems is a central challenge for the condensed matter physics community. In the absence of exact solutions and controlled analytical approximations, numerical techniques have often contributed to our understanding of these systems. Exact Diagonalization (ED) requires the storage of at least two vectors the size of the Hilbert space under consideration (which grows exponentially with system size) which makes it affordable only for small systems. The Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) uses an intelligent Hilbert space truncation procedure to significantly reduce this cost, but in its present formulation is limited to quasi-1D systems. Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) maps the Schrodinger equation to the diffusion equation (in imaginary time) and only samples the eigenvector over time, thereby avoiding the memory limitation. However, the stochasticity involved in the method gives rise to the "sign problem" characteristic of fermion and frustrated spin systems. The first part of this thesis is an effort to make progress in the development of a numerical technique which overcomes the above mentioned problems. We consider novel variational wavefunctions, christened "Correlator Product States" (CPS), that have a general functional form which hopes to capture essential correlations in the ground states of spin and fermion systems in any dimension. We also consider a recent proposal to modify projector (Green's Function) Quantum Monte Carlo to ameliorate the sign problem for realistic and model Hamiltonians (such as the Hubbard model). This exploration led to our own set of improvements, primarily a semistochastic formulation of projector Quantum Monte Carlo. Despite their limitations, existing numerical techniques can yield physical insights into a wide variety of problems. The second part of this thesis considers one such numerical technique - DMRG - and adapts it to study the Heisenberg antiferromagnet
Direct numerical simulation of sharkskin denticles in turbulent channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boomsma, A.; Sotiropoulos, F.
2016-03-01
The hydrodynamic function of sharkskin has been under investigation for the past 30 years. Current literature conflicts on whether sharkskin is able to reduce skin friction similar to riblets. To contribute insights toward reconciling these conflicting views, direct numerical simulations are carried out to obtain detailed flow fields around realistic denticles. A sharp interface immersed boundary method is employed to simulate two arrangements of actual sharkskin denticles (from Isurus oxyrinchus) in a turbulent boundary layer at Reτ ≈ 180. For comparison, turbulent flow over drag-reducing scalloped riblets is also simulated with similar flow conditions and with the same numerical method. Although the denticles resemble riblets, both sharkskin arrangements increase total drag by 44%-50%, while the riblets reduce drag by 5%. Analysis of the simulated flow fields shows that the turbulent flow around denticles is highly three-dimensional and separated, with 25% of the total drag being form drag. The complex three-dimensional shape of the denticles gives rise to a mean flow dominated by strong secondary flows in sharp contrast with the mean flow generated by riblets, which is largely two-dimensional. The so resulting three-dimensionality of sharkskin flows leads to an increase in the magnitude of the turbulent statistics near the denticles, which further contributes to increasing the total drag. The simulations also show that, at least for the simulated arrangements, sharkskin, in sharp contrast with drag-reducing riblets, is unable to isolate high shear stress near denticle ridges causing a significant portion of the denticle surface to be exposed to high mean shear.
Tong, S.S.; Powell, D.; Goel, S. GE Consulting Services, Albany, NY )
1992-02-01
A new software system called Engineous combines artificial intelligence and numerical methods for the design and optimization of complex aerospace systems. Engineous combines the advanced computational techniques of genetic algorithms, expert systems, and object-oriented programming with the conventional methods of numerical optimization and simulated annealing to create a design optimization environment that can be applied to computational models in various disciplines. Engineous has produced designs with higher predicted performance gains that current manual design processes - on average a 10-to-1 reduction of turnaround time - and has yielded new insights into product design. It has been applied to the aerodynamic preliminary design of an aircraft engine turbine, concurrent aerodynamic and mechanical preliminary design of an aircraft engine turbine blade and disk, a space superconductor generator, a satellite power converter, and a nuclear-powered satellite reactor and shield. 23 refs.
Numerical simulation of airflow in the human nose.
Weinhold, Ivo; Mlynski, Gunter
2004-09-01
Unobstructed air passageways as well as sufficient contact of the air stream with the mucous membrane are essential for the correct function of the nose. For that, local flow phenomena, which often cannot be captured by standard diagnostic methods, are important. We developed and validated a method for the numerical simulation of the nasal airflow. Two anatomically correct, transparent resin models of human nasal cavities, manufactured by a special casting technology, and the nasal cavities of two patients were reconstructed as Computer Aided Design models based on computed tomography (CT) scans. One of the nasal models and one clinical case represented a normal nasal anatomy, while the others were examples of pathological alterations. The velocity and pressure fields in these reconstructed cavities were calculated for the entire range of physiological nasal inspiration using commercially available computational fluid dynamics software. To validate the results rhinoresistometric data were measured and characteristic streamlines were videotaped for the resin models. The numerical results were in good agreement with the experimental data for the investigated cases. An example of a complex clinical case demonstrates the potential benefit of the developed simulation method for rhinosurgical planning. The results support the assumption that even under the specific conditions of the clinical practice the application of numerical simulation of nasal airflow phenomena may become realistic in the near future. However, important technical issues such as a completely automated reconstruction of the nasal cavity still need to be resolved before such simulations are efficient and cost effective enough to become a standard tool for the rhinologist. PMID:14652769
Numerical simulation of steam injection processes with solvent
Zerpa, L.; Mendez, Z.
1995-12-31
In Venezuela during recent years, gas oil has been evaluated as an additive to increase steam injection process efficiency. The results of laboratory and field tests have shown a significant improvement in the production behavior. Despite these experiences, it is necessary to complement the information with results obtained from numerical simulation studies in order to know injection parameter effects, such as gas oil concentration, schemes and rates of injection, temperatures, etc., and also some mechanisms involved in the process. In this work, the results achieved in the numerical simulation of displacement tests with steam and gas oil are presented. A fully implicit 2-D thermal, three-phase compositional simulator was used to obtain all the data presented in this paper The numerical simulation results show a similar oil production performance to those obtained in the displacement tests with injection of gas oil and steam simultaneously. These results indicate rising of the production rate when the solvent concentration increases. They also reveal that the solvent co-injection scheme improves the productivity in relation to the gas oil pre-injection at low temperature. However, when gas oil is pre-injected at higher temperature, the oil production performance is similar to the co-injection scheme performance. This can attribute to the favorable temperature effect on the diffusion mechanisms. On the other hand, an increase of the gas oil injection rate causes a productivity reduction. In addition, the gas oil capacity to remove more viscous fractions than the original crude was verified. It was determined that the gas oil light fraction volatilization contributes to the process improvement. In general, these results confirm the benefit of using solvent and contribute to the understanding of process mechanisms.
Stochastic algorithms for the analysis of numerical flame simulations
Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Lijewski, Michael J.
2001-12-14
Recent progress in simulation methodologies and new, high-performance parallel architectures have made it is possible to perform detailed simulations of multidimensional combustion phenomena using comprehensive kinetics mechanisms. However, as simulation complexity increases, it becomes increasingly difficult to extract detailed quantitative information about the flame from the numerical solution, particularly regarding the details of chemical processes. In this paper we present a new diagnostic tool for analysis of numerical simulations of combustion phenomena. Our approach is based on recasting an Eulerian flow solution in a Lagrangian frame. Unlike a conventional Lagrangian viewpoint in which we follow the evolution of a volume of the fluid, we instead follow specific chemical elements, e.g., carbon, nitrogen, etc., as they move through the system. From this perspective an ''atom'' is part of some molecule that is transported through the domain by advection and diffusion. Reactions ca use the atom to shift from one species to another with the subsequent transport given by the movement of the new species. We represent these processes using a stochastic particle formulation that treats advection deterministically and models diffusion as a suitable random-walk process. Within this probabilistic framework, reactions can be viewed as a Markov process transforming molecule to molecule with given probabilities. In this paper, we discuss the numerical issues in more detail and demonstrate that an ensemble of stochastic trajectories can accurately capture key features of the continuum solution. We also illustrate how the method can be applied to studying the role of cyanochemistry on NOx production in a diffusion flame.
Stochastic algorithms for the analysis of numerical flame simulations
Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Lijewski, Michael J.
2004-04-26
Recent progress in simulation methodologies and high-performance parallel computers have made it is possible to perform detailed simulations of multidimensional reacting flow phenomena using comprehensive kinetics mechanisms. As simulations become larger and more complex, it becomes increasingly difficult to extract useful information from the numerical solution, particularly regarding the interactions of the chemical reaction and diffusion processes. In this paper we present a new diagnostic tool for analysis of numerical simulations of reacting flow. Our approach is based on recasting an Eulerian flow solution in a Lagrangian frame. Unlike a conventional Lagrangian view point that follows the evolution of a volume of the fluid, we instead follow specific chemical elements, e.g., carbon, nitrogen, etc., as they move through the system . From this perspective an ''atom'' is part of some molecule of a species that is transported through the domain by advection and diffusion. Reactions cause the atom to shift from one chemical host species to another and the subsequent transport of the atom is given by the movement of the new species. We represent these processes using a stochastic particle formulation that treats advection deterministically and models diffusion and chemistry as stochastic processes. In this paper, we discuss the numerical issues in detail and demonstrate that an ensemble of stochastic trajectories can accurately capture key features of the continuum solution. The capabilities of this diagnostic are then demonstrated by applications to study the modulation of carbon chemistry during a vortex-flame interaction, and the role of cyano chemistry in rm NO{sub x} production for a steady diffusion flame.
Numerical and experimental approaches to simulate soil clogging in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanarska, Yuliya; LLNL Team
2012-11-01
Failure of a dam by erosion ranks among the most serious accidents in civil engineering. The best way to prevent internal erosion is using adequate granular filters in the transition areas where important hydraulic gradients can appear. In case of cracking and erosion, if the filter is capable of retaining the eroded particles, the crack will seal and the dam safety will be ensured. A finite element numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for fluid flow together with Lagrange multiplier technique for solid particles was applied to the simulation of soil filtration. The numerical approach was validated through comparison of numerical simulations with the experimental results of base soil particle clogging in the filter layers performed at ERDC. The numerical simulation correctly predicted flow and pressure decay due to particle clogging. The base soil particle distribution was almost identical to those measured in the laboratory experiment. To get more precise understanding of the soil transport in granular filters we investigated sensitivity of particle clogging mechanisms to various aspects such as particle size ration, the amplitude of hydraulic gradient, particle concentration and contact properties. By averaging the results derived from the grain-scale simulations, we investigated how those factors affect the semi-empirical multiphase model parameters in the large-scale simulation tool. The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate provided funding for this research.
Computer Science Techniques Applied to Parallel Atomistic Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakano, Aiichiro
1998-03-01
Recent developments in parallel processing technology and multiresolution numerical algorithms have established large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations as a new research mode for studying materials phenomena such as fracture. However, this requires large system sizes and long simulated times. We have developed: i) Space-time multiresolution schemes; ii) fuzzy-clustering approach to hierarchical dynamics; iii) wavelet-based adaptive curvilinear-coordinate load balancing; iv) multilevel preconditioned conjugate gradient method; and v) spacefilling-curve-based data compression for parallel I/O. Using these techniques, million-atom parallel MD simulations are performed for the oxidation dynamics of nanocrystalline Al. The simulations take into account the effect of dynamic charge transfer between Al and O using the electronegativity equalization scheme. The resulting long-range Coulomb interaction is calculated efficiently with the fast multipole method. Results for temperature and charge distributions, residual stresses, bond lengths and bond angles, and diffusivities of Al and O will be presented. The oxidation of nanocrystalline Al is elucidated through immersive visualization in virtual environments. A unique dual-degree education program at Louisiana State University will also be discussed in which students can obtain a Ph.D. in Physics & Astronomy and a M.S. from the Department of Computer Science in five years. This program fosters interdisciplinary research activities for interfacing High Performance Computing and Communications with large-scale atomistic simulations of advanced materials. This work was supported by NSF (CAREER Program), ARO, PRF, and Louisiana LEQSF.
Numerical simulation of multi-dimensional two-phase flow based on flux vector splitting
Staedtke, H.; Franchello, G.; Worth, B.
1995-09-01
This paper describes a new approach to the numerical simulation of transient, multidimensional two-phase flow. The development is based on a fully hyperbolic two-fluid model of two-phase flow using separated conservation equations for the two phases. Features of the new model include the existence of real eigenvalues, and a complete set of independent eigenvectors which can be expressed algebraically in terms of the major dependent flow parameters. This facilitates the application of numerical techniques specifically developed for high speed single-phase gas flows which combine signal propagation along characteristic lines with the conservation property with respect to mass, momentum and energy. Advantages of the new model for the numerical simulation of one- and two- dimensional two-phase flow are discussed.
Direct numerical simulations of a reacting mixing layer with chemical heat release
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcmurtry, P. A.; Jou, W.-H.; Metcalfe, R. W.; Riley, J. J.
1985-01-01
In order to study the coupling between chemical heat release and fluid dynamics, direct numerical simulations of a chemically reacting mixing layer with heat release are performed. The fully compressible equations as well as an approximate set of equations that is asymptotically valid for low-Mach-number flows are treated. These latter equations have the computational advantage that high-frequency acoustic waves have been filtered out, allowing much larger time steps to be taken in the numerical solution procedure. A detailed derivation of these equations along with an outline of the numerical solution technique is given. Simulation results indicate that the rate of chemical product formed, the thickness of the mixing layer, and the amount of mass entrained into the layer all decrease with increasing rates of heat release.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simons, Neil Richard Samuel
In this thesis the development and application of general purpose computer simulation techniques for macroscopic electromagnetic phenomena are investigated. These techniques are applicable to a wide variety of practical problems pertaining to: Electromagnetic Compatibility and Interference, Radar-Cross-Section, and the analysis and design of antennas. The goal of this research is to examine methods that are applicable to a wide variety of problems rather than specialized approaches that are only useful for specific problems. A brief review of the computational electromagnetics literature indicates two general types of methods are applicable. These are numerical approximation of integral-equation formulations and numerical approximation of differential-equation formulations. Because of their relative efficiency for inhomogeneous geometries, the direction of the thesis proceeds with numerical approximations to differential-equation based formulations. The differential-equation based numerical methods include various finite-difference, finite-element, finite -volume, and transmission line matrix methods. A literature review and overview of these numerical methods is provided. The goal of the overview is to provide the capability for the classification for existing and future differential equation based numerical methods to identify relative advantages and disadvantages. Extensions to the two-dimensional transmission line matrix method are presented. The extensions are intended to provide some of the flexibility traditionally associated with finite-difference and finite-element methods. Three new two-dimensional models are presented. Two of the new models utilize triangular rather than the usual rectangular spatial discretization. The third model introduces the capability of higher-order spatial accuracy. The efficiency and application of the new models are discussed. The development of two general-purpose electromagnetic simulation programs is presented. Both are
Characterizing a faulted aquifer by field testing and numerical simulation.
Allen, D M; Michel, F A
1999-01-01
Faulted aquifers constitute one of the most complex geological environments for analysis and interpretation of hydraulic test data because of the inherent ability of faults to act not only as highly transmissive zones but also as hydraulic barriers. Previous studies of the fractured carbonate aquifer at Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, characterized the flow regime as predominantly linear, but with limited radial nature, and undertook to analyze constant discharge test data using both radial and linear flow models. When used as direct input to a numerical model, the hydraulic parameters, calculated directly from hydraulic test data, were inappropriate and resulted in a poorly calibrated model. While our interpretation of the faulted aquifer remains linear-radial in nature, parameter estimation by numerical simulation highlighted the presence of hydraulic barriers associated with the faults. These barriers are not readily apparent in the constant discharge test data and act to modify the hydraulic test curves at early to mid time, leading to incorrect estimates of the hydraulic parameters. This paper describes the conceptual model and the numerical approach, and demonstrates the importance of using transient simulations for model calibration. PMID:19125925
Utilizing numerical techniques in turbofan inlet acoustic suppressor design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baumeister, K. J.
Numerical theories in conjunction with previously published analytical results are used to augment current analytical theories in the acoustic design of a turbofan inlet nacelle. In particular, a finite element-integral theory is used to study the effect of the inlet lip radius on the far field radiation pattern and to determine the optimum impedance in an actual engine environment. For some single mode JT15D data, the numerical theory and experiment are found to be in a good agreement.
Numerical Simulations of Two Wildfire Events Using a Combined Modeling System (HIGRAD/BEHAVE)
Reisner, J.; Bossert, J.; Winterkamp, J.
