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Sample records for nutmeg myristica fragrans

  1. Anticonvulsant activities of nutmeg oil of Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Abdul; Ul Haq, Rizwan; Ahmed, Aftab; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Raza, Mohsin

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticonvulsant activity of the volatile oil of nutmeg, the dried seed kernel of Myristica fragrans Houtt, using well-established animal seizure models and to evaluate its potential for acute toxicity and acute neurotoxicity. The volatile oil of nutmeg (nutmeg oil) was tested for its effects in maximal electroshock, subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole, strychnine and bicuculline seizure tests. All the experiments were performed at the time of peak effect of nutmeg oil. Nutmeg oil showed a rapid onset of action and short duration of anticonvulsant effect. It was found to possess significant anticonvulsant activity against electroshock-induced hind limb tonic extension. It exhibited dose dependent anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazole-induced tonic seizures. It delayed the onset of hind limb tonic extensor jerks induced by strychnine. It was anticonvulsant at lower doses, whereas weak proconvulsant at a higher dose against pentylenetetrazole and bicuculline induced clonic seizures. Nutmeg oil was found to possess wide therapeutic margin, as it did not induce motor impairment when tested up to 600 microL/kg in the inverted screen acute neurotoxicity test. Furthermore, the LD(50) (2150 microL/kg) value was much higher than its anticonvulsant doses (50-300 microL/kg). The results indicate that nutmeg oil may be effective against grand mal and partial seizures, as it prevents seizure spread in a set of established animal models. Slight potentiation of clonic seizure activity limits its use for the treatment of myoclonic and absence seizures.

  2. Anticonvulsant activities of nutmeg oil of Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Abdul; Ul Haq, Rizwan; Ahmed, Aftab; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Raza, Mohsin

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticonvulsant activity of the volatile oil of nutmeg, the dried seed kernel of Myristica fragrans Houtt, using well-established animal seizure models and to evaluate its potential for acute toxicity and acute neurotoxicity. The volatile oil of nutmeg (nutmeg oil) was tested for its effects in maximal electroshock, subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole, strychnine and bicuculline seizure tests. All the experiments were performed at the time of peak effect of nutmeg oil. Nutmeg oil showed a rapid onset of action and short duration of anticonvulsant effect. It was found to possess significant anticonvulsant activity against electroshock-induced hind limb tonic extension. It exhibited dose dependent anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazole-induced tonic seizures. It delayed the onset of hind limb tonic extensor jerks induced by strychnine. It was anticonvulsant at lower doses, whereas weak proconvulsant at a higher dose against pentylenetetrazole and bicuculline induced clonic seizures. Nutmeg oil was found to possess wide therapeutic margin, as it did not induce motor impairment when tested up to 600 microL/kg in the inverted screen acute neurotoxicity test. Furthermore, the LD(50) (2150 microL/kg) value was much higher than its anticonvulsant doses (50-300 microL/kg). The results indicate that nutmeg oil may be effective against grand mal and partial seizures, as it prevents seizure spread in a set of established animal models. Slight potentiation of clonic seizure activity limits its use for the treatment of myoclonic and absence seizures. PMID:19067329

  3. Biological effects of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) extract.

    PubMed

    Olajide, O A; Ajayi, F F; Ekhelar, A I; Awe, S O; Makinde, J M; Alada, A R

    1999-06-01

    The chloroform extract of nutmeg has been evaluated for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antithrombotic activities in rodents. The extract inhibited the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema, produced a reduction in writhings induced by acetic acid in mice and offered protection against thrombosis induced by ADP/adrenaline mixture in mice.

  4. The pharmacological effects of the ligroin extract of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans).

    PubMed

    Sherry, C J; Ray, L E; Herron, R E

    1982-07-01

    A ligroin extract of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) caused a significant increase in the duration of light and deep sleep in the young chicken. The presence of trimyristin tended to increase the effect of the extract. The extract did not contain detectable amounts of myristicin, elemicin, safrole, or eugenol, which either individually or collectively have been suggested to be the active agent of nutmeg.

