Background The objectives of this smoking cessation study among hospitalized smokers are to: 1) determine provider and patient receptivity, barriers, and facilitators to implementing the nurse-administered, inpatient Tobacco Tactics intervention versus usual care using face-to-face feedback and surveys; 2) compare the effectiveness of the nurse-administered, inpatient Tobacco Tactics intervention versus usual care across hospitals, units, and patient characteristics using thirty-day point prevalence abstinence at thirty days and six months (primary outcome) post-recruitment; and 3) determine the cost-effectiveness of the nurse-administered, inpatient Tobacco Tactics intervention relative to usual care including cost per quitter, cost per life-year saved, and cost per quality-adjusted life-year saved. Methods/Design This effectiveness study will be a quasi-experimental design of six Michigan community hospitals of which three will get the nurse-administered Tobacco Tactics intervention and three will provide their usual care. In both the intervention and usual care sites, research assistants will collect data from patients on their smoking habits and related variables while in the hospital and at thirty days and six months post-recruitment. The intervention will be integrated into the experimental sites by a research nurse who will train Master Trainers at each intervention site. The Master Trainers, in turn, will teach the intervention to all staff nurses. Research nurses will also conduct formative evaluation with nurses to identify barriers and facilitators to dissemination. Descriptive statistics will be used to summarize the results of surveys administered to nurses, nurses’ participation rates, smokers’ receipt of specific cessation services, and satisfaction with services. General estimating equation analyses will be used to determine differences between intervention groups on satisfaction and quit rates, respectively, with adjustment for the clustering
Müller, Martin; Bartoszek, Gabriele; Beutner, Katrin; Klingshirn, Hanna; Saal, Susanne; Stephan, Anna-Janina; Strobl, Ralf; Grill, Eva; Meyer, Gabriele
Background: Joint contractures are common problems in frail older people in nursing homes. Irrespective of the exact extent of older individuals in geriatric care settings living with joint contractures, they appear to be a relevant problem. Also, the new emphasis on the syndrome of joint contractures, e. g. by the German statutory long term care insurance, led to an increase in assessment and documentation efforts and preventive interventions in clinical care. However, more attention should be paid to the actual situation of older individuals in nursing homes with prevalent joint contractures, particularly their experience of related activity limitations and participation restrictions. Thus, the aim of this study is 1) to develop a tailored intervention to improve functioning, and especially participation and quality of life in older residents with joint contractures in nursing homes and 2) to test the feasibility of the intervention accompanied by a rigorous process evaluation. Methods: The complex intervention, which will be developed in this project follows the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) framework and integrates the perspectives of all potentially relevant user groups, from the affected individuals to clinicians and researchers. The development process will comprise a systematic literature review, reanalysis of existing data and the integration of the knowledge of the affected individuals and experts. The developed intervention including a comprehensive process evaluation will be pilot tested with residents with joint contractures in three nursing homes. Discussion: The projected study will provide a tailored intervention to improve functioning, participation and quality of life in older residents with joint contractures in nursing homes. With this focus, the intervention will support patient relevant outcomes. The pilot study including process evaluation will offer a first opportunity to indicate the size of the intervention’s effect and prepare
Bair, Holly; Ivascu, Felicia; Janczyk, Randy; Nittis, Tara; Bendick, Philip; Howells, Greg
The trauma quality improvement committee at our facility identified a significant number of patients on warfarin presenting to the emergency center after minor head trauma that subsequently expired from their intracranial hemorrhage prior to appropriate intervention. An analysis of this patient population identified multiple areas of delay. A collaborative effort between the emergency center nurses and the trauma service personnel resulted in a formal protocol to address each component of delay and expedite the process. Since implementation of this nursing driven protocol we have dramatically decreased the time to (1) Emergency Center Physician evaluation, (2) completion of head computerized tomography, (3) reversal of anticoagulation with fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and (4) most importantly, patient mortality rate. We conclude that this nursing driven protocol is effective in decreasing the mortality rate by eliminating diagnostic and therapeutic delays in this high-risk patient population.
Schaffer, Marjorie A.; Anderson, Linda J. W.; Rising, Shannon
School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic…
Cancer diagnoses and treatments can be crisis-causing events that overwhelm the usual coping abilities of patients and their families. Oncology nurses constantly are observing and attending to patients' diverse needs, ranging from biomedical to emotional, social, and psychological. Nurses have the chance to be first responders in times of patient crises, as they are in the position to recognize the crisis, respond effectively, and transform the crisis into a pivotal learning experience. This article discusses a way to think about patient and family crises that empowers nurses to respond in a manner appropriate to the cultural context and respectful of the individual space of the patient.
Le Boeuf, Dominique
The implementation of cooperation protocols as provided for by the "Hospital, patients, health and regions" Law may greatly alter the organisation of healthcare practices. But an excessively limited vision, focused on the medical act to be delegated, might remove the clinical aspect of the nurse's role and reduce it to merely executing prescriptions. The French National Order of Nurses, through the opinions it will give to national health Authorities, wishes to prevent this danger.
In most states, the role of an advanced practice nurse is dependent on practice protocols that provide an organized method for analyzing and managing a disease or major symptom. They are also used to control the process of medical care and to specify steps in the delivery of that care. Creating appropriate practice protocols is one of the most important precursors to implementing the advanced practice role, because they virtually drive the clinician's ability to treat or manage clinical situations or disease states. This article outlines the steps involved in developing practice protocols and discusses the content that should be included in a protocol, providing an example of narrative and algorithm format protocols. Pros and cons, as well as legal issues related to practice protocols, are also presented.
Schaffer, Marjorie A; Anderson, Linda J W; Rising, Shannon
School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic survey on their use of public health interventions as defined by the wheel. Although 67% of the participants were not familiar with the Public Health Intervention Wheel, respondents reported conducting activities that were consistent with the Wheel interventions. Screening, referral and follow-up, case management, and health teaching were the most frequently performed interventions. Intervention use varied by educational level, age of nurse, years of practice, and student population. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a relevant and useful framework that provides a language to explain population-based school nursing practice.
Green, Esther; Ballantyne, Barbara; Tarasuk, Joy; Skrutkowski, Myriam; Carley, Meg; Chapman, Kim; Kuziemsky, Craig; Kolari, Erin; Sabo, Brenda; Saucier, Andréanne; Shaw, Tara; Tardif, Lucie; Truant, Tracy; Cummings, Greta G.; Howell, Doris
ABSTRACT Background The pan‐Canadian Oncology Symptom Triage and Remote Support (COSTaRS) team developed 13 evidence‐informed protocols for symptom management. Aim To build an effective and sustainable approach for implementing the COSTaRS protocols for nurses providing telephone‐based symptom support to cancer patients. Methods A comparative case study was guided by the Knowledge to Action Framework. Three cases were created for three Canadian oncology programs that have nurses providing telephone support. Teams of researchers and knowledge users: (a) assessed barriers and facilitators influencing protocol use, (b) adapted protocols for local use, (c) intervened to address barriers, (d) monitored use, and (e) assessed barriers and facilitators influencing sustained use. Analysis was within and across cases. Results At baseline, >85% nurses rated protocols positively but barriers were identified (64‐80% needed training). Patients and families identified similar barriers and thought protocols would enhance consistency among nurses teaching self‐management. Twenty‐two COSTaRS workshops reached 85% to 97% of targeted nurses (N = 119). Nurses felt more confident with symptom management and using the COSTaRS protocols (p < .01). Protocol adaptations addressed barriers (e.g., health records approval, creating pocket versions, distributing with telephone messages). Chart audits revealed that protocols used were documented for 11% to 47% of patient calls. Sustained use requires organizational alignment and ongoing leadership support. Linking Evidence to Action Protocol uptake was similar to trials that have evaluated tailored interventions to improve professional practice by overcoming identified barriers. Collaborating with knowledge users facilitated interpretation of findings, aided protocol adaptation, and supported implementation. Protocol implementation in nursing requires a tailored approach. A multifaceted intervention approach increased nurses’ use
McCloskey, Joanne Comi; Donahue, William; Bulechek, Gloria M.
The identification of nursing interventions that are core to each clinical specialty will be useful in the development of nursing information systems, staff education programs and evaluations, referral networks, certification and licensing examinations, curricula, and research and theory construction. (Author/JOW)
Donovan, Heidi S.; Nolte, Susan; Edwards, Robert P.; Wenzel, Lari
Objectives To provide a history on nursing science within the Gynecology Oncology Group (GOG); to discuss challenges and facilitators of nursing science in the cooperative group (CG) using a current nurse-led protocol (GOG-0259) as an exemplar; and to propose recommendations aimed at advancing nursing science in the CG setting. Data Source GOG reports and protocol databases, online databases of indexed citations, and experiences from the development and implementation of GOG-0259. Conclusions Benefits of CG research include opportunities for inter-disciplinary collaboration and ability to rapidly accrue large national samples. Challenges include limited financial resources to support non-treatment trials, a cumbersome protocol approval process, and lack of experience with nursing/quality of life intervention studies. Formal structures within GOG need to be created to encourage nurse scientists to become active members; promote collaboration between experienced GOG advanced practice nurses and new nurse scientists to identify nursing research priorities; and consider innovative funding structures to support pilot intervention studies. Implications for Nursing Practice Understanding the CG research process is critical for nurse scientists. A multi-disciplinary team of CG leaders can help investigators navigate a complex research environment and can increase awareness of the value of nursing research. PMID:24559780
Hajewski, C; Maupin, J M; Rapp, D A; Sitterding, M; Pappas, J
Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) and Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) are recognized examples of standardized nursing languages used to describe the contribution nursing makes to patient care. Columbus Regional Hospital nursing leadership recognized the need to use standardized nursing interventions and nursing-sensitive patient outcomes to describe the unique contribution nursing makes to patient education. In collaboration with the University of Iowa, NIC/NOC languages were implemented in the development of a patient education plan for a clinical pathway population.
Müller, Martin; Bartoszek, Gabriele; Beutner, Katrin; Klingshirn, Hanna; Saal, Susanne; Stephan, Anna-Janina; Strobl, Ralf; Grill, Eva; Meyer, Gabriele
Hintergrund: Gelenkkontrakturen sind häufige Probleme gebrechlicher älterer Menschen in Pflegeheimen. Unabhängig von der genauen Anzahl an älteren Menschen, die an Gelenkkontrakturen leiden, scheint dieses Syndrom ein relevantes Problem im Setting Pflegeheim dazustellen. Durch einen zunehmenden Fokus auf Gelenkkontrakturen, z.B. durch die Pflegeversicherung, kam es zu einem Anstieg im Dokumentations- und Assessmentaufwand und in der Einführung von Präventionsmaßnahmen. Viel mehr Aufmerksamkeit sollte aber auf die tatsächliche Situation der älteren Menschen mit Gelenkkontrakturen in Pflegeheimen gelegt werden, vor allem deren tatsächlichen Einschränkungen in Aktivitäten und Teilhabe. Das Ziel dieser Studie ist daher, 1) die Entwicklung einer maßgeschneiderten Intervention zur Verbesserung der Funktionsfähigkeit, sozialen Teilhabe und Lebensqualität von Menschen mit Gelenkkontrakturen in Pflegeheimen und 2) die Überprüfung der Machbarkeit der Intervention, begleitet von einer Prozessevaluation.Methoden: Die Entwicklung der komplexen Intervention folgt dem UK Medical Research Council (MRC) Framework und integriert die Perspektiven aller potenziell relevanten Benutzergruppen von den betroffenen Personen über Kliniker und Forscher. Der Entwicklungsprozess beinhaltet einen systematischen Literaturreview, die Re-Analyse vorhandener Daten, Fokusgruppeninterviews mit Betroffenen, eine Expertentagung und eine Delphi-Studie mit klinischen Experten sowie eine Cluster-randomisierte Pilotstudie mit umfassender Prozessevaluation. Diskussion: Die geplante Studie wird eine maßgeschneiderte Intervention zur Verbesserung von Funktionsfähigkeit, sozialer Teilhabe und Lebensqualität von Menschen mit Gelenkkontrakturen in Pflegeheimen bereitstellen. Die Pilotstudie inklusive der Prozessevaluation stellt einen ersten Schritt zur Schätzung der Stärke des Interventionseffektes dar und wird weitere Studien vorbereiten.
Greenfield, Sheldon; Anderson, Hjalmar; Winickoff, Richard N.; Morgan, Annabelle; Komaroff, Anthony L.
To test the validity of a nurse-administered protocol for low back pain, a prospective trial of 419 patients was undertaken in a walk-in clinic. In all, 222 patients were randomly allocated to a “nurse-protocol group” in which they were evaluated by one of five nurses using the protocol; the nurses independently managed 53 percent of the patients and referred to a physician patients with potentially complex conditions. In addition, 197 patients in a randomly allocated control group were managed by one of 32 physicians. Care in the experimental and control groups was compared by follow-up telephone contact and by a four-month chart review. There was no significant difference in symptomatic relief or the development of serious disease in the two groups. Nurse-protocol patients expressed greater satisfaction with the care they had received; patient satisfaction correlated positively with symptom relief. In over 95 percent of the patients, there were noncomplex, nonserious, nonchronic conditions as the cause of back pain. We conclude that nurse-protocol management of this generally benign condition in a primary care setting is both effective and efficient. PMID:128907
Skrutkowski, Myriam; Saucier, Andréanne; Ritchie, Judith A; Tran, Ngoc; Smith, Kevin
The Pivot Nurse in Oncology (PNO) is a health care professional dedicated to providing patients with cancer and their families with continuing and consistent supportive care throughout the care trajectory. The purpose of this paper is to describe the variation and frequency of nursing interventions delivered by 12 PNOs at our health centre. An administrative analysis over a three-year period revealed a total of 43,906 interventions that were grouped into 10 categories. This analysis provided a description of the intervention frequency and these interventions were further collapsed into the four role functions of the PNO. Coordination/continuity of care and the assessment of needs and symptoms were identified as the dominant practice domains of the PNO in the professional cancer navigator role.
Improving patient adherence to lifestyle advice (IMPALA): a cluster-randomised controlled trial on the implementation of a nurse-led intervention for cardiovascular risk management in primary care (protocol)
Koelewijn-van Loon, Marije S; van Steenkiste, Ben; Ronda, Gaby; Wensing, Michel; Stoffers, Henri E; Elwyn, Glyn; Grol, Richard; van der Weijden, Trudy
Background Many patients at high risk of cardiovascular diseases are managed and monitored in general practice. Recommendations for cardiovascular risk management, including lifestyle change, are clearly described in the Dutch national guideline. Although lifestyle interventions, such as advice on diet, physical exercise, smoking and alcohol, have moderate, but potentially relevant effects in these patients, adherence to lifestyle advice in general practice is not optimal. The IMPALA study intends to improve adherence to lifestyle advice by involving patients in decision making on cardiovascular prevention by nurse-led clinics. The aim of this paper is to describe the design and methods of a study to evaluate an intervention aimed at involving patients in cardiovascular risk management. Methods A cluster-randomised controlled trial in 20 general practices, 10 practices in the intervention arm and 10 in the control arm, starting on October 2005. A total of 720 patients without existing cardiovascular diseases but eligible for cardiovascular risk assessment will be recruited. In both arms, the general practitioners and nurses will be trained to apply the national guideline for cardiovascular risk management. Nurses in the intervention arm will receive an extended training in risk assessment, risk communication, the use of a decision aid and adapted motivational interviewing. This communication technique will be used to support the shared decision-making process about risk reduction. The intervention comprises 2 consultations and 1 follow-up telephone call. The nurses in the control arm will give usual care after the risk estimation, according to the national guideline. Primary outcome measures are self-reported adherence to lifestyle advice and drug treatment. Secondary outcome measures are the patients' perception of risk and their motivation to change their behaviour. The measurements will take place at baseline and after 12 and 52 weeks. Clinical endpoints will
Van Hulle Vincent, Catherine; Wilkie, Diana J; Wang, Edward
We evaluated feasibility of the Internet-based Relieve Children's Pain (RCP) protocol to improve nurses' management of children's pain. RCP is an interactive, content-focused, and Kolb's experiential learning theory-based intervention. Using a one-group, pretest-posttest design, we evaluated feasibility of RCP and pretest-posttest difference in scores for nurses' beliefs, and simulated and actual pain management practices. Twenty-four RNs completed an Internet-based Pain Beliefs and Practices Questionnaire (PBPQ, alpha=.83) before and after they completed the RCP and an Acceptability Scale afterward. Mean total PBPQ scores significantly improved from pretest to posttest as did simulated practice scores. After RCP in actual hospital practice, nurses administered significantly more ibuprofen and ketorolac and children's pain intensity significantly decreased. Findings showed strong evidence for the feasibility of RCP and study procedures and significant improvement in nurses' beliefs and pain management practices. The 2-hr RCP program is promising and warrants replication with an attention control group and a larger sample.
García Maeso, T; Cuevas Moreno, M J; Cantarero Lafuufente, L; Martínez Martínez, M I
Tobacco smoking habit has been considered like an important cause of diabetes mellitus complications. Health education efficiency has been supported by many experiences in order to promote tobacco withdrawal by personal counselling with a direct nurse role at primary health care level. This study was carried out by all this information with tre straight goal of describing changes in the diabetic tobacco behaviour after a stepped counselling and a primary care nurse following. Description details are given of the smoking diabetic population counselled and listed at the same time in a nurse control clinic over a 18 months period. A Smokers Helping Scheme (SHS) was used. SHS understood that tobacco withdrawal is behavioural changing process with a few steps. Smokers were given with special written material for thes purpose. Results data were caught by the researchers from the chronical patient's census and from the tobacco program control sheets. Tobacco withdrawal was verified by espirated air CO determination (Smokorlizar system) and has been maintained by the 25% of managed diabetic people in this investigation. We strongly believe that nursing diabetic tobacco counselling by SHS acts like a behavioural modificator as results are showing. Health state improvement and a better life quality have been got on the diabetic people that has been managed.
Lee, Eunjoo; Park, Hyejin; Nam, Mihwa; Whyte, James
The purpose of the study was to identify Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) interventions performed by Korean school nurses. The Korean data were then compared to U.S. data from other studies in order to identify differences and similarities between Korean and U.S. school nurse practice. Of the 542 available NIC interventions, 180 were…
Bradway, Christine; Trotta, Rebecca; Bixby, M. Brian; McPartland, Ellen; Wollman, M. Catherine; Kapustka, Heidi; McCauley, Kathleen; Naylor, Mary D.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe barriers and facilitators to implementing a transitional care intervention for cognitively impaired older adults and their caregivers lead by advanced practice nurses (APNs). Design and Methods: APNs implemented an evidence-based protocol to optimize transitions from hospital to home. An…
de Cordova, Pamela B; Lucero, Robert J; Hyun, Sookyung; Quinlan, Patricia; Price, Kwanza; Stone, Patricia W
Standardized terminologies, such as the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) taxonomy, may be used in multiple ways to represent nursing constructs. This study is the first known to explore the NIC as a framework for the development of a nursing workload measure. While the NIC may not represent the complexity of nurses' work, the classification system may represent uniformly the work of nurses in health information systems to yield reliable data for a nursing workload measure.
A pilot randomised controlled trial of personalised care after treatment for prostate cancer (TOPCAT-P): nurse-led holistic-needs assessment and individualised psychoeducational intervention: study protocol
Stanciu, Marian Andrei; Morris, Caroline; Makin, Matt; Watson, Eila; Bulger, Jenna; Evans, Richard; Hiscock, Julia; Hoare, Zoë; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Neal, Richard David; Wilkinson, Clare
Introduction Prostate cancer is common and the incidence is increasing, but more men are living longer after diagnosis, and die with their disease rather than of it. Nonetheless, specific and substantial physical, sexual, emotional and mental health problems often lead to a poor quality of life. Urology services increasingly struggle to cope with the demands of follow-up care, and primary care is likely to play the central role in long-term follow-up. The present phase II trial will evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a nurse-led, person-centred psychoeducational intervention, delivered in community or primary care settings. Methods and analysis Prostate cancer survivors diagnosed in the past 9–48 months and currently biochemically stable will be identified from hospital records by their treating clinician. Eligible men would have either completed radical treatment, or would be followed up with prostate specific antigen monitoring and symptom reporting. We will recruit 120 patients who will be randomised to receive either an augmented form of usual care, or an additional nurse-led intervention for a period of 36 weeks. Following the health policy in Wales, the intervention is offered by a key worker, is promoting prudent healthcare and is using a holistic needs assessment. Outcome measures will assess physical symptoms, psychological well-being, confidence in managing own health and quality of life. Healthcare service use will be measured over 36 weeks. Feedback interviews with patients and clinicians will further inform the acceptability of the intervention. Recruitment, attrition, questionnaire completion rates and outcome measures variability will be assessed, and results will inform the design of a future phase III trial and accompanying economic evaluation. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was granted by Bangor University and North Wales REC (13/WA/0291). Results will be reported in peer-reviewed publications, at scientific
Bowllan, Nancy Meierdierks
Studies examining nursing students' unique experience of bullying are increasingly evident. This article explores national and international literature over the past decade on prevalence rates, potential impact on nursing students, and relevance to socialization to the profession of nursing. Historical considerations are provided along with policies and interventions to empower nursing leaders, academicians, clinicians, and students to prevent or minimize the destructive nature of bullying.
A remote monitoring and telephone nurse coaching intervention to reduce readmissions among patients with heart failure: study protocol for the Better Effectiveness After Transition - Heart Failure (BEAT-HF) randomized controlled trial
Background Heart failure is a prevalent health problem associated with costly hospital readmissions. Transitional care programs have been shown to reduce readmissions but are costly to implement. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of telemonitoring in managing the care of this chronic condition is mixed. The objective of this randomized controlled comparative effectiveness study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a care transition intervention that includes pre-discharge education about heart failure and post-discharge telephone nurse coaching combined with home telemonitoring of weight, blood pressure, heart rate, and symptoms in reducing all-cause 180-day hospital readmissions for older adults hospitalized with heart failure. Methods/Design A multi-center, randomized controlled trial is being conducted at six academic health systems in California. A total of 1,500 patients aged 50 years and older will be enrolled during a hospitalization for treatment of heart failure. Patients in the intervention group will receive intensive patient education using the ‘teach-back’ method and receive instruction in using the telemonitoring equipment. Following hospital discharge, they will receive a series of nine scheduled health coaching telephone calls over 6 months from nurses located in a centralized call center. The nurses also will call patients and patients’ physicians in response to alerts generated by the telemonitoring system, based on predetermined parameters. The primary outcome is readmission for any cause within 180 days. Secondary outcomes include 30-day readmission, mortality, hospital days, emergency department (ED) visits, hospital cost, and health-related quality of life. Discussion BEAT-HF is one of the largest randomized controlled trials of telemonitoring in patients with heart failure, and the first explicitly to adapt the care transition approach and combine it with remote telemonitoring. The study population also includes patients with a
Nyholm, Lena; Steffansson, Erika; Fröjd, Camilla; Enblad, Per
The patients at a neurointensive care unit are frequently cared for in many ways, day and night. The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of secondary insults related to oral care, repositioning, endotracheal suctioning, hygienic measures, and simultaneous interventions at a neurointensive care unit with standardized care and maximum attention on avoiding secondary insults. The definition of a secondary insult was intracranial pressure > 20 mm Hg, cerebral perfusion pressure < 60 mm Hg and systolic blood pressure < 100 mm Hg for 5 minutes or more in a 10-minute period starting from when the nursing intervention began. The insult minutes did not have to be consecutive. The study included 18 patients, seven women and 11 men, aged 36-76 years with different neurosurgical diagnoses. The total number of nursing interventions analyzed was 1,717. The most common kind of secondary insults after a nursing measure was high intracranial pressure (n = 93) followed by low cerebral perfusion pressure (n = 43) and low systolic blood pressure (n = 14). Repositioning (n = 39) and simultaneous interventions (n = 32) were the nursing interventions causing most secondary insults. There were substantial variations between the patients; only one patient had no secondary insult. There were, overall, a limited number of secondary insults related to nursing interventions when a standardized management protocol system was applied to reduce the occurrence of secondary insults. Patients with an increased risk of secondary insults should be recognized, and their care and treatment should be carefully planned and performed to avoid secondary insults.
Sohl, Stephanie J.; Birdee, Gurjeet S.; Ridner, Sheila H.; Wheeler, Amy; Gilbert, Sandra; Tarantola, Danielle; Berlin, Jordan; Rothman, Russell. L.
Objective Fatigue and other treatment-related symptoms are critical therapeutic targets for improving quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer during chemotherapy. Yoga is a promising intervention for improving these therapeutic targets and has been primarily investigated in the group-class format, which is less feasible for cancer patients with high symptom burden to attend. Thus, we developed a protocol for implementing yoga individually in the clinic among patients receiving chemotherapy. Methods We followed recommended domains for developing a yoga protocol to be used in an efficacy trial. These recommendations include consideration to the style, delivery, components of the intervention, dose, specific class sequences, facilitation of home practice, measurement of intervention fidelity, selection of instructors, and dealing with modifications. The intervention protocol was developed by an interdisciplinary team. Protocol Yoga Skills Training (YST) consists of four 30-minute in-person sessions implemented while in the chair during chemotherapy infusions for colorectal cancer with recommended daily home practice for eight weeks. Therapeutic goals of the YST are to reduce fatigue, circadian disruption, and psychological distress. Elements of the YST are awareness meditation, gentle seated movement, breathing practice, and relaxation meditation. Attention, comfort, and ease are also highlighted. Conclusion This description of a protocol for integrating yoga with conventional cancer treatment will inform future study designs and clinical practice. The design of the YST is novel because it implements yoga—most commonly studied when taught to groups outside of the clinical setting—individually during clinical care. PMID:27797662
Lee, Eunjoo; Park, Hyejin; Nam, Mihwa; Whyte, James
The purpose of the study was to identify Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) interventions performed by Korean school nurses. The Korean data were then compared to U.S. data from other studies in order to identify differences and similarities between Korean and U.S. school nurse practice. Of the 542 available NIC interventions, 180 were selected as the basis of a questionnaire designed to quantify key aspects of school nursing practice. The data were collected from 131 school nurses working in Korea. The results indicated that Korean school nurses focused on classifications from the Physiological Basic domain. Comparisons to previously reported U.S. data reflect that U.S. school nurses focus primarily on the Behavioral domain. The data reflect important differences between the practice characteristics of Korean and U.S. school nurses. Further, the data support the utility of NICs in quantifying the practice characteristics of school nurses in Korea.
Currey, Judy; White, Kevin; Rolley, John; Oldland, Elizabeth; Driscoll, Andrea
Interventional cardiology practices have advanced immensely in the last two decades, but the educational preparation of the workforce in cardiac catheter laboratories has not seen commensurate changes. Although on-the-job training has sufficed in the past, recognition of this workforce as a specialty practice domain now demands specialist educational preparation. The aim of this paper is to present the development of an interventional cardiac nursing curriculum nested within a Master of Nursing Practice in Australia. International and national health educational principles, teaching and learning theories and professional frameworks and philosophies are foundational to the program designed for interventional cardiac specialist nurses. These broader health, educational and professional underpinnings will be described to illustrate their application to the program's theoretical and clinical components. Situating interventional cardiac nursing within a Master's degree program at University provides nurses with the opportunities to develop high level critical thinking and problem solving knowledge and skills.
Duhamel, Fabie; Dupuis, France; Reidy, Mary; Nadon, Nathalie
Congestive heart failure is a major source of anxiety for both patients and their family. This article presents the results of a qualitative case study aimed at evaluating family nursing interventions from the perspective of the family members and a clinical nurse specialist (CNS). A CNS applied a family nursing intervention program with 4 couples. Data were obtained through semistructured interviews preintervention and postintervention for the couples and postintervention for the CNS. The transcripts of the interviews were submitted for content analysis. For the couples, results show both spouses subject to a high level of suffering, which can be alleviated through a family nursing meeting that allows them to obtain a better understanding of each other's experience. For the CNS, family interventions were considered a privilege since they helped relieve suffering and her own feelings of powerlessness. These results have the potential to improve family nursing interventions and enhance CNS practice.
Eggenberger, Sandra K; Sanders, Marita
The family experience of critical illness is filled with distress that may have a lasting impact on family coping and family health. A nurse can become a source of comfort that helps the family endure. Yet, nurses often report a lack of confidence in communicating with families and families report troubling relationships with nurses. In spite of strong evidence supporting nursing practice focused on the family, family nursing interventions often not implemented in the critical care setting. This pilot study examined the influence of an educational intervention on nurses' attitudes towards and confidence in providing family care, as well as families' perceptions of support from nurses in an adult critical care setting. An academic-clinical practice partnership used digital storytelling as an educational strategy. A Knowledge to Action Process Framework guided this study. Results of pre-intervention data collection from families and nurses were used to inform the educational intervention. A convenience sample of family members completed the Iceland Family Perceived Support Questionnaire (ICE-FPSQ) to measure perception of support provided by nurses. Video, voice, and narrative stories of nurses describing their experiences caring for family members during a critical illness and family members' experiences with a critically ill family member also guided education plans. When comparing the pre and post results of the Family Nurse Practice Scale (FNPS), nurses reported increased confidence, knowledge, and skill following the educational intervention. Qualitative data from nurses reported satisfaction with the educational intervention. Findings suggest that engaging nurses in educational opportunities focused on families while using storytelling methods encourages empathic understandings. Academic-clinician teams that drive directions show promise in supporting families and nurses in critical care settings. Plans are moving forward to use this study design and methods in
Kwekkeboom, Kristine L; Bumpus, Molly; Wanta, Britt; Serlin, Ronald C
Cancer pain management guidelines recommend nondrug interventions as adjuvants to analgesic medications. Although physicians typically are responsible for pharmacologic pain treatments, oncology staff nurses, who spend considerable time with patients, are largely responsible for identifying and implementing nondrug pain treatments. Oncology nurses' use of nondrug interventions, however, has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to describe oncology nurses' use of four nondrug interventions (music, guided imagery, relaxation, distraction) and to identify factors that influence their use in practice. A national sample of 724 oncology staff nurses completed a mailed survey regarding use of the nondrug interventions in practice, beliefs about the interventions, and demographic characteristics. The percentages of nurses who reported administering the strategies in practice at least sometimes were 54% for music, 40% for guided imagery, 82% for relaxation, and 80% for distraction. Use of each nondrug intervention was predicted by a composite score on beliefs about effectiveness of the intervention (e.g., perceived benefit; P<0.025) and a composite score on beliefs about support for carrying out the intervention (e.g., time; P<0.025). In addition, use of guided imagery was predicted by a composite score on beliefs about characteristics of patients who may benefit from the intervention (e.g., cognitive ability; P<0.05). Some nurse demographic, professional preparation, and practice environment characteristics also predicted use of individual nondrug interventions. Efforts to improve application of nondrug interventions should focus on innovative educational strategies, problem solving to secure support, and development and testing of new delivery methods that require less time from busy staff nurses.
Hiltunen, Elizabeth F; Winder, Patricia A; Rait, Michelle A; Buselli, Elizabeth F; Carroll, Diane L; Rankin, Sally H
Intervention strategies based on social cognitive theory and encompassing the bio-psycho-behavioral domains are proposed to enhance self-efficacy in men and women 65 years and older recovering from myocardial infarction and coronary artery bypass grafting. This paper describes a study in which the theory-based development of efficacy enhancement (EE) nursing interventions and their implementation and utilization with interventions from the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) were used with cardiac elders in the treatment group of the community-based randomized clinical, trial, "Improving Health Outcomes in Unpartnered Cardiac Elders." Advanced practice nurses (APNs) provided the nursing intervention to 110 participants (mean age = 76.2, SD = 6.0) for the first 12 weeks after discharge to home. After an initial introductory meeting in the acute-care setting, participant contacts by the APNs were made at a home visit and telephone calls at 2, 6, and 10 weeks. Results describe the number of participants receiving interventions at all contacts over 12 weeks, at specified contact points, and the intensity (nurse time) of the interventions. Verbal encouragement and mastery were EE interventions used with the greatest number of participants. Exercise promotion, energy management and active listening were NIC interventions used with the most participants. Variations in the use of interventions over 12 weeks and their intensities, suggest patterns of recovery in the elders. During rehabilitation EE interventions can be successfully implemented with men and women 65 years and older and individualized to the recovery trajectory. Nurses can integrate specific EE interventions with more general interventions from the bio-psycho-behavioral domains to enhance the recovery process for cardiac elders.
Micik, Svatka; Besic, Nihada; Johnson, Natalie; Han, Matilda; Hamlyn, Stephen; Ball, Hayley
The purpose of this paper is to describe an improvement initiative designed to implement nurse sensitive interventions known to reduce patients' risk for ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP), in cardiothoracic intensive care patients. This initiative is a part of one Australian critical care unit's efforts to identify and measure compliance with key nursing interventions known to improve cardiac surgical patients' outcomes. The premise behind the initiative is that improved nursing process and surveillance systems allow emerging trends to catalyse action and motivate nurses to reduce patients' risk for infection acquisition. At five and nine months following implementation of the initiative a>70% compliance rate in 11 out of the 15 nurse sensitive interventions known to reduce patients' risks for VAP and a drop in VAP incidence from 13.4% to 7.69% from per 1000 ventilator days was accomplished.
Personal stories of illness give depth to otherwise clinical descriptions of diagnoses. This article offers an autobiographical narrative of complications after total knee replacement surgery. Diagnosis and nursing management of acute compartment syndrome, nociceptive and neuropathic origins of pain, pharmacologic and nursing interventions for pain, the use of prayer in illness, and compassionate caring from a Christian perspective are discussed.
Marelli, Giuseppe; Avanzini, Fausto; Iacuitti, Giuseppe; Planca, Enrico; Frigerio, Ilaria; Busi, Giovanna; Carlino, Liliana; Cortesi, Laura; Roncaglioni, Maria Carla; Riva, Emma
Background. Hypoglycemia due to inadequate carbohydrate intake is a frequent complication of insulin treatment of diabetic in-patients. Objective. To assess the effectiveness of a nurse-managed protocol to prevent hypoglycemia during subcutaneous insulin treatment. Design. Prospective pre-post-intervention study. Methods. In 350 consecutive diabetic in-patients the incidence of hypoglycemia (blood glucose < 70 mg/dL) during subcutaneous insulin treatment was assessed before (phase A) and after (phase B) the protocol was adopted to permit (1) the patient to opt for substitutive food to integrate incomplete carbohydrate intake in the meal; (2) in case of lack of appetite or repeatedly partial intake of the planned food, prandial insulin administered at the end of the meal to be related to the actual amount of carbohydrates eaten; (3) intravenous infusion of glucose during prolonged fasting. Results. Eighty-four patients in phase A and 266 in phase B received subcutaneous insulin for median periods of, respectively, 7 (Q1–Q3 6–12) and 6 days (Q1–Q3 4–9). Hypoglycemic events declined significantly from 0.34 ± 0.33 per day in phase A to 0.19 ± 0.30 in phase B (P > 0.001). Conclusions. A nurse-managed protocol focusing on carbohydrate intake reduced the incidence of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes receiving subcutaneous insulin in hospital. PMID:25961051
Fressancourt, Yves; Quémeneur, Éric; Bertho, Kilian; Dubourg, Olivier
Intervening in the event of a major crisis in France and abroad, the national gendarmerie intervention group carries out complex and specific operations in varied conditions and environments. Due to the multiplicity and dangerousness of the missions, adapted and integrated medical support is essential. In this context, nurses provide operational medical assistance as close as possible to the intervention. This nursing practice in an exceptional environment requires specific knowledge and intensive training.
Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Kim, Younglan; Lee, Myung Kyung; Lee, Youngji
Objectives The aim of this study was to develop and validate Detailed Clinical Models (DCMs) for nursing assessments and interventions. Methods First, we identified the nursing assessment and nursing intervention entities. Second, we identified the attributes and the attribute values in order to describe the entities in more detail. The data type and optionality of the attributes were then defined. Third, the entities, attributes and value sets in the DCMs were mapped to the International Classification for Nursing Practice Version 2 concepts. Finally, the DCMs were validated by domain experts and applied to case reports. Results In total 481 DCMs, 429 DCMs for nursing assessments and 52 DCMs for nursing interventions, were developed and validated. The DCMs developed in this study were found to be sufficiently comprehensive in representing the clinical concepts of nursing assessments and interventions. Conclusions The DCMs developed in this study can be used in electronic nursing records. These DCMs can be used to ensure the semantic interoperability of the nursing information documented in electronic nursing records. PMID:22259726
Redes, S; Lunney, M
Validation of standardized nursing language for use by specialty nurses is important for the design of computer software. The purposes of this study were to validate the usefulness of the 433 interventions in the Nursing Intervention Classification (NIC) for school nurses and to identify interventions that could be omitted from computer software for school nurses. A school nursing listserv, SCHLRN-L, was used to recruit volunteers. Ninety-three volunteers from the listserv also recruited 26 school nurses who were not members of the listserv. The total sample was 102 school nurses from 25 states and other areas, 76 listserv volunteers, and 26 others. E-mail was used to send and receive the survey forms to portions of the sample. A majority of interventions (n = 241; 56%) were selected as used by more than 50% of the sample. Of these, 53 direct care interventions were selected as used by more than 80% of the sample. Fifty interventions were not used by 100% of the sample. E-mail was a useful means to obtain a national sample and collect data.
Aycock, Nancy; Boyle, Deborah
Work-related stress emanating from close interpersonal contact with patients with cancer and their families may result in physical, emotional, social, and spiritual adversity for oncology nurses. The negative result of this cumulative distress has historically been referred to as burnout. However, this dated term does not truly depict the result of the longitudinal workplace ramifications of sadness and despair on nursing staff. This article proposes that the phrase compassion fatigue replace the outdated notion of burnout in describing this phenomenon. Although not clearly and uniformly described in the literature, this occurrence is seen regularly in clinical practice and is conceptually known by nurses. Limited information is available about interventions to manage compassion fatigue; therefore, a national survey was conducted to identify resources available to oncology nurses to counter this phenomenon. Participants provided information about the availability of interventions in three major categories: on-site professional resources, educational programs, and specialized retreats. The availability of resources ranged from 0%-60%. Survey findings, along with narrative comments by respondents, provide relevant information for oncology nurses and their employers. By recognizing the perils of inattention to this frequent nursing phenomenon and the scope of existing workplace options that may augment nurse coping, oncology nurses' recognition and management of this entity may be enhanced. Organizations also may be encouraged to periodically inventory their support and lobby for workplace interventions to manage this critical work-related issue.
Smedley, Alison; Crawford, Tonia; Cloete, Linda
Plagiarism is a current and developing problem in the tertiary education sector where students access information and reproduce it as their own. It is identified as occurring in many tertiary level degrees including nursing and allied health profession degrees. Nursing specifically, is a profession where standards and ethics are required and honesty is paramount. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in nursing student's knowledge and understanding of plagiarism before and after an educational intervention in their first semester of the Bachelor of nursing degree at a private college of higher education in Sydney, Australia. This study concluded that an educational intervention can increase knowledge and awareness of plagiarism among nursing students.
Harris, Chelsia; Griffin, Mary T Quinn
Few healthcare organizations acknowledge, discuss, or provide interventions for assisting with compassion fatigue. Yet, it is an important concept due to its individual, professional, and financial costs. This article defines compassion fatigue, differentiates it from burnout, and offers system interventions for supporting nurses and reducing compassion fatigue.
Epstein, C; Bakanauskas, A
Achievement of successful patient outcomes depends on the availability of a primary nurse responsible for all aspects of nursing care. A consistent caregiver not only has a grasp of phenomena at hand but possesses an overall perspective of recovery. Care can be evaluated and readjusted on a timely basis. Identification of signs of progress as well as deterioration may be facilitated through continuity of care. The primary nurse can provide meaningful, ongoing information to the patient and significant others as a means of optimizing their coping behaviors. Effective nursing care of the patient with DIC is enhanced by a thorough understanding of its pathophysiology and its clinical manifestations. When the critical care nurse has a comprehensive knowledge base and uses purposeful assessment skills, potential complications become much clearer and are avoided. The primary nurse who knows how to prioritize care is capable of anticipating the patient's needs. By integrating theory with practice, the critical care nurse functions from a position of strength in promoting quality patient care.
Hamner, Jenny B
Nursing's role as key healthcare providers who give emotional support and teach self-care to patients with congestive heart failure has evolved substantially in recent years. The purpose of this article is to provide a systematic evaluation of the impact of posthospital nursing interventions in the management of heart failure. Four models of nursing interventions emerged: home-based nursing interventions, multidisciplinary interventions, heart failure clinics, and telephone- or technology-based nursing interventions. On the basis of currently available data, posthospital nursing interventions in congestive heart failure can improve clinical outcomes and decrease healthcare costs and resource use.
Burston, Adam S; Tuckett, Anthony G
Moral distress has been widely reviewed across many care contexts and among a range of disciplines. Interest in this area has produced a plethora of studies, commentary and critique. An overview of the literature around moral distress reveals a commonality about factors contributing to moral distress, the attendant outcomes of this distress and a core set of interventions recommended to address these. Interventions at both personal and organizational levels have been proposed. The relevance of this overview resides in the implications moral distress has on the nurse and the nursing workforce: particularly in regard to quality of care, diminished workplace satisfaction and physical health of staff and increased problems with staff retention.
Li, Wen-Wen; Gomez, Cynthia A; Tam, Jocelyn Wing-Yin
Hypertension control in older Chinese immigrants remains a significant health issue because of their unique cultural health practices to manage their hypertension. At present, there are limited culturally sensitive health education materials regarding hypertension management tailored for the older Chinese population available for and feasible to use. Because the San Francisco Bay Area has a large population of older Chinese immigrants, development of a culturally appropriate intervention is important to help this population achieve better blood pressure control. The focus of this study was to develop and test the feasibility of a culturally sensitive hypertension management intervention protocol, Chinese Medicine as Longevity Modality. This intervention protocol is implemented as a patient education health program delivered via video format in combination with an individual consultation provided by a nurse in the initial intervention, followed by four phone calls between the initial intervention and the second follow-up visit. The results of the study showed that the proposed intervention protocol was acceptable for the target population.
Selekman, Janice; Thomas, Elizabeth; McLean, Kay
Describes the practices of homeopathy and how they affect the scope of practice of school nurses. Includes a definition of homeopathy, a discussion of remedies and the specific symptoms for which they are effective, and an examination of conditions treatable by homeopathic physicians. Nine guidelines for managing homeopathic products in the school…
Fox, P G; Cowell, J M; Montgomery, A C; Willgerodt, M A
Globally, conflicts continue to result in large numbers of refugees and displaced persons, the majority are women. At present, there is scant literature on the mental health status of refugee women following resettlement in countries that grant asylum. We do know that adaptation following migration is a complex cultural, psychological and social process. Some studies have suggested a high prevalence of depression symptoms related to premigration and post-migration experiences. The purpose of this paper will be to describe the mental health status of Southeast Asian (S.E.A.) refugee women in the United States, before home visit interventions by school nurses and bilingual teachers, and at 10, 20 and 33 weeks following the intervention. A comparison group of S.E.A. refugee women, who did not receive the intervention, were evaluated for mental health status on two occasions ten weeks apart. The identified needs and problems identified by the women, the interventions implemented by the school nurses and the success of the interventions will also be discussed. The underlying problem for the majority of women was poverty and social isolation. The study demonstrates that indeed, refugee women in the U.S., are experiencing needs and problems related to basic survival issues in multiple areas of their lives. The findings suggest that home visit interventions by nurses may be a valuable means of reducing depression in S.E.A. refugee women.
Sprangers, Suzan; Dijkstra, Katinka; Romijn-Luijten, Anna
Effective communication by nursing home staff is related to a higher quality of life and a decrease in verbal and physical aggression and depression in nursing home residents. Several communication intervention studies have been conducted to improve communication between nursing home staff and nursing home residents with dementia. These studies have shown that communication skills training can improve nursing aides’ communication with nursing home residents. However, these studies tended to be time-consuming and fairly difficult to implement. Moreover, these studies focused on the communicative benefits for the nursing home residents and their well-being, while benefits and well-being for the nursing aides were neglected. The current study focused on implementing a brief communication skills training program to improve nursing aides’ (N=24) communication with residents with dementia (N=26) in a nursing home. The effects of the training on nursing aides’ communication, caregiver distress, and job satisfaction and residents’ psychopathology and agitation were assessed relative to a control group condition. Nursing aides in the intervention group were individually trained to communicate effectively with residents during morning care by using short instructions, positive speech, and biographical statements. Mixed ANOVAs showed that, after training, nursing aides in the intervention group experienced less caregiver distress. Additionally, the number of short instructions and instances of positive speech increased. Providing nursing aides with helpful feedback during care aids communication and reduces caregiver burden, even with a brief intervention that requires limited time investments for nursing home staff. PMID:25653513
Sprangers, Suzan; Dijkstra, Katinka; Romijn-Luijten, Anna
Effective communication by nursing home staff is related to a higher quality of life and a decrease in verbal and physical aggression and depression in nursing home residents. Several communication intervention studies have been conducted to improve communication between nursing home staff and nursing home residents with dementia. These studies have shown that communication skills training can improve nursing aides' communication with nursing home residents. However, these studies tended to be time-consuming and fairly difficult to implement. Moreover, these studies focused on the communicative benefits for the nursing home residents and their well-being, while benefits and well-being for the nursing aides were neglected. The current study focused on implementing a brief communication skills training program to improve nursing aides' (N=24) communication with residents with dementia (N=26) in a nursing home. The effects of the training on nursing aides' communication, caregiver distress, and job satisfaction and residents' psychopathology and agitation were assessed relative to a control group condition. Nursing aides in the intervention group were individually trained to communicate effectively with residents during morning care by using short instructions, positive speech, and biographical statements. Mixed ANOVAs showed that, after training, nursing aides in the intervention group experienced less caregiver distress. Additionally, the number of short instructions and instances of positive speech increased. Providing nursing aides with helpful feedback during care aids communication and reduces caregiver burden, even with a brief intervention that requires limited time investments for nursing home staff.
Hahn, Joan Earle; Aronow, Harriet Udin
Background: Persons with an intellectual and developmental disability frequently face barriers in accessing preventive services in community-based health care systems. As they age into middle years, they are at increased risk for functional decline. This paper presents a description of an advanced practice nurse (APN) intervention used in a pilot…
McCauley, Kathleen; Bradway, Christine; Hirschman, Karen B; Naylor, Mary D
Background Between one and two of every five hospitalized older adults have cognitive deficits, often not accurately assessed or well managed. Cognitive impairment adds substantially to the complexity of these patients’ care, places them at high risk for poor outcomes and increases the cost of health care. Methods We describe three evidence-based interventions, each capitalizing on the unique contributions of nurses and designed to improve outcomes of hospitalized older adults who have cognitive deficits. Interventions of varying intensity were compared across three hospitals (Phase I) and subsequently within the same hospitals (Phase II). All enrolled patients were screened during their index hospitalizations and cognitive deficits were communicated to relevant health care team members (Augmented Standard Care-ASC, lowest intensity). At one hospital, ASC was the only intervention. Patients at a second hospital also had care influenced by specially prepared registered nurses (Resource Nurse Care-RNC, medium intensity). Finally, patients at third hospital also received advanced practice nurse coordinated care (Transitional Care Model-TCM, higher intensity). In Phase II, newly enrolled patients at these same hospitals all received the TCM. We summarize major themes from review of multiple data sources and researcher recollections related to facilitators and barriers to implementing a complex research study. Findings Effective implementation of the three intervention strategies depended on clinician engagement and communication; degree of participation by nurses in the educational program with subsequent practice improvement; and success of advanced practice nurses in implementing the TCM with both with patients, family caregivers and clinicians. Implications Based on lessons learned in implementing complex research studies within the “real world” of clinical practice settings, recommendations focus on strengthening facilitators, minimizing barriers and gaining
Ellis, Irene; Chater, Keri
The purpose of this paper is to explore and describe the process of transition that nurses experience when moving from the acute sector to a specialist area of community nursing. Issues explored include the increased movement of nurses into the community sector, the experience of culture shock and changes in nursing roles. Transition issues including the need for effective management and infrastructure support, mentoring and preceptorship, skills acquisition and continuing education will be examined. Joint implementation of what is successful at both university and industry levels can improve the transition to community nursing.
Dodgson, Joan E; Tarrant, Marie
Educational institutions have the responsibility to provide students with knowledge and practical experiences of best practices and international standards of care. Worldwide, international standards for appropriate and effective breastfeeding promotion and services often have not been met. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an infant feeding educational intervention on student nurses' knowledge levels about (1) evidence-based breastfeeding promotion, (2) evidence-based beliefs about outcomes of breastfeeding and formula-feeding, (3) evidence-based attitudes toward breastfeeding and formula-feeding, and (4) intention to perform evidence-based breastfeeding promotion behaviors. A quasi-experimental intervention with a non-equivalent control group was conducted at a major university in Hong Kong. The intervention group (n=111) received 10h of didactic instruction and an 8-week perinatal clinical rotation while the control group (n=162) did not. The intervention group was significantly more likely to associate breastfeeding with positive maternal and child outcomes. Attitudes toward breastfeeding and formula-feeding were not significantly affected by the educational intervention. On the 19-item knowledge survey, the control group (M=6.84; SD=2.95) scored significantly lower than the intervention group (M=10.30; SD=2.51). A public health breastfeeding promotion strategy frequently overlooked is professional-level curricular interventions. Improving evidence-based practices in nursing programs has the potential to impact many breastfeeding families in the hospital and the community.
Nicotera, Anne Maydan; Mahon, Margaret M; Wright, Kevin B
Quality communication is essential for building strong nursing teams. Structurational divergence (SD) theory explains how institutional factors can result in poor communication and conflict cycles; the theory has been developed in nursing context, although it is applicable to all organizational settings. We describe the design, implementation, and evaluation of an intervention to reduce SD and improve nurses' work life and team-member relationships. An intensive 9-hour course provided training in conflict/SD analysis and dialogic conflict/SD management to 36 working nurses from a variety of settings. Quantitative pre- and posttests were administered, with a comparison sample. The course reduced measures of negative conflict attitudes and behaviors: direct personalization, persecution feelings, negative relational effects, ambiguity intolerance, and triangulation (gossiping and complaining to uninvolved third parties). The course also increased important attitudes necessary for productive dialogue and conflict management: perceptions of positive relational effects, conflict liking, and positive beliefs about arguing. As compared with nonparticipants, participant posttests showed lower conflict persecution; higher recognition of positive relational effects; lower perceptions of negative relational effects; higher conflict liking; lower ambiguity intolerance; and lower tendency to triangulate. Qualitatively, participants perceived better understanding of, and felt more empowered to manage, workplace conflicts and to sustain healthier workplace relationships. This intervention can help nurses develop tools to improve system-level function and build productive team relationships.
Lawrance, Kelli-an G; Travis, Heather Elizabeth; Lawler, Sharon A
Cessation interventions offered by nurses to postsecondary students could represent an important strategy for reducing smoking among young adults. This study examines how nurses working in campus health clinics identify smokers and provide cessation support. Of 108 nurses working at 16 universities in the Canadian province of Ontario, 83 completed a researcher-designed questionnaire. Of these, 8.2% asked almost all patients about their tobacco use and 27.4% asked almost none; 83.1% advised identified smokers to quit, 63.9% offered them assistance, and 59.0% arranged follow-up visits. Smoking was most often assessed during patient visits for respiratory or cardiovascular concerns. Assistance most often involved referral of smokers to other professionals or services. A government-funded tobacco control initiative implemented on 10 of the 16 campuses had limited influence on whether nurses assessed tobacco use and advised cessation. Education and support may be needed to improve the frequency and quality of tobacco interventions provided by nurses working on postsecondary campuses.
Kaasalainen, Sharon; Ploeg, Jenny; Donald, Faith; Coker, Esther; Brazil, Kevin; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Dicenso, Alba; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas
Pain management for older adults in long-term care (LTC) has been recognized as a problem internationally. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of a clinical nurse specialist (CNS) and nurse practitioner (NP) as change champions during the implementation of an evidence-based pain protocol in LTC. In this exploratory, multiple-case design study, we collected data from two LTC homes in Ontario, Canada. Three data sources were used: participant observation of an NP and a CNS for 18 hours each over a 3-week period; CNS and NP diaries recording strategies, barriers, and facilitators to the implementation process; and interviews with members of the interdisciplinary team to explore perceptions about the NP and CNS role in implementing the pain protocol. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. The NP and CNS used a variety of effective strategies to promote pain management changes in practice including educational outreach with team members, reminders to nursing staff to highlight the pain protocol and educate about practice changes, chart audits and feedback to the nursing staff, interdisciplinary working group meetings, ad hoc meetings with nursing staff, and resident assessment using advanced skills. The CNS and NP are ideal champions to implement pain management protocols and likely other quality improvement initiatives.
Lin, Li-Ying; Wang, Ruey-Hsia
This study examined the effects of a neck stretching exercise intervention on nurses' primary headaches. Using a pretest and posttest two-group design, a total of 60 female staff nurses employed by a medical center in Taiwan were selected by convenience sampling. Participants in the experimental group (N=30) practiced neck stretching exercises while experiencing headaches. The participants in the control group (N=30) managed their headaches as usual. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on headache intensity at baseline, and at 30 minutes and 1 hour after intervention. Decrease in headache intensity of the experimental group was significantly larger than that of the control group. Neck stretching exercises is an effective method for treating primary headaches.
Possari, João Francisco; Gaidzinski, Raquel Rapone; Fugulin, Fernanda Maria Togeiro; Lima, Antônio Fernandes Costa; Kurcgant, Paulina
This study was undertaken in a surgical center specializing in oncology, and it aimed to identify nursing activities performed during the perioperative period and to classify and validate intervention activities according to the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC). A survey of activities was conducted using records and by direct observation of nursing care across four shifts. Activities were classified as NIC nursing interventions using the cross-mapping technique. The list of interventions was validated by nursing professionals in workshops. Forty-nine interventions were identified: 34 of direct care and 15 of indirect care. Identifying nursing interventions facilitates measuring the time spent in their execution, which is a fundamental variable in the quantification and qualification of nurses' workloads.
Ehnfors, Margareta; Angermo, Lilly Marit; Berring, Lene; Ehrenberg, Anna; Lindhardt, Tove; Rotegard, Ann Kristin; Thorell-Ekstrand, Ingrid
The aims of this study were to analyze the coherence between the concepts for nursing interventions in the Swedish VIPS model for nursing recording and the ISO Reference Terminology Model for Nursing Actions and to identify areas in the two models for further development. Seven Scandinavian experts analyzed the VIPS model's concepts for nursing interventions using prototypical examples of nursing actions, involving 233 units of analyses, and collaborated in mapping the two models. All nursing interventions in the VIPS model comprise actions and targets, but a few lack explicit expressions of means. In most cases, the recipient of care is implicit. Expressions for the aim of an action are absent from the ISO model. By this mapping we identified areas for future development of the VIPS model and the experience from nursing terminology work in Scandinavia can contribute to the international standardization efforts.
Kaitani, Toshiko; Nakagami, Gojiro; Iizaka, Shinji; Fukuda, Takashi; Oe, Makoto; Igarashi, Ataru; Mori, Taketoshi; Takemura, Yukie; Mizokami, Yuko; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi
The high prevalence of severe pressure ulcers (PUs) is an important issue that requires to be highlighted in Japan. In a previous study, we devised an advanced PU management protocol to enable early detection of and intervention for deep tissue injury and critical colonization. This protocol was effective for preventing more severe PUs. The present study aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of the care provided using an advanced PU management protocol, from a medical provider's perspective, implemented by trained wound, ostomy, and continence nurses (WOCNs), with that of conventional care provided by a control group of WOCNs. A Markov model was constructed for a 1-year time horizon to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of advanced PU management compared with conventional care. The number of quality-adjusted life-years gained, and the cost in Japanese yen (¥) ($US1 = ¥120; 2015) was used as the outcome. Model inputs for clinical probabilities and related costs were based on our previous clinical trial results. Univariate sensitivity analyses were performed. Furthermore, a Bayesian multivariate probability sensitivity analysis was performed using Monte Carlo simulations with advanced PU management. Two different models were created for initial cohort distribution. For both models, the expected effectiveness for the intervention group using advanced PU management techniques was high, with a low expected cost value. The sensitivity analyses suggested that the results were robust. Intervention by WOCNs using advanced PU management techniques was more effective and cost-effective than conventional care.
Ottenstein, Richard J
This article presents a group protocol designed to assist people in coping with direct and ongoing threats of terrorism. The protocol is intended to enable participants to address the psychological issues necessary to cope during periods of extreme threat. A step-by-step description of the protocol is provided.