1997-12-31
The ability to accurately forecast the spread of a wildfire would significantly reduce human suffering and loss of life, the destruction of property, and expenditures for assessment and recovery. To help achieve this goal we have developed a model which accurately simulates the interactions between winds and the heat source associated with a wildfire. We have termed our new model HIGRAD or High resolution model for strong GRA-Dient applications. HIGRAD employs a sophisticated numerical technique to prevent numerical Oscillations from occurring in the vicinity of the lire. Of importance for fire modeling, HIGRAD uses a numerical technique which allows for the use of a compressible equation set, but without the time-step restrictions associated with the propagation of sound-waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Hanjun; Zhao, Jianguo; Tang, Genyang; Ma, Xiaoyi; Wang, Shangxu
2016-06-01
Differential acoustic resonance spectroscopy (DARS) has been developed to determine the elastic properties of saturated rocks within the kHz frequency range. This laboratory technique is based on considerations from perturbation theory, wherein the resonance frequencies of the resonant cavity with and without a perturbation sample are used to estimate the acoustic properties of the test sample. In order to better understand the operating mechanism of DARS and therefore optimize the procedure, it is important to develop an accurate and efficient numerical model. Accordingly, this study presents a new multiphysics model by coupling together considerations from acoustics, solid mechanics, and electrostatics. The numerical results reveal that the newly developed model can successfully simulate the acoustic pressure field at different resonance modes, and that it can accurately reflect the measurement process. Based on the understanding of the DARS system afforded by the numerical simulation, we refine the system configuration by utilizing cavities of different lengths and appropriate radii to broaden the frequency bandwidth and ensure testing accuracy. Four synthetic samples are measured to test the performance of the optimized DARS system, in conjunction with ultrasonic and static measurements. For nonporous samples, the estimated bulk moduli are shown to be independent of the different measurement methods (i.e. DARS or ultrasonic techniques). In contrast, for sealed porous samples, the differences in bulk moduli between the low- and high-frequency techniques can be clearly observed; this discrepancy is attributed to frequency dispersion. In summary, the optimized DARS system with an extended frequency range of 500–2000 Hz demonstrates considerable utility in investigating the frequency dependence of the acoustic properties of reservoir rocks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Hanjun; Zhao, Jianguo; Tang, Genyang; Ma, Xiaoyi; Wang, Shangxu
2016-06-01
Differential acoustic resonance spectroscopy (DARS) has been developed to determine the elastic properties of saturated rocks within the kHz frequency range. This laboratory technique is based on considerations from perturbation theory, wherein the resonance frequencies of the resonant cavity with and without a perturbation sample are used to estimate the acoustic properties of the test sample. In order to better understand the operating mechanism of DARS and therefore optimize the procedure, it is important to develop an accurate and efficient numerical model. Accordingly, this study presents a new multiphysics model by coupling together considerations from acoustics, solid mechanics, and electrostatics. The numerical results reveal that the newly developed model can successfully simulate the acoustic pressure field at different resonance modes, and that it can accurately reflect the measurement process. Based on the understanding of the DARS system afforded by the numerical simulation, we refine the system configuration by utilizing cavities of different lengths and appropriate radii to broaden the frequency bandwidth and ensure testing accuracy. Four synthetic samples are measured to test the performance of the optimized DARS system, in conjunction with ultrasonic and static measurements. For nonporous samples, the estimated bulk moduli are shown to be independent of the different measurement methods (i.e. DARS or ultrasonic techniques). In contrast, for sealed porous samples, the differences in bulk moduli between the low- and high-frequency techniques can be clearly observed; this discrepancy is attributed to frequency dispersion. In summary, the optimized DARS system with an extended frequency range of 500-2000 Hz demonstrates considerable utility in investigating the frequency dependence of the acoustic properties of reservoir rocks.
Numerical simulation of multi-layered textile composite reinforcement forming
Wang, P.; Hamila, N.; Boisse, P.
2011-05-04
One important perspective in aeronautics is to produce large, thick or/and complex structural composite parts. The forming stage presents an important role during the whole manufacturing process, especially for LCM processes (Liquid Composites Moulding) or CFRTP (Continuous Fibre Reinforcements and Thermoplastic resin). Numerical simulations corresponding to multi-layered composite forming allow the prediction for a successful process to produce the thick parts, and importantly, the positions of the fibres after forming to be known. This paper details a set of simulation examples carried out by using a semi-discrete shell finite element made up of unit woven cells. The internal virtual work is applied on all woven cells of the element taking into account tensions, in-plane shear and bending effects. As one key problem, the contact behaviours of tool/ply and ply/ply are described in the numerical model. The simulation results not only improve our understanding of the multi-layered composite forming process but also point out the importance of the fibre orientation and inter-ply friction during formability.
Numerical simulation of multi-layered textile composite reinforcement forming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, P.; Hamila, N.; Boisse, P.
2011-05-01
One important perspective in aeronautics is to produce large, thick or/and complex structural composite parts. The forming stage presents an important role during the whole manufacturing process, especially for LCM processes (Liquid Composites Moulding) or CFRTP (Continuous Fibre Reinforcements and Thermoplastic resin). Numerical simulations corresponding to multi-layered composite forming allow the prediction for a successful process to produce the thick parts, and importantly, the positions of the fibres after forming to be known. This paper details a set of simulation examples carried out by using a semi-discrete shell finite element made up of unit woven cells. The internal virtual work is applied on all woven cells of the element taking into account tensions, in-plane shear and bending effects. As one key problem, the contact behaviours of tool/ply and ply/ply are described in the numerical model. The simulation results not only improve our understanding of the multi-layered composite forming process but also point out the importance of the fibre orientation and inter-ply friction during formability.
Numerical simulation of the non-Newtonian mixing layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Azaiez, Jalel; Homsy, G. M.
1993-01-01
This work is a continuing effort to advance our understanding of the effects of polymer additives on the structures of the mixing layer. In anticipation of full nonlinear simulations of the non-Newtonian mixing layer, we examined in a first stage the linear stability of the non-Newtonian mixing layer. The results of this study show that, for a fluid described by the Oldroyd-B model, viscoelasticity reduces the instability of the inviscid mixing layer in a special limit where the ratio (We/Re) is of order 1 where We is the Weissenberg number, a measure of the elasticity of the flow, and Re is the Reynolds number. In the present study, we pursue this project with numerical simulations of the non-Newtonian mixing layer. Our primary objective is to determine the effects of viscoelasticity on the roll-up structure. We also examine the origin of the numerical instabilities usually encountered in the simulations of non-Newtonian fluids.
NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF CORONAL HEATING THROUGH FOOTPOINT BRAIDING
Hansteen, V.; Pontieu, B. De; Carlsson, M.; Guerreiro, N. E-mail: mats.carlsson@astro.uio.no E-mail: bdp@lmsal.com
2015-10-01
Advanced three-dimensional (3D) radiative MHD simulations now reproduce many properties of the outer solar atmosphere. When including a domain from the convection zone into the corona, a hot chromosphere and corona are self-consistently maintained. Here we study two realistic models, with different simulated areas, magnetic field strength and topology, and numerical resolution. These are compared in order to characterize the heating in the 3D-MHD simulations which self-consistently maintains the structure of the atmosphere. We analyze the heating at both large and small scales and find that heating is episodic and highly structured in space, but occurs along loop-shaped structures, and moves along with the magnetic field. On large scales we find that the heating per particle is maximal near the transition region and that widely distributed opposite-polarity field in the photosphere leads to a greater heating scale height in the corona. On smaller scales, heating is concentrated in current sheets, the thicknesses of which are set by the numerical resolution. Some current sheets fragment in time, this process occurring more readily in the higher-resolution model leading to spatially highly intermittent heating. The large-scale heating structures are found to fade in less than about five minutes, while the smaller, local, heating shows timescales of the order of two minutes in one model and one minutes in the other, higher-resolution, model.
Using Numerical Modeling to Simulate Space Capsule Ground Landings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heymsfield, Ernie; Fasanella, Edwin L.
2009-01-01
Experimental work is being conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) to investigate ground landing capabilities of the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The Orion capsule is NASA s replacement for the Space Shuttle. The Orion capsule will service the International Space Station and be used for future space missions to the Moon and to Mars. To evaluate the feasibility of Orion ground landings, a series of capsule impact tests are being performed at the NASA Langley Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR). The experimental results derived at LandIR provide means to validate and calibrate nonlinear dynamic finite element models, which are also being developed during this study. Because of the high cost and time involvement intrinsic to full-scale testing, numerical simulations are favored over experimental work. Subsequent to a numerical model validated by actual test responses, impact simulations will be conducted to study multiple impact scenarios not practical to test. Twenty-one swing tests using the LandIR gantry were conducted during the June 07 through October 07 time period to evaluate the Orion s impact response. Results for two capsule initial pitch angles, 0deg and -15deg , along with their computer simulations using LS-DYNA are presented in this article. A soil-vehicle friction coefficient of 0.45 was determined by comparing the test stopping distance with computer simulations. In addition, soil modeling accuracy is presented by comparing vertical penetrometer impact tests with computer simulations for the soil model used during the swing tests.
Numerical simulation of MHD shock waves in the solar wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steinolfson, R. S.; Dryer, M.
1978-01-01
The effects of the interplanetary magnetic field on the propagation speed of shock waves through an ambient solar wind are examined by numerical solutions of the time-dependent nonlinear equations of motion. The magnetic field always increases the velocity of strong shocks. Although the field may temporarily slow down weak shocks inside 1 AU, it eventually also causes weak shocks to travel faster than they would without the magnetic field at larger distances. Consistent with the increase in the shock velocity, the gas pressure ratio across a shock is reduced considerably in the presence of the magnetic field. The numerical method is used to simulate (starting at 0.3 AU) the large deceleration of a shock observed in the lower corona by ground-based radio instrumentation and the more gradual deceleration of the shock in the solar wind observed by the Pioneer 9 and Pioneer 10 spacecraft.
Efficient numerical simulation of electron states in quantum wires
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kerkhoven, Thomas; Galick, Albert T.; Ravaioli, Umberto; Arends, John H.; Saad, Youcef
1990-01-01
A new algorithm is presented for the numerical simulation of electrons in a quantum wire as described by a two-dimensional eigenvalue problem for Schroedinger's equation coupled with Poisson's equation. Initially, the algorithm employs an underrelaxed fixed point iteration to generate an approximation which is reasonably close to the solution. Subsequently, this approximate solution is employed as an initial guess for a Jacobian-free implementation of an approximate Newton method. In this manner the nonlinearity in the model is dealt with effectively. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated in a set of numerical experiments which study the electron states on the cross section of a quantum wire structure based on III-V semiconductors at 4.2 and 77 K.
A Numerical simulation of transition in plane channel flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goglia, G.; Biringen, S.
1982-01-01
A numerical simulation of the final stages of transition to turbulence in plane channel flow at a Reynolds number of 7500 is described. Three dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are numerically integrated to obtain the time evolution of two and three dimensional finite amplitude disturbances. Computations are performed on the CYBER-203 vector processor for a 32 by 33 by 32 grid. Solutions indicate the existence of structures similar to those observed in the laboratory and which are characteristic of various stages of transition that lead to final breakdown. Details of the resulting flow field after breakdown indicate the evolution of streak-like formations found in turbulent flows. Although the flow field does approach a steady state (turbulent channel flow), implementation of subgrid-scale terms are necessary to obtain proper turbulent statistics.
Mechanical characterisation of Dacron graft: Experiments and numerical simulation.
Bustos, Claudio A; García-Herrera, Claudio M; Celentano, Diego J
2016-01-01
Experimental and numerical analyses focused on the mechanical characterisation of a woven Dacron vascular graft are presented. To that end, uniaxial tensile tests under different orientations have been performed to study the anisotropic behaviour of the material. These tests have been used to adjust the parameters of a hyperelastic anisotropic constitutive model which is applied to predict through numerical simulation the mechanical response of this material in the ring tensile test. The obtained results show that the model used is capable of representing adequately the nonlinear elastic region and, in particular, it captures the progressive increase of the rigidity and the anisotropy due to the stretching of the Dacron. The importance of this research lies in the possibility of predicting the graft׳s mechanical response under generalized loading such as those that occur under physiological conditions after surgical procedures. PMID:26627367
Numerical simulations of a diode laser BPH treatment system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
London, Richard A.; Esch, Victor C.; Papademetriou, Stephanos
1999-06-01
Numerical simulations are presented of the laser-tissue interaction of a diode laser system for treating benign prostate hyperplasia. The numerical model includes laser light transport, heat transport, cooling due to blood perfusion, thermal tissue damage, and enthalpy of tissue damage. Comparisons of the stimulation results to clinical data are given. We report that a reasonable variation from a standard set of input data produces heating times which match those measured in the clinical trials. A general trend of decreasing damage volume with increasing heating time is described. We suggest that the patient-to-patient variability seen in the data can be explained by differences in fundamental biophysical properties such as the optical coefficients. Further work is identified, including the measurement and input to the model of several specific data parameters such as optical coefficients, blood perfusion cooling rate, and coagulation rates.
Numerical simulation of the dynamics of freely falling discs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chrust, Marcin; Bouchet, Gilles; Dušek, Jan
2013-04-01
We present a comprehensive parametric study of the transition scenario of freely falling discs. The motion of the discs is investigated by a direct numerical simulation of the solid-fluid interaction. The discs are assumed to be homogeneous and infinitely thin. The problem is shown to depend on two independent parameters, the Galileo number expressing the ratio between effects of gravity and viscosity and the non-dimensionalized mass characterizing the inertia of the disc. The obtained results are in agreement with known experimental and numerical data and provide both detailed and comprehensive picture of the transition scenario in the two-parameter plane defined by the Galileo number and the non-dimensionalized mass.
Mechanical characterisation of Dacron graft: Experiments and numerical simulation.
Bustos, Claudio A; García-Herrera, Claudio M; Celentano, Diego J
2016-01-01
Experimental and numerical analyses focused on the mechanical characterisation of a woven Dacron vascular graft are presented. To that end, uniaxial tensile tests under different orientations have been performed to study the anisotropic behaviour of the material. These tests have been used to adjust the parameters of a hyperelastic anisotropic constitutive model which is applied to predict through numerical simulation the mechanical response of this material in the ring tensile test. The obtained results show that the model used is capable of representing adequately the nonlinear elastic region and, in particular, it captures the progressive increase of the rigidity and the anisotropy due to the stretching of the Dacron. The importance of this research lies in the possibility of predicting the graft׳s mechanical response under generalized loading such as those that occur under physiological conditions after surgical procedures.
Numerical simulations with a First order BSSN formulation of Einstein's field equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, David; Diener, Peter; Field, Scott; Hesthaven, Jan; Herrmann, Frank; Mroue, Abdul; Sarbach, Olivier; Schnetter, Erik; Tiglio, Manuel; Wagman, Michael
2012-03-01
We present a new fully first order strongly hyperbolic representation of the BSSN formulation of Einstein's equations with optional constraint damping terms. In particular, we describe the characteristic fields of the system, discuss its hyperbolicity properties, and present two numerical implementations and simulations: one using finite differences, adaptive mesh refinement and in particular binary black holes, and another one using the discontinuous Galerkin method in spherical symmetry. These results constitute a first step in an effort to combine the robustness of BSSN evolutions with very high accuracy numerical techniques, such as spectral collocation multi-domain or discontinuous Galerkin methods.
Numerical simulations with a first-order BSSN formulation of Einstein's field equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, J. David; Diener, Peter; Field, Scott E.; Hesthaven, Jan S.; Herrmann, Frank; Mroué, Abdul H.; Sarbach, Olivier; Schnetter, Erik; Tiglio, Manuel; Wagman, Michael
2012-04-01
We present a new fully first-order strongly hyperbolic representation of the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation of Einstein’s equations with optional constraint damping terms. We describe the characteristic fields of the system, discuss its hyperbolicity properties, and present two numerical implementations and simulations: one using finite differences, adaptive mesh refinement, and, in particular, binary black holes, and another one using the discontinuous Galerkin method in spherical symmetry. The results of this paper constitute a first step in an effort to combine the robustness of Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura evolutions with very high accuracy numerical techniques, such as spectral collocation multidomain or discontinuous Galerkin methods.
Numerical simulation of pressure pulsations in Francis turbines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magnoli, M. V.; Schilling, R.
2012-11-01
In the last decades, hydraulic turbines have experienced the increase of their power density and the extension of their operating range, leading the fluid and mechanical dynamic effects to become significantly more pronounced. The understanding of the transient fluid flow and of the associated unsteady effects is essential for the reduction of the pressure pulsation level and improvement of the machine dynamic behaviour. In this study, the instationary fluid flow through the complete turbine was numerically calculated for an existing Francis machine with high specific speed. The hybrid turbulence models DES (detached eddy simulation) and SAS (scale adaptive simulation) allowed the accurate simulation of complex dynamic flow effects, such as the rotor-stator-interaction and the draft tube instabilities. Different operating conditions, as full load, part load, higher part load and deep part load, were successfully simulated and showed very tight agreement with the experimental results from the model tests. The transient pressure field history, obtained from the CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulation and stored for each time step, was used as input for the full instationary FEA (finite element analysis) of turbine components. The assessment of the machine dynamic motion also offered the possibility to contribute to the understanding of the pressure pulsation effects and to further increase the turbine stability. This research project was developed at the Institute of Fluid Mechanics of the TU München.