  5. Cytotoxic and anti-tumor activities of lignans from the seeds of Vietnamese nutmeg Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Thuong, Phuong Thien; Hung, Tran Manh; Khoi, Nguyen Minh; Nhung, Hoang Thi My; Chinh, Nguyen Thi; Quy, Nguyen Thi; Jang, Tae Su; Na, Minkyun

    2014-03-01

    Four lignans, meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (DHGA), macelignan, fragransin A2 and nectandrin B, were isolated from the seeds of Myristica fragrans (Vietnamese nutmeg) and investigated for their cytotoxic activity against eight cancer cell lines. Of these, DHGA exhibited potent cytotoxicity against H358 with IC50 value of 10.1 μM. In addition, DHGA showed antitumor activity in allogeneic tumor-bearing mice model.

  6. Cytotoxic and anti-tumor activities of lignans from the seeds of Vietnamese nutmeg Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Thuong, Phuong Thien; Hung, Tran Manh; Khoi, Nguyen Minh; Nhung, Hoang Thi My; Chinh, Nguyen Thi; Quy, Nguyen Thi; Jang, Tae Su; Na, Minkyun

    2014-03-01

    Four lignans, meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (DHGA), macelignan, fragransin A2 and nectandrin B, were isolated from the seeds of Myristica fragrans (Vietnamese nutmeg) and investigated for their cytotoxic activity against eight cancer cell lines. Of these, DHGA exhibited potent cytotoxicity against H358 with IC50 value of 10.1 μM. In addition, DHGA showed antitumor activity in allogeneic tumor-bearing mice model. PMID:23877238

  7. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the lipid profile of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.).

    PubMed

    Niyas, Zareena; Variyar, Prasad S; Gholap, Achyut S; Sharma, Arun

    2003-10-22

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on the lipid constituents of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) was examined at radiation doses between 2.5 and 10 kGy. The fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerol, the major lipid component, was found to be made up of myristic (90%), palmitic (6%), lauric (3%), petroselinic (0.13%), and stearic acids (0.5%) as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A dose-dependent decrease in the triacylglycerol content and a concomitant increase in free fatty acids characterized the lipid profile of the irradiated spice. This suggested a breakdown of acylglycerols during radiation processing, resulting in the release of free fatty acids. These changes were found to be significant at doses above 5 kGy. The impact of the above changes on the flavor of the spice is discussed. These studies suggest that radiation processing of nutmeg should be limited to a dose of 5 kGy.

  8. Immunomodulatory and radioprotective effects of lignans derived from fresh nutmeg mace (Myristica fragrans) in mammalian splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Checker, Rahul; Chatterjee, Suchandra; Sharma, Deepak; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad; Sharma, Arun; Poduval, T B

    2008-05-01

    Recently, the lignans present in the aqueous extract of fresh nutmeg mace (aril of the fruit of Myristica fragrans) were shown to possess antioxidant properties in cell free systems and protected PUC18 plasmid against radiation-induced DNA damage. The present report describes the immunomodulatory and radiomodifying properties of lignans present in the aqueous extract of fresh nutmeg mace in mammalian splenocytes. These macelignans (ML) inhibited the proliferation of splenocytes in response to polyclonal T cell mitogen concanavalin A (Con A). This inhibition of proliferation was due to cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and augmentation of apoptosis as shown by increase in pre G1 cells. The increase in activation induced cell death by ML was dose dependent. It was found to inhibit the transcription of IL-2 and IL-4 genes in response to Con A. The production of IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-gamma cytokines was significantly inhibited by ML in Con A-stimulated lymphocytes in a dose dependent manner. ML protected splenocytes against radiation-induced intracellular ROS production in a dose dependent manner. ML was not cytotoxic towards lymphocytes. On the contrary, it significantly inhibited the radiation-induced DNA damage in splenocytes as indicated by decrease in DNA fragmentation. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the antioxidant, radioprotective and immunomodulatory effects of lignans in mammalian cells.