Titilayo, Odetola D; Okanlawon, F A
Maternal mortality is high in Nigeria especially in rural areas due to knowledge deficit about expected care and labour process, socio-cultural belief, health care workers' attitude, physical and financial barriers to quality health care access. Mobile health (m-health) technology which is the use of mobile telecommunication devices in health care delivery reduces costs, improves care access, removes time and distance barriers and facilitates patient-provider communications needed to make appropriate health decisions. Previous studies empowering nurses with m-health knowledge resulted in improved uptake of health care services. There exists a literature dearth about knowledge and perception of nurses in Nigeria. This study became expedient to empower nurses working at the grassroots with the knowledge of m-health and assess the impact of educational training on their perception of its effectiveness. This quasi-experimental study carried out in four randomly selected LGAs across Oyo South Senatorial district involved participants at experimental (20 nurses) and control levels (27 nurses). A validated 25-item questionnaire explored nurses' perception, knowledge and perceived effectiveness of m-health in improving uptake of maternal health services in Nigeria among both groups before intervention. Intervention group nurses had a training equipping them with knowledge of m-health nursing intervention (MNHI) for a period of one week. Their perception, knowledge and perceived effectiveness were re-assessed at three-months and six-months after MHNI. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and repeated measures ANOVA at 5% significance level. In the EG, knowledge score significantly increased from 21.9±4.5 at baseline to 23.6±4.6 and 23.2±5.6 at three-month and six-month respectively while there was no significant difference in knowledge score among CG over the study period. A very significant difference was shown in the knowledge and perception of mobile health and its
Possari, João Francisco; Gaidzinski, Raquel Rapone; Lima, Antônio Fernandes Costa; Fugulin, Fernanda Maria Togeiro; Herdman, Tracy Heather
Objective: to analyze the distribution of nursing professionals' workloads, according to the Nursing Intervention Classification (NIC), during the transoperative period at a surgical center specializing in oncology. Methods: this was an observational and descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 11 nurses, 25 nursing technicians who performed a variety of roles within the operating room, 16 nursing technicians who worked with the surgical instrumentation and two nursing technicians from patient reception who worked in the surgical center during the transoperative period. An instrument was developed to collect data and the interventions were validated according to NIC taxonomy. Results: a total of 266 activities were identified and mapped into 49 nursing interventions, seven domains and 20 classes of the NIC. The most representative domains were Physiological-Complex (61.68%) and Health System (22.12%), while the most frequent interventions were Surgical Care (30.62%) and Documentation (11.47%), respectively. The productivity of the nursing team reached 95.34%. Conclusions: use of the Nursing Intervention Classification contributes towards the discussion regarding adequate, professional nursing staffing levels, because it shows the distribution of the work load. PMID:26487126
van den Oetelaar, W F J M; van Stel, H F; van Rhenen, W; Stellato, R K; Grolman, W
Introduction Hospitals pursue different goals at the same time: excellent service to their patients, good quality care, operational excellence, retaining employees. This requires a good balance between patient needs and nursing staff. One way to ensure a proper fit between patient needs and nursing staff is to work with a workload management method. In our view, a nursing workload management method needs to have the following characteristics: easy to interpret; limited additional registration; applicable to different types of hospital wards; supported by nurses; covers all activities of nurses and suitable for prospective planning of nursing staff. At present, no such method is available. Methods/analysis The research follows several steps to come to a workload management method for staff nurses. First, a list of patient characteristics relevant to care time will be composed by performing a Delphi study among staff nurses. Next, a time study of nurses’ activities will be carried out. The 2 can be combined to estimate care time per patient group and estimate the time nurses spend on non-patient-related activities. These 2 estimates can be combined and compared with available nursing resources: this gives an estimate of nurses’ workload. The research will take place in an academic hospital in the Netherlands. 6 surgical wards will be included, capacity 15–30 beds. Ethical considerations The study protocol was submitted to the Medical Ethical Review Board of the University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht and received a positive advice, protocol number 14-165/C. Discussion This method will be developed in close cooperation with staff nurses and ward management. The strong involvement of the end users will contribute to a broader support of the results. The method we will develop may also be useful for planning purposes; this is a strong advantage compared with existing methods, which tend to focus on retrospective analysis. PMID:28186931
Azzolin, Karina; de Souza, Emiliane Nogueira; Ruschel, Karen Brasil; Mussi, Cláudia Motta; de Lucena, Amália Fátima; Rabelo, Eneida Rejane
This was a consensus study with six cardiology nurses with the objective of selecting nursing diagnoses, outcomes and interventions described by NANDA International (NANDA-I), Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC), Nursing Intervention Classification (NIC), for home care of patients with heart failure (HF). Eight nursing diagnoses (NDs) were pre-selected and a consensus was achieved in three stages, during which interventions/activities and outcomes/indicators of each NDs were validated and those considered valid obtained 70% to 100% consensus. From the eight pre-selected NDs, two were excluded due to the lack of consensus on appropriate interventions for the clinical home care scenario. Eleven interventions were selected from a total of 96 pre-selected ones and seven outcomes were validated out of 71. The practice of consensus among expert nurses provides assistance to the qualifications of the care process and deepens the knowledge about the use of tazonomies in nursing clinical practice.
Mynatt, Sarah L
The importance of identifying and intervening in elders with depression cannot be underestimated. The baby boom population is reaching the chronological milestone of being considered older age, which means that the percentage of older adults with depression will result in increased numbers of depressed older adults in all settings needing nursing care. Nurses must be able to recognize symptoms of depression, whether subsyndromal depression or major depression, to be able to intervene effectively. Depressive symptoms interfere with the quality of life and respond to nursing interventions that address psychosocial functioning including loss, educational strategies to increase understanding of depression as a disease, its treatment and adherence strategies, interventions that monitor and improve chronic medical illness, and recognize medication management that has the least likelihood of side effects. The importance of psychotherapies was not stressed above due to limitations in space, but in addition to problem solving therapy, cognitive and interpersonal supportive therapies are also effective. Electroconvulsive therapy is also effective in treating depression in the elderly when the patient is suicidal.
Musa, Ahmad S
This study explored the frequency of providing aspects of spiritual care intervention and its association with nurses' own spiritual well-being in a convenience sample of 355 Jordanian Arab Muslim nurses. The nurses were recruited from different hospitals, representing both public and private health care sectors in northern and central Jordan. A cross-sectional descriptive and correlational design was used. Results indicated that Jordanian Muslim nurses provided religious aspects of spiritual care intervention to their Muslim patients infrequently and that their own spiritual well-being was positively associated with the frequency of provision of spiritual care interventions. The study concluded that Jordanian Muslim nurses most frequently provided spiritual care interventions that were existential, not overtly religious, were commonly used, were more traditional, and did not require direct nurse involvement. Moreover, the findings revealed that spiritual well-being was important to those nurses, which has implications for improving the provision of spiritual care intervention. The study provides information that enables nurses, nursing managers, and nursing educators to evaluate the nurses' provision of various aspects of spiritual care to their Muslim patients, and to identify aspects of spiritual care intervention where nurses might receive training to become competent in providing this care.
This mini-review aims to introduce Margaret Newman's theory of health as expanding consciousness and caring partnership as a nursing intervention. Emanating from a unitary and transformative perspective of nursing, caring partnership enables nurses to identify with cancer patients as well as to help the patients find meaning in their situation and their lives. In genuine patient–nurse interactions, both patients and nurses experience higher levels of consciousness. PMID:28217730
Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Therapy-related Toxicity
Fernández, María Dolores; Luciano, Carmen; Valdivia-Salas, Sonsoles
Research has shown that teaching individuals to experience pain and anxiety as inevitable products of the actions they freely and responsibly undertake yields healthier reactions to suffering. This preliminary study assesses whether a brief acceptance-based psychological intervention along with the usual presurgical protocol for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy will produce healthier reactions to postsurgical pain, and will reduce anxiety, duration of postsurgical hospitalization, and demand of analgesics. After admission, screening, and consent procedures, we assessed pain and anxiety. Patients in the experimental condition (n = 6) then received a brief acceptance-based nursing intervention addressing the individual meaning of surgery, and including a metaphor and defusion practice, along with routine care. Patients in the control condition (n = 7) received routine care only. Twenty-four hr following the intervention, surgery took place. Pain, anxiety, and patients' demand for analgesics were assessed 24 hr or 48 hr after surgery. All six experimental patients, as compared to three of seven control patients, demanded fewer analgesics and left the hospital within 24 hr or 48 hr from surgery even in the presence of frequent and/or intense pain. Anxiety slightly decreased in the experimental patients. The brief acceptance-based intervention was effective in improving postsurgical recovery. These preliminary findings support the potential of this type of intervention as a cost-effective strategy to be implemented in the sanitary context.
Wandering behavior is common in patients with dementia. The purpose of this literature review was to define wandering, describe the factors of wandering and analyze different interventions and nursing skill of managing this behavior. Finally, barriers to and effective nursing intervention for wandering behavior will be reviewed as they appear within the literature. The search was conducted to use the PubMed, ProQuest, CINAHL, MEDLINE databases from 1990 to 2015. Search terms used included 'wandering', 'intervention', 'dementia or Alzheimer', 'nursing', and 'elopement'. The inclusion criteria were: implementing the effective nursing intervention to manage wandering behavior, scholarly and peer reviewed journals, and publication in the English language.
Finnell, Deborah S; Nowzari, Shahrzad; Reimann, Brie; Fischer, Leigh; Pace, Elizabeth; Goplerud, Eric
ABSTRACT. Substance use screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) should be an integral part of the scope of nursing practice. This commentary is an appeal for nurses to advance their knowledge and competencies related to SBIRT. The question of how to move SBIRT into the mainstream of nursing practice was posed to several leaders of federal agencies, health care and nursing organizations, nurse educators, and nurse leaders. The authors provide recommendations for moving this set of clinical strategies (i.e., SBIRT) into day-to-day nursing practice.
Stacey, Dawn; O'Connor, Annette M; Graham, Ian D; Pomey, Marie-Pascale
We evaluated the effect of an intervention on call centre nurses' knowledge of decision support and skills in coaching callers facing value-sensitive health decisions. Forty-one registered nurses at a health call centre were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The intervention was a coaching protocol, online tutorial, skills building workshop and performance feedback. The main outcome measures were: knowledge test; blinded quality assessment of coaching skills during simulated calls and call duration. Compared with controls, nurses in the intervention group had better knowledge (74 versus 60%, P = 0.007) and decision coaching skills (81 versus 44%, P < 0.001), particularly in assessing decisional needs (information, values clarity, support, stage and timing of decision) and addressing support issues. Call duration did not differ (18.5 versus 16.7 min, P = 0.73). The coaching protocol was rated as compatible with nurses' views on decision-making and more advantageous compared with their usual practices. The intervention improved the quality of nurses' decision coaching without affecting call duration.
Afiyanti, Yati; Rachmawati, Imami Nur; Milanti, Ariesta
Objective: This study aims to describe the factors affecting successful nursing care intervention on sexuality. Methods: A one-group pre- and post-test design was used. Fifty-three cervical cancer survivors and their spouses were administered with nursing care intervention on sexuality in three sessions and evaluated after 6 weeks. Results: Sexual intervention reduced dyspareunia symptoms, improved vaginal lubrication, improved sexual satisfaction, and enhanced sexual arousal, sexual desire, and orgasm among cancer survivors and their spouses. The other influencing factors also simultaneously contributed to the success of nursing care intervention. Conclusions: Nursing care intervention on sexuality could be a part of supportive nursing care and an important aspect in standard nursing care for cancer patients in Indonesia. PMID:27981170
Porter, Gloria; Edwards, Pamela B; Granger, Bradi B
To gain insight into high school students' perceptions of the role of the nurse and to explore students' impressions of nursing following a nurse-shadowing intervention. Often nurses abandon staffing positions in the first 1-2 years, reporting a "poor fit" with nursing. Few studies have examined expectations and perceptions of nursing among high school students; a population of potential nurses in whom a more accurate view of nursing opportunities and professionalism may be fostered. High school students from two North Carolina counties participated in a nurse-shadowing intervention. Constant comparison and thematic coding were used for analysis of post-intervention in-depth interviews. Sixteen of 24 students completed the study. Misperception of nursing was the dominant theme. Five sub-themes were professional role responsibility, teamwork, caring relationships, tools and technology, and medication management. Experiential knowledge of nursing was a core need for students interested in nursing careers. These data suggest that a nurse shadowing program may positively influence perceptions of nursing, and may result in improved recruitment and retention in the workplace.
Kalisch, Beatrice J; Curley, Millie; Stefanov, Susan
Numerous studies have concluded that work group teamwork leads to higher staff job satisfaction, increased patient safety, improved quality of care, and greater patient satisfaction. Although there have been studies on the impact of multidisciplinary teamwork in healthcare, the teamwork among nursing staff on a patient care unit has received very little attention from researchers. In this study, an intervention to enhance teamwork and staff engagement was tested on a medical unit in an acute care hospital. The results showed that the intervention resulted in a significantly lower patient fall rate, staff ratings of improved teamwork on the unit, and lower staff turnover and vacancy rates. Patient satisfaction ratings approached, but did not reach, statistical significance.
Tosin, Michelle Hyczy de Siqueira; Campos, Débora Moraes; de Andrade, Leonardo Tadeu; de Oliveira, Beatriz Guitton Renaud Baptista; Santana, Rosimere Ferreira
ABSTRACT Objective: to perform a cross-term mapping of nursing language in the patient record with the Nursing Interventions Classification system, in rehabilitation patients with Parkinson's disease. Method: a documentary research study to perform cross mapping. A probabilistic, simple random sample composed of 67 records of patients with Parkinson's disease who participated in a rehabilitation program, between March of 2009 and April of 2013. The research was conducted in three stages, in which the nursing terms were mapped to natural language and crossed with the Nursing Interventions Classification. Results: a total of 1,077 standard interventions that, after crossing with the taxonomy and refinement performed by the experts, resulted in 32 interventions equivalent to the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) system. The NICs, "Education: The process of the disease.", "Contract with the patient", and "Facilitation of Learning" were present in 100% of the records. For these interventions, 40 activities were described, representing 13 activities by intervention. Conclusion: the cross mapping allowed for the identification of corresponding terms with the nursing interventions used every day in rehabilitation nursing, and compared them to the Nursing Interventions Classification. PMID:27508903
McDonald, Anne; Frazer, Kate; Duignan, Catriona; Healy, Marianne; Irving, Annette; Marteinsson, Patricia; Molloy, Brenda; McNicholas, Elizabeth
Illuminating the full range of nursing actions is a challenge for nurses globally; the invisibility of nursing and of public health nursing in particular is well documented. Visibility can be enhanced by identifying core functions of nursing and matching corresponding levels of interventions and outcomes. This is a priority for the contemporary Irish public health nursing (PHN) service. In the United States, public health nurses have developed an 'Intervention Wheel' naming public health interventions at community, systems and individual/family levels. This aimed to make visible the core functions of PHN practice. The values and beliefs underpinning the Intervention Wheel have been shown to capture the essence of public health nursing within the European context. In total, US nurses described 17 Wheel interventions by recording stories from practice. Owing to concern that the public health aspect of their role was not only invisible but was at risk of erosion, Irish PHNs decided to replicate this storytelling approach to provide evidence for and authenticate the 17 interventions on the Intervention Wheel from their day-to-day public health practice.
Godfrey, Athleen B.
This article relates experiences and insights gained by a nurse educator directing the University of Utah College of Nursing's Utah Early Intervention Personnel Preparation project, a graduate-level interdisciplinary program to prepare early intervention specialists. Recommendations are offered for development of preservice or inservice…
Benner, Gregory J.; Nelson, J. Ron; Sanders, Elizabeth A.; Ralston, Nicole C.
This article examined the efficacy of a primary-level, standard-protocol behavior intervention for students with externalizing behavioral disorders. Elementary schools were randomly assigned to treatment (behavior intervention) or control (business as usual) conditions, and K-3 students were screened for externalizing behavior risk status. The…
Gerelli, A M; Soares, M A; Almeida, M A
This study tries to identify Nursing Diagnoses and Interventions. It was done with a patient who was in critical health condition: multiple organs failure, in an Intensive Care Unit of a general hospital in Porto Alegre. The Case Study was the methodology used. Nursing Diagnoses is described mostly using NANDA Taxonomy. They are: Risk for Aspiration, Disuse Syndrome, Diarrhea, Risk for Infection, Impaired Tissue Integrity; and a Collaborative Problem was identified: Hypoglicemia. We have elaborated 34 Nursing Interventions for those diagnoses.
Wallace, Thérèse; O'Connell, Shelley; Frisch, Sara R
Little research can be found on nursing practice for populations needing non-traditional mental health care. A descriptive study was done with the nurses on the Community Link Service (CLS), an intensive psychiatric community follow-up program, to identify nursing interventions and the types of situations encountered. These nurses use the guiding principles of two current treatment modalities, Assertive Community Treatment and Clinical Case Management. The Nursing Interventions Classification System (NIC, McCloskey & Bulecheck, 2000) was used to code nursing interventions reported through interviews and critical incidents. The nursing interventions represented 93 interventions and included 400 different activities. The analysis showed that Case Management (79%) and Complex Relationship Building (71%) were their most common interventions followed by Medication Management (64%) and Surveillance (60%). Systems such as the NIC are useful tools, but they may not give a complete description of nursing practice in this setting.
Worthington, Catherine A.; O’Brien, Kelly K.; Mill, Judy; Caine, Vera; Solomon, Patty; Chaw-Kant, Jean
We assessed the impact of an HIV care mentorship intervention on knowledge, attitudes, and practices with nurses and people living with HIV (PLWH) in Canada. We implemented the intervention in two urban and two rural sites with 16 mentors (eight experienced HIV nurses and eight PLWH) and 40 mentees (nurses with limited HIV experience). The 6- to 12-month intervention included face-to-face workshops and monthly meetings. Using a mixed-methods approach, participants completed pre- and postintervention questionnaires and engaged in semistructured interviews at intervention initiation, mid-point, and completion. Data from 28 mentees (70%) and 14 mentors (87%) were included in the quantitative analysis. We analyzed questionnaire data using McNemar test, and interview data using content analysis. Results indicated positive changes in knowledge, attitudes, and practices among nurse mentees, with qualitative interviews highlighting mechanisms by which change occurred. Mentorship interventions have the potential to engage and educate nurses in HIV treatment and care. PMID:27039195
Furberg, Robert D; Zulkiewicz, Brittany A; Hudson, Jordan P; Taylor, Olivia M; Lewis, Megan A
Background Tablet-based health care interventions have the potential to encourage patient care in a timelier manner, allow physicians convenient access to patient records, and provide an improved method for patient education. However, along with the continued adoption of tablet technologies, there is a concomitant need to develop protocols focusing on the configuration, management, and maintenance of these devices within the health care setting to support the conduct of clinical research. Objective Develop three protocols to support tablet configuration, tablet management, and tablet maintenance. Methods The Configurator software, Tile technology, and current infection control recommendations were employed to develop three distinct protocols for tablet-based digital health interventions. Configurator is a mobile device management software specifically for iPhone operating system (iOS) devices. The capabilities and current applications of Configurator were reviewed and used to develop the protocol to support device configuration. Tile is a tracking tag associated with a free mobile app available for iOS and Android devices. The features associated with Tile were evaluated and used to develop the Tile protocol to support tablet management. Furthermore, current recommendations on preventing health care–related infections were reviewed to develop the infection control protocol to support tablet maintenance. Results This article provides three protocols: the Configurator protocol, the Tile protocol, and the infection control protocol. Conclusions These protocols can help to ensure consistent implementation of tablet-based interventions, enhance fidelity when employing tablets for research purposes, and serve as a guide for tablet deployments within clinical settings. PMID:27350013
Vézina, Aline; Robichaud, Line; Voyer, Philippe; Pelletier, Daniel
This study examines the identity cues that family caregivers and healthcare personnel use with seniors living with dementia and living in nursing homes. The identity cues represent biographical knowledge used to stimulate the dementia sufferer, trigger signals and incite interaction. Our grounded approach hinges on three objectives: to identify and categorize identity cues; to document their uses; and to gain a better understanding of their effectiveness. We interviewed nine family caregivers and 12 healthcare workers. Qualitative data indicates that the participants use identity cues that evoke seniors’ sociological, relational and individual characteristics. These identity cues play a central role in communication and constitute important information that the family caregivers can share with healthcare personnel. They sustain memory, facilitate care and reinforce seniors’ self-value. These results help to define identity, foster a greater role for family caregivers, and constitute a sound basis for the implementation of personalized interventions. PMID:21849743
Trecartin, Kelly; Carroll, Diane L
Anxiety is shared by patients and family members (FMs) and can increase throughout the FMs waiting during invasive cardiac procedures (ICP). The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of an informational report (IR) and a postprocedure visit (PPV), on the anxiety of waiting FMs. There were 151 FMs assigned to 3 groups; Group 1 (50 FMs: standard of care [SOC]), Group 2 (50 FMs: SOC + IR), and Group 3 (51 FMs: SOC + IR + PPV). Pre/ postvariables measured were: blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), skin temperature (ST), and anxiety. When comparing the BP, HR, ST, and anxiety there were no differences between groups with either SOC or IR. There was a significant reduction in anxiety, from baseline to the PPV in Group 3 (F = 10.1; p < .000). A PPV had an impact on FMs and a PPV should be incorporated as a nursing intervention during ICP.
de Andrade, Leonardo Tadeu; de Araújo, Eduardo Gomes; Andrade, Karla da Rocha Pimenta; de Souza, Danyelle Rodrigues Pelegrino; Garcia, Telma Ribeiro; Chianca, Tânia Couto Machado
This retrospective study, performed in 2009, aimed to identify nursing diagnoses and interventions for the care of patients with spinal cord injury. Data were collected from the nursing records of 465 patients with SCI undergoing rehabilitation. The nursing diagnosis Risk for autonomic dysreflexia was identified in 271 clinical records (58, 3%). Approximately 80 patients developed autonomic dysreflexia, with a predominance in young men around 35.7 years old, who had experienced a trauma as the main cause of the injury. Their neurological injury level was at the sixth thoracic vertebra or above. Nursing interventions were arranged in two groups, one focused on prevention and the other on treatment. An intervention guide was developed and can be used by nurses in their clinical practice of rehabilitation and can be included into information systems. The removal of the stimulus which causes autonomic dysreflexia was identified as the most effective therapy and the best intervention.
Haslinger-Baumann, Elisabeth; Burns, Evelin
In home nursing care, professionally qualified nurses make decisions on their own which must be based on the latest scientific research. The goal of this systematic literature review was to examine if the interventions of the diagnosis "Risk of Pneumonia" as used by a home care service provider in Austria are based on scientific evidence. Based on the research question "Can the interventions of the diagnosis 'risk of pneumonia' be found in the scientific nursing literature?", four evidence-based guidelines from various databases and institutes were identified and evaluated using a standardized checklist. The result of the analysis is that the majority of the Nursing diagnosis interventions can be found in the guidelines. It is also recommended in the guidelines to advise and support clients to stop smoking and inoculate against influenza/pneumonia. Similarly, assessment tools should be used to estimate the severity of pneumonia. The intervention of oral hygiene as a prophylactic intervention against pneumonia should get particular attention.
Doran, Diane; Clarke, Sean; Hayes, Laureen; Nincic, Vera
Much has been written about interventions to improve the nursing work environment, yet little is known about their effectiveness. A Delphi survey of nurse experts was conducted to explore perceptions about workplace interventions in terms of feasibility and likelihood of positive impact on nurse outcomes such as job satisfaction and nurse retention. The interventions that received the highest ratings for likelihood of positive impact included: bedside handover to improve communication at shift report and promote patient-centred care; training program for nurses in dealing with violent or aggressive behaviour; development of charge nurse leadership team; training program focused on creating peer-supportive atmospheres and group cohesion; and schedule that recognizes work balance and family demands. The overall findings are consistent with the literature that highlights the importance of communication and teamwork, nurse health and safety, staffing and scheduling practices, professional development and leadership and mentorship. Nursing researchers and decision-makers should work in collaboration to implement and evaluate interventions for promoting practice environments characterized by effective communication and teamwork, professional growth and adequate support for the health and well-being of nurses.
Johnson, Pamela; Gilman, Anna; Lintner, Alicia; Buckner, Ellen
Translating evidence-based practices to the bedside can be facilitated by an active academic-practice partnership between nursing faculty and frontline nursing staff. A collaborative effort between the university's academic nurses and the medical center's clinical nurses explored, created, implemented, and evaluated an evidence-based nurse-driven protocol for decreasing the rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. The nurse-driven protocol was piloted in 4 intensive care units and included nurse-driven orders for catheter discontinuation, utilization of smaller bore urinary catheters, addition of silver-based cleansing products for urinary catheter care, and education of staff on routine catheter care and maintenance. Data were collected for more than 8 months pre- and postimplementation of the nurse-driven protocol. Postimplementation data revealed a 28% reduction in catheter-associated urinary tract infections in the intensive care units as compared with preimplementation. Secondary benefits of this academic-practice partnership included strengthening the legitimacy of classroom content as lessons learned were integrated into courses in the nursing curriculum. The result of the partnership was a stronger sense of collaboration and collegiality between hospital staff and the university faculty. Transformative leadership engaged numerous stakeholders through collaborative efforts to realize best practices. An academic-practice partnership facilitates transformative change and provides structural stability and sustainability.
Lavoie, Patrick; Pepin, Jacinthe; Cossette, Sylvie
To provide optimal care, nurses need to be prepared to recognize signs and symptoms of patient deterioration so they can obtain assistance from appropriate respondents and initiate rescue interventions when needed. In this paper, we describe the development of a post-simulation educational intervention aimed at improving nurses' and nursing students' recognition and response to patient deterioration. This intervention takes the form of a debriefing after a simulated patient deterioration experience. Following the Medical Research Council's guidance on complex interventions, we reviewed empirical studies of existing educational interventions for content, teaching strategies, and outcomes, as well as for frameworks, theoretical underpinnings, and rationale. Based on those results, we reviewed theoretical literature (Tanner's clinical judgment model and Dewey's theory of experiential learning) that might inform our understanding of our intervention's intended effect (learning outcomes) and of the mechanisms by which the intervention could lead to it. Integrating results from the empirical and theoretical phases helped us define the new intervention's rationale and develop its components according to relevant standards of best practices. The resulting educational intervention, REsPoND, consists in a reflective debriefing after a patient deterioration simulation. It will be tested in an upcoming mixed methods study.
Glenwick, David S.; Slutzsky, Mitchel R.; Garfinkel, Eric
Describes an 11-week course given at a nursing home to nursing home aides that focused on abnormal psychology and behavior intervention skills. Discusses the course goals, class composition, and course description. Addresses the problems and issues encountered with teaching this course to a nontraditional population in an unconventional setting.…
Meeks, Suzanne; Looney, Stephen W.; Van Haitsma, Kimberly; Teri, Linda
Purpose: This article (a) describes a 10-week, behavioral, activities-based intervention for depression that can be implemented in nursing homes collaboratively with nursing home activities staff and (b) presents data related to its development, feasibility, and preliminary outcomes. Design and Methods: We developed BE-ACTIV, which stands for…
Baisch, Mary Jo
Many public health electronic health systems lack the specificity to distinguish between individual- and population-based levels of care provided by public health nurses. Data that describe the broad scope of the everyday practice of public health nurses are critical to providing evidence of their effectiveness in promoting community health, which may not be fully appreciated in an arena of scarce resources. This article describes a method to document population-based nursing practice by adding population-based interventions to the nursing taxonomy underlying an electronic health information system. These interventions, derived from the Intervention Wheel, were incorporated into the Omaha System taxonomy, the conceptual framework for the Automated Community Health Information System (ACHIS), which is a longstanding data system used to capture nursing practice in community nursing centers. This article includes a description of the development and testing of the system's ability to capture the practice of the district public health nurse model. This method of adapting an existing data system to capture population-based interventions could be replicated by public health administrators interested in better evaluating the processes and outcomes of public health nursing and other public health professionals.
Marnocha, Suzanne; Marnocha, Mark; Cleveland, Rebecca; Lambie, Christina; Limberg, Cassandra Y; Wnuk, Jacqueline
Previous research documents online unprofessionalism among nursing students. The current study assessed the effects of a peer-facilitated social media education session on changes in attitudes and knowledge among recently admitted prelicensure nursing students. Uncertain or incorrect attitudes and knowledge showed significant improvements after the session. Such interventions may enhance cyberprofessionalism in future student cohorts and warrant further exploration.
Hootman, Janis; Houck, Gail M.; King, Mary Catherine
Describes an educational program, which helped school nurses identify potential mental health problems. All school nurses in one district received the education, and six nurses developed and implemented practice improvement projects with at-risk students. The sessions addressed pathways to violence, therapeutic communication, and depression and…
Casserly, Brian; Baram, Michael; Walsh, Patricia; Sucov, Andrew; Ward, Nicholas S; Levy, Mitchell M
The objective of this prospective cohort study was to see the effect of the implementation of a Sepsis Intervention Program on the standard processes of patient care using a collaborative approach between the Emergency Department (ED) and Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU). This was performed in a large urban tertiary-care hospital, with no previous experience utilizing a specific intervention program as routine care for septic shock and which has services and resources commonly available in most hospitals. The study included 106 patients who presented to the ED with severe sepsis or septic shock. Eighty-seven of those patients met the inclusion criteria for complete data analysis. The ED and MICU staff underwent a 3-month training period followed by implementation of a protocol for sepsis intervention program over 6 months. In the first 6 months of the program's implementation, 106 patients were admitted to the ED with severe sepsis and septic shock. During this time, the ED attempted to initiate the sepsis intervention protocol in 76% of the 87 septic patients who met the inclusion criteria. This was assessed by documentation of a central venous catheter insertion for continuous SvO(2) monitoring in a patient with sepsis or septic shock. However, only 48% of the eligible patients completed the early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) protocol. Our data showed that the in-hospital mortality rate was 30.5% for the 87 septic shock patients with a mean APACHE II score of 29. This was very similar to a landmark study of EGDT (30.5% mortality with mean APACHE II of 21.5). Data collected on processes of care showed improvements in time to fluid administration, central venous access insertion, antibiotic administration, vasopressor administration, and time to MICU transfer from ED arrival in our patients enrolled in the protocol versus those who were not. Further review of our performance data showed that processes of care improved steadily the longer the protocol was in
Peres, Heloisa Helena Ciqueto; de Almeida Lopes Monteiro da Cruz, Diná; Lima, Antônio Fernandes Costa; Gaidzinski, Raquel Rapone; Ortiz, Diley Cardoso Franco; Mendes e Trindade, Michelle; Tsukamoto, Rosangela; Batista de Oliveira, Neurilene
Electronic nursing documentation constitutes technical, scientific, legal, and ethical documents. The objective of this study was to develop an electronic nursing documentation system. The system was developed in four phases (conceptualization, detailing, prototype building, implementation), and the knowledge base was based on domains and classes according to the NANDA-I, NIC, and NOC unified framework. The result is an electronic system (PROCEnf--USP--Nursing Process Electronic Documentation System of the University of São Paulo) which allows documenting nursing process generating reports of nursing process, besides supporting decisions on nursing diagnosis, expected outcomes, and interventions. Integration of different fields of knowledge, as well as the institutional feature of valuing continuous theoretical and practical improvement of nursing process were factors of success of this technological project.
Sayre, Michelle M; McNeese-Smith, Donna; Leach, Linda Searle; Phillips, Linda R
"Speaking up" is a critical component in improving patient safety. Studies indicate, though, that most registered nurses prefer using behaviors of avoidance or accommodation in conflict situations. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine whether an educational intervention using scenarios, personal reflection, and peer support in small groups could improve speaking-up behaviors in registered nurses. Results showed a significant difference in speaking-up behaviors and scores in the intervention group (P < .001).
de Boer, Angela G E M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W
Introduction Returning to work can be problematic for cancer survivors due to suboptimal workplace support, a heavy workload, decreased physical functioning and fatigue. The timely and permanent return to work (RtW) of cancer patients favourably influences quality of life and economic independence. Multidisciplinary interventions aimed at timely and enduring RtW are lacking. The objectives of this article are (1) to describe the protocol of an intervention aimed at RtW of cancer patients, comprising of counselling by an oncological occupational physician and supervised physical exercise in a clinical setting during treatment and (2) to present the design of the study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of this intervention. Methods and analysis The intervention comprises three counselling sessions with an oncological occupational physician and a 12-week moderate-to-high intensity physical exercise programme, starting at the onset of chemotherapy. The intervention is aimed at cancer patients treated with curative intent, aged 18–60 years, employed and on sick leave. It will take place in two large medical centres in the Netherlands. The feasibility of the intervention will be evaluated as follows: the number of sessions, topics discussed and exercises executed will be registered by care providers; patients' and care providers' opinions will be assessed by questionnaires and interviews, respectively; and the proportion of invited patients that participated will be calculated. Ethics and dissemination The study results will be used for optimising the intervention content and may serve as a foundation for future implementation. The Medical Ethics Committees of the Academic Medical Center and the participating medical centres approved the study protocol. PMID:22786950
Wilson, Deleise S; Montie, Mary; Conlon, Paul; Reynolds, Margaret; Ripley, Robert; Titler, Marita G
Evidence-based (EB) fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risk factors are readily available but not routinely used in practice. Few studies have examined nurses' perceptions about both the use of these EB interventions and implementation strategies designed to promote their adoption. This article reports qualitative findings of nurses' perceptions about use of EB fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risks, and implementation strategies to promote use of these interventions. The findings revealed five major themes: before-study fall prevention practices, use of EB fall prevention interventions tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors, beneficial implementation strategies, overall impact on approach to fall prevention, and challenges These findings are useful to guide nurses' engagement and use of EB fall prevention practices tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors.
Xu, Yu; Shen, Jay; Bolstad, Anne L; Covelli, Margaret; Torpey, Miriam
International nurses face a myriad of challenges in their transition, adaptation, and integration into the U.S. health care environment. This pilot intervention study examined socio-cultural competence regarding communication in a sample of international nurses working in two community hospitals in southern Nevada. Significant improvement in communication behaviors of the sampled international nurses with regard to socio-cultural skills of communication after the workshop intervention were not found. Similarly, there were no remarkable differences in standardized patient comments for most items on the checklist. However, the sampled international nurses demonstrated some highly desirable qualities such as being very personable, caring, and compassion that appeared to lay a foundation for an effective nurse-patient relationship.
da Mata, Luciana Regina Ferreira; de Souza, Cristiane Chaves; Chianca, Tânia Couto Machado; de Carvalho, Emília Campos
This study analyzes the use of different nursing classification systems to meet the standards established by the norm ISO 18.104:2003, based on a fictitious clinical situation. Nursing diagnoses and interventions were created using NANDA-I, NIC and ICNP® and an analysis was performed of the terminology agreement of these classification systems with the model proposed by the norm ISO 18.104:2003. For the creation of nursing diagnoses, NANDA-I and ICNP® comply with norm ISO 18.104:2003. As for the creation of nursing interventions, ICNP® meets the terminology reference model proposed by ISO 18104:2003. NIC, on the other hand, does not propose a combinatory terminology reference model. The unification of nursing terminology depends on reviewing, standardizing and testing these classifications in order to establish a common and sound language for the profession.
Nowrouzi, Behdin; Lightfoot, Nancy; Larivière, Michael; Carter, Lorraine; Rukholm, Ellen; Schinke, Robert; Belanger-Gardner, Diane
This article reports on a literature review of workplace interventions (i.e., creating healthy work environments and improving nurses' quality of work life [QWL]) aimed at managing occupational stress and burnout for nurses. A literature search was conducted using the keywords nursing, nurses, stress, distress, stress management, burnout, and intervention. All the intervention studies included in this review reported on workplace intervention strategies, mainly individual stress management and burnout interventions. Recommendations are provided to improve nurses' QWL in health care organizations through workplace health promotion programs so that nurses can be recruited and retained in rural and northern regions of Ontario. These regions have unique human resources needs due to the shortage of nurses working in primary care.
Westman, Anton; Äng, Björn O
Background Elevated neck pain prevalence among skydivers is associated with exposure to repeated parachute opening shock (POS). A study is planned to evaluate a preventive free fall acrobatics intervention, but prior assessment of the protocol is necessary given the complex and safety-critical study environment. Aim To validate an intervention protocol to reduce POS neck loads. Methods A protocol was developed based on observational data and theoretical calculations. Six experts rated each component of the protocol on a four-point Likert scale, regarding relevance, simplicity/feasibility and safety, and responded to open-ended questions. Two iterations were made, each followed by consensus panel protocol revisions. The content validity index (CVI) was used to quantify ratings. A measure of universal agreement (CVI/UA) was computed as the proportion of components that achieved a rating ≥3 by all raters. For safety, a high-sensitivity CVI/UA was computed with a rating of no <4 (highest score) as acceptable. Results CVI/UA for relevance increased from 0.80 in the first assessment to 1.00 in the second; for simplicity from 0.50 to 0.63; and for safety from 0.70 to 1.00. High-sensitivity CVI/UA for safety increased from 0.10 to 0.75. Responses to open-ended questions included safety concerns for free fall stability, altitude awareness and concerns over comprehensibility. Conclusions The proposed protocol has been improved in assessed relevance, simplicity and safety, and is considered validated for the start of the empirical trial. To what degree complex interventions should be preceded by open prevalidation is discussed. PMID:27900113
Lanza, Marilyn Lewis; Zeiss, Robert; Rierdan, Jill
Psychiatric nurses are frequent victims of workplace violence, much of which is perpetrated by patients. In a review of literature on prevalence, perpetrators, and impact of violence on psychiatric nurses, we note that workplace violence is a virtually normative experience for the nurse, rather than a rare occurrence. Verbal violence and sexual harassment, like physical violence, are common experiences; in contrast to physical violence, these are often initiated by co-workers. The emotional impact of violence on psychiatric nurses is studied less often than frequency of exposure; we discuss hypotheses for this paucity of relevant research. Finally, we reflect on the implications of current research, concluding with recommendations for future research on violence against psychiatric nurses. In particular, we elaborate on the role of violence research in the healthcare setting as "sensitive research"--a research process that in itself may have both direct and indirect beneficial effects for the nursing profession.
Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Ratanasiripong, Nop; Hanklang, Suda; Chumchai, Pornlert
Globally, graduate students have been found to have high prevalence of mental health problems. With increasing severity of mental health problems on university campuses and limited resources for mental health treatment, alternative interventions are needed. This study investigated the use of biofeedback training to help reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. A sample of 60 graduate students in public health nursing was randomly assigned to either the biofeedback intervention or the control group. Results indicated that biofeedback intervention was effective in significantly reducing the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression over the 4-week period, while the control group had increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression over the same timeframe. As future leaders in the public health nursing arena, the more psychologically healthy the graduate students in public health nursing are, the better the public health nursing professionals they will be as they go forth to serve the community after graduation. PMID:25954515
Reisinho, Maria da Conceição Marinho Sousa Ribeiro Oliveira; Gomes, Bárbara Pereira
ABSTRACT Objectives: to search for nursing interventions focused on the improvement of quality of life and promotion of self-care of adolescents suffering from the Cystic Fibrosis. Method: literature review. The inclusion criteria were: primary studies and studies with interventions developed by nurses in the adolescent population with Cystic Fibrosis, using Portuguese, Spanish, French and English with no time limit, and supported by the databases Scopus, Web of Science and CINAHL. The search expressions were: nursing AND care AND adolescent AND "Cystic Fibrosis" AND ("quality of life" OR "self-care"). Results: a total of 59 articles was retrieved; 8 matched the criteria chosen. Nursing interventions targeted at adolescents with Cystic Fibrosis and their family members were identified. These interventions were organized according to the nurses' role, namely caregiver, coordinator, counsellor, researcher, trainer and care partner. Conclusions: nursing interventions targeted at following up the adolescent during the entire therapeutic process, involving the presence of parents/significant others, since both the adolescent and family have to be responsible for self-care. Healthcare professionals should be capable of identifying the specific needs of patients with chronic disease and their family, permitting a better understanding and adaptation to the health-disease transition process. PMID:27982311
Bradford, Althea Betty
A short-term intervention on participants' knowledge of cultural competence was provided to 38 students in a baccalaureate nursing program at Winston-Salem State University (WSSU). The study examined the effectiveness of this intervention. Although WSSU is a Historically Black University, the majority of students in this program were White. Six…
Gellar, Lauren; Druker, Sue; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Gapinski, Mary Ann; LaPelle, Nancy; Pbert, Lori
Objective: In preparation for a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a school nurse-delivered intervention, focus groups were conducted to gain insight into the perceptions of stakeholders regarding the design and implementation of the intervention. Setting and Participants: Fifteen focus groups at participating schools. One hundred subjects,…
Pbert, Lori; Druker, Susan; Gapinski, Mary A.; Gellar, Lauren; Magner, Robert; Reed, George; Schneider, Kristin; Osganian, Stavroula
Background: Models are needed for implementing weight management interventions for adolescents through readily accessible venues. This study evaluated the feasibility and ef?cacy of a school nurse-delivered intervention in improving diet and activity and reducing body mass index (BMI) among overweight and obese adolescents. Methods: Six high…
Griffin, Martha; Clark, Cynthia M
Ten years ago, Griffin wrote an article on the use of cognitive rehearsal as a shield for lateral violence. Since then, cognitive rehearsal has been used successfully in several studies as an evidence-based strategy to address uncivil and bullying behaviors in nursing. In the original study, 26 newly licensed nurses learned about lateral violence and used cognitive rehearsal techniques as an intervention for nurse-to-nurse incivility. The newly licensed nurses described using the rehearsed strategies as difficult, yet successful in reducing or eliminating incivility and lateral violence. This article updates the literature on cognitive rehearsal and reviews the use of cognitive rehearsal as an evidence-based strategy to address incivility and bullvina behaviors in nursing.
Background Malnutrition in dependent patients has a high prevalence and can influence the prognosis associated with diverse pathologic processes, decrease quality of life, and increase morbidity-mortality and hospital admissions. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of an educational intervention for caregivers on the nutritional status of dependent patients at risk of malnutrition. Methods/Design Intervention study with control group, randomly allocated, of 200 patients of the Home Care Program carried out in 8 Primary Care Centers (Spain). These patients are dependent and at risk of malnutrition, older than 65, and have caregivers. The socioeconomic and educational characteristics of the patient and the caregiver are recorded. On a schedule of 0–6–12 months, patients are evaluated as follows: Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), food intake, dentures, degree of dependency (Barthel test), cognitive state (Pfeiffer test), mood status (Yesavage test), and anthropometric and serum parameters of nutritional status: albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, haemoglobin, lymphocyte count, iron, and ferritin. Prior to the intervention, the educational procedure and the design of educational material are standardized among nurses. The nurses conduct an initial session for caregivers and then monitor the education impact at home every month (4 visits) up to 6 months. The North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) methodology will be used. The investigators will study the effect of the intervention with caregivers on the patient’s nutritional status using the MNA test, diet, anthropometry, and biochemical parameters. Bivariate normal test statistics and multivariate models will be created to adjust the effect of the intervention. The SPSS/PC program will be used for statistical analysis. Discussion The nutritional status of dependent patients has been little studied. This study allows us to know nutritional risk from different points of view: diet
Caine, Vera; Mill, Judy; O’Brien, Kelly; Solomon, Patricia; Worthington, Catherine; Dykeman, Margaret; Gahagan, Jacqueline; Maina, Geoffrey; De Padua, Anthony; Arneson, Cheryl; Rogers, Tim; Chaw-Kant, Jean
We describe salient individual and organizational factors that influenced engagement of registered nurses in a 12-month clinical mentorship intervention on HIV care in Canada. The intervention included 48 nurses and 8 people living with HIV (PLWH) who were involved in group-based and one-on-one informal mentorship informed by transformative learning theory. We evaluated the process of implementing the mentorship intervention using qualitative content analysis. The inclusion of PLWH as mentors, the opportunities for reciprocal learning, and the long-term commitment of individual nurses and partner organizations in HIV care were major strengths. Challenges included the need for multiple ethical approvals, the lack of organizational support at some clinical sites, and the time commitment required by participants. We recommend that clinical mentorship interventions in HIV care consider organizational support, adhere to the Greater Involvement of People Living with HIV/AIDS principles, and explore questions of professional obligations. PMID:26644019
Caine, Vera; Mill, Judy; O'Brien, Kelly; Solomon, Patricia; Worthington, Catherine; Dykeman, Margaret; Gahagan, Jacqueline; Maina, Geoffrey; De Padua, Anthony; Arneson, Cheryl; Rogers, Tim; Chaw-Kant, Jean
We describe salient individual and organizational factors that influenced engagement of registered nurses in a 12-month clinical mentorship intervention on HIV care in Canada. The intervention included 48 nurses and 8 people living with HIV (PLWH) who were involved in group-based and one-on-one informal mentorship informed by transformative learning theory. We evaluated the process of implementing the mentorship intervention using qualitative content analysis. The inclusion of PLWH as mentors, the opportunities for reciprocal learning, and the long-term commitment of individual nurses and partner organizations in HIV care were major strengths. Challenges included the need for multiple ethical approvals, the lack of organizational support at some clinical sites, and the time commitment required by participants. We recommend that clinical mentorship interventions in HIV care consider organizational support, adhere to the Greater Involvement of People Living with HIV/AIDS principles, and explore questions of professional obligations.
Renouf, Sarah; Bradbury, Katherine; Yardley, Lucy; Little, Paul
This qualitative study explored patients' experiences of nurse support for an Internet-delivered weight management intervention. Eighteen patients who had received either basic or regular nurse support (three or seven contacts, respectively) for the Internet intervention were interviewed. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. The findings suggest that more regular support for Internet interventions may have the potential to inhibit the development of autonomous motivation for weight loss, which might lead to problems in sustaining losses after support ends. Further research is now needed to confirm whether motivation is influenced by frequency of nurse support in Internet interventions in order to inform the development of optimal support which promotes sustained weight loss.
Wheeler, Erlinda C; Waterhouse, Julie K
Community care for heart failure patients is difficult due to multiple comorbidities, polypharmacy, and advanced age of patients. Studies show that hospital admissions and emergency room visits decrease with increased nursing interventions in home and community settings. The purpose of this study(1) was to assess the effectiveness of regular telephone interventions by nursing students on outcomes of heart failure patients in the home. Senior students were paired with community nursing staff and assigned 2 heart failure patients to follow up by telephone calls for 12 to 14 weeks. Patients who received telephone interventions had fewer hospital readmissions (13%) than the comparison group (35%). Patients in the telephone intervention group also had fewer overt heart failure symptoms as measured by the Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire.
Hogue, Aaron; Bobek, Molly; Tau, Gregory Z.; Levin, Frances R.
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent among adolescents enrolled in behavioral health services but remains undertreated in this age group. Also the first-line treatment for adolescent ADHD, stimulant medication, is underutilized in routine practice. This article briefly describes three behavioral interventions designed to promote stronger integration of medication interventions into treatment planning for adolescent ADHD: family ADHD psychoeducation, family-based medication decision-making, and behavior therapist leadership in coordinating medication integration. It then introduces the Medication Integration Protocol (MIP), which incorporates all three interventions into a five-task protocol: ADHD Assessment and Medication Consult; ADHD Psychoeducation and Client Acceptance; ADHD Symptoms and Family Relations; ADHD Medication and Family Decision-Making; and Medication Management and Integration Planning. The article concludes by highlighting what behavior therapists should know about best practices for medication integration across diverse settings and populations: integrating medication interventions into primary care, managing medication priorities and polypharmacy issues for adolescents with multiple diagnoses, providing ADHD medications to adolescent substance users, and the compatibility of MIP intervention strategies with everyday practice conditions. PMID:25505817
Reichert, Altamira Pereira da Silva; Collet, Neusa; Eickmann, Sophie Helena; Lima, Marília de Carvalho
Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational action in child development surveillance performed by nurses working in primary health care. Methods: interventional study with a before-and-after type of design, carried out with 45 nurses and 450 mothers of children under 2 years of age. Initially, it was evaluated the practices and knowledge of nurses on child development surveillance and the mothers were interviewed about these practices. Subsequently, workshops were carried out with nurses and four months later, the knowledge of nurses and the maternal information were reevaluated. Results: after intervention there was significant increase in the frequency of the following aspects: from 73% to 100%, in relation to the practice of nurses of asking the opinion of mothers about their children's development; from 42% to 91%, regarding the use of the systematized instrument of evaluation; from 91% to 100% with respect to guidance to mothers on how to stimulate child development. Conclusions: the intervention contributed to the increase of knowledge of nurses and implementation of child development surveillance, showing the importance of this initiative to improve the quality of child health care. PMID:26487147
Wartha, Olivia; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Lämmle, Christine; Friedemann, Eva-Maria; Kelso, Anne; Kutzner, Claire; Hermeling, Lina
Inactivity and an unhealthy diet amongst others have led to an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity even in young children. Since most health behaviours develop during childhood health promotion has to start early. The setting kindergarten has been shown as ideal for such interventions. “Join the Healthy Boat” is a kindergarten-based health promotion programme with a cluster-randomised study focussing on increased physical activity, reduced screen media use, and sugar-sweetened beverages, as well as a higher fruit and vegetable intake. Intervention and materials were developed using Bartholomew's Intervention Mapping approach considering Bandura's social-cognitive theory and Bronfenbrenner's ecological framework for human development. The programme is distributed using a train-the-trainer approach and currently implemented in 618 kindergartens. The effectiveness of this one-year intervention with an intervention and a control group will be examined in 62 kindergartens using standardised protocols, materials, and tools for outcome and process evaluation. A sample of 1021 children and their parents provided consent and participated in the intervention. Results of this study are awaited to give a better understanding of health behaviours in early childhood and to identify strategies for effective health promotion. The current paper describes development and design of the intervention and its implementation and planned evaluation. Trial Registration. The study is registered at the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS), Freiburg University, Germany, ID: DRKS00010089. PMID:28303253
Duarte, Rayssa Thompson; Linch, Graciele Fernanda da Costa; Caregnato, Rita Catalina Aquino
OBJECTIVES: to investigate the principle nursing interventions/actions, prescribed in the immediate post-operative period for patients who receive lung transplantation, recorded in the medical records, and to map these using the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) taxonomy. METHOD: retrospective documental research using 183 medical records of patients who received lung transplantation (2007/2012). The data of the patients' profile were grouped in accordance with the variables investigated, and submitted to descriptive analysis. The nursing interventions prescribed were analyzed using the method of cross-mapping with the related interventions in the NIC. Medical records which did not contain nursing prescriptions were excluded. RESULTS: the majority of the patients were male, with medical diagnoses of pulmonary fibrosis, and underwent lung transplantation from a deceased donor. A total of 26 most frequently-cited interventions/actions were found. The majority (91.6%) were in the complex and basic physiological domains of the NIC. It was not possible to map two actions prescribed by the nurses. CONCLUSIONS: it was identified that the main prescriptions contained general care for the postoperative period of major surgery, rather than prescriptions individualized to the patient in the postoperative period following lung transplantation. Care measures related to pain were underestimated in the prescriptions. The mapping with the taxonomy can contribute to the elaboration of the care plan and to the use of computerized systems in this complex mode of therapy. PMID:25493673
Background Aged patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) have a high prevalence of co-morbidity associated with poor quality of life, high health care costs, and increased risk for adverse outcomes. These patients are often lacking an optimal home care which may result in subsequent readmissions. However, a specific case management programme for elderly patients with myocardial infarction (MI) is not yet available. The objective of this trial is to examine the effectiveness of a nurse-based case management in patients aged 65 years and older discharged after treatment of an acute MI in hospital. The programme is expected to influence patient readmission, mortality and quality of life, and thus to reduce health care costs compared with usual care. In this paper the study protocol is described. Methods/design The KORINNA (Koronarinfarkt Nachbehandlung im Alter) study is designed as a single-center randomized two-armed parallel group trial. KORINNA is conducted in the framework of KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg). Patients assigned to the intervention group receive a nurse-based follow-up for one year including home visits and telephone calls. Key elements of the intervention are to detect problems or risks, to give advice regarding a broad range of aspects of disease management and to refer to the general practitioner, if necessary. The control group receives usual care. Twelve months after the index hospitalization all patients are re-assessed. The study has started in September 2008. According to sample size estimation a total number of 338 patients will be recruited. The primary endpoint of the study is time to first readmission to hospital or out of hospital death. Secondary endpoints are functional status, participation, quality of life, compliance, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. For the economic evaluation cost data is retrospectively assessed by the patients. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) will be
Brown, Kathleen; Iqbal, Sabah; Sun, Su-Lin; Fritzeen, Jennifer; Chamberlain, James; C. Mullan, Paul
Asthma is the most common chronic paediatric disease treated in the emergency department (ED). Rapid corticosteroid administration is associated with improved outcomes, but our busy ED setting has made it challenging to achieve this goal. Our primary aim was to decrease the time to corticosteroid administration in a large, academic paediatric ED. We conducted an interrupted time series analysis for moderate to severe asthma exacerbations of one to 18 year old patients. A multidisciplinary team designed the intervention of a bedside nurse initiated administration of oral dexamethasone, to replace the prior system of a physician initiated order for oral prednisone. Our baseline and intervention periods were 12 month intervals. Our primary process measure was the time to corticosteroid administration. Other process measures included ED length of stay, admission rate, and rate of emesis. The balance measures included rate of return visits to the ED or clinic within five days, as well as the proportion of discharged patients who were admitted within five days. No special cause variation occurred in the baseline period. The mean time to corticosteroid administration decreased significantly, from 98 minutes in the baseline period to 59 minutes in the intervention period (p < 0.01), and showed special cause variation improvement within two months after the intervention using statistical process control methodology. We sustained the improvement and demonstrated a stable process. The intervention period had a significantly lower admission rate (p<0.01) and emesis rate (p<0.01), with no unforeseen harm to patients found with any of our balance measures. In summary, the introduction of a nurse initiated, standardized protocol for corticosteroid therapy for asthma exacerbations in a paediatric ED was associated with decreased time to corticosteroid administration, admission rates, and post-corticosteroid emesis. PMID:28090325
Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased during the past decades and is now considered an urgent public health problem. Although stabilizing trends in obesity prevalence have been identified in parts of Europe, preventive efforts in children are still needed. Using the socio-ecological approach as the underlying theoretical perspective, the IDEFICS project aimed to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in eight European countries. The aim of the present manuscript was to describe the content and developmental process of the IDEFICS intervention. Methods The intervention mapping protocol (IMP) was used to develop the community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in 3 to 10 years old children. It is a theory- and evidence-based tool for the structured planning and development of health promotion programs that requires the completion of six different steps. These steps were elaborated by two coordinating centers and discussed with the other participating centers until agreement was reached. Focus group research was performed in all participating centers to provide an informed basis for intervention development. Results The application of the IMP resulted in an overall intervention framework with ten intervention modules targeting environmental and personal factors through the family, the school and the community. The summary results of the focus group research were used to inform the development of the overall intervention. The cultural adaptation of the overall intervention was realised by using country specific focus group results. The need for cultural adaptation was considered during the entire process to improve program adoption and implementation. A plan was developed to evaluate program effectiveness and quality of implementation. Conclusions The IDEFICS project developed a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity by using to
Monahan, J Carter
Registered nurses are the largest group of professionals in the global healthcare system. The number of nurses is estimated to be 19.3 million throughout the world (Flinkman et al 2013). In the United States the need for registered nurses is growing. It has been predicted that 260,000 positions for registered nurses will remain unfilled by the year 2025 (Harris et al 2014) with a shortage of registered nurses projected to spread across the United States between 2009 and 2030 (Juraschek et al 2012). Compounding the projected nursing shortage is the increased attrition rate, which is as high as 61% within the first year (Pine & Tart 2007). There are several reasons for this shortage including supply and demand issues, projected changes to healthcare and the aging population. Additionally, the number of college graduates who have majored in nursing has not met the demand (Dunn 2014).
Davis, Jocelyn; Kenny, Tiffany H; Doyle, Jennifer L; McCarroll, Michele; von Gruenigen, Vivian E
We describe a nurse peer-review process to improve late deceleration recognition and intervention on one labor and delivery unit. Monthly chart audits (n = 721) met the goal of 75% reviewer agreement after the 4th month of implementation and have been maintained to date. Nurses recognized for excellence were more likely to be certified, work day shift, or be a member of the Perinatal Safety Team. Institutional support, a dedicated review team, and education contributed to success.
Considine, Julie; Lucas, Elspeth; Martin, Roslyn; Stergiou, Helen E; Kropman, Matthew; Chiu, Herman
The impact of emergency nursing roles in demand management systems is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate emergency nurses' role in a specific emergency department (ED) demand management system: rapid intervention and treatment zone (RITZ). A descriptive exploratory approach was used. Data were collected from audit of 193 randomly selected patient records and 12 h of clinical practice observation. The median age of participants was 31 years, 51.8% were males and 99.5% were discharged home. Nurse qualifications or seniority had no significant effect on waiting time or length of stay (LOS). There were disparities between documented and observed nursing practice. The designation and qualifications of RITZ nurses made little difference to waiting times and ED LOS. Specific documentation and communication systems for areas of the ED that manage large numbers of low complexity patients warrant further research.
Napoleão, Anamaria Alves; Chianca, Tânia Couto Machado; de Carvalho, Emília Campos; Dalri, Maria Célia Barcellos
This study aimed at reviewing the knowledge produced about the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) available in the scientific literature from January 1980 to January 2004. NIC is a taxonomy with activities performed by nurses. Authors searched Lilacs and Medline databases, materials at the Center for Nursing Classification-University of Iowa College of Nursing and a doctoral dissertation obtained from a private library. The works found referred to the application of NIC to practice, the languages used in information systems, the use of NIC in these systems and the presentation, construction, development and validation of a taxonomy, among others. Authors concluded that there are several possibilities related to the production of knowledge on NIC in Brazil and that it is necessary to encourage studies on this taxonomy, raising questions and generating new knowledge to contribute to the improvement of Brazilian Nursing.
Scain, Suzana Fiore; Franzen, Elenara; dos Santos, Luciana Batista; Heldt, Elizeth
The objective of this study was to identify the accuracy of nursing interventions from the nursing diagnoses (ND) of patients who consulted in the Program for Diabetes Education, in outpatient care of the university hospital relating them with sociodemographic characteristics and comorbidities. It was a cross-sectional study of 136 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), with 77 (57%) women, with an average age of 66 +/- 9.38 years, and the presence of comorbidities in 97 (71%), and using medications. A significant association was found between the NDs and the most frequently prescribed interventions. "nutritional counseling" (n=99; 73%), "promotion of exercise" (n=64; 47%) and "teaching: feet care (n=48; 35%); however, not with the sociodemographic characteristics or comorbidities. The interventions most prescribed in nursing consultations showed ND accuracy for the domains of Promotion of Health and Nutrition, which are related to the principles of treatment for DM2: healthy eating, physical exercise and health education.
Rønde Kristensen, Bjarne; Clemensen, Jane
Background. A development towards earlier postnatal discharge presents a challenge to find new ways to provide information and support to families. A possibility is the use of telemedicine. Objective. To explore how using an app in nursing practice affects the nurses' ability to offer support and information to postnatal mothers who are discharged early and their families. Design. Participatory design. An app with a chat, a knowledgebase, and automated messages was tried out between hospital and parents at home. Settings. The intervention took place on a postnatal ward with approximately 1,000 births a year. Participants. At the onset of the intervention, 17 nurses, all women, were working on the ward. At the end of the intervention, 16 nurses were employed, all women. Methods. Participant observation and two focus group interviews. The data analysis was inspired by systematic text condensation. Results. The nurses on the postnatal ward consider that the use of the app gives families easier access to timely information and support. Conclusions. The app gives the nurses the possibility to offer support and information to the parents being early discharged. The app is experienced as a lifeline that connects the homes of the new parents with the hospital. PMID:25699079
De Craemer, M; De Decker, E; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Verloigne, M; Duvinage, K; Koletzko, B; Ibrügger, S; Kreichauf, S; Grammatikaki, E; Moreno, L; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Szott, K; Manios, Y; Cardon, G
Although sufficient physical activity is beneficial for preschoolers' health, activity levels in most preschoolers are low. As preschoolers spend a considerable amount of time at home and at kindergarten, interventions should target both environments to increase their activity levels. The aim of the current paper was to describe the six different steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol towards the systematic development and implementation of the physical activity component of the ToyBox-intervention. This intervention is a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention implemented across six European countries. Based on the results of literature reviews and focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers, matrices of change objectives were created. Then, theory-based methods and practical strategies were selected to develop intervention materials at three different levels: (i) individual level (preschoolers); (ii) interpersonal level (parents/caregivers) and (iii) organizational level (teachers). This resulted in a standardized intervention with room for local and cultural adaptations in each participating country. Although the Intervention Mapping protocol is a time-consuming process, using this systematic approach may lead to an increase in intervention effectiveness. The presented matrices of change objectives are useful for future programme planners to develop and implement an intervention based on the Intervention Mapping protocol to increase physical activity levels in preschoolers.