Numerical simulations of drop impact on superhydrophobic structured surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guzzetti, Davide; Larentis, Stefano; Pugno, Nicola
2011-11-01
During the last decade drop impact dynamics on superhydrophobic surfaces has been intensively investigated because of the incredible properties of water repellency exhibited by this kind of surfaces, mostly inspired by biological examples such as Lotus leave. Thanks to the recent progress in micro-fabrication technology is possible to tailor surfaces wettability defining specific pillar-like structured surfaces. In this work, the behavior of impinging drops on these pillar-like surfaces is simulated, characterizing temporal evolution of droplets contact radius and drop maximal deformation dependence on Weber number. Numerical simulations results are compared with theoretical and experimental results guaranteeing simulation reliability. Fingering patterns obtained from drop impact has been studied obtaining a correlation between number of fingers and Weber number. Drop fragmentation pattern obtained from simulations supports the proposed correlation. Different drop impact outcomes (e.g. rebound, fragmentation) on structured superhydrophobic surfaces are simulated, focusing on the influence of micro-structured surface geometrical pattern. This investigation is relevant in order to define design rules for possible reliable non wettable surfaces. Financial support by Alta Scuola Politecnica.
Numerical simulations for plasma-based dry reforming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snoeckx, Ramses; Aerts, Robby; Bogaerts, Annemie
2012-10-01
The conversion of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) to more valuable chemicals is one of the challenges of the 21st century. The aim of this study is to describe the plasma chemistry occurring in a DBD for the dry reforming of CO2/CH4 mixtures, via numerical simulations. For this purpose we apply the 0D simulation code ``Global/kin,'' developed by Kushner, in order to simulate the reaction chemistry and the actual reaction conditions for a DBD, including the occurrence of streamers. For the chemistry part, we include a chemistry set consisting of 62 species taking part in 530 reactions. First we describe the reaction chemistry during one streamer, by simulating one discharge pulse and its afterglow, to obtain a better understanding of the reaction kinetics. Subsequently, we expand these results to real time scale simulations, i.e., 1 to 10 seconds, where we analyze the effects of the multiple discharges (streamers) and input energy on the conversion and the selectivity of the reaction products, as well as on the energy efficiency of the process. The model is validated based on experimental data from literature.
Unsteady numerical simulations of the stability and dynamics of flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kailasanath, K.; Patnaik, G.; Oran, E. S.
1995-01-01
In this report we describe the research performed at the Naval Research Laboratory in support of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications Program over the past three years (from Feb. 1992) with emphasis on the work performed since the last microgravity combustion workshop. The primary objective of our research is to develop an understanding of the differences in the structure, stability, dynamics and extinction of flames in earth gravity and in microgravity environments. Numerical simulations, in which the various physical and chemical processes can be independently controlled, can significantly advance our understanding of these differences. Therefore, our approach is to use detailed time-dependent, multi-dimensional, multispecies numerical models to perform carefully designed computational experiments. The basic issues we have addressed, a general description of the numerical approach, and a summary of the results are described in this report. More detailed discussions are available in the papers published which are referenced herein. Some of the basic issues we have addressed recently are (1) the relative importance of wall losses and gravity on the extinguishment of downward-propagating flames; (2) the role of hydrodynamic instabilities in the formation of cellular flames; (3) effects of gravity on burner-stabilized flames, and (4) effects of radiative losses and chemical-kinetics on flames near flammability limits. We have also expanded our efforts to include hydrocarbon flames in addition to hydrogen flames and to perform simulations in support of other on-going efforts in the microgravity combustion sciences program. Modeling hydrocarbon flames typically involves a larger number of species and a much larger number of reactions when compared to hydrogen. In addition, more complex radiation models may also be needed. In order to efficiently compute such complex flames recent developments in parallel computing have been utilized to develop a state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin-Short, R.; Edmiston, J. K.
2015-12-01
Typical hydraulic fracturing operations involve the use of a large quantity of water, which can be problematic for several reasons including possible formation (permeability) damage, disposal of waste water, and the use of precious local water resource. An alternate reservoir permeability enhancing technology not requiring water is cryogenic fracturing. This method induces controlled fracturing of rock formations by thermal shock and has potentially important applications in the geothermal and hydrocarbon industries. In this process, cryogenic fluid—such as liquid nitrogen—is injected into the subsurface, causing fracturing due to thermal gradients. These fractures may improve the formation permeability relative to that achievable by hydraulic fracturing alone. We conducted combined laboratory visualization and numerical simulations studies of thermal-shock-induced fracture initiation and propagation resulting from liquid nitrogen injection in rock and analog materials. The experiment used transparent soda-lime glass cubes to facilitate real-time visualization of fracture growth and the fracture network geometry. In this contribution, we report the effect of overall temperature difference between cryogenic fluid and solid material on the produced fracture network, by pre-heating the glass cubes to several temperatures and injecting liquid nitrogen. Temperatures are monitored at several points by thermocouple and the fracture evolution is captured visually by camera. The experiment was modeled using a customized, thermoelastic, fracture-capable numerical simulation code based on peridynamics. The performance of the numerical code was validated by the results of the laboratory experiments, and then the code was used to study the different factors affecting a cryogenic fracturing operation, including the evolution of residual stresses and constitutive relationships for material failure. In complex rock such as shale, understanding the process of cryogenic
Trescott, Peter C.; Pinder, George Francis; Larson, S.P.
1976-01-01
The model will simulate ground-water flow in an artesian aquifer, a water-table aquifer, or a combined artesian and water-table aquifer. The aquifer may be heterogeneous and anisotropic and have irregular boundaries. The source term in the flow equation may include well discharge, constant recharge, leakage from confining beds in which the effects of storage are considered, and evapotranspiration as a linear function of depth to water. The theoretical development includes presentation of the appropriate flow equations and derivation of the finite-difference approximations (written for a variable grid). The documentation emphasizes the numerical techniques that can be used for solving the simultaneous equations and describes the results of numerical experiments using these techniques. Of the three numerical techniques available in the model, the strongly implicit procedure, in general, requires less computer time and has fewer numerical difficulties than do the iterative alternating direction implicit procedure and line successive overrelaxation (which includes a two-dimensional correction procedure to accelerate convergence). The documentation includes a flow chart, program listing, an example simulation, and sections on designing an aquifer model and requirements for data input. It illustrates how model results can be presented on the line printer and pen plotters with a program that utilizes the graphical display software available from the Geological Survey Computer Center Division. In addition the model includes options for reading input data from a disk and writing intermediate results on a disk.
Accurate numerical simulation of short fiber optical parametric amplifiers.
Marhic, M E; Rieznik, A A; Kalogerakis, G; Braimiotis, C; Fragnito, H L; Kazovsky, L G
2008-03-17
We improve the accuracy of numerical simulations for short fiber optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs). Instead of using the usual coarse-step method, we adopt a model for birefringence and dispersion which uses fine-step variations of the parameters. We also improve the split-step Fourier method by exactly treating the nonlinear ellipse rotation terms. We find that results obtained this way for two-pump OPAs can be significantly different from those obtained by using the usual coarse-step fiber model, and/or neglecting ellipse rotation terms.
Numerical Simulation of mobile BEC-impurity interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lausch, Tobias; Grusdt, Fabian; Fleischhauer, Michael; Widera, Artur
2016-05-01
Cooling atoms to temperatures, where quantum effects become dominant, has become a standard in cold atom experiments. Especially interactions of quantum baths such as fermi gases and the implementation of impurities, which form fermi polarons, have been studied theoretically and experimentally in detail. However, detailed experiments on the bose polaron and the interaction between impurities and a bose gas are still elusive. We consider a model, where we immerse a single impurity into a BEC, which is described by Bogoliubov approximation. From the master equation, we derived the impurity's momentum resolved scattering and cooling dynamics for numerical simulations. Such cooling processes should enable momentum resolved radio-frequency spectroscopy of the BEC polaron.
Numerical simulation of galaxies in the M81 galaxy group.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, P. S.; Thronson, H. A., Jr.
The M81 galaxy group is a typical nearby galaxy group which consists of 15 members, including M82 and NGC 3077. Recent observations of the M81 group using the VLA (Yun, Ho, Lo, 1994) show a large scale H I map of the whole system, with M81, M82 and NGC 3077 inter-connected by a large amount of H I gas. In addition, two gas concentrations are observed at the eastern side of M81. The authors simulate the system numerically to reproduce the morphology, the spatial distribution of these 3 galaxies, and the H I gas surrounding the system.
Numerical Simulations of Static Tested Ramjet Dump Combustor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Javed, Afroz; Chakraborty, Debasis
2016-06-01
The flow field of a Liquid Fuel Ram Jet engine side dump combustor with kerosene fuel is numerically simulated using commercial CFD code CFX-11. Reynolds Averaged 3-D Navier-Stokes equations are solved alongwith SST turbulence model. Single step infinitely fast reaction is assumed for kerosene combustion. The combustion efficiency is evaluated in terms of the unburnt kerosene vapour leaving the combustor. The comparison of measured pressures with computed values show that the computation underpredicts (~5 %) pressures for non reacting cases but overpredicts (9-7 %) for reacting cases.
Modeling and Direct Numerical Simulation of Ternary Fluid Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jun-Seok; Lowengrub, John; Longmire, Ellen
2001-06-01
In this talk, we will present a physically-based model of flows involving three liquid components. The components may exhibit preferential miscibility with one another. The flows we consider are characterized by the presence of interfaces separating immiscible flow components with pinchoff and reconnection of interfaces being important features of the flow. In our model, these topological transitions are handled smoothly without explicit interface reconstruction. In addition, we model the diffusion of miscible components in the bulk and across the interfaces. To illustrate the method, we present numerical simulations of remediation of a contaminant-laden fluid using liquid/liquid extraction.
Numerical simulation of fluid flow around a scramaccelerator projectile
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pepper, Darrell W.; Humphrey, Joseph W.; Sobota, Thomas H.
1991-01-01
Numerical simulations of the fluid motion and temperature distribution around a 'scramaccelerator' projectile are obtained for Mach numbers in the 5-10 range. A finite element method is used to solve the equations of motion for inviscid and viscous two-dimensional or axisymmetric compressible flow. The time-dependent equations are solved explicitly, using bilinear isoparametric quadrilateral elements, mass lumping, and a shock-capturing Petrov-Galerkin formulation. Computed results indicate that maintaining on-design performance for controlling and stabilizing oblique detonation waves is critically dependent on projectile shape and Mach number.
Numerical Simulation of a High Mach Number Jet Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hayder, M. Ehtesham; Turkel, Eli; Mankbadi, Reda R.
1993-01-01
The recent efforts to develop accurate numerical schemes for transition and turbulent flows are motivated, among other factors, by the need for accurate prediction of flow noise. The success of developing high speed civil transport plane (HSCT) is contingent upon our understanding and suppression of the jet exhaust noise. The radiated sound can be directly obtained by solving the full (time-dependent) compressible Navier-Stokes equations. However, this requires computational storage that is beyond currently available machines. This difficulty can be overcome by limiting the solution domain to the near field where the jet is nonlinear and then use acoustic analogy (e.g., Lighthill) to relate the far-field noise to the near-field sources. The later requires obtaining the time-dependent flow field. The other difficulty in aeroacoustics computations is that at high Reynolds numbers the turbulent flow has a large range of scales. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) cannot obtain all the scales of motion at high Reynolds number of technological interest. However, it is believed that the large scale structure is more efficient than the small-scale structure in radiating noise. Thus, one can model the small scales and calculate the acoustically active scales. The large scale structure in the noise-producing initial region of the jet can be viewed as a wavelike nature, the net radiated sound is the net cancellation after integration over space. As such, aeroacoustics computations are highly sensitive to errors in computing the sound sources. It is therefore essential to use a high-order numerical scheme to predict the flow field. The present paper presents the first step in a ongoing effort to predict jet noise. The emphasis here is in accurate prediction of the unsteady flow field. We solve the full time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations by a high order finite difference method. Time accurate spatial simulations of both plane and axisymmetric jet are presented. Jet Mach
Numerical simulation of carbon arc discharge for nanoparticle synthesis
Kundrapu, M.; Keidar, M.
2012-07-15
Arc discharge with catalyst-filled carbon anode in helium background was used for the synthesis of carbon nanoparticles. In this paper, we present the results of numerical simulation of carbon arc discharges with arc current varying from 10 A to 100 A in a background gas pressure of 68 kPa. Anode sublimation rate and current voltage characteristics are compared with experiments. Distribution of temperature and species density, which is important for the estimation of the growth of nanoparticles, is obtained. The probable location of nanoparticle growth region is identified based on the temperature range for the formation of catalyst clusters.
Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility preliminary study, volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1977-01-01
A technology forecast was established for the 1980-1985 time frame and the appropriateness of various logic and memory technologies for the design of the numerical aerodynamic simulation facility was assessed. Flow models and their characteristics were analyzed and matched against candidate processor architecture. Metrics were established for the total facility, and housing and support requirements of the facility were identified. An overview of the system is presented, with emphasis on the hardware of the Navier-Stokes solver, which is the key element of the system. Software elements of the system are also discussed.
Alpha migration through air filters: A numerical simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biermann, Arthur H.; Daroza, Robert A.; Chang, Yun
1991-12-01
This theoretical study investigates the migration of alpha-emitting particles through high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. As part of the study, a review of previous research relating to the alpha-migration phenomena was conducted. As a result of the literature review, a numerical model was developed to simulate the migration of alpha-emitting radionuclide aerosols through HEPA filters. This model predicts the filter performance with regard to particle penetration. It can be used to better estimate the penetration of alpha radioactive species through filter systems for environmental concerns, to aid in the use of current filter systems, and to design new filter systems.
Numerical and laboratory simulation of fault motion and earthquake occurrence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cohen, S. C.
1978-01-01
Simple linear rheologies were used with elastic forces driving the main events and viscoelastic forces being important for aftershock and creep occurrence. Friction and its dependence on velocity, stress, and displacement also plays a key role in determining how, when, and where fault motion occurs. The discussion of the qualitative behavior of the simulators focuses on the manner in which energy was stored in the system and released by the unstable and stable sliding processes. The numerical results emphasize the statistics of earthquake occurrence and the correlations among source parameters.
Numerical Simulation of Low-Density Shock-Wave Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glass, Christopher E.
1999-01-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical simulations of low-density shock-wave interactions for an incident shock impinging on a cylinder have been performed. Flow-field density gradient and surface pressure and heating define the type of interference pattern and corresponding perturbations. The maximum pressure and heat transfer level and location for various interaction types (i.e., shock-wave incidence with respect to the cylinder) are presented. A time-accurate solution of the Type IV interference is employed to demonstrate the establishment and the steadiness of the low-density flow interaction.
Numerical simulation of compact intracloud discharge and generated electromagnetic pulse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babich, L. P.; Bochkov, E. I.; Kutsyk, I. M.
2015-06-01
Using the concept of the relativistic runaway electron avalanche, numerical simulation of compact intracloud discharge as a generator of powerful natural electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) in the HF-UHF range was conducted. We evaluated the numbers of electrons initiating the avalanche, with which the calculated EMP characteristics are consistent with measured ones. The discharge capable of generating EMPs produces runaway electrons in numbers close to those in the source of terrestrial γ-flashes (TGF) registered in the nearest space, which may be an argument for a joint EMP and TGF source.
A new representation of wells in numerical reservoir simulation
Yu Ding; Renard, G. )
1994-05-01
Numerical PI's are used to relate wellblock and wellbore pressures and the flow rate of a well in reservoir simulations by finite difference. This approach is based on an equivalent wellblock radius'', r[sub eq,o]. When nonuniform grids are used, r[sub eq,o] may create an error in wellbore pressure or oil rate. This paper presents a new well representation. The analytical solution for near-well pressure is included by modifying the transmissibilities between gridblocks so that flow around as well is described fully. The new method is applicable to non-uniform grids and nonisolated wells.
Time-efficient numerical simulation of diatomic molecular spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beuc, Robert; Movre, Mladen; Horvatić, Berislav
2014-03-01
We present a quantum-mechanical procedure for calculating the photoabsorption spectra of diatomic molecules, entirely based on the Fourier grid Hamiltonian method for obtaining energies and the corresponding wave functions. Discrete and continuous spectrum contributions, which are the result of transitions between bound, free, and quasibound states of diatomic molecules were treated on the same footing. Using the classical Franck-Condon principle and the stationary-phase approximation, we also developed a "semiquantum" simulation method of the spectrum which allows an extremely time-efficient numerical algorithm, reducing the computer time by up to four orders of magnitude. The proposed method was tested on the absorption spectra of potassium molecules.
Numerical simulation of vortex breakdown via 3-D Euler equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le, T. H.; Mege, P.; Morchoisne, Y.
1990-06-01
The long term goal is the modeling of vortex breakdown that occurs in some aerodynamic configurations at high angle of attack, (i.e., fighters with highly swept delta wings or missiles). A numerical simulation was made based on solving the 3-D Euler equations for an usteady incompressible flow. Preliminary results were obtained using a pressure-velocity formulation with periodic boundary conditions, the Euler equations being discretized by 2nd order finite difference schemes. The continuation to this work by implementing more realistic boundary conditions and 4th order finite difference discretization schemes are presented.