  9. Antidepressant-like activity of n-hexane extract of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) seeds in mice.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Dinesh; Sharma, Amandeep

    2006-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of an n-hexane extract of Myristica fragrans seeds on depression in mice by using the forced swim test (FST) and the tail suspension test (TST). M. fragrans extract (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) was administered orally for 3 successive days to different groups of Swiss male young albino mice. M. fragrans extract significantly decreased immobility periods of mice in both the FST and the TST. The 10 mg/kg dose was found to be most potent, as indicated by the greatest decrease in the immobility period compared with the control. Furthermore, this dose of the extract was found to have comparable potency to imipramine (15 mg/kg i.p.) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg i.p.). The extract did not have a significant effect on locomotor activity of mice. Prazosin (62.5 microg/kg i.p.; an alpha (1)-adrenoceptor antagonist), sulpiride (50 mg/kg i.p.; a selective D(2) receptor antagonist), and p-chlorophenylalanine (100 mg/kg i.p.; an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis) significantly attenuated the M. fragrans extract-induced antidepressant-like effect in the TST. Thus, extract of M. fragrans elicited a significant antidepressant-like effect in mice, when assessed in both the TST and the FST. The antidepressant-like effect of the extract seems to be mediated by interaction with the adrenergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic systems.

  10. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activators from Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) and their anti-obesity effect.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phi Hung; Le, Thi Van Thu; Kang, Hu Won; Chae, Jooyoung; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kwon, Kwang-iI; Seo, Dae Bang; Lee, Sang Jun; Oh, Won Keun

    2010-07-15

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic syndrome including obesity and type-2 diabetes. As part of an ongoing search for new AMPK activators from plants, this study found that the total extract of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) activated the AMPK enzyme in differentiated C2C12 cells. As active constituents, seven 2,5-bis-aryl-3,4-dimethyltetrahydrofuran lignans, tetrahydrofuroguaiacin B (1), saucernetindiol (2), verrucosin (3), nectandrin B (4), nectandrin A (5), fragransin C(1) (6), and galbacin (7) were isolated from this extract. Among the isolates, compounds 1, 4, and 5 at 5 microM produced strong AMPK stimulation in differentiated C2C12 cells. In addition, the preventive effect of a tetrahydrofuran mixture (THF) on weight gain in a diet-induced animal model was further examined. These results suggest that nutmeg and its active constituents can be used not only for the development of agents to treat obesity and possibly type-2 diabetes but may also be beneficial for other metabolic disorders.

  11. Anticariogenic activity of macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) against Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Chung, J Y; Choo, J H; Lee, M H; Hwang, J K

    2006-03-01

    The occurrence of dental caries is mainly associated with oral pathogens, especially cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. Preliminary antibacterial screening revealed that the extract of Myristica fragrans, widely cultivated for the spice and flavor of foods, possessed strong inhibitory activity against S. mutans. The anticariogenic compound was successfully isolated from the methanol extract of M. fragrans by repeated silica gel chromatography, and its structure was identified as macelignan by instrumental analysis using 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR and EI-MS. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of macelignan against S. mutans was 3.9 microg/ml, which was much lower than those of other natural anticariogenic agents such as 15.6 microg/ml of sanguinarine, 250 microg/ml of eucalyptol, 500 microg/ml of menthol and thymol, and 1000 microg/ml of methyl salicylate. Macelignan also possessed preferential activity against other oral microorganisms such as Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei in the MIC range of 2-31.3 microg/ml. In particular, the bactericidal test showed that macelignan, at a concentration of 20 microg/ml, completely inactivated S. mutans in 1 min. The specific activity and fast-effectiveness of macelignan against oral bacteria strongly suggest that it could be employed as a natural antibacterial agent in functional foods or oral care products.