Schoberer, Daniela; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Breimaier, Helga E; Halfens, Ruud JG; Lohrmann, Christa
Purpose of the study Health education is essential to improve health care behavior and self-management. However, educating frail, older nursing home residents about their health is challenging. Focusing on empowerment may be the key to educating nursing home residents effectively. This paper examines educational interventions that can be used to empower nursing home residents. Methods A systematic literature search was performed of the databases PubMed, CINAHL, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, and Embase, screening for clinical trials that dealt with resident education and outcomes in terms of their ability to empower residents. An additional, manual search of the reference lists and searches with SIGLE and Google Scholar were conducted to identify gray literature. Two authors independently appraised the quality of the studies found and assigned levels to the evidence reported. The results of the studies were grouped according to their main empowering outcomes and described narratively. Results Out of 427 identified articles, ten intervention studies that addressed the research question were identified. The main educational interventions used were group education sessions, motivational and encouragement strategies, goal setting with residents, and the development of plans to meet defined goals. Significant effects on self-efficacy and self-care behavior were reported as a result of the interventions, which included group education and individual counseling based on resident needs and preferences. In addition, self-care behavior was observed to significantly increase in response to function-focused care and reasoning exercises. Perceptions and expectations were not improved by using educational interventions with older nursing home residents. Conclusion Individually tailored, interactive, continuously applied, and structured educational strategies, including motivational and encouraging techniques, are promising interventions that can help nursing home residents become more
He, Liping; Lu, Zhiyan; Huang, Jing; Zhou, Yiping; Huang, Jian; Bi, Yongyi; Li, Jun
Background: Approximately 35 new HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV) cases and at least 1000 serious infections are transmitted annually to health care workers. In China, HIV prevalence is increasing and nursing personnel are encountering these individuals more than in the past. Contaminated needle-stick injuries represent a significant occupational burden for nurses. Evidence suggests that nurses in China may not fully understand HIV/AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS) and HIV-related occupational safety. At this time, universal protection precautions are not strictly implemented in Chinese hospitals. Lack of training may place nurses at risk for occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of integrated interventions on nurses' knowledge improvement about reducing the risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection. Methods: We audited integrated interventions using 300 questionnaires collected from nurses at the Affiliated Hospital of Xiangnan University, a public polyclinic in Hunan Province. The intervention studied was multifaceted and included appropriate and targeted training content for hospital, department and individual levels. After three months of occupational safety integrated interventions, 234 participants who completed the program were assessed. Results: Of the subjects studied, 94.3% (283/300) were injured one or more times by medical sharp instruments or splashed by body fluids in the last year and 95.3% considered their risk of occupational exposure high or very high. After the intervention, awareness of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge improved significantly (χ² = 86.34, p = 0.00), and correct answers increased from 67.9% to 82.34%. Correct answers regarding risk perception were significantly different between pre-test (54.4%) and post-test (66.6%) (χ² = 73.2, p = 0.00). When coming into contact with patient body fluids and blood only 24.0% of subjects used gloves regularly. The pre
Bingham, Helen; O'Brien, Anthony John
Health professionals can hold stigmatizing views about people with mental illness. In addition to being discriminatory, these beliefs cause anxiety that can affect learning in the clinical environment. A review of an undergraduate nursing curriculum introduced the Modern Apprenticeship curriculum model and provided an opportunity for an educational intervention designed to address stigmatizing beliefs about people with mental health and addiction problems. The aim of the present study was to measure the extent to which an educational intervention - guided clinical experience in an acute mental health unit during the first year of the curriculum - decreased stigmatizing beliefs of undergraduate nurses towards those with mental health and addiction issues. In a before-and-after design, Corrigan's Attribution Questionnaire was used to collect data pre- and post-guided clinical experience in an acute mental health unit. The intervention resulted in a significant positive change in stigmatizing attitudes for four of the nine factors tested. There was a non-significant positive change in three factors, while two factors showed a non-significant negative change. Using guided clinical experience as an educational intervention in the first year of an undergraduate nursing curriculum can contribute to positive change in undergraduate nurses' stigmatizing beliefs. The findings have implications for teaching of mental health content in undergraduate nursing programmes.
Villani, Daniela; Grassi, Alessandra; Cognetta, Chiara; Cipresso, Pietro; Toniolo, Davide; Riva, Giuseppe
Oncology nurses face extraordinary stresses that may lead to emotional exhaustion, a feeling of emotional distance from patients and burnout. The presentation describes the preliminary results of a study to test the effects of an innovative 4-week 8-session self-help stress management training for oncology nurses supported by mobile tools (Nokia N70 smarthphone). The sample included 16 female oncology nurses with permanent status employed in different oncology hospitals in Milan, Italy. The study used a between-subjects design, comparing the experimental condition (mobile phone stress management protocol) with a control group (neutral videos through mobile phones). In addition to a significant reduction in anxiety state at the end of each session, the experimental group demonstrated a significant improvement in affective change in terms of anxiety trait reduction and coping skills acquisition at the end of the protocol.
Background Despite an increase in knowledge about the epidemiology of intimate partner violence (IPV), much less is known about interventions to reduce IPV and its associated impairment. One program that holds promise in preventing IPV and improving outcomes for women exposed to violence is the Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP), an evidence-based nurse home visitation program for socially disadvantaged first-time mothers. The present study developed an intervention model and modification process to address IPV within the context of the NFP. This included determining the extent to which the NFP curriculum addressed the needs of women at risk for IPV or its recurrence, along with client, nurse and broader stakeholder perspectives on how best to help NFP clients cope with abusive relationships. Methods Following a preliminary needs assessment, an exploratory multiple case study was conducted to identify the core components of the proposed IPV intervention. This included qualitative interviews with purposeful samples of NFP clients and community stakeholders, and focus groups with nurse home visitors recruited from four NFP sites. Conventional content analysis and constant comparison guided data coding and synthesis. A process for developing complex interventions was then implemented. Results Based on data from 69 respondents, an IPV intervention was developed that focused on identifying and responding to IPV; assessing a client's level of safety risk associated with IPV; understanding the process of leaving and resolving an abusive relationship and system navigation. A need was identified for the intervention to include both universal elements of healthy relationships and those tailored to a woman's specific level of readiness to promote change within her life. A clinical pathway guides nurses through the intervention, with a set of facilitators and corresponding instructions for each component. Conclusions NFP clients, nurses and stakeholders identified the need for
Rouleau, Geneviève; Ramirez-Garcia, Pilar; Bourbonnais, Anne
Background Persons living with HIV (PLHIV) must adhere optimally to antiretroviral therapy (ART) on a daily basis and for their lifetime to maintain an undetectable viral load, allowing them to preserve their health. Taking advantage of the opportunity that information and communication technologies provide to broaden intervention modalities and intensify clinical follow-up, a virtual nursing intervention consisting of four interactive computer sessions was developed to empower PLHIV to manage their ART and symptoms optimally. Compared with other types of information and communication technologies-assisted interventions such as text messages, HIV Treatment, Virtual Nursing Assistance and Education (VIH-TAVIE) requires a certain degree of active engagement on the part of the user to develop and strengthen the self-management skills to optimize adherence. After the intervention’s impact on ART adherence was measured quantitatively, a qualitative study was undertaken to describe how users experience the intervention. Understanding how PLHIV perceive being assisted asynchronously by a virtual nurse was of particular interest. Objective The objective of the study was to explore and describe how PLHIV experience VIH-TAVIE, that is, receiving customized asynchronous accompaniment via a virtual nurse. Methods A qualitative study was conducted with 26 PLHIV (20 men, 6 women) who received all four VIH-TAVIE sessions. Participants had been diagnosed with HIV 14 years earlier on average and had been on ART for a mean period of 10 years. The sessions lasted 20-30 minutes each and were received two weeks apart. They are hosted by a virtual nurse who engages the user in a self-management skills-learning process for the purpose of treatment adherence. Semistructured interviews were conducted lasting 30-40 minutes to get participants to share their experience of the intervention through personal stories and what they thought and felt during their participation. Data were analyzed
Background Although screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is an evidence-based technique that, in some health-care settings, has been shown to cost-effectively reduce alcohol and drug use, research on the efficacy of SBIRT among criminal offender populations is limited. Such populations have a high prevalence of drug and alcohol use but limited access to intervention, and many are at risk for post-release relapse and recidivism. Thus, there exists a need for treatment options for drug-involved offenders of varying risk levels to reduce risky behaviors or enter treatment. Methods/design This protocol describes an assessment of SBIRT feasibility and effectiveness in a criminal justice environment. Eight-hundred persons will be recruited from a large metropolitan jail, with the experimental group receiving an intervention depending on risk level and the control group receiving minimal intervention. The intervention will assess the risk level for drug and alcohol misuse by inmates, providing those at low or medium risk a brief intervention in the jail and referring those at high risk to community treatment following release. In addition, a brief treatment (eight-session) option will be available. Using data from a 12-month follow-up interview, the primary study outcomes are a reduction in drug and alcohol use, while secondary outcomes include participation in treatment, rearrest, quality of life, reduction in HIV risk behaviors, and costs of SBIRT. Expected value Individual reductions in alcohol and drug use can have significant effects on public health and safety when observed over a large population at risk for substance-use problems. With wider dissemination statewide or nationwide, a relatively low-cost intervention such as SBIRT could offer demonstrated benefits in this population. Trial registration Clinical Trials Government Identifier, NCT01683643. PMID:24499609
Kaufman, M W; All, A C
The terms Raynaud's disease and Raynaud's phenomenon are often used interchangeably to identify two distinct disease states that initially appear with similar symptoms but then have very different sequelae. Triggered primarily by cold weather, both conditions commonly result in a vasospastic response predominantly observed in the fingers and toes. A review of the relevant health care literature indicates that there is little, if any, information available on Raynaud's disease that would be of particular and specific interest to the nursing profession. So that they can provide appropriate patient teaching, nurses need to be familiar with the precipitating factors, signs and symptoms, evaluation methods, and treatments of Raynaud's disease. This article focuses specifically on Raynaud's disease, which affects many women but relatively few men. A historic perspective on this disease state is provided, and postulated pathophysiologic mechanisms for the onset of this condition are addressed. The patient who is experiencing symptoms of this disease may have complaints of pain and numbness particularly in the fingers. The nurse's primary role is patient education so that the onset of symptoms associated with this disease can be identified and minimized. A discussion of nursing implications with a focus on teaching is provided. A case study is presented of a patient with Raynaud's disease, which will serve to highlight and expound on key information provided throughout the text of this article.
Williams, Kristine; Kemper, Susan; Hummert, Mary Lee
Evaluates a brief educational program designed to increase staff awareness of intergenerational speech modifications, such as elderspeak and strategies to enhance communication. After the training, Certified Nursing Assistants reduced their use of elderspeak including terms of endearment, inappropriate collective pronouns, and shortened sentence…
Wen, Aida; Gatchell, Greg; Tachibana, Yukako; Tin, Maung Maung; Bell, Christina; Koijane, Jeannette; Zeri, Kenneth; Masaki, Kamal
The purpose of this study was to examine nursing home staff perceptions of end-of-life (EOL) care skills after an educational intervention. IMPRESS (IMproving PRofessional Education and Sustaining Support) was a quality improvement EOL care educational intervention (six lectures on core palliative care concepts) for frontline nursing home staff at five community nursing homes. Questionnaires were completed to evaluate frequency of application of palliative care skills before and after the educational series. Nursing home staff reported applying palliative care skills significantly more frequently after the intervention. A significant dose-response association was noted between number of inservice sessions attended and improvement in scores: Scores increased 0.04 points for staff who attended two of the six sessions, 0.12 for four sessions attended, and 0.46 for five to six sessions attended (p = 0.03). The results indicate that frontline nursing home staff who attend inservice sessions on core palliative care topics can significantly increase self-reported application of palliative care skills.
de Araújo, Angela Amorim; da Nóbrega, Maria Miriam Lima; Garcia, Telma Ribeiro
The aim of this descriptive exploratory study was to construct nursing diagnosis and intervention statements for patients with Congestive Heart Failure. To accomplish this aim, 53 terms were identified in the focus axis of the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP®), which guided the construction of these statements using the guidelines of the International Council of Nurses and ISO 18. 104. A total of 92 nursing diagnosis statements were constructed, which resulted in 66 statements after standardization. The standardized statements were separated according to the following pathophysiological models: 13 related to tachycardia, 20 related to dyspnea, 19 related to edema, and 14 related to congestion. A total of 234 interventions were constructed for these statements using the terms from the 7-Axis Model of the ICNP®, the literature in the area and the clinical experience of the authors. The nursing diagnosis and intervention statements designed are expected to facilitate the evaluation of CHF patients and assist in the construction of a terminological subset for the ICNP®.
da Silva, Stael Silvana Bagno Eleutério; Colósimo, Flávia Cortez; Pierin, Angela Maria Geraldo
Hypertension is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Nursing carries a large responsibility in care delivery to hypertensive individuals. Thus, the goal was to assess a nursing team's knowledge on hypertension and its treatment before and after educational interventions. A questionnaire was used, addressing theoretical aspects of hypertension knowledge among nurses (5), technicians (2), auxiliaries (11) and community agents (37) at two Basic Health Units in São Paulo City, Brazil. For statistical analysis, Student's T test was used, as well as variance analysis and p < 0.05. A knowledge increase was verified after the educational interventions for the group constituted by nurses, technicians and nursing auxiliaries (84.6 +/- 12.0% vs. 92.7 +/- 15.0%, p < 0.05), while no significant change occurred for community health agents (80.8 +/- 12.2% vs. 83.5 +/- 24.0%). Thus, it was concluded that the educational actions were effective and must be put in practice in the nursing team, which they can influence the improvement of care delivery for hypertensive patients.
Udo, C; Melin-Johansson, C; Henoch, I; Axelsson, B; Danielson, E
This is a randomised controlled pilot study using a mixed methods design. The overall aim was to test an educational intervention on existential issues and to describe surgical nurses' perceived attitudes towards caring for patients dying of cancer. Specific aims were to examine whether the educational intervention consisting of lectures and reflective discussions, affects nurses' perceived confidence in communication and to explore nurses' experiences and reflections on existential issues after participating in the intervention. Forty-two nurses from three surgical wards at one hospital were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. Nurses in both groups completed a questionnaire at equivalent time intervals: at baseline before the educational intervention, directly after the intervention, and 3 and 6 months later. Eleven face-to-face interviews were conducted with nurses directly after the intervention and 6 months later. Significant short-term and long-term changes were reported. Main results concerned the significant long-term effects regarding nurses' increased confidence and decreased powerlessness in communication, and their increased feelings of value when caring for a dying patient. In addition, nurses described enhanced awareness and increased reflection. Results indicate that an understanding of the patient's situation, derived from enhanced awareness and increased reflection, precedes changes in attitudes towards communication.
Drake, Gareth; de C Williams, Amanda C
The objective of this review was to examine the effects of nursing education interventions on clinical outcomes for acute pain management in hospital settings, relating interventions to health care behavior change theory. Three databases were searched for nursing education interventions from 2002 to 2015 in acute hospital settings with clinical outcomes reported. Methodological quality was rated as strong, moderate, or weak using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for quantitative studies. The 12 eligible studies used varied didactic and interactive teaching methods. Several studies had weaknesses attributable to selection biases, uncontrolled confounders, and lack of blinding of outcome assessors. No studies made reference to behavior change theory in their design. Eight of the 12 studies investigated nursing documentation of pain assessment as the main outcome, with the majority reporting positive effects of education interventions on nursing pain assessment. Of the remaining studies, two reported mixed findings on patient self-report of pain scores as the key measure, one reported improvements in patient satisfaction with pain management after a nursing intervention, and one study found an increase in nurses' delivery of a relaxation treatment following an intervention. Improvements in design and evaluation of nursing education interventions are suggested, drawing on behavior change theory and emphasizing the relational, contextual, and emotionally demanding nature of nursing pain management in hospital settings.
Dumas, D; Pelletier, L
Denise Dumas, a nurse at the Hôtel-Dieu du Sacré-Coeur de Jésus hospital, in Quebec City, and Louise Pelletier, an associate professor at the Ecole des sciences infirmières of Université Laval, are interested in promoting understanding of problems linked to hyperactivity in school-age children. They suggest appropriate nursing interventions for child psychiatry units in hospitals and outpatient clinics. The authors give a definition of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, specifying its prevalence, etiology and treatment, and describe the behaviour of the hyperactive child. They go on to look at the concept of self-perception and deal with its development and its importance in children's lives. Most importantly, the authors suggest nursing interventions suited to the needs of hyperactive children.
Pho, Anthony T.; Tanner, Elizabeth K.; Roth, Jill; Greeley, Meghan E.; Dorsey, Carmalyn D.; Szanton, Sarah L.
Although many programs aim to help older adults age in place, few target both the home environment and individual physical function. We present an inter-professional intervention called CAPABLE, Community Aging in Place: Advancing Better Living for Elders. CAPABLE’s innovative approach incorporates a nurse, occupational therapist (OT) and handyman to address both individual and environmental factors that contribute to disability. The nurse component of CAPABLE addresses key barriers to functional independence such as pain, depression, strength and balance, medication management and poor communication with the primary care provider. This article focuses primarily on the nursing aspect of the intervention and how it inter-relates with the content and processes of the OT and handyman. PMID:22651978
Brandt, Patricia A.; Magyary, Diane L.
Nursing specialists are prepared at the master's level to function as members of interdisciplinary and family-centered early intervention teams for disabled children. A specialty program of study emphasizes advanced and specialized clinical practice; education of clients, families, staff, and professionals; consultation; research use; evaluation…
Fiset, Valerie; Luciani, Tracy; Hurtubise, Alyssa; Grant, Theresa L
The main objective of the current case study was to investigate the perceived leadership learning needs and feasibility of delivering leadership education to registered staff involved in direct care in long-term care (LTC) homes. The study was conducted in Ontario, Canada, and participants included RNs, registered practical nurses, and nursing administrators. Phase 1 bilingual web-based survey and bilingual focus group needs assessment data supported a preference for external training along with in-house mentoring to support sustainability. An intervention designed using insights gained from Phase 1 data was delivered via a 2-day, in-person workshop. Phases 2 and 3 evaluation survey data identified aspects of leadership training for LTC that require ongoing refinement. Findings suggest that communication skills and managing day-to-day nursing demands in the context of regulatory frameworks were areas of particular interest for leadership training in the LTC setting. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 43(4), 49-56.].
Palm, Rebecca; Köhler, Kerstin; Dichter, Martin Nikolaus; Bartholomeyczik, Sabine; Holle, Bernhard
In 2007 guidelines for the care of people with dementia living in nursing homes, especially for handling challenging behaviour, have been published that recommend certain interventions. The aim of this study is a systematic review of publications about projects and the development and utilisation of interventions recommended in the German guideline in German nursing homes. For this purpose, 22 publications from 8 projects were analysed. The analysis was carried out on the basis of the CReDECI-criteria for the reporting of complex interventions. The publications described the application of reminiscence-therapy, Snoezelen, Dementia Care Mapping (DCM) and the use of understanding diagnostics as well as assessment instruments. Although the interventions were based on similar theoretical frames and had the same aim they contained different components. For the implementation a considerably amount of teaching and support by the project members was needed. A process evaluation as well as information about necessary adaptations to general conditions was given seldom. Partly, information that is important for the use in practice as well as in continuative studies is missing in the publications.
Silva, Kenya de Lima; Évora, Yolanda Dora Martinez; Cintra, Camila Santana Justo
Objective: to report the development of a software to support decision-making for the selection of nursing diagnoses and interventions for children and adolescents, based on the nomenclature of nursing diagnoses, outcomes and interventions of a university hospital in Paraiba. Method: a methodological applied study based on software engineering, as proposed by Pressman, developed in three cycles, namely: flow chart construction, development of the navigation interface, and construction of functional expressions and programming development. Result: the software consists of administrative and nursing process screens. The assessment is automatically selected according to age group, the nursing diagnoses are suggested by the system after information is inserted, and can be indicated by the nurse. The interventions for the chosen diagnosis are selected by structuring the care plan. Conclusion: the development of this tool used to document the nursing actions will contribute to decision-making and quality of care. PMID:26487144
Parker, Karen M; Harrington, Ann; Smith, Charlene M; Sellers, Kathleen F; Millenbach, Linda
Horizontal violence (HV) is prevalent in nursing. However, few strategies are identified to address this phenomenon that undermines communication and patient safety. Nurses at an acute care hospital implemented multiple interventions to address HV resulting in increased knowledge of hospital policies regarding HV, and significantly (p < .05) less HV prevalence than was reported by nurses in other organizations throughout New York State. With the aid and oversight of nursing professional development specialists, evidence-based interventions to address HV were developed including policies, behavioral performance reviews, and staff/manager educational programs.
Background Because of symptoms, people with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) are often inactive, and this sedentary behaviour implies risk for diseases including obesity. Research has identified body mass index as the most powerful predictor of function in LSS. This suggests that function may be improved by targeting weight as a modifiable factor. An e-health lifestyle intervention was developed aimed at reducing fat mass and increasing physical activity in people with LSS. The main components of this intervention include pedometer-based physical activity promotion and nutrition education. Methods/Design The Spinal Stenosis Pedometer and Nutrition Lifestyle Intervention (SSPANLI) was developed and piloted with 10 individuals. The protocol for a randomized controlled trail comparing the SSPANLI intervention to usual non-surgical care follows. One hundred six (106) overweight or obese individuals with LSS will be recruited. Baseline and follow-up testing includes dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, blood draw, 3-day food record, 7-day accelerometry, questionnaire, maximal oxygen consumption, neurological exam, balance testing and a Self-Paced Walking Test. Intervention: During Week 1, the intervention group will receive a pedometer, and a personalized consultation with both a Dietitian and an exercise specialist. For 12 weeks participants will log on to the e-health website to access personal step goals, walking maps, nutrition videos, and motivational quotes. Participants will also have access to in-person Coffee Talk meetings every 3 weeks, and meet with the Dietitian and exercise specialist at week 6. The control group will proceed with usual care for the 12-week period. Follow-up testing will occur at Weeks 13 and 24. Discussion This lifestyle intervention has the potential to provide a unique, non-surgical management option for people with LSS. Through decreased fat mass and increased function, we may reduce risk for obesity, chronic diseases of inactivity, and pain
Sandvik, RK; Selbaek, G; Seifert, R; Aarsland, D; Ballard, C; Corbett, A; Husebo, BS
Background Pain is frequent and distressing in people with dementia, but no randomized controlled trials have evaluated the effect of analgesic treatment on pain intensity as a key outcome. Methods Three hundred fifty-two people with dementia and significant agitation from 60 nursing home units were included in this study. These units, representing 18 nursing homes in western Norway, were randomized to a stepwise protocol of treating pain (SPTP) or usual care. The SPTP group received acetaminophen, morphine, buprenorphine transdermal patch and pregabalin for 8 weeks, with a 4-week washout period. Medications were governed by the SPTP and each participant's existing prescriptions. We obtained pain intensity scores from 327 patients (intervention n = 164, control n = 163) at five time points assessed by the primary outcome measure, Mobilization-Observation-Behaviour-Intensity-Dementia-2 (MOBID-2) Pain Scale. The secondary outcome was activities of daily living (ADL). We used a linear intercept mixed model in a two-way repeated measures configuration to assess change over time and between groups. Results The SPTP conferred significant benefit in MOBID-2 scores compared with the control group [average treatment effect (ATE) −1.388; p < 0.001] at week 8, and MOBID-2 scores worsened during the washout period (ATE = −0.701; p = 0.022). Examining different analgesic treatments, benefit was conferred to patients receiving acetaminophen compared with the controls at week 2 (ATE = −0.663; p = 0.010), continuing to increase until week 8 (ATE = −1.297; p < 0.001). Although there were no overall improvements in ADL, an increase was seen in the group receiving acetaminophen (ATE = +1.0; p = 0.022). Conclusion Pain medication significantly improved pain in the intervention group, with indications that acetaminophen also improved ADL function. What's already known about this topic? Many people with dementia experience pain
Grossman, Joan A Cebrick
A randomized experimental design was used to determine the most effective intervention for enhancing cardiac rehabilitation (CR) enrollment for postmyocardial infarction and stent patients. The 104 subjects (70 males and 34 females; 23-87 years old) were patients with a discharge diagnosis of a myocardial infarction followed by a percutaneous coronary intervention, which included a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and the placement of one or more coronary stents. Regardless of the intervention, patients who received face-to-face nursing interventions were more likely to enroll in CR than were patients who had indirect interventions, χ(2)(3) = 32.84, p < .001. Patients who experienced an entrance interview were most likely to enroll, χ(2)(1) = 86.80, p < .001. Direct logistic regression determined that the full model was statistically significant for all predictors, χ(2)(5), 105.56, p < .001, with the strongest predictor, the entrance interview, having an odds ratio of 1.73.
Dulko, Dorothy; Mooney, Kathi
Although patient satisfaction has been used traditionally as a measure of excellence, research has suggested that the perception of being well cared for is likely a more promising indicator of quality than satisfaction alone. Expectations, physical environment, communication, participation and involvement, technical competence, and the influence of healthcare organizations are factors that may impair patients' ability to distinguish nursing care from their overall healthcare experience. This study evaluated the effect of a nurse practitioner audit and feedback intervention on hospitalized patients' perception of care.
Tenkanen, Helena; Taskinen, Helena; Kontio, Raija; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Tiihonen, Jari; Kinnunen, Juha
Forensic psychiatric nurses are key in implementing the core interventions outlined in the clinical practice guideline on schizophrenia. This study endeavors to ascertain how these were implemented in routine practice in forensic psychiatry by measuring how nurses use their time. Data were collected from registered nurses and practical mental nurses in all forensic psychiatric facilities in Finland using self-report diary forms for 1 week. In total, nurses used 20% of their weekly working hours on core interventions. The differences between the nurse groups were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) regarding the following core interventions: (a) care planning with physicians, (b) pharmacotherapy, and (c) basic clinical care. Nurses' qualifications, types of facilities and units, working experience, gender, and staffing levels explained the time used on core interventions. In summary, forensic psychiatric inpatients received insufficient appropriate nursing services according to the relevant guideline regarding schizophrenia. Furthermore, managerial recommendations need to restructure nurses' time use to increase the proportion of productive working hours spent with patients.
Tenkanen, Helena; Tiihonen, Jari; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Kinnunen, Juha
The importance of core competencies (CC) and their relationship to core interventions in clinical practice guidelines on schizophrenia (CPGS), and the abilities to master these competencies were studied among registered nurses (RN) and practical mental nurses (PMN) in a forensic psychiatric setting. Data were collected from RNs, PMNs, and managers of all five forensic psychiatric facilities in Finland. The research material was obtained by using a 360-degree feedback method. The response rate was 68% (N = 428). The differences between the nurse groups were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) regarding the importance of and ability to master the following CCs: (1) pharmacotherapy, (2) knowledge in forensic psychiatry and violent behavior, (3) the treatment of violent patients, (4) processing patient's and own emotion, and (5) need-adapted treatment of the patient. Overall, RNs exceeded PMNs in mastering the CCs, however the principles of the CPGS were not achieved within the current resources in Finland. In summary, RNs, rather than PMNs, should be recruited for work in forensic psychiatric nursing, although a considerable amount of specific training would still be required to achieve competence. Implications of our research indicate that all nurses working in this area need to receive further education in forensic psychiatry and in forensic psychiatric nursing.
Ratanasiripong, Paul; Ratanasiripong, Nop; Kathalae, Duangrat
Purpose. It has been well documented that nursing students across the world experience stress and anxiety throughout their education and training. The purpose of this randomized controlled study is to investigate the impact of biofeedback intervention program on nursing students' levels of stress and anxiety during their first clinical training. Methods. Participants consisted of 60 second-year baccalaureate nursing students. The 30 participants in the biofeedback group received training on how to use the biofeedback device to assist in stress and anxiety management for 5 weeks while the 30 in the control group did not receive any training. Findings. Results indicated that the biofeedback group was able to maintain the stress level while the control group had a significant increase in the stress level over the 5-week period of clinical training. Additionally, the biofeedback group had a significant reduction in anxiety, while the control group had a moderate increase in anxiety. Conclusions. The better the nursing students can manage their stress and anxiety, the more successful they can be in their clinical training. Ultimately, the more psychologically healthy the nursing students are, the more likely they will flourish and graduate to become productive and contributing members of the nursing profession. PMID:22811932
Background Individuals living with cancer must learn to face not only the physical symptoms of their condition, but also the anxiety and uncertainty related to the progression of the disease, the anticipation of physical and emotional pain related to illness and treatment, the significant changes implied in living with cancer, as well as the fear of recurrence after remission. Mindfulness-based meditation constitutes a promising option to alleviate these manifestations. Methods/Design This article presents the rationale and protocol development for a research project aimed at evaluating the effects of a mindfulness-based meditation intervention on quality of life, sleep, and mood in adolescents with cancer compared to a control group. A prospective, longitudinal, experimental design involving three time points (baseline, post-intervention, and follow-up) and two groups (experimental and control) was developed for this project. Participants will be assigned randomly to either group. Eligible participants are adolescents aged 11 to 18 years with a diagnosis of cancer, with no specific selection/exclusion based on type, stage, or trajectory of cancer. A final sample size of 28 participants is targeted. Adolescents in the experimental group will be completing the mindfulness meditation intervention, taught by two trained therapists. The intervention will comprise of eight weekly sessions, lasting 90 min each. Once the follow-up assessment is completed by the experimental group, wait-list controls will be offered to complete the mindfulness-based program. Intra-group analyses will serve to evaluate the impact of the mindfulness-based meditation intervention on quality of life, sleep, and mood pre-post intervention, as well as follow-up. Analyses will also be used to carry out inter-group comparisons between the experimental group and the wait-list controls. Voluntary participation, risk of attrition, and the small sample size are potential limitations of this project
Karpavičiūtė, Simona; Macijauskienė, Jūratė
Over 59 million workers are employed in the healthcare sector globally, with a daily risk of being exposed to a complex variety of health and safety hazards. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of arts activity on the well-being of nursing staff. During October-December 2014, 115 nursing staff working in a hospital, took part in this study, which lasted for 10 weeks. The intervention group (n = 56) took part in silk painting activities once a week. Data was collected using socio-demographic questions, the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale, Short Form-36 Health Survey questionnaire, Reeder stress scale, and Multidimensional fatigue inventory (before and after art activities in both groups). Statistical data analysis included descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation), non-parametric statistics analysis (Man Whitney U Test; Wilcoxon signed-ranks test), Fisher's exact test and reliability analysis (Cronbach's Alpha). The level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. In the intervention group, there was a tendency for participation in arts activity having a positive impact on their general health and mental well-being, reducing stress and fatigue, awaking creativity and increasing a sense of community at work. The control group did not show any improvements. Of the intervention group 93% reported enjoyment, with 75% aspiring to continue arts activity in the future. This research suggests that arts activity, as a workplace intervention, can be used to promote nursing staff well-being at work.
Young, Heather; Ward, Deborah; Dharmar, Madan; Tang-Feldman, Yajarayma; Berglund, Lars
Abstract Background: Diabetes educators and self-management programs are scarce in rural communities, where diabetes is the third highest-ranking health concern. The goal of this study was to evaluate the benefits of nurse telehealth coaching for persons with diabetes living in rural communities through a person-centered approach using motivational interviewing (MI) techniques. Materials and Methods: A randomized experimental study design was used to assign participants to receive either nurse telehealth coaching for five sessions (intervention group) or usual care (control group). Outcomes were measured in both groups using the Diabetes Empowerment Scale (DES), SF-12, and satisfaction surveys. Mean scores for each outcome were compared at baseline and at the 9-month follow-up for both groups using a Student's t test. We also evaluated the change from baseline by estimating the difference in differences (pre- and postintervention) using regression methods. Results: Among the 101 participants included in the analysis, 51 received nurse telehealth coaching, and 50 received usual care. We found significantly higher self-efficacy scores in the intervention group compared with the control group based on the DES at 9 months (4.03 versus 3.64, respectively; p<0.05) and the difference in difference estimation (0.42; p<0.05). Conclusions: The nurse MI/telehealth coaching model used in this study shows promise as an effective intervention for diabetes self-management in rural communities. The sustained effect on outcomes observed in the intervention group suggests that this model could be a feasible intervention for long-term behavioral change among persons living with chronic disease in rural communities. PMID:25061688
Hill, Wade; Postma, Julie; Butterfield, Phillip W.; Odom-Maryon, Tamara
Objectives. Parents need meaningful and actionable information if they are to reduce household environmental health risks to their children. To address this issue, we tested the effectiveness of a multi-risk social/cognitive intervention on rural low-income parents' (1) environmental health self-efficacy and (2) stage of environmental health precautionary adoption. Methods. Biomarker (lead, cotinine) and household samples (carbon monoxide, radon, mold/mildew, and drinking water contaminants) were collected from 235 families (399 adults, 441 children) in Montana and Washington states. Families were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups; intervention families received 4 visits from public health nurses who provided tailored information and guidance to parents; controls received usual and customary public health services. Results. At 3 months, the intervention group had significantly higher scores on (1) all 6 risk-specific self-efficacy subscales (P < .01), (2) general environmental health self-efficacy (P < .001), (3) 5 of 6 risk-specific precaution adoption subscales (P < .05), and (4) general environmental health precaution adoption (P < .001). Conclusions. The intervention yielded significant improvements in both outcomes. This evidence supported the need for a policy discussion addressing the added value that broadbased public health nurse interventions might bring to children's environmental health. PMID:21836117
Delk, Kayla L
This article explores general principles of workers' compensation law and the ability to sue third parties for employee injuries by using case law and the treatise Larson's Workers' Compensation Law. This overview provides occupational health nurses with a background on workers' compensation law, who is liable for employee injuries, and how recovery from third parties is distributed between the employer or insurer and the employee. The author then explores interventions that occupational health nurses can implement to reduce employee injury and employer costs for providing workers' compensation. The goal of this article is to stimulate occupational health nurses' critical-thinking and problem-solving skills so they may identify risks and implement cost-effective solutions that will prevent injuries to employees.
Popov, Débora Cristina Silva; Peniche, Aparecida de Cássia Giani
The objective of this study was to identify the prevalent complications in the postanesthesia recovery room (PARR), and correlate nurses' work hours with the complications. The sample consisted of 400 records of patients older than 18 years, who had major and medium surgical procedures, admitted at the PARR unit, with a stay of at least one hour. The prevalent complications were pain and hypothermia. The following complications showed a statistically significant relationship with the nursing intervention: pain: routine, oxygen therapy, medication and bandages; agitation/anxiety: routine and oxygen therapy; hypotension: hydration, complementary exams, and observation; hypertension: observation; tremor: mat heater, blood transfusion; nausea/vomiting: routine, medication and urinary catheterization; bleeding: routine, medication and bandages; hypoxemia: routine and oxygen therapy; hypothermia: routine, mat heater, and medication. Pain, nausea/vomiting, agitation and bleeding showed a statistically significant relationship with the PARR nurse.
Mandt, A K
The curriculum revolution might have been born at the University of Detroit in their RN-to-BSN program. Situated in an urban environment where violence is an ever-present problem, the faculty developed an innovative clinical course for senior students, entitled Nursing and Crises Intervention for Victims of Family Violence. The curriculum was designed to respond to a social problem that affects individuals, families, and groups at both physical and psychological levels. It was hoped that creative use of the educational process would promote nursing intervention with a population whose needs have traditionally been unrecognized and unmet by the profession. The response to the course has been very positive and students have applied the content in nontraditional clinical agencies such as shelters for battered women and children, sexual abuse centers, and phone crisis centers. More importantly, these RN students report not only a change in personal attitudes, but an integration and application of their knowledge in their own professional practice. They act as educators to their peers and colleagues while reshaping their own practice in light of their newly acquired sensitivity. By creatively using the nursing curriculum, educators can prepare nurses to deal with many of the social ills affecting individuals, families, and groups. In so doing, they encourage nurses to step into the forefront of health care. They invite nursing practitioners to become proactive rather than reactive. Ultimately, such curriculum creativity will ensure that clients currently ignored or unrecognized by the health care system are identified and treated in a caring fashion by the profession that prides itself on its ability to care.
Bélanger, Louise; Ducharme, Francine
Though delirium is a common complication among hospitalized older adults and the nursing care required in these situations is complex, the subject has received little attention in the literature on continuing nursing education. A study was undertaken to field test and qualitatively evaluate a narrative-based educational intervention for nurses in hospital units with a high incidence of delirium. Triangulated data collection allowed carrying out a qualitative evaluation of the intervention process and outcomes. Process evaluation showed that the intervention was facilitated by the participants' attitudes and diversity of experience, as well as by the use of real care situations, which allowed integrating theory and practice. Outcome evaluation brought to light numerous elements of empirical, ethical and esthetic knowledge expressed by the participants. Study results evidence the applicability of such interventions as part of continuing nursing education and their contribution to knowledge development.
Background Quality improvement (QI) programs focused on mastery of content by individual staff members are the current standard to improve resident outcomes in nursing homes. However, complexity science suggests that learning is a social process that occurs within the context of relationships and interactions among individuals. Thus, QI programs will not result in optimal changes in staff behavior unless the context for social learning is present. Accordingly, we developed CONNECT, an intervention to foster systematic use of management practices, which we propose will enhance effectiveness of a nursing home Falls QI program by strengthening the staff-to-staff interactions necessary for clinical problem-solving about complex problems such as falls. The study aims are to compare the impact of the CONNECT intervention, plus a falls reduction QI intervention (CONNECT + FALLS), to the falls reduction QI intervention alone (FALLS), on fall-related process measures, fall rates, and staff interaction measures. Methods/design Sixteen nursing homes will be randomized to one of two study arms, CONNECT + FALLS or FALLS alone. Subjects (staff and residents) are clustered within nursing homes because the intervention addresses social processes and thus must be delivered within the social context, rather than to individuals. Nursing homes randomized to CONNECT + FALLS will receive three months of CONNECT first, followed by three months of FALLS. Nursing homes randomized to FALLS alone receive three months of FALLs QI and are offered CONNECT after data collection is completed. Complexity science measures, which reflect staff perceptions of communication, safety climate, and care quality, will be collected from staff at baseline, three months after, and six months after baseline to evaluate immediate and sustained impacts. FALLS measures including quality indicators (process measures) and fall rates will be collected for the six months prior to baseline and the six months after the
The purpose of this clinical research project was to examine the usefulness of a family nursing intervention program offered to families experiencing illness suffering related to HIV/AIDS. The interventions were based on the Family Caregiving Model and the Illness Beliefs Model. Sixteen Thai families with one or more family members living with HIV/AIDS were offered three to four family clinical sessions by an advanced practice family nurse. The audiotaped family clinical sessions and field notes were analyzed using thematic analysis. The outcomes reported by families included a competence to manage illness care of family members experiencing HIV/AIDS, new meaning and purpose, improved family interaction, embraced facilitating beliefs and changed constraining beliefs, and a recognition of the family's strengths.
Gul, Asiye; Andsoy, Isil Isik
Effectively dealing with earthquakes is especially important for the people who live in areas prone to earthquakes such as the country of Turkey. Trauma related to earthquakes has specific relevance to nursing practice. The purpose of this review was to describe the types of surgical interventions after the Marmara earthquake and to evaluate the implications for nursing care. English and Turkish articles about the Marmara earthquake were reviewed between May and July 2013. A total of 7 studies were evaluated. The number of patients admitted to the units, types of injuries, and surgical treatments were recorded, with a total of 2378 patients with earthquake-related injuries. The most commonly traumatized parts of the body were the extremities. Fasciotomy operations were performed on 286 patients and 75 patients underwent extremity amputations. Predetermining surgical problems and interventions may be useful in planning for possible future problems in the case of a disaster.
Peery, Annette I.; Engelke, Martha Keehner; Swanson, Melvin S.
Diabetes is a common chronic illness among school-age children. The school nurse collaborates with the student, parents, and teachers to help the child manage their diabetes effectively. Very little is known about the relationship between school nurse interventions and parent/teacher perceptions of the child's self-management. We examined this…
Hypertension in patients on hemodialysis (HD) contributes significantly to their morbidity and mortality. This study examined whether a supportive nursing intervention incorporating monitoring, goal setting, and reinforcement can improve blood pressure (BP) control in a chronic HD population. A randomized controlled design was used and 118 participants were recruited from six HD units in the Detroit metro area. The intervention consisted of (1) BP education sessions; (2) a 12-week intervention, including monitoring, goal setting, and reinforcement; and (3) a 30-day post-intervention follow-up period. Participants in the treatment were asked to monitor their BP, sodium, and fluid intake weekly for 12 weeks in weekly logs. BP, fluid and sodium logs were reviewed weekly with the researcher to determine if goals were met or not met. Reinforcement was given for goals met and problem solving offered when goals were not met. The control group received standard care. Both systolic and diastolic BPs were significantly decreased in the treatment group.
Creehan, P A
Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) is a potentially fatal illness caused by a particular strain of Staphylococcus aureus. The clinical presentation is similar to that of septic shock. The incidence of TSS peaked in the late 1970s and early 1980s, probably as a result of availability of super absorbent tampons. Although most commonly associated with menstruation, the overall incidence of menstrual and nonmenstrual TSS in men and women ranges from 1 to 3 per 100,000. There are almost equal numbers of menstrual and nonmenstrual cases of TSS identified annually. S aureus, the causative microorganism in cases of TSS, has been isolated from many body tissues. Toxic shock syndrome presents as a flu-like illness with high fever, vomiting, diarrhea, general malaise, and muscle weakness. Nursing and medical management focus on controlling or preventing potentially serious complications, such as adult respiratory distress syndrome, renal failure, electrolyte imbalances, disseminated intravascular coagulation, encephalopathy, and cardiomyopathy. Judicious use of tampons and barrier contraceptive devices may decrease the risk of developing TSS.
Morita, Tatsuya; Murata, Hisayuki; Hirai, Kei; Tamura, Keiko; Kataoka, Jun; Ohnishi, Hideki; Akizuki, Nobuya; Kurihara, Yukie; Akechi, Tatsuo; Uchitomi, Yosuke
Recent empirical studies revealed that fostering patients' perception of meaning in their life is an essential task for palliative care clinicians. However, few studies have reported the effects of training programs for nurses specifically aimed at improving skills to relieve the meaninglessness of terminally ill cancer patients, and we have had no specific measurement instruments. The primary aims of this study were 1) to validate measurement tools to quantify nurses' self-reported practice and attitudes toward caring for terminally ill cancer patients feeling meaninglessness and 2) to explore the effects of the five-hour educational workshop focusing on meaninglessness on nurses' self-reported practice, attitudes toward caring for such patients, confidence, burnout, death anxiety, and meaning of life. A quasi-experimental pre-post questionnaire survey was performed on 147 nurses. The questionnaire was distributed before the intervention workshop and one and six months after. The workshop consisted of lecture, role-play, and the exercise of assessment and care planning based on two vignette verbatim records. First, using the first questionnaire sample and an additional sample of 20 nurses for the test-retest examination, we validated a six-item Self-Reported Practice scale, and an eight-item Attitudes Toward Caring for Patients Feeling Meaninglessness scale with three subscales (Willingness to Help, Positive Appraisal, and Helplessness). The nurses also completed a scale to assess confidence in caring for terminally ill patients with meaninglessness, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Death Attitude Inventory, the Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying scale, the Self-Reported Practice Score in General Communication, and the three pain-related items from the Palliative Care Quiz for Nursing. For the Self-Reported Practice scale and the subscales of the Attitudes Toward Caring for Patients Feeling Meaninglessness scale, the Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0
Yu, Dongmei; Ma, Yuqin; Sun, Qingwen; Lu, Gendi; Xu, Ping
We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a nursing care classification system for re-assessing nurse workload and determining staffing needs. Adequate bed-nurse ratios help manage hospital cost-efficiency, quality of care and patient safety. A prospective pre-post intervention study was conducted from January 2010 to December 2012 in 16 medical-surgical units of a tertiary teaching hospital. Nursing tasks were classified into four grades of care reflecting actual workload. Units were re-staffed accordingly and bed-nurse ratios compared with government-authorized bed-nurse ratios. Patient satisfaction, hospital stays and mortality were evaluated pre- and poststaffing changes. Average bed-nurse ratio (1:0.41) exceeded the national standard (1:0.40) in 16 units, but was inadequate in five units. Re-staffing increased average bed-nurse ratio from 1:0.41 to 1:0.48. Patients' satisfaction increased from 96.9% to 97.6%, and hospital stays decreased significantly. Nursing care classification effectively distributes nurse staffing to match patients' care levels, improving patient outcomes.
Black, M E; Ploeg, J; Walter, S D; Hutchinson, B G; Scott, E A; Chambers, L W
Public health clients in an Ontario community 65 years of age or older were randomly allocated to receive an intervention by a public health nurse during a home visit promoting either influenza immunization or safety measures. There was no statistically significant differences in influenza immunization rates between these two groups (56.1% vs 56.6%). Men were significantly more likely to receive immunization. PMID:8259810
Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Løgstrup, Brian Bridal; Giraldi, Annamaria; Graugaard, Christian; Blegvad, Jesper; Thygesen, Tina; Sheetal, Ekta; Svendsen, Lone; Emmertsen, Henrik
Introduction Cardiovascular morbidity is a major burden in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we compare the effect of a targeted, intensified, multifactorial intervention with that of conventional treatment of modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with early RA fulfilling the 2010 American College of Rheumatology European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) criteria. Methods and analysis The study is a prospective, randomised, open label trial with blinded end point assessment and balanced randomisation (1:1) conducted in 10 outpatient clinics in Denmark. The primary end point after 5 years of follow-up is a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke and cardiac revascularisation. Secondary outcomes are: the proportion of patients achieving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <2.5 mmol/L, glycated haemoglobin <48 mmol/mol, blood pressure <140/90 mm Hg for patients without diabetes and <130/80 mm Hg for patients with diabetes and normoalbuminuria (urinary albumin creatinine ratio <30 mg/g) after 1 year of follow-up and the proportion of patients in each treatment group achieving low RA disease activity after 1 year, defined as a disease activity score C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) <3.2 and a DAS28-CRP score <2.6 after 12, 24 and 60 months. Furthermore, all hospitalisations for acute and elective reasons will be adjudicated by the event committee after 12, 24 and 60 months. Three hundred treatment-naive patients with early RA will be randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either conventional treatment administered and monitored by their general practitioner according to national guidelines (control group) or a stepwise implementation administered and monitored in a quarterly rheumatological nurse-administered set-up of behaviour modification and pharmacological therapy targeting (1) hyperlipidaemia, (2) hypertension, (3) hyperglycaemia
Maloy, Debra A.
Traditionally, nurse anesthesia educators have utilized prior academic achievement to predict student success. However, research has indicated that prior academic achievement offers an inadequate assessment of student success in graduate healthcare programs with extensive clinical residencies. The educational literature has identified many non-cognitive factors, such as self-efficacy and locus of control, that may provide a more holistic prediction model of student success. An experimental study with pretest-posttest design and stratified random assignment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention to promote self-management, professional socialization, and academic achievement among first semester graduate nurse anesthesia students. Participants (N = 66) were demographically similar to the national graduate nurse anesthesia student body, though Hispanics and younger students were a little over-represented in the sample (56% female, 75.8% White, 15.2% Hispanic, 6% Other, 59% ≤ 30-years-old, 67% ≤ 3 years of ICU). The results showed that most graduate anesthesia students had strong self-management and professional socialization characteristics on admission. The results did not support the effectiveness of this educational intervention. Thus, ceiling effect may have accounted in part for statistically non-significant results regarding self-efficacy (p = .190, o2 = .03), locus of control (p = .137, o2 = .04), professional socialization (p = .819, o2 = .001), and academic achievement (p = .689, o2 = .003). Future researchers may need to expand the scope of the intervention, use a more powerful and sensitive instrument, and utilize a larger sample.
Heyman, Inga; Webster, Brian J; Tee, Stephen
Suicide remains a global public health issue and a major governmental concern. The World Health Organisation argues for continued investment in education for front-line professionals, with a particular focus on nurses, to address the rising suicide levels. Considering this rate, it could be argued that suicide has impacted on the lives of many, including the student nurse population. Understanding the psychological impact, and influence on learning, whilst developing suicide intervention knowledge is crucial. However, little is known of the student experience in this complex and challenging area of skills development. This phenomenographic study examines the experiences of second year Bachelor of Nursing (mental health) students who participated in the Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training (ASIST). Experiences were illuminated through two focus groups, Experiences were distilled and categorised through hierarchically relationships to construct a group experiential field to illustrate understandings of the impact this approach has on learning Students found ASIST to be emotionally challenging yet an extremely positive experience through bonding, peer learning, and class cohesion. The supportive workshop facilitation was essential allowing for full immersion into role simulation thus developing student confidence. Appropriate pedagogy and student support must be considered whilst developing suicide intervention in the pre-registration curricula.
Miquel Capó Rn, I
The objectives of this study are to analyse nursing interventions regarding noise and lighting that influence neurodevelopment of the preterm infant in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. A review of the literature was performed using the databases: Cuiden Plus, PubMed, IBECS and Cochrane Library Plus. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were established in accordance with the objectives and limits used in each database. Of the 35 articles used, most were descriptive quantitative studies based on the measurement of sound pressure levels and lighting in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units. The countries included in this study are Brazil and the United States, and the variables analysed were the recording the times of light and noise. Based on the high levels of light and noise recorded in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units, nursing interventions that should be carried out to reduce them are described. The evidence indicates that after the implementation of these interventions, the high levels of both environmental stimuli are reduced significantly. Despite the extensive literature published on this problem, the levels of light and noise continue to exceed the recommended limits. Therefore, nurses need to increase and enhance their efforts in this environment, in order to positively influence neurodevelopment of premature newborn.
Touzet, Sandrine; Beissel, Anne; Denis, Angélique; Pillet, Fabienne; Gauthier-Moulinier, Hélène; Hommey, Sophie; Claris, Olivier
Introduction Oral feeding is a complex physiological process. Several scales have been developed to assess the ability of the neonate to begin suck feedings and assist caregivers in determining feeding advancement. However, feeding premature neonates remains an ongoing challenge and depends above all on caregivers' feeding expertise. We will evaluate the effect of a nurse training programme on the achievement of full oral feeding with premature neonates. Methods and analysis The study design will be an interrupted time series design with 3 phases: (1) A 6-month baseline period; (2) a 22-month intervention period and (3) a 6-month postintervention period. The intervention will consist of an educational programme, for nurses and assistant nurses, on feeding patterns in neonates. The training modules will be composed of a 2-day conference, 2 interactive multidisciplinary workshops, and routine practice nurse coaching. A total of 120 nurses and 12 assistant nurses, who work at the neonatal unit during the study period, will participate in the study. All premature neonates of <34 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) will be included. The primary outcome will be the age of tube withdrawal PMA and chronological age are taken into account. The secondary outcomes will be the transition time, length of hospital stay, competent suckle feeding without cardiorespiratory compromise, rate of neonates presenting with feeding issues or feeding rejection signs, and current neonatal pathologies or deaths during hospital stay. A segmented regression analysis will be performed to assess the impact of the programme. Ethics and dissemination Approval for the study was obtained from the Hospital Ethics Committee, and the Institutional Review Board, as well as the French Data Protection Agency. The findings from the study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations and public events. Trial registration number NCT02404272 (https
There is no one formula for culcure change. A joint steering committee of staff members can develop plans that will build trust, address each other as equals, and drive out fear as they move the process of change. Training and sharing information help staff recognize this is a process, not an event. New well-screened team members need training to integrate them into the culture. It is important to identify the knowledge and expertise of team members to maximize their energies and talents. Recruitment and retention of those who share the values of this culture are of paramount importance. It is worth the time and effort to secure commitment to these values. One example of this effort is a facility in Pennsylvania that, at its worst, had two thirds of its staff turnover in a year. The national average was 82% in 1995, an increase from 71.5% the year before. They were able to reduce their turnover rate to 27% by examining the hiring records and finding that workers with certain personality traits and attitudes were less likely to leave. They looked for compassion and communication skills, perceptions of older adults, ability to cope with death and dying, and ability to handle the unpleasant tasks of residene hygiene and bathroom visits. Current staff members determined and voted on best fit of candidates (Montague, 1997). Although training and evaluation are an important component of retention and commitment to values in any organization, training and evaluation of nursing home employees may be quite different from other employment. A nurse in a nursing home needs to be evaluated not only on clinical skills, but on communication skills, attitude, and leadership (Meyer, 1995). Then training and employee development programs can be targeted to specific areas for corrective action. What is taught in training and what occurs on the job should correspond, or role conflict occurs increasing the likelihood of turnover (Steffen, Nystrom, O'Connor, 1996). Although occasional
Al-Hamad, Arif; Al-Ibrahim, Maha; Alhajhouj, Eman; Al-Alshaikh Jaffer, Waseelah; Altowaileb, Jaffar; Alfaraj, Hassan
Compared with truly negative cultures, false positive blood cultures (BCs) not only increase laboratory work but also prolong the lengths of patient stays, which are likely to increase patient morbidity and costs. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a hospital-wide educational intervention on BC contamination rates. Nurses performed all phlebotomies; therefore, educational workshops were offered to all nurses twice a week over a 3-month period. The workshops consisted of a questionnaire, PowerPoint presentation, video show, demonstration of the different materials used to collect BCs, and question session. Data from the questionnaires and laboratory culture results were compared between the 6-month pre- and post-intervention periods. Of the 503 eligible nurses, 216 (42.9%) attended the workshops. The survey identified areas for improvement, which included time of disinfectant application, volume of blood to be cultured, and disinfection of BC bottle tops. Of the 9903 BC sets that were drawn from 3649 patients during the study period, 676 (6.8%) were contaminated. The monthly BC contamination rates for the 6-month pre- and post-intervention periods were 8.1% and 5.2%, respectively, representing a 36% reduction (P=0.008). Only three wards had an acceptable contamination rate of ≤3% before the intervention, compared with eight wards after the intervention. While contamination of BCs can never be completely eliminated, there is evidence that adherence to best practice BC collection techniques can minimize BC contamination, which might be best achieved with a dedicated phlebotomy team.
White, Douglas; Rosenzweig, Margaret; Chu, Edward; Moore, Charity; Ellis, Peter; Nikolajski, Peggy; Ford, Colleen; Tiver, Greer; McCarthy, Lauren; Arnold, Robert
Abstract Background: Specialty palliative care is not accessible for many patients with advanced cancer. There is a need to find alternative palliative care strategies in oncology clinics. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and perceived effectiveness of an oncology nurse-led care management approach to improve primary palliative care. Methods: The study design was a single-arm pilot trial of the Care Management by Oncology Nurses (CONNECT) intervention, in which registered oncology nurses receive specialized training and work closely with oncologists to (1) address symptom needs; (2) engage patients and caregivers in advance care planning; (3) provide emotional support; and (4) coordinate care. The subjects were 23 patients with advanced cancer, 19 caregivers, and 5 oncologists from a community oncology clinic in western Pennsylvania. Feasibility was assessed through enrollment rates, outcome assessment rates, and visit checklists. Patients, caregivers, and oncologists completed three-month assessments of acceptability and perceived effectiveness. Results: The consent-to-approach rate was 86% and enrolled-to-consent rate, 77%. CONNECT was implemented according to protocol for all participants. No participants withdrew after enrollment. Four patients died during the study; three-month outcome assessments were completed with all remaining participants (83%). Patients and caregivers reported high satisfaction with CONNECT and perceived the intervention as helpful in addressing symptoms (85%), coping (91%), and planning for the future (82%). Oncologists unanimously agreed that CONNECT improved the quality of care provided for patients with advanced cancer. Conclusion: An oncology nurse-led care management intervention is feasible, acceptable, and was perceived to be effective for improving provision of primary palliative care. A randomized trial of CONNECT is warranted. PMID:25517219
Castro, Luis A; Favela, Jesus; Garcia-Peña, Carmen
The transition from paper to electronic-based records in the healthcare industry has posed several challenges to conventional medical practices. The introduction of technology in day-to-day medical and nursing practices deserves careful consideration. In this work, we report the results of a controlled experiment to compare nurses' consultation in emergency calls in six different conditions. We studied the effect that the type of communication media (face-to-face, telephone, videoconference) and type of nursing protocol media (paper-based, electronic-based) can have on consultation time, mistakes made, pauses during consultation, eye contact, and efficacy of the consultation. We found that the type of communication media has an effect on consultation time; on average, fewer mistakes were made during telephone-based consultations; for eye contact, there were significantly fewer eye contacts during face-to-face than during videoconference consultations; finally, the type of communication media or protocol media did not have any effect in the efficacy of the consultation.
Kerr, Peg; Shever, Leah; Titler, Marita G; Qin, Rui; Kim, Taikyoung; Picone, Debra M
The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contribution of the nursing intervention pain management on length of stay (LOS) for 568 older patients hospitalized for hip procedures. Propensity-score-adjusted analysis was used to determine the effect of pain management on LOS. The LOS for hospitalizations that received pain management was 0.78 day longer than that for hospitalizations that did not receive pain management. Other variables that were predictors of LOS included several context-of-care variables (e.g., time spent in the intensive care unit, registered nurse skill mix, etc.), number of medical procedures and unique medications, and several other nursing interventions.