Error analysis of a ratio pyrometer by numerical simulation
Gathers, G.R. )
1992-01-01
A numerical method has been devised to evaluate measurement errors for a three-channel ratio pyrometer as a function of temperature. The pyrometer is simulated by computer codes, which can be used to explore the behavior of various designs. The influence of the various components in the system can be evaluated. General conclusions can be drawn about what makes a good pyrometer, and an existing pyrometer was evaluated, to predict its behavior as a function of temperature. The results show which combination of two channels gives the best precision. 13 refs., 12 figs.
Error analysis of a ratio pyrometer by numerical simulation
Gathers, G.R.
1990-05-01
A numerical method has been devised to evaluate measurement errors for a three channel ratio pyrometer as a function of temperature. The pyrometer is simulated by computer codes, which can be used to explore the behavior of various designs. The influence of the various components in the system can be evaluated. General conclusions can be drawn about what makes a good pyrometer, and an existing pyrometer was evaluated, to predict its behavior as a function of temperature. The results show which combination of two channels gives the best precision. 12 refs., 12 figs.
Numerical Simulations of Plasma Based Flow Control Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Suzen, Y. B.; Huang, P. G.; Jacob, J. D.; Ashpis, D. E.
2005-01-01
A mathematical model was developed to simulate flow control applications using plasma actuators. The effects of the plasma actuators on the external flow are incorporated into Navier Stokes computations as a body force vector. In order to compute this body force vector, the model solves two additional equations: one for the electric field due to the applied AC voltage at the electrodes and the other for the charge density representing the ionized air. The model is calibrated against an experiment having plasma-driven flow in a quiescent environment and is then applied to simulate a low pressure turbine flow with large flow separation. The effects of the plasma actuator on control of flow separation are demonstrated numerically.
Numerical simulation of spinning detonation in square tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuboi, Nobuyuki; Asahara, Makoto; Eto, Keitaro; Hayashi, A. Koichi
2008-09-01
A single spinning detonation wave propagating in a square tube is simulated three-dimensionally with the detailed chemical reaction mechanism for hydrogen/air mixture proposed by Petersen and Hanson. The spinning detonation is composed of a transverse detonation rotating around the wall normal to the tube axis, triple lines propagating partially out of phase, and a short pressure trail. The formation of an unburned gas pocket behind the detonation front was not observed in the present simulations because the rotating transverse detonation completely consumed the unburned gas. The calculated profiles of instantaneous OH mass fraction have a keystone shape behind the detonation front. The numerical results for the pitch and track angle on the tube wall agree well with the experimental results.
Numerical simulations of undulatory swimming at moderate Reynolds number.
Eldredge, Jeff D
2006-12-01
We perform numerical simulations of the swimming of a three-linkage articulated system in a moderately viscous regime. The computational methodology focuses on the creation, diffusion and transport of vorticity from the surface of the bodies into the fluid. The simulations are dynamically coupled, in that the motion of the three-linkage swimmer is computed simultaneously with the dynamics of the fluid. The novel coupling scheme presented in this work is the first to exploit the relationship between vorticity creation and body dynamics. The locomotion of the system, when subject to undulatory inputs of the hinges, is computed at Reynolds numbers of 200 and 1000. It is found that the forward swimming speed increases with the Reynolds number, and that in both cases the swimming is slower than in an inviscid medium. The vortex shedding is examined, and found to exhibit behavior consistent with experimental flow visualizations of fish. PMID:17671314
Reliability of numerical wind tunnels for VAWT simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raciti Castelli, M.; Masi, M.; Battisti, L.; Benini, E.; Brighenti, A.; Dossena, V.; Persico, G.
2016-09-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based on the Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (URANS) equations have long been widely used to study vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs). Following a comprehensive experimental survey on the wakes downwind of a troposkien-shaped rotor, a campaign of bi-dimensional simulations is presented here, with the aim of assessing its reliability in reproducing the main features of the flow, also identifying areas needing additional research. Starting from both a well consolidated turbulence model (k-ω SST) and an unstructured grid typology, the main simulation settings are here manipulated in a convenient form to tackle rotating grids reproducing a VAWT operating in an open jet wind tunnel. The dependence of the numerical predictions from the selected grid spacing is investigated, thus establishing the less refined grid size that is still capable of capturing some relevant flow features such as integral quantities (rotor torque) and local ones (wake velocities).
Numerical simulations of a new approach for seeing measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Habib, A.; Benkhaldoun, Z.; El Azhari, Y.
2013-09-01
Using a numerical simulation, a new approach to determine the wave structure function, and therefore the astronomical seeing, is presented and discussed. This method is based on the study of the diffraction pattern produced by a double slit at the focus plane of a telescope. The phase screens are simulated using a fast Fourier transform (FFT) based method and Kolmogorov's law regarding atmospheric turbulence. From the scattered wave intensity, the wave structure function is calculated by taking into account both phase and amplitude fluctuations. This means that we can obtain a seeing value that is independent of the propagation distance between the turbulent layers and the ground level (Fresnel diffraction effect). Indeed, the seeing is related to the refractive-index structure constant (Cn2) inside the turbulent layers and thus should be independent of the aforementioned propagation distance.
Numerical simulations of double layers and auroral electric fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, N.; Schunk, R. W.; Thiemann, H.
1984-01-01
Recent one-dimensional and two-dimensional numerical simulations of double layers (DLs) in the electric fields of the auroral plasma are reviewed, with reference to observational data. It is found that two-dimensional DLs driven by current sheets of finite thickness have different characteristics, depending on whether the layer thickness is less than or much greater than the ion gyroradius: When thickness is less than ion gyroradius, V-shaped DLs form with nearly equal parallel and perpendicular potential drops; when layer thickness is much greater than ion gyroradius the major parallel potential drop occurs outside the current sheet and the perpendicular electric fields are localized at the edges of the current sheet. It is shown that some features of the simulated fields, such as the amplitudes and scale lengths, are qualitatively similar to those observed in space.
Numerical simulation of transitional flows with heat transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kožíšek, Martin; Příhoda, Jaromír; Fürst, Jiří; Straka, Petr
2016-06-01
The contribution deals with simulation of internal flows with the laminar/turbulent transition and heat transfer. The numerical modeling of incompressible flow on a heated flat plate was carried out partly by the k-kL-ω model of Walters and Cokljat [1] and partly by the algebraic transition model of Straka and Příhoda [2] connected with the EARSM turbulence model of Hellsten [3]. Transition models were tested by means of the skin friction and the Stanton number distribution. Used models of turbulent heat transfer were compared with the simplest model based on the constant turbulent Prandtl number. The k-kL-ω model is applied for the simulation of compressible flow through the VKI turbine blade cascade with heat transfer.
Numerical and Statistical Simulations of an Idealized Model Tachocline
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plummer, Abigail; Tobias, Steve; Marston, Brad
2015-11-01
Solar-type stars with outer convective envelopes and stable interiors are believed to have tachoclines. As in the Sun, the tachocline is a thin shear layer thought to play an important role in the magnetic activity of these stars. We use an idealized two-dimensional model tachocline to investigate a joint instability in which the differential rotation is only stable in the absence of a magnetic field. A set of parameters are identified using Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) that produce a cycle in which energy is transferred abruptly between kinetic and magnetic potential energy reservoirs. Elements of this cyclic behavior are replicated using Direct Statistical Simulations (DSS). Insight is thus gained into the physics prompting these sharp transitions, suggesting that they are the result of eddies interacting to form new eddies. BM supported in part by NSF DMR-1306806 and NSF CCF-1048701.
Numerical simulation of MPD thruster flows with anomalous transport
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caldo, Giuliano; Choueiri, Edgar Y.; Kelly, Arnold J.; Jahn, Robert G.
1992-01-01
Anomalous transport effects in an Ar self-field coaxial MPD thruster are presently studied by means of a fully 2D two-fluid numerical code; its calculations are extended to a range of typical operating conditions. An effort is made to compare the spatial distribution of the steady state flow and field properties and thruster power-dissipation values for simulation runs with and without anomalous transport. A conductivity law based on the nonlinear saturation of lower hybrid current-driven instability is used for the calculations. Anomalous-transport simulation runs have indicated that the resistivity in specific areas of the discharge is significantly higher than that calculated in classical runs.
Study of the interface between numerical and symbolic computing techniques. Progress report
Not Available
1983-01-01
The basic emphasis of our research during the funding period December 1, 1980 to November 30, 1983 has been on the interface between numerical and symbolic computing techniques and on new and improved techniques in both numerical and symbolic computation. The specific research topics are: an analysis of basic iterative methods for matrix equations; the use of symbolic and numerical techniques on the conjectures of Whittaker (in function theory) and Bernstein (in approximation theory); and the integration of symbolic (exact) and numerical (approximate) computing techniques.
SIMATB: Numerical Simulation in Support to Spacecraft AIT/AIV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasquier, F.
2007-08-01
Astrium Satellites, as major integrator of Space vehicles for Earth observation, Navigation, Science and Telecommunications is facing a continuous challenge to improve its operational excellence and industrial processes for reducing time cycles and costs while maintaining high quality standards. A contributor to this constant improvement is the increased use of full software simulations in support to sub-systems / system integration and validation, up to in-orbit operations and exploitation. To achieve this objective, Astrium is deploying through the company the so-called Model-Based Development and Verification (MDV) approach, which implements optimised industrial processes supported by dedicated simulation tools and test facilities. This MDV approach takes benefit from Astrium past experience in the use of full numerical simulation for on-board software validation. MDV approach is now extended to a wider range of spacecraft AIT/AIV processes that allows reducing the amount of hardware (onboard equipment models and EGSE) necessary to support these tasks by ensuring proper representativeness of the simulation models.
Autoignition of hydrogen and air using direct numerical simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doom, Jeffrey; Mahesh, Krishnan
2008-11-01
Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to study to auto--ignition in laminar vortex rings and turbulent diffusion flames. A novel, all--Mach number algorithm developed by Doom et al (J. Comput. Phys. 2007) is used. The chemical mechanism is a nine species, nineteen reaction mechanism for H2 and Air from Mueller at el (Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 1999). The vortex ring simulations inject diluted H2 at ambient temperature into hot air, and study the effects of stroke ratio, air to fuel ratio and Lewis number. At smaller stroke ratios, ignition occurs in the wake of the vortex ring and propagates into the vortex core. At larger stroke ratios, ignition occurs along the edges of the trailing column before propagating towards the vortex core. The turbulent diffusion flame simulations are three--dimensional and consider the interaction of initially isotropic turbulence with an unstrained diffusion flame. The simulations examine the nature of distinct ignition kernels, the relative roles of chemical reactions, and the relation between the observed behavior and laminar flames and the perfectly stirred reactor problem. These results will be discussed.
Numerical simulation and design of a thermionic electron gun
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoseinzade, M.; Nijatie, M.; Sadighzadeh, A.
2016-05-01
This paper reports the simulation of an electron gun. The effects on the beam quality of some parameters on the beam quality were studied and optimal choices were identified. It gives numerical beam qualities for a common electrostatic triode gun, and the dependencies on design parameters such as electrode geometries and bias voltages to these electrodes are shown. An electron beam of diameter 5 mm with energy of 5 keV was assumed for the simulation process. Some design parameters were identified as variable parameters in the presence of space charge. These parameters are the inclination angle of emission electrode, the applied voltage to the focusing electrode, the gap width between the emission electrode and the focusing electrode and the diameter of the focusing electrode. The triode extraction system is designed and optimized by using CST software (for Particle Beam Simulations). The physical design of the extraction system is given in this paper. From the simulation results, it is concluded that the inclination angle of the emission electrode is optimized at 22.5°, the applied voltage to the focusing electrode was optimized and found to be V foc = ‑600 V, the optimal separation distance (gap between emission electrode and focusing electrode) is 4 mm, and the optimal diameter of the emission electrode is 14 mm. Initial results for these efforts aimed at emittance improvement are also given.
Numerical simulation of a 100-ton ANFO detonation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weber, P. W.; Millage, K. K.; Crepeau, J. E.; Happ, H. J.; Gitterman, Y.; Needham, C. E.
2015-03-01
This work describes the results from a US government-owned hydrocode (SHAMRC, Second-Order Hydrodynamic Automatic Mesh Refinement Code) that simulated an explosive detonation experiment with 100,000 kg of Ammonium Nitrate-Fuel Oil (ANFO) and 2,080 kg of Composition B (CompB). The explosive surface charge was nearly hemispherical and detonated in desert terrain. Two-dimensional axisymmetric (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) simulations were conducted, with the 3D model providing a more accurate representation of the experimental setup geometry. Both 2D and 3D simulations yielded overpressure and impulse waveforms that agreed qualitatively with experiment, including the capture of the secondary shock observed in the experiment. The 2D simulation predicted the primary shock arrival time correctly but secondary shock arrival time was early. The 2D-predicted impulse waveforms agreed very well with the experiment, especially at later calculation times, and prediction of the early part of the impulse waveform (associated with the initial peak) was better quantitatively for 2D compared to 3D. The 3D simulation also predicted the primary shock arrival time correctly, and secondary shock arrival times in 3D were closer to the experiment than in the 2D results. The 3D-predicted impulse waveform had better quantitative agreement than 2D for the later part of the impulse waveform. The results of this numerical study show that SHAMRC may be used reliably to predict phenomena associated with the 100-ton detonation. The ultimate fidelity of the simulations was limited by both computer time and memory. The results obtained provide good accuracy and indicate that the code is well suited to predicting the outcomes of explosive detonations.
Studying Turbulence Using Numerical Simulation Databases, 2. Proceedings of the 1988 Summer Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1988-01-01
The focus of the program was on the use of direct numerical simulations of turbulent flow for study of turbulence physics and modeling. A special interest was placed on turbulent mixing layers. The required data for these investigations were generated from four newly developed codes for simulation of time and spatially developing incompressible and compressible mixing layers. Also of interest were the structure of wall bounded turbulent and transitional flows, evaluation of diagnostic techniques for detection of organized motions, energy transfer in isotropic turbulence, optical propagation through turbulent media, and detailed analysis of the interaction of vortical structures.
Expansion techniques for collisionless stellar dynamical simulations
Meiron, Yohai; Li, Baile; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Spurzem, Rainer
2014-09-10
We present graphics processing unit (GPU) implementations of two fast force calculation methods based on series expansions of the Poisson equation. One method is the self-consistent field (SCF) method, which is a Fourier-like expansion of the density field in some basis set; the other method is the multipole expansion (MEX) method, which is a Taylor-like expansion of the Green's function. MEX, which has been advocated in the past, has not gained as much popularity as SCF. Both are particle-field methods and optimized for collisionless galactic dynamics, but while SCF is a 'pure' expansion, MEX is an expansion in just the angular part; thus, MEX is capable of capturing radial structure easily, while SCF needs a large number of radial terms. We show that despite the expansion bias, these methods are more accurate than direct techniques for the same number of particles. The performance of our GPU code, which we call ETICS, is profiled and compared to a CPU implementation. On the tested GPU hardware, a full force calculation for one million particles took ∼0.1 s (depending on expansion cutoff), making simulations with as many as 10{sup 8} particles fast for a comparatively small number of nodes.
Numerical Simulations of Floodplain Heterogeneity Effects on Meanders Migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogoni, M.; Lanzoni, S.; Putti, M.
2014-12-01
Floodplains and sinuous rivers have a close relationship with each other, mutually influencing their evolutions in time and space. The heterogeneity in erosional resistance has a crucial role on meander planform evolution. It depends on external factors, like land use and cover, but also on the composition of the floodplain, which is due to the ancient geological composition and to the processes associated to long-term river migration. In particular, banks erosion and deposition cause a variation of the superficial composition of the soil, therefore the river patterns are influenced by the previous trends. Based on some recent works, the aim of this contribution is to collect numerical information on the relations between meander migration and the heterogeneity of floodplains caused by oxbow lakes. Numerical simulations have been performed to analyze the temporal and spatial behavior of meanders with a range of values of the erosional resistance of the plain. These values are set as a function of some factors: the characteristic grain size of sediment transported by the flow, the deposition age of the sediments, the eventual presence of vegetation on the banks. The statistical analysis of characteristic geometrical quantities of meanders are able to show the dependence of the simulation results on the meander history. In particular we try to answer to the following questions: how do the rivers affect themselves during their spatial and temporal evolution, modifying the distribution of the floodplain erodibility? Do the migration history plays a main role on the meanders migration modeling?
Three-dimensional numerical simulation of detonations in coaxial tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuboi, Nobuyuki; Daimon, Yu; Hayashi, A. Koichi
2008-10-01
Three-dimensional numerical simulation of detonations in both a circular tube and a coaxial tube are simulated to reveal characteristics of single spinning and two-headed detonations. The numerical results show a feature of a single spinning detonation which was discovered in 1926. Transverse detonations are observed in both tubes, however, the single spinning mode maintains the complex Mach reflection whereas the two-headed mode develops periodically from the single Mach reflection to the complex one. The calculated cell aspect ratio for the two-headed mode changes from 1.09 to 1.34 as the radius of axial insert increases from r 1/ R = 0.1 to 0.9. The calculated cell aspect ratio for r 1/ R = 0.1 is close to the experimental results without an axial insert. The formation of an unreacted gas pocket behind the detonation front was not observed in the single spinning mode; however, the two-headed mode has unreacted gas pocket behind the front near the axial insert.