  12. Myristica oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  13. Identification of compounds in the essential oil of nutmeg seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) that inhibit locomotor activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Muchtaridi; Subarnas, Anas; Apriyantono, Anton; Mustarichie, Resmi

    2010-11-23

    The present study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) seed essential oil on the locomotor activity of mice in a wheel cage. Active compounds in the essential oil were identified by off-line solid phase extraction (SPE-C18) and GC/MS analysis. The essential oil was administered by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mL/cage. The results showed that inhalation of nutmeg seed essential oil at a dose of 0.5 mL/cage decreased locomotion by 68.62%; and inhalation of 0.1 and 0.3 mL/cage inhibited locomotion by 62.81% and 65.33%, respectively. Generally, larger doses and longer administrations of nutmeg seed essential oil exhibited greater locomotor inhibition. Subsequently, the plasma concentrations of essential oil compounds were measured. The most concentrated compound in the plasma was myristicin. Half an hour after the addition of 1 mL/cage of nutmeg seed oil, the plasma concentration of myristicin was 3.7 μg/mL; one and two hours after the addition, the blood levels of myristicin were 5.2 μg/mL and 7.1 μg/mL, respectively. Other essential oil compounds identified in plasma were safrole (two-hour inhalation: 1.28 μg/mL), 4-terpineol (half-hour inhalation: 1.49 μg/mL, one-hour inhalation: 2.95 μg/mL, two-hour inhalation: 6.28 μg/mL) and fatty esters. The concentrations of the essential oil compounds in the blood plasma were relatively low (μg/mL or ppm). In conclusion, the volatile compounds of nutmeg seed essential oil identified in the blood plasma may correlate with the locomotor-inhibiting properties of the oil when administered by inhalation.

  14. Identification of compounds in the essential oil of nutmeg seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) that inhibit locomotor activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Muchtaridi; Subarnas, Anas; Apriyantono, Anton; Mustarichie, Resmi

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) seed essential oil on the locomotor activity of mice in a wheel cage. Active compounds in the essential oil were identified by off-line solid phase extraction (SPE-C18) and GC/MS analysis. The essential oil was administered by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mL/cage. The results showed that inhalation of nutmeg seed essential oil at a dose of 0.5 mL/cage decreased locomotion by 68.62%; and inhalation of 0.1 and 0.3 mL/cage inhibited locomotion by 62.81% and 65.33%, respectively. Generally, larger doses and longer administrations of nutmeg seed essential oil exhibited greater locomotor inhibition. Subsequently, the plasma concentrations of essential oil compounds were measured. The most concentrated compound in the plasma was myristicin. Half an hour after the addition of 1 mL/cage of nutmeg seed oil, the plasma concentration of myristicin was 3.7 μg/mL; one and two hours after the addition, the blood levels of myristicin were 5.2 μg/mL and 7.1 μg/mL, respectively. Other essential oil compounds identified in plasma were safrole (two-hour inhalation: 1.28 μg/mL), 4-terpineol (half-hour inhalation: 1.49 μg/mL, one-hour inhalation: 2.95 μg/mL, two-hour inhalation: 6.28 μg/mL) and fatty esters. The concentrations of the essential oil compounds in the blood plasma were relatively low (μg/mL or ppm). In conclusion, the volatile compounds of nutmeg seed essential oil identified in the blood plasma may correlate with the locomotor-inhibiting properties of the oil when administered by inhalation. PMID:21151471

  15. Identification of Compounds in the Essential Oil of Nutmeg Seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) That Inhibit Locomotor Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Muchtaridi; Subarnas, Anas; Apriyantono, Anton; Mustarichie, Resmi

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) seed essential oil on the locomotor activity of mice in a wheel cage. Active compounds in the essential oil were identified by off-line solid phase extraction (SPE-C18) and GC/MS analysis. The essential oil was administered by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mL/cage. The results showed that inhalation of nutmeg seed essential oil at a dose of 0.5 mL/cage decreased locomotion by 68.62%; and inhalation of 0.1 and 0.3 mL/cage inhibited locomotion by 62.81% and 65.33%, respectively. Generally, larger doses and longer administrations of nutmeg seed essential oil exhibited greater locomotor inhibition. Subsequently, the plasma concentrations of essential oil compounds were measured. The most concentrated compound in the plasma was myristicin. Half an hour after the addition of 1 mL/cage of nutmeg seed oil, the plasma concentration of myristicin was 3.7 μg/mL; one and two hours after the addition, the blood levels of myristicin were 5.2 μg/mL and 7.1 μg/mL, respectively. Other essential oil compounds identified in plasma were safrole (two-hour inhalation: 1.28 μg/mL), 4-terpineol (half-hour inhalation: 1.49 μg/mL, one-hour inhalation: 2.95 μg/mL, two-hour inhalation: 6.28 μg/mL) and fatty esters. The concentrations of the essential oil compounds in the blood plasma were relatively low (μg/mL or ppm). In conclusion, the volatile compounds of nutmeg seed essential oil identified in the blood plasma may correlate with the locomotor-inhibiting properties of the oil when administered by inhalation. PMID:21151471