Mitchell, Ann M; Puskar, Kathryn; Hagle, Holly; Gotham, Heather J; Talcott, Kimberly S; Terhorst, Lauren; Fioravanti, Marie; Kane, Irene; Hulsey, Eric; Luongo, Peter; Burns, Helen K
Preparing nursing students to apply an evidence-based screening and brief intervention approach with patients has the potential to reduce patients' risky alcohol and drug use. Responding to Mollica, Hyman, and Mann's article published in 2011, the current article describes implementation results of an Addiction Training for Nurses program of Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) embedded within an undergraduate nursing curriculum. Results reveal that students in other schools of nursing would benefit from similar, significant training on substance use disorders and SBIRT. Training satisfaction surveys (N = 488) indicate students were satisfied with the quality of the training experience. More than 90% of students strongly agreed or agreed that the training was relevant to their nursing careers and would help their patients. Additional clinical practice and skill development may increase students' reported effectiveness in working with the topic area of substance use and SBIRT.
van Zuilen, Arjan D; Bots, Michiel L; Dulger, Arzu; van der Tweel, Ingeborg; van Buren, Marjolijn; Ten Dam, Marc A G J; Kaasjager, Karin A H; Ligtenberg, Gerry; Sijpkens, Yvo W J; Sluiter, Henk E; van de Ven, Peter J G; Vervoort, Gerald; Vleming, Louis-Jean; Blankestijn, Peter J; Wetzels, Jack F M
Strict implementation of guidelines directed at multiple targets reduces vascular risk in diabetic patients. Whether this also applies to patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is uncertain. To evaluate this, the MASTERPLAN Study randomized 788 patients with CKD (estimated GFR 20-70 ml/min) to receive additional intensive nurse practitioner support (the intervention group) or nephrologist care (the control group). The primary end point was a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death. During a mean follow-up of 4.62 years, modest but significant decreases were found for blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, anemia, proteinuria along with the increased use of active vitamin D or analogs, aspirin and statins in the intervention group compared to the controls. No differences were found in the rate of smoking cessation, weight reduction, sodium excretion, physical activity, or glycemic control. Intensive control did not reduce the rate of the composite end point (21.3/1000 person-years in the intervention group compared to 23.8/1000 person-years in the controls (hazard ratio 0.90)). No differences were found in the secondary outcomes of vascular interventions, all-cause mortality or end-stage renal disease. Thus, the addition of intensive support by nurse practitioner care in patients with CKD improved some risk factor levels, but did not significantly reduce the rate of the primary or secondary end points.
This essay has the objective of reflecting on the quotidian as an inquiring space of the citizens submitted to nursing interventionist actions and from the area of health, having the comprehensive sociology as referential of analysis. The results point into the direction of the need of higher investment and of critical comment by giving a new sense to the professional actions when considering the quotidian in the inquiries; the need of less and less formal strategies in the protocols of health care, where in the search of effective results there is a predominance of the interpersonal relations and an affective and familiar commitment with whom is closer, here and now.
Junqueira, Marcelle Aparecida de Barros; Rassool, G Hussein; Santos, Manoel Antônio dos; Pillon, Sandra Cristina
Nurses are the prime movers in the prevention and harm reduction in alcohol-related harm especially for those patients who are unwilling to access specialist care. The aim of the study is to evaluate the attitudes and knowledge of nursing students before and after Brief Intervention Training for alcohol problems. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with 120 undergraduate nursing students. Sixty recruited students were randomized into experimental and control groups (n = 60 each). Participants completed questionnaires on knowledge and attitudes before and after this training of brief intervention. The brief intervention program, 16 hours of duration, includes training for screening and early recognition, nursing, and the treatment of alcohol problems. Analysis of the data showed statistically significant positive change in the nursing students' knowledge (identifications and care) and personal and professional attitudes in working with patients with alcohol problems after the educational intervention. The experimental group differed significantly in all the variables measured at posteducational program. The provision of educational program on brief intervention in undergraduate nursing education can be an effective way for acquisition of knowledge and changes in attitudes in working with patients with alcohol problems.
De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Verloigne, Maite; Oenema, Anke; Crombez, Geert
Background Chronic diseases are the principal cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. An increased consumption of vegetables and fruit reduces the risk of hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. An increased fruit and vegetable (FV) intake may also prevent body weight gain, and therefore indirectly affect type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insufficient physical activity (PA) has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Consequently, effective interventions that promote PA and FV intake in a large number of people are required. Objective To describe the systematic development of an eHealth intervention, MyPlan 1.0, for increasing FV intake and PA. Methods The intervention was developed following the six steps of the intervention mapping (IM) protocol. Decisions during steps were based upon available literature, focus group interviews, and pilot studies. Results Based on needs assessment (Step 1), it was decided to focus on fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity levels of adults. Based on self-regulation and the health action process approach model, motivational (eg, risk awareness) and volitional (eg, action planning) determinants were selected and crossed with performance objectives into a matrix with change objectives (Step 2). Behavioral change strategies (eg, goal setting, problem solving, and implementation intentions) were selected (Step 3). Tablet computers were chosen for delivery of the eHealth program in general practice (Step 4). To facilitate implementation of the intervention in general practice, GPs were involved in focus group interviews (Step 5). Finally, the planning of the evaluation of the intervention (Step 6) is briefly described. Conclusions Using the IM protocol ensures that a theory- and evidence-based intervention protocol is developed. If the intervention is found to be effective, a dynamic eHealth program for the promotion of healthy lifestyles could be available for use in general
da Graça, Luís Carlos Carvalho; Figueiredo, Maria do Céu Barbiéri; Conceição, Maria Teresa Caetano Carreira
This study aimed to analyze the contributions of the Primary Healthcare nursing interventions, with primiparae in the promotion of breastfeeding. This is a quasi-experimental, longitudinal study, with a sample consisting of 151 primiparae, who had less than 28 weeks of pregnancy, with the child living for at least six months after the birth, performed between 15 October 2007 and 29 February 2008. Almost all the women initiated breastfeeding, with a sharp decline verified in the prevalence at six months. The mean duration of breastfeeding was 123.8±68.9 days. The intervention that began in the prepartum and continued into the postpartum period, using various strategies (individual consultation, preparation courses for parenting/childbirth, and domicile visits) and intervention contexts (health services and domicile) had significant effects on the duration of breastfeeding, which was not verified in the prevalence.
Karpavičiūtė, Simona; Macijauskienė, Jūratė
Over 59 million workers are employed in the healthcare sector globally, with a daily risk of being exposed to a complex variety of health and safety hazards. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of arts activity on the well-being of nursing staff. During October–December 2014, 115 nursing staff working in a hospital, took part in this study, which lasted for 10 weeks. The intervention group (n = 56) took part in silk painting activities once a week. Data was collected using socio-demographic questions, the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale, Short Form—36 Health Survey questionnaire, Reeder stress scale, and Multidimensional fatigue inventory (before and after art activities in both groups). Statistical data analysis included descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation), non-parametric statistics analysis (Man Whitney U Test; Wilcoxon signed—ranks test), Fisher’s exact test and reliability analysis (Cronbach’s Alpha). The level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. In the intervention group, there was a tendency for participation in arts activity having a positive impact on their general health and mental well-being, reducing stress and fatigue, awaking creativity and increasing a sense of community at work. The control group did not show any improvements. Of the intervention group 93% reported enjoyment, with 75% aspiring to continue arts activity in the future. This research suggests that arts activity, as a workplace intervention, can be used to promote nursing staff well-being at work. PMID:27104550
Boisvert, Sophie; Proulx-Belhumeur, Alexandra; Gonçalves, Natalia; Doré, Michel; Francoeur, Julie; Gallani, Maria Cecilia
Abstract Objective: to analyze and summarize knowledge concerning critical components of interventions that have been proposed and implemented by nurses with the aim of optimizing self-care by heart failure patients. Methods: PubMed and CINAHL were the electronic databases used to search full peer-reviewed papers, presenting descriptions of nursing interventions directed to patients or to patients and their families and designed to optimize self-care. Forty-two studies were included in the final sample (n=4,799 patients). Results: this review pointed to a variety and complexity of nursing interventions. As self-care encompasses several behaviors, interventions targeted an average of 3.6 behaviors. Educational/counselling activities were combined or not with cognitive behavioral strategies, but only about half of the studies used a theoretical background to guide interventions. Clinical assessment and management were frequently associated with self-care interventions, which varied in number of sessions (1 to 30); length of follow-up (2 weeks to 12 months) and endpoints. Conclusions: these findings may be useful to inform nurses about further research in self-care interventions in order to propose the comparison of different modalities of intervention, the use of theoretical background and the establishment of endpoints to evaluate their effectiveness. PMID:26444179
Meng, Hongdao; Wamsley, Brenda R.; Eggert, Gerald M.; Van Nostrand, Joan F.
Context: Patients with heart conditions in rural areas may have different responses to health promotion-disease Self-management interventions compared to their urban counterparts. Purpose: To estimate the impact of a multi-component health promotion nurse intervention on physical function and total health care expenditures among elderly adults…
Peery, Annette I; Engelke, Martha Keehner; Swanson, Melvin S
Diabetes is a common chronic illness among school-age children. The school nurse collaborates with the student, parents, and teachers to help the child manage their diabetes effectively. Very little is known about the relationship between school nurse interventions and parent/teacher perceptions of the child's self-management. We examined this relationship in a sample of 69 school-age children who received case management from school nurses. Our findings suggest that teachers and parents do not always agree on how well a child manages their illness. When school nurses provide more education and counseling, parents are more likely to perceive an improvement in their child's self-management. Teachers are more likely to perceive an improvement when the nurse provides more classroom visits and includes the physical education teacher and guidance counselor. These findings suggest that the roles of educator, counselor, and collaborator are important for school nurses who provide care to school-age children with diabetes.
Bradford, Althea Betty
A short-term intervention on participants' knowledge of cultural competence was provided to 38 students in a baccalaureate nursing program at Winston-Salem State University (WSSU). The study examined the effectiveness of this intervention. Although WSSU is a Historically Black University, the majority of students in this program were White. Six tools were used for data collection. The Cultural Competence Survey consisted of 19 Likert Scale items that also gave participants an opportunity to elaborate on each response. Four tools allowed participants to provide written answers to prompts related to cultural competence. The final tool made it possible for the investigator to record impressions and reflections regarding various aspects of the study. Results showed that the students are familiar with cultural competence and want to avoid stereotypical behavior in their nurse-patient encounters. The study suggests a need for education in cultural competence in three areas: 1) accepting that cultural competence is a lifelong endeavor, 2) understanding patients from a holistic perspective, and 3) recognizing that all people have biases; however, the competent nurse is self-aware and has been educated to recognize biased behavior.
Kindblom-Rising, Kristina; Wahlström, Rolf; Nilsson-Wikmar, Lena; Buer, Nina
The objective was to evaluate changes after a two half-day patient transfer course regarding nursing staff's movement and body awareness, attitudes, reported behaviour, strain, disorder and sick leave. The course aimed at increasing staff's self-awareness of movements and body, and their communication competence, with the intention to promote the patient's independent mobility. Ninety-nine staff in an intervention group and 77 staff in two control groups answered a questionnaire before and after the intervention. After one year there was a significant increase in the number of instructions given and nursing staff's movement awareness in the intervention group compared to the control group. Reported physical disorders decreased significantly in the intervention group compared with both control groups. Increased movement awareness and frequent use of instructions during transfers may encourage patients to move independently and thereby reduce the strain in nursing staff.
Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Caraway, David L; Falco, Frank J E; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Hansen, Hans; Hirsch, Joshua A
The Office of Inspector General (OIG), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), in a 2009 report, showed that unqualified nonphysicians performed 21% of the services. These nonphysicians did not possess the necessary licenses, certifications, credentials, or training to perform the services. Since the time the medical profession was founded, advances in treatments and technology, as well as educational and training standards, have promoted a desire to go beyond the basic scope of practice. Many have sought to broaden the scope of practice through legislative efforts and proclamation rather than education and training. In 2001, President Clinton signed into law a rule that permitted states to "opt out" of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' (CMS) requirement for nurse anesthetists to be supervised by any physician. Since then, 17 states have adopted this rule. While it was originally intended to help rural areas improve access to care, the opt out rule essentially supports any hospital or organization that seeks to make a profit or cut costs by allowing nurse anesthetists to function as physicians. With the implementation of sweeping health care regulations under the Affordable Care Act (ACA, also popularly known as Obamacare), the future of nurses and other professionals has been empowered. In fact, it has been proposed that medical training may be reduced by 30%, which will in their minds equalize training between nonphysicians and physicians. In 2010, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) issued an opinion exerting their power to empower CRNAs with unlimited practice, with threats to opposing parties. In the 2013 proposed physician payment rule, CMS is proposing that CRNAs may perform interventional pain management services. Interventional pain management is a medical discipline with defined interventional techniques to be performed by professionals who are well trained and qualified. Without considering the consequences of the lack of education
Badanta Romero, Bárbara; de Diego Cordero, Rocío; Fernández García, Elena
The urolithiasis, with a high incidence nowadays, including formations caused by gallstone of uric acid, has a high correlation to our lifestyles and dietary habits. Through a clinic case, it is intended to review the main nursing actions that may occur with this pathology. To achieve this, the data collected on physical examination and nursing assessment on the model of Virginia Henderson, while the full care plan is developed. The results show the need to establish a standardized healthy education intervention, related to a low-pruine healthy diet for people that suffer this disease. The amount of complications and problems associated with recidivism of hospital accommodation because of the ignorance of gallstone cases increase the risk of reducing the quality of life of the patients.
Vollman, Kathleen M
More than 140 years ago, Florence Nightingale wrote "It may seem a strange principal to enunciate as the very first requirement in a Hospital that it should do the sick no harm." Data suggests that 63% of all preventable errors are related to clinical problems that are within nursing's independent scope of practice. Many of these fall in the category of "interventional hygiene" activities and include prevention of skin injury, post-operative respiratory complications and failure to rescue. As nurses we are called upon to assure higher levels of safety and quality for our patients by our governments, professional organisations and hospital administrations. It is essential that we implement evidence based nursing care strategies to reduce avoidable errors in care so that clinical outcomes improve. The author of this paper, who coined the team "interventional patient hygiene", discusses the science related to many of these care issues and proposes an Interventional Care Model for use by nurses in redesigning how we approach nurse sensitive care practices in the future. Additionally, a change framework called "Sustaining Nursing Clinical Practice" is described to ensure reintroduction and valuing of evidence basic nursing care in conjunction with the right resources and systems to sustain the new practice.
Laurion, Shari; Fetzer, Susan Jane
Anecdotal reports support research findings in documenting the high incidence of negative postoperative outcomes after gynecologic (GYN) laparoscopic surgery. Three outcome measures, postoperative pain, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and length of stay, have received considerable attention. Two nursing interventions frequently suggested for their positive effects are guided imagery and music therapy. An experimental pilot study was conducted to determine the effects of these nursing inventions on postoperative pain, PONV, and length of stay for GYN laparoscopic patients (n = 84). During the perioperative period, patients were randomly assigned to one of 3 interventions: guided imagery audiotapes (GI), music audiotapes (MU), or standard care (C), and outcome measures were evaluated. Results indicated that patients in both the guided imagery and music groups had significantly less pain on PACU discharge to home than the patients in the control group. These findings suggest that both guided imagery and music are effective strategies in improving pain, a difference that becomes apparent when the patient is ready to be discharged. It is possible that these interventions act as distractions in reducing the report of negative postoperative outcomes.
De Bruijn-Geraets, Daisy P; Van Eijk-Hustings, Yvonne JL; Vrijhoef, Hubertus JM
Aim The study protocol is designed to evaluate the effects of granting independent authorization for medical procedures to nurse practitioners and physician assistants on processes and outcomes of health care. Background Recent (temporarily) enacted legislation in Dutch health care authorizes nurse practitioners and physician assistants to indicate and perform specified medical procedures, i.e. catheterization, cardioversion, defibrillation, endoscopy, injection, puncture, prescribing and simple surgical procedures, independently. Formerly, these procedures were exclusively reserved to physicians, dentists and midwives. Design A triangulation mixed method design is used to collect quantitative (surveys) and qualitative (interviews) data. Methods Outcomes are selected from evidence-based frameworks and models for assessing the impact of advanced nursing on quality of health care. Data are collected in various manners. Surveys are structured around the domains: (i) quality of care; (ii) costs; (iii) healthcare resource use; and (iv) patient centredness. Focus group and expert interviews aim to ascertain facilitators and barriers to the implementation process. Data are collected before the amendment of the law, 1 and 2·5 years thereafter. Groups of patients, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, supervising physicians and policy makers all participate in this national study. The study is supported by a grant from the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport in March 2011. Research Ethics Committee approval was obtained in July 2011. Conclusion This study will provide information about the effects of granting independent authorization for medical procedures to nurse practitioners and physician assistants on processes and outcomes of health care. Study findings aim to support policy makers and other stakeholders in making related decisions. The study design enables a cross-national comparative analysis. PMID:24684631
O'Connor, Siobhan; Andrews, Tom
Mobile applications (apps) to train health professionals is gaining momentum as the benefits of mobile learning (mLearning) are becoming apparent in complex clinical environments. However, most educational apps are generic, off-the-shelf pieces of software that do not take into consideration the unique needs of nursing students. The proposed study will apply a user-centred design process to create a tailored mobile app for nursing students to learn and apply clinical skills in practice. The app will be piloted and evaluated to understand how nursing students use mobile technology in clinical settings to support their learning and educational needs.
Ku, Ya-Lie; Kao Lo, Chi-Hui; Wang, Jing-Jy; Lee Hsieh, Jane; Chen, Kuei-Min
Because of changes in the medical environment, nurses must maintain the ability of divergent thinking to solve the health problems of patients. However, many nurses whose work in clinical practice has become routine have lost the ability of creativity. To cultivate nurses creativity should be a goal of nursing education. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a nursing concepts teaching protocol by utilizing teaching strategies directed toward creativity to promote creativity in two-year RN-BSN students. This study design is a time series and one group experiment utilizing multiple instances of treatment. Teaching strategies for creativity were applied to a teaching unit and 52 two-year RN-BSN students were tested for creativity before the end of each semester. This study was conducted from March, 1999 to May, 2000, but only 30 students completed all tests and reached a 58% return rate. Torrance s (1974) definitions of creativity includ fluency, flexibility, and uniqueness were followed and the instrument, a questionnaire on Creativity in the application of the Nursing Process Tool (CNPT), was designed based on Emerson (1988). The content validity of Chinese-version CNPT was.79. The inter-coder reliability between two researchers was.84 following a coding guide that ten nursing education experts had established. The results indicated that 30 two-year RN-BSN students had improved fluency and flexibility. The improvements reached a significant level after the third semester. Only uniqueness declined. It is suggested that nursing faculty apply teaching strategies uniqueness more often in a teaching protocol of nursing concepts. By utilizing teaching strategies of creativity in a teaching protocol of nursing concepts, it is expected that two-year RN-BSN students can acquire characteristics of creativity for problem-solving skills in clinical settings.
A nurse-guided, basal-prandial insulin treatment protocol for achieving glycaemic control of hospitalized, non-critically ill diabetes patients, is non-inferior to physician-guided therapy: A pivotal, nurse-empowerment study.
Segal, Gad; Karniel, Eli; Mahagna, Ahmed; Kaa'dan, Fadi; Levi, Zehava; Balik, Chaya
Basal-prandial insulin is established for glycaemic control for hospitalized, type 2 diabetes patients. Empowering nurses to guide such protocols could be advantageous.The study aims to comparatively assess the efficacy and safety of glycaemic control by a nurse-guided protocol with physician-guided therapy. It also aims to assess the impact of empowerment on the nurses' sense of competence. This is a prospective, controlled, randomized, single-blinded study. Validated protocol utilizing basal-prandial insulin was used. Glycaemic control was the primary efficacy outcome, whereas hypoglycaemia and laboratory parameters were followed for safety. Assessment of nurses' psychological empowerment was done. One hundred fifty-eight treatment days of 53 patients were included. Patients were randomized to either study group (n = 27) or control group (n = 26). Glycaemia deviation from liberal range (60-300 mg/dL) was 7.4% of days for nurse-guided, basal-prandial insulin treatment protocol (NGP) and 7.84% for physician-guided therapy (PGT), P = 0.901. Rate of glycaemia deviation from the strict range (100-180 mg/dL) was 49.76% for NGP and 47.38% for PGT, P = 0.703. Mean range of daily deviation was similar (77.05 mg/dL for NGP and 76.04 mg/dL for PGT, P = 0.93). There were no significant differences in safety parameters. An empowerment questionnaire showed tendency for increased nurses' sense of competence. Nurse-guided protocol is non-inferior to physician-guided treatment in efficacy and safety parameters. Nurses' sense of competence was positively influenced.
Onieva-Zafra, María Dolores; Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María; Matarán-Peñarrocha, Guillermo A; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen
Primary fibromyalgia, a poorly understood chronic pain syndrome, is a disorder of uncertain etiology. The ultimate goal of fibromyalgia treatment is to develop a multimodal therapy. In recent years, the use of music as an intervention for the pain management and other symptoms has increased. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of music on pain and depression for people diagnosed with fibromyalgia using Rogers' theory of the unitary human being as the theoretical framework. An experimental 4-week longitudinal trial design was undertaken. Sixty patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia were randomly assigned to either a music intervention group or a control group. Music interventions consisted of listening to music once a day for 4 consecutive weeks using two types of CDs. Pain was measured with the McGill Pain Questionnaire Long Form and depression with the Beck inventory; a 100-mm visual analog scale was used to measure pain and depression. The treatment group reported a significant reduction in pain and depression at week 4 compared with the control group. Members of the control group reported no differences in pain. The findings of this pilot study suggest the importance of music therapy as a nursing intervention and justify further investigation into music as a self-management intervention to reduce pain and depression.
Mandibular fractures are commonly encountered by the maxillofacial surgeon. Maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF), or a combination of both, are the accepted standard treatments. This study aims to assess the role of a conservative minimal intervention protocol in the management of undisplaced/minimally displaced fractures of the dentate portion of the adult mandible and the complications associated with such minimalistic intervention. Thirty-four patients with undisplaced/minimally displaced fractures of the dentate portion of the adult mandible were advised to restrict mouth opening and limit themselves to a soft diet for a minimum of 4 weeks. All patients were advised follow-up at regular intervals for at least 3 months. Five patients were lost to follow-up. Symphysis and parasymphysis fractures were the most common fracture locations. Fourteen patients needed tension band stabilization with a mandibular arch bar/bridle wiring and three patients required extraction of luxated teeth. All patients showed satisfactory healing except three in whom additional intervention (ORIF) was performed. The improvement in mouth opening was statistically significant. Complications were seen more frequently among smokers and alcoholics. For patients with minimally displaced mandibular fractures, it is necessary to consider if the perceived benefits of intervention justify the associated added costs and possible complications. Patients have to be fully informed about the possible complications while using this minimal intervention protocol. This study concludes that a conservative minimal intervention management protocol for such fractures of the dentate portion of the mandible can produce satisfactory results. PMID:26889344
Fiorilli, Giovanni; Iuliano, Enzo; Aquino, Giovanna; Campanella, Emidio; Tsopani, Despina; Di Costanzo, Alfonso; Calcagno, Giuseppe; di Cagno, Alessandra
Objective To find the optimal exercise program to be recommended in reducing adiposity and promoting long-term physical activity adherence in a sample of overweight adolescents. Methods Forty-five overweight adolescents were randomly divided into three exercise groups, to perform two phases of physical activity as follows: in the first phase, the first group performed a 16-week moderate-intensity resistance training (RT), the second group performed a 16-week high-intensity RT, and the third group performed a 16-week aerobic training (AT); in the second phase, all groups performed a 6-week AT. Anthropometric body composition and fitness measures were considered as outcome measures. Results After the second protocol, both RT groups showed a significant improvement in percentage of fat mass (F2,76 = 5.843; p = 0.004; h2 = 0.133) and free fat mass (F2,76 = 6.254; p = 0.003; h2 = 0.141), and in fitness tests (p < 0.01). The VO2max values of the RT groups were significantly higher than those of the AT group (F2,38 = 4.264; p = 0.021; h2 = 0.183). The rate of adherence to exercise was an average of 94% in both RT groups, whereas in the AT group, it was 83%. During the 12-week post-intervention follow-up, the number of participants who continued to perform physical activities was significantly higher in both the RT groups than in the AT group (p < 0.05). Conclusion The present study provides preliminary evidence that moderate-to-intense RT, followed by AT, can be an effective treatment for overweight adolescents, and the positive effects are maintained even after 12 weeks of follow-up. PMID:28144155
Heslop, A P; Bagnall, P
This paper describes the work of two nurses visiting patients with chronic respiratory disease at home. The outcome measures suggested that there were fewer deaths in the nurses' group but failed to show any changes in quality of life. The nurses chose the nursing model devised by Roper et al. as a framework for their intervention. Initial assessment by the nurses showed the patients had a number of problems which could be grouped into physical health, knowledge, psychosocial and social. The nurses' monthly visits were used to assist the patients to plan strategies for resolving their problems. Advice was directed at helping patients promote and control their own health and measurable goals were set. Most of the patients achieved the goals set, valued the visits and said they wished them to continue. Psychosocial problems proved most difficult to solve. Patients' knowledge was demonstrated to have increased. A nursing audit found the patients had received 'excellent' quality of care. The nursing method used in this study would be appropriate for such work as it focuses attention on the individual patient and his problems. Application of this approach will require education and support for nurses.
Background The advanced practice role of the Nurse Consultant is unique in its capacity to provide clinical leadership across a range of contexts. However, the Nurse Consultant role has been plagued with confusion due to lack of clarity over function and appropriateness for purpose within health organisations across contexts. Changing health service delivery models are driving the emergence of new nursing roles, further clouding the waters related to role positioning and purpose. There is an urgent need for evidence of impact and demonstration of how Nurse Consultants contribute to health care outcomes. This study aims to gain a clearer understanding of the Nurse Consultant role and its impact in metropolitan and rural New South Wales (NSW) Australia. Design The proposed study employs a sequential mixed method design, underpinned by Realistic Evaluation, to explore how Nurse Consultants contribute to organisational outcomes. The ‘context – mechanism – outcome’ approach of realistic evaluation provides a sound framework to examine the complex, diverse and multifaceted nature of the Nurse Consultant’s role. Method Participants will be stakeholders, recruited across a large Local Health District in NSW, comprising rural and metropolitan services. A modified and previously validated survey will be used providing information related to role characteristics, patterns and differences across health context. Focus groups with Nurse Consultant’s explore issues highlighted in the survey data. Focus groups with other clinicians, policy makers and managers will help to achieve understanding of how the role is viewed and enacted across a range of groups and contexts. Discussion Lack of role clarity is highlighted extensively in international and Australian studies examining the role of the Nurse Consultant. Previous studies failed to adequately examine the role in the context of integrated and complex health services or to examine the role in detail. Such examination
Martinez, Elizabeth A; Chavez-Valdez, Raul; Holt, Natalie F; Grogan, Kelly L; Khalifeh, Katherine W; Slater, Tammy; Winner, Laura E; Moyer, Jennifer; Lehmann, Christoph U
Although the evidence strongly supports perioperative glycemic control among cardiac surgical patients, there is scant literature to describe the practical application of such a protocol in the complex ICU environment. This paper describes the use of the Lean Six Sigma methodology to implement a perioperative insulin protocol in a cardiac surgical intensive care unit (CSICU) in a large academic hospital. A preintervention chart audit revealed that fewer than 10% of patients were admitted to the CSICU with glucose <200 mg/dL, prompting the initiation of the quality improvement project. Following protocol implementation, more than 90% of patients were admitted with a glucose <200 mg/dL. Key elements to success include barrier analysis and intervention, provider education, and broadening the project scope to address the intraoperative period.
Martinez, Elizabeth A.; Chavez-Valdez, Raul; Holt, Natalie F.; Grogan, Kelly L.; Khalifeh, Katherine W.; Slater, Tammy; Winner, Laura E.; Moyer, Jennifer; Lehmann, Christoph U.
Although the evidence strongly supports perioperative glycemic control among cardiac surgical patients, there is scant literature to describe the practical application of such a protocol in the complex ICU environment. This paper describes the use of the Lean Six Sigma methodology to implement a perioperative insulin protocol in a cardiac surgical intensive care unit (CSICU) in a large academic hospital. A preintervention chart audit revealed that fewer than 10% of patients were admitted to the CSICU with glucose <200 mg/dL, prompting the initiation of the quality improvement project. Following protocol implementation, more than 90% of patients were admitted with a glucose <200 mg/dL. Key elements to success include barrier analysis and intervention, provider education, and broadening the project scope to address the intraoperative period. PMID:22091218
Duffy, Joanne R; Hoskins, Lois M; Dudley-Brown, Sharon
Newly discharged older adults with heart failure continue to experience frequent hospital readmissions, lower quality of life, and decreased satisfaction with health services. A theory-guided intervention delivered by home health nurses via the telephone was studied using a randomized controlled trial to assess its feasibility and inform further studies. Findings generated a profile of older adults with heart failure, utilization by patients and nurses, operational issues, and preliminary data on intended outcomes. Implications for further study are presented.
Background Because early life growth has long-lasting metabolic and behavioral consequences, intervention during this period of developmental plasticity may alter long-term obesity risk. While modifiable factors during infancy have been identified, until recently, preventive interventions had not been tested. The Intervention Nurses Starting Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT). Study is a longitudinal, randomized, controlled trial evaluating a responsive parenting intervention designed for the primary prevention of obesity. This “parenting” intervention is being compared with a home safety control among first-born infants and their parents. INSIGHT’s central hypothesis is that responsive parenting and specifically responsive feeding promotes self-regulation and shared parent–child responsibility for feeding, reducing subsequent risk for overeating and overweight. Methods/Design 316 first-time mothers and their full-term newborns were enrolled from one maternity ward. Two weeks following delivery, dyads were randomly assigned to the “parenting” or “safety” groups. Subsequently, research nurses conduct study visits for both groups consisting of home visits at infant age 3–4, 16, 28, and 40 weeks, followed by annual clinic-based visits at 1, 2, and 3 years. Both groups receive intervention components framed around four behavior states: Sleeping, Fussy, Alert and Calm, and Drowsy. The main study outcome is BMI z-score at age 3 years; additional outcomes include those related to patterns of infant weight gain, infant sleep hygiene and duration, maternal responsiveness and soothing strategies for infant/toddler distress and fussiness, maternal feeding style and infant dietary content and physical activity. Maternal outcomes related to weight status, diet, mental health, and parenting sense of competence are being collected. Infant temperament will be explored as a moderator of parenting effects, and blood is collected to obtain genetic
Ezendam, Nicole PM; Oenema, Anke; van de Looij-Jansen, Petra M; Brug, Johannes
Background Computer tailoring may be a promising technique for prevention of overweight in adolescents. However, very few well-developed, evidence-based computer-tailored interventions are available for this target group. We developed and evaluated a computer-tailored intervention for adolescents targeting energy balance-related behaviours: i.e. consumption of snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit, vegetables, and fibre, physical activity, and sedentary behaviours. This paper describes the planned development of a school-based computer-tailored intervention aimed at improving energy balance-related behaviours in order to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents, and the protocol for evaluating this intervention. Methods/design Intervention development: Informed by the Precaution Adoption Process Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the computer-tailored intervention provided feedback on personal behaviour and suggestions on how to modify it. The intervention (VETisnietVET translated as 'FATaintPHAT') has been developed for use in the first year of secondary school during eight lessons. Evaluation design: The intervention will be evaluated in a cluster-randomised trial including 20 schools with a 4-months and a 2-years follow-up. Outcome measures are BMI, waist circumference, energy balance-related behaviours, and potential determinants of these behaviours. Process measures are appreciation of and satisfaction with the program, exposure to the program's content, and implementation facilitators and barriers measured among students and teachers. Discussion This project resulted in a theory and evidence-based intervention that can be implemented in a school setting. A large-scale randomised controlled trial with a short and long-term follow-up will provide sound statements about the effectiveness of this computer-tailored intervention in adolescents. Trial Registration ISRCTN15743786 PMID:17997834
Murray, Sonya R; Murchie, Peter; Campbell, Neil; Walter, Fiona M; Mazza, Danielle; Habgood, Emily; Kutzer, Yvonne; Martin, Andrew; Goodall, Stephen; Barnes, David J
Introduction Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide, with 1.3 million new cases diagnosed every year. It has one of the lowest survival outcomes of any cancer because over two-thirds of patients are diagnosed when curative treatment is not possible. International research has focused on screening and community interventions to promote earlier presentation to a healthcare provider to improve early lung cancer detection. This paper describes the protocol for a phase II, multisite, randomised controlled trial, for patients at increased risk of lung cancer in the primary care setting, to facilitate early presentation with symptoms of lung cancer. Methods/analysis The intervention is based on a previous Scottish CHEST Trial that comprised of a primary-care nurse consultation to discuss and implement a self-help manual, followed by self-monitoring reminders to improve symptom appraisal and encourage help-seeking in patients at increased risk of lung cancer. We aim to recruit 550 patients from two Australian states: Western Australia and Victoria. Patients will be randomised to the Intervention (a health consultation involving a self-help manual, monthly prompts and spirometry) or Control (spirometry followed by usual care). Eligible participants are long-term smokers with at least 20 pack years, aged 55 and over, including ex-smokers if their cessation date was less than 15 years ago. The primary outcome is consultation rate for respiratory symptoms. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from The University of Western Australia's Human Research Ethics Committee (RA/4/1/6018) and The University of Melbourne Human Research Committee (1 441 433). A summary of the results will be disseminated to participants and we plan to publish the main trial outcomes in a single paper. Further publications are anticipated after further data analysis. Findings will be presented at national and international conferences from late 2016. Trial
Bice, April A; Gunther, Mary; Wyatt, Tami
Procedural pain management is an underused practice in children. Despite the availability of efficacious treatments, many nurses do not provide adequate analgesia for painful interventions. Complementary therapies and nonpharmacologic interventions are additionally essential to managing pain. Owing to the increasing awareness of inadequate nursing utilization of pharmacologic measures for procedural pain, this paper focuses only on analgesic treatments. The aim of this review was to examine how varying degrees of quality improvement affect nursing utilization of treatments for routine pediatric procedural pain. A comprehensive search of databases including Cinahl, Medline/Pubmed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Psycinfo, and Cochrane Library was performed. Sixty-two peer-reviewed research articles were examined. Ten articles focusing on quality improvement in pediatric pain management published in English from 2001 to 2011 were included. Three themes emerged: 1) increasing nursing knowledge; 2) nursing empowerment; and 3) protocol implementation. Research critique was completed with the use of guidelines and recommendations from Creswell (2009) and Garrard (2011). The literature reveals that nurses still think that pediatric pain management is essential. Quality improvement increases nursing utilization of procedural pain treatments. Although increasing nursing knowledge improves pediatric pain management, it appears that nursing empowerment and protocol implementation increase nursing compliance more than just education alone. Nurses providing pain management can enhance their individual practice with quality improvement measures that may increase nursing adherence to institutional and nationally recommended pediatric procedural pain management guidelines.
Lane, Mary Rockwood
This article describes an advanced intervention for spiritual healing that evolved from spirit-body healing, a hermeneutic phenomenological research study. The research study examined the lived experience of art and healing with cancer patients in the Arts in Medicine program at Shands Hospital, University of Florida. Max Van Manen's method of researching the lived experience was used in 63 patients over a 4-year period. Healing themes that emerged from the research were (1) go into darkness, (2) go elsewhere, (3) art becomes the turning point, (4) slip through the veil, (5) know the truth and trust the process, (6) embody your spirit, (7) feel the healing energy of love and compassion, and (8) experience transcendence. The intervention we offer allows nurses to apply creativity and guided imagery as advanced therapeutics and to continue to provide the leadership needed for integrating spiritual healing into patient care. It is one that personifies the nursing mission formalized by many hospitals: a commitment to treat the bodies, minds, and spirits of patients to the best of our ability as part of our routine care.
Background Anxiety, Depression and Somatoform (ADSom) disorders are highly prevalent in primary care. Managing these disorders is time-consuming and requires strong commitment on behalf of the General Practitioners (GPs). Furthermore, the management of these patients is restricted by the high patient turnover rates in primary care practices, especially in the German health care system. In order to address this problem, we implement a complex, low-threshold intervention by an Advanced Practice Nurse (APN) using a mixture of case management and counseling techniques to promote self-management in these patients. Here we present the protocol of the “Self-Management Support for Anxiety, Depression and Somatoform Disorders in Primary Care” (SMADS)-Study. Methods/Design The study is designed as a cluster-randomized controlled trial, comparing an intervention and a control group of 10 primary care practices in each case. We will compare the effectiveness of the intervention applied by an APN with usual GP-care. A total of 340 participants will be enrolled in the study, 170 in either arm. We use the Patient Health Questionnaire-German version (PHQ-D) as a screening tool for psychiatric symptoms, including patients with a score above 5 on any of the three symptom scales. The primary outcome is self-efficacy, measured by the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE), here used as a proxy for self-management. As secondary outcomes we include the PHQ-D symptom load and questionnaires regarding coping with illness and health related quality of life. Outcome assessments will be applied 8 weeks and 12 months after the baseline assessment. Discussion The SMADS-study evaluates a complex, low threshold intervention for ambulatory patients presenting ADSom-symptoms, empowering them to better manage their condition, as well as improving their motivation to engage in self-help and health-seeking behaviour. The benefit of the intervention will be substantiated, when patients can enhance
Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Boukydis, Zack; Axelin, Anna Margareta; Lehtonen, Liisa
Parents of preterm infants commonly experience separation from their infant or exclusion from their role as primary caregivers during the hospital care of their infant, which may impair parent-infant bonding and parents' psychological well-being. Therefore, we developed the Close Collaboration with Parents™ intervention to improve staff skills in communicating and collaborating with parents in neonatal intensive care units (NICU), to increase parents' presence and participation into infant care, and to improve parent-infant bonding and, thereby, parents' psychological well-being and later child development. The Close Collaboration with Parents™ intervention was developed and carried out at Turku University Hospital. The intervention was based on developmental theories about early parenthood and parent-infant attachment. The training was targeted at both doctors and nurses. The goals of the training included understanding individual behaviors and responses of infants and the uniqueness of families, using receptive listening skills in communication with parents and making decisions collaboratively with them. By increasing the sensitivity of the staff to the individual needs of infants and parents and by increasing staff-parent collaboration in daily care, the intervention supported parents' presence and parents' participation in the care of their infant. The effectiveness of the intervention is being evaluated in a prospective study comparing the post-intervention cohort (n=113) to the baseline cohort (n=232). The outcomes include bonding, long-term psychological well-being of both mothers and fathers and child development up to 5 years of age. The Close Collaboration with Parents™ intervention potentially offers a preventive and salutogenic model to integrate parents and parenting in neonatal hospital care.
Beukers, Laura; Berends, Tamara; de Man-van Ginkel, Janneke M; van Elburg, Annemarie A; van Meijel, Berno
An important part of inpatient treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa is to restore normal eating behaviour. Health-care professionals play a significant role in this process, but little is known about their interventions during patients' meals. The purpose of the present study was to describe nursing interventions aimed at restoring normal eating behaviour in patients with anorexia nervosa. The main research question was: 'Which interventions aimed at restoring normal eating behaviour do health-care professionals in a specialist eating disorder centre use during meal times for adolescents diagnosed with anorexia nervosa? The present study was a qualitative, descriptive study that used video recordings made during mealtimes. Thematic data analysis was applied. Four categories of interventions emerged from the data: (i) monitoring and instructing; (ii) encouraging and motivating; (iii) supporting and understanding; and (iv) educating. The data revealed a directive attitude aimed at promoting behavioural change, but always in combination with empathy and understanding. In the first stage of clinical treatment, health-care professionals focus primarily on changing patients' eating behaviour. However, they also address the psychosocial needs that become visible in patients as they struggle to restore normal eating behaviour. The findings of the present study can be used to assist health-care professionals, and improve multidisciplinary guidelines and health-care professionals' training programmes.
Levy-Storms, Lene; Schnelle, John F.; Simmons, Sandra F.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of family members' responses to open-ended interview questions about an intervention to improve incontinence and mobility care for their relative in a nursing home. Design and Methods: The study was a randomized, controlled intervention trial with incontinent nursing home residents…
Becherer, Vicky H.
With the ever-changing healthcare systems, nursing students need to think at a high level by applying their knowledge from theory to the clinical setting by prioritizing, delegating, and problem solving to provide safe, competent, quality nursing care. Using action research, nursing students participated in R.A.V.E. (Reflective Thinking Allows…
Dunlop, Susan Rebecca; Kent, Vicky P; Lashley, Mary; Caruana, Trish
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare, progressive, and terminal neurodegenerative disease characterized by problems with ambulation, balance, mobility, vision, speech, swallowing, and behavior during the 7- to 10-year course of the illness. Substantial evidence in the nursing literature supports the benefits of patient education, self-management, chronic disease management, telehealth, and nurse navigation programs, which enhance patient and caregiver knowledge, improve day-to-day management by developing an awareness of resources, decrease dependence on services, and address caregiver needs. The Cure PSP Care Guide is a targeted telehealth nursing intervention aimed at providing knowledge, guidance, and resources to the vulnerable individuals and families living with PSP; identifying local resources; and building community. During the course of two telephone calls, individuals and their caregivers are assessed to develop a Cure PSP Care Guide designed to provide guidance along the trajectory. A knowledge assessment, self-efficacy scale, and Caregiver Strain Index are administered before and after the intervention to determine the program intervention effect. Caregiver knowledge assessments improved after the intervention, whereas strain scores were static. Qualitative data show the ability of the intervention to address caregiver needs for knowledge and support, daily management tips, and resource identification. The preliminary quantitative and qualitative data collected on this pilot project justify further exploration of the use of telehealth to remotely deliver nurse case management to the vulnerable individuals and families living with PSP.
Broyles, Lauren M; Kraemer, Kevin L; Kengor, Caroline; Gordon, Adam J
A package of clinical strategies known as alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is increasingly recommended for reducing unhealthy alcohol use, the spectrum of alcohol consumption from at-risk drinking (defined as consumption above recommended guidelines) to alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. The United States' Joint Commission issued new SBIRT-related hospital accreditation measures for alcohol. Ongoing initiatives aim to promote, support, and sustain SBIRT implementation in hospital settings. In hospital settings, nurse-delivered SBIRT may be a particularly viable and efficient model for SBIRT implementation. However, like physicians, most nurses have not been trained in how to perform SBIRT, and few authors have described alcohol-related curricula specifically for nurses. In addition, historical differences in nurse and physician professional scopes of practice, role perceptions, and patterns of care delivery suggest the need for effective SBIRT initial and continuing education and training that are tailored to the nursing profession and inpatient environments. In this article, we provide an in-depth description of the registered nurse SBIRT curriculum and describe its development and contents as well as various nurse- and setting-specific adaptations. In addition, we describe how we engaged nursing stakeholders in the development and implementation of the curriculum and discuss potential implications for future SBIRT training and delivery by nurses. SBIRT continuing education and training for nurses represents one of the first steps in expanded SBIRT implementation. Comprehensive workforce and organizational development of inpatient and nurse-delivered SBIRT may provide the means to address the entire spectrum of unhealthy alcohol use across healthcare settings.
Awbrey, Lucinda Mejdell; Juarez, Sandra M.
Management of medications in school is one of the critical roles that school nurses carry out in the school setting. In recent years, parents have come to question the medication procedures that school districts follow. Parents question why a physician's order is required for school personnel to provide over-the-counter (OTC) medications to their…
Corbett, Teresa; Walsh, Jane C; Groarke, AnnMarie; Moss-Morris, Rona; McGuire, Brian E
Introduction Many post-treatment cancer survivors experience persistent fatigue that can disrupt attempts to resume normal everyday activities after treatment. Theoretical models that aim to explain contributory factors that initiate and sustain fatigue symptoms, or that influence the efficacy of interventions for cancer-related fatigue (CrF) require testing. Adjustment to fatigue is likely to be influenced by coping behaviours that are guided by the representations of the symptom. Objectives This paper describes the protocol for a pilot trial of a systematically and theoretically designed online intervention to enable self-management of CrF after cancer treatment. Methods and analysis This 2-armed randomised controlled pilot trial will study the feasibility and potential effectiveness of an online intervention. Participants will be allocated to either the online intervention (REFRESH (Recovery from Cancer-Related Fatigue)), or a leaflet comparator. Participants 80 post-treatment cancer survivors will be recruited for the study. Interventions An 8-week online intervention based on cognitive–behavioural therapy. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome is a change in fatigue as measured by the Piper Fatigue Scale (revised). Quality of life will be measured using the Quality of Life in Adult Survivors of Cancer Scale. Outcome measures will be collected at baseline, and at completion of intervention. Results The feasibility of trial procedures will be tested, as well as the effect of the intervention on the outcomes. Conclusions This study may lead to the development of a supportive resource to target representations and coping strategies of cancer survivors with CrF post-treatment. Setting Recruitment from general public in Ireland. Ethics and dissemination This trial was approved by the Research Ethics Committee at National University of Ireland Galway in January 2013. Trial results will be communicated in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial
The care registered nurses offer makes a critical difference in the quality and cost-effectiveness of patient outcomes. The prevention and treatment of alterations in skin integrity remain primary nurse-sensitive quality indicators. Although wound prevention is a primary goal for nurses, iatrogenic wounds do occur. Neonatal patients are at greater risk for alterations in skin integrity because of the fragile nature of their skin. When skin breakdown occurs, nurses must have knowledge of effective treatment alternatives. The purpose of this article is to describe the use of a collaborative practice protocol to introduce and document patient outcomes with the use of amorphous hydrogel as a treatment modality for iatrogenic neonatal wounds. All hospitals collect data on the quality of patient care, and it has been known for some time that registered nurses can make a critical difference in the quality of patient care and the effectiveness of patient outcomes. The American Nurses Association has identified ten specific quality measures that are impacted by nursing care. Referred to as nurse-sensitive quality indicators, these measures include the maintenance of skin integrity.
Suni, Jaana H; Rinne, Marjo; Kankaanpää, Markku; Taulaniemi, Annika; Lusa, Sirpa; Lindholm, Harri; Parkkari, Jari
Introduction Nursing personnel have high risk for incidence of low back pain (LBP) followed by development of chronic pain and disability. Multiple risk factors such as patient handling, night shift work and lack of supporting work culture have been identified. In subacute LBP, high-fear avoidance is prognostic for more pain, disability and not returning to work. Lack of leisure-time physical activity predicts long-term sickness absence. The purpose of this study is to compare effectiveness of 6-month neuromuscular exercise and counselling in treating back pain in female nursing personnel with recurrent non-specific LBP pain compared with either (exercise or counselling) alone and a non-treatment control group. Methods and analysis The design is of a double-blinded four-arm randomised controlled trial with cost-effectiveness evaluation at 12 and 24 months. The study is conducted in 3 consecutive substudies. The main eligibility criteria are experience of LBP during the past 4 weeks with intensity of at least 2 (Numeric Rating Scale 0–10) and engagement in patient handling. Sample size was estimated for the primary outcome of pain intensity (visual analogue scale). Study measurements are outlined according to the model of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, which incorporates the biopsychosocial processes assessed. Ethics and dissemination This study is carried out conforming to the guidelines of good scientific practice and provisions of the declaration of Helsinki. Increasing physical and mental capacity with interventions taking place immediately after working hours near the worksite may reduce development of chronic LBP and work disability in female nursing personnel with recurrent non-specific LBP. Trial registration number NCT04165698. PMID:27900169
O'Connor, A M; Anderson, K M; Goodell, C K; Sargeant, J M
This article is the fourth of six articles addressing systematic reviews in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine. Previous articles in the series have introduced systematic reviews, discussed study designs and hierarchies of evidence, and provided details on conducting randomized controlled trials, a common design for use in systematic reviews. This article describes development of a review protocol and the first two steps in a systematic review: formulating a review question, and searching the literature for relevant research. The emphasis is on systematic reviews of questions related to interventions. The review protocol is developed prior to conducting the review and specifies the plan for the conduct of the review, identifies the roles and responsibilities of the review team and provides structured definitions related to the review question. For intervention questions, the review question should be defined by the PICO components: population, intervention, comparison and outcome(s). The literature search is designed to identify all potentially relevant original research that may address the question. Search terms related to some or all of the PICO components are entered into literature databases, and searches for unpublished literature also are conducted. All steps of the literature search are documented to provide transparent reporting of the process.
Card, Jaclyn A.; Chamberland, Lee R.
The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of one-on-one therapeutic recreation intervention on independence in leisure behavior of elderly, mentally ill residents residing in a nursing home. The researchers employed an experimental design and used the Comprehensive Leisure Rating Scale (CLEIRS) to measure independence in leisure…
Touch and massage are viable nursing modalities that are both underutilized and understudied. This underuse of touch is especially noted in settings aimed at improving the well-being of older adults. A number of studies suggest that the appropriate use of touch by nurses has the potential to significantly improve the health status of older adults. In particular, touch can be useful with cognitively impaired, institutionalized, or hospitalized older adults. Likewise, touch can be useful for improving comfort and communication among terminally ill older adults and their loved ones. This article synthesizes some of the available literature on the subject while suggesting avenues for nursing practice and education aimed at using touch as a viable and cost-effective holistic gerontological nursing intervention.
Ceass, Tasha; Parsons, Lynn C
Tobacco use contributes to the largest proportion of preventable disease, disability, and death. Use of tobacco products is at epidemic proportions in the United States. Estimates retrieved between 2012 and 2013 by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that 1 in 5 adults used tobacco products. Tobacco use was greatest among men, young adults, those living in the Midwest and south, and those with less education. Cigarette smoking resulting in inhalation of tobacco and its by-products is the most common form of tobacco use. Tobacco use results in multiple diseases, including numerous cancers and chronic diseases.
Elfenbein, Dawn M.; Schaefer, Sarah; Shumway, Cynthia; Chen, Herbert; Sippel, Rebecca S.; Schneider, David F.
Background Weight-based postoperative levothyroxine (LT4) dosing often fails to appropriately dose overweight and underweight patients. We previously created an LT4-dosing algorithm based on Body Mass Index (BMI). We hypothesize that more patients will achieve euthyroidism at their postoperative visit with the use of the protocol. Methods A prospective evaluation was performed of our previously published BMI-based LT4 dosing. All adults who underwent thyroidectomy for benign disease between 1/1/2011–12/31/2013 were included; the new protocol was implemented in 10/2012. Serum TSH was measured for all patients 6–8 weeks postoperatively, and adjustments were based on TSH. Results 330 patients were included, with 54% undergoing thyroidectomy after institution of the protocol. The groups were well matched. Prior to protocol implementation LT4 was dosed solely by weight, and 25% of patients were euthyroid at initial follow-up. After the protocol, 39% of patients were euthyroid (p=0.01). The percentage of patients who were given too high a dose of LT4 remained the same (46% vs. 42%) while there was a significant reduction in the number of patients who were given too little (29% vs. 19%, p = 0.05). The effect was most profound in patients with low and normal BMI, and there were slight gender differences. Conclusion Though correct initial dosing of LT4 remains challenging, this dosing protocol that we developed and implemented has improved patient care by increasing the number of patients who achieve euthyroidism at the first postoperative visit. We have made a change to our original protocol to incorporate gender differences into the calculation. PMID:26584573
Jameson, Paula R
Baccalaureate nursing education is stressful. The stress encompasses a range of academic, personal, clinical, and social reasons. A hardiness educational program, a tool for stress management, based on theory, research, and practice, exists to enhance the attitudes and coping strategies of hardiness (Maddi, 2007; Maddi et al., 2002). Research has shown that students who completed the hardiness educational program, subsequently improved in grade point average (GPA), college retention rates, and health (Maddi et al., 2002). Little research has been done to explore the effects of hardiness education with junior baccalaureate nursing students. Early identification of hardiness, the need for hardiness education, or stress management in this population may influence persistence in and completion of a nursing program (Hensel and Stoelting-Gettelfinger, 2011). Therefore, the aims were to determine if an increase in hardiness and a decrease in perceived stress in junior baccalaureate nursing students occurred in those who participated in a hardiness intervention. The application of the Hardiness Model and the Roy Adaptation Model established connections and conceptual collaboration among stress, stimuli, adaptation, and hardi-coping. A quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group with pre-test and post-test was used with a convenience sample of full-time junior level baccalaureate nursing students. Data were collected from August 2011 to December 2011. Results of statistical analyses by paired t-tests revealed that the hardiness intervention did not have a statistically significant effect on increasing hardiness scores. The hardiness intervention did have a statistically significant effect on decreasing perceived stress scores. The significant decrease in perceived stress was congruent with the Hardiness Model and the Roy Adaptation Model. Further hardiness research among junior baccalaureate nursing students, utilizing the entire hardiness intervention, was recommended.
Koch, Jane; Andrew, Sharon; Salamonson, Yenna; Everett, Bronwyn; Davidson, Patricia M
Tailoring information to the needs of the learner is an important strategy in contemporary education settings. Web-based learning support, informed by multimedia theory, comprising interactive quizzes, glossaries with audio, short narrated Power Point(R) presentations, animations and digitised video clips were introduced in a first year Bachelor of Nursing biological sciences subject at a university in metropolitan Sydney. All students enrolled in this unit were invited to obtain access to the site and the number of hits to the site was recorded using the student tracking facility available on WebCT, an online course delivery tool adopted widely by many educational institutions and used in this study. Eighty-five percent of students enrolled in the subject accessed the learning support site. Students' perception of the value of a learning support site was assessed using a web-based survey. The survey was completed by 123 participants, representing a response rate of 22%. Three themes emerged from the qualitative data concerning nursing students' perception of the web-based activities: 'enhances my learning', 'study at my own pace', and 'about the activities: what I really liked/disliked'. Web-based interventions, supplementing a traditionally presented nursing science course were perceived by students to be beneficial in both learning and language development. Although students value interactive, multimedia learning they were not ready to completely abandon traditional modes of learning including face-to-face lectures. The findings of this study contribute to an understanding of how web-based resources can be best used to support students' learning in bioscience.
Background Despite increased investment in its recognition and treatment, depression remains a substantial health and economic burden worldwide. Current treatment strategies generally focus on biological and psychological pathways, largely neglecting the role of lifestyle. There is emerging evidence to suggest that diet and nutrition play an important role in the risk, and the genesis, of depression. However, there are limited data regarding the therapeutic impact of dietary changes on existing mental illness. Using a randomised controlled trial design, we aim to investigate the efficacy and cost-efficacy of a dietary program for the treatment of Major Depressive Episodes (MDE). Methods/Design One hundred and seventy six eligible participants suffering from current MDE are being randomised into a dietary intervention group or a social support group. Depression status is assessed using the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Non Patient Edition) (SCID-I/NP). The intervention consists of 7 individual nutrition consulting sessions (of approximately 60 minutes), delivered by an Accredited Practising Dietitian (APD). Sessions commence within one week of baseline assessment. The intervention focuses on advocating a healthy diet based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines and the Dietary Guidelines for Adults in Greece. The control condition comprises a befriending protocol using the same visit schedule and length as the diet intervention. The study is being conducted at two locations in Victoria, Australia (a metropolitan and regional centre). Data collection occurs at baseline (pre-intervention), 3-months (post-intervention) and 6– months. The primary endpoint is MADRS scores at 3 months. A cost consequences analysis will determine the economic value of the intervention. Discussion If efficacious, this program could provide an alternative or adjunct treatment
Background Argentina and Uruguay are among the countries with the highest proportion of pregnant women who smoke. The implementation of an effective smoking cessation intervention would have a significant impact on the health of mothers and infants. The “5 A’s” (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) is a strategy consisting of a brief cessation counseling session of 5–15 minutes delivered by a trained provider. The “5 A’s” is considered the standard of care worldwide; however, it is under used in Argentina and Uruguay. Methods We will conduct a two-arm, parallel cluster randomized controlled trial of an implementation intervention in 20 prenatal care settings in Argentina and Uruguay. Prenatal care settings will be randomly allocated to either an intervention or a control group after a baseline data collection period. Midwives’ facilitators in the 10 intervention prenatal clinics (clusters) will be identified and trained to deliver the “5 A’s” to pregnant women and will then disseminate and implement the program. The 10 clusters in the control group will continue with their standard in-service activities. The intervention will be tailored by formative research to be readily applicable to local prenatal care services at maternity hospitals and acceptable to local pregnant women and health providers. Our primary hypothesis is that the intervention is feasible in prenatal clinics in Argentina and Uruguay and will increase the frequency of women receiving tobacco use cessation counseling during pregnancy in the intervention clinics compared to the control clinics. Our secondary hypotheses are that the intervention will decrease the frequency of women who smoke by the end of pregnancy, and that the intervention will increase the attitudes and readiness of midwives towards providing counseling to women in the intervention clinics compared to the control clinics. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01852617 PMID:23971512
El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Elmeniawy, Nagwa Zein El Abdeen A; Morsy, Tosson A
participant had adequate knowledge (> 60% from total score) in the pre-test 94% in the post-test 74% after 3 month with significant difference among pre, post and FU regarding adequate knowledge. Also, there were significant improvement P = < 0.001 of correct knowledge about hypertension, dengue fever, skin scalding & others diseases during pilgrim among nurses at military hospital, the highest improvement was in skin scalding prevention the lowest was in first aid bag. 28% of participant had adequate knowledge (> 60% from total score) in the pre-test 92% in the post-test 61% after 3 month with significant difference among pre, post and FU regarding adequate knowledge. There was a significant difference between total knowledge score according to education, and work experience (P > 0.05). in the pre, post and after 3 month in age and in all intervention time in department the highest was ICU then ward then operation room.
Bogart, Laura M; Mutchler, Matt G; McDavitt, Bryce; Mutepfa, Kieta D; Risley, Brian
Background HIV-positive African Americans have been shown to have lower adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) than those of other races/ethnicities, yet adherence interventions have rarely been tailored to the needs of this population. Objective We developed and will evaluate a treatment education adherence intervention (called Rise) that was culturally adapted to address the needs of African Americans living with HIV. Methods This randomized controlled trial will examine the effects of the Rise intervention on ART adherence and HIV viral load. African Americans on ART who report adherence problems will be recruited from the community and randomly assigned to receive the intervention or usual care for 6 months. The intervention consists of 6-10 individual counseling sessions, with more sessions provided to those who demonstrate lower adherence. Primary outcomes include adherence as monitored continuously with Medication Event Monitoring Systems (MEMS) caps, and viral load data received from the participant’s medical provider. Survey assessments will be administered at baseline and month 6. Results The trial is ongoing. Conclusions If effective, the Rise intervention will provide community-based organizations with an intervention tailored to address the needs of African Americans for promoting optimal ART adherence and HIV clinical outcomes. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01350544; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01350544 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6fjqqnmn0). PMID:27025399
Baruch, Terrence; Rock, Alisa; Koenig, William J; Rokos, Ivan; French, William J
Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is the preferred method of reperfusion for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), if it can be performed in a timely manner by an experienced interventional cardiologist at a high volume STEMI Receiving Center. However, an estimated 50% of STEMI patients present to STEMI Referral Centers without PPCI capability. Transfer of STEMI patients for PPCI has been shown to improve outcomes as compared with fibrinolysis given at the presenting hospital. Nonetheless, transfer of STEMI patients for PPCI has not been used extensively in the United States and is associated with markedly prolonged transfer times. This study demonstrates that rapid transfer of STEMI patients from community hospitals without PPCI capability to a STEMI Receiving Center is both safe and feasible using a standardized protocol with an integrated transfer system.