Constitutive Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Frp Confined Concrete Specimens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smitha, Gopinath; Ramachandramurthy, Avadhanam; Nagesh, Ranganatha Iyer; Shahulhameed, Eduvammal Kunhimoideen
2014-09-01
Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are generally used for the seismic retrofit of concrete members to enhance their strength and ductility. In the present work, the confining effect of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite layers has been investigated by numerical simulation. The numerical simulation has been carried out using nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) to predict the response behaviour of CFRP-wrapped concrete cylinders. The nonlinear behaviour of concrete in compression and the linear elastic behaviour of CFRP has been modeled using an appropriate constitutive relationship. A cohesive model has been developed for modeling the interface between the concrete and CFRP. The interaction and damage failure criteria between the concrete to the cohesive element and the cohesive element to the CFRP has also been accounted for in the modeling. The response behaviour of the wrapped concrete specimen has been compared with the proposed interface model and with a perfectly bonded condition. The results obtained from the present study showed good agreement with the experimental load-displacement response and the failure pattern in the literature. Further, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out to study the effect of the number of layers of CFRP on the concrete specimens. It has been observed that wrapping with two layers was found to be the optimum, beyond which the response becomes flexible but with a higher load-carrying capacity
Numerical Simulations For the F-16XL Aircraft Configuration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled; Cavallo, Peter A.; Parlette, Edward B.
2014-01-01
Numerical simulations of flow around the F-16XL are presented as a contribution to the Cranked Arrow Wing Aerodynamic Project International II (CAWAPI-II). The NASA Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System (TetrUSS) is used to perform numerical simulations. This CFD suite, developed and maintained by NASA Langley Research Center, includes an unstructured grid generation program called VGRID, a postprocessor named POSTGRID, and the flow solver USM3D. The CRISP CFD package is utilized to provide error estimates and grid adaption for verification of USM3D results. A subsonic high angle-of-attack case flight condition (FC) 25 is computed and analyzed. Three turbulence models are used in the calculations: the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras (SA), the two-equation shear stress transport (SST) and the ke turbulence models. Computational results, and surface static pressure profiles are presented and compared with flight data. Solution verification is performed using formal grid refinement studies, the solution of Error Transport Equations, and adaptive mesh refinement. The current study shows that the USM3D solver coupled with CRISP CFD can be used in an engineering environment in predicting vortex-flow physics on a complex configuration at flight Reynolds numbers.
Influence of clearance model on numerical simulation of centrifugal pump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Z.; Gao, B.; Yang, L.; Du, W. Q.
2016-05-01
Computing models are always simplified to save the computing resources and time. Particularly, the clearance that between impeller and pump casing is always ignored. But the completer model is, the more precise result of numerical simulation is in theory. This paper study the influence of clearance model on numerical simulation of centrifugal pump. We present such influence via comparing performance, flow characteristic and pressure pulsation of two cases that the one of two cases is the model pump with clearance and the other is not. And the results show that the head decreases and power increases so that efficiency decreases after computing with front and back cavities. Then no-leakage model would improve absolute velocity magnitude in order to reach the rated flow rate. Finally, more disturbance induced by front cavity flow and wear-ring flow would change the pressure pulsation of impeller and volute. The performance of clearance flow is important for the whole pump in performance, flow characteristic, pressure pulsation and other respects.
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow with permeable walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hahn, Seonghyeon; Je, Jongdoo; Choi, Haecheon
2002-01-01
The main objectives of this study are to suggest a proper boundary condition at the interface between a permeable block and turbulent channel flow and to investigate the characteristics of turbulent channel flow with permeable walls. The boundary condition suggested is an extended version of that applied to laminar channel flow by Beavers & Joseph (1967) and describes the behaviour of slip velocities in the streamwise and spanwise directions at the interface between the permeable block and turbulent channel flow. With the proposed boundary condition, direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel flow that is bounded by the permeable wall are performed and significant skin-friction reductions at the permeable wall are obtained with modification of overall flow structures. The viscous sublayer thickness is decreased and the near-wall vortical structures are significantly weakened by the permeable wall. The permeable wall also reduces the turbulence intensities, Reynolds shear stress, and pressure and vorticity fluctuations throughout the channel except very near the wall. The increase of some turbulence quantities there is due to the slip-velocity fluctuations at the wall. The boundary condition proposed for the permeable wall is validated by comparing solutions with those obtained from a separate direct numerical simulation using both the Brinkman equation for the interior of a permeable block and the Navier Stokes equation for the main channel bounded by a permeable block.
Numerical simulation of premixed flame propagation in a closed tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuzuu, Kazuto; Ishii, Katsuya; Kuwahara, Kunio
1996-08-01
Premixed flame propagation of methane-air mixture in a closed tube is estimated through a direct numerical simulation of the three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations coupled with chemical reaction. In order to deal with a combusting flow, an extended version of the MAC method, which can be applied to a compressible flow with strong density variation, is employed as a numerical method. The chemical reaction is assumed to be an irreversible single step reaction between methane and oxygen. The chemical species are CH 4, O 2, N 2, CO 2, and H 2O. In this simulation, we reproduce a formation of a tulip flame in a closed tube during the flame propagation. Furthermore we estimate not only a two-dimensional shape but also a three-dimensional structure of the flame and flame-induced vortices, which cannot be observed in the experiments. The agreement between the calculated results and the experimental data is satisfactory, and we compare the phenomenon near the side wall with the one in the corner of the tube.
Taylor bubbles at high viscosity ratios: experiments and numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hewakandamby, Buddhika; Hasan, Abbas; Azzopardi, Barry; Xie, Zhihua; Pain, Chris; Matar, Omar
2015-11-01
The Taylor bubble is a single long bubble which nearly fills the entire cross section of a liquid-filled circular tube, often occurring in gas-liquid slug flows in many industrial applications, particularly oil and gas production. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of three-dimensional Taylor bubble rising in highly viscous silicone oil in a vertical pipe. An adaptive unstructured mesh modelling framework is adopted here which can modify and adapt anisotropic unstructured meshes to better represent the underlying physics of bubble rising and reduce computational effort without sacrificing accuracy. The numerical framework consists of a mixed control volume and finite element formulation, a `volume of fluid'-type method for the interface-capturing based on a compressive control volume advection method, and a force-balanced algorithm for the surface tension implementation. Experimental results for the Taylor bubble shape and rise velocity are presented, together with numerical results for the dynamics of the bubbles. A comparison of the simulation predictions with experimental data available in the literature is also presented to demonstrate the capabilities of our numerical method. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.
Direct numerical simulations of a spatially developing plane wake
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maekawa, Hiroshi; Mansour, Nagi N.
1992-01-01
In the present paper, direct numerical methods by which to simulate the spatially developing free shear flows in the transitional region are described and the numerical results of a spatially developing plane wake are presented. The incompressible time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations were solved using Pade finite difference approximations in the streamwise direction, a mapped pseudospectral Fourier method in the cross-stream direction, and a third-order compact Runge-Kutta scheme for time advancement. The unstable modes of the Orr-Sommerfeld equations were used to perturb the inlet of the wake. Statistical analyses were performed and some numerical results were compared with experimental measurements. When only the fundamental mode is forced, the energy spectra show amplification of the fundamental and its higher harmonics. In this case, unperturbed alternate vortices develop in the saturation region of the wake. The phase jitter around the fundamental frequency plays a critical role in generating vortices of random shape and spacing. Large- and small-scale distortions of the fundamental structure are observed. Pairing of vortices of the same sign is observed, as well as vortex coupling of vortices of the opposite sign.
Possible tsunami transmission across the Strait of Gibraltar: numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carbone, V.; Servidio, S.; Vecchio, A.; Anzidei, M.; Guerra, I.
2012-12-01
The possibility that a tsunami, generated as a consequence of the large earthquake in the Atlantic or Pacific ocean, could be recorded by the tide gauge stations located in the Mediterranean has been numerically investigated. In particular, direct numerical simulations of the nonlinear Shallow Water Equations (SWE) have been performed in order to simulate the transmission of large scale waves trough the Strait of Gibraltar. The SWE have wide applications in ocean and hydraulic engineering: tidal flows in estuary and coastal water regions, bore wave propagation, hydraulic jump, open channel flows, and so on. Among all these examples, the application of SWE to tsunamies is indeed one of the most successful. A numerical scheme, based on a Godunov-type method for solving the SWE with source term, has been proposed in Ref. [1]. In contrast to conventional data reconstruction methods based on conservative variables, the water surface level is chosen as the basis for data reconstruction. This provides accurate values of the conservative variables at cell interfaces so that the fluxes can be accurately calculated with a Riemann solver. The surface gradient method can be incorporated into any Godunov-type method which requires data reconstruction. Here, the MUSCL-Hancock finite-volume method has been combined with a body-fitted cut cell mesh [2], which can efficiently treat irregular boundaries while retaining the simplicity of a Cartesian grid implementation. Preliminary results show that incident waves, coming from the free ocean, can enter the Mediterraneum sea, passing trough the Strait. The incoming wave, altough is strongly reduced in intensity, fragmentate because of the bed profile and the interaction with the coasts, producing low ang high frequency disturbances. In agreement with observations (See Ref. [3]), these numerical simulations suggest that large tsunamis can pass through Gibraltar, initiating anomalous fluctuations in the Mediterraneum. [1] J. G. Zhou, D
Front tracking in the numerical simulation of binary alloy solidification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simpson, James Edward
2000-12-01
A model for directional solidification in dilute binary alloys is presented. The energy equation is solved for the temperature field, while the species equation is solved for the solute distribution. Either the vorticity-vector potential formulation or the pressure-velocity formulation is used to solve the governing equations for the velocity field. The constitutive equations are solved using a fully transient scheme. A variety of fast numerical schemes for solving sparse systems are used in the solution procedure. A single domain approach is used for the solution scheme for the energy and concentration equations. The effects of phase-change (energy equation) and solute rejection at the advancing solid/liquid interface (concentration equation) are handled via the introduction of appropriate source terms. The numerical approach was validated by comparing numerical results to data from a series of experiments of the Bridgman growth of pure succinonitrile. These experiments were performed as part of this work and are explained in detail. The numerical results agree well with the experimental data in terms of interface shape, temperature and velocity data. The key contribution of this work is the investigation of the Bridgman crystal growth of bismuth-tin in support of NASA's MEPHISTO project. The simulations reported in this work are among the first fully transient simulations of the process; no simplifying steady state approximations were used. Results are obtained for Bi-Sn alloys at a variety of initial concentrations and gravity levels. For most of the work, the solid/liquid interface temperature is assumed to be constant. For the richer alloy (Bi-1.0 at.% Sn) the results indicate that a secondary convective cell, driven by solutal gradients, forms near the interface. The magnitude of the velocities in this cell increases with time, causing increasing solute segregation at the solid/liquid interface. At lower gravity levels, convection-induced segregation is
Entropy Splitting for High Order Numerical Simulation of Compressible Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sandham, N. D.; Yee, H. C.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
A stable high order numerical scheme for direct numerical simulation (DNS) of shock-free compressible turbulence is presented. The method is applicable to general geometries. It contains no upwinding, artificial dissipation, or filtering. Instead the method relies on the stabilizing mechanisms of an appropriate conditioning of the governing equations and the use of compatible spatial difference operators for the interior points (interior scheme) as well as the boundary points (boundary scheme). An entropy splitting approach splits the inviscid flux derivatives into conservative and non-conservative portions. The spatial difference operators satisfy a summation by parts condition leading to a stable scheme (combined interior and boundary schemes) for the initial boundary value problem using a generalized energy estimate. A Laplacian formulation of the viscous and heat conduction terms on the right hand side of the Navier-Stokes equations is used to ensure that any tendency to odd-even decoupling associated with central schemes can be countered by the fluid viscosity. A special formulation of the continuity equation is used, based on similar arguments. The resulting methods are able to minimize spurious high frequency oscillation producing nonlinear instability associated with pure central schemes, especially for long time integration simulation such as DNS. For validation purposes, the methods are tested in a DNS of compressible turbulent plane channel flow at a friction Mach number of 0.1 where a very accurate turbulence data base exists. It is demonstrated that the methods are robust in terms of grid resolution, and in good agreement with incompressible channel data, as expected at this Mach number. Accurate turbulence statistics can be obtained with moderate grid sizes. Stability limits on the range of the splitting parameter are determined from numerical tests.
Numerical simulation of immiscible viscous fingering using adaptive unstructured meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adam, A.; Salinas, P.; Percival, J. R.; Pavlidis, D.; Pain, C.; Muggeridge, A. H.; Jackson, M.
2015-12-01
Displacement of one fluid by another in porous media occurs in various settings including hydrocarbon recovery, CO2 storage and water purification. When the invading fluid is of lower viscosity than the resident fluid, the displacement front is subject to a Saffman-Taylor instability and is unstable to transverse perturbations. These instabilities can grow, leading to fingering of the invading fluid. Numerical simulation of viscous fingering is challenging. The physics is controlled by a complex interplay of viscous and diffusive forces and it is necessary to ensure physical diffusion dominates numerical diffusion to obtain converged solutions. This typically requires the use of high mesh resolution and high order numerical methods. This is computationally expensive. We demonstrate here the use of a novel control volume - finite element (CVFE) method along with dynamic unstructured mesh adaptivity to simulate viscous fingering with higher accuracy and lower computational cost than conventional methods. Our CVFE method employs a discontinuous representation for both pressure and velocity, allowing the use of smaller control volumes (CVs). This yields higher resolution of the saturation field which is represented CV-wise. Moreover, dynamic mesh adaptivity allows high mesh resolution to be employed where it is required to resolve the fingers and lower resolution elsewhere. We use our results to re-examine the existing criteria that have been proposed to govern the onset of instability.Mesh adaptivity requires the mapping of data from one mesh to another. Conventional methods such as consistent interpolation do not readily generalise to discontinuous fields and are non-conservative. We further contribute a general framework for interpolation of CV fields by Galerkin projection. The method is conservative, higher order and yields improved results, particularly with higher order or discontinuous elements where existing approaches are often excessively diffusive.
A new numerical method for the simulation of three dimensional flow in a pipe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leonard, A.; Wray, A.
1982-01-01
A new numerical technique for simulating three dimensional, unsteady, incompressible pipe flows is presented and its utility and accuracy is shown. Each vector function in the expansion of the velocity field is divergence free and satisfies the boundary conditions for viscous flow. Some of the benefits of the expansion technique are that pressure is eliminated from the dynamics, only two unknowns per mesh point are required, implicit treatment of the viscous terms is provided at no extra computational cost, and no fractional time steps are required. The method uses spectral expansions: Fourier series in the azimuthal and streamwise directions, and Jacobi polynominals in the radial direction.
An efficient numerical technique for calculating thermal spreading resistance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gale, E. H., Jr.
1973-01-01
The results of a thermal spreading resistance data generation technique study are reported. The method developed is discussed in detail, illustrative examples given, and the resulting computer program is included.
Numerical Methods and Simulations of Complex Multiphase Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brady, Peter
Multiphase flows are an important part of many natural and technological phenomena such as ocean-air coupling (which is important for climate modeling) and the atomization of liquid fuel jets in combustion engines. The unique challenges of multiphase flow often make analytical solutions to the governing equations impossible and experimental investigations very difficult. Thus, high-fidelity numerical simulations can play a pivotal role in understanding these systems. This dissertation describes numerical methods developed for complex multiphase flows and the simulations performed using these methods. First, the issue of multiphase code verification is addressed. Code verification answers the question "Is this code solving the equations correctly?" The method of manufactured solutions (MMS) is a procedure for generating exact benchmark solutions which can test the most general capabilities of a code. The chief obstacle to applying MMS to multiphase flow lies in the discontinuous nature of the material properties at the interface. An extension of the MMS procedure to multiphase flow is presented, using an adaptive marching tetrahedron style algorithm to compute the source terms near the interface. Guidelines for the use of the MMS to help locate coding mistakes are also detailed. Three multiphase systems are then investigated: (1) the thermocapillary motion of three-dimensional and axisymmetric drops in a confined apparatus, (2) the flow of two immiscible fluids completely filling an enclosed cylinder and driven by the rotation of the bottom endwall, and (3) the atomization of a single drop subjected to a high shear turbulent flow. The systems are simulated numerically by solving the full multiphase Navier-Stokes equations coupled to the various equations of state and a level set interface tracking scheme based on the refined level set grid method. The codes have been parallelized using MPI in order to take advantage of today's very large parallel computational
Modelling surface water flood risk using coupled numerical and physical modelling techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, D. L.; Pattison, I.; Yu, D.