  16. Hepatoprotective effect of myristicin from nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) on lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tatsuya; Jinno, Keiko; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Arimoto, Yasushi; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Inakuma, Takahiro; Sugiyama, Kimio

    2003-03-12

    To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of spices, 21 different spices were fed to rats with liver damage caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus d-galactosamine (D-GalN). As assessed by plasma aminotranferase activities, nutmeg showed the most potent hepatoprotective activity. Bioassay-guided isolation of the active compound from nutmeg was carried out in mice by a single oral administration of the respective fractions. Myristicin, one of the major essential oils of nutmeg, was found to possess extraordinarily potent hepatoprotective activity. Myristicin markedly suppressed LPS/D-GalN-induced enhancement of serum TNF-alpha concentrations and hepatic DNA fragmentation in mice. These findings suggest that the hepatoprotective activity of myristicin might be, at least in part, due to the inhibition of TNF-alpha release from macrophages. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the hepatoprotective mechanism(s) of myristicin.

  17. Antibacterial principles from Myristica fragrans seeds.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Dhake, Avinash S

    2006-01-01

    Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) is used in food preparations for its aromatic flavor. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the antibacterial activity of constituents of M. fragrans seeds. Seeds of M. fragrans were powdered and extracted with chloroform to obtain trimyristin, which on saponification yielded myristic acid. The mother liquor remaining after separation of trimyristin was concentrated and column-chromatographed with petroleum ether to separate myristicin. Antibacterial activity of these isolated constituents was evaluated by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. All the constituents isolated from nutmeg exhibited good antibacterial activity. This study shows the potential of natural compounds in replacement of synthetic preservatives.

  18. Effects of macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans (Nutmeg) on expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and type I procollagen in UVB-irradiated human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Eun; Mun, Sukyeong; Pyun, Hee-Bong; Kim, Myung-Suk; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light causes premature skin aging that is associated with upregulated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and decreased collagen synthesis. Macelignan, a natural lignan compound isolated from Myristica fragrans HOUTT. (nutmeg), has been reported to possess antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. This study assessed the effects of macelignan on photoaging and investigated its mechanisms of action in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts (Hs68) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results show that macelignan attenuated UV-induced MMP-1 expression by suppressing phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) induced by reactive oxygen species. Macelignan also increased type I procollagen expression and secretion through transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling. These findings indicate that macelignan regulates the expression of MMP-1 and type I procollagen in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts by modulating MAPK and TGF-β/Smad signaling, suggesting its potential as an efficacious antiphotoaging agent.

  19. Mycotic and aflatoxin contamination in Myristica fragrans seeds (nutmeg) and Capsicum annum (chilli), packaged in Italy and commercialized worldwide.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, G; Ostuni, M; Calonico, C; Rossi, S; Capei, R; Lo Nostro, A