Wunder, Linda L
Simulation-based education provides a safe place for student registered nurse anesthetists to practice non-technical skills before entering the clinical arena. An anesthetist's lack of nontechnical skills contributes to adverse patient outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an educational intervention on nontechnical skills could improve the performance of nontechnical skills during anesthesia crisis simulation with a group of first-year student registered nurse anesthetists. Thirty-two first-year students volunteered for this quasi-experimental study. Each subject was videotaped and rated as he or she performed 6 simulated crisis scenarios: 3 scenarios before the intervention and 3 after the intervention. Findings revealed that the nontechnical skills mean posttest score was greater than pretest scores: t (df = 31) = 1.99, P = .028. The mean gain in scores for standardized nontechnical skills were significantly greater than those for standardized technical skills: t (df = 30) = 1.81, P = .04. In conclusion, a 3-hour educational intervention on nontechnical skills resulted in significant improvement. Nontechnical skills therefore are not acquired through experience, but rather through instruction. An educational intervention using the Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills system is a valuable tool in the measurement of nontechnical skills assessment of first-year student registered nurse anesthetists.
Adom, Theodosia; Puoane, Thandi; De Villiers, Anniza; Kengne, André Pascal
Introduction The increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight in childhood in developing countries is a public health concern to many governments. Schools play a significant role in the obesity epidemic as well as provide favourable environments for change in behaviours in childhood which can be carried on into adulthood. There is dearth of information on intervention studies in poor-resource settings. This review will summarise the available evidence on school-based interventions that focused on promoting healthy eating and physical activity among learners aged 6–15 years in Africa and to identify factors that lead to successful interventions or potential barriers to success of these programmes within the African context. Methods and analysis This protocol is developed following the guidelines of PRIMSA-P 2015. Relevant search terms and keywords generated from the subject headings and the African search filter will be used to conduct a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (PubMed), MEDLINE (EbscoHost), CINAHL (EbscoHost), Register Academic Search Complete (EbscoHost) and ISI Web of Science (Science Citation Index) for published literature on school-based interventions to prevent and control obesity in learners in Africa. Grey literature will be also be obtained. The searches will cover 1 January 2000 to 30 June 2016. No language limitations will be applied. Full-text articles of eligible studies will be screened. Risk of bias and quality of reporting will be assessed. Data will be extracted, synthesised and presented by country and major regional groupings. Meta-analysis will be conducted for identical variables across studies, where data allow. This protocol is developed following the guidelines of PRISMA-P 2015. Ethics and dissemination No primary data will be collected hence ethics is not a requirement. The findings will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals, in conferences and in policy documents for decision-making, where needed. PMID
LaRose, Patrick S., Sr.
The role of the registered nurse has evolved over the years as technology has changed and the practice of nursing has advanced. There are many factors that influence how a new nurse enters practice; however, confidence appears to play a large role in the way nursing students see themselves and how this self perception regulates transition to…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2013
The "Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol"[R] ("SIOP"[R]) is a framework for planning and delivering instruction in content areas such as science, history, and mathematics to English language learners as well as other students. The goal of "SIOP"[R] is to help teachers integrate academic language development…
Turner, Katrina; McCarthy, Valerie Lander
Undergraduate nursing students experience significant stress and anxiety, inhibiting learning and increasing attrition. Twenty-six intervention studies were identified and evaluated, updating a previous systematic review which categorized interventions targeting: (1) stressors, (2) coping, or (3) appraisal. The majority of interventions in this review aimed to reduce numbers or intensity of stressors through curriculum development (12) or to improve students' coping skills (8). Two studies reported interventions using only cognitive reappraisal while three interventions combined reappraisal with other approaches. Strength of evidence was limited by choice of study design, sample size, and lack of methodological rigor. Some statistically significant support was found for interventions focused on reducing stressors through curriculum development or improving students' coping skills. No statistically significant studies using reappraisal, either alone or in combination with other approaches, were identified, although qualitative findings suggested the potential benefits of this approach do merit further study. Progress was noted since 2008 in the increased number of studies and greater use of validated outcome measures but the review concluded further methodologically sound, adequately powered studies, especially randomized controlled trials, are needed to determine which interventions are effective to address the issue of excessive stress and anxiety among undergraduate nursing students.
Yamazaki, Fumio; Yamada, Hisao; Morikawa, Sachiko
To determine the effectiveness of habitual exercise on the health promotion of college students, we measured the body composition and physical fitness of female nursing students before (Pre) and after (Post) an 8-week low-intensity exercise intervention. We also conducted a questionnaire survey of their mental health condition before and at every 4 weeks during the intervention. The quantity of physical exercise increased (P < 0.0001) from 0.9 ± 0.2 METs･hr/week in the pre-intervention period to 6.6 ± 0.7 METs･hr /week during the intervention period. The exercise intervention did not alter the body weight, but decreased the body fat (Pre, 26.8 ± 0.5%; Post, 24.9 ± 0.5%, P < 0.01) and increased the whole-body muscle mass (Pre, 69.1 ± 0.5%; Post, 70.8 ± 0.4%, P < 0.01). The results of physical fitness tests showed that the intervention promoted muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, agility, and muscular power. The scores for mental health were significantly raised by the intervention. These results suggest that habitual exercise for 8 weeks was effective for the promotion of physical and mental health in female nursing students.
Northern Manhattan Hispanic Caregiver Intervention Effectiveness Study: protocol of a pragmatic randomised trial comparing the effectiveness of two established interventions for informal caregivers of persons with dementia
Luchsinger, José A; Burgio, Louis; Mittelman, Mary; Dunner, Ilana; Levine, Jed A; Kong, Jian; Silver, Stephanie; Ramirez, Mildred; Teresi, Jeanne A
Introduction The prevalence of dementia is increasing without a known cure, resulting in an increasing number of informal caregivers. Caring for a person with dementia results in increased stress and depressive symptoms. There are several behavioural interventions designed to alleviate stress and depressive symptoms in caregivers of persons with dementia with evidence of efficacy. Two of the best-known interventions are the New York University Caregiver Intervention (NYUCI) and the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregivers Health (REACH). The effectiveness of the NYUCI and REACH has never been compared. There is also a paucity of data on which interventions are more effective in Hispanics in New York City. Thus, we proposed the Northern Manhattan Hispanic Caregiver intervention Effectiveness Study (NHiCE), a pragmatic clinical trial designed to compare the effectiveness of adaptations of the NYUCI and the REACH in informal Hispanic caregivers of persons with dementia in New York City. Methods and analysis NHiCE is a 6-month randomised controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of adaptations of the NYUCI and REACH among 200 Hispanic informal adult caregivers of persons with dementia. The planned number of sessions of the NYUCI and REACH are similar. The primary outcome measures are changes from baseline to 6 months in the Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale and Geriatric Depression Scale. Our primary approach to analyses will be intent-to-treat. The primary analyses will use mixed random effects models, and a full information maximum likelihood approach, with sensitivity analyses using generalised estimating equation. Ethics and dissemination NHiCE is approved by the Institutional Review Board of Columbia University Medical Center (protocol AAAM5150). A Data Safety Monitoring Board monitors the progress of the study. Dissemination will include reports of the characteristics of the study participants, as well as a report of the results of the clinical trial. Trial
Background Psychopathology in women after childbirth represents a significant risk factor for parenting and infant mental health. Regarding child development, these infants are at increased risk for developing unfavorable attachment strategies to their mothers and for subsequent behavioral, emotional and cognitive impairments throughout childhood. To date, the specific efficacy of an early attachment-based parenting group intervention under standard clinical outpatient conditions, and the moderators and mediators that promote attachment security in infants of mentally ill mothers, have been poorly evaluated. Methods/Design This randomized controlled clinical trial tests whether promoting attachment security in infancy with the Circle of Security (COS) Intervention will result in a higher rate of securely attached children compared to treatment as usual (TAU). Furthermore, we will determine whether the distributions of securely attached children are moderated or mediated by variations in maternal sensitivity, mentalizing, attachment representations, and psychopathology obtained at baseline and at follow-up. We plan to recruit 80 mother-infant dyads when infants are aged 4-9 months with 40 dyads being randomized to each treatment arm. Infants and mothers will be reassessed when the children are 16-18 months of age. Methodological aspects of the study are systematic recruitment and randomization, explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria, research assessors and coders blinded to treatment allocation, advanced statistical analysis, manualized treatment protocols and assessments of treatment adherence and integrity. Discussion The aim of this clinical trial is to determine whether there are specific effects of an attachment-based intervention that promotes attachment security in infants. Additionally, we anticipate being able to utilize data on maternal and child outcome measures to obtain preliminary indications about potential moderators of the intervention and
Zhang, Yuan; Flum, Marian; West, Cheryl; Punnett, Laura
The long-term care sector is characterized by high morbidity and employee turnover, along with associated costs. Effective health protection and health promotion are important to improve physical and psychosocial well-being of caregivers. Assessment of organizational readiness for change is an essential precursor to the successful implementation of workplace programs addressing work climate, structure of tasks and relationships, and other issues that may be perceived as challenging by some within the institution. This study qualitatively assessed readiness of five skilled nursing facilities for a participatory occupational health/health promotion intervention. Selection criteria were developed to screen for program feasibility and ability to conduct prospective evaluations, and information was collected from managers and employees (interviews and focus groups). Three centers were selected for the program, and the first year of formative evaluation and intervention experience was then reviewed to evaluate and modify our selection criteria after the fact. Lessons learned include adding assessment of communication and the structure of problem solving to our selection criteria, improving methods to assess management support in a concrete (potentially nonverbal) form, and obtaining a stated financial commitment and resources to enable the team to function. Assessment of organizational readiness for change is challenging, although necessary to implement effective and sustainable health promotion programs in specific organizations.
Quee, Piotr J; Stiekema, Annemarie P M; Wigman, Johanna T W; Schneider, Harald; van der Meer, Lisette; Maples, Natalie J; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Velligan, Dawn I; Bruggeman, Richard
Cognitive Adaptation Training (CAT) improves functional outcomes in schizophrenia outpatients living in the United States. The effectiveness of CAT for patients living outside the US as well as for long-term hospitalized patients remains to be determined. In addition, it has not yet been studied whether CAT can be successful if patients receive the treatment from psychiatric nurses. This pilot study investigated the effectiveness and feasibility of CAT as a nursing intervention in the Netherlands. Thirty schizophrenia patients (long-term hospitalized patients: 63%) participated in this study. Sixteen patients received treatment as usual (TAU)+CAT, and fourteen patients received TAU. Patients in CAT participated in the treatment for eight months, consisting of weekly home-visits by a psychiatric nurse, supervised by a psychologist. After eight months, CAT interventions were integrated in the usual treatment. Outcome measures were the Multnomah Community Ability Scale (MCAS), the Social and Occupational Functioning Scale (SOFAS), and the Negative Symptom Assessment-Motivation subscale (NSA-M). For inpatients, work-related activities were also tracked for 16 months after baseline. Patients receiving TAU+CAT had better scores on the MCAS (trend), compared to TAU patients. Moreover, inpatients' work-related activities increased in TAU+CAT, relative to TAU inpatients, reaching significance after ten months. Improvements on the SOFAS and NSA-M were not significant. These results indicate that CAT as a nursing intervention may improve outcomes in patients with schizophrenia living in the Netherlands, including long-term hospitalized patients. However, since the current study was designed for exploratory purposes, larger randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm our results and to investigate the long-term effects of CAT as a nursing intervention systematically.
DeSocio, Janiece E; Holland, Margaret L; Kitzman, Harriet J; Cole, Robert E
Pregnancy among unmarried adolescents has been linked to negative personal control beliefs. In contrast, self-agency beliefs about control over future possibilities have been linked to delay in subsequent childbearing. In this secondary analysis, we examined factors associated with self-agency change in 429 unmarried adolescent mothers from intervention and control groups of a nurse home visitation study. Adolescent mothers who participated in a sustained relationship with a nurse made greater gains in self-agency than did control group mothers (p = .034). Adolescents with lower cognitive ability who were behind their age-appropriate grade level in school made the greatest self-agency gains.
Sawyer, Michael G; Reece, Christy E; Bowering, Kerrie; Jeffs, Debra; Sawyer, Alyssa C P; Peters, Jacqueline D; Mpundu-Kaambwa, Christine; Clark, Jennifer J; McDonald, Denise; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lynch, John W
Objectives To identify factors predicting use, adherence and attrition with a nurse-moderated web-based group intervention designed to support mothers of infants aged 0–6 months. Design 9-Month observational study. Setting Community maternal and child health service. Participants 240 mothers attending initial postnatal health checks at community clinics who were randomly assigned to the intervention arm of a pragmatic preference randomised trial (total randomised controlled trial, n=819; response rate=45%). Intervention In the first week (phase I), mothers were assisted with their first website login by a research assistant. In weeks 2–7 (phase II), mothers participated in the web-based intervention with an expectation of weekly logins. The web-based intervention was comparable to traditional face-to-face new mothers’ groups. During weeks 8–26 (phase III), mothers participated in an extended programme at a frequency of their choosing. Primary outcome measures Number of logins and posted messages. Standard self-report measures assessed maternal demographic and psychosocial characteristics. Results In phase II, the median number of logins was 9 logins (IQR=1–25), and in phase III, it was 10 logins (IQR=0–39). Incident risk ratios from multivariable analyses indicated that compared to mothers with the lowest third of logins in phase I, those with the highest third had 6.43 times as many logins in phase II and 7.14 times in phase III. Fifty per cent of mothers logged-in at least once every 30 days for 147 days after phase I and 44% logged-in at least once in the last 30 days of the intervention. Frequency of logins during phase I was a stronger predictor of mothers’ level of engagement with the intervention than their demographic and psychosocial characteristics. Conclusions Mothers’ early use of web-based interventions could be employed to customise engagement protocols to the circumstances of individual mothers with the aim of improving
Nurses are mandated reporters of actual or suspected child maltreatment or the threat thereof. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to determine the knowledge and comfort of nurses in telephone triage in pediatric clinics when dealing with suspected or actual child abuse calls. Nurses (N = 17) from three pediatric primary care clinics and one specialty care orthopedic clinic were surveyed. Based on results of the survey showing a lack of knowledge and adequate referral resources perceived by the nursing staff, resources and staff education were developed, along with a script for guiding maltreatment calls toward standardization of care. Following the intervention, nurses reported an increased comfort level when doing telephone triage for child maltreatment calls, an increase in knowledge of risk factors for county resources. Further, they reported a substantial shift in opinion about the need for a standardized script when responding to child maltreatment telephone calls. Nurses undertaking telephone triage of high-risk child maltreatment calls can improve their comfort and knowledge through a survey of their needs and directed education and resource development for the management of child maltreatment telephone triage.
Background Despite the existence of formal professional support services, informal support (mainly family members) continues to be the main source of eldercare, especially for those who are dependent or disabled. Professionals on the primary health care are the ideal choice to educate, provide psychological support, and help to mobilize social resources available to the informal caregiver. Controversy remains concerning the efficiency of multiple interventions, taking a holistic approach to both the patient and caregiver, and optimum utilization of the available community resources. .For this reason our goal is to assess whether an intervention designed to improve the social support for caregivers effectively decreases caregivers burden and improves their quality of life. Methods/design Design: Controlled, multicentre, community intervention trial, with patients and their caregivers randomized to the intervention or control group according to their assigned Primary Health Care Team (PHCT). Study area: Primary Health Care network (9 PHCTs). Study participants: Primary informal caregivers of patients receiving home health care from participating PHCTs. Sample: Required sample size is 282 caregivers (141 from PHCTs randomized to the intervention group and 141 from PHCTs randomized to the control group. Intervention: a) PHCT professionals: standardized training to implement caregivers intervention. b) Caregivers: 1 individualized counselling session, 1 family session, and 4 educational group sessions conducted by participating PHCT professionals; in addition to usual home health care visits, periodic telephone follow-up contact and unlimited telephone support. Control: Caregivers and dependent patients: usual home health care, consisting of bimonthly scheduled visits, follow-up as needed, and additional attention upon request. Data analysis Dependent variables: Caregiver burden (short-form Zarit test), caregivers’ social support (Medical Outcomes Study), and
Nurse-led motivational interviewing to change the lifestyle of patients with type 2 diabetes (MILD-project): protocol for a cluster, randomized, controlled trial on implementing lifestyle recommendations
Jansink, Renate; Braspenning, Jozé; van der Weijden, Trudy; Niessen, Louis; Elwyn, Glyn; Grol, Richard
Background The diabetes of many patients is managed in general practice; healthcare providers aim to promote healthful behaviors, such as healthful diet, adequate physical activity, and smoking cessation. These measures may decrease insulin resistance, improve glycemic control, lipid abnormalities, and hypertension. They may also prevent cardiovascular disease and complications of diabetes. However, professionals do not adhere optimally to guidelines for lifestyle counseling. Motivational interviewing to change the lifestyle of patients with type 2 diabetes is intended to improve diabetes care in accordance with the national guidelines for lifestyle counseling. Primary care nurses will be trained in motivational interviewing embedded in structured care in general practice. The aim of this paper is to describe the design and methods of a study evaluating the effects of the nurses' training on patient outcomes. Methods/Design A cluster, randomized, controlled trial involving 70 general practices (35 practices in the intervention arm and 35 in the control arm) starting in March 2007. A total of 700 patients with type 2 diabetes will be recruited. The patients in the intervention arm will receive care from the primary care nurse, who will receive training in an implementation strategy with motivational interviewing as the core component. Other components of this strategy will be adaptation of the diabetes protocol to local circumstances, introduction of a social map for lifestyle support, and educational and supportive tools for sustaining motivational interviewing. The control arm will be encouraged to maintain usual care. The effect measures will be the care process, metabolic parameters (glycosylated hemoglobin, blood pressure and lipids), lifestyle (diet, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol), health-related quality of life, and patients' willingness to change behaviors. The measurements will take place at baseline and after 14 months. Discussion Applying
Kumin, Libby; Von Hagel, Kimberly Chapman; Bahr, Diane Chapman
Parents were trained to provide infants (n=4) with low muscle tone secondary to Down Syndrome with a home intervention oral motor training program. Four case studies indicate that all four children demonstrated improved oral motor function for eating, drinking, and speaking. (Contains references.) (DB)
Abraha, Iosief; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso; Soiza, Roy L; O'Mahony, Denis; Cherubini, Antonio
Introduction Non-pharmacological therapies for common chronic medical conditions in older patients are underused in clinical practice. We propose a protocol for the assessment of the evidence of non-pharmacological interventions to prevent or treat relevant outcomes in several prevalent geriatric conditions in order to provide recommendations. Methods and analysis The conditions of interest for which the evidence about efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions will be searched include delirium, falls, pressure sores, urinary incontinence, dementia, heart failure, orthostatic hypotension, sarcopaenia and stroke. For each condition, the following steps will be undertaken: (A) prioritising clinical questions; (B) retrieving the evidence (MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL and PsychINFO will be searched to identify systematic reviews); (C) assessing the methodological quality of the evidence (risk of bias according to the Cochrane method will be applied to the primary studies retrieved from the systematic reviews); (D) developing recommendations based on the evidence (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) items—risk of bias, imprecision, inconsistency, indirectness and publication bias—will be used to rate the overall evidence and develop recommendations). Dissemination For each target condition, at least one systematic overview concerning the evidence of non-pharmacological interventions will be produced and published in peer-reviewed journals. PMID:25628049
Holtrop, Jodi Summers; Baumann, Jeanne; Arnold, Anita K; Torres, Trissa
This study used nurses as practice change consultants to help primary care medical practices improve their delivery of health behavior services to patients. Nurse consultants worked with 20 practices from 2 healthcare systems. In each practice, the nurses helped clinicians and staff to develop a practice-specific protocol so that they could identify and intervene with the health behavior of their patients. As a result of the nurse consultant intervention, health behavior delivery was improved. This article describes the specific methods and the lessons learned through this study. We encourage practices to use nurse consultants as one way of improving quality of care.
Schou, S; Christensen, J; Hintze, H; Wenzel, A
Objectives: To perform an audit of a three-step protocol for radiographic examination of mandibular third molars before surgery. Methods: 1769 teeth underwent surgery. A standardized three-step radiographic protocol was followed: (1) panoramic imaging (PAN), (2) stereoscanography (SCAN) and (3) CBCT. If there was overprojection between the tooth and the canal in PAN, SCAN was performed. If the tooth was determined to be in close contact with the canal in SCAN, CBCT was performed. Close contact between the tooth and the canal was assessed in all images, and patient-reported sensory disturbances from the alveolar inferior nerve were recorded after surgery. The relation between the final radiographic examination and sensory disturbances was determined. Logistic regression analysis tested whether signs for a close contact in PAN/SCAN could predict no bony separation between the tooth and canal in CBCT. Results: 46% of teeth underwent PAN, 31% underwent SCAN and 23% underwent CBCT as the final examination. 21% underwent all three radiographic examinations. 53/76% of teeth with close relation to the canal in PAN/SCAN showed no bony separation in CBCT; if there was close relation in PAN/SCAN, there was 1.6/4.3 times higher probability that no bony separation existed in CBCT. 16 cases of sensory disturbances were recorded: 4 operations were based on PAN, 8 on SCAN and 4 on CBCT. Conclusions: The radiographic protocol was in general followed. SCAN was superior to PAN in predicting no bony separation between the tooth and the canal in CBCT, and there was no relation between sensory disturbances and radiographic method. PMID:25216077
Background Arts-based activities are being increasingly suggested as a valuable activity for people living with dementia in terms of countering the negative aspects of their condition. The potential for such programmes to improve a broad range of psychosocial outcomes is suggested in some studies. However, there is largely an absence of rigorous methodology to demonstrate the benefits, and research results are mixed. Practice variability in terms of the content, contexts and implementation of such interventions raises challenges in terms of identifying an optimal arts programme model that could be adopted by other service providers. Understanding how interventions may have the best chance at broad implementation success and uptake is limited. Methods/Design A realist review will be undertaken. This aims to understand how visual arts interventions influence outcomes in people living with dementia. The review will explore how the context, that is the circumstances which enable or constrain, affect outcomes through the activation of mechanisms. An early scoping search and a stakeholder survey formulated the preliminary programme theory. A systematic literature search across a broad range of disciplines (arts, humanities, social sciences, health) will be undertaken to identify journal articles and grey literature. Data will be extracted in relation to the programme theory, contextual factors, mechanisms and outcomes and their configurations, background information about the study design and participant characteristics, detail about the quantity (‘dose’) of an intervention, theoretical perspectives proposed by the authors of the paper and further theorising by the reviewer. Thematic connections/patterns will be sought across the extracted data, identifying patterns amongst contextual factors, the mechanisms they trigger and the associated outcomes. Discussion Along with stakeholder engagement and validation, this review will help inform the development of an optimal
O'Brien, Kelly K; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Solomon, Patricia; Tang, Ada; Murzin, Kate; Chan Carusone, Soo; Zobeiry, Mehdi; Nayar, Ayesha; Davis, Aileen M
Introduction Our aim was to evaluate a community-based exercise (CBE) intervention with the goal of reducing disability and enhancing health for community-dwelling people living with HIV (PLWH). Methods and analysis We will use a mixed-methods implementation science study design, including a prospective longitudinal interrupted time series study, to evaluate a CBE intervention with PLWH in Toronto, Canada. We will recruit PLWH who consider themselves medically stable and safe to participate in exercise. In the baseline phase (0–8 months), participants will be monitored bimonthly. In the intervention phase (8–14 months), participants will take part in a 24-week CBE intervention that includes aerobic, resistance, balance and flexibility exercise at the YMCA 3 times per week, with weekly supervision by a fitness instructor, and monthly educational sessions. In the follow-up phase (14–22 months), participants will be encouraged to continue to engage in unsupervised exercise 3 times per week. Quantitative assessment: We will assess cardiopulmonary fitness, strength, weight, body composition and flexibility outcomes followed by the administration of self-reported questionnaires to assess disability and contextual factor outcomes (coping, mastery, stigma, social support) bimonthly. We will use time series regression analysis to determine the level and trend of outcomes across each phase in relation to the intervention. Qualitative assessment: We will conduct a series of face-to-face interviews with a subsample of participants and recreation providers at initiation, midpoint and completion of the 24-week CBE intervention. We will explore experiences and anticipated benefits with exercise, perceived impact of CBE for PLWH and the strengths and challenges of implementing a CBE intervention. Interviews will be audio recorded and analysed thematically. Ethics and dissemination Protocol approved by the University of Toronto HIV/AIDS Research Ethics Board. Knowledge
Cossette, Sylvie; D'Aoust, Louis-Xavier; Morin, Magali; Heppell, Sonia; Frasure-Smith, Nancy
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a leading cause of morbidity worldwide. Although cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs can decrease recurrence of coronary events by as much as 25%, few patients engage in CR after a cardiac event. Current therapeutic procedures for ACS are provided quickly after the onset of symptoms, resulting in briefer hospital stays. Therefore, within this shorter time frame, the education of patients about ACS risk factors and their reduction presents a new nursing challenge. The purpose of this paper is to describe the systematic pathway in the development of a nursing intervention which addresses these new challenges in ACS risk factor reduction. The intervention aims to increase enrollment in CR, and enhance illness perceptions and medication adherence, while decreasing anxiety, risk factors, and emergency revisits.
Grealish, L; Lomasney, A; Whiteman, B
This article describes the findings of an empirical study on the use of foot massage as a nursing intervention in patients hospitalized with cancer. The study was developed from the earlier work of Ferrell-Torry and Glick (1992). In a sample of 87 subjects, a 10-minute foot massage (5 minutes per foot) was found to have a significant immediate effect on the perceptions of pain, nausea, and relaxation when measured with a visual analog scale. The use of foot massage as a complementary method is recommended as a relatively simple nursing intervention for patients experiencing nausea or pain related to the cancer experience. Further research into its effectiveness in the management of these symptoms by the family at home is warranted.
Turenne, Jeanne Pigeon; Héon, Marjolaine; Aita, Marilyn; Faessler, Joanne; Doddridge, Chantal
ABSTRACT This article presents the development and evaluation of an educational intervention aiming at an evidence-based practice of skin-to-skin contact at birth among nurses of a maternity care unit. Based on the Iowa Model of Evidence-Based Practice to Promote Quality Care, four educational sessions were developed according to an active-learning pedagogy. Even if the nurses’ practice did not fully meet the recommendations for skin-to-skin contact, a pre- and postintervention evaluation showed some positive results, such as a longer duration of skin-to-skin contact immediately after birth, delivery of some routine care directly on mothers’ chest, and improved parent education. The educational intervention seems to have enacted some evidence-based nursing practice changes regarding skin-to-skin contact at birth. PMID:27445449
For pediatric nurses, their competence in EBP is critical for providing high-quality care and maximizing patient outcomes. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess and refine a Web-based EBP educational intervention focused on improving EBP beliefs and competence in BSN-prepared pediatric bedside nurses, and to examine the feasibility,…
Hoeffer, Beverly; Talerico, Karen Amann; Rasin, Joyce; Mitchell, C. Madeline; Stewart, Babara J.; McKenzie, Darlene; Barrick, Ann Louise; Rader, Joanne; Sloane, Philip D.
Purpose: When cognitively impaired nursing home residents exhibit agitated and aggressive behaviors during bathing, nursing home caregivers are in a unique position to improve residents' experience. This report addresses whether certified nursing assistants (CNAs) who received training in a person-centered approach with showering and with the…
Background The epidemic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents a significant challenge for the health care and social service systems of many developed countries. AD affects both patients and family caregivers, on whom the main burden of care falls, putting them at higher risk of stress, anxiety, mortality and lower quality of life. Evidence remains controversial concerning the effectiveness of providing support to caregivers of AD patients, through case management, counseling, training, technological devices and the integration of existing care services. The main objectives of the UP-TECH project are: 1) to reduce the care burden of family caregivers of AD patients; and 2) to maintain AD patients at home. Methods/design A total of 450 dyads comprising AD patients and their caregivers in five health districts of the Marche region, Italy, will be randomized into three study arms. Participants in the first study arm will receive comprehensive care and support from a case manager (an ad hoc trained social worker) (UP group). Subjects in the second study arm will be similarly supported by a case manager, but in addition will receive a technological toolkit (UP-TECH group). Participants in the control arm will only receive brochures regarding available services. All subjects will be visited at home by a trained nurse who will assess them using a standardized questionnaire at enrollment (M0), 6 months (M6) and 12 months (M12). Follow-up telephone interviews are scheduled at 24 months (M24). The primary outcomes are: 1) caregiver burden, measured using the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI); and 2) the actual number of days spent at home during the study period, defined as the number of days free from institutionalizations, hospitalizations and stays in an observation unit of an emergency room. Discussion The UP-TECH project protocol integrates previous evidence on the effectiveness of strategies in dementia care, that is, the use of case management, new technologies, nurse
Klaassens, Mirjam; Meijering, Louise
Nursing homes have been criticised for not providing a home for their residents. This article aims to provide insight into (1) the features of home and institution as experienced by residents and caregivers of a secured ward in a nursing home, and (2) how interventions implemented on the ward can contribute to a more home-like environment. For this purpose, a participatory intervention study, involving both caregivers and residents, was carried out. We collected data through qualitative research methods: observations, in-depth interviews and diaries to evaluate the interventions over time. We adopted an informed grounded theory approach, and used conceptualisations of total institutions and home as a theoretical lens. We found that the studied ward had strong characteristics of a total institution, such as batch living, block treatment and limited privacy. To increase the sense of home, interventions were formulated and implemented by the caregivers to increase the residents' autonomy, control and privacy. In this process, caregivers' perceptions and attitudes towards the provision of care shifted from task-oriented to person-centred care. We conclude that it is possible to increase the home-like character of a secured ward by introducing core values of home by means of interventions involving both caregivers and residents.
Dunger, Christine; Schnell, Martin W; Bausewein, Claudia
Introduction Decision-making (DM) in healthcare can be understood as an interactive process addressing decision makers' reasoning as well as their visible behaviour after the decision is made. Other key elements of DM are ethical aspects and the role as well as the treatment options of the examined professions. Nurses' DM to choose interventions in situations of severe breathlessness is such interactions. They are also ethically relevant regarding the vulnerability of affected patients and possible restrictions or treatment options. The study aims to explore which factors influence nurses' DM to use nursing interventions in situations where patients suffer from severe breathlessness. Methods and analysis Qualitative study including nurses in German hospital wards and hospices. A triangulation of different methods of data collection—participant observation and qualitative expert interviews—and analysis merge in a reflexive grounded theory approach which integrates Goffman's framework analysis. It allows an analysis of nurses' self-statements about DM, their behaviour in relevant clinical situations and its influences. Data collection and analysis will be examined simultaneously. Ethics and dissemination Informed consent will be gained from all participants and the institutional stakeholders. Ongoing consent has to be ensured since observations will take place in healthcare institutions and many patients will be highly vulnerable. The study has been evaluated and approved by the Witten/Herdecke University Ethics Committee, Witten, Germany. Results of the study will be published at congresses and in journal papers.
Azzolin, Karina de Oliveira; Lemos, Dayanna Machado; Lucena, Amália de Fátima; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane
OBJECTIVE: to assess patient knowledge of heart failure by home-based measurement of two NOC Nursing Outcomes over a six-month period and correlate mean outcome indicator scores with mean scores of a heart failure Knowledge Questionnaire. METHODS: in this before-and-after study, patients with heart failure received four home visits over a six-month period after hospital discharge. At each home visit, nursing interventions were implemented, NOC outcomes were assessed, and the Knowledge Questionnaire was administered. RESULTS: overall, 23 patients received home visits. Mean indicator scores for the outcome Knowledge: Medication were 2.27±0.14 at home visit 1 and 3.55±0.16 at home visit 4 (P<0.001); and, for the outcome Knowledge: Treatment Regimen, 2.33±0.13 at home visit 1 and 3.59±0.14 at home visit 4 (P<0.001). The correlation between the Knowledge Questionnaire and the Nursing Outcomes Classification scores was strong at home visit 1 (r=0.7, P<0.01), but weak and non significant at visit 4. CONCLUSION: the results show improved patient knowledge of heart failure and a strong correlation between Nursing Outcomes Classification indicator scores and Knowledge Questionnaire scores. The NOC Nursing Outcomes proved effective as knowledge assessment measures when compared with the validated instrument. PMID:25806630
Wafik, Wagida; Tork, Hanan
Childhood injuries constitute a major public health problem worldwide. First aid is an effective life-preservation tool at work, school, home, and in public locations. In this study, the effectiveness of a first-aid program delivered by undergraduate nursing students to preparatory school children was examined. This quasi-experimental study was carried out on 100 school children in governmental preparatory schools in Egypt. The researchers designed a program for first-aid training, and this was implemented by trained nursing students. The evaluation involved immediate post-test and follow-up assessment after two months. The results showed generally low levels of satisfactory knowledge and inadequate situational practice among the school students before the intervention. Statistically-significant improvements were shown at the post- and follow-up tests. Multivariate regression analysis identified the intervention and the type of school as the independent predictors of the change in students' knowledge score, while the intervention and the knowledge score were the predictors of the practice score. The study concluded that a first-aid training program delivered by nursing students to preparatory school children is effective in improving their knowledge and practice.
Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Martins, Júlia Caetano; Nadeau, Sylvie; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F; Faria, Christina D C M
Introduction Stroke is a leading health problem worldwide and an important cause of disability. Stroke survivors show low levels of physical activity, and increases in physical activity levels may improve function and health status. Therefore, the aims are to identify which interventions that have been employed to increase physical activity levels with stroke survivors, to verify their efficacy and to identify the gaps in the literature. Methods and analysis A systematic review of randomised controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of interventions aiming at increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in the MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Excerpta Medica (EMBASE), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO) databases. Hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies or relevant reviews will also be employed. Two independent reviewers will screen all the retrieved titles, abstracts and full texts. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreements. The quality of the included studies will be assessed by the PEDro Rating Scale. This systematic review will also include a qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses will be performed, if the studies are sufficiently homogeneous. This review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The quality of the evidence regarding physical activity will be assessed, according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Discussion This systematic review will provide information on which interventions are effective for increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors. This evidence may be important for clinical decision-making and will allow the identification of gaps in the literature that may be useful for the definition of future research
Rubio-Valera, Maria; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Travé, Pere; Peñarrubia-María, M Teresa; Ruiz, Mar; Pujol, Marian March
Background Treatment of depression, the most prevalent and costly mental disorder, needs to be improved. Non-concordance with clinical guidelines and non-adherence can limit the efficacy of pharmacological treatment of depression. Through pharmaceutical care, pharmacists can improve patients' compliance and wellbeing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community pharmacist intervention developed to improve adherence and outcomes of primary care patients with depression. Methods/design A randomized controlled trial, with 6-month follow-up, comparing patients receiving a pharmaceutical care support programme in primary care with patients receiving usual care. The total sample comprises 194 patients (aged between 18 and 75) diagnosed with depressive disorder in a primary care health centre in the province of Barcelona (Spain). Subjects will be asked for written informed consent in order to participate in the study. Diagnosis will be confirmed using the SCID-I. The intervention consists of an educational programme focused on improving knowledge about medication, making patients aware of the importance of compliance, reducing stigma, reassuring patients about side-effects and stressing the importance of carrying out general practitioners' advice. Measurements will take place at baseline, and after 3 and 6 months. Main outcome measure is compliance with antidepressants. Secondary outcomes include; clinical severity of depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (STAI-S), health-related quality of life (EuroQol-5D), satisfaction with the treatment received, side-effects, chronic physical conditions and socio-demographics. The use of healthcare and social care services will be assessed with an adapted version of the Client Service Receipt Inventory (CSRI). Discussion This trial will provide valuable information for health professionals and policy makers on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a pharmaceutical intervention programme in
Wade, Alexandra T; Davis, Courtney R; Dyer, Kathryn A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Woodman, Richard J; Keage, Hannah A D; Murphy, Karen J
The Mediterranean diet has demonstrated efficacy for improving cardiovascular and cognitive health. However, a traditional Mediterranean diet delivers fewer serves of dairy and less dietary calcium than is currently recommended in Australia, which may limit long-term sustainability. The present study aims to evaluate whether a Mediterranean diet with adequate dairy and calcium can improve cardiovascular and cognitive function in an at-risk population, and thereby reduce risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive decline. A randomised, controlled, parallel, crossover design trial will compare a Mediterranean diet supplemented with dairy foods against a low-fat control diet. Forty participants with systolic blood pressure above 120 mmHg and at least two other risk factors of CVD will undertake each dietary intervention for eight weeks, with an eight-week washout period between interventions. Systolic blood pressure will be the primary measure of interest. Secondary outcomes will include measures of cardiometabolic health, dietary compliance, cognitive function, assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), psychological well-being and dementia risk. This research will provide empirical evidence as to whether the Mediterranean diet can be modified to provide recommended dairy and calcium intakes while continuing to deliver positive effects for cardiovascular and cognitive health. The findings will hold relevance for the field of preventative healthcare and may contribute to revisions of national dietary guidelines.
Wade, Alexandra T.; Davis, Courtney R.; Dyer, Kathryn A.; Hodgson, Jonathan M.; Woodman, Richard J.; Keage, Hannah A. D.; Murphy, Karen J.
The Mediterranean diet has demonstrated efficacy for improving cardiovascular and cognitive health. However, a traditional Mediterranean diet delivers fewer serves of dairy and less dietary calcium than is currently recommended in Australia, which may limit long-term sustainability. The present study aims to evaluate whether a Mediterranean diet with adequate dairy and calcium can improve cardiovascular and cognitive function in an at-risk population, and thereby reduce risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive decline. A randomised, controlled, parallel, crossover design trial will compare a Mediterranean diet supplemented with dairy foods against a low-fat control diet. Forty participants with systolic blood pressure above 120 mmHg and at least two other risk factors of CVD will undertake each dietary intervention for eight weeks, with an eight-week washout period between interventions. Systolic blood pressure will be the primary measure of interest. Secondary outcomes will include measures of cardiometabolic health, dietary compliance, cognitive function, assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), psychological well-being and dementia risk. This research will provide empirical evidence as to whether the Mediterranean diet can be modified to provide recommended dairy and calcium intakes while continuing to deliver positive effects for cardiovascular and cognitive health. The findings will hold relevance for the field of preventative healthcare and may contribute to revisions of national dietary guidelines. PMID:28212320
Low, Lee-Fay; Fletcher, Jennifer; Goodenough, Belinda; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Etherton-Beer, Christopher; MacAndrew, Margaret; Beattie, Elizabeth
Background We systematically reviewed interventions that attempted to change staff practice to improve long-term care resident outcomes. Methods Studies met criteria if they used a control group, included 6 or more nursing home units and quantitatively assessed staff behavior or resident outcomes. Intervention components were coded as including education material, training, audit and feedback, monitoring, champions, team meetings, policy or procedures and organizational restructure. Results Sixty-three unique studies were broadly grouped according to clinical domain—oral health (3 studies), hygiene and infection control (3 studies), nutrition (2 studies), nursing home acquired pneumonia (2 studies), depression (2 studies) appropriate prescribing (7 studies), reduction of physical restraints (3 studies), management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (6 studies), falls reduction and prevention (11 studies), quality improvement (9 studies), philosophy of care (10 studies) and other (5 studies). No single intervention component, combination of, or increased number of components was associated with greater likelihood of positive outcomes. Studies with positive outcomes for residents also tended to change staff behavior, however changing staff behavior did not necessarily improve resident outcomes. Studies targeting specific care tasks (e.g. oral care, physical restraints) were more likely to produce positive outcomes than those requiring global practice changes (e.g. care philosophy). Studies using intervention theories were more likely to be successful. Program logic was rarely articulated, so it was often unclear whether there was a coherent connection between the intervention components and measured outcomes. Many studies reported barriers relating to staff (e.g. turnover, high workload, attitudes) or organizational factors (e.g. funding, resources, logistics). Conclusion Changing staff practice in nursing homes is possible but complex
Background Depression is common in coronary heart disease (CHD) and increases the incidence of coronary symptoms and death in CHD patients. Interventions feasible for use in primary care are needed to improve both mood and cardiac outcomes. The UPBEAT-UK programme of research has been funded by the NHS National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) to explore the relationship between CHD and depression and to develop a new intervention for use in primary care. Methods Using the Medical Research Council (MRC) guidelines for developing and evaluating complex interventions, we conducted a systematic review and qualitative research to develop a primary care-based nurse-led intervention to improve mood and cardiac outcomes in patients with CHD and depression. Iterative literature review was used to synthesise our empirical work and to identify evidence and theory to inform the intervention. Results We developed a primary care-based nurse-led personalised care intervention which utilises elements of case management to promote self management. Following biopsychosocial assessment, a personalised care plan is devised. Nurses trained in behaviour change techniques facilitate patients to address the problems important to them. Identification and utilisation of existing resources is promoted. Nurse time is conserved through telephone follow up. Conclusions Application of the MRC framework for complex interventions has allowed us to develop an evidence based intervention informed by patient and clinician preferences and established theory. The feasibility and acceptability of this intervention is now being tested further in an exploratory trial. PMID:23234253
Background There is a need for novel approaches to the treatment of stimulant abuse and dependence. Clinical data examining the use of exercise as a treatment for the abuse of nicotine, alcohol, and other substances suggest that exercise may be a beneficial treatment for stimulant abuse, with direct effects on decreased use and craving. In addition, exercise has the potential to improve other health domains that may be adversely affected by stimulant use or its treatment, such as sleep disturbance, cognitive function, mood, weight gain, quality of life, and anhedonia, since it has been shown to improve many of these domains in a number of other clinical disorders. Furthermore, neurobiological evidence provides plausible mechanisms by which exercise could positively affect treatment outcomes. The current manuscript presents the rationale, design considerations, and study design of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network (CTN) CTN-0037 Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE) study. Methods/Design STRIDE is a multisite randomized clinical trial that compares exercise to health education as potential treatments for stimulant abuse or dependence. This study will evaluate individuals diagnosed with stimulant abuse or dependence who are receiving treatment in a residential setting. Three hundred and thirty eligible and interested participants who provide informed consent will be randomized to one of two treatment arms: Vigorous Intensity High Dose Exercise Augmentation (DEI) or Health Education Intervention Augmentation (HEI). Both groups will receive TAU (i.e., usual care). The treatment arms are structured such that the quantity of visits is similar to allow for equivalent contact between groups. In both arms, participants will begin with supervised sessions 3 times per week during the 12-week acute phase of the study. Supervised sessions will be conducted as one-on-one (i.e., individual) sessions, although other
Artinian, Nancy T; Schwiebert, Loren; Yarandi, Hossein; Levy, Phillip D
Background Hypertension (HTN) is a major public health concern in the United States, with almost 78 million Americans age 20 years and over suffering from the condition. Moreover, HTN is a key risk factor for health disease and stroke. African Americans disproportionately shoulder the burdens of HTN, with greater prevalence, disease severity, earlier onset, and more HTN-related complications than age-matched whites. Medication adherence for the treatment of HTN is poor, with estimates indicating that only about half of hypertensive patients are adherent to prescribed medication regimens. Although no single intervention for improving medication adherence has emerged as superior to others, text message medication reminders have the potential to help improve medication adherence in African Americans with uncontrolled HTN as mobile phone adoption is very high in this population. Objective The purpose of this two-phased study was to develop (Phase I) and test in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) (Phase II) a text message system, BPMED, to improve the quality of medication management through increasing medication adherence in African Americans with uncontrolled HTN. Methods In Phase I, we recruited 16 target end-users from a primary care clinic, to assist in the development of BPMED through participating in one of three focus groups. Focus groups sought to gain patient perspectives on HTN, medication adherence, mobile phone use, and the use of text messaging to support medication adherence. Potential intervention designs were presented to participants, and feedback on the designs was solicited. In Phase II, we conducted two pilot RCTs to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of BPMED in primary care and emergency department settings. Both pilot studies recruited approximately 60 participants, who were randomized equally between usual care and the BPMED intervention. Results Although data collection is now complete, data analysis from the
Background Several studies suggest that the number of risk factors rather than their nature is key to mental health disorders in childhood. Method and design The objective of this multicentre randomized controlled parallel trial (PROBE methodology) is to assess the impact in a multi-risk French urban sample of a home-visiting program targeting child mental health and its major determinants. This paper describes the protocol of this study. In the study, pregnant women were eligible if they were: living in the intervention area; able to speak French, less than 26 years old; having their first child; less than 27 weeks of amenorrhea; and if at least one of the following criteria were true: less than twelve years of education, intending to bring up their child without the presence of the child’s father, and 3) low income. Participants were randomized into either the intervention or the control group. All had access to usual care in mother-child centres and community mental health services free of charge in every neighbourhood. Psychologists conducted all home visits, which were planned on a weekly basis from the 7th month of pregnancy and progressively decreasing in frequency until the child’s second birthday. Principle outcome measures included child mental health at 24 months and two major mediating variables for infant mental health: postnatal maternal depression and the quality of the caring environment. A total of 440 families were recruited, of which a subsample of 120 families received specific attachment and caregiver behaviour assessment. Assessment was conducted by an independent assessment team during home visits and, for the attachment study, in a specifically created Attachment Assessment laboratory. Discussion The CAPEDP study is the first large-scale randomised, controlled infant mental health promotion programme to take place in France. A major specificity of the program was that all home visits were conducted by specifically trained
Background Fibromyalgia is associated with substantial socioeconomic loss and, despite considerable research including numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews, there exists uncertainty regarding what treatments are effective. No review has evaluated all interventional studies for fibromyalgia, which limits attempts to make inferences regarding the relative effectiveness of treatments. Methods/design We will conduct a network meta-analysis of all RCTs evaluating therapies for fibromyalgia to determine which therapies show evidence of effectiveness, and the relative effectiveness of these treatments. We will acquire eligible studies through a systematic search of CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, AMED, HealthSTAR, PsychINFO, PapersFirst, ProceedingsFirst, and the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials. Eligible studies will randomly allocate patients presenting with fibromyalgia or a related condition to an intervention or a control. Teams of reviewers will, independently and in duplicate, screen titles and abstracts and complete full text reviews to determine eligibility, and subsequently perform data abstraction and assess risk of bias of eligible trials. We will conduct meta-analyses to establish the effect of all reported therapies on patient-important outcomes when possible. To assess relative effects of treatments, we will construct a random effects model within the Bayesian framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Discussion Our review will be the first to evaluate all treatments for fibromyalgia, provide relative effectiveness of treatments, and prioritize patient-important outcomes with a focus on functional gains. Our review will facilitate evidence-based management of patients with fibromyalgia, identify key areas for future research, and provide a framework for conducting large systematic reviews involving indirect comparisons. PMID:23497523
Kelly, Shannon E; Bai, Zemin; Liu, Wenfei; Skidmore, Becky; Boucher, Michel; So, Derek Y F; Wells, George A
Introduction Although dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is routinely given to patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stenting, the optimal duration is unknown. Recent evidence indicates there may be benefits in extending the duration beyond 12 months but such decisions may increase the risk of bleeding. Our objective is to provide a comprehensive overview of the literature for clinicians and policymakers via an umbrella review assessing the optimal duration of DAPT. Methods and analysis We will perform a comprehensive search of the published and grey literature for systematic reviews involving randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the optimal duration of DAPT following PCI with stenting. The intervention of interest is extended DAPT (beyond 12 months) compared with short-term DAPT (6–12 months). Studies will be selected for inclusion by two reviewers, and the quality will be assessed. The primary outcomes of interest are all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality. Secondary outcomes will be bleeding (major, minor and gastrointestinal), urgent target vessel revascularisation, major adverse cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, stroke and stent thrombosis. Outcomes will be assessed while on DAPT and after withdrawal of DAPT. Data will be summarised with respect to the number of included RCTs, number of participants, effect estimates and heterogeneity. Data will be reported separately based on patient demographics, procedural parameters (eg, stent types, lesion complexity and concurrent disease) and clinical presentation (eg, acute coronary syndromes, infarct type). Ethics and dissemination Our umbrella review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the benefits and harms associated with extending DAPT beyond 12 months following PCI with stenting. The results of this review will inform clinical and policy decisions regarding the optimal treatment duration and reimbursement of DAPT following PCI with stenting
Walters, Stephen J; Baxter, Susan
Introduction Lumbar radicular syndrome (LRS) can be a painful and debilitating condition. The optimum management strategies and their timing remain elusive despite extensive research. Surgery provides good short-term outcomes but has concomitant risks and costs. Physiotherapy is commonly practised for patients with LRS but its effects remain equivocal and there is a lack of consensus on the type, duration and timing of physiotherapy intervention. There is a lack of high-quality evidence into new and innovative management strategies and the timings of those strategies for LRS. This pilot trial is an essential preliminary to a definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT) assessing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of early physiotherapy intervention for patients with LRS. The study will test the protocol, the intervention, the use of outcome measures and the ability to set-up and run the trial to enable refinement of a future definitive RCT. Methods and analysis This is a mixed-methods study encompassing an external pilot RCT with integrated qualitative interviews with patients, clinicians and other key stakeholders. 80 patients will be recruited from primary care and randomised, after consent into 1 of 2 groups. Both groups will receive individually tailored, goal orientated physiotherapy. The usual care group will begin their physiotherapy 6 weeks after randomisation and the intervention group at 2 weeks after randomisation. Outcome measures will primarily be feasibility parameters including the ability to recruit and retain patients and to deliver the intervention. Data will be collected at baseline, and 6, 12 and 26 weeks following randomisation. Ethics and dissemination The study has received favourable ethical review from the East of Scotland Research Ethics Service (EoSRES) on the 20 August 2015 (15/ES/0130). Recruitment began on the 1 March 2016 and is expected to close in January 2017. Data collection is anticipated to be complete in July 2017
Hadorn, Fabienne; Comte, Pascal; Foucault, Eliane; Morin, Diane; Hugli, Olivier
It has been shown that over 70% of patients waiting in emergency departments (EDs) do not receive analgesics, despite the fact that more than 78% complain of pain. A clinical innovation in the form of a pain management protocol that includes task-shifting has been implemented in the ED of a university hospital in Switzerland in order to improve pain-related outcomes in patients. This innovation involves a change in clinical practice for physicians and nurses. The aim of this study is to explore nurses' perceptions on how well this innovation is adopted. This descriptive correlational study took place in the ED of a Swiss university hospital; the hospital provides healthcare for the city, the canton, and adjoining cantons. A convenience sample of 37 ED nurses participated. They were asked to complete a questionnaire comprising 56 statements based on Rogers's "Diffusion of Innovation" theory. Nurses' opinions (on a 1-10 Likert scale) indicate that the new protocol benefits the ED (mean [M] = 7.4, standard deviation [SD] = 1.21), is compatible with nursing roles (M = 8.0, SD = 1.9), is not too complicated to apply (M = 2.7, SD = 1.7), provides observable positive effects in patients (M = 7.0, SD = 1.28), and is relatively easy to introduce into daily practice (M = 6.5, SD = 1.0). Further studies are now needed to examine patients' experiences of this innovation.
Background The promotion of health and the interventions in community health continue to be one of the pending subjects of our health system. The most prevalent health problems (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes...) are for the most part related to life habits. We propose a holistic and integral approach as the best option for tackling behavior and its determinants. The research team has elaborated the necessary educational material to realize group teaching, which we call "Health Workshops". The goal of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of these Health Workshops in the following terms: Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL), incorporate and maintain a balanced diet, do physical activity regularly, maintain risk factors such as tension, weight, cholesterol within normal limits and diminish cardiovascular risk. Methods/Design Controlled and random clinical testing, comparing a group of persons who have participated in the Health Workshops with a control group of similar characteristics who have not participated in the Health Workshops. Field of study: the research is being done in Health Centers of the city of Barcelona, Spain. Population studied: The group is composed of 108 persons that are actually doing the Health Workshops, and 108 that are not and form the control group. They are assigned at random to one group or the other. Data Analysis: With Student's t-distribution test to compare the differences between numerical variables or their non parametric equivalent if the variable does not comply with the criteria of normality. (Kolmogorov-Smirnof test). Chi-square test to compare the differences between categorical variables and the Logistic Regression Model to analyze different meaningful variables by dichotomous analysis related to the intervention. Discussion The Health Workshop proposed in the present study constitutes an innovative approach in health promotion, placing the emphasis on the person's self responsibility for his/her own
Bittman, Barry B; Snyder, Cherie; Bruhn, Karl T; Liebfreid, Fran; Stevens, Christine K; Westengard, James; Umbach, Paul O
The challenges of providing exemplary undergraduate nursing education cannot be underestimated in an era when burnout and negative mood states predictably lead to alarming rates of academic as well as career attrition. While the multi-dimensional nature of this complex issue has been extensively elucidated, few rational strategies exist to reverse a disheartening trend recognizable early in the educational process that subsequently threatens to undermine the future viability of quality healthcare. This controlled prospective crossover study examined the impact of a 6-session Recreational Music-making (RMM) protocol on burnout and mood dimensions as well as Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) in first year associate level nursing students. A total of 75 first year associate degree nursing students from Allegany College of Maryland (ACM) participated in a 6-session RMM protocol focusing on group support and stress reduction utilizing a specific group drumming protocol. Burnout and mood dimensions were assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Profile of Mood States respectively. Statistically significant reductions of multiple burnout and mood dimensions as well as TMD scores were noted. Potential annual cost savings for the typical associate degree nursing program (16,800 dollars) and acute care hospital (322,000 dollars) were projected by an independent economic analysis firm. A cost-effective 6-session RMM protocol reduces burnout and mood dimensions as well as TMD in associate degree nursing students.
Sharafkhani, Naser; Khorsandi, Mahboobeh; Shamsi, Mohsen; Ranjbaran, Mehdi
Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of a theory-based educational intervention program on the level of knowledge and Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs among nurses in terms of the adoption of preventive behaviors. Methods This pretest/posttest quasi-experimental study was conducted on 100 nurses who were recruited through the multistage sampling method. The nurses were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The participants were evaluated before and 3 months after the educational intervention. A multidimensional questionnaire was prepared based on the theoretical structures of the HBM to collect the data. Data analysis was performed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results There was no significant difference in the mean values of HBM constructs prior to the intervention between the intervention and control groups. However, after the administration of the educational program, the mean scores of knowledge and HBM constructs significantly increased in the intervention group when compared with the control group (p < 0.0001). Conclusion The results of the current study revealed that the educational intervention based on the HBM was effective in improving the nurses' scores of knowledge and HBM constructs; therefore, theory-based health educational strategies are suggested as an effective alternative to traditional educational interventions.
Appel, Caroline; Perry, Lin; Jones, Fiona
This study tested a protocol for a randomized controlled trial of therapeutic versus placebo shoulder strapping as an adjuvant intervention early after stroke. Despite widespread use, there is little evidence of the efficacy or acceptability of shoulder strapping to improve arm function in patients with shoulder paresis following stroke. This study tested a protocol designed to trial shoulder strapping as an adjuvant therapy in patients with shoulder paresis after stroke and tested its acceptability for patients and clinical staff. A multiple-method design comprised one quantitative randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study and two qualitative exploratory investigations entailing patient interviews and staff surveys. Seventeen sub-acute stroke patients with shoulder paresis were recruited in London stroke service settings between November 2007 and December 2009. Outcomes from a 4-week therapeutic strapping protocol were compared with those of placebo strapping as an adjunct to conventional rehabilitation. Minimal adverse events and greater improvement in arm function (Action Research Arm Test) were seen with therapeutic compared with placebo strapping (effect size 0.34). Patients and staff found the strapping acceptable with minimal adverse effects. This study provided data for sample size calculation and demonstrated a workable research protocol to investigate the efficacy of shoulder strapping as an adjuvant intervention to routine rehabilitation for stroke patients. Small-scale findings continue to flag the importance of investigating this topic. The protocol is recommended for a definitive trial of shoulder strapping as an adjuvant intervention.
Miller, Louise C; Russell, Cynthia L; Cheng, An-Lin; Skarbek, Anita J
While professional nurses are expected to communicate clearly, these skills are often not explicitly taught in undergraduate nursing education. In this research study, writing self-efficacy and writing competency were evaluated in 52 nontraditional undergraduate baccalaureate completion students in two distance-mediated 16-week capstone courses. The intervention group (n = 44) experienced various genres and modalities of written assignments set in the context of evidence-based nursing practice; the comparison group (n = 8) received usual writing undergraduate curriculum instruction. Self-efficacy, measured by the Post Secondary Writerly Self-Efficacy Scale, indicated significant improvements for all self-efficacy items (all p's = 0.00). Writing competency, assessed in the intervention group using a primary trait scoring rubric (6 + 1 Trait Writing Model(®) of Instruction and Assessment), found significant differences in competency improvement on five of seven items. This pilot study demonstrated writing skills can improve in nontraditional undergraduate students with guided instruction. Further investigation with larger, culturally diverse samples is indicated to validate these results.
Turner, Paul; Wong, Ming Chao; Yee, Kwang Chien
As part of Australia's participation in the World Health Organization, the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (ACSQHC) is the leading federal government technical agency involved in the area of clinical handover improvement. The ACSQHC has funded a range of handover improvement projects in Australia including one at the Royal Hobart Hospital (RHH), Tasmania. The RHH project aims to investigate the potential for generalizable and transferable clinical handover solutions throughout the medical and nursing disciplines. More specifically, this project produced an over-arching minimum data set (MDS) and over-arching standardized operating protocol (SOP) based on research work on nursing and medical shift-to-shift clinical handover in general medicine, general surgery and emergency medicine. The over-arching MDS consists of five headings: situational awareness, patient identification, history and information, responsibility and tasks and accountability. The over-arching SOP has five phases: preparation; design; implementation; evaluation; and maintenance. This paper provides an overview of the project and the approach taken. It considers the implications of these standardized operating protocols and minimum data sets for developing electronic clinical handover support tools. Significantly, the paper highlights a human-centred design approach that actively involves medical and nursing staff in data collection, analysis, interpretation, and systems design. This approach reveals the dangers of info-centrism when considering electronic tools, as information emerges as the only factor amongst many others that influence the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical handover.