2015-12-01
Surface water (pluvial) flooding occurs due to intense precipitation events where rainfall cannot infiltrate into the sub-surface or drain via storm water systems. The perceived risk appears to have increased in recent years with pluvial flood events seeming more severe and frequent within the UK. Surface water flood risk currently accounts for one third of all UK flood risk, with approximately two million people living in urban areas being at risk of a 1 in 200 year flood event. Surface water flooding research often focuses upon using 1D, 2D or 1D-2D coupled numerical modelling techniques to understand the extent, depth and severity of actual or hypothetical flood scenarios. Although much research has been conducted using numerical modelling, field data available for model calibration and validation is limited due to the complexities associated with data collection in surface water flood conditions. Ultimately, the data which numerical models are based upon is often erroneous and inconclusive. Physical models offer an alternative and innovative environment to collect data within. A controlled, closed system allows independent variables to be altered individually to investigate cause and effect relationships. Despite this, physical modelling approaches are seldom used in surface water flooding research. Scaled laboratory experiments using a 9m2, two-tiered physical model consisting of: (i) a mist nozzle type rainfall simulator able to simulate a range of rainfall intensities similar to those observed within the United Kingdom, and; (ii) a fully interchangeable, scaled plot surface have been conducted to investigate and quantify the influence of factors such as slope, impermeability, building density/configuration and storm dynamics on overland flow and rainfall-runoff patterns within a range of terrestrial surface conditions. Results obtained within the physical modelling environment will be compared with numerical modelling results using FloodMap (Yu & Lane, 2006
Numerical simulation of oscillatons: Extracting the radiating tail
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grandclément, Philippe; Fodor, Gyula; Forgács, Péter
2011-09-01
Spherically symmetric, time-periodic oscillatons—solutions of the Einstein-Klein-Gordon system (a massive scalar field coupled to gravity) with a spatially localized core—are investigated by very precise numerical techniques based on spectral methods. In particular, the amplitude of their standing-wave tail is determined. It is found that the amplitude of the oscillating tail is very small, but nonvanishing for the range of frequencies considered. It follows that exactly time-periodic oscillatons are not truly localized, and they can be pictured loosely as consisting of a well (exponentially) localized nonsingular core and an oscillating tail making the total mass infinite. Finite mass physical oscillatons with a well localized core—solutions of the Cauchy-problem with suitable initial conditions—are only approximately time-periodic. They are continuously losing their mass because the scalar field radiates to infinity. Their core and radiative tail is well approximated by that of time-periodic oscillatons. Moreover the mass loss rate of physical oscillatons is estimated from the numerical data and a semiempirical formula is deduced. The numerical results are in agreement with those obtained analytically in the limit of small amplitude time-periodic oscillatons.
Numerical simulation of the tip aerodynamics and acoustics test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tejero E, F.; Doerffer, P.; Szulc, O.; Cross, J. L.
2016-04-01
The application of an efficient flow control system on helicopter rotor blades may lead to improved aerodynamic performance. Recently, our invention of Rod Vortex Generators (RVGs) has been analyzed for helicopter rotor blades in hover with success. As a step forward, the study has been extended to forward flight conditions. For this reason, a validation of the numerical modelling for a reference helicopter rotor (without flow control) is needed. The article presents a study of the flow-field of the AH-1G helicopter rotor in low-, medium- and high-speed forward flight. The CFD code FLOWer from DLR has proven to be a suitable tool for the aerodynamic analysis of the two-bladed rotor without any artificial wake modelling. It solves the URANS equations with LEA (Linear Explicit Algebraic stress) k-ω model using the chimera overlapping grids technique. Validation of the numerical model uses comparison with the detailed flight test data gathered by Cross J. L. and Watts M. E. during the Tip Aerodynamics and Acoustics Test (TAAT) conducted at NASA in 1981. Satisfactory agreements for all speed regimes and a presence of significant flow separation in high-speed forward flight suggest a possible benefit from the future implementation of RVGs. The numerical results based on the URANS approach are presented not only for a popular, low-speed case commonly used in rotorcraft community for CFD codes validation but preferably for medium- and high-speed test conditions that have not been published to date.
Numerical simulation and wave extraction of binary black hole system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imbiriba, Breno Cesar De Oliveira
In the first part of this work, we apply finite difference methods, specially mesh refinement techniques, in order to numerically evolve a single black hole, which is represented by the puncture initial data. We use standard second order finite differences, and the second order Iterated Crank-Nicholson integrator. We observe that, in order to obtain a second order accurate evolution we must impose second order accurate interface conditions at the refinement boundaries. We test our evolution with both the geodesic and the 1+log slicing conditions, and observe the expected results. We conclude that our mesh refinement technique generates convergent evolutions, and the puncture method behaves very well with it. The second part of this work deals with a modification of the hybrid "Lazarus" method for wave extraction. This method is divided in three parts: an early evolution, a set of transformations to produce perturbations over a Kerr background from the numerical data, and Teukolsky evolution. By using our evolution code (with mesh refinement) and gauges (1+log, gamma-driver, shifting-shift), we deviate from the original Lazarus approach. We used an independent implementation of the Lazarus transformations, validating the original results, and of the Teukolsky equation. We obtained results similar to the original Lazarus, both on the waveforms as well as on the negative results at later times. For instance, strong pulses that contaminate some gauge transformations, which may be explained in part by the propagating gauge modes of the 1+log slicing. Increasing the accuracy of the initial black hole evolution we seem to obtain better final results for the Kerr test case. Because of the gauge problems, we develop an approximated embedding method which approximates location of the numerical slice into the Kerr spacetime. This method is much less sensitive to the gauge perturbations. Given the difficulties of the Lazarus procedure, we decide to use the Lazarus method as a
Direct Numerical Simulation of Stable Channel Flow at Large Stability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nieuwstadt, F. T. M.
2005-08-01
We consider a model for the stable atmospheric boundary at large stability, i.e. near the limit where turbulence is no longer able to survive. The model is a plane horizontally homogeneous channel flow, which is driven by a constant pressure gradient and which has a no-slip wall at the bottom and a free-slip wall at the top. At the lower wall a constant negative temperature flux is imposed. First, we consider a direct numerical simulation of the same channel flow. The simulation is computed with the neutral channel flow as initial condition and computed as a function of time for various values of the stability parameter h/L, where h is the channel height and L is related to the Obukhov length. We find that a turbulent solution is only possible for h/L < 1.25 and for larger values turbulence decays. Next, we consider a theoretical model for this channel flow based on a simple gradient transfer closure. The resulting equations allow an exact solution for the case of a stationary flow. The velocity profile for this solution is almost linear as a function of height in most of the channel. In the limit of infinite Reynolds number, the temperature profile has a logarithmic singularity at the upper wall of the channel. For the cases where a turbulent flow is maintained in the numerical simulation, we find that the velocity and temperature profiles are in good agreement with the results of the theoretical model when the effects of the surface layer on the exchange coefficients are taken into account.
Numerical Simulations of the Orbits of Prometheus and Pandora
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooper, N. J.; Murray, C. D.
2003-05-01
We present the results of a numerical study of the orbits of Prometheus and Pandora. The full equations of motion have been integrated numerically for a variety of starting epochs between 1981 and 2004 using the Runge-Kutta-Nystrom RKN12(10)17M algorithm of Dormand et al. (1987). Included in the simulations are the effects of the 8 major satellites of Saturn, together with Janus and Epimetheus. Perturbations due to the Sun and Jupiter are also taken into account, along with the effects of Saturn's oblateness, up to terms in J6. The results show that the anti-correlation in the temporal variation of the mean longitudes of Prometheus and Pandora, demonstrated by Goldreich and Rappaport (Icarus 162 (2003), 391) in their two-satellite simulations, survives the addition of the other satellites to the model. Chaos is also apparent through extreme sensitivity to initial conditions and a positive value for the Lyapunov characteristic exponent. The simulations also clearly show the influence of the nearby 3:2 corotation eccentricity resonance due to Mimas on the mean longitude of Pandora, as predicted by theory and as detected by French et al. in their HST observations (Icarus 162 (2003), 143). The smaller effect due to the corresponding 3:2 inner Lindblad resonance is also detectable, though apparently much less significant. We investigate the possible role of the other satellites in the short-term evolution of the orbits of Prometheus and Pandora and consider the effects of various nearby resonances. Finally, we estimate the possible uncertainties in the orbits of Prometheus and Pandora during the Cassini tour, and discuss how the proposed sequence of observations for these satellites by Cassini may be expected to improve the precision of their orbits. The authors thank the U.K. Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council for financial support.
Numerical Simulation of Long-period Surface Wave in Sediments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yiqiong; Yu, Yanxiang
2016-04-01
Studies have shown that the western Taiwan coastal plain is influenced by long-period ground motion from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake, and engineering structures with natural vibration long-period are damaged by strong surface wave in the western coastal plain. The thick sediments in the western coastal plain are the main cause of the propagation of strong long-period ground motion. The thick sediments similar to in the western coastal plain also exist in northern China. It is necessary to research the effects of thick sediments to long-period ground motion in northern China. The numerical simulation of ground motion based on theoretical seismology is one of important means to study the ground motion. We will carry out the numerical simulation of long-period ground motion in northern China by using the existing tomographic imaging results of northern China to build underground medium model, and adopting finite fault source model for wave input. In the process of simulation, our previous developed structure-preserving algorithm, symplectic discrete singular convolution differentiator (SDSCD), is used to deal with seismic wave field propagation. Our purpose is to reveal the formation and propagation of long-period surface wave in thick sediments and grasp the amplification effect of long-period ground motion due to the thick sediments. It will lay the foundation on providing the reference for the value of the long-period spectrum during determining the ground motion parameters in seismic design. This work has been supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.41204046, 42574051).
In search of discernible infrasound emitted by numerically simulated tornadoes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schecter, David A.
2012-09-01
The comprehensive observational study of Bedard (2005) provisionally found that the infrasound of a tornado is discernible from the infrasound of generic cloud processes in a convective storm. This paper discusses an attempt to corroborate the reported observations of distinct tornado infrasound with numerical simulations. Specifically, this paper investigates the infrasound of an ordinary tornado in a numerical experiment with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System, customized to simulate acoustic phenomena. The simulation has no explicit parameterization of microphysical cloud processes, but creates an unsteady tornado of moderate strength by constant thermal forcing in a rotational environment. Despite strong fluctuations in the lower corner flow and upper outflow regions, a surprisingly low level of infrasound is radiated by the vortex. Infrasonic pressure waves in the 0.1 Hz frequency regime are less intense than those which could be generated by core-scale vortex Rossby (VR) waves of modest amplitude in similar vortices. Higher frequency infrasound is at least an order of magnitude weaker than expected based on infrasonic observations of tornadic thunderstorms. Suppression of VR waves (and their infrasound) is explained by the gradual decay of axial vorticity with increasing radius from the center of the vortex core. Such non-Rankine wind-structure is known to enable the rapid damping of VR waves by inviscid mechanisms, including resonant wave-mean flow interaction and "spiral wind-up" of vorticity. Insignificant levels of higher frequency infrasound may be due to oversimplifications in the computational setup, such as the neglect of thermal fluctuations caused by phase transitions of moisture in vigorous cloud turbulence.
A New Multiscale Technique for Time-Accurate Geophysics Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omelchenko, Y. A.; Karimabadi, H.
2006-12-01
Large-scale geophysics systems are frequently described by multiscale reactive flow models (e.g., wildfire and climate models, multiphase flows in porous rocks, etc.). Accurate and robust simulations of such systems by traditional time-stepping techniques face a formidable computational challenge. Explicit time integration suffers from global (CFL and accuracy) timestep restrictions due to inhomogeneous convective and diffusion processes, as well as closely coupled physical and chemical reactions. Application of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to such systems may not be always sufficient since its success critically depends on a careful choice of domain refinement strategy. On the other hand, implicit and timestep-splitting integrations may result in a considerable loss of accuracy when fast transients in the solution become important. To address this issue, we developed an alternative explicit approach to time-accurate integration of such systems: Discrete-Event Simulation (DES). DES enables asynchronous computation by automatically adjusting the CPU resources in accordance with local timescales. This is done by encapsulating flux- conservative updates of numerical variables in the form of events, whose execution and synchronization is explicitly controlled by imposing accuracy and causality constraints. As a result, at each time step DES self- adaptively updates only a fraction of the global system state, which eliminates unnecessary computation of inactive elements. DES can be naturally combined with various mesh generation techniques. The event-driven paradigm results in robust and fast simulation codes, which can be efficiently parallelized via a new preemptive event processing (PEP) technique. We discuss applications of this novel technology to time-dependent diffusion-advection-reaction and CFD models representative of various geophysics applications.
Carbon Dioxide Dispersion in the Combustion Integrated Rack Simulated Numerically
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Ming-Shin; Ruff, Gary A.
2004-01-01
When discharged into an International Space Station (ISS) payload rack, a carbon dioxide (CO2) portable fire extinguisher (PFE) must extinguish a fire by decreasing the oxygen in the rack by 50 percent within 60 sec. The length of time needed for this oxygen reduction throughout the rack and the length of time that the CO2 concentration remains high enough to prevent the fire from reigniting is important when determining the effectiveness of the response and postfire procedures. Furthermore, in the absence of gravity, the local flow velocity can make the difference between a fire that spreads rapidly and one that self-extinguishes after ignition. A numerical simulation of the discharge of CO2 from PFE into the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) in microgravity was performed to obtain the local velocity and CO2 concentration. The complicated flow field around the PFE nozzle exits was modeled by sources of equivalent mass and momentum flux at a location downstream of the nozzle. The time for the concentration of CO2 to reach a level that would extinguish a fire anywhere in the rack was determined using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS), a computational fluid dynamics code developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology specifically to evaluate the development of a fire and smoke transport. The simulation shows that CO2, as well as any smoke and combustion gases produced by a fire, would be discharged into the ISS cabin through the resource utility panel at the bottom of the rack. These simulations will be validated by comparing the results with velocity and CO2 concentration measurements obtained during the fire suppression system verification tests conducted on the CIR in March 2003. Once these numerical simulations are validated, portions of the ISS labs and living areas will be modeled to determine the local flow conditions before, during, and after a fire event. These simulations can yield specific information about how long it takes for smoke and
Numerical Simulation of Sickle Cell Blood Flow in the Microcirculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berger, Stanley A.; Carlson, Brian E.
2001-11-01
A numerical simulation of normal and sickle cell blood flow through the transverse arteriole-capillary microcirculation is carried out to model the dominant mechanisms involved in the onset of vascular stasis in sickle cell disease. The transverse arteriole-capillary network is described by Strahler's network branching method, and the oxygen and blood transport in the capillaries is modeled by a Krogh cylinder analysis utilizing Lighthill's lubrication theory, as developed by Berger and King. Poiseuille's law is used to represent blood flow in the arterioles. Applying this flow and transport model and utilizing volumetric flow continuity at each network bifurcation, a nonlinear system of equations is obtained, which is solved iteratively using a steepest descent algorithm coupled with a Newton solver. Ten different networks are generated and flow results are calculated for normal blood and sickle cell blood without and with precapillary oxygen loss. We find that total volumetric blood flow through the network is greater in the two sickle cell blood simulations than for normal blood owing to the anemia associated with sickle cell disease. The percentage of capillary blockage in the network increases dramatically with decreasing pressure drop across the network in the sickle cell cases while there is no blockage when normal blood flows through simulated networks. It is concluded that, in sickle cell disease, without any vasomotor dilation response to decreasing oxygen concentrations in the blood, capillary blockage will occur in the microvasculature even at average pressure drops across the transverse arteriole-capillary networks.
Numerical simulations of Mach stem formation via intersecting bow shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, E. C.; Frank, A.; Hartigan, P.; Yirak, K.
2015-12-01
Hubble Space Telescope observations show bright knots of Hα emission within outflowing young stellar jets. Velocity variations in the flow create secondary bow shocks that may intersect and lead to enhanced emission. When the bow shocks intersect at or above a certain critical angle, a planar shock called a Mach stem is formed. These shocks could produce brighter Hα emission since the incoming flow to the Mach stem is parallel to the shock normal. In this paper we report first results of a study using 2-D numerical simulations designed to explore Mach stem formation at the intersection of bow shocks formed by hypersonic "bullets" or "clumps". Our 2-D simulations show how the bow shock shapes and intersection angles change as the adiabatic index γ changes. We show that the formation or lack of a Mach stem in our simulations is consistent with the steady-state Mach stem formation theory. Our ultimate goal, which is part of an ongoing research effort, is to characterize the physical and observational consequences of bow shock intersections including the formation of Mach stems.
Numerical Simulation of Shock Wave Propagation in Fractured Cortical Bone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Padilla, Frédéric; Cleveland, Robin
2009-04-01
Shock waves (SW) are considered a promising method to treat bone non unions, but the associated mechanisms of action are not well understood. In this study, numerical simulations are used to quantify the stresses induced by SWs in cortical bone tissue. We use a 3D FDTD code to solve the linear lossless equations that describe wave propagation in solids and fluids. A 3D model of a fractured rat femur was obtained from micro-CT data with a resolution of 32 μm. The bone was subject to a plane SW pulse with a peak positive pressure of 40 MPa and peak negative pressure of -8 MPa. During the simulations the principal tensile stress and maximum shear stress were tracked throughout the bone. It was found that the simulated stresses in a transverse plane relative to the bone axis may reach values higher than the tensile and shear strength of the bone tissue (around 50 MPa). These results suggest that the stresses induced by the SW may be large enough to initiate local micro-fractures, which may in turn trigger the start of bone healing for the case of a non union.