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of moulds known to be carcinogenic for humans, and therefore should not be ingested in high doses. This study aimed to determine the level of mould and aflatoxin contamination in dehydrated chilli and nutmeg imported from India and Indonesia, respectively, packaged in Italy, and commercialized worldwide. We tested 63 samples of chilli (22 sanitized through heat treatment and 41 not heat-treated) and 52 samples of nutmeg (22 heat-treated and 30 not heat-treated) for aflatoxin, moulds and moisture content. Heat-treated samples were less contaminated than untreated samples. Spices in powder form (both chilli and nutmeg) were more contaminated than whole ones. In untreated spices, we observed a positive correlation between mould and moisture content. Of the powdered nutmeg and chilli samples, 72.5% and 50% tested positive for aflatoxin contamination, with a range of 0-17.2 μg kg(-1) and 0-10.3 μg kg(-1), respectively. The steam treatment of spices would be useful in reducing the initial amount of moulds. Although the risk from the consumption of spices contaminated with aflatoxins is minimal, owing to the small amount used in food, preventive screening of the whole food chain is very important, especially because the most frequently identified toxin was B1, which is the most dangerous of the four toxins (B1, B2, G1, G2).

  20. Mycotic and aflatoxin contamination in Myristica fragrans seeds (nutmeg) and Capsicum annum (chilli), packaged in Italy and commercialized worldwide.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, G; Ostuni, M; Calonico, C; Rossi, S; Capei, R; Lo Nostro, A

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of moulds known to be carcinogenic for humans, and therefore should not be ingested in high doses. This study aimed to determine the level of mould and aflatoxin contamination in dehydrated chilli and nutmeg imported from India and Indonesia, respectively, packaged in Italy, and commercialized worldwide. We tested 63 samples of chilli (22 sanitized through heat treatment and 41 not heat-treated) and 52 samples of nutmeg (22 heat-treated and 30 not heat-treated) for aflatoxin, moulds and moisture content. Heat-treated samples were less contaminated than untreated samples. Spices in powder form (both chilli and nutmeg) were more contaminated than whole ones. In untreated spices, we observed a positive correlation between mould and moisture content. Of the powdered nutmeg and chilli samples, 72.5% and 50% tested positive for aflatoxin contamination, with a range of 0-17.2 μg kg(-1) and 0-10.3 μg kg(-1), respectively. The steam treatment of spices would be useful in reducing the initial amount of moulds. Although the risk from the consumption of spices contaminated with aflatoxins is minimal, owing to the small amount used in food, preventive screening of the whole food chain is very important, especially because the most frequently identified toxin was B1, which is the most dangerous of the four toxins (B1, B2, G1, G2). PMID:27582627

  1. HPLC-Guided Isolation, Purification and Characterization of Phenylpropanoid and Phenolic Constituents of Nutmeg Kernel (Myristica fragrans).

    PubMed

    Chiu, Sharon; Wang, Thomas; Belski, Martin; Abourashed, Ehab A

    2016-04-01

    Many studies on the biological activities of nutmeg continue to appear in the literature. The most common targets include GIT, CNS, oxidative stress and inflammation. However, results obtained from most studies are often inconsistent due to the variability of utilized samples, lack of standardized nutmeg products or insufficient amounts of pure compounds for comprehensive follow-up investigation. To address the consistency and supply issue we utilized available technology to develop a reproducible procedure for preparation of specific extracts and isolation of the major phenolic constituents present in nutmeg kemel. A well-defined and reproducible sequence of extraction, fractionation and chromatographic purification was adopted and was guided by HPLC fingerprinting. Spectroscopic methods, mainly NMR, and mass spectrometry were utilized to identify each compound. Thirteen compounds were isolated in a pure form and identified as: elemicin (1), isoelemicin (2), myristicin (4), surinamensin (5), malabaricone C (6), 2-(3'-allyl-2',6'-dimethoxy-phenyloxy)-l- acetoxy-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-propyl ester (7), methoxylicarin A (8), licarin A (9), malabaricone B (10), licarin C (11), 5'-methoxylicarin B (12), licarin B (13), and 2-(3'-allyl-2',6'-dimethoxy-phenyloxy)-l-methyl-5-methoxy-1,2-dihydrobenzofuran (3, a new compound). With repeated isolation runs, these pure compounds can be prepared in quantities sufficient for biological evaluation as needed. The availability of purified compounds will also allow the development of specific, accurate, and sensitive analytical procedures for pharmacokinetic studies and for quality control of nutmeg products. Both aspects are essential for nutmeg-focused drug discovery. The same approach can also be adapted to other medicinal plants of potential interest.