Wengström, Y; Häggmark, C; Forsberg, C
A randomized study was carried out to investigate whether a nursing intervention, using Orem's self-care theory as a framework, would affect the coping ability of women with breast cancer during and following radiation therapy. The intervention consisted of promoting of behaviours to support the patient to restore, maintain or increase their abilities to interact with the situation and adapt to the demands of radiation treatment. The control and experimental groups both consisted of 67 patients. The Wheel Questionnaire was used to evaluate the effect of the intervention. Our results showed that the intervention provided patients older than 59 years the ability to cope with the treatment (df = 2, F = 3.463, P = > 0.05). The present study supports the idea that individual interventions aimed at improving well-being helps patients. It also highlights the fact that individual approaches to improving well-being are needed. Such interventions should be directed to patients at risk for poor adjustment, such as those older than 50 years of age.
Background India currently has more than 60 million people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and this is predicted to increase by nearly two-thirds by 2030. While management of those with T2DM is important, preventing or delaying the onset of the disease, especially in those individuals at ‘high risk’ of developing T2DM, is urgently needed, particularly in resource-constrained settings. This paper describes the protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led lifestyle intervention program to prevent diabetes in Kerala, India. Methods/design A total of 60 polling booths are randomised to the intervention arm or control arm in rural Kerala, India. Data collection is conducted in two steps. Step 1 (Home screening): Participants aged 30–60 years are administered a screening questionnaire. Those having no history of T2DM and other chronic illnesses with an Indian Diabetes Risk Score value of ≥60 are invited to attend a mobile clinic (Step 2). At the mobile clinic, participants complete questionnaires, undergo physical measurements, and provide blood samples for biochemical analysis. Participants identified with T2DM at Step 2 are excluded from further study participation. Participants in the control arm are provided with a health education booklet containing information on symptoms, complications, and risk factors of T2DM with the recommended levels for primary prevention. Participants in the intervention arm receive: (1) eleven peer-led small group sessions to motivate, guide and support in planning, initiation and maintenance of lifestyle changes; (2) two diabetes prevention education sessions led by experts to raise awareness on T2DM risk factors, prevention and management; (3) a participant handbook containing information primarily on peer support and its role in assisting with lifestyle modification; (4) a participant workbook to guide self-monitoring of lifestyle behaviours, goal setting and goal review; (5) the health education
Jameson, Paula R.
Despite the known benefits of hardiness education, no published research has been found on the effects of hardiness education with nursing students. Thus, the purposes of this study were first to determine if an increase in hardiness and a decrease in perceived stress in baccalaureate nursing students occurred in those who participated in a…
Ross, Erin L.; Bell, Sue E.
Context: One quarter of the persons living in the United States receive their emergency care in a rural hospital. Nurses employed in these hospitals see few emergencies but must be prepared to provide expert and efficient care when they do occur. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of registered nurses' certifications…
The relationship of selected academic variables to National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN) performance was studied and a "best set" of indicators predictive of NCLEX-RN success was identified. Results indicated that selected nursing theory courses and the junior year grade point average could be used to…
Cadet, Tamara J.; Berrett-Abebe, Julie; Burke, Shanna L.; Bakk, Louanne; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Maramaldi, Peter
Nursing home residents over the age of 65 years are at high risk for poor oral health and related complications such as pneumonia and adverse diabetes outcomes. A preliminary study found that Massachusetts' nursing homes generally lack the training and resources needed to provide adequate oral health care to residents. In this study, an…
Clark, Noreen M; Nelson, Belinda W; Valerio, Melissa A; Gong, Z Molly; Taylor-Fishwick, Judith C; Fletcher, Monica
As the number of individuals with chronic illness increases so has the need for strategies to enable nurses to engage them effectively in daily management of their conditions. Shared decision making between patients and nurses is one approach frequently discussed in the literature. This paper reviews recent studies of shared decision making and the meaning of findings for the nurse-patient relationship. Patients likely to prefer to engage in shared decision making are younger and have higher levels of education. However, there is a lack of evidence for the effect of shared decision making on patient outcomes. Further, studies are needed to examine shared decision making when the patient is a child. Nurses are professionally suited to engage their patients fully in treatment plans. More evidence for how shared decision making affects outcomes and how nurses can successfully achieve such engagement is needed.
Zeller, Janice M; Levin, Pamela F
Workplace stress within health care settings is rampant and predicted to increase in coming years. The profound effects of workplace stress on the health and safety of nursing personnel and the financial impact on organizations are well documented. Although organizational modification can reduce some sources of stress, several unique stress-producing factors inherent in the work of nursing personnel are immutable to such approaches. Mindfulness training, an evidence-based approach to increase situational awareness and positive responses to stressful situations, is an inexpensive strategy to reduce stress and improve the quality of nurses' work lives. Several approaches to training, such as mindfulness-based stress reduction, can be tailored to health care settings. Considerations for occupational health nurses in incorporating mindfulness training as an aspect of a comprehensive work site health promotion program for nursing and other hospital personnel are discussed.
Ngo, Anh; Murphy, Susan
The peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) is an effective intermediate and long-term central vascular access device. Its functions are comparable with those of other percutaneously placed central venous catheters. However, its high occlusion rate and the consequent infection risk may disrupt therapy for patients. The primary investigator in this study developed an educational intervention based on Albert Bandura's social learning theory, and hypothesized that increasing nurses' knowledge and self-efficacy related to PICCs would have a positive impact on patient outcomes related to occlusion and infection rates. The study outcome showed an overall increase in nurses' knowledge and self-efficacy related to PICC care, and a significant reduction in the catheter occlusion rate, from 29% to 8.5%, over a 6-month period.
This Best Practice Information Sheet updates and supersedes an earlier publication of the Joanna Briggs Institute in 2005. The information that is contained in this publication is based upon a systematic review of six randomized clinical trials. Additional information has been derived from a second systematic review; thus, in total, the information is derived from 22 randomized controlled trials. The original references can be sourced from the systematic reviews. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the major cause of illness in Western society and it is becoming increasingly important to establish effective strategies in order to reduce the incidence of CHD. Nurse-led clinics are becoming more prominent in community settings and the importance of nurse interventions in the management of CHD and risk factor reduction is recognized in terms of improved health outcomes for patients. However, the variation in outcome measures and inconsistent findings between some studies make it difficult to draw firm conclusions.
Thomas, Shane A; Merkouris, Stephanie S; Browning, Colette J; Radermacher, Harriet; Feldman, Susan; Enticott, Joanne; Jackson, Alun C
Introduction International prevalence rates for problem gambling are estimated at 2.3%. Problem gambling is a serious global public health concern due to adverse personal and social consequences. Previous research evaluating the effectiveness of psychological interventions for the treatment of problem gambling has been compromised by methodological limitations, including small sample sizes and the use of waitlist control groups. This article describes the study protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), behaviour therapy (BT), motivational interviewing (MI) against a non-directive supportive therapy (NDST) control, in treating problem gambling. Methods and analysis This study was a mixed-methods design, with a parallel group, pragmatic RCT as the primary component, and embedded qualitative studies conducted alongside. A total of 297 participants were recruited from the community in Victoria, Australia. Individuals aged 18 years and over, could communicate in English and wished to receive treatment for a gambling problem were eligible. Participants were randomly allocated in to 1 of the 4 psychological interventions: CBT, BT, MI and NDST. Repeated measures were conducted at pretreatment and post-treatment, and 6 and 12 months post-treatment. The statistical analysis will use an intention-to-treat approach. Multilevel mixed modelling will be used to examine changes in the primary outcome measures: gambling symptom severity, using the Gambling Symptom Assessment Scale, and gambling behaviours (frequency, time and expenditure). Secondary outcomes are depression, anxiety, stress and alcohol use. Individual semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted at pretreatment and post-treatment and 12 months post-treatment for a subset of participants (n=66). Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the Victorian Department of Justice, Monash University and the University
Rassouli, Maryam; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Ghahramanian, Akram; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Alavi-Majd, Hamid; Nikanfar, Alireza
Background: Although nurses acknowledge that spiritual care is part of their role, in reality, it is performed to a lesser extent. The purpose of the present study was to explore nurses’ and patients’ experiences about the conditions of spiritual care and spiritual interventions in the oncology units of Tabriz. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted with a qualitative conventional content analysis approach in the oncology units of hospitals in Tabriz. Data were collected through purposive sampling by conducting unstructured interviews with 10 patients and 7 nurses and analyzed simultaneously. Robustness of data analysis was evaluated by the participants and external control. Results: Three categories emerged from the study: (1) “perceived barriers for providing spiritual care” including “lack of preparation for spiritual care,” “time and space constraints,” “unprofessional view,” and “lack of support”; (2) “communication: A way for Strengthening spirituality despite the limitations” including “manifestation of spirituality in the appearances and communicative behaviors of nurses” and “communication: Transmission of spiritual energy”; and (3) “religion-related spiritual experiences” including “life events as divine will and divine exam,” “death as reincarnation,” “trust in God,” “prayer/recourse to Holy Imams,” and “acceptance of divine providence.” Although nurses had little skills in assessing and responding to the patients’ spiritual needs and did not have the organizational and clergymen's support in dealing with the spiritual distress of patients, they were the source of energy, joy, hope, and power for patients by showing empathy and compassion. The patients and nurses were using religious beliefs mentioned in Islam to strengthen the patients’ spiritual dimension. Conclusions: According to the results, integration of spiritual care in the curriculum of nursing is recommended. Patients and
Background Depressive symptoms in older home care clients are common but poorly recognized and treated, resulting in adverse health outcomes, premature institutionalization, and costly use of health services. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a new six-month interprofessional (IP) nurse-led mental health promotion intervention, and to explore its effects on reducing depressive symptoms in older home care clients (≥ 70 years) using personal support services. Methods A prospective one-group pre-test/post-test study design was used. The intervention was a six-month evidence-based depression care management strategy led by a registered nurse that used an IP approach. Of 142 eligible consenting participants, 98 (69%) completed the six-month and 87 (61%) completed the one-year follow-up. Outcomes included depressive symptoms, anxiety, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and the costs of use of all types of health services at baseline and six-month and one-year follow-up. An interpretive descriptive design was used to explore clients’, nurses’, and personal support workers’ perceptions about the intervention’s appropriateness, benefits, and barriers and facilitators to implementation. Results Of the 142 participants, 56% had clinically significant depressive symptoms, with 38% having moderate to severe symptoms. The intervention was feasible and acceptable to older home care clients with depressive symptoms. It was effective in reducing depressive symptoms and improving HRQoL at six-month follow-up, with small additional improvements six months after the intervention. The intervention also reduced anxiety at one year follow-up. Significant reductions were observed in the use of hospitalization, ambulance services, and emergency room visits over the study period. Conclusions Our findings provide initial evidence for the feasibility, acceptability, and sustained effects of the nurse-led mental health promotion
Hofmeyer, Anne; Toffoli, Luisa; Vernon, Rachael; Taylor, Ruth; Fontaine, Dorrie; Klopper, Hester C.; Coetzee, Siedine Knobloch
Background: There is an increasing global demand for higher education to incorporate flexible delivery. Nursing education has been at the forefront of developing flexible online education and offering programs "anywhere and anytime". In response to calls to teach compassion in nursing education, there is an abundance of literature…
Rodriguez, German; Utate, Minerva A; Joseph, George; St Victor, Thelma
In the ambulatory care setting, chemotherapy regimens have become increasingly complex with the combination of induction treatments and oral medications. Nurses at one cancer center implemented an oral adherence tracking documentation system in the electronic health record (EHR). Oncology nurses assessed and monitored adherence to oral chemotherapy at each clinical encounter and during telephone calls and then documented findings in the EHR. After implementing this new standardized approach, adherence rates were captured as a metric for the organization.
McLain, Rhonda M; Fifolt, Matthew; Dawson, Martha A; Su, Wei; Milligan, Gary; Davis, Sandra; Hites, Lisle
Diversity in the nursing workforce has a positive impact on the quality of care provided to minority patients. Although the number of students from diverse backgrounds entering nursing programs has increased, the attrition rate of these students remains high. This study assessed the construct validity of a self-assessment tool that can be used by faculty advisors to determine individual academic needs of students.
Pridham, Karen A.; Lutz, Kristin F.; Anderson, Lori S.; Riesch, Susan K.; Becker, Patricia T.
PURPOSE This integrative review concerns nursing research on parent–child interaction and relationships published from 1980 through 2008 and includes assessment and intervention studies in clinically important settings (e.g., feeding, teaching, play). CONCLUSIONS Directions for research include development of theoretical frameworks, valid observational systems, and multivariate and longitudinal data analytic strategies. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS Observation of social–emotional as well as task-related interaction qualities in the context of assessing parent–child relationships could generate new questions for nursing research and for family-centered nursing practice. PMID:20074112
Kim, C J; Yoo, J S; Park, J W
This study was undertaken at Yonsei University Medical Center to identify the crisis responses and nursing problems of patients who had been diagnosed with cancer, and changing patterns of grieving over time periods, and to analyse the effectiveness of follow up care through home visiting nursing. This study was carried out in three stages. The 1st study data were collected from a total of 205 patients who had been diagnosed with cancer from Sept. 1 to Dec. 31, 1987 using a cross-sectional method. The 2nd study data were collected three times from 30 patients with cancer at 4 weeks intervals from March 1 to June 31, 1988 using a longitudinal method. The 3rd study data were collected from two different groups from March 1 to June 31, 1988. One was an experimental group who was visited by nurses and the other one was a control group not visited by nurses. The subjects of the 3rd study consisted of 60 patients with cancer and a Quasi-experimental research design was used. The results were as follows: 1. The patients did not experience one stage at a time among the five stages of grieving, denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance, as identified by Kübler Ross. They experienced a combination of stages, especially of the bargaining and the depression stages. This stages did not change with the passing of time. 2. The patients expressed more physical and socioeconomical problems than emotional problems. And they used more problem coping methods than emotional coping methods. 3. Follow up care through home visiting nursing positively influenced the patient's quality of life, especially their physical well-being and symptom control. The patients responded positively to the home visiting nursing, stating that it was helpful to them. It was concluded that the development of a home visiting nursing program is needed for the effective home care of patients with cancer.
O'Connor, Siobhan; Andrews, Tom
Nurse educators are exploring different mobile technologies to provide additional support to nursing students in clinical practice. However, the view of nursing students on the use of smartphone applications (apps) to enhance clinical education has not been explored. This proposed study will use a self-reported questionnaire to examine the opinions of nursing students on the current and potential use of smartphone apps when training in clinical settings. Descriptive and inferential statistics will be performed on the quantitative data. Qualitative data from open ended questions will be thematically analysed using the framework approach. This will be the first study to examine the use of smartphone apps as a support in clinical teaching from a students' perspective. Their opinion is vital if the right mobile technology is to be designed and implemented.
Chang, Wei-Ju; Bennell, Kim L; Hodges, Paul W; Hinman, Rana S; Liston, Matthew B; Schabrun, Siobhan M
Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major health problem and a leading cause of disability. The knee joint is commonly affected, resulting in pain and physical dysfunction. Exercise is considered the cornerstone of conservative management, yet meta-analyses indicate, at best, moderate effect sizes. Treatments that bolster the effects of exercise, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), may improve outcomes in knee OA. The aims of this pilot study are to (1) determine the feasibility, safety and perceived patient response to a combined tDCS and exercise intervention in knee OA, and (2) provide data to support a sample size calculation for a fully-powered trial should trends of effectiveness be present. Methods and analysis A pilot randomised, assessor-blind and participant-blind, sham-controlled trial. 20 individuals with knee OA who report a pain score of 40 or more on a 100 mm visual analogue scale on walking, and meet a priori selection criteria will be randomly allocated to receive either: (1) active tDCS plus exercise, or (2) sham tDCS plus exercise. All participants will receive 20 min of either active or sham tDCS immediately prior to 30 min of supervised muscle strengthening exercise twice a week for 8 weeks. Participants in both groups will also complete unsupervised home exercises twice per week. Outcome measures of feasibility, safety, pain, disability and pain system function will be assessed immediately before and after the 8-week intervention. Analyses of feasibility and safety will be performed using descriptive statistics. Statistical analyses will be used to determine trends of effectiveness and will be based on intention-to-treat as well as per protocol. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the institutional ethics committee (H10184). Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The results of this study will be submitted for peer-reviewed publication. Trial registration number ANZCTR
Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Holtermann, Andreas; Bay, Hans; Søgaard, Karen; Birk Jørgensen, Marie
Abstract This study established the effectiveness of a workplace multifaceted intervention consisting of participatory ergonomics, physical training, and cognitive–behavioural training (CBT) for low back pain (LBP). Between November 2012 and May 2014, we conducted a pragmatic stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial with 594 workers from eldercare workplaces (nursing homes and home care) randomised to 4 successive time periods, 3 months apart. The intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of 19 sessions in total (physical training [12 sessions], CBT [2 sessions], and participatory ergonomics [5 sessions]). Low back pain was the outcome and was measured as days, intensity (worst pain on a 0-10 numeric rank scale), and bothersomeness (days) by monthly text messages. Linear mixed models were used to estimate the intervention effect. Analyses were performed according to intention to treat, including all eligible randomised participants, and were adjusted for baseline values of the outcome. The linear mixed models yielded significant effects on LBP days of −0.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], −1.19 to −0.38), LBP intensity of −0.4 (95% CI, −0.60 to −0.26), and bothersomeness days of −0.5 (95% CI, −0.85 to −0.13) after the intervention compared with the control group. This study shows that a multifaceted intervention consisting of participatory ergonomics, physical training, and CBT can reduce LBP among workers in eldercare. Thus, multifaceted interventions may be relevant for improving LBP in a working population. PMID:25993549
Grando, Victoria T; Rantz, Marilyn J; Maas, Meridean
Ongoing problems with nursing home care mandates understanding nursing home staff's perspectives on innovative quality improvement programs. This follow-up study used focus groups to examine the experiences of staff who participated in a clinical trial that involved Quality Indicator (QI) feedback reports, quality improvement training, and APN consultation. The authors found that QI reports provided staff with a benchmark to judge their care and a means to track problems; APN consultation was essential for staff to learn best practices; and staff questioned the validity of the QI reports, which hindered them from seeking new solutions to problems identified in the QI reports. Findings indicate that innovative QI programs and APN consultation can positively influence nursing home quality improvement efforts and improve care.
Barello, Serena; Graffigna, Guendalina; Pitacco, Giuliana; Mislej, Maila; Cortale, Maurizio; Provenzi, Livio
Introduction: Growing evidence recognizes that patients who are motivated to take an active role in their care can experience a range of health benefits and reduced healthcare costs. Nurses play a critical role in the effort to make patients fully engaged in their disease management. Trainings devoted to increase nurses' skills and knowledge to assess and promote patient engagement are today a medical education priority. To address this goal, we developed a program of nurse education training in patient engagement strategies (NET-PES). This paper presents pilot feasibility study and preliminary participants outcomes for NET-PES. Methods: This is a pilot feasibility study of a 2-session program on patient engagement designed to improve professional nurses' ability to engage chronic patients in their medical journey; the training mainly focused on passing patient engagement assessment skills to clinicians as a crucial mean to improve care experience. A pre-post pilot evaluation of NET-PES included 46 nurses working with chronic conditions. A course specific competence test has been developed and validated to measure patient engagement skills. The design included self-report questionnaire completed before and after the training for evaluation purposes. Participants met in a large group for didactic presentations and then they were split into small groups in which they used role-play and case discussion to reflect upon the value of patient engagement measurement in relation to difficult cases from own practice. Results: Forty-six nurses participated in the training program. The satisfaction questionnaire showed that the program met the educational objectives and was considered to be useful and relevant by the participants. Results demonstrated changes on clinicians' attitudes and skills in promoting engagement. Moreover, practitioners demonstrated increases on confidence regarding their ability to support their patients' engagement in the care process. Conclusions
Barello, Serena; Graffigna, Guendalina; Pitacco, Giuliana; Mislej, Maila; Cortale, Maurizio; Provenzi, Livio
Introduction: Growing evidence recognizes that patients who are motivated to take an active role in their care can experience a range of health benefits and reduced healthcare costs. Nurses play a critical role in the effort to make patients fully engaged in their disease management. Trainings devoted to increase nurses' skills and knowledge to assess and promote patient engagement are today a medical education priority. To address this goal, we developed a program of nurse education training in patient engagement strategies (NET-PES). This paper presents pilot feasibility study and preliminary participants outcomes for NET-PES. Methods: This is a pilot feasibility study of a 2-session program on patient engagement designed to improve professional nurses' ability to engage chronic patients in their medical journey; the training mainly focused on passing patient engagement assessment skills to clinicians as a crucial mean to improve care experience. A pre-post pilot evaluation of NET-PES included 46 nurses working with chronic conditions. A course specific competence test has been developed and validated to measure patient engagement skills. The design included self-report questionnaire completed before and after the training for evaluation purposes. Participants met in a large group for didactic presentations and then they were split into small groups in which they used role-play and case discussion to reflect upon the value of patient engagement measurement in relation to difficult cases from own practice. Results: Forty-six nurses participated in the training program. The satisfaction questionnaire showed that the program met the educational objectives and was considered to be useful and relevant by the participants. Results demonstrated changes on clinicians' attitudes and skills in promoting engagement. Moreover, practitioners demonstrated increases on confidence regarding their ability to support their patients' engagement in the care process. Conclusions
O’Brien, Kate M.; Williams, Amanda; Wiggers, John; Wolfenden, Luke; Yoong, Serene; Campbell, Elizabeth; Kamper, Steven J.; McAuley, James; Attia, John; Oldmeadow, Chris; Williams, Christopher M.
ABSTRACT Background These trials are the first randomised controlled trials of telephone-based weight management and healthy lifestyle interventions for low back pain and knee osteoarthritis. This article describes the protocol and statistical analysis plan. Method These trials are parallel randomised controlled trials that investigate and compare the effect of a telephone-based weight management and healthy lifestyle intervention for improving pain intensity in overweight or obese patients with low back pain or knee osteoarthritis. The analysis plan was finalised prior to initiation of analyses. All data collected as part of the trial were reviewed, without stratification by group, and classified by baseline characteristics, process of care and trial outcomes. Trial outcomes were classified as primary and secondary outcomes. Appropriate descriptive statistics and statistical testing of between-group differences, where relevant, have been planned and described. Conclusions A protocol for standard analyses was developed for the results of two randomised controlled trials. This protocol describes the data, and the pre-determined statistical tests of relevant outcome measures. The plan demonstrates transparent and verifiable use of the data collected. This a priori protocol will be followed to ensure rigorous standards of data analysis are strictly adhered to. PMID:27683839
Background Tailored psychosocial activity-based interventions have been shown to improve mood, behaviour and quality of life for nursing home residents. Occupational therapist delivered activity programs have shown benefits when delivered in home care settings for people with dementia. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of LEAP (Lifestyle Engagement Activity Program) for Life, a training and practice change program on the engagement of home care clients by care workers. Secondary aims are to evaluate the impact of the program on changes in client mood and behaviour. Methods/design The 12 month LEAP program has three components: 1) engaging site management and care staff in the program; 2) employing a LEAP champion one day a week to support program activities; 3) delivering an evidence-based training program to care staff. Specifically, case managers will be trained and supported to set meaningful social or recreational goals with clients and incorporate these into care plans. Care workers will be trained in and encouraged to practise good communication, promote client independence and choice, and tailor meaningful activities using Montessori principles, reminiscence, music, physical activity and play. LEAP Champions will be given information about theories of organisational change and trained in interpersonal skills required for their role. LEAP will be evaluated in five home care sites including two that service ethnic minority groups. A quasi experimental design will be used with evaluation data collected four times: 6-months prior to program commencement; at the start of the program; and then after 6 and 12 months. Mixed effect models will enable comparison of change in outcomes for the periods before and during the program. The primary outcome measure is client engagement. Secondary outcomes for clients are satisfaction with care, dysphoria/depression, loneliness, apathy and agitation; and work satisfaction for care workers. A process
Lantz, Melinda S.; Buchalter, Eric N.; McBee, Lucia
Reports on a group therapy program designed to enhance self-awareness, self-esteem, and body awareness among the demented elderly. Focuses on techniques of meditation, relaxation, sensory awareness, and guided imagery. Claims that the group is easily reproducible and offers benefits both to nursing home residents and staff. (RJM)
Dunbar, Joan M.; And Others
Describes an educational program that contributed to a 90% reduction in the use of physical restraints in nursing homes over a two-year period. Program consists of a workshop, telephone and on-site consultations, regional meetings, and other support materials. Surveys suggest that the project can be easily adapted by care providers. (RJM)
Ferrara, Gineen; Ramponi, Denise; Cline, Thomas W
Family presence during resuscitation (FPDR) has been an ongoing topic of discussion in many hospital emergency departments throughout the United States. With the current emphasis promoting patient- and family-centered care, families are now exercising their right to be present at the bedside during resuscitation. With or without a policy, there is continued resistance to allow families to remain with their loved ones during resuscitation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if an evidence-based educational intervention would increase physicians' and nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and compliance with allowing FPDR. This quasi-experimental study evaluated 30 attending physicians' and 65 registered nurses' knowledge of an existing family presence policy and their attitudes toward family presence post-educational intervention in an emergency department setting. Compliance of family presence was observed for 2 months pre- and post-educational intervention. Results show that most physicians and nurses either were not sure or were not aware that there was an existing written policy. The study demonstrated that nurses agree more than physicians that the option of FPDR is a patient/family right. The results also showed that the educational intervention had no effect on the physicians and nurses attitudes for FPDR, but it did change behaviors. Of the events involving professionals who were exposed to the educational intervention, family members were present 87.5% of the time. In contrast, only 23% of the events involving professionals who did not receive the educational intervention had families present. Ongoing staff education will heighten awareness to FPDR, make the staff more comfortable with families being present, and will presumably continue to increase invitations for FPDR.
Sörensen, Silvia; White, Katherine; Mak, Wingyun; Zanibbi, Katherine; Tang, Wan; O’Hearn, Amanda; Hegel, Mark T.
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible and predictable blindness among older adults and creates serious physical and mental health consequences for this population. Visual impairment is associated with negative future outlook and depression and has serious consequences for older adults’ quality of life and, by way of depression, on long-term survival. Psychosocial interventions have the potential to alleviate and prevent depression symptoms among older AMD patients. We describe the protocol of the Macular Degeneration and Aging Study, a randomized clinical trial of a psychosocial Preventive Problem-Solving Intervention. The intervention is aimed at enhancing well-being and future planning among older adults with macular degeneration by increasing preparation for future care. Adequate randomization and therapeutic fidelity were achieved. Current retention rates were acceptable, given the vulnerability of the population. Acceptability (adherence and satisfaction) is high. Given the high public health significance and impact on quality of life among older adults with vision loss, this protocol contributes a valid test of a promising intervention for maintaining mental and physical health in this population. PMID:25812482
Background Nursing home patients with dementia use psychotropic drugs longer and more frequently than recommended by guidelines implying psychotropic drugs are not always prescribed appropriately. These drugs can have many side effects and effectiveness is limited. Psychotropic drug use between nursing home units varies and is not solely related to the severity of neuropsychiatric symptoms. There is growing evidence indicating that psychotropic drug use is associated with environmental factors, suggesting that the prescription of psychotropic drugs is not only related to (objective) patient factors. However, other factors related to the patient, elderly care physician, nurse and the physical environment are only partially identified. Using a mixed method of qualitative and quantitative research, this study aims to understand the nature of psychotropic drug use and its underlying factors by identifying: 1) frequency and appropriateness of psychotropic drug use for neuropsychiatric symptoms in nursing home patients with dementia, 2) factors associated with (appropriateness of) psychotropic drug use. Methods A cross-sectional mixed methods study. For the quantitative study, patients with dementia (n = 540), nursing staff and elderly care physicians of 36 Dementia Special Care Units of 12 nursing homes throughout the Netherlands will be recruited. Six nursing homes with high average rates and six with low average rates of psychotropic drug use, based on a national survey about frequency of psychotropic drug use on units, will be included. Psychotropic drugs include antipsychotics, anxiolytics, hypnotics, antidepressants, anticonvulsants and anti-dementia drugs. Appropriateness will be measured by an instrument based on the Medication Appropriateness Index and current guidelines for treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Factors associated to psychotropic drug use, related to the patient, elderly care physician, nurse and physical environment, will be explored
Beck, Anne Marie; Damkjaer, Karin; Sørbye, Liv W
The purpose was to test the hypothesis that a multifaceted 11 weeks randomized controlled intervention would have a significant influence of functional abilities in old nursing home residents. Participants were 121 old (>65 years) residents in seven Danish nursing homes. The intervention consisted of nutrition (chocolate, homemade oral supplements), group exercise (moderate intensity) and oral care. Measurements taken were weight, body mass index (BMI), energy and protein intake, and functional abilities (activities of daily living=ADL, cognitive performance, and social engagement). The results showed that the nutrition and exercise were well accepted. After 11 weeks the change in % weight (1.3 vs. -0.6%, p=0.005), % BMI (0.4 vs. -0.2%, p=0.003), energy intake (0.7 vs. -0.3 MJ/day, p=0.084) and protein intake (5 vs. -2g/day, p=0.012) was higher in the intervention group than in the control group. Also, after 11 weeks, social and physical function had decreased in the control group but was unchanged in the intervention group. The difference between groups was significant in relation to social engagement (p=0.009). After the end of the intervention both groups had lost weight and physical function. Cognitive performance did not change, at any time. In conclusion, it seems possible to maintain social (and physical) functional abilities in old nursing home residents by means of a multifaceted intervention.
Interdisciplinary collaboration in the use of a music-with-movement intervention to promote the wellbeing of people with dementia and their families: Development of an evidence-based intervention protocol.
Lai, Claudia K Y; Lai, Daniel L L; Ho, Jacqueline S C; Wong, Kitty K Y; Cheung, Daphne S K
The music-with-movement intervention is particularly suitable for people with dementia because their gross motor ability is preserved until the later stage of dementia. This study examines the effect of music-with-movement on reducing anxiety, sleep disturbances, and improving the wellbeing of people with dementia. This paper reports the first stage of the study - developing the intervention protocol that staff can use to teach family caregivers. A registered music therapist developed a music-with-movement protocol and taught staff of two social service centers over five weekly 1.5 h sessions, with center-in-charges (social workers and occupational therapists) and our research team joining these sessions to provide comments from their professional perspective. Each discipline had different expectations about the content; therefore, numerous meetings and discussions were held to bridge these differences and fine-tune the protocol. Few healthcare professionals doubt the merits of interdisciplinary collaboration at all levels of health promotion. In practice, interdisciplinary collaboration is complex and requires commitment. Openness and persistence is required from all stakeholders to achieve a successful intervention for consumers.
van Gaal, Betsie GI; Knoll, Jacqueline L; Cornelissen, Elisabeth AM; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Kok, Gerjo
Background The care for children with a chronic kidney disease (CKD) is complex. Parents of these children may experience high levels of stress in managing their child’s disease, potentially leading to negative effects on their child’s health outcomes. Although the experienced problems are well known, adequate (online) support for these parents is lacking. Objective The objective of the study is to describe the systematic development of an online support program for parents of children with CKD, and how this program will be evaluated. Methods Intervention Mapping (IM) was used for the development of the program. After conducting a needs assessment, defining program objectives, searching for theories, and selecting practical applications, the online program e-Powered Parents was developed. e-Powered Parents consist of three parts: (1) an informative part with information about CKD and treatments, (2) an interactive part where parents can communicate with other parents and health care professionals by chat, private messages, and a forum, and (3) a training platform consisting of four modules: Managing stress, Setting limits, Communication, and Coping with emotions. In a feasibility study, the potential effectiveness and effect size of e-Powered Parents will be evaluated using an explorative randomized controlled trial with parents of 120 families. The outcomes will be the child’s quality of life, parental stress and fatigue, self-efficacy in the communication with health care professionals, and family management. A process evaluation will provide insight in parents’ experiences, including their experienced level of support. Results Study results are expected to be published in the summer of 2016. Conclusions Although the development of e-Powered Parents using IM was time-consuming, IM has been a useful protocol. IM provided us with a systematic framework for structuring the development process. The participatory planning group was valuable as well; knowledge
Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Jensen, Barbara; Resnick, Barbara; Norris, Margaret
Purpose of the Study: Behavior problems are common in nursing homes. Current guidelines recommend nonpharmacological interventions (NPHIs) as first-line treatment, but pharmacological regimens (PIs) continue to be used. Given differences in background and training of those who treat behavior problems in residents, we compared attitudes of…
Friedman, Bruce; Wamsley, Brenda R.; Liebel, Dianne V.; Saad, Zabedah B.; Eggert, Gerald M.
Purpose: To report the impact on patient and informal caregiver satisfaction, patient empowerment, and health and disability status of a primary care-affiliated disease self-management-health promotion nurse intervention for Medicare beneficiaries with disabilities and recent significant health services use. Design and Methods: The Medicare…
Kimhi, Einat; Reishtein, Judith L; Cohen, Miri; Friger, Michael; Hurvitz, Nancy; Avraham, Rinat
This study compared the effect of simulation and clinical experience timing on self-confidence/self-efficacy for the nursing process. Using a randomized, double-crossover design, self-efficacy was measured 3 times. Although self-efficacy was significantly higher at time 1 for students who had clinical experience, there was no difference between the groups at the end of the course (time 2). Thus, simulation increased self-confidence/self-efficacy equivalently if placed either before or after clinical experience.
Burton, Christopher; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Williams, Lynne; Davies, Siân; McBride, Anne; Hall, Beth; Rowlands, Anne-M; Jones, Adrian
Introduction Nursing staffing levels in hospitals appear to be associated with improved patient outcomes. National guidance indicates that the triangulation of information from workforce planning and deployment technologies (WPTs; eg, the Safer Nursing Care Tool) and ‘local knowledge’ is important for managers to achieve appropriate staffing levels for better patient outcomes. Although WPTs provide managers with predictive information about future staffing requirements, ensuring patient safety and quality care also requires the consideration of information from other sources in real time. Yet little attention has been given to how to support managers to implement WPTs in practice. Given this lack of understanding, this evidence synthesis is designed to address the research question: managers’ use of WPTs and their impacts on nurse staffing and patient care: what works, for whom, how and in what circumstances? Methods and analysis To explain how WPTs may work and in what contexts, we will conduct a realist evidence synthesis through sourcing relevant evidence, and consulting with stakeholders about the impacts of WPTs on health and relevant public service fields. The review will be in 4 phases over 18 months. Phase 1: we will construct an initial theoretical framework that provides plausible explanations of what works about WPTs. Phase 2: evidence retrieval, review and synthesis guided by the theoretical framework; phase 3: testing and refining of programme theories, to determine their relevance; phase 4: formulating actionable recommendations about how WPTs should be implemented in clinical practice. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been gained from the study's institutional sponsors. Ethical review from the National Health Service (NHS) is not required; however research and development permissions will be obtained. Findings will be disseminated through stakeholder engagement and knowledge mobilisation activities. The synthesis will develop an
Avery, Kathleen Ryan; O'Brien, Molly; Pierce, Carol Daddio; Gazarian, Priscilla K
Therapeutic hypothermia has become a widely accepted intervention that is improving neurological outcomes following return of spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest. This intervention is highly complex but infrequently used, and prompt implementation of the many steps involved, especially achieving the target body temperature, can be difficult. A checklist was introduced to guide nurses in implementing the therapeutic hypothermia protocol during the different phases of the intervention (initiation, maintenance, rewarming, and normothermia) in an intensive care unit. An interprofessional committee began by developing the protocol, a template for an order set, and a shivering algorithm. At first, implementation of the protocol was inconsistent, and a lack of clarity and urgency in managing patients during the different phases of the protocol was apparent. The nursing checklist has provided all of the intensive care nurses with an easy-to-follow reference to facilitate compliance with the required steps in the protocol for therapeutic hypothermia. Observations of practice and feedback from nursing staff in all units confirm the utility of the checklist. Use of the checklist has helped reduce the time from admission to the unit to reaching the target temperature and the time from admission to continuous electroencephalographic monitoring in the cardiac intensive care unit. Evaluation of patients' outcomes as related to compliance with the protocol interventions is ongoing.
Yen, Po-Yin; Bakken, Suzanne
We evaluated a web-based communication tool for nurse scheduling using two common usability evaluation methods, heuristic evaluation and end-user think aloud protocol. We found that heuristic evaluation performed by human-computer interaction (HCI) experts revealed more general interface design problems, while end-users’ think-aloud protocols identified more obstacles to task performance. To provide the most effective and thorough evaluation results, a combination of heuristic evaluation and end-user think-aloud protocol is recommended. PMID:20351946
Background Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease and its risk can be reduced through adequate calcium consumption and physical activity. This protocol paper describes a workplace-based intervention targeting behaviour change in premenopausal women working in sedentary occupations. Method/Design A cluster-randomised design was used, comparing the efficacy of a tailored intervention to standard care. Workplaces were the clusters and units of randomisation and intervention. Sample size calculations incorporated the cluster design. Final number of clusters was determined to be 16, based on a cluster size of 20 and calcium intake parameters (effect size 250 mg, ICC 0.5 and standard deviation 290 mg) as it required the highest number of clusters. Sixteen workplaces were recruited from a pool of 97 workplaces and randomly assigned to intervention and control arms (eight in each). Women meeting specified inclusion criteria were then recruited to participate. Workplaces in the intervention arm received three participatory workshops and organisation wide educational activities. Workplaces in the control/standard care arm received print resources. Intervention workshops were guided by self-efficacy theory and included participatory activities such as goal setting, problem solving, local food sampling, exercise trials, group discussion and behaviour feedback. Outcomes measures were calcium intake (milligrams/day) and physical activity level (duration: minutes/week), measured at baseline, four weeks and six months post intervention. Discussion This study addresses the current lack of evidence for behaviour change interventions focussing on osteoporosis prevention. It addresses missed opportunities of using workplaces as a platform to target high-risk individuals with sedentary occupations. The intervention was designed to modify behaviour levels to bring about risk reduction. It is the first to address dietary and physical activity components each with unique intervention
Rosenbaum, Simon; Nijjar, Sukh; Watkins, Andrew; Garwood, Natasha; Sherrington, Catherine; Tiedemann, Anne
The aim of the present study was to: (i) document the prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases among mental health consumers (inpatients) with various diagnoses; and (ii) audit the frequency of waist circumference (WC) documentation before and after an intervention that involved a single nurse-education session, and change in assessment-form design. The study was undertaken in a private psychiatric hospital in Sydney, Australia. Twenty-five nurses participated in the educational intervention. File audits were performed prior to intervention delivery (n = 60), and 3 months' (n = 60), and 9 months' (n = 60) post-intervention. Files were randomly selected, and demographic (age, diagnosis) and risk factor (WC, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, blood pressure) data were extracted. WC was higher in this cohort compared to published general population means, and only 19% of patients had a BMI within the healthy range. In total, 37% of patients smoked, while 31% were hypertensive. At baseline, none of the audited files reported WC, which increased to 35 of the 60 (58%) files audited at the 3-month follow up. At the 9-month follow up, 25 of the 60 (42%) files audited reported a WC. In the 120 post-intervention files audited, only two patients refused measurement. These results illustrate the poor physical health of inpatients, and suggest that nurse-assessed metabolic monitoring can be enhanced with minimal training.
Andersen, Lena S; Magidson, Jessica F; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Remmert, Jessica E; Kagee, Ashraf; Leaver, Matthew; Stein, Dan J; Safren, Steven A; Joska, John
Depression is prevalent among people living with HIV in South Africa and interferes with adherence to antiretroviral therapy. This study evaluated a nurse-delivered, cognitive behavioral therapy intervention for adherence and depression among antiretroviral therapy users with depression in South Africa (n = 14). Primary outcomes were depression, antiretroviral therapy adherence, feasibility, and acceptability. Findings support robust improvements in mood through a 3-month follow up. Antiretroviral therapy adherence was maintained during the intervention period. Participant retention supports acceptability; however, modest provider fidelity despite intensive supervision warrants additional attention to feasibility. Future effectiveness research is needed to evaluate this nurse-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy intervention for adherence and depression in this context.
Mendell, Mark; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Spears, Michael; Fisk, William J.
We developed and pilot-tested an overall protocol for intervention studies to evaluate the effects of indoor environmental changes in office buildings on the health symptoms and comfort of occupants. The protocol includes a web-based survey to assess the occupant's responses, as well as specific features of study design and analysis. The pilot study, carried out on two similar floors in a single building, compared two types of ventilation system filter media. With support from the building's Facilities staff, the implementation of the filter change intervention went well. While the web-based survey tool worked well also, low overall response rates (21-34percent among the three work groups included) limited our ability to evaluate the filter intervention., The total number of questionnaires returned was low even though we extended the study from eight to ten weeks. Because another simultaneous study we conducted elsewhere using the same survey had a high response rate (>70percent), we conclude that the low response here resulted from issues specific to this pilot, including unexpected restrictions by some employing agencies on communication with occupants.
Geraghty, Adam W A; Stanford, Rosie; Little, Paul; Roberts, Lisa; Foster, Nadine E; Hill, Jonathan C; Hay, Elaine; Stuart, Beth; Turner, David; Yardley, Lucy
Introduction Low back pain (LBP) is a prevalent and costly condition. The majority of patients experiencing LBP are managed in primary care, where first-line care recommendations consist of advice to self-manage and remain active. Internet interventions present a potential means of providing patients with tailored self-management advice and evidence-based support for increasing physical activity. Methods/analysis This protocol describes a single-blind, randomised controlled feasibility trial of an internet intervention developed to support the self-management of LBP in primary care. Patients are being randomised to 1 of 3 groups receiving either usual primary care, usual primary care with the addition of an internet intervention or an internet intervention with physiotherapist telephone support. Patients are followed up at 3 months. Primary outcomes are the feasibility of (1) the trial design/methods, (2) the delivery of the internet intervention and (3) the provision of telephone support by physiotherapists. Secondary outcomes will include exploratory analysis of estimates and variation in clinical outcomes of pain and disability, in order to inform a future main trial. Ethics/dissemination This feasibility trial has undergone ethical scrutiny and been approved by the National Health Service (NHS) Research Ethics Committee, REC Reference 13/SC/0202. The feasibility findings will be disseminated to the research community through presentations at conferences and publication in peer review journals. Broader dissemination will come following a definitive trial. Trial registration number ISRCTN 31034004. PMID:26399575
Sinclair, Craig; Auret, Kirsten Anne; Evans, Sharon Frances; Williamson, Fiona; Dormer, Siobhan; Greeve, Kim; Koay, Audrey; Price, Dot; Brims, Fraser
Objective Advance care planning (ACP) clarifies goals for future care if a patient becomes unable to communicate their own preferences. However, ACP uptake is low, with discussions often occurring late. This study assessed whether a systematic nurse-led ACP intervention increases ACP in patients with advanced respiratory disease. Design A multicentre open-label randomised controlled trial with preference arm. Setting Metropolitan teaching hospital and a rural healthcare network. Participants 149 participants with respiratory malignancy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or interstitial lung disease. Intervention Nurse facilitators offered facilitated ACP discussions, prompted further discussions with doctors and loved ones, and assisted participants to appoint a substitute medical decision-maker (SDM) and complete an advance directive (AD). Outcome measures The primary measure was formal (AD or SDM) or informal (discussion with doctor) ACP uptake assessed by self-report (6 months) and medical notes audit. Secondary measures were the factors predicting baseline readiness to undertake ACP, and factors predicting postintervention ACP uptake in the intervention arm. Results At 6 months, formal ACP uptake was significantly higher (p<0.001) in the intervention arm (54/106, 51%), compared with usual care (6/43, 14%). ACP discussions with doctors were also significantly higher (p<0.005) in the intervention arm (76/106, 72%) compared with usual care (20/43, 47%). Those with a strong preference for the intervention were more likely to complete formal ACP documents than those randomly allocated. Increased symptom burden and preference for the intervention predicted later ACP uptake. Social support was positively associated with ACP discussion with loved ones, but negatively associated with discussion with doctors. Conclusions Nurse-led facilitated ACP is acceptable to patients with advanced respiratory disease and effective in increasing ACP discussions and completion
Background Living with HIV makes considerable demands on a person in terms of self-management, especially as regards adherence to treatment and coping with adverse side-effects. The online HIV Treatment, Virtual Nursing Assistance and Education (Virus de I’immunodéficience Humaine–Traitement Assistance Virtuelle Infirmière et Enseignement; VIH-TAVIE™) intervention was developed to provide persons living with HIV (PLHIV) with personalized follow-up and real-time support in managing their medication intake on a daily basis. An online randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted to evaluate the efficacy of this intervention primarily in optimizing adherence to combination anti-retroviral therapy (ART) among PLHIV. Methods/design A convenience sample of 232 PLHIV will be split evenly and randomly between an experimental group that will use the web application, and a control group that will be handed a list of websites of interest. Participants must be aged 18 years or older, have been on ART for at least 6 months, and have internet access. The intervention is composed of four interactive computer sessions of 20 to 30 minutes hosted by a virtual nurse who engages the PLHIV in a skills-learning process aimed at improving self-management of medication intake. Adherence constitutes the principal outcome, and is defined as the intake of at least 95% of the prescribed tablets. The following intermediary measures will be assessed: self-efficacy and attitude towards antiretroviral medication, symptom-related discomfort, and emotional support. There will be three measurement times: baseline (T0), after 3 months (T3) and 6 months (T6) of baseline measurement. The principal analyses will focus on comparing the two groups in terms of treatment adherence at the end of follow-up at T6. An intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis will be carried out to evaluate the true value of the intervention in a real context. Discussion Carrying out this online RCT poses various
Background Although Primary Health Care (PHC) Teams are used to deal with prevention and treatment of sanitary problems in adults with chronic diseases, they usually have a lack of experience in development of psychotherapeutic interventions. However, these interventions are the ones that achieve better results to reduce symptomatology and improve emotional state of caregivers. The study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention of psychotherapy in improving the mental health and Quality of life of caregivers. This intervention is based on theoretical approaches to care adjusted to cognitive theory, in order to be applied in primary health care centres. Methods/Design This is multicentre clinical trials study, randomized in two parallel groups, carry out in two PHC, Study population: 150 caregivers will be included by consecutive sampling and they will be randomized the half to experimental group and the other half to control group. They provide mostly all the assistance to care-dependent familiars receiving attention in PHC Centers. Measurements: Each caregiver will be evaluated on a personal interview. The caregivers' assessment protocol: 1) Assessment of different socio-demographic related to care, and caregiver's personal situation. 2)Care-dependent individuals will also be assessed by Barthel Index and Pfeiffer Questionnaire (SPMSQ). 3)Change in caregivers will be the principal measure: family function (Family APGAR Questionnaire), burden short questionnaire (Short Zarit Burden Interview), quality of life (Ruiz & Baca: 1993 Questionnaire), the Duke-UNK Functional Social Support Questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire-12, and changes in Dysfunctional Thoughts about caring. 4) Intervention implementation measures will also be assessed. Intervention: A psychotherapeutic intervention will be 8 sessions of 90 minutes in groups. This intervention has been initially developed for family caregivers of patients with dementia. Discussion
Meraner, V; Sperner-Unterweger, B
During intensive care treatment patients suffer from various forms of stress. Certain psychological and psychotherapeutic interventions (e. g. cognitive behavior therapy, hypnotherapy and psychoeducation) can provide relief. Even patients with a severely reduced ability to communicate can benefit from an early psychological intervention as supportive treatment. The aim of these interventions is to reduce psychological impairments and burdens, provide strategies for coping with physical handicaps or necessary treatment and avoid long-term negative psychological impacts. Organizational and institutional constraints as well as emotional stress are a specific challenge for intensive care personnel. In order to guarantee an efficient collaboration within an interdisciplinary team it is vital to follow clearly defined methods of communication exchange, such as daily ward rounds, regular multidisciplinary meetings and team or case-focused supervision. Properly functioning teamwork increases job satisfaction and is the key to an optimal therapy for the patients.
Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Davidson, Tatiana M.; McCauley, Jenna; Gros, Kirstin Stauffacher; Welsh, Kyleen; Price, Matthew; Resnick, Heidi S.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Soltis, Kathryn; Galea, Sandro; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Nissenboim, Josh; Muzzy, Wendy; Fleeman, Anna; Amstadter, Ananda B.
Disasters have far-reaching and potentially long-lasting effects on youth and families. Research has consistently shown a clear increase in the prevalence of several mental health disorders after disasters, including depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Widely accessible evidence-based interventions are needed to address this unmet need for youth and families, who are underrepresented in disaster research. Rapid growth in Internet and Smartphone access, as well as several web based evaluation studies with various adult populations has shown that web-based interventions are likely to be feasible in this context and can improve clinical outcomes. Such interventions also are generally cost-effective, can be targeted or personalized, and can easily be integrated in a stepped care approach to screening and intervention delivery. This is a protocol paper that describes an innovative study design in which we evaluate a self-help web-based resource, Bounce Back Now, with a population-based sample of disaster affected adolescents and families. The paper includes description and justification for sampling selection and procedures, selection of assessment measures and methods, design of the intervention, and statistical evaluation of critical outcomes. Unique features of this study design include the use of address-based sampling to recruit a population-based sample of disaster-affected adolescents and parents, telephone and web-based assessments, and development and evaluation of a highly individualized web intervention for adolescents. Challenges related to large-scale evaluation of technology-delivered interventions with high-risk samples in time-sensitive research are discussed, as well as implications for future research and practice. PMID:25478956
Mahendran, Rathi; Tan, Joyce Yi Siang; Griva, Konstadina; Lim, Haikel Asyraf; Ng, Hui Ying; Chua, Joanne; Lim, Siew Eng; Kua, Ee Heok
Introduction Despite the rising trend of cancer prevalence and increase in family caregiving, little attention has been paid to the efficacy of psychosocial interventions among Asian caregiver samples, particularly support groups, given the benefits that have been shown in studies on Western populations. This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a pilot 4-week group psychotherapy for Singaporean family caregivers of patients receiving outpatient care. Methods and analysis Facilitated by a clinical psychologist, this intervention is primarily based on the brief integrative psychological therapy with a supportive-expressive intent. Participants will be recruited while they are accompanying their care recipients for outpatient consultations. Since this is a pilot study, a sample size of 120 participants is targeted on the basis of sample sizes of previous studies. The study adopts a quasi-experimental design, as participants are assigned the intervention or control arms based on their availability to attend the intervention. A mixed methods approach is used to evaluate the outcomes of the intervention. A self-administered battery of tests is completed at four time points: baseline, postintervention and follow-up at 1-month and 2-month postinterventions; semi-structured interviews are conducted at baseline and post-intervention. Primary outcomes are quality of life and anxious and depressive symptoms; secondary outcomes are stress and basic psychological needs. Analysis using analysis of covariance would be conducted to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Ethics and dissemination This study protocol has ethics approval from the National Healthcare Group Domain Specific Review Board (NHG DSRB Ref: 2013/00662). Written informed consent is obtained from every participant. Results will be disseminated through journals and conferences, and will be particularly relevant for clinicians intending to implement similar support groups to address the
Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Davidson, Tatiana M; McCauley, Jenna; Gros, Kirstin Stauffacher; Welsh, Kyleen; Price, Matthew; Resnick, Heidi S; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Soltis, Kathryn; Galea, Sandro; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Saunders, Benjamin E; Nissenboim, Josh; Muzzy, Wendy; Fleeman, Anna; Amstadter, Ananda B
Disasters have far-reaching and potentially long-lasting effects on youth and families. Research has consistently shown a clear increase in the prevalence of several mental health disorders after disasters, including depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Widely accessible evidence-based interventions are needed to address this unmet need for youth and families, who are underrepresented in disaster research. Rapid growth in Internet and Smartphone access, as well as several Web based evaluation studies with various adult populations has shown that Web-based interventions are likely to be feasible in this context and can improve clinical outcomes. Such interventions also are generally cost-effective, can be targeted or personalized, and can easily be integrated in a stepped care approach to screening and intervention delivery. This is a protocol paper that describes an innovative study design in which we evaluate a self-help Web-based resource, Bounce Back Now, with a population-based sample of disaster affected adolescents and families. The paper includes description and justification for sampling selection and procedures, selection of assessment measures and methods, design of the intervention, and statistical evaluation of critical outcomes. Unique features of this study design include the use of address-based sampling to recruit a population-based sample of disaster-affected adolescents and parents, telephone and Web-based assessments, and development and evaluation of a highly individualized Web intervention for adolescents. Challenges related to large-scale evaluation of technology-delivered interventions with high-risk samples in time-sensitive research are discussed, as well as implications for future research and practice.
Abaraogu, Ukachukwu Okoroafor; Dall, Philippa Margaret; Seenan, Christopher Andrew
Introduction Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and intermittent claudication (IC) decrease an individual's capacity to engage in physical activity (PA) with potentially negative effects on PA behaviour. Strategies to improve PA among this population may provide a range of positive health benefits. We present a protocol to assess the components of patient education interventions that improve PA capacity and PA behaviour in patients with PAD and IC. Methods and analysis Published peer-reviewed studies will be searched in the following databases: CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, OVID, ProQuest, AMED, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science Core Collection and PEDro, to identify literature investigating the effect of patient education on PA of patients with PAD and IC, or studies that investigated patients' perceptions or experience with these interventions. Two authors will independently perform screening for study eligibility, result synthesis and then appraise study quality. For interventions without follow-up, primary outcome measures will include change in PA capacity, or change in free-living PA behaviour; where there was a follow-up postintervention, the primary outcome will be rate of adherence to PA behaviour improvement. A three-phase sequential explanatory synthesis of mixed studies will be employed to answer the research questions. Homogenous quantitative data will be analysed using a random-effects model of meta-analysis with results presented as relative risk for dichotomous outcomes and as weighted or standardised means for continuous outcomes. Qualitative data will be analysed using thematic synthesis. This review protocol is reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 guidelines. Trial registration number CRD42015027314. PMID:27207628
Abedian, Kobra; Nesami, Masumeh Bagheri; Shahhosseini, Zohreh
Background: For patients’ rights to be observed, first patients and health care providers should be aware of these rights. Nurses’ lack of awareness of these rights leads to their inability to recognize patients’ legal and ethical issues, and reduces the quality of provided services. This study was conducted to determine the effect of an education-based intervention on self-reported awareness and practice of nurses in observing patients’ rights. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, awareness and practice of 90 nurses on Patient’s Bill of Rights were examined in case and control groups, before, 2 and 4 weeks after an educational intervention program on. Participants were selected from teaching hospitals of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Data was gathered using the valid and reliable 21-item questionnaire in a 3-point Likert scale during a 5-month period from October 2013 to March 2014. For data analysis, descriptive statistical methods, paired t-test, and repeated measure analysis of variance at significant level P<0.05 were used. Results: Participants’ mean age and work experience were found 37.1±5.71 years and 11.76±5.99 years respectively. Mean scores of nurses’ awareness and practice before intervention were 15.12±2.19 and 9.13±2.36, accordingly. Repeated measure analysis of variance test showed a significant difference in awareness and practice of nurses before and after intervention (P<0.001). Conclusion: Enhancing nurses’ awareness on Patient’s Bill of Rights through revision of educational curriculum in nursing schools, together with considering appropriate relevant content in continuous education programs in health systems can lead to improved quality of nursing care services. PMID:25948445
Phillips, Jane L; Heneka, Nicole; Hickman, Louise; Lam, Lawrence; Shaw, Tim
Unrelieved cancer pain has an adverse impact on quality of life. While routine screening and assessment forms the basis of effective cancer pain management, it is often poorly done, thus contributing to the burden of unrelieved cancer pain. The aim of this study was to test the impact of an online, complex, evidence-based educational intervention on cancer nurses' pain assessment capabilities and adherence to cancer pain screening and assessment guidelines. Specialist inpatient cancer nurses in five Australian acute care settings participated in an intervention combining an online spaced learning cancer pain assessment module with audit and feedback of pain assessment practices. Participants' self-perceived pain assessment competencies were measured at three time points. Prospective, consecutive chart audits were undertaken to appraise nurses' adherence with pain screening and assessment guidelines. The differences in documented pre-post pain assessment practices were benchmarked and fed back to all sites post intervention. Data were analyzed using inferential statistics. Participants who completed the intervention (n = 44) increased their pain assessment knowledge, assessment tool knowledge, and confidence undertaking a pain assessment (p < .001). The positive changes in nurses' pain assessment capabilities translated into a significant increasing linear trend in the proportion of documented pain assessments in patients' charts at the three time points (χ(2) trend = 18.28, df = 1, p < .001). There is evidence that learning content delivered using a spaced learning format, augmented with pain assessment audit and feedback data, improves inpatient cancer nurses' self-perceived pain screening and assessment capabilities and strengthens cancer pain guideline adherence.
Whyte, James; Pickett-Hauber, Roxanne; Cormier, Eileen; Grubbs, Laurie; Ward, Paul
This study, based on the Expert Performance Approach, examined the clinical nursing performance of participants who were introduced into a simulated task environment requiring them to administer care to a client experiencing an exacerbation of Congestive Heart Failure. This was undertaken to identify cognitive and physiologic variables that differentiate performance levels among participants. Data on participant actions and verbal reports were coded to characterize their relationship with physiologic responses of the Human Patient Simulator. The results demonstrated that physiologic responses to nursing interventions reflect a reliable pattern that can be used to differentiate performance levels.