Direct Numerical Simulation of a Weakly Stratified Turbulent Wake
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Redford, J. A.; Lund, T. S.; Coleman, Gary N.
2014-01-01
Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to investigate a time-dependent turbulent wake evolving in a stably stratified background. A large initial Froude number is chosen to allow the wake to become fully turbulent and axisymmetric before stratification affects the spreading rate of the mean defect. The uncertainty introduced by the finite sample size associated with gathering statistics from a simulation of a time-dependent flow is reduced, compared to earlier simulations of this flow. The DNS reveals the buoyancy-induced changes to the turbulence structure, as well as to the mean-defect history and the terms in the mean-momentum and turbulence-kinetic-energy budgets, that characterize the various states of this flow - namely the three-dimensional (essentially unstratified), non-equilibrium (or 'wake-collapse') and quasi-two-dimensional (or 'two-component') regimes observed elsewhere for wakes embedded in both weakly and strongly stratified backgrounds. The wake-collapse regime is not accompanied by transfer (or 'reconversion') of the potential energy of the turbulence to the kinetic energy of the turbulence, implying that this is not an essential feature of stratified-wake dynamics. The dependence upon Reynolds number of the duration of the wake-collapse period is demonstrated, and the effect of the details of the initial/near-field conditions of the wake on its subsequent development is examined.
Numerical simulations of ionospheric oscillations caused by coseismic atmospheric waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumura, M.; Shinagawa, H.; Tsugawa, T.; Saito, A.; Otsuka, Y.; Iyemori, T.
2012-12-01
Following the Mw=9.0 Tohoku earthquake on March 11, 2011, oscillations of total electric content (TEC) were observed in the ionosphere. They propagated with velocities of 140-780m/s from the tsunami source point, and had circular wave fronts [Tsugawa et al., 2011]. The purpose of this study is to simulate these oscillations and to elucidate the generation mechanism of them. In this study, we describe numerical simulations using a coupled model of a two-dimensional tsunami and a three-dimensional atmosphere and ionosphere. Velocity of the sea surface displacement generated by tsunami is implemented in the atmosphere-ionosphere model as the lower boundary condition. The simulations elucidate followings: (1) Oscillations of 420-780m/s are caused by secondary acoustic and gravity waves generated in the thermosphere. They are generated by primary acoustic waves triggered by the sea-surface displacement at the tsunami source point. (2) Oscillations of 140-290m/s are caused by gravity waves generated by tsunami and the tsunami source. They propagate to the thermosphere and attenuate over F1 region. This indicates that the TEC oscillations of 140-290m/s are mainly contributed by F1 or E region.
Numerical Simulation of Flow Field Within Parallel Plate Plastometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antar, Basil N.
2002-01-01
Parallel Plate Plastometer (PPP) is a device commonly used for measuring the viscosity of high polymers at low rates of shear in the range 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 9) poises. This device is being validated for use in measuring the viscosity of liquid glasses at high temperatures having similar ranges for the viscosity values. PPP instrument consists of two similar parallel plates, both in the range of 1 inch in diameter with the upper plate being movable while the lower one is kept stationary. Load is applied to the upper plate by means of a beam connected to shaft attached to the upper plate. The viscosity of the fluid is deduced from measuring the variation of the plate separation, h, as a function of time when a specified fixed load is applied on the beam. Operating plate speeds measured with the PPP is usually in the range of 10.3 cm/s or lower. The flow field within the PPP can be simulated using the equations of motion of fluid flow for this configuration. With flow speeds in the range quoted above the flow field between the two plates is certainly incompressible and laminar. Such flows can be easily simulated using numerical modeling with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. We present below the mathematical model used to simulate this flow field and also the solutions obtained for the flow using a commercially available finite element CFD code.
Numerical relativity in spherical polar coordinates: Off-center simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baumgarte, Thomas W.; Montero, Pedro J.; Müller, Ewald
2015-03-01
We have recently presented a new approach for numerical relativity simulations in spherical polar coordinates, both for vacuum and for relativistic hydrodynamics. Our approach is based on a reference-metric formulation of the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura equations, a factoring of all tensor components, as well as a partially implicit Runge-Kutta method, and does not rely on a regularization of the equations, nor does it make any assumptions about the symmetry across the origin. In order to demonstrate this feature we present here several off-centered simulations, including simulations of single black holes and neutron stars whose center is placed away from the origin of the coordinate system, as well as the asymmetric head-on collision of two black holes. We also revisit our implementation of relativistic hydrodynamics and demonstrate that a reference-metric formulation of hydrodynamics together with a factoring of all tensor components avoids problems related to the coordinate singularities at the origin and on the axes. As a particularly demanding test we present results for a shock wave propagating through the origin of the spherical polar coordinate system.
Numerical Simulation of a Solar Domestic Hot Water System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mongibello, L.; Bianco, N.; Di Somma, M.; Graditi, G.; Naso, V.
2014-11-01
An innovative transient numerical model is presented for the simulation of a solar Domestic Hot Water (DHW) system. The solar collectors have been simulated by using a zerodimensional analytical model. The temperature distributions in the heat transfer fluid and in the water inside the tank have been evaluated by one-dimensional models. The reversion elimination algorithm has been used to include the effects of natural convection among the water layers at different heights in the tank on the thermal stratification. A finite difference implicit scheme has been implemented to solve the energy conservation equation in the coil heat exchanger, and the energy conservation equation in the tank has been solved by using the finite difference Euler implicit scheme. Energy conservation equations for the solar DHW components models have been coupled by means of a home-made implicit algorithm. Results of the simulation performed using as input data the experimental values of the ambient temperature and the solar irradiance in a summer day are presented and discussed.
Magnetohydrodynamic Numerical Simulations of Magnetic Reconnection in Interstellar Medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanuma, Syuniti
2000-03-01
In this thesis, we perform two-dimensional (2D) resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations of the magnetic reconnection in interstellar medium. Part I is introduction. The motivation of the study is to investigate the origin of hot gas in interstellar medium. A scenario for generating X-ray gas in Galaxy is proposed, and examined by performing 2D MHD simulations with simple assumptions (Part II). The magnetic reconnection triggered by a supernova (Part III) and Parker instability (Part IV) are studied in detail, by performing 2D MHD simulations. Furthermore, the magnetic reconnection is also studied by performing three-dimensional (3D) MHD numerical simulation in (Part V). % Finally, we discuss and summarize the thesis (Parts VI and VII). Part I First, we review observation of Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission (GRXE) and its problems. Second, we describe observation of interstellar magnetic field briefly. Third, we review magnetic reconnection, theoretical models, numerical simulations, observations and experiments, and tearing instability. Forth, Parker instability (undular mode of magnetobuoyancy instability) is mentioned. Finally, we show the purpose of this thesis. Part II We present a scenario for the origin of the hot plasma in Galaxy as a model of strong X-ray emission [sim 3-10 keV; LX(2-10 keV) sim 1038 erg s-1], called GRXE, which has been observed near to the galactic plane. GRXE is thermal emission from a hot component (sim 7 keV) and a cool component (sim 0.8 keV). Observations suggest that the hot component is diffuse, and that it is not escaping away freely. Both what heats the hot component and what confines it in Galactic ridge still remain puzzling, while the cool component is believed to be created by supernovae. We propose a new scenario: the hot component is heated by magnetic reconnection, and confined by a helical magnetic field produced by magnetic reconnection. We solved 2D MHD equations numerically to study how magnetic
Investigating dynamic underground coal fires by means of numerical simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wessling, S.; Kessels, W.; Schmidt, M.; Krause, U.
2008-01-01
Uncontrolled burning or smoldering of coal seams, otherwise known as coal fires, represents a worldwide natural hazard. Efficient application of fire-fighting strategies and prevention of mining hazards require that the temporal evolution of fire propagation can be sufficiently precise predicted. A promising approach for the investigation of the temporal evolution is the numerical simulation of involved physical and chemical processes. In the context of the Sino-German Research Initiative `Innovative Technologies for Detection, Extinction and Prevention of Coal Fires in North China,' a numerical model has been developed for simulating underground coal fires at large scales. The objective of such modelling is to investigate observables, like the fire propagation rate, with respect to the thermal and hydraulic parameters of adjacent rock. In the model, hydraulic, thermal and chemical processes are accounted for, with the last process complemented by laboratory experiments. Numerically, one key challenge in modelling coal fires is to circumvent the small time steps resulting from the resolution of fast reaction kinetics at high temperatures. In our model, this problem is solved by means of an `operator-splitting' approach, in which transport and reactive processes of oxygen are independently calculated. At high temperatures, operator-splitting has the decisive advantage of allowing the global time step to be chosen according to oxygen transport, so that time-consuming simulation through the calculation of fast reaction kinetics is avoided. Also in this model, because oxygen distribution within a coal fire has been shown to remain constant over long periods, an additional extrapolation algorithm for the coal concentration has been applied. In this paper, we demonstrate that the operator-splitting approach is particularly suitable for investigating the influence of hydraulic parameters of adjacent rocks on coal fire propagation. A study shows that dynamic propagation
Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Ashraf, Arshad; Fryar, Alan; Akhter, Gulraiz
2011-02-01
The integration of the Geographic Information System (GIS) with groundwater modeling and satellite remote sensing capabilities has provided an efficient way of analyzing and monitoring groundwater behavior and its associated land conditions. A 3-dimensional finite element model (Feflow) has been used for regional groundwater flow modeling of Upper Chaj Doab in Indus Basin, Pakistan. The approach of using GIS techniques that partially fulfill the data requirements and define the parameters of existing hydrologic models was adopted. The numerical groundwater flow model is developed to configure the groundwater equipotential surface, hydraulic head gradient, and estimation of the groundwater budget of the aquifer. GIS is used for spatial database development, integration with a remote sensing, and numerical groundwater flow modeling capabilities. The thematic layers of soils, land use, hydrology, infrastructure, and climate were developed using GIS. The Arcview GIS software is used as additive tool to develop supportive data for numerical groundwater flow modeling and integration and presentation of image processing and modeling results. The groundwater flow model was calibrated to simulate future changes in piezometric heads from the period 2006 to 2020. Different scenarios were developed to study the impact of extreme climatic conditions (drought/flood) and variable groundwater abstraction on the regional groundwater system. The model results indicated a significant response in watertable due to external influential factors. The developed model provides an effective tool for evaluating better management options for monitoring future groundwater development in the study area. PMID:20213054
Saxena, A K; Kaushik, T C; Gupta, Satish C
2010-03-01
Two low energy (1.6 and 8 kJ) portable electrically exploding foil accelerators are developed for moderately high pressure shock studies at small laboratory scale. Projectile velocities up to 4.0 km/s have been measured on Kapton flyers of thickness 125 microm and diameter 8 mm, using an in-house developed Fabry-Perot velocimeter. An asymmetric tilt of typically few milliradians has been measured in flyers using fiber optic technique. High pressure impact experiments have been carried out on tantalum, and aluminum targets up to pressures of 27 and 18 GPa, respectively. Peak particle velocities at the target-glass interface as measured by Fabry-Perot velocimeter have been found in good agreement with the reported equation of state data. A one-dimensional hydrodynamic code based on realistic models of equation of state and electrical resistivity has been developed to numerically simulate the flyer velocity profiles. The developed numerical scheme is validated against experimental and simulation data reported in literature on such systems. Numerically computed flyer velocity profiles and final flyer velocities have been found in close agreement with the previously reported experimental results with a significant improvement over reported magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Numerical modeling of low energy systems reported here predicts flyer velocity profiles higher than experimental values, indicating possibility of further improvement to achieve higher shock pressures.
Saxena, A. K.; Kaushik, T. C.; Gupta, Satish C.
2010-03-15
Two low energy (1.6 and 8 kJ) portable electrically exploding foil accelerators are developed for moderately high pressure shock studies at small laboratory scale. Projectile velocities up to 4.0 km/s have been measured on Kapton flyers of thickness 125 {mu}m and diameter 8 mm, using an in-house developed Fabry-Perot velocimeter. An asymmetric tilt of typically few milliradians has been measured in flyers using fiber optic technique. High pressure impact experiments have been carried out on tantalum, and aluminum targets up to pressures of 27 and 18 GPa, respectively. Peak particle velocities at the target-glass interface as measured by Fabry-Perot velocimeter have been found in good agreement with the reported equation of state data. A one-dimensional hydrodynamic code based on realistic models of equation of state and electrical resistivity has been developed to numerically simulate the flyer velocity profiles. The developed numerical scheme is validated against experimental and simulation data reported in literature on such systems. Numerically computed flyer velocity profiles and final flyer velocities have been found in close agreement with the previously reported experimental results with a significant improvement over reported magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Numerical modeling of low energy systems reported here predicts flyer velocity profiles higher than experimental values, indicating possibility of further improvement to achieve higher shock pressures.
Numerical Simulation of Parachute Inflation Process by IB Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyoshi, Masaya; Mori, Koichi; Nakamura, Yoshiaki
In the present study the deformation and motion of a parachute in the process of inflation are simulated by applying the immersed boundary technique in a fluid-structure coupling solver. It was found from simulated results that the canopy is first inflated in the normal direction to the uniform flow (in the lateral direction), and then its apex is pulled by a vortex ring generated near the canopy's outer surface due to its negative pressure. After the end of this inflation process, the canopy moves in the tangential direction to the spherical surface, the center of which is located at the payload location. This motion is caused by the breakup of an initial axisymmetric vortex, where many vortices are generated from the shear layer. The predicted maximum parachute opening force is twice as large as the payload force in the steady state, which is in good agreement with experiment.
Modeling Lewis acidity of transition aluminas by numerical simulations
Alvarez, L.J.; Blumenfeld, A.L.; Fripiat, J.J.
1998-01-01
The bulk and surface features of an alumina particle obtained by molecular-dynamics simulation are used to support the experimental distribution of aluminums with respect to their coordination number obtained by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance). This information was obtained by using results of various editing procedures of the {sup 27}Al nuclear magnetic resonance, such as the classical one-pulse (1P) magic angle spinning, the cross polarization (CP) from the protons of chemisorbed ammonia and the 1P or CP rotational echo double resonance (REDOR). Because the REDOR technique revealed that the acid Lewis sites are constituted by pairs of four or fivefold coordinated aluminum atoms about 3 {Angstrom} apart, these pairs were counted in the simulated particle. The agreement with experimental surface density of Lewis sites is satisfactory. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}
Numerical simulation of X90 UOE pipe forming process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Tianxia; Ren, Qiang; Peng, Yinghong; Li, Dayong; Tang, Ding; Han, Jianzeng; Li, Xinwen; Wang, Xiaoxiu
2013-12-01
The UOE process is an important technique to manufacture large-diameter welding pipes which are increasingly applied in oil pipelines and offshore platforms. The forming process of UOE mainly consists of five successive operations: crimping, U-forming, O-forming, welding and mechanical expansion, through which a blank is formed into a pipe in a UOE pipe mill. The blank with an appropriate edge bevel is bent into a cylindrical shape by crimping (C-forming), U-forming and O-forming successively. After the O-forming, there is an open-seam between two ends of the plate. Then, the blank is welded by automatic four-electrode submerged arc welding technique. Subsequently, the welded pipe is expanded with a mechanical expander to get a high precision circular shape. The multiple operations in the UOE mill make it difficult to control the quality of the formed pipe. Therefore, process design mainly relies on experience in practical production. In this study, the UOE forming of an API X90 pipe is studied by using finite element simulation. The mechanical properties tests are performed on the API X90 pipeline steel blank. A two-dimensional finite element model under the hypothesis of plane strain condition is developed to simulate the UOE process according to data coming from the workshop. A kinematic hardening model is used in the simulation to take the Bauschinger effect into account. The deformation characteristics of the blank during the forming processes are analyzed. The simulation results show a significant coherence in the geometric configurations comparing with the practical manufacturing.
3D SPH numerical simulation of the wave generated by the Vajont rockslide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vacondio, R.; Mignosa, P.; Pagani, S.
2013-09-01
A 3D numerical modeling of the wave generated by the Vajont slide, one of the most destructive ever occurred, is presented in this paper. A meshless Lagrangian Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) technique was adopted to simulate the highly fragmented violent flow generated by the falling slide in the artificial reservoir. The speed-up achievable via General Purpose Graphic Processing Units (GP-GPU) allowed to adopt the adequate resolution to describe the phenomenon. The comparison with the data available in literature showed that the results of the numerical simulation reproduce satisfactorily the maximum run-up, also the water surface elevation in the residual lake after the event. Moreover, the 3D velocity field of the flow during the event and the discharge hydrograph which overtopped the dam, were obtained.