  2. HPLC-Guided Isolation, Purification and Characterization of Phenylpropanoid and Phenolic Constituents of Nutmeg Kernel (Myristica fragrans).

    PubMed

    Chiu, Sharon; Wang, Thomas; Belski, Martin; Abourashed, Ehab A

    2016-04-01

    Many studies on the biological activities of nutmeg continue to appear in the literature. The most common targets include GIT, CNS, oxidative stress and inflammation. However, results obtained from most studies are often inconsistent due to the variability of utilized samples, lack of standardized nutmeg products or insufficient amounts of pure compounds for comprehensive follow-up investigation. To address the consistency and supply issue we utilized available technology to develop a reproducible procedure for preparation of specific extracts and isolation of the major phenolic constituents present in nutmeg kemel. A well-defined and reproducible sequence of extraction, fractionation and chromatographic purification was adopted and was guided by HPLC fingerprinting. Spectroscopic methods, mainly NMR, and mass spectrometry were utilized to identify each compound. Thirteen compounds were isolated in a pure form and identified as: elemicin (1), isoelemicin (2), myristicin (4), surinamensin (5), malabaricone C (6), 2-(3'-allyl-2',6'-dimethoxy-phenyloxy)-l- acetoxy-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-propyl ester (7), methoxylicarin A (8), licarin A (9), malabaricone B (10), licarin C (11), 5'-methoxylicarin B (12), licarin B (13), and 2-(3'-allyl-2',6'-dimethoxy-phenyloxy)-l-methyl-5-methoxy-1,2-dihydrobenzofuran (3, a new compound). With repeated isolation runs, these pure compounds can be prepared in quantities sufficient for biological evaluation as needed. The availability of purified compounds will also allow the development of specific, accurate, and sensitive analytical procedures for pharmacokinetic studies and for quality control of nutmeg products. Both aspects are essential for nutmeg-focused drug discovery. The same approach can also be adapted to other medicinal plants of potential interest. PMID:27396199

  3. Chemical constituents from Myristica fragrans fruit.

    PubMed

    Francis, K Sajin; Suresh, Eringathodi; Nair, Mangalam S

    2014-01-01

    A neolignan, erythrosurinamensin and a diaryl phenyl propanoid, virolane were isolated from Myristica fragrans for the first time. Apart from these two, previously known steroids, other lignans and neolignans were isolated from the fruit pericarp of M. fragrans. The structures of the compounds were identified by employing various spectroscopic methods.

  4. Chemical constituents from Myristica fragrans fruit.

    PubMed

    Francis, K Sajin; Suresh, Eringathodi; Nair, Mangalam S

    2014-01-01

    A neolignan, erythrosurinamensin and a diaryl phenyl propanoid, virolane were isolated from Myristica fragrans for the first time. Apart from these two, previously known steroids, other lignans and neolignans were isolated from the fruit pericarp of M. fragrans. The structures of the compounds were identified by employing various spectroscopic methods. PMID:25011059

  5. Potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitory compounds from Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Cuong, To Dao; Hung, Tran Manh; Han, Hyoung Yun; Roh, Hang Sik; Seok, Ji-Hyeon; Lee, Jong Kwon; Jeong, Ja Young; Choi, Jae Sue; Kim, Jeong Ah; Min, Byung Sun

    2014-04-01

    The anti-cholinesterase activity was evaluated of the ethyl acetate fraction of the methanol extract of Myristica fragrans Houtt (Myristicaceae) seeds and of compounds isolated from it by various chromatographic techniques. The chemical structures of the compounds were determined from spectroscopic analyses (NMR data). Thirteen compounds (1-13) were isolated and identified. Compound 8 { [(7S)-8'-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-7-hydroxypropyl]benzene-2,4-diol) showed the most effective activity with an IC50 value of 35.1 microM, followed by compounds 2 [(8R,8'S)-7'-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-8,8'-dimethyl-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-butane] and 11 (malabaricone C) with IC50 values of 42.1 and 44.0 pM, respectively. This is the first report of significant anticholinesterase properties of M. fragrans seeds. The findings demonstrate that M. fragrans could be used beneficially in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Myristica fragrans houtt.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mini; Kumar, Madhu