Brandt, Mikkel; Møller, Jeppe Lykke; Skals, Sebastian; Vinstrup, Jonas; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Madeleine, Pascal; Andersen, Lars Louis
Background Previous research has shown that reducing physical workload among workers in the construction industry is complicated. In order to address this issue, we developed a process evaluation in a formative mixed-methods design, drawing on existing knowledge of the potential barriers for implementation. Objective We present the design of a mixed-methods process evaluation of the organizational, social, and subjective practices that play roles in the intervention study, integrating technical measurements to detect excessive physical exertion measured with electromyography and accelerometers, video documentation of working tasks, and a 3-phased workshop program. Methods The evaluation is designed in an adapted process evaluation framework, addressing recruitment, reach, fidelity, satisfaction, intervention delivery, intervention received, and context of the intervention companies. Observational studies, interviews, and questionnaires among 80 construction workers organized in 20 work gangs, as well as health and safety staff, contribute to the creation of knowledge about these phenomena. Results At the time of publication, the process of participant recruitment is underway. Conclusions Intervention studies are challenging to conduct and evaluate in the construction industry, often because of narrow time frames and ever-changing contexts. The mixed-methods design presents opportunities for obtaining detailed knowledge of the practices intra-acting with the intervention, while offering the opportunity to customize parts of the intervention. PMID:27230696
Husain, Nusrat; Gire, Nadeem; Kelly, James; Duxbury, Joy; McKeown, Mick; Riley, Miv; Taylor, Christopher DJ; Taylor, Peter J; Emsley, Richard; Farooq, Saeed; Caton, Neil; Naeem, Farooq; Kingdon, David; Chaudhry, Imran
Objectives: Technological advances in healthcare have shown promise when delivering interventions for mental health problems such as psychosis. The aim of this project is to develop a mobile phone intervention for people with psychosis and to conduct a feasibility study of the TechCare App. Methods: The TechCare App will assess participant’s symptoms and respond with a personalised guided self-help-based psychological intervention with the aim of exploring feasibility and acceptability. The project will recruit 16 service users and 8–10 health professionals from the Lancashire Care NHS Foundation Trust Early Intervention Service. Results: In strand 1 of the study, we will invite people to discuss their experience of psychosis and give their opinions on the existing evidence-based treatment (cognitive behavioural therapy) and how the mobile app can be developed. In strand 2, we will complete a test run with a small number of participants (n = 4) to refine the mobile intervention (TechCare). Finally, in strand 3 of the study, the TechCare App will be examined in a feasibility study with 12 participants. Conclusion: It has been suggested that there is a need for a rapid increase in the efforts to develop the evidence base for the clinical effectiveness of digital technologies, considering mHealth research can potentially be helpful in addressing the demand on mental health services globally. PMID:27790373
Voice-Message–Based mHealth Intervention to Reduce Postoperative Penetrative Sex in Recipients of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in the Western Cape, South Africa: Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial
Skinner, Donald; Toefy, Yoesrie; Esterhuizen, Tonya; McCaul, Michael; Petzold, Max; Diwan, Vinod
Background There is an increased risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, in the postoperative period after receiving voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). In South Africa, over 4 million men are being targeted with VMMC services but the health system is not able to offer quality counseling. More innovative strategies for communicating with and altering behavior in men and their partners in the postoperative period after VMMC are needed. Objective This paper presents a study protocol to test the effectiveness of an mHealth intervention designed to task-shift behavior change communication from health care personnel to an automated phone message system, encouraging self-care. Methods A single-blind, randomized controlled trial will be used. A total of 1188 participants will be recruited by nurses or clinicians at clinics in the study districts that have a high turnover of VMMC clients. The population will consist of men aged 18 years and older who indicate at the precounseling session that they possess a mobile phone and consent to participating in the study. Consenting participants will be randomized into either the control or intervention arm before undergoing VMMC. The control arm will receive the standard of care (pre- and postcounseling). The intervention arm will received standard of care and will be sent 38 messages over the 6-week recovery period. Patients will be followed up after 42 days. The primary outcome is self-reported sexual intercourse during the recovery period. Secondary outcomes include nonpenetrative sexual activity, STI symptoms, and perceived risk of acquiring HIV. Analysis will be by intention-to-treat. Results Enrollment is completed. Follow-up is ongoing. Loss to follow-up is under 10%. No interim analyses have been conducted. Conclusions The intervention has the potential of reducing risky sexual behavior after VMMC. The platform itself can be used for many other areas of health that require task
Bensink, Mark E.; Eaton, Linda H.; Morrison, Megan L.; Cook, Wendy A.; Curtis, R. Randall; Kundu, Anjana; Gordon, Deborah B.; Doorenbos, Ardith Z.
Background With ever increasing pressure to reduce costs and increase quality, nurses are faced with the challenge of producing evidence that their interventions and care provide value. Cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) is a tool that can be used to provide this evidence by comparative evaluation of the costs and consequences of two or more alternatives. Objectives The aim of this article is to introduce the essential components of CEA to nurses and nurse researchers with the protocol of a recently funded cluster randomized controlled trial as an example. Methods This article provides: (a) a description of the main concepts and key steps in CEA, and (b) a summary of the background and objectives of a CEA designed to evaluate a nursing led pain and symptom management intervention in rural communities compared to current usual care. Discussion As the example highlights, incorporating CEA into nursing research studies is feasible. The burden of the additional data collection required is off-set by quantitative evidence of the given intervention's cost and impact using humanistic and economic outcomes. At a time when US health care is moving toward accountable care, the information provided by CEA will be an important additional component of the evidence produced by nursing research. PMID:23817285
Vílchez Barboza, Vivian; Klijn, Tatiana Paravic; Salazar Molina, Alide; Sáez Carrillo, Katia Lorena
Abstract Objective: to evaluate the effect and gender differences of an innovative intervention involving in-person and telephone nursing counseling to control cardiovascular risk factors (arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, and overweight), improve health-related quality of life and strengthen self-efficacy and social support in persons using the municipal health centers' cardiovascular health program. Method: a randomized controlled clinical trial involving participants randomized into the intervention group who received traditional consultation plus personalized and telephone nursing counseling for 7 months (n = 53) and the control group (n = 56). The study followed the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials Statement. Results: women in the intervention group presented a significant increase in the physical and mental health components compared to the control group, with decreases in weight, abdominal circumference, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the atherogenic index. The effects attributable to the intervention in the men in the intervention group were increased physical and emotional roles and decreased systolic and diastolic pressure, waist circumference, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, cardiovascular risk factor, and 10-year coronary risk. Conclusion: this intervention is an effective strategy for the control of three cardiovascular risk factors and the improvement of health-related quality of life. PMID:27508917
Suganuma, Aya M; Shinohara, Kiyomi; Imai, Hissei; Takeshima, Nozomi; Hayasaka, Yu
Introduction Abstracts are the major and often the most important source of information for readers of the medical literature. However, there is mounting criticism that abstracts often exaggerate the positive findings and emphasise the beneficial effects of intervention beyond the actual findings mentioned in the corresponding full texts. In order to examine the magnitude of this problem, we will introduce a systematic approach to detect overstated abstracts and to quantify the extent of their prevalence in published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the field of psychiatry. Methods and analysis We will source RCTs published in 2014 from the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) that claim effectiveness of any intervention for mental disorders. The abstract conclusions will be categorised into three types: superior (only stating significant superiority of intervention to control), limited (suggesting that intervention has limited superiority to control) and equal (claiming equal effectiveness of intervention as control). The full texts will also be classified as one of the following based on the primary outcome results: significant (all primary outcomes were statistically significant in favour of the intervention), mixed (primary outcomes included both significant and non-significant results) or all non-significant results. By comparing the abstract conclusion classification and that of the corresponding full text, we will assess whether each study exhibited overstatements in its abstract conclusion. Ethics and dissemination This trial requires no ethical approval. We will publish our findings in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number UMIN000018668; Pre-results. PMID:27103624
Background Lack of adherence to recommended treatment for obstructive sleep apnea remains an ongoing public health challenge. Despite evidence that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is effective and improves overall quality of life, adherence with the use of CPAP in certain racial/ethnic groups, especially blacks, is suboptimal. Evidence indicates that the incidence and prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea are higher among blacks, relative to whites, and blacks are less likely to adhere to recommended treatment compared with other racial/ethnic groups. Methods Using a two-arm randomized controlled design, this study will evaluate the effectiveness of a culturally and linguistically tailored telephone-delivered intervention to promote adherence to physician-recommended sleep apnea assessment and treatment among blacks with metabolic syndrome, versus an attention-control arm. The intervention is designed to foster adherence to recommended sleep apnea care using the stages-of-change model. The intervention will be delivered entirely over the telephone. Participants in the intervention arm will receive 10 phone calls to address challenges and barriers to recommended care. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, and at 6- and 12-months post-randomization. Discussion This tailored behavioral intervention will improve adherence to sleep apnea assessment and treatment among blacks with metabolic syndrome. We expect to demonstrate that this intervention modality is feasible in terms of time and cost and can be replicated in populations with similar racial/ethnic backgrounds. Trial registration The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT01946659 (February 2013) PMID:24925227
Tiemessen, Ivo JH; Hulshof, Carel TJ; Frings-Dresen, Monique HW
Background Whole body vibration (WBV) exposure at work is common and studies found evidence that this exposure might cause low back pain (LBP). A recent review concluded there is a lack of evidence of effective strategies to reduce WBV exposure. Most research in this field is focussed on the technical implications, although changing behaviour towards WBV exposure might be promising as well. Therefore, we developed an intervention programme to reduce WBV exposure in a population of drivers with the emphasis on a change in behaviour of driver and employer. The hypothesis is that an effective reduction in WBV exposure, in time, will lead to a reduction in LBP as WBV exposure is a proxy for an increased risk of LBP. Methods/Design The intervention programme was developed specifically for the drivers of vibrating vehicles and their employers. The intervention programme will be based on the most important determinants of WBV exposure as track conditions, driving speed, quality of the seat, etc. By increasing knowledge and skills towards changing these determinants, the attitude, social influence and self-efficacy (ASE) of both drivers and employers will be affected having an effect on the level of exposure. We used the well-known ASE model to develop an intervention programme aiming at a change or the intention to change behaviour towards WBV exposure. The developed programme consists of: individual health surveillance, an information brochure, an informative presentation and a report of the performed field measurements. Discussion The study protocol described is advantageous as the intervention program actively tries to change behaviour towards WBV exposure. The near future will show if this intervention program is effective by showing a decrease in WBV exposure. PMID:18005400
Background Managing oral anticoagulant treatment (OAT) is a challenge for patients and primary care providers. It requires a high level of patient knowledge and adherence. Studies have shown that insufficient adherence and a low level of patient knowledge about OAT are primary causes for complications. This trial is the first to evaluate the long-term effects of a complex practice nurse-based patient education program in comparison to a patient brochure only. Methods and design This trial will be a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 22 general practices (GPs) recruiting 360 patients with OAT. GPs will be randomized into an intervention group or a control group. A baseline questionnaire will assess pre-existing knowledge about OAT. The patients in the intervention group will be educated by a complex education program which consists of a video, a brochure and individual training by a practice nurse. The video gives information about OAT, nutrition, and instructions about how to manage critical situations. The brochure repeats the content of the video. After 4 to 6 weeks, the intervention will be recapitulated. The control group will receive the brochure only. After 6 months, questionnaires will be used in both groups to assess patient knowledge about OAT as well as patients' subjective feelings of safety. Separately, we will evaluate patient records, looking for documented complications and the time spent in the therapeutic range. Discussion This trial will start in January 2011. This trial will evaluate the long-term effectiveness of a video-assisted education program on patients with OAT in comparison to a patient information brochure. Most previous studies have evaluated knowledge directly after an educational intervention. Our trial will look for long-term differences in basic knowledge of OAT. We expect that our complex patient education program effectively increases long-term basic knowledge about OAT. Although the population of our study is too small to
Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common cancer affecting both men and women in Australia. The illness and related treatments can cause distressing adverse effects, impact on emotional and psychological well-being, and adversely affect social, occupational and relationship functioning for many years after the end of treatment or, in fact, lifelong. Current models of follow-up fail to address the complex needs arising after treatment completion. Strategies to better prepare and support survivors are urgently required. We previously developed a nurse-led supportive care program (SurvivorCare) and tested it in a pilot study involving 10 CRC survivors. The intervention was found to be highly acceptable, appropriate, relevant and useful. Methods/design This study is a multisite, randomised controlled trial, designed to assess the impact of the addition of the SurvivorCare intervention to usual post-treatment care, for people with potentially cured CRC. SurvivorCare comprises the provision of survivorship educational materials, a tailored survivorship care plan, an individually tailored nurse-led, face-to-face end of treatment consultation and three subsequent telephone calls. Eligible patients have completed treatment for potentially cured CRC. Other eligibility criteria include stage I to III disease, age greater than 18 years and adequate understanding of English. All consenting patients complete questionnaires at three time points over a six-month period (baseline, two and six months). Measures assess psychological distress, unmet needs and quality of life. Discussion This supportive care package has the potential to significantly reduce individual suffering, whilst reducing the burden of follow-up on acute cancer services through enhanced engagement with and utilisation of general practitioners and community based services. If the intervention is successful in achieving the expected health benefits, it could be disseminated readily. All training and
Background Community pharmacists can deliver health care advice at an opportunistic level, related to prescription or non-prescription medicines and as part of focused services designed to reduce specific risks to health. Obesity, smoking and excessive alcohol intake are three of the most significant modifiable risk factors for morbidity and mortality in the UK, and interventions led by community pharmacists, aimed at these three risk factors, have been identified by the government as public health priorities. In 2008, the Department of Health for England stated that ‘a sound evidence base that demonstrates how pharmacy delivers effective, high quality and value for money services is needed’; this systematic review aims to respond to this requirement. Methods/design We will search the databases MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index, ASSIA, IBSS, Sociological Abstracts, Scopus and NHS Economic Evaluation Database for studies that have evaluated interventions based on community pharmacies that aim to target weight management, smoking cessation and alcohol misuse. We will include all randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series (ITS) and repeated measures studies. Data from included studies will be extracted by two independent reviewers and will include study details methods, results, intervention implementation/costs and methodological quality. Meta-analysis will be conducted if appropriate; if not, the synthesis will be restricted to a narrative overview of individual studies looking at the same question. Discussion The review aims to summarise the evidence base on the effectiveness of community pharmacy interventions on health and health behaviours in relation to weight management, smoking cessation and alcohol misuse. It will also explore if, and how, socio-economic status, gender, ethnicity and age moderate the effect of the
The Walking Interventions Through Texting (WalkIT) Trial: Rationale, Design, and Protocol for a Factorial Randomized Controlled Trial of Adaptive Interventions for Overweight and Obese, Inactive Adults
Hurley, Jane C; Hollingshead, Kevin E; Todd, Michael; Jarrett, Catherine L; Tucker, Wesley J; Angadi, Siddhartha S
Background Walking is a widely accepted and frequently targeted health promotion approach to increase physical activity (PA). Interventions to increase PA have produced only small improvements. Stronger and more potent behavioral intervention components are needed to increase time spent in PA, improve cardiometabolic risk markers, and optimize health. Objective Our aim is to present the rationale and methods from the WalkIT Trial, a 4-month factorial randomized controlled trial (RCT) in inactive, overweight/obese adults. The main purpose of the study was to evaluate whether intensive adaptive components result in greater improvements to adults’ PA compared to the static intervention components. Methods Participants enrolled in a 2x2 factorial RCT and were assigned to one of four semi-automated, text message–based walking interventions. Experimental components included adaptive versus static steps/day goals, and immediate versus delayed reinforcement. Principles of percentile shaping and behavioral economics were used to operationalize experimental components. A Fitbit Zip measured the main outcome: participants’ daily physical activity (steps and cadence) over the 4-month duration of the study. Secondary outcomes included self-reported PA, psychosocial outcomes, aerobic fitness, and cardiorespiratory risk factors assessed pre/post in a laboratory setting. Participants were recruited through email listservs and websites affiliated with the university campus, community businesses and local government, social groups, and social media advertising. Results This study has completed data collection as of December 2014, but data cleaning and preliminary analyses are still in progress. We expect to complete analysis of the main outcomes in late 2015 to early 2016. Conclusions The Walking Interventions through Texting (WalkIT) Trial will further the understanding of theory-based intervention components to increase the PA of men and women who are healthy, insufficiently
-demographic characteristics, trauma-related variables, environmental conditions, and social support will act as moderators/mediators of intervention effect. The investigation of the role of these factors on the intervention effects will help in the appropriate selection, development, implementation, and dissemination of evidence-based programs in low- and middle-income countries. Trial registration This protocol has been registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) (registration number: CRD42013006960). PMID:24721115
Wolfenden, Luke; Rowland, Bosco C; Tindall, Jennifer; Gillham, Karen E; McElduff, Patrick; Rogerson, John C; Wiggers, John H
Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for considerable harm from chronic disease and injury. Within most developed countries, members of sporting clubs consume alcohol at levels above that of communities generally. Despite the potential benefits of interventions to address alcohol consumption in sporting clubs, there have been no randomised controlled trials to test the effectiveness of these interventions. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a comprehensive accreditation intervention with community football clubs (Rugby League, Rugby Union, soccer/association football and Australian Rules football) in reducing excessive alcohol consumption by club members. Methods and analysis The study will be conducted in New South Wales, Australia, and employ a cluster randomised controlled trial design. Half of the football clubs recruited to the trial will be randomised to receive an intervention implemented over two and a half winter sporting seasons. The intervention is based on social ecology theory and is comprehensive in nature, containing multiple elements designed to decrease the supply of alcohol to intoxicated members, cease the provision of cheap and free alcohol, increase the availability and cost-attractiveness of non-alcoholic and low-alcoholic beverages, remove high alcohol drinks and cease drinking games. The intervention utilises a three-tiered accreditation framework designed to motivate intervention implementation. Football clubs in the control group will receive printed materials on topics unrelated to alcohol. Outcome data will be collected pre- and postintervention through cross-sectional telephone surveys of club members. The primary outcome measure will be alcohol consumption by club members at the club, assessed using a graduated frequency index and a seven day diary. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by The University of Newcastle Human Research Ethics Committee (reference: H-2008-0432). Study
Background Supporting self-management behaviours is recommended guidance for people with asthma. Preliminary work suggests that a brief, intensive, patient-centred intervention may be successful in supporting people with asthma to participate in life roles and activities they value. We seek to assess the feasibility of undertaking a cluster-randomised controlled trial (cRCT) of a brief, goal-setting intervention delivered in the context of an asthma review consultation. Methods/design A two armed, single-blinded, multi-centre, cluster-randomised controlled feasibility trial will be conducted in UK primary care. Randomisation will take place at the practice level. We aim to recruit a total of 80 primary care patients with active asthma from at least eight practices across two health boards in Scotland (10 patients per practice resulting in ~40 in each arm). Patients in the intervention arm will be asked to complete a novel goal-setting tool immediately prior to an asthma review consultation. This will be used to underpin a focussed discussion about their goals during the asthma review. A tailored management plan will then be negotiated to facilitate achieving their prioritised goals. Patients in the control arm will receive a usual care guideline-based review of asthma. Data on quality of life, asthma control and patient confidence will be collected from both arms at baseline and 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Data on health services resource use will be collected from all patient records 6 months pre- and post-intervention. Semi-structured interviews will be carried out with healthcare staff and a purposive sample of patients to elicit their views and experiences of the trial. The outcomes of interest in this feasibility trial are the ability to recruit patients and healthcare staff, the optimal method of delivering the intervention within routine clinical practice, and acceptability and perceived utility of the intervention among patients and staff. Trial
Kahlert, Daniela; Unyi-Reicherz, Annelie; Stratton, Gareth; Meinert Larsen, Thomas; Fogelholm, Mikael; Raben, Anne; Schlicht, Wolfgang
Background: Losing excess body weight and preventing weight regain by changing lifestyle is a challenging but promising task to prevent the incidence of type-2 diabetes. To be successful, it is necessary to use evidence-based and theory-driven interventions, which also contribute to the science of behavior modification by providing a deeper understanding of successful intervention components. Objective: To develop a physical activity and dietary behavior modification intervention toolbox (PREMIT) that fulfills current requirements of being theory-driven and evidence-based, comprehensively described and feasible to evaluate. PREMIT is part of an intervention trial, which aims to prevent the onset of type-2 diabetes in pre-diabetics in eight clinical centers across the world by guiding them in changing their physical activity and dietary behavior through a group counseling approach. Methods: The program development took five progressive steps, in line with the Public Health Action Cycle: (1) Summing-up the intervention goal(s), target group and the setting, (2) uncovering the generative psychological mechanisms, (3) identifying behavior change techniques and tools, (4) preparing for evaluation and (5) implementing the intervention and assuring quality. Results: PREMIT is based on a trans-theoretical approach referring to valid behavior modification theories, models and approaches. A major “product” of PREMIT is a matrix, constructed for use by onsite-instructors. The matrix includes objectives, tasks and activities ordered by periods. PREMIT is constructed to help instructors guide participants' behavior change. To ensure high fidelity and adherence of program-implementation across the eight intervention centers standardized operational procedures were defined and “train-the-trainer” workshops were held. In summary PREMIT is a theory-driven, evidence-based program carefully developed to change physical activity and dietary behaviors in pre-diabetic people
Background Chronic musculoskeletal pain is highly prevalent, affecting around one in five people across Europe. Osteoarthritis, low back pain, neck pain and other musculoskeletal disorders are leading causes of disability worldwide and the most common source of chronic pain. Exercise and/or physical activity interventions have the potential to address not only the pain and disability associated with chronic pain but also the increased risk of morbidity and mortality seen in this population. Although exercise and/or physical activity is widely recommended, there is currently a paucity of research that offers an evidence base upon which the development or optimisation of interventions can be based. This systematic review will investigate the components of interventions associated with changes in physical activity levels in adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Methods/Design This systematic review will be reported in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidance. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity in adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain will be included. Articles will be identified through a comprehensive search of the following databases: CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and AMED. Two review authors will independently screen articles retrieved from the search for eligibility, extract relevant data on methodological issues and code interventions according to the behaviour change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques. As complex healthcare interventions can be modified by a wide variety of factors, data will be summarised statistically when the data are available, are sufficiently similar and are of sufficient quality. A narrative synthesis will be completed if there is insufficient data to permit a formal meta
Background Over 65% of stroke survivors are either overweight or obese and have multiple cardiovascular risk factors. However, few studies have examined the effects of comprehensive lifestyle behavior interventions to promote weight loss and control cardiovascular risk factors in stroke survivors. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine a novel behavior change approach - SystemCHANGE™ - to promote weight loss and improve health and function in stroke survivors. SystemCHANGE™ focuses on redesigning the social environment to achieve a specific goal. Methods We will conduct a randomized controlled pilot study to examine the efficacy, feasibility, and safety of the SystemCHANGE™ weight management program in overweight and obese stroke survivors. The central hypothesis of the study is that the SystemCHANGE™ intervention will help overweight and obese stroke survivors lose 5% of their body weight, thereby improving health and function. Thirty-five stroke survivors will be randomized into either the 6-month SystemCHANGE™ intervention or a contact-control intervention. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline and again at 3 and 6 months after the interventions. Body composition will be assessed using a Bod Pod. Patient-reported outcomes will be the Stroke Impact Scale and Reintegration to Normal Living Index. Objective outcomes will include the 6-Minute Walking Test and Rivermead Motor Assessment. Discussion This study will be the first randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a weight management intervention in stroke survivors using the SystemCHANGE™ approach. Furthermore, it will be the first empirically-examined comprehensive lifestyle intervention designed to target physical activity, nutrition, and sleep to promote weight loss in stroke survivors. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01776034 PMID:23782741
Corredoira, Eva; Vañó, Eliseo; Alejo, Luis; Ubeda, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Larraya, Federico; Garayoa, Julia
The aim of this study was to assess image quality and radiation dose of a biplane angiographic system with cone-beam CT (CBCT) capability tuned for pediatric cardiac procedures. The results of this study can be used to explore dose reduction techniques. For pulsed fluoroscopy and cine modes, polymethyl methacrylate phantoms of various thicknesses and a Leeds TOR 18-FG test object were employed. Various fields of view (FOV) were selected. For CBCT, the study employed head and body dose phantoms, Catphan 504, and an anthropomorphic cardiology phantom. The study also compared two 3D rotational angiography protocols. The entrance surface air kerma per frame increases by a factor of 3-12 when comparing cine and fluoroscopy frames. The biggest difference in the signal-to- noise ratio between fluoroscopy and cine modes occurs at FOV 32 cm because fluoroscopy is acquired at a 1440 × 1440 pixel matrix size and in unbinned mode, whereas cine is acquired at 720 × 720 pixels and in binned mode. The high-contrast spatial resolution of cine is better than that of fluoroscopy, except for FOV 32 cm, because fluoroscopy mode with 32 cm FOV is unbinned. Acquiring CBCT series with a 16 cm head phantom using the standard dose protocol results in a threefold dose increase compared with the low-dose protocol. Although the amount of noise present in the images acquired with the low-dose protocol is much higher than that obtained with the standard mode, the images present better spatial resolution. A 1 mm diameter rod with 250 Hounsfield units can be distinguished in reconstructed images with an 8 mm slice width. Pediatric-specific protocols provide lower doses while maintaining sufficient image quality. The system offers a novel 3D imaging mode. The acquisition of CBCT images results in increased doses administered to the patients, but also provides further diagnostic information contained in the volumetric images. The assessed CBCT protocols provide images that are noisy, but with
Background Racial disparities in blood pressure control have been well documented in the United States. Research suggests that many factors contribute to this disparity, including barriers to care at patient, clinician, healthcare system, and community levels. To date, few interventions aimed at reducing hypertension disparities have addressed factors at all of these levels. This paper describes the design of Project ReD CHiP (Reducing Disparities and Controlling Hypertension in Primary Care), a multi-level system quality improvement project. By intervening on multiple levels, this project aims to reduce disparities in blood pressure control and improve guideline concordant hypertension care. Methods Using a pragmatic trial design, we are implementing three complementary multi-level interventions designed to improve blood pressure measurement, provide patient care management services and offer expanded provider education resources in six primary care clinics in Baltimore, Maryland. We are staggering the introduction of the interventions and will use Statistical Process Control (SPC) charting to determine if there are changes in outcomes at each clinic after implementation of each intervention. The main hypothesis is that each intervention will have an additive effect on improvements in guideline concordant care and reductions in hypertension disparities, but the combination of all three interventions will result in the greatest impact, followed by blood pressure measurement with care management support, blood pressure measurement with provider education, and blood pressure measurement only. This study also examines how organizational functioning and cultural competence affect the success of the interventions. Discussion As a quality improvement project, Project ReD CHiP employs a novel study design that specifically targets multi-level factors known to contribute to hypertension disparities. To facilitate its implementation and improve its sustainability, we have
Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge; Veerman, Lennert
Introduction Low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing a growing disease burden due to cardiovascular and other chronic non-communicable diseases. Interventions for the control of these diseases are paramount; however, these countries are faced with competing health and financial needs. There is an urgent need for quality evidence on cost-effective strategies to address these chronic diseases. We aim to synthesise the current literature on economic evaluations of interventions for primary and secondary cardiovascular disease prevention in LMICs. Methods and analysis A systematic review of studies (published and unpublished) in LMICs up to 30 October 2016 will be conducted. The following databases will be searched: PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, CINAHL, Web of Science, EconLit, NHS Economic Evaluations Database (NHS EED). Data sources specific to African literature, such as the WHO AFROLIB, Africa Index Medicus and African Journals online (AJOL) as well as grey literature, will also be searched. 2 reviewers shall independently screen potential articles for inclusion and disagreements shall be resolved by consensus. Quality appraisal of studies shall be done using Drummond's checklist for economic evaluation of studies. A descriptive synthesis of the evidence obtained is planned. The primary outcomes will be costs per life years gained or unit of clinical outcome, cost per quality-adjusted life years or disability-adjusted life years. This systematic review protocol has been prepared according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses for Protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval is not required considering that this is a protocol for a systematic review of published studies. Results from this review will be disseminated via conference presentations and peer-reviewed journal publications. Trial registration number CRD42016043510. PMID:28003298
Cooper, Lesley; Ryan, Cormac; Ells, Louisa Jane; Hamilton, Sharon; Atkinson, Greg; Cooper, Kay; Johnson, Mark I.; Kirwan, John P.; Martin, Denis
Review question/objective The objective of this mixed methods review is to develop an aggregated synthesis of qualitative and quantitative data on weight-loss interventions for overweight/obese adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain in an attempt to derive conclusions and recommendations useful for clinical practice and policy decision making. The objective of the quantitative component of this review is to quantify the effectiveness of weight-loss interventions on weight, pain and physical and/or psychosocial function in overweight/obese adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain. The objectives of the qualitative component of this review are to explore the perceptions and experiences of overweight/obese adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain of the link between their weight and pain, and the effectiveness and appropriateness of weight-loss interventions and sustainability of weight-loss efforts. PMID:27532463
Morgan, Jennifer Craft; Konrad, Thomas R.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate WIN A STEP UP, a workforce development program for nursing assistants (NAs) in nursing homes (NHs) involving continuing education by onsite trainers, compensation for education modules, supervisory skills training of frontline supervisors, and short-term retention contracts for bonuses and/or wage…
Kurebayashi, Leonice Fumiko Sato; da Silva, Maria Júlia Paes
Objective this randomized single blind clinical study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of auriculotherapy with and without a protocol for reducing stress levels among nursing staff. Method a total of 175 nursing professionals with medium and high scores according to Vasconcelos' Stress Symptoms List were divided into 3 groups: Control (58), Group with protocol (58), Group with no protocol (59). They were assessed at the baseline, after 12 sessions, and at the follow-up (30 days). Results in the analysis of variance, statistically significant differences between the Control and Intervention groups were found in the two evaluations (p<0.05) with greater size of effect indices (Cohen) for the No protocol group. The Yang Liver 1 and 2, Kidney, Brain Stem and Shen Men were the points most used. Conclusion individualized auriculotherapy, with no protocol, could expand the scope of the technique for stress reduction compared with auriculotherapy with a protocol. NCT: 01420835 PMID:25029046
Neal, Diana O; Lindeke, Linda L
Although there is general agreement that noise in the neonatal intensive care unit should be reduced, there is controversy about the use of music as a developmental care strategy with prererm infants. Much literature supports using music with preterm infants, indicating that it enhances physiologic and neurobehavioral functioning, but some experts worry that music is overstimulating. This article presents evidence supporting the use of music with preterm infants as well as criticism of same. Recommendations for music interventions with preterm infants are discussed, although fUrther research is needed before specific guidelines can he established.
Kumar, Soumitra; Ray, Saumitra; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Gupta, Kinnari; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Das, Mrinal K.; Guha, Santanu; Deb, Pradip K.; Banerjee, Amal K.
Background Increasing burden of cardiovascular risk-factors among adolescent school-children is a major concern in India. Dearth of information regarding the burden of these factors and the efficacy of educational intervention in minimizing them among urban school-students of India called for a school-based, educational intervention involving a representative sample of these students and their caregivers. Methodology Using a randomized-controlled design with stratified-random sampling, 1000 students (approximately 50/school) of 9th grade from 20 randomly selected schools (representing all socio-economic classes and school-types) and their caregivers (preferably mothers) will be recruited. Objectives of the study will include: estimation of the baseline burden and post-interventional change in cardiovascular risk-factors, related knowledge, perception and practice among participants in Kolkata. Data collection After obtaining appropriate consent (assent for adolescents), collection of the questionnaire-based data (regarding cardiovascular disease/risk-factor related knowledge, perception, practice), anthropometric measurements, stress assessment and cardiological check-up (pulse and blood pressure measurement along with auscultation for any abnormal heart sounds) will be conducted for each participating students twice at an interval of six months. In between 6 educational sessions will be administered in 10 of the 20 schools randomized to the intervention arm. After the follow-up data collection, same sessions will be conducted in the non-interventional schools. Data analyses and deliverable Descriptive and inferential analyses (using SAS 9.3) will be conducted to determine the distribution of the risk-factors and efficacy of the intervention in minimizing them so that policy-making can be guided appropriately to keep the adolescents healthy in their future life. PMID:25820048
Background Approximately one third of New Zealand children and young people are overweight or obese. A similar proportion (33%) do not meet recommendations for physical activity, and 70% do not meet recommendations for screen time. Increased time being sedentary is positively associated with being overweight. There are few family-based interventions aimed at reducing sedentary behavior in children. The aim of this trial is to determine the effects of a 24 week home-based, family oriented intervention to reduce sedentary screen time on children's body composition, sedentary behavior, physical activity, and diet. Methods/Design The study design is a pragmatic two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. Two hundred and seventy overweight children aged 9-12 years and primary caregivers are being recruited. Participants are randomized to intervention (family-based screen time intervention) or control (no change). At the end of the study, the control group is offered the intervention content. Data collection is undertaken at baseline and 24 weeks. The primary trial outcome is child body mass index (BMI) and standardized body mass index (zBMI). Secondary outcomes are change from baseline to 24 weeks in child percentage body fat; waist circumference; self-reported average daily time spent in physical and sedentary activities; dietary intake; and enjoyment of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Secondary outcomes for the primary caregiver include change in BMI and self-reported physical activity. Discussion This study provides an excellent example of a theory-based, pragmatic, community-based trial targeting sedentary behavior in overweight children. The study has been specifically designed to allow for estimation of the consistency of effects on body composition for Māori (indigenous), Pacific and non-Māori/non-Pacific ethnic groups. If effective, this intervention is imminently scalable and could be integrated within existing weight management programs. Trial
Hodder, Rebecca Kate; Freund, Megan; Wolfenden, Luke; Bowman, Jenny; Gillham, Karen; Dray, Julia; Wiggers, John
Introduction Tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use contribute significantly to global rates of morbidity and mortality. Despite evidence suggesting interventions designed to increase adolescent resilience may represent a means of reducing adolescent substance use, and schools providing a key opportunity to implement such interventions, existing systematic reviews assessing the effectiveness of school-based interventions targeting adolescent substance use have not examined this potential. Methods and analysis The aim of the systematic review is to determine whether universal interventions focused on enhancing the resilience of adolescents are effective in reducing adolescent substance use. Eligible studies will: include participants 5–18 years of age; report tobacco use, alcohol consumption or illicit drug use as outcomes; and implement a school-based intervention designed to promote internal (eg, self-esteem) and external (eg, school connectedness) resilience factors. Eligible study designs include randomised controlled trials, cluster randomised controlled trials, staggered enrolment trials, stepped wedged trials, quasi-randomised trials, quasi-experimental trials, time series/interrupted time-series trials, preference trials, regression discontinuity trials and natural experiment studies with a parallel control group. A search strategy including criteria for participants, study design, outcome, setting and intervention will be implemented in various electronic databases and information sources. Two reviewers will independently screen studies to assess eligibility, as well as extract data from, and assess risk of bias of included studies. A third reviewer will resolve any discrepancies. Attempts will be made to quantify trial effects by meta-analysis. Binary outcomes will be pooled and effect size reported using ORs. For continuous data, effect size of trials will be reported using a mean difference where trial outcomes report the same outcome using a
Fortinsky, Richard H.; Delaney, Colleen; Harel, Ofer; Pasquale, Karen; Schjavland, Elena; Lynch, John; Kleppinger, Alison; Crumb, Suzanne
Older adults with dementia care needs often visit primary care physicians (PCPs), but PCP dementia care limitations are widely documented. This study tested the value of employing a nurse practitioner (NP) with geropsychiatric expertise to augment PCP care for newly and recently diagnosed patients and family caregivers. Twenty-one dyads received the NP intervention; 10 dyads were controls. Outcomes included patient neuropsychiatric symptom and quality of life changes, and caregiver depression, burden, and self-efficacy changes. Intervention acceptability by patients, caregivers, and PCPs was determined. No outcome differences were found; however, the NP intervention was deemed highly satisfactory by all stakeholders. Patients experienced no significant cognitive decline during their 12-month study period, helping explain why outcomes did not change. Given widespread acceptability, future tests of this PCP-enhancing intervention should include patients with more progressive cognitive decline at study entry. NPs with geropsychiatric expertise are ideal interventionists for this rapidly growing target population. PMID:24444453
Drossaert, Constance HC; Pieterse, Marcel E; Walburg, Jan A; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T
Background Positive psychology interventions have been found to enhance well-being and decrease clinical symptomatology. However, it is still unknown how flourishing can also be increased. Although multicomponent interventions seem to be necessary for this purpose, different formats can be used. A cost-effective approach could be a positive psychology-based self-help book with tailored email support to reach large target groups and to prevent dropout. Objective This study will evaluate the efficacy of a comprehensive multicomponent self-help intervention with or without email support on well-being and flourishing, and will seek to determine the working mechanisms underlying the intervention. Methods In this 3-armed, parallel, randomized controlled trial, 396 participants with low or moderate levels of well-being and without clinical symptomatology will be randomly assigned to (1) a self-help book condition with weekly email support, (2) a self-help book condition without email support but with a weekly information email, or (3) a waiting list control condition. Online measurements will be assessed at baseline, at post-test (3 months after baseline), and at 6 and 12 months after baseline. Results The primary outcomes are well-being and flourishing (ie, high levels of well-being). Secondary outcomes are the well-being components included in the intervention: positive emotion, use of strengths, optimism, self-compassion, resilience, and positive relations. Other measures include depressive and anxiety symptoms, personality traits, direct medical and non-medical costs, life-events, and client satisfaction. Conclusions This study will add knowledge to the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a multicomponent positive psychology intervention. We will also explore who can benefit most from this intervention. If the intervention is found to be effective, our results will be especially relevant for public mental health services, governments, and primary care. Trial
Sinha, Rajesh; Kumar Ojha, Amit; Sarangi, Soumendra; Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Sachdev, H S; Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Gope, Rajkumar; Rath, Shibanand; Rath, Suchitra; Srivastava, Aradhana; Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria; Costello, Anthony; Copas, Andrew; Saville, Naomi; Prost, Audrey; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan
Introduction Undernutrition affects ∼165 million children globally and contributes up to 45% of all child deaths. India has the highest proportion of global undernutrition-related morbidity and mortality. This protocol describes the planned economic evaluation of a community-based intervention to improve growth in children under 2 years of age in two rural districts of eastern India. The intervention is being evaluated through a cluster-randomised controlled trial (cRCT, the CARING trial). Methods and analysis A cost-effectiveness and cost–utility analysis nested within a cRCT will be conducted from a societal perspective, measuring programme, provider, household and societal costs. Programme costs will be collected prospectively from project accounts using a standardised tool. These will be supplemented with time sheets and key informant interviews to inform the allocation of joint costs. Direct and indirect costs incurred by providers will be collected using key informant interviews and time use surveys. Direct and indirect household costs will be collected prospectively, using time use and consumption surveys. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) will be calculated for the primary outcome measure, that is, cases of stunting prevented, and other outcomes such as cases of wasting prevented, cases of infant mortality averted, life years saved and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Sensitivity analyses will be conducted to assess the robustness of results. Ethics and dissemination There is a shortage of robust evidence regarding the cost-effectiveness of strategies to improve early child growth. As this economic evaluation is nested within a large scale, cRCT, it will contribute to understanding the fiscal space for investment in early child growth, and the relative (in)efficiency of prioritising resources to this intervention over others to prevent stunting in this and other comparable contexts. The protocol has all necessary ethical
Smaldone, Arlene; Findley, Sally; Bakken, Suzanne; Matiz, L. Adriana; Rosenthal, Susan L.; Jia, Haomiao; Matos, Sergio; Manwani, Deepa; Green, Nancy S.
Background Community health workers (CHW) are increasingly recognized as a strategy to improve health outcomes for the underserved with chronic diseases but has not been formally explored in adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). SCD primarily affects African American, Hispanic and other traditionally underserved populations. Hydroxyurea (HU), an oral, once-daily medication, is the only approved therapeutic drug for sickle cell disease and markedly reduces symptoms, morbidity and mortality and improves quality of life largely by increasing hemoglobin F blood levels. This paper presents the rationale, study design and protocol for an open label randomized controlled trial to improve parent-youth partnerships in self-management and medication adherence to HU in adolescents with SCD. Methods/Design A CHW intervention augmented by text messaging was designed for adolescents with SCD ages 10–18 years and their parents to improve daily HU adherence. Thirty adolescent parent dyads will be randomized with 2:1 intervention group allocation. Intervention dyads will establish a relationship with a culturally aligned CHW to identify barriers to HU use, identify cues to build a habit, and develop a dyad partnership to improve daily HU adherence and achieve their individualized “personal best” hemoglobin F target. Intervention feasibility, acceptability and efficacy will be assessed via a 2-site trial. Outcomes of interest are HU adherence, dyad self-management communication, quality of life, and resource use. Discussion Despite known benefits, poor HU adherence is common. If feasible and acceptable, the proposed intervention may improve health of underserved adolescents with SCD by enhancing long-term HU adherence. PMID:27327779
Sereda, Magdalena; Coulson, Neil; Hoare, Derek J
Background Tinnitus is a common medical symptom that can affect an individual’s emotional and functional quality of life. Psychological therapies are acknowledged as beneficial to people with tinnitus; however, such therapies are not always readily accessible. With their global reach, automated Internet-based interventions have the potential to reduce the disparity in access to psychological support that people with tinnitus currently experience. However, the evidence on the acceptability and efficacy of these interventions is lacking. Process evaluations that develop an in-depth understanding of how users experience these interventions provide an essential first step when evaluating complex psychological interventions. Objective To describe the protocol for a study that will explore past, current, and new users’ reactions to and interactions with the Tinnitus E-Programme, an Internet-based intervention for the self-management of tinnitus. Methods Two parallel mixed-methods studies will be carried out with 2 different populations. Study 1 will use an online survey to gather past and current users’ views of the program. Study 2 will recruit new program users to take part in an interview and complete a relaxation log to explore how well they were able to implement the skills they learned during the program in their everyday lives. The findings from both studies will be triangulated to develop an in-depth understanding of the program’s mechanisms of impact and identify any implementation or contextual factors that strengthen or impede its delivery and functioning. Results Study 1 is open for recruitment with a projected completion in June 2016 and Study 2 was completed November 2015. At the time of submission, 36 participants have been recruited to Study 1 and 12 participants have taken part in Study 2. Conclusions Findings will inform the optimization of the Tinnitus E-Programme and guide future evaluation work to assess the program’s effectiveness as a
Protocol for a systematic review of telephone delivered psychosocial interventions on relapse prevention, adherence to psychiatric medication and health risk behaviours in adults with a psychotic disorder
Beck, Alison K; Baker, Amanda; Turner, Alyna; Haddock, Gillian; Kelly, Peter J; Berry, Katherine; Bucci, Sandra
Introduction The mental and physical health of individuals with a psychotic illness are typically poor. When adhered to, medication can reduce relapse. However, despite adherence, relapse remains common and functional outcomes often remain compromised. Compliance is also typically low. Cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality is also elevated, along with several important modifiable health risk behaviours. Access to psychosocial interventions is therefore important, but currently limited. Telephone delivered interventions represent a promising solution, although further clarity is needed. Accordingly, we aim to provide an overview and critical analysis of the current state of evidence for telephone delivered psychosocial interventions targeting key health priorities in adults with a psychotic disorder, including (1) relapse, (2) adherence to psychiatric medication and/or (3) modifiable cardiovascular health risk behaviours. Methods and analysis Our methods are informed by published guidelines. The review is registered and any protocol amendments will be tracked. Ten electronic peer-reviewed and four grey literature databases have been identified. Preliminary searches have been conducted for literature on psychosocial telephone interventions targeting relapse, medication adherence and/or health risk behaviours in adults with a psychotic disorder. Articles classified as ‘evaluation’ will be assessed against standardised criteria and checked by an independent assessor. The searches will be re-run just before final analyses and further studies retrieved for inclusion. A narrative synthesis will be reported, structured around intervention type and content, population characteristics and outcomes. Where possible, ‘summary of findings’ tables will be generated for each comparison. For the primary outcome of each trial, when data are available, we will calculate a risk ratio and its 95% CI (dichotomous outcomes) and/or effect size according to Cohen's formula
Mitty, Ethel; Flores, Sandi
The person with dementia uses behavior to communicate, but their behavior is altered by the combination of neurological damage and impairment, altered interpersonal relationships and reactions of others, and the individual's loss or weakening of their lifelong defenses or coping mechanisms. This article discusses the routes by which behavior can be understood and describes a constellation of needs of a person with dementia that has a unique fit with person-centered care. Three evidence-based models (theories) and interventions specific to dementia behaviors are discussed: the Need-Driven Dementia-Compromised Behavior Model, the Progressively Lowered Stress Threshold Model, and the utilization of self-identity roles. Montessori-based activities are another approach to person-centered dementia care that respect, as do the models, the dignity, worthiness and interests of the person afflicted with dementia. The models discussed in this article all seek to improve the quality of life of the person with dementia. Other than those at the profound end stage of dementia, most sufferers can communicate feelings. Subjective quality of life must be determined based on the self-report of the person suffering with dementia so that treatment interventions and effectiveness are grounded in that person's reality.
Over the last 4 decades, rates of stroke occurrence in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) have roughly doubled, whereas they have substantively decreased in high-income countries. Most of these LMIC are in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where the burden of stroke will probably continue to rise over the next few decades because of an ongoing epidemiologic transition. Moreover, SSA is circumstantially distinct: socioeconomic obstacles, cultural barriers, underdiagnosis, uncoordinated care, and shortage of physicians impede the ability of SSA countries to implement cardiovascular disease prevention among people with diabetes mellitus in a timely and sustainable manner. Reducing the burden of stroke in SSA may necessitate an initial emphasis on high-risk individuals motivated to improve their health, multidisciplinary care coordination initiatives with clinical decision support, evidence-based interventions tailored for cultural relevance, task shifting from physicians to nurses and other health providers, use of novel patient-accessible tools, and a multilevel approach that incorporates individual- and system-level components. This article proposes a theory-based integrated blood pressure (BP) self-management intervention called Phone-based Intervention under Nurse Guidance after Stroke (PINGS) that could be tested among hospitalized stroke patients with poorly controlled hypertension encountered in SSA. PINGS would comprise the implementation of nurse-run BP control clinics and administration of health technology (personalized phone text messaging and home telemonitoring), aimed at boosting patient self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation for sustained adherence to antihypertensive medications.
Lamet, Ann R.; Sonshine, Rosanne; Walsh, Sandra M.; Molnar, David; Rafalko, Sharon
Although numbers of older people are increasing, nursing students have negative attitudes towards older people and do not plan to care for them following graduation. Multiple strategies have been implemented to reverse students' attitudes with mixed results. The purpose of this pilot quasi-experimental study was to test a Creative-Bonding Intervention (CBI) with students implementing art activities with older people to promote students' willingness to take care of them. Using a self-transcendence conceptual framework, control (n = 56) and experimental (n = 14) student groups were pre- and post-tested on attitudes toward older people, self-transcendence, and willingness to serve. The CBI improved attitudes towards older people with negative attitudes significantly changed (P = .008) but with no significant differences on self-transcendence and willingness to serve. However, willingness to serve results approached significance (P = .08). The willingness measure (one question) should be expanded. Curricula changes that incorporate creative activities such as the CBI with larger and equal numbers in student groups and longitudinal follow up to determine long-term results after graduation are suggested. PMID:21994833
Lamet, Ann R; Sonshine, Rosanne; Walsh, Sandra M; Molnar, David; Rafalko, Sharon
Although numbers of older people are increasing, nursing students have negative attitudes towards older people and do not plan to care for them following graduation. Multiple strategies have been implemented to reverse students' attitudes with mixed results. The purpose of this pilot quasi-experimental study was to test a Creative-Bonding Intervention (CBI) with students implementing art activities with older people to promote students' willingness to take care of them. Using a self-transcendence conceptual framework, control (n = 56) and experimental (n = 14) student groups were pre- and post-tested on attitudes toward older people, self-transcendence, and willingness to serve. The CBI improved attitudes towards older people with negative attitudes significantly changed (P = .008) but with no significant differences on self-transcendence and willingness to serve. However, willingness to serve results approached significance (P = .08). The willingness measure (one question) should be expanded. Curricula changes that incorporate creative activities such as the CBI with larger and equal numbers in student groups and longitudinal follow up to determine long-term results after graduation are suggested.
Background The speeding increase and the high prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious problem for Public Health. Community Based Interventions has been developed to combat against the childhood obesity epidemic. However little is known on the efficacy of these programs. Therefore, there is an urgent need to determine the effect of community based intervention on changes in lifestyle and surrogate measures of adiposity. Methods/design Parallel intervention study including two thousand 2249 children aged 8 to 10 years ( 4th and 5th grade of elementary school) from 4 Spanish towns. The THAO-Child Health Program, a community based intervention, were implemented in 2 towns. Body weight, height, and waist circumferences were measured. Children recorded their dietary intake on a computer-based 24h recall. All children also completed validated computer based questionnaires to estimate physical activity, diet quality, eating behaviors, and quality of life and sleep. Additionally, parental diet quality and physical activity were assessed by validated questionnaires. Discussion This study will provide insight in the efficacy of the THAO-Child Health Program to promote a healthy lifestyle. Additionally it will evaluate if lifestyle changes are accompanied by favorable weight management. Trial registration Trial Registration Number ISRCTN68403446 PMID:25174356
McGillivray, Jane A.; Kershaw, Mavis M.
It has been estimated that people with ID experience the same and possibly higher levels of depression than the general population. Referral to a General Medical Practitioner (GP) for primary care is recommended practice for people with depression and cognitive behavioural (CB) therapy is now an accepted evidence based intervention. A growing body…
Breslin, Gavin; Brennan, Deirdre
We describe the design of a school-based healthy lifestyle intervention for eight-year-old to nine-year-old school children from lower socio-economic backgrounds, intended to increase physical activity, decrease sedentary behaviours, reduce screen-time behaviours, encourage healthy attitudes and behaviours to nutrition, and reduce body mass index.…
Band, Rebecca; Saunderson, Kathryn; Hanlon, Peter; Little, Paul; McManus, Richard J; Yardley, Lucy; Mair, Frances S
Background Digital interventions, defined as any intervention accessed and taking input from patients in the form of a computer/Web-based program or mobile phoned-based app, can potentially help empower patients to self-manage long-term conditions such as hypertension. Importantly, digital interventions have the potential to provide patients with personalized information and support for active involvement in treatment as well as cost saving. Objective The purpose of this systematic review is to synthesize the evidence for using digital interventions to support patient self-management of hypertension, and determine their impact on control and reduction of blood pressure, other clinical outcomes, quality of life, medication adherence, health service utilization, and economic benefits. Methods A systematic search of bibliographic databases including Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO will be undertaken. Abstracts and citations will be independently screened by 2 researchers against predetermined inclusion criteria. Any disagreements will be resolved by discussion and further consideration of the inclusion criteria. Only randomized controlled trials which have been published in peer peer-reviewed journals with a diagnosis of hypertension will be considered. Inclusion criteria will be (1) adults (age ≥ 18 years) with hypertension (as defined by the primary authors); (2) an interactive digital intervention compared with usual care; and (3) outcomes of objectively measured change in blood pressure. Data extraction from identified articles will be undertaken by 2 independent reviewers using a uniform template. The main outcomes are systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and quality of life indicators. Secondary outcomes include cost- effectiveness, medication adherence, emotional well-being, and physical activity. Risk of bias of included studies will be assessed using the Cochrane tool. Results Our research is currently ongoing. Data will
Mc Sharry, Jenny; Casey, Dympna; Doherty, Sally; Gillespie, Paddy; Jaarsma, Tiny; Murphy, Andrew W; Newell, John; O'Donnell, Martin; Steinke, Elaine E; Toomey, Elaine; Byrne, Molly
Introduction Sexual problems are common with cardiovascular disease, and can negatively impact quality of life. To address sexual problems, guidelines have identified the importance of sexual counselling during cardiac rehabilitation, yet this is rarely provided. The Cardiac Health and Relationship Management and Sexuality (CHARMS) intervention aims to improve the provision of sexual counselling in cardiac rehabilitation in Ireland. Methods and analysis This is a multicentre pilot study for the CHARMS intervention, a complex, multilevel intervention delivered within hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation programmes. The intervention includes (1) training in sexual counselling for staff, (2) a staff-led patient education and support intervention embedded within the cardiac rehabilitation programme, (3) a patient information booklet and (4) an awareness raising poster. The intervention will be delivered in two randomly selected cardiac rehabilitation centres. In each centre 30 patients will be recruited, and partners will also be invited to participate. Data will be collected from staff and patients/partners at T1 (study entry), T2 (3-month follow-up) and T3 (6-month follow-up). The primary outcome for patients/partners will be scores on the Sexual Self-Perception and Adjustment Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes for patients/partners will include relationship satisfaction; satisfaction with and barriers to sexual counselling in services; sexual activity, functioning and knowledge; physical and psychological well-being. Secondary outcomes for staff will include sexuality-related practice; barriers to sexual counselling; self-ratings of capability, opportunity and motivation; sexual attitudes and beliefs; knowledge of cardiovascular disease and sex. Fidelity of intervention delivery will be assessed using trainer self-reports, researcher-coded audio recordings and exit interviews. Longitudinal feasibility data will be gathered from patients/partners and staff via
Background Breastfeeding has countless benefits to mothers, children and community at large, especially in developing countries. Studies from Lebanon report disappointingly low breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Evidence reveals that antenatal breastfeeding education, professional lactation support, and peer lay support are individually effective at increasing breastfeeding duration and exclusivity, particularly in low-income settings. Given the complex nature of the breastfeeding ecosystem and its barriers in Lebanon, we hypothesize that a complex breastfeeding support intervention, which is centered on the three components mentioned above, would significantly increase breastfeeding rates. Methods/Design A multi-center randomized controlled trial. Study population: 443 healthy pregnant women in their first trimester will be randomized to control or intervention group. Intervention: A “prenatal/postnatal” professional and peer breastfeeding support package continuing till 6 months postpartum, guided by the Social Network and Social Support Theory. Control group will receive standard prenatal and postnatal care. Mothers will be followed up from early pregnancy till five years after delivery. Outcome measures: Total and exclusive breastfeeding rates, quality of life at 1, 3 and 6 months postpartum, maternal breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes at 6 months postpartum, maternal exclusive breastfeeding rates of future infants up to five years from baseline, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses of the intervention. Statistical analysis: Descriptive and regression analysis will be conducted under the intention to treat basis using the most recent version of SPSS. Discussion Exclusive breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health measure that has a significant impact on infant morbidity and mortality. In a country with limited healthcare resources like Lebanon, developing an effective breastfeeding promotion and support intervention that is
Fahrenkrug, Mary Ann
School nurses need to clearly identify how they promote the health and educational achievement of children. School nurses contribute to student health by providing health assessment and nursing interventions, advocating for healthy living, and contributing to prevention of illness and disease management. A Nursing Data Set for School Nursing can…
Joske, David; Bulsara, Max; Bulsara, Caroline; Monterosso, Leanne
Introduction Lymphoma is the sixth most common cancer diagnosed in Australia and internationally. Owing to the aggressive nature of the disease and intensity of treatment, survivors face long-term effects that impact on quality of life. Current models of follow-up post-treatment fail to address these complex issues. Given that 74% of patients with lymphoma cancer now survive 5 years beyond diagnosis and treatment, it is important to address this gap in care. Aim To determine self-reported informational and practical needs, anxiety, depression, stress, coping and empowerment at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Methods and analysis A pilot randomised controlled trial will test the effect of a nurse-led lymphoma survivorship clinic compared with usual post-treatment care at a large tertiary cancer centre in Western Australia. The intervention will comprise three face-to-face appointments with delivery of tailored resources, a survivorship care plan and treatment summary (SCP TS). The SCP TS will be given to the participant and general practitioner (GP). Intervention participants will be interviewed at completion to explore the perceived value of the intervention components and preferred dose. An evaluation developed for GPs will assess receipt and use of SCP TS. The primary intent of analysis will be to address the feasibility of a larger trial and requisite effect and sample size. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the University of Notre Dame Australia and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital in Western Australia. Peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations will report the results of this phase II trial. Trial registration number ANZCTRN12615000530527; Pre-results. PMID:27194317
Background Over the last 30 years the number of people who drink alcohol at harmful levels has increased in many countries. There have also been large increases in rates of sexually transmitted infections. Available evidence suggests that excessive alcohol consumption and poor sexual health may be linked. The prevalence of harmful alcohol use is higher among people attending sexual health clinics than in the general population, and a third of those attending clinics state that alcohol use affects whether they have unprotected sex. Previous research has demonstrated that brief intervention for alcohol misuse in other medical settings can lead to behavioral change, but the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of this intervention on sexual behavior have not been examined. Methods We will conduct a two parallel-arm, randomized trial. A consecutive sample of people attending three sexual health clinics in London and willing to participate in the study will be screened for excessive alcohol consumption. Participants identified as drinking excessively will then be allocated to either active treatment (Brief Advice and referral for Brief Intervention) or control treatment (a leaflet on healthy living). Randomization will be via an independent and remote telephone randomization service and will be stratified by study clinic. Brief Advice will comprise feedback on the possible health consequences of excessive alcohol consumption, written information about alcohol and the offer of an appointment for further assessment and Brief Intervention. Follow-up data on alcohol use, sexual behavior, health related quality of life and service use will be collected by a researcher masked to allocation status six months later. The primary outcome for the study is mean weekly alcohol consumption during the previous three months, and the main secondary outcome is the proportion of participants who report unprotected sex during this period. Discussion Opportunistic intervention for excessive
Background Particularly in groups of adolescents with lower educational level the smoking prevalence is still high and constitutes a serious public health problem. There is limited evidence of effective smoking cessation interventions in this group. Individualised text messaging (SMS) based interventions are promising to support smoking cessation and could be provided to adolescents irrespective of their motivation to quit. The aim of the current paper is to outline the study protocol of a trial testing the efficacy of an SMS based intervention for smoking cessation in apprentices. Methods/Design A two-arm cluster-randomised controlled trial will be conducted to test the efficacy of an SMS intervention for smoking cessation in adolescents and young adults compared to an assessment only control group. A total of 910 daily or occasional (≥ 4 cigarettes in the preceding month and ≥ 1 cigarette in the preceding week) smoking apprentices will be proactively recruited in vocational school classes and, using school class as a randomisation unit, randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 455) receiving the SMS based intervention or an assessment only control group (n = 455). Individualised text messages taking into account demographic data and the individuals' smoking behaviours will be sent to the participants of the intervention group over a period of 3 months. Participants will receive two text messages promoting smoking cessation per week. Program participants who intend to quit smoking have the opportunity to use a more intensive SMS program to prepare for their quit day and to prevent a subsequent relapse. The primary outcome measure will be the proportion of participants with 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence assessed at 6-months follow-up. The research assistants conducting the baseline and the follow-up assessments will be blinded regarding group assignment. Discussion It is expected that the program offers an effective and inexpensive way to
Background Childhood overweight and obesity are associated with significant health consequences. Early and successful treatment of this public health issue is necessary. Although several intervention programs for children result in weight loss or stabilisation in the short term, preventing relapse after weight loss remains an important challenge. Weight loss maintenance approaches in childhood are thought to be promising, but a structured overview of these maintenance interventions is lacking. The aim of the systematic review described in this protocol is to provide an overview of reports published about maintenance interventions in childhood overweight and obesity following initial treatment, in order to guide future directions in the development of maintenance programs for childhood obesity. Methods/design The electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Scopus, and SocINDEX will be searched for this review. Reference lists of eligible study reports will be scanned for relevant references. Article selection including risk of bias assessment will be performed independently in an unblinded standardised manner by three authors. All reports describing a maintenance intervention in overweight or obese children with a mean or median age of <18 years who have followed a treatment program, regardless of the type of intervention, will be included. Data extraction will be performed using a predesigned pilot-tested data extraction sheet that covers participant characteristics, details about the treatment preceding the maintenance intervention, and the maintenance intervention itself. Body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS or BMI-Z-score) will be used to compare studies. If possible, a meta-analysis will be performed using the inverse-variance random-effects method. Studies that are not included in the meta-analysis will be described in a narrative way in tables and/or in the text. Discussion This systematic review will
Collie, Alex; Gabbe, Belinda; Fitzharris, Michael
Introduction Injuries resulting from road traffic crashes are a substantial cause of disability and death worldwide. Injured persons receiving compensation have poorer recovery and return to work than those with non-compensable injury. Case or claims management is a critical component of injury compensation systems, and there is now evidence that claims management can have powerful positive impacts on recovery, but can also impede recovery or exacerbate mental health concerns in some injured people. This study seeks to evaluate the impact of a population-based injury claims management intervention in the State of Victoria, Australia, on the health of those injured in motor vehicle crashes, their experience of the compensation process, and the financial viability of the compensation system. Methods and analysis Evaluation of this complex intervention involves a series of linked but stand-alone research projects to assess the anticipated process changes, impacts and outcomes of the intervention over a 5-year time frame. Linkage and analysis of routine administrative and health system data is supplemented with a series of primary studies collecting new information. Additionally, a series of ‘action’ research projects will be undertaken to inform the implementation of the intervention. A program logic model designed by the state government Transport Accident Commission in conjunction with the research team provides the evaluation framework. Ethics and dissemination Relatively few studies have comprehensively examined the impact of compensation system processes on the health of injured persons, their satisfaction with systems processes, and impacts on the financial performance of the compensation scheme itself. The wholesale, population-based transformation of an injury claims management model is a rare opportunity to document impacts of system-level policy change on outcomes of injured persons. Findings will contribute to the evidence base of information on the
Sanchez, Alvaro; Grandes, Gonzalo; Cortada, Josep M; Pombo, Haizea; Balague, Laura; Calderon, Carlos
Background The adoption of a healthy lifestyle, including physical activity, a balanced diet, a moderate alcohol consumption and abstinence from smoking, are associated with large decreases in the incidence and mortality rates for the most common chronic diseases. That is why primary health care (PHC) services are trying, so far with less success than desirable, to promote healthy lifestyles among patients. The objective of this study is to design and model, under a participative collaboration framework between clinicians and researchers, interventions that are feasible and sustainable for the promotion of healthy lifestyles in PHC. Methods and design Phase I formative research and a quasi-experimental evaluation of the modelling and planning process will be undertaken in eight primary care centres (PCCs) of the Basque Health Service – OSAKIDETZA, of which four centres will be assigned for convenience to the Intervention Group (the others being Controls). Twelve structured study, discussion and consensus sessions supported by reviews of the literature and relevant documents, will be undertaken throughout 12 months. The first four sessions, including a descriptive strategic needs assessment, will lead to the prioritisation of a health promotion aim in each centre. In the remaining eight sessions, collaborative design of intervention strategies, on the basis of a planning process and pilot trials, will be carried out. The impact of the formative process on the practice of healthy lifestyle promotion, attitude towards health promotion and other factors associated with the optimisation of preventive clinical practice will be assessed, through pre- and post-programme evaluations and comparisons of the indicators measured in professionals from the centres assigned to the Intervention or Control Groups. Discussion There are four necessary factors for the outcome to be successful and result in important changes: (1) the commitment of professional and community partners
Yang, Hye Jung; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kim, Ok Hyun; Choi, Mona; Oh, Myungju; Nam, Jihyun; Sung, Eunju
Background: Childhood obesity is a critical health issue, both currently and for the foreseeable future. To prevent obesity, behavior changes are essential. Smartphones can be a good tool, as the number of child smartphone users is rapidly increasing. We have developed a mobile platform system named “HAPPY ME,” which is a smartphone application coupled with a wearable device, designed to improve healthy behaviors to prevent childhood obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of obesity prevention among children 10–12 years of age using HAPPY ME. Methods: A total of 1000 participants, all fifth and sixth graders from four schools, were assigned to either control or intervention groups by school. Students in the intervention group used HAPPY ME. The study comprises a safety test, a 12-week efficacy test, and a six-month follow-up test to determine the long-term effects of preventive intervention via the integrated service platform. The integrated service platform aims to facilitate child-parent-school participation, involving the child-parent mobile application, a child-teacher mobile web, and a school website. Primary outcome measures are behavioral changes, including healthy eating, increased physical activity, and fitness. Secondary outcome measures are changes in anthropometric parameters (body weight, height, body mass index z-score, and waist circumference), body mass index (BMI) percentiles (obesity rate), and psychological perceptions among participants. Conclusions: The results of this study will offer evidence of the effectiveness of a mobile platform service with a multi-component intervention program based on a comprehensive approach. PMID:28208839
Wright, S C D; Benninghoff, I
Teaching research to undergraduates has it own challenges and involving undergraduates in research practical experience is just one of those challenges. As nursing students are in the process of becoming professional nurses, knowledge and skills in research are specific outcomes of the curriculum. One of the outcomes of the B Tech Nursing Science programme offered by the Tshwane University of Technology states that for the baccalaureate nursing programme include analysis, interpretation and utilisation of a range of research findings in scientific nursing and midwifery care as well as the development of a research protocol in a given context. In an effort to ensure that students would experience research as an essential part of their daily activities, an integrated approach is suggested whereby the nursing experiential learning opportunities are also research experiential learning opportunities. Using the integration strategy, research theory come 'alive' for the students. The integration approach is uncomplicated and transferable to any other discipline. The case study presented is the second year nursing students using school nursing experiential learning as a research project. The second year nursing students have a community focus during their second year and one of the experiential learning opportunities is school health nursing in a primary school in Tshwane. The results of the school health survey are presented. The students developed a health education intervention based on the research results.