SIVEH: Numerical Computing Simulation of Wireless Energy-Harvesting Sensor Nodes
Sanchez, Antonio; Blanc, Sara; Climent, Salvador; Yuste, Pedro; Ors, Rafael
2013-01-01
The paper presents a numerical energy harvesting model for sensor nodes, SIVEH (Simulator I–V for EH), based on I–V hardware tracking. I–V tracking is demonstrated to be more accurate than traditional energy modeling techniques when some of the components present different power dissipation at either different operating voltages or drawn currents. SIVEH numerical computing allows fast simulation of long periods of time—days, weeks, months or years—using real solar radiation curves. Moreover, SIVEH modeling has been enhanced with sleep time rate dynamic adjustment, while seeking energy-neutral operation. This paper presents the model description, a functional verification and a critical comparison with the classic energy approach. PMID:24008287
Numerical Simulation of Sludge Dryness under Flue Gas Atmosphere in the Riser of a Fluidized Bed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, H. M.; Ma, X. Q.; Liu, K.; Yu, Z. S.
A numerical algorithm is developed for a detailed 3D simulation of the gas/particle flow behavior used for drying of sludge under flue gas atmosphere in the riser section of a circulating fluidized bed. The gas phase is described with standard κ - ɛ turbulence model, whereas a Lagrangian formulation with a stochastic particle dispersion model is adopted for the particulate phase. Conservation equations of mass and momentum for each phase were solved using the volume numerical technique. Fluid-particle interaction is taken into account to calculate the mass, momentum, and heat transfer between phases. The numerical algorithm is used to predict the circulating fluidized bed performance under various inlet profiles of the flue gas velocity. Gas and particle flow profiles were obtained for velocity and temperature parameters for each phase. The influence of the flue gas inlet velocity and the sludge mass flow rate on drying is discussed.
Numerical simulation of the radiation environment on Martian surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, L.
2015-12-01
The radiation environment on the Martian surface is significantly different from that on earth. Existing observation and studies reveal that the radiation environment on the Martian surface is highly variable regarding to both short- and long-term time scales. For example, its dose rate presents diurnal and seasonal variations associated with atmospheric pressure changes. Moreover, dose rate is also strongly influenced by the modulation from GCR flux. Numerical simulation and theoretical explanations are required to understand the mechanisms behind these features, and to predict the time variation of radiation environment on the Martian surface if aircraft is supposed to land on it in near future. The high energy galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) which are ubiquitous throughout the solar system are highly penetrating and extremely difficult to shield against beyond the Earth's protective atmosphere and magnetosphere. The goal of this article is to evaluate the long term radiation risk on the Martian surface. Therefore, we need to develop a realistic time-dependent GCR model, which will be integrated with Geant4 transport code subsequently to reproduce the observed variation of surface dose rate associated with the changing heliospheric conditions. In general, the propagation of cosmic rays in the interplanetary medium can be described by a Fokker-Planck equation (or Parker equation). In last decade,we witnessed a fast development of GCR transport models within the heliosphere based on accurate gas-dynamic and MHD backgrounds from global models of the heliosphere. The global MHD simulation produces a more realistic pattern of the 3-D heliospheric structure, as well as the interface between the solar system and the surrounding interstellar space. As a consequence, integrating plasma background obtained from global-dependent 3-D MHD simulation and stochastic Parker transport simulation, we expect to produce an accurate global physical-based GCR modulation model. Combined
Numerical simulation and prediction of coastal ocean circulation
Chen, P.
1992-01-01
Numerical simulation and prediction of coastal ocean circulation have been conducted in three cases. 1. A process-oriented modeling study is conducted to study the interaction of a western boundary current (WBC) with coastal water, and its responses to upstream topographic irregularities. It is hypothesized that the interaction of propagating WBC frontal waves and topographic Rossby waves are responsible for upstream variability. 2. A simulation of meanders and eddies in the Norwegian Coastal Current (NCC) for February and March of 1988 is conducted with a newly developed nested dynamic interactive model. The model employs a coarse-grid, large domain to account for non-local forcing and a fine-grid nested domain to resolve meanders and eddies. The model is forced by wind stresses, heat fluxes and atmospheric pressure corresponding Feb/March of 1988, and accounts for river/fjord discharges, open ocean inflow and outflow, and M[sub 2] tides. The simulation reproduced fairly well the observed circulation, tides, and salinity features in the North Sea, Norwegian Trench and NCC region in the large domain and fairly realistic meanders and eddies in the NCC in the nested region. 3. A methodology for practical coastal ocean hindcast/forecast is developed, taking advantage of the disparate time scales of various forcing and considering wind to be the dominant factor in affecting density fluctuation in the time scale of 1 to 10 days. The density field obtained from a prognostic simulation is analyzed by the empirical orthogonal function method (EOF), and correlated with the wind; these information are then used to drive a circulation model which excludes the density calculation. The method is applied to hindcast the circulation in the New York Bight for spring and summer season of 1988. The hindcast fields compare favorably with the results obtained from the prognostic circulation model.
Improving the trust in results of numerical simulations and scientific data analytics
Cappello, Franck; Constantinescu, Emil; Hovland, Paul; Peterka, Tom; Phillips, Carolyn; Snir, Marc; Wild, Stefan
2015-04-30
This white paper investigates several key aspects of the trust that a user can give to the results of numerical simulations and scientific data analytics. In this document, the notion of trust is related to the integrity of numerical simulations and data analytics applications. This white paper complements the DOE ASCR report on Cybersecurity for Scientific Computing Integrity by (1) exploring the sources of trust loss; (2) reviewing the definitions of trust in several areas; (3) providing numerous cases of result alteration, some of them leading to catastrophic failures; (4) examining the current notion of trust in numerical simulation and scientific data analytics; (5) providing a gap analysis; and (6) suggesting two important research directions and their respective research topics. To simplify the presentation without loss of generality, we consider that trust in results can be lost (or the results’ integrity impaired) because of any form of corruption happening during the execution of the numerical simulation or the data analytics application. In general, the sources of such corruption are threefold: errors, bugs, and attacks. Current applications are already using techniques to deal with different types of corruption. However, not all potential corruptions are covered by these techniques. We firmly believe that the current level of trust that a user has in the results is at least partially founded on ignorance of this issue or the hope that no undetected corruptions will occur during the execution. This white paper explores the notion of trust and suggests recommendations for developing a more scientifically grounded notion of trust in numerical simulation and scientific data analytics. We first formulate the problem and show that it goes beyond previous questions regarding the quality of results such as V&V, uncertainly quantification, and data assimilation. We then explore the complexity of this difficult problem, and we sketch complementary general
Numerical simulation of the resonantly excited capillary-gravity waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanazaki, Hideshi; Hirata, Motonori; Okino, Shinya
2015-11-01
Capillary gravity waves excited by an obstacle are investigated by a direct numerical simulation. In the flow without capillary effects, it is well known that large-amplitude upstream advancing solitary waves are generated periodically under the resonant condition, i.e., when the phase velocity of the long surface waves and the mean flow velocity agrees. With capillary effects, solutions of the Euler equations show the generation of very short waves further upstream of the solitary waves and also in the depression region downstream of the obstacle. The overall characteristics of these waves agree with the solutions of the forced fifth-order KdV equation, while the weakly nonlinear theory generally overestimates the wavelength of the short waves.
Direct numerical simulation of flow past cactus--shaped cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babu, Pradeep; Mahesh, Krishnan
2006-11-01
The Saguaro cacti are tall, have short root systems and can withstand high wind velocities (Bulk 1984, Talley et al. 2002). Their trunks are essentially cylindrical with V--shaped longitudinal cavities. The size and number of cavities on the Saguaro cacti vary so that they have a near--constant fraction cavity depth (l/D ratio of about 0.07, Geller & Nobel 1984). Direct numerical simulations is used to assess the aerodynamic effect of the grooves on the cactus. DNS is performed for cactus shaped cylinders with l/d ratio's of 0.07 and 0.105, and smooth cylinders (l/d=0) at the same Reynolds number. Presence of the V--shaped cavities is found to decrease the drag on the cylindrical trunk as well as affect the fluctuating lift forces. The talk will quantify these differences, and discuss the physical mechanisms by which V--shaped cavities on the surface influence the flow.
Numerical simulation of transient moisture transfer into an electronic enclosure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nasirabadi, P. Shojaee; Jabbari, M.; Hattel, J. H.
2016-06-01
Electronic systems are sometimes exposed to harsh environmental conditions of temperature and humidity. Moisture transfer into electronic enclosures and condensation can cause several problems such as corrosion and alteration in thermal stresses. It is therefore essential to study the local climate inside the enclosures to be able to protect the electronic systems. In this work, moisture transfer into a typical electronic enclosure is numerically studied using CFD. In order to reduce the CPU-time and make a way for subsequent factorial design analysis, a simplifying modification is applied in which the real 3D geometry is approximated by a 2D axial symmetry one. The results for 2D and 3D models were compared in order to calibrate the 2D representation. Furthermore, simulation results were compared with experimental data and good agreement was found.
Observation and numerical simulation of a convective initiation during COHMEX
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Song, J. Aaron; Kaplan, Michael L.
1991-01-01
Under a synoptically undisturbed condition, a dual-peak convective lifecycle was observed with the COoperative Huntsville Meteorological EXperiment (COHMEX) observational network over a 24-hour period. The lifecycle included a multicell storm, which lasted about 6 hours, produced a peak rainrate exceeding 100 mm/hr, and initiated a downstream mesoscale convective system. The 24-hour accumulated rainfall of this event was the largest during the entire COHMEX. The downstream mesoscale convective system, unfortunately, was difficult to investigate quantitatively due to the lack of mesoscale observations. The dataset collected near the time of the multicell storm evolution, including its initiation, was one of the best datasets of COHMEX. In this study, the initiation of this multicell storm is chosen as the target of the numerical simulations.
The North Sea Andrea storm and numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bitner-Gregersen, E. M.; Fernandez, L.; Lefèvre, J. M.; Monbaliu, J.; Toffoli, A.
2014-06-01
A coupling of a spectral wave model with a nonlinear phase-resolving model is used to reconstruct the evolution of wave statistics during a storm crossing the North Sea on 8-9 November 2007. During this storm a rogue wave (named the Andrea wave) was recorded at the Ekofisk field. The wave has characteristics comparable to the well-known New Year wave measured by Statoil at the Draupner platform 1 January 1995. Hindcast data of the storm at the nearest grid point to the Ekofisk field are here applied as input to calculate the evolution of random realizations of the sea surface and its statistical properties. Numerical simulations are carried out using the Euler equations with a higher-order spectral method (HOSM). Results are compared with some characteristics of the Andrea wave record measured by the down-looking lasers at Ekofisk.
Stability analysis and numerical simulation of simplified solid rocket motors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyer, G.; Casalis, G.; Estivalèzes, J.-L.
2013-08-01
This paper investigates the Parietal Vortex Shedding (PVS) instability that significantly influences the Pressure Oscillations of the long and segmented solid rocket motors. The eigenmodes resulting from the stability analysis of a simplified configuration, namely, a cylindrical duct with sidewall injection, are presented. They are computed taking into account the presence of a wall injection defect, which is shown to induce hydrodynamic instabilities at discrete frequencies. These instabilities exhibit eigenfunctions in good agreement with the measured PVS vortical structures. They are successfully compared in terms of temporal evolution and frequencies to the unsteady hydrodynamic fluctuations computed by numerical simulations. In addition, this study has shown that the hydrodynamic instabilities associated with the PVS are the driving force of the flow dynamics, since they are responsible for the emergence of pressure waves propagating at the same frequency.
Planar and cylindrical active microwave temperature imaging: numerical simulations.
Rius, J M; Pichot, C; Jofre, L; Bolomey, J C; Joachimowicz, N; Broquetas, A; Ferrando, M
1992-01-01
A comparative study at 2.45 GHz concerning both measurement and reconstruction parameters for planar and cylindrical configurations is presented. For the sake of comparison, a numerical model consisting of two nonconcentric cylinders is considered and reconstructed using both geometries from simulated experimental data. The scattered fields and reconstructed images permit extraction of very useful information about dynamic range, sensitivity, resolution, and quantitative image accuracy for the choice of the configuration in a particular application. Both geometries can measure forward and backward scattered fields. The backscattering measurement improves the image resolution and reconstruction in lossy mediums, but, on the other hand, has several dynamic range difficulties. This tradeoff between forward only and forward-backward field measurement is analyzed. As differential temperature imaging is a weakly scattering problem, Born approximation algorithms can be used. The simplicity of Born reconstruction algorithms and the use of FFT make them very attractive for real-time biomedical imaging systems. PMID:18222887
Numerical simulation of natural convection in a sessile liquid droplet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartashevich, M. V.; Marchuk, I. V.; Kabov, O. A.
2012-06-01
Heat transfer in a sessile liquid droplet was studied with numerical methods. A computer code was developed for solving the problem of convection in an axisymmetric hemispherical droplet and in a spherical layer as well. The problem of establishing an equilibrium state in a droplet was solved using several variables: temperature, stream function, and vorticity. Simulation was performed for droplets of water, ethyl alcohol, and model liquids. Variable parameters: intensity of heat transfer from droplet surface, Rayleigh and Marangoni dimensionless criteria, and the characteristic temperature difference. It was revealed that the curve of convective flow intensity versus heat transfer intensity at droplet surface has a maximum. A dual-vortex structure was obtained in a stationary hemispherical profile of liquid droplet for the case of close values for thermocapillary and thermogravitational forces. Either thermocapillary or thermogravitational vortex might be dominating phenomena in the flow structure.
Numerical simulation and immersive visualization of hairpin vortices.
Tufo, H.M.; Fischer, P.F.; Papka, M.E.; Blom, K.
1999-08-28
To better understand the vortex dynamics of coherent structures in turbulent and transitional boundary layers, we consider direct numerical simulation of the interaction between a flat-plate-boundary-layer flow and an isolated hemispherical roughness element. Of principal interest is the evolution of hairpin vortices that form an interlacing pattern in the wake of the hemisphere, lift away from the wall, and are stretched by the shearing action of the boundary layer. Using animations of unsteady three-dimensional representations of this flow, produced by the vtk toolkit and enhanced to operate in a CAVE virtual environment, we identify and study several key features in the evolution of this complex vortex topology not previously observed in other visualization formats.
Numerical simulation of the passive gas mixture flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kyncl, Martin; Pelant, Jaroslav
2016-03-01
The aim of this paper is the numerical solution of the equations describing the non-stationary compressible turbulent multicomponent flow in gravitational field. The mixture of perfect inert gases is assumed. We work with the RANS equations equipped with the k-omega and the EARSM turbulence models. For the simulation of the wall roughness we use the modification of the specific turbulent dissipation. The finite volume method is used, with thermodynamic constants being functions in time and space. In order to compute the fluxes through the boundary faces we use the modification of the Riemann solver, which is the original result. We present the computational results, computed with the own-developed code (C, FORTRAN, multiprocessor, unstructured meshes in general).
Numerical simulation of high Reynolds number bubble motion
McLaughlin, J.B.
1995-12-31
This paper presents the results of numerical simulations of bubble motion. All the results are for single bubbles in unbounded fluids. The liquid phase is quiescent except for the motion created by the bubble, which is axisymmetric. The main focus of the paper is on bubbles that are of order 1 mm in diameter in water. Of particular interest is the effect of surfactant molecules on bubble motion. Results for the {open_quotes}insoluble surfactant{close_quotes} model will be presented. These results extend research by other investigators to finite Reynolds numbers. The results indicate that, by assuming complete coverage of the bubble surface, one obtains good agreement with experimental observations of bubble motion in tap water. The effect of surfactant concentration on the separation angle is discussed.
Multigrid methods for numerical simulation of laminar diffusion flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, C.; Liu, Z.; Mccormick, S.
1993-01-01
This paper documents the result of a computational study of multigrid methods for numerical simulation of 2D diffusion flames. The focus is on a simplified combustion model, which is assumed to be a single step, infinitely fast and irreversible chemical reaction with five species (C3H8, O2, N2, CO2 and H2O). A fully-implicit second-order hybrid scheme is developed on a staggered grid, which is stretched in the streamwise coordinate direction. A full approximation multigrid scheme (FAS) based on line distributive relaxation is developed as a fast solver for the algebraic equations arising at each time step. Convergence of the process for the simplified model problem is more than two-orders of magnitude faster than other iterative methods, and the computational results show good grid convergence, with second-order accuracy, as well as qualitatively agreement with the results of other researchers.
Mathematical analysis and numerical simulation of a model of morphogenesis.
Muñoz, Ana I; Tello, José Ignacio
2011-10-01
We consider a simple mathematical model of distribution of morphogens (signaling molecules responsible for the differentiation of cells and the creation of tissue patterns). The mathematical model is a particular case of the model proposed by Lander, Nie and Wan in 2006 and similar to the model presented in Lander, Nie, Vargas and Wan 2005. The model consists of a system of three equations: a PDE of parabolic type with dynamical boundary conditions modelling the distribution of free morphogens and two ODEs describing the evolution of bound and free receptors. Three biological processes are taken into account: diffusion, degradation and reversible binding. We study the stationary solutions and the evolution problem. Numerical simulations show the behavior of the solution depending on the values of the parameters.