Gordon, Stephen E.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Monti, Sara M.; Mattison, Melissa L.P.; Catic, Angela G.; Thomas, Cindy P.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.
Objectives US nursing homes care for increasing numbers of residents with dementia and associated behavioral problems. They often lack access to specialized clinical expertise relevant to managing these problems. Project ECHO-AGE provides this expertise through videoconference sessions between frontline nursing home staff and clinical experts at an academic medical center. We hypothesized that ECHO-AGE would result in less use of physical and chemical restraints and other quality improvements in participating facilities. Design A 2:1 matched-cohort study comparing quality of care outcomes between ECHO-AGE facilities and matched controls for the period July 2012 to December 2013. Setting Eleven nursing homes in Massachusetts and Maine. Participants Nursing home staff and a hospital-based team of geriatrician, geropsychiatrist, and neurologist discussed anonymized residents with dementia. Intervention Biweekly online video case discussions and brief didactic sessions focused on the management of dementia and behavior disorders. Measurements The primary outcome variables were percentage of residents receiving antipsychotic medications and the percentage of residents who were physically restrained. Secondary outcomes included 9 other quality of care metrics from MDS 3.0. Results Residents in ECHO-AGE facilities were 75% less likely to be physically restrained compared with residents in control facilities over the 18-month intervention period (OR = 0.25, P = .05). Residents in ECHO-AGE facilities were 17% less likely to be prescribed antipsychotic medication compared with residents in control facilities (OR = 0.83, P = .07). Other outcomes were not significantly different. Conclusion Preliminary evidence suggests that participation in Project ECHO-AGE reduces rates of physical restraint use and may reduce rates of antipsychotic use among long-term nursing home residents. PMID:27161317
Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an increasing problem world-wide. Lifestyle interventions and/or vitamin D supplementation might help prevent GDM in some women. Methods/design Pregnant women at risk of GDM (BMI≥29 (kg/m2)) from 9 European countries will be invited to participate and consent obtained before 19+6 weeks of gestation. After giving informed consent, women without GDM will be included (based on IADPSG criteria: fasting glucose<5.1mmol; 1 hour glucose <10.0 mmol; 2 hour glucose <8.5 mmol) and randomized to one of the 8 intervention arms using a 2×(2×2) factorial design: (1) healthy eating (HE), 2) physical activity (PA), 3) HE+PA, 4) control, 5) HE+PA+vitamin D, 6) HE+PA+placebo, 7) vitamin D alone, 8) placebo alone), pre-stratified for each site. In total, 880 women will be included with 110 women allocated to each arm. Between entry and 35 weeks of gestation, women allocated to a lifestyle intervention will receive 5 face-to-face, and 4 telephone coaching sessions, based on the principles of motivational interviewing. The lifestyle intervention includes a discussion about the risks of GDM, a weight gain target <5kg and either 7 healthy eating ‘messages’ and/or 5 physical activity ‘messages’ depending on randomization. Fidelity is monitored by the use of a personal digital assistance (PDA) system. Participants randomized to the vitamin D intervention receive either 1600 IU vitamin D or placebo for daily intake until delivery. Data is collected at baseline measurement, at 24–28 weeks, 35–37 weeks of gestation and after delivery. Primary outcome measures are gestational weight gain, fasting glucose and insulin sensitivity, with a range of obstetric secondary outcome measures including birth weight. Discussion DALI is a unique Europe-wide randomised controlled trial, which will gain insight into preventive measures against the development of GDM in overweight and obese women. Trial registration ISRCTN70595832 PMID:23829946
Bunge, Eduardo L; Barrera, Alinne Z; Wickham, Robert E; Lee, Jessica
Background The Institute for International Internet Interventions for Health at Palo Alto University proposes to develop digital tools specifically to help low-income English- and Spanish-speaking smokers to quit. Individuals from lower-income countries and those with lower social status quit at lower rates than those from high-income countries and those with higher social status. Objective We plan to launch a project designed to test whether a mobile-based digital intervention designed with systematic input from low-income English- and Spanish-speaking smokers from a public-sector health care system can significantly improve its acceptability, utilization, and effectiveness. Methods Using human-centered development methods, we will involve low-income patients in the design of a Web app/text messaging tool. We will also use their input to improve our recruitment and dissemination strategies. We will iteratively develop versions of the digital interventions informed by our human-centered approach. The project involves three specific aims: (1) human-centered development of an English/Spanish smoking cessation web app, (2) improvement of dissemination strategies, and (3) evaluation of resulting smoking cessation web app. We will develop iterative versions of a digital smoking cessation tool that is highly responsive to the needs and preferences of the users. Input from participants will identify effective ways of reaching and encouraging low-income English- and Spanish-speaking smokers to use the digital smoking cessation interventions to be developed. This information will support ongoing dissemination and implementation efforts beyond the grant period. We will evaluate the effectiveness of the successive versions of the resulting stop smoking Web app by an online randomized controlled trial. Increased effectiveness will be defined as increased utilization of the Web app and higher abstinence rates than those obtained by a baseline usual care Web app. Results
Hoben, Matthias; Kent, Angelle; Kobagi, Nadia; Yoon, Minn N
Introduction Oral healthcare in nursing homes is less than optimal, with severe consequences for residents' health and quality of life. To provide the best possible oral healthcare to nursing home residents, care providers need strategies that have been proven to be effective. Strategies can either encourage and motivate residents to perform oral healthcare themselves or can prevent or overcome responsive behaviours from residents when care providers assist with oral healthcare. This systematic review aims to identify studies that evaluate the effectiveness of such strategies and to synthesise their evidence. Methods and analysis We will conduct a comprehensive search in the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Evidence Based Reviews—Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL and Web of Science for quantitative intervention studies that assess the effectiveness of eligible strategies. 2 reviewers will independently screen titles, abstracts and retrieved full texts for eligibility. In addition, contents of key journals, publications of key authors and reference lists of all studies included will be searched by hand and screened by 2 reviewers. Discrepancies at any stage of the review process will be resolved by consensus. Data extraction will be performed by 1 research team member and checked by a second team member. 2 reviewers will independently assess methodological quality of studies included using 3 validated checklists appropriate for different research designs. We will present a narrative synthesis of study results. Ethics and dissemination We did not seek ethics approval for this study, as we will not collect primary data and data from studies included cannot be linked to individuals or organisations. We will publish findings of this review in a peer-reviewed paper and present them at an international peer-reviewed conference. Trial registration number CRD42015026439. PMID:27013601
Elliott, Margaret; Harrington, Jane; Moore, Kirsten; Davis, Sarah; Kupeli, Nuriye; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Gola, Anna; Candy, Bridget; Sampson, Elizabeth L; Jones, Louise
Introduction In the UK approximately 700 000 people are living with, and a third of people aged over 65 will die with, dementia. People with dementia may receive poor quality care towards the end of life. We applied a realist approach and used mixed methods to develop a complex intervention to improve care for people with advanced dementia and their family carers. Consensus on intervention content was achieved using the RAND UCLA appropriateness method and mapped to sociological theories of process and impact. Core components are: (1) facilitation of integrated care, (2) education, training and support, (3) investment from commissioners and care providers. We present the protocol for an exploratory phase I study to implement components 1 and 2 in order to understand how the intervention operates in practice and to assess feasibility and acceptability. Methods and analysis An ‘Interdisciplinary Care Leader (ICL)’ will work within two care homes, alongside staff and associated professionals to facilitate service integration, encourage structured needs assessment, develop the use of personal and advance care plans and support staff training. We will use qualitative and quantitative methods to collect data for a range of outcome and process measures to detect effects on individual residents, family carers, care home staff, the intervention team, the interdisciplinary team and wider systems. Analysis will include descriptive statistics summarising process and care home level data, individual demographic and clinical characteristics and data on symptom burden, clinical events and quality of care. Qualitative data will be explored using thematic analysis. Findings will inform a future phase II trial. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was granted (REC reference 14/LO/0370). We shall publish findings at conferences, in peer-reviewed journals, on the Marie Curie Cancer Care website and prepare reports for dissemination by organisations involved with end
Lys, Candice; Logie, Carmen H; MacNeill, Nancy; Loppie, Charlotte; Dias, Lisa V; Masching, Renée; Gesink, Dionne
Introduction Indigenous youth are disproportionately represented in new HIV infection rates in Canada. Current and historical contexts of colonisation and racism, disconnection from culture and land, as well as intergenerational trauma resulting from the legacy of residential schools are social drivers that elevate exposure to HIV among Indigenous peoples. Peer-education and arts-based interventions are increasingly used for HIV prevention with youth. Yet limited studies have evaluated longitudinal effects of arts-based approaches to HIV prevention with youth. The authors present a rationale and study protocol for an arts-based HIV prevention intervention with Northern and Indigenous youth in the Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada. Methods and analysis This is a multicentre non-randomised cohort pilot study using a pretest/post-test design with a 12-month follow-up. The target population is Northern and Indigenous youth in 18 communities in the NWT. The aim is to recruit 150 youth using venue-based sampling at secondary schools. Participants will be involved in an arts-based intervention, Fostering Open eXpression among Youth (FOXY). Participants will complete a pretest, post-test survey directly following the intervention, and a 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome is new or enhanced HIV knowledge, and secondary outcomes to include: new or enhanced sexually transmitted infections knowledge, and increased self-esteem, resilience, empowerment, safer sex self-efficacy and cultural connectedness. Mixed effects regression analyses will be conducted to evaluate pretest and post-test differences in outcome measurement scores. Ethics and dissemination This study has received approval from the HIV Research Ethics Board at the University of Toronto (REB: 31602). In addition, the project is currently registered in the NWT with the Aurora Research Institute (Licence: 15741). Trial results will be published according to the Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with
Söderlund, Mona; Cronqvist, Agneta; Norberg, Astrid; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie; Hansebo, Görel
Living with dementia disease (DD) can include difficulties describing experiences of everyday lives, which can lead to withdrawal, social isolation or existential homelessness. Persons with DD living in nursing homes are mainly dependent on the nurses for establishing and maintaining relationships with those around them. It can be challenging for nurses to understand what a person with DD is trying to express and to make themselves understood in turn. The validation method is intended to facilitate communication with persons with DD, but to our knowledge, there have been no qualitative studies of how this influences persons' communication. This study aimed to illuminate the actions and reactions of persons with DD living in nursing homes in one-to-one conversations with nurses during 1 year of validation method training, as observed in videotapes. Four persons with DD were involved in videotaped conversations with four nurses who were participating in a validation method training programme. Videotapes with at least 5 months between the first and last recording were analysed and compared qualitatively. The findings are presented in four categories that were identified to various degrees in conversations at the beginning and at the end of the programme: being uninterested in or unable to answer questions, talking about more than one topic of conversation at the same time, trying to talk about what is on one's mind and speaking more freely about what is on one's mind. In the videotaped conversations at the end of the programme, the persons had the opportunity to use their remaining communication abilities. This may have been related to the development of the nurses' communication skills during the training programme, and so it is possible that persons with DD could benefit from communicating with nurses trained in the validation method.
Background Degenerative aortic valve (AV) stenosis is the most prevalent heart valve disease in the western world. Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) has until recently been the standard of treatment for patients with severe AV stenosis. Whether transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) can be offered with improved safety and similar effectiveness in a population including low-risk patients has yet to be examined in a randomised setting. Methods/Design This randomised clinical trial will evaluate the benefits and risks of TAVI using the transarterial CoreValve System (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) (intervention group) compared with SAVR (control group) in patients with severe degenerative AV stenosis. Randomisation ratio is 1:1, enrolling a total of 280 patients aged 70 years or older without significant coronary artery disease and with a low, moderate, or high surgical risk profile. Trial outcomes include a primary composite outcome of myocardial infarction, stroke, or all-cause mortality within the first year after intervention (expected rates 5% for TAVI, 15% for SAVR). Exploratory safety outcomes include procedure complications, valve re-intervention, and cardiovascular death, as well as cardiac, cerebral, pulmonary, renal, and vascular complications. Exploratory efficacy outcomes include New York Heart Association functional status, quality of life, and valve prosthesis and cardiac performance. Enrolment began in December 2009, and 269 patients have been enrolled up to December 2012. Discussion The trial is designed to evaluate the performance of TAVI in comparison with SAVR. The trial results may influence the choice of treatment modality for patients with severe degenerative AV stenosis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01057173 PMID:23302232
Cobb, Nathan K; Jacobs, Megan A; Saul, Jessie; Wileyto, E Paul; Graham, Amanda L
Introduction Online social networks represent a potential mechanism for the dissemination of health interventions including smoking cessation; however, which elements of an intervention determine diffusion between participants is unclear. Diffusion is frequently measured using R, the reproductive rate, which is determined by the duration of use (t), the ‘contagiousness’ of an intervention (β) and a participant's total contacts (z). We have developed a Facebook ‘app’ that allows us to enable or disable various components designed to impact the duration of use (expanded content, proactive contact), contagiousness (active and passive sharing) and number of contacts (use by non-smoker supporters). We hypothesised that these elements would be synergistic in their impact on R, while including non-smokers would induce a ‘carrier’ state allowing the app to bridge clusters of smokers. Methods and analysis This study is a fractional factorial, randomised control trial of the diffusion of a Facebook application for smoking cessation. Participants recruited through online advertising are randomised to 1 of 12 cells and serve as ‘seed’ users. All user interactions are tracked, including social interactions with friends. Individuals installing the application that can be traced back to a seed participant are deemed ‘descendants’ and form the outcome of interest. Analysis will be conducted using Poisson regression, with event count as the outcome and the number of seeds in the cell as the exposure. Results The results will be reported as a baseline R0 for the reference group, and incidence rate ratio for the remainder of predictors. Ethics and Dissemination This study uses an abbreviated consent process designed to minimise barriers to adoption and was deemed to be minimal risk by the Institutional Review Board (IRB). Results will be disseminated through traditional academic literature as well as social media. If feasible, anonymised data and underlying
Gregório, Maria João; Gein, Pierre; Eusébio, Mónica; Santos, Maria José; de Sousa, Rute Dinis; Coelho, Pedro S; Mendes, Jorge M; Graça, Pedro; Oliveira, Pedro; Branco, Jaime C; Canhão, Helena
Background The limited or uncertain access to adequate food in elderly people includes not only economic restrictions but also inability of food utilization due to functional or cognitive impairment, health problems, and illiteracy. Objective The aim of this work is to present the protocol of the randomized controlled trial Saúde.Come Senior, an educational and motivational television (TV)-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles and decrease food insecurity in elderly people. Methods A randomized controlled study will be conducted in subjects aged 60 years and older with food insecurity, identified at 17 primary care centers in the Lisboa e Vale do Tejo health region in Lisbon, Portugal. The primary outcome will be the changes in participants’ food insecurity score (evaluated by the Household Food Insecurity Scale) at 3 months. Change in other outcomes will be assessed (dietary habits, nutritional status, physical activity, health status, and clinical outcomes). Subjects will be followed over 6 months; the intervention will last 3 months. Data collection will be performed at 3 different time points (baseline, end of intervention at 3 months, and follow-up at 6 months). The intervention is based on an interactive TV app with an educational and motivational program specifically developed for the elderly that has weekly themes and includes daily content in video format: (1) nutrition and diet tips for healthy eating, (2) healthy, easy to cook and low-cost recipes, and (3) physical exercise programs. Furthermore, brief reminders on health behaviors will also be broadcasted through the TV app. The total duration of the study will be 6 months. The intervention is considered to be effective and meaningful if 50% of the individuals in the experimental group have a decrease of 1 point in the food insecurity score, all the remaining being unchanged. We expect to include and randomize 282 (141 experimental and 141 control) elderly with food insecurity. We will
Background Depression is one of the more severe and serious health problems because of its morbidity, disabling effects and for its societal and economic burden. Despite the variety of existing pharmacological and psychological treatments, most of the cases evolve with only partial remission, relapse and recurrence. Cognitive models have contributed significantly to the understanding of unipolar depression and its psychological treatment. However, success is only partial and many authors affirm the need to improve those models and also the treatment programs derived from them. One of the issues that requires further elaboration is the difficulty these patients experience in responding to treatment and in maintaining therapeutic gains across time without relapse or recurrence. Our research group has been working on the notion of cognitive conflict viewed as personal dilemmas according to personal construct theory. We use a novel method for identifying those conflicts using the repertory grid technique (RGT). Preliminary results with depressive patients show that about 90% of them have one or more of those conflicts. This fact might explain the blockage and the difficult progress of these patients, especially the more severe and/or chronic. These results justify the need for specific interventions focused on the resolution of these internal conflicts. This study aims to empirically test the hypothesis that an intervention focused on the dilemma(s) specifically detected for each patient will enhance the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. Design A therapy manual for a dilemma-focused intervention will be tested using a randomized clinical trial by comparing the outcome of two treatment conditions: combined group CBT (eight, 2-hour weekly sessions) plus individual dilemma-focused therapy (eight, 1-hour weekly sessions) and CBT alone (eight, 2-hour group weekly sessions plus eight, 1-hour individual weekly sessions). Method Participants are
Lee, Simon Craddock; Marks, Emily G; Persaud, Donna; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Street, Richard L; Wiebe, Deborah J; Farrell, David; Bishop, Wendy Pechero; Fuller, Sobha; Baldwin, Austin S
Background Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers are a significant burden on the US health care system that can be prevented through adolescent HPV vaccination. Despite guidelines recommending vaccination, coverage among US adolescents is suboptimal particularly among underserved patients (uninsured, low income, racial, and ethnic minorities) seen in safety-net health care settings. Many parents are ambivalent about the vaccine and delay making a decision or talking with a provider about it. Self-persuasion—generating one’s own arguments for a health behavior—may be particularly effective for parents who are undecided or not motivated to make a vaccine decision. Objective Through a 3-stage mixed-methods protocol, we will identify an optimal and feasible self-persuasion intervention strategy to promote adolescent HPV vaccination in safety-net clinics. Methods In Stage 1, we will define content for a tablet-based self-persuasion app by characterizing (1) parents’ self-generated arguments through cognitive interviews conducted with parents (n=50) of patients and (2) parent-provider HPV vaccine discussions through audio recordings of clinic visits (n=50). In Stage 2, we will compare the effects of the four self-persuasion intervention conditions that vary by cognitive processing level (parents verbalize vs listen to arguments) and choice of argument topics (parents choose vs are assigned topics) on parental vaccine intentions in a 2 × 2 factorial design randomized controlled trial (n=160). This proof-of-concept trial design will identify which intervention condition is optimal by quantitatively examining basic self-persuasion mechanisms (cognitive processing and choice) and qualitatively exploring parent experiences with intervention tasks. In Stage 3, we will conduct a pilot trial (n=90) in the safety-net clinics to assess feasibility of the optimal intervention condition identified in Stage 2. We will also assess its impact on parent
Yun, O Bok; Kim, Shin-Jeong; Jung, Dukyoo
This study examined the effects of a clown-nurse educational intervention on children undergoing day surgery for strabismus. This was a quasi-experimental study, using a nonequivalent control group, non-synchronized design. Fifty preschool children and their parents were invited to participate. The children in the intervention group (n=23) received clown therapy and subsequently reported significantly lower states of physiological anxiety, which was evidenced by systolic blood pressure, standardized behavioral anxiety tests, and post-surgery pain, than the control group (n=27). In addition, the parents in the experimental group showed a low state of physiological anxiety, evidenced by systolic blood pressure, pulse rates, standardized behavioral anxiety tests, and state-trait anxiety. The use of preoperative clown intervention may alleviate postoperative problems, not only for children, but also for their parents.
Jahn, Patrick; Kuss, Oliver; Schmidt, Heike; Bauer, Alexander; Kitzmantel, Maria; Jordan, Karin; Krasemann, Susann; Landenberger, Margarete
Patients' self-management skills are affected by their knowledge, activities, and attitudes toward pain management. This trial aimed to test the Self Care Improvement through Oncology Nursing (SCION)-PAIN program, a multimodular structured intervention to reduce patients' barriers to self-management of cancer pain. Two hundred sixty-three patients with diagnosed malignancy, pain>3 days, and average pain > or = 3/10 participated in a cluster-randomized trial on 18 wards in 2 German university hospitals. Patients on the intervention wards received, in addition to standard pain treatment, the SCION-PAIN program consisting of 3 modules: pharmacologic, nonpharmacologic pain management, and discharge management. The intervention was conducted by specially trained cancer nurses and included components of patient education, skills training, and counseling. Starting with admission, patients received booster sessions every third day and one follow-up telephone counseling session within 2 to 3 days after discharge. Patients in the control group received standard care. Primary end point was the group difference in patient-related barriers to self-management of cancer pain (Barriers Questionnaire-BQ II) 7 days after discharge. The SCION-PAIN program resulted in a significant reduction of patient-related barriers to pain management 1 week after discharge from the hospital: mean difference on BQ II was -0.49 points (95% confidence interval -0.87 points to -0.12 points; P=0.02). Furthermore, patients showed improved adherence to pain medication; odds ratio 8.58 (95% confidence interval 1.66-44.40; P=0.02). A post hoc analysis indicated reduced average and worst pain intensity as well as improved quality of life. This trial reveals the positive impact of a nursing intervention to improve patients' self-management of cancer pain.
Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh; Dhital, Rolina; Subhani, Huma
Introduction Malnutrition among children is a serious public health problem in the aftermath of any natural disaster. We will review the various nutrition interventions for children aged <5 years in countries where natural disasters occurred and analyse the effect on nutrition-related outcomes. Methods and analysis We will conduct a systematic review on nutrition intervention studies following natural disasters that were published between January 2000 and December 2015. Study selection will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool will be used for randomised controlled trials and Risk of Bias Assessment for Non-Randomized Studies (RoBANS) will be used for non-randomised studies. The quality of evidence will be assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. If sufficient data are available, we will conduct meta-analyses to establish the relationship between nutrition interventions and nutrition outcome indicators. All statistical analyses will be performed using Review Manager (Rev Man) V.5.3 for Windows. Heterogeneity of the data will be tested using the standard χ2 test. A fixed-effect model will be used for the studies with high heterogeneity (p value>0.10, I2≤50%). For dichotomous and continuous data, relative risk (RR) and mean difference with 95% CI will be used respectively. Subgroup analysis will be performed for studies with low heterogeneity (p value ≤0.10). We will use Z score with the level of significance set at p value <0.05 to test the total effect. Funnel plots will be used to detect publication bias. Ethics and dissemination As primary data will not be collected, formal ethical approval will not be required. The results will be disseminated by publication in peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations and the media. Registration details International Prospective Register for Systematic
Background Anxiety in children is common and incapacitating and increases the risk of mental health disorders in adulthood. Although effective interventions are available, few children are identified and referred for specialist treatment. Alternative approaches in which prevention programmes are delivered in school appear promising. However, comparatively little is known about the best intervention leader (health care–led vs. school-led), long-term effects or the primary preventive value of such programmes. Methods/Design Preventing Anxiety in Children through Education in Schools, or PACES, is a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural therapy prevention programme (FRIENDS) on symptoms of anxiety and low mood in 9- to 10-year-old children. Forty-one schools were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: school-led FRIENDS, health care–led FRIENDS or treatment as usual. Assessments were undertaken at baseline, 6 months and 12 months, with the primary outcome measure being the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale score at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures are changes in self-esteem, worries, bullying and life satisfaction. Discussion This protocol summarises the procedure for the 24-month follow-up of this cohort. The study will determine the medium-term effectiveness of an anxiety prevention programme delivered in schools. Trial registration ISRCTN23563048 PMID:24624990
van Esch, Babette F; van der Zaag-Loonen, Hester J; Bruintjes, Tjasse D; van Benthem, Peter Paul G
Introduction The large number of treatment modalities for patients diagnosed with Menière's disease (MD) complicates the selection of the best available treatment as the comparative efficacy of these interventions is not clear. We aim to identify the treatment or treatments with the highest efficacy of current pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for MD. Methods and analysis We will identify all available systematic reviews on the treatment of MD. An online database search will be conducted in association with the UK Cochrane Centre, particularly the Ear, Nose and Throat Group. We will screen the systematic reviews for eligible randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to execute a network meta-analysis. In addition, online databases will be checked for eligible RCTs on treatments that were published after the latest systematic search was conducted. The characteristics of each RCT will be summarised, including the general design, the participants, the interventions, the outcome measurements, the duration of therapy and adverse events. The risk of bias will be assessed by means of the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. The included studies will be assessed for methodological and statistical heterogeneity; the latter will be quantified by means of the I2 statistic. The primary outcome will be the efficacy of treatment in terms of control of vertigo attacks. Secondary outcome measures will be the loss or improvement of hearing, severity of vertigo attacks and tinnitus, perception of aural fullness, quality of life, and the incidence of adverse events and complications. Ethics and dissemination Formal ethical approval is not required as primary data will not be collected. The review will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. PROSPERO registration number CRD42015024243. PMID:27288370
Background Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by angry and noncompliant behaviour. It is the most common disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD), with prevalence estimates of 6-9% for preschoolers and is closely linked to several long-term difficulties, including disorders of conduct, mood, anxiety, impulse-control, and substance abuse. ODD in children is related to parental depression, family dysfunction, and impairments in parental work performance. Children displaying early DBDs exhibit more symptoms of greater severity, more frequent offences, and commit more serious crimes later in life. The goal of the Strongest Families™ Finland Canada (SFFC) Smart Website intervention research program is to develop and evaluate an affordable, accessible, effective secondary prevention parent training program for disruptive behaviour in preschoolers to prevent the negative sequelae of ODD. Strongest Families is an 11-session program with two booster sessions that focuses on teaching skills to: strengthen parent–child relationships; reinforce positive behaviour; reduce conflict; manage daily transitions; plan for potentially problematic situations; promote emotional regulation and pro-social behaviour and decrease antisocial behaviour. Methods/design This protocol paper describes an ongoing population-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) of high-risk 4 year-olds attending well-child clinics in Turku, Finland and environs to examine the effectiveness of the Strongest Families Smart Website intervention compared to an Education Control condition. Randomization consists of a 1:1 ratio for intervention versus the education group, stratified by the child’s sex. The participants randomized to the intervention group receive access to the Strongest Families Smart Website and weekly telephone coaching sessions. The participants randomized to the Education Control condition receive access to a static website with parenting tips. Children are followed using
Background Mid to late adolescence is characterised by a vulnerability to problematic substance use since the consumption of alcohol and illicit drugs is frequently initiated and increased in this life period. While the detrimental long- and short-term effects of problematic consumption patterns in adolescence pose a major public health concern, current prevention programs targeting alcohol- and other substance-using adolescents are scarce. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief intervention aimed at reducing problematic alcohol use and promoting abstinence from illegal drugs in adolescents with risky substance use aged 16 to 18 years old in four EU-countries. Methods/design To determine the effectiveness of our web-BI, we apply a two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) study design, with baseline assessment at study entry and a three month follow-up assessment. Adolescents aged 16 to 18 years from Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany, and Sweden will be randomly assigned to either the fully electronically delivered brief intervention group (N = 400) or an assessment only control group (N = 400) depending on their screening for risky substance use (using the CRAFFT). Recruitment, informed consent, randomization, intervention and follow-up will be implemented online. Primary outcomes are reductions in frequency and quantity of use of alcohol and drugs other than alcohol over a 30 day period, as well as consumption per typical occasion. Secondary outcomes concern changes in substance use related cognitions including the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, implementation intentions, and stages of change. Moreover the study addresses a number of moderator variables, including age of first use, general psychopathology and quality of parent–child relationship. Discussion The trial is expected to contribute to the growing literature on theory- and web-based brief interventions for adolescents. We will
Background Approximately 1 in 5 pregnant women in the United Kingdom are obese. In addition to being associated generally with poor health, obesity is known to be a contributing factor to pregnancy and birth complications and the retention of gestational weight can lead to long term obesity. This paper describes the protocol for a cluster randomised trial to evaluate whether a weight management intervention for obese pregnant women is effective in reducing women’s Body Mass Index at 12 months following birth. Methods/design The study is a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 20 maternity units across England and Wales. The units will be randomised, 10 to the intervention group and 10 to the control group. 570 pregnant women aged 18 years or over, with a Body Mass Index of +/=30 (kg/m2) and between 12 and 20 weeks gestation will be recruited. Women allocated to the control group will receive usual care and two leaflets giving advice on diet and physical activity. In addition to their usual care and the leaflets, women allocated to the intervention group will be offered to attend a weekly 1.5 hour weight management group, which combines expertise from Slimming World with clinical advice and supervision from National Health Service midwives, until 6 weeks postpartum. Participants will be followed up at 36 weeks gestation and at 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months postpartum. Body Mass Index at 12 months postpartum is the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes include pregnancy weight gain, quality of life, mental health, waist-hip ratio, child weight centile, admission to neonatal unit, diet, physical activity levels, pregnancy and birth complications, social support, self-regulation and self-efficacy. A cost effectiveness analysis and process evaluation will also be conducted. Discussion This study will evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention developed for obese pregnant women. If successful the intervention will equip women with the
Smith, Christina H; Barratt, Helen; Taylor, Stuart A
Introduction The incidence of head and neck cancer (HNC) in the UK is rising, with an average of 31 people diagnosed daily. Patients affected by HNC suffer significant short-term and long-term post-treatment morbidity as a result of dysphagia, which affects daily functioning and quality of life (QOL). Pretreatment swallowing exercises may provide additional benefit over standard rehabilitation in managing dysphagia after primary HNC treatments, but uncertainty about their effectiveness persists. This study was preceded by an intervention development phase to produce an optimised swallowing intervention package (SIP). The aim of the current study is to assess the feasibility of this new intervention and research processes within a National Health Service (NHS) setting. Method and analysis A two-arm non-blinded randomised controlled feasibility study will be carried out at one tertiary referral NHS centre providing specialist services in HNC. Patients newly diagnosed with stage III and IV disease undergoing planned surgery and/or chemoradiation treatments will be eligible. The SIP will be delivered pre treatment, and a range of swallowing-related and QOL measures will be collected at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months post-treatment. Outcomes will test the feasibility of a future randomised controlled trial (RCT), detailing rate of recruitment and patient acceptance to participation and randomisation. Salient information relating to protocol implementation will be collated and study material such as the case report form will be tested. A range of candidate outcome measures will be examined for suitability in a larger RCT. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from an NHS Research Ethics Committee. Findings will be published open access in a peer-reviewed journal, and presented at relevant conferences and research meetings. Trial registration number ISRCTN40215425; Pre-results. PMID:28348190
Geurden, Bart J G; Stern, Cindy; Piron, Cécile; Gobert, Micheline
Barriers obstructing evidence-based nursing have been explored in many countries. Lack of resources and evidence has been noted as one of these barriers. We aimed to identify nursing care-related systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1996 until 2009. Using a broad search strategy we identified titles of Cochrane systematic reviews and protocols that focused on nursing care. The abstract of each title was examined and predetermined data were collected and analysed. 1249 titles out of a possible 6244 records were identified as being relevant to nursing care. Most of them focused on newborn and adult populations and related to comparing one intervention with another, and management strategies. The most common nursing specialties represented were internal medicine (34%) and mother and child care (25%). Twenty one percent of reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews are of direct interest to those involved in nursing care however their relevance was not always obvious.
Hamester, Letícia; de Souza, Emiliane Nogueira; Cielo, Cibele; Moraes, Maria Antonieta; Pellanda, Lúcia Campos
ABSTRACT Objective: to verify the effectiveness of nursing orientation provided to families of patients in the immediate post-operative following cardiac surgery before the first visit to the post-anesthesia care unit, in decreasing anxiety levels, compared to the unit's routine orientation. Method: open randomized clinical trial addressing family members in the waiting room before the first visit in the immediate post-operative period. The family members assigned to the intervention group received audiovisual orientation concerning the patients' conditions at the time and the control group received the unit's routine orientation. Outcome anxiety was assessed using the STAI-State. Results: 210 individuals were included, 105 in each group, aged 46.4 years old on average (±14.5); 69% were female and 41% were the patients' children. The mean score obtained on the anxiety assessment in the intervention group was 41.3±8.6, while the control group scored 50.6±9.4 (p<0.001). Conclusion: a nursing intervention focused on providing guidance to families before their first visit to patients in the immediate post-operative period of cardiac surgery helps to decrease the levels of anxiety of companions, making them feel better prepared for the moment. ReBEC (Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry) and The Universal Trial Number (UTN), No. U1111-1145-6172. PMID:27533263
Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna L; Kane, Javier R; Pradhan, Kamnesh R; Shih, Chie-Schin; Gauvain, Karen M; Baker, Justin N; Haase, Joan E
When a child's prognosis is poor, physicians and nurses (MDs/RNs) often struggle with initiating discussions about palliative and end-of-life care (PC/EOL) early in the course of illness trajectory. We describe evaluation of training procedures used to prepare MD/RN dyads to deliver an intervention entitled: Communication Plan: Early Through End of Life (COMPLETE) intervention. Our training was delivered to 5 pediatric neuro-oncologists and 8 pediatric nurses by a team of expert consultants (i.e., in medical ethics, communication, and PC/EOL) and parent advisors. Although half of the group received training in a 1-day program and half in a 2-day program, content for all participants included 4 modules: family assessment, goal-directed treatment planning, anticipatory guidance, and staff communication and follow-up. Evaluations included dichotomous ratings and qualitative comments on content, reflection, and skills practice for each module. Positive aspects of our training included parent advisers' insights, emphasis on hope and non-abandonment messages, written materials to facilitate PC/EOL communication, and an MD/RN dyad approach. Lessons learned and challenges related to our training procedures will be described. Overall, the MDs and RNs reported that our PC/EOL communication-training procedures were helpful and useful. Future investigators should carefully plan training procedures for PC/EOL communication interventions.
Background Support groups for children in troubled families are available in a majority of Swedish municipalities. They are used as a preventive effort for children in families with different parental problems such as addiction to alcohol/other drugs, mental illness, domestic violence, divorce situations, or even imprisonment. Children from families with these problems are a well-known at-risk group for various mental health and social problems. Support groups aim at strengthening children’s coping behaviour, to improve their mental health and to prevent a negative psycho-social development. To date, evaluations using a control-group study design are scarce. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of support groups. This paper describes the design of an effectiveness study, initially intended as a randomized controlled trial, but instead is pursued as a quasi-experimental study using a non-randomized control group. Methods/design The aim is to include 116 children, aged 7–13 years and one parent/another closely related adult, in the study. Participants are recruited via existing support groups in the Stockholm county district and are allocated either into an intervention group or a waiting list control group, representing care as usual. The assessment consists of questionnaires that are to be filled in at baseline and at four months following the baseline. Additionally, the intervention group completes a 12-month follow-up. The outcomes include the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ S11-16), the Kids Coping Scale, the “Ladder of life” which measures overall life satisfaction, and “Jag tycker jag är” (I think I am) which measures self-perception and self-esteem. The parents complete the SDQ P4-16 (parent-report version) and the Swedish scale “Familjeklimat” (Family Climate), which measures the emotional climate in the family. Discussion There is a need for evaluating the effects of support groups targeted to children from
Usher, Kim; Park, Tanya; Foster, Kim; Buettner, Petra
Aim To test the effect of a nurse-led intervention on weight gain in people with serious mental illness prescribed and taking second generation antipsychotic medication. Background Weight gain and obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the general population with the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome reaching 20–25% of the global population. People with serious mental illness are at even higher risk, particularly those taking second generation antipsychotic medication. Design An experimental randomized controlled trial was undertaken. Method The control group received a 12-week healthy lifestyle booklet. In addition to the booklet, the intervention group received weekly nutrition and exercise education, exercise sessions, and nurse support. Participants (n = 101) were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Data were collected between March 2008–December 2010. Seven outcome measures were used: body measurements included girth (cm), weight (kg), height (cm), and body mass index (kg/m2); questionnaires included the medication compliance questionnaire, the Drug Attitude Inventory, the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side Effect Rating Scale, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36. Differences in primary outcome measures between baseline and 12 weeks follow-up were compared between intervention and control groups using standard bi-variate statistical tests. The study was conducted between 2008–2010. Results The analysis of outcome measures for the control group (n = 50) and intervention group (n = 51) was not statistically significant. There was a mean weight change of −0·74 kg at 12 weeks for the intervention group (n = 51), while the control group (n = 50) had a mean weight change of −0·17 kg at 12 weeks. Conclusion The results were not statistically significant. PMID:22973945
Mitchell, Beverly; Petrovskaya, Olga; McIntyre, Marjorie; Frisch, Noreen
The authors explore the possibilities for documenting professional nursing practice in an electronic health record. Recognizing that there are a variety of approaches to electronic documentation, the intent of this discussion is to generate a general rather than a particular approach to this issue. Nurses themselves must determine the ways in which professional nursing care will be captured in the electronic systems used in their facilities. Questions that arise from nursing include: How can nurses balance generalized care and protocol management with the need for documentation of each individual's nursing needs and particular experiences? How can the goals of nursing care be incorporated into the record? How can nursing actions/interventions be clearly communicated to all members of the health care team? In what ways can an electronic record document collaboration with the client to determine individualized outcomes of care and treatment? In considering these questions a number of issues arise: the selection of standardized languages to be used in the records, the title of the record, the tension between coding and text, the accessibility and transferability of the record, the ability to retrieve data on nursing outcomes through data mining techniques, ownership of the record, and privacy/security of the information stored. Although the paper will make no attempt to answer these questions it will draw on relevant journal articles to provide a context for this pivotal change in that way we account for health care practice.
Background In Spain, family is the main source of care for dependent people. Numerous studies suggest that providing informal (unpaid) care during a prolonged period of time results in a morbidity-generating burden. Caregivers constitute a high-risk group that experiences elevated stress levels, which reduce their quality of life. Different strategies have been proposed to improve management of this phenomenon in order to minimize its impact, but definitive conclusions regarding their effectiveness are lacking. Methods/Design A community clinical trial is proposed, with a 1-year follow-up period, that is multicentric, controlled, parallel, and with randomized allocation of clusters in 20 health care centers within the Community of Madrid. The study's objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of a standard care intervention in primary health care (intervention CuidaCare) to improve the quality of life of the caregivers, measured at 0, 6, and 12 months after the intervention. One hundred and forty two subjects (71 from each group) ≥65 years, identified by the nurse as the main caregivers, and who provide consent to participate in the study will be included. The main outcome variable will be perceived quality of life as measured by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D). The secondary outcome variables will be EQ-5D Dimensions, EQ-5D Index, nursing diagnosis, and Zarit's test. Prognostic variables will be recorded for the dependent patient and the caregiver. The principle analysis will be done by comparing the average change in EQ-5D VAS value before and after intervention between the two groups. All statistical tests will be performed as intention-to-treat. Prognostic factors' estimates will be adjusted by mixed-effects regression models. Possible confounding or effect-modifying factors will be taken into account. Discussion Assistance for the caregiver should be integrated into primary care services. In order to do so, incorporating standard
Background Following admission to a nursing home, the feelings of depression and burden that family carers may experience do not necessarily diminish. Additionally, they may experience feelings of guilt and grief for the loss of a previously close relationship. At the same time, individuals with dementia may develop symptoms of depression and agitation (BPSD) that may be related to changes in family relationships, social interaction and stimulation. Until now, interventions to alleviate carer stress and BPSD have treated carers and relatives separately rather than focusing on maintaining or enhancing their relationships. One-to-one structured activities have been shown to reduce BPSD and also improve the caring experience, but barriers such as a lack of resources impede the implementation of activities in aged care facilities. The current study will investigate the effect of individualised activities based on the Montessori methodology administered by family carers in residential care. Methods/Design We will conduct a cluster-randomised trial to train family carers in conducting personalised one-to-one activities based on the Montessori methodology with their relatives. Montessori activities derive from the principles espoused by Maria Montessori and subsequent educational theorists to promote engagement in learning, namely task breakdown, guided repetition, progression in difficulty from simple to complex, and the careful matching of demands to levels of competence. Persons with dementia living in aged care facilities and frequently visiting family carers will be included in the study. Consented, willing participants will be randomly assigned by facility to a treatment condition using the Montessori approach or a control waiting list condition. We hypothesise that family carers conducting Montessori-based activities will experience improvements in quality of visits and overall relationship with the resident as well as higher self-rated mastery, fewer depressive
Low, Lee-Fay; Brodaty, Henry; Goodenough, Belinda; Spitzer, Peter; Bell, Jean-Paul; Fleming, Richard; Casey, Anne-Nicole; Liu, Zhixin; Chenoweth, Lynn
Objectives To determine whether humour therapy reduces depression (primary outcome), agitation and behavioural disturbances and improves social engagement and quality-of-life in nursing home residents. Design The Sydney Multisite Intervention of LaughterBosses and ElderClowns study was a single-blind cluster randomised controlled trial of humour therapy. Setting 35 Sydney nursing homes. Participants All eligible residents within geographically defined areas within each nursing home were invited to participate. Intervention Professional ‘ElderClowns’ provided 9–12 weekly humour therapy sessions, augmented by resident engagement by trained staff ‘LaughterBosses’. Controls received usual care. Measurements Depression scores on the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, agitation scores on the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, behavioural disturbance scores on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, social engagement scores on the withdrawal subscale of Multidimensional Observation Scale for Elderly Subjects, and self-rated and proxy-rated quality-of-life scores on a health-related quality-of-life tool for dementia, the DEMQOL. All outcomes were measured at the participant level by researchers blind to group assignment. Randomisation Sites were stratified by size and level of care then assigned to group using a random number generator. Results Seventeen nursing homes (189 residents) received the intervention and 18 homes (209 residents) received usual care. Groups did not differ significantly over time on the primary outcome of depression, or on behavioural disturbances other than agitation, social engagement and quality of life. The secondary outcome of agitation was significantly reduced in the intervention group compared with controls over 26 weeks (time by group interaction adjusted for covariates: p=0.011). The mean difference in change from baseline to 26 weeks in Blom-transformed agitation scores after adjustment for covariates was 0.17 (95% CI 0
Talbot, Lise R; Gaboury, Isabelle
Background Intersectoral collaboration, known to promote more sustainable change within communities, will be examined in an oral health promotion program (OHPP). In Peru, an OHPP was implemented by the Ministry of Health, to reduce the incidence of caries in schoolchildren. In rural Andean communities, however, these initiatives achieved limited success. The objectives of this project are: (1) to understand the context and the underlying mechanisms associated with Peruvian OHPP's current effects among school children living in rural Andean communities and (2) to validate a theory explaining how and under which circumstances OHP intersectoral interventions on schoolchildren living in rural Andean communities produce their effects. Methods and analysis Through a realist evaluation, the context, underlying mechanisms and programme outcomes will be identified. This process will involve five different steps. In the first and second steps, a logic model and an initial theory are developed. In the third step, data collection will permit measurement of the OHHP's outcomes with quantitative data, and exploration of the elements of context and the mechanisms with qualitative data. In the fourth and fifth steps, iterative data analysis and a validation process will allow the identification of Context-Mechanism-Outcome configuration, and validate or refine the initial theory. Ethics and dissemination This research project has received approval from the Comité d’éthique de la recherche en santé chez l'humain du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke. The initial theory and research results will be published in relevant journals in public health and oral health. They will also be presented at realist evaluation and health promotion international conferences. PMID:28237962
Magan Mendoza, Yimdriuska; Rosenthal, Jaime; Jacolbia, Ronald; Rajkomar, Alvin; Lee, Herman; Auerbach, Andrew
Background Inadequate patient engagement in care is a major barrier to successful transitions from the inpatient setting and can lead to preventable adverse events after discharge, particularly for older adults. While older adults may be less familiar with mobile devices and applications, they may benefit from focused bedside training to engage them in using their Personal Health Record (PHR). Mobile technologies such as tablet computers can be used in the hospital to help bridge this gap in experience by teaching older, hospitalized patients to actively manage their medication list through their PHR during hospitalization and continue to use their PHR for other post-discharge tasks such as scheduling follow-up appointments, viewing test results, and communicating with providers. Bridging this gap is especially important for older, hospitalized adults as they are at higher risk than younger populations for low engagement in transitions of care and poor outcomes such as readmission. Greater understanding of the advantages and limitations of mobile devices for older adults may be important for improving transitions of care. Objective To better understand the effective use of mobile technologies to improve transitions in care for hospitalized, older adults and leverage these technologies to improve inpatient and postdischarge care for older adults. Methods We will compare an intervention group with tablet-based training to engage effectively with their PHR to a control group also receiving tablets and basic access to their PHR but no additional training on how to engage with their PHR. Results Patient enrollment is ongoing. Conclusions Through this grant, we will further develop our preliminary dataset and practical experience with these mobile technologies to catalyze patient engagement during hospitalization. ClinicalTrial ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02109601; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02109601 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6jpXjkwM8
Background Poor adherence to medication is one of the limitations in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, thereby increasing the risk of premature death, hospital admissions, and related costs. There is a need for simple and easy-to-implement interventions that are based on patients’ perspectives, beliefs, and perceptions of their illness and medication. Objective The objective is to test the effectivity of this intervention to improve medication adherence in patients with established cardiovascular disease, that is, in secondary prevention. Methods In this study the effect of a personalized visualization of cardiovascular risk levels through a website aiming at supporting self management in combination with a group consultation and communication intervention by a nurse on adherence to treatment in 600 patients with manifest cardiovascular diseases will be assessed. The health belief model was chosen as main theoretical model for the intervention. Results Primary outcome is adherence to treatment calculated by refill data. Secondary outcomes include the Beliefs about Medication Questionnaire and the Modified Morisky Scale. Patients are followed for one year. Results are expected by 2015. Conclusions This study assesses adherence to treatment in a high-risk cardiovascular population by applying an intervention that addresses patients’ capacity and practical barriers as well as patients’ beliefs and perceptions of their illness and medication. ClinicalTrial ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01449695; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01449695 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6kCzkIKH3) PMID:27624877
Background The overall number of cancer cases is increasing and, therefore, strengthening cancer prevention has become a priority. The institutions responsible for its control establish guidelines for primary prevention. These include recommendations, such as: not smoking, following a healthy diet, doing daily physical exercise or avoiding overweight. Adolescence is a period of adoption and/or consolidation of health behaviors, and both school- and family-based interventions have proven effective to improve them. Furthermore, online and mobile phone educational interventions are encouraging. Consequently, the main aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of an intervention in which these requirements (school, family, the Internet and SMS) are combined to prevent behavioral cancer risk. Methods This protocol describes the design and implementation of a complex online program that includes a randomized controlled trial put into practice in two countries: Spain and Mexico. Adolescents and adults of their environment (relatives and teachers) who voluntarily participate will be randomly assigned to the experimental group or to the control group once they have completed the online pre-test. The experimental group members will have free access to a tailor-made and interactive website (http://www.alertagrumete.com). During the academic year, this website will be periodically updated with different school and leisure activities related to the avoidance of risk behaviors. To encourage participation, the program includes a competition that gives rewards to the winners. SMS are also sent to students to stimulate the adoption of healthy behaviors and as a reminder of participation. Finished the intervention, an online post-test is performed in both groups and the impact on the risk behaviors is therefore assessed. Discussion The program is pioneer, since it combines many components which have already proven effective in previous researches. Moreover, it aims to compare
Background An estimated 285 million people worldwide have diabetes and its prevalence is predicted to increase to 439 million by 2030. For the year 2010, it is estimated that 3.96 million excess deaths in the age group 20-79 years are attributable to diabetes around the world. Self-management is recognised as an integral part of diabetes care. This paper describes the protocol of a randomised controlled trial of an automated interactive telephone system aiming to improve the uptake and maintenance of essential diabetes self-management behaviours. Methods/Design A total of 340 individuals with type 2 diabetes will be randomised, either to the routine care arm, or to the intervention arm in which participants receive the Telephone-Linked Care (TLC) Diabetes program in addition to their routine care. The intervention requires the participants to telephone the TLC Diabetes phone system weekly for 6 months. They receive the study handbook and a glucose meter linked to a data uploading device. The TLC system consists of a computer with software designed to provide monitoring, tailored feedback and education on key aspects of diabetes self-management, based on answers voiced or entered during the current or previous conversations. Data collection is conducted at baseline (Time 1), 6-month follow-up (Time 2), and 12-month follow-up (Time 3). The primary outcomes are glycaemic control (HbA1c) and quality of life (Short Form-36 Health Survey version 2). Secondary outcomes include anthropometric measures, blood pressure, blood lipid profile, psychosocial measures as well as measures of diet, physical activity, blood glucose monitoring, foot care and medication taking. Information on utilisation of healthcare services including hospital admissions, medication use and costs is collected. An economic evaluation is also planned. Discussion Outcomes will provide evidence concerning the efficacy of a telephone-linked care intervention for self-management of diabetes. Furthermore
Veettil, Sajesh K.; Saokaew, Surasak; Lim, Kean Ghee; Ching, Siew Mooi; Phisalprapa, Pochamana
Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and is associated with substantial socioeconomic burden. Despite considerable research, including numerous randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews assessed the effect of various chemopreventive interventions for CRC, there remains uncertainty regarding the comparative effectiveness of these agents. No network meta-analytic study has been published to evaluate the efficacies of these agents for CRC. Therefore, the aim of this study is to summarise the direct and indirect evidence for these interventions to prevent CRC in average-high risk individuals, and to rank these agents for practical consideration. Methods We will acquire eligible studies through a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, CINAHL plus, IPA and clinicaltrials.gov website. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool will be used to assess the quality of included studies. The primary outcomes are the incidence of CRC, the incidence/recurrence of any adenoma or change in polyp burden (number or size). Quantitative synthesis or meta-analysis will be considered. We will also construct a network meta-analysis (NMA) to improve precision of the comparisons among chemo-preventive interventions by combining direct and indirect evidence. The probability of each treatment being the best and/or safest, the number-needed-to-treat [NNT; 95% credible interval (CrIs)], and the number-needed-to-harm (NNH; 95% CrIs) will be calculated to provide measures of treatment efficacy. The GRADE approach will be used to rate the quality of evidence of estimates derived from NMA. Results This protocol has been registered (registration number: CRD42015025849) with the PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews). The procedures of this systematic review and NMA will be conducted in accordance with the PRISMA-compliant guideline. The results of this systematic review and
Background Given the increase in overweight and obesity prevalence in adolescents in the last decade, effective prevention strategies for these conditions in adolescents are urgently needed. The PRALIMAP (Promotion de l'ALImentation et de l'Activité Physique) trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness for these conditions of 3 health promotion strategies -- educational, screening and environmental -- applied singly or in combination in high schools over a 2-year intervention period. Methods PRALIMAP is a stratified 2 × 2 × 2 factorial cluster randomised controlled trial including 24 state high schools in Lorraine, northeastern France, in 2 waves: 8 schools in 2006 (wave 1) and 16 in 2007 (wave 2). Students entering the selected high schools in the 4 academic years from 2006 to 2009 are eligible for data collection. Interventional strategies are organized over 2 academic years. The follow-up consists of 3 visits: at the entry of grade 10 (T0), grade 11 (T1) and grade 12 (T2). At T0, 5,458 (85.7%) adolescents participated. The educational strategy consists of nutritional lessons, working groups and a final party. The screening strategy consists in detecting overweight/obesity and eating disorders in adolescents and proposing, if necessary, an adapted care management program of 7 group educational sessions. The environmental strategy consists in improving dietary and physical activity offerings in high schools and facilities, especially catering. The main outcomes are body size evolution over time, nutritional behaviour and knowledge, health and quality of life. An evaluation process documents how each intervention strategy is implemented in the schools and estimates the dose of the intervention, allowing for a per protocol analysis after the main intention-to-treat analysis. Discussion PRALIMAP aims at improving the prevention and management of overweight and obesity in adolescents by translating current evidence into public health practice. Particular attention is
Background There is growing evidence of the impact of overweight and obesity on short- and long-term functioning, health and well-being. Internationally, childhood obesity rates continue to rise in some countries (for example, Mexico, India, China and Canada), although there is emerging evidence of a slowing of this increase or a plateauing in some age groups. In most European countries, the United States and Australia, however, socioeconomic inequalities in relation to obesity and risk factors for obesity are widening. Addressing inequalities in obesity, therefore, has a very high profile on the public health and health services agendas. However, there is a lack of accessible policy-ready evidence on what works in terms of interventions to reduce inequalities in obesity. Methods and design This article describes the protocol for a National Health Service Trust (NHS) National Institute for Health Research-funded systematic review of public health interventions at the individual, community and societal levels which might reduce socioeconomic inequalities in relation to obesity amongst children ages 0 to 18 years. The studies will be selected only if (1) they included a primary outcome that is a proxy for body fatness and (2) examined differential effects with regard to socioeconomic status (education, income, occupation, social class, deprivation and poverty) or the intervention was targeted specifically at disadvantaged groups (for example, children of the unemployed, lone parents, low income and so on) or at people who live in deprived areas. A rigorous and inclusive international literature search will be conducted for randomised and nonrandomised controlled trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies (with and/or without control groups) and prospective repeat cross-sectional studies (with and/or without control groups). The following electronic databases will be searched: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Science Citation Index, ASSIA, IBSS