    2007-03-01

    Nutmeg, the dried seed kernel of Myristica fragrans, MF (Family: Myristicaceae) possesses antifungal, hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties. Its radioprotective effect against 6, 8 and 10 Gy gamma radiation was evaluated by 30 day survival assay. Regression analysis yielded LD(50/30 )as 6.83 Gy and 8.89 Gy for irradiated only and (MF + radiation) groups, respectively. The dose reduction factor was computed as 1.3. Administration of MF significantly enhanced hepatic glutathione (GSH) and decreased testicular lipid peroxidation (LPO) level whereas acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity did not show any significant alteration. Irradiation resulted in significant elevation in LPO level and ACP activity, and decreased the GSH content and ALP activity. MF pretreatment effectively protected against radiation induced biochemical alteration as reflected by a decrease in LPO level and ACP activity, and an increase in GSH and ALP activity. The present study has implications for the potential use of MF as a radioprotector.

  7. Machilin A isolated from Myristica fragrans stimulates osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Ui; Shim, Ki Shuk; Ryu, Shi Yong; Min, Yong Ki; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2009-02-01

    This study evaluated the stimulatory effects of machilin A and structurally related lignans isolated from Myristica fragrans on osteoblast differentiation. In two IN VITRO osteoblast differentiation models, machilin A stimulated osteoblast differentiation via activation of p38 MAP kinase. Lignans isolated from Myristica fragrans also stimulated osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells; the lignans included macelignan, machilin F, nectandrin B, safrole, licarin A, licarin B, myristargenol, and meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid. These data suggest that lignans isolated from Myristica fragrans have anabolic activity in bone metabolism.

  8. Potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitory compounds from Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Cuong, To Dao; Hung, Tran Manh; Han, Hyoung Yun; Roh, Hang Sik; Seok, Ji-Hyeon; Lee, Jong Kwon; Jeong, Ja Young; Choi, Jae Sue; Kim, Jeong Ah; Min, Byung Sun

    2014-04-01

    The anti-cholinesterase activity was evaluated of the ethyl acetate fraction of the methanol extract of Myristica fragrans Houtt (Myristicaceae) seeds and of compounds isolated from it by various chromatographic techniques. The chemical structures of the compounds were determined from spectroscopic analyses (NMR data). Thirteen compounds (1-13) were isolated and identified. Compound 8 { [(7S)-8'-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-7-hydroxypropyl]benzene-2,4-diol) showed the most effective activity with an IC50 value of 35.1 microM, followed by compounds 2 [(8R,8'S)-7'-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-8,8'-dimethyl-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-butane] and 11 (malabaricone C) with IC50 values of 42.1 and 44.0 pM, respectively. This is the first report of significant anticholinesterase properties of M. fragrans seeds. The findings demonstrate that M. fragrans could be used beneficially in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24868867

  9. Comparison of Essential Oils Obtained from Different Extraction Techniques as an Aid in Identifying Aroma Significant Compounds of Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans).

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, S Prasad

    2015-08-01

    Distribution of volatile constituents in the essential oil of nutmeg obtained by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), high vacuum distillation (HVD) and super critical fluid extraction (SFE) was compared with reduced pressure distillation (RPD) and head space (HS) analysis. HS and RPD volatiles were characterized by a high content of sabinene, followed by α-pinene and β-pinene. Interestingly, unlike the SDE, HVD and SFE oils, distillates from HS and RPD were marked by the absence of phenolic ethers namely myristicin, elemicin and safrole. The HS and RPD volatiles possessed a pleasant nutmeg aroma indicating a significant role of terpenic constituents in contributing to the top aroma note. GC-olfactometry (GC-O) of the oils aided in establishing the role of sabinene, α-pinene and β-pinene in contributing to the distinctive note of the spice. A high odor activity value (OAV) of sabinene and α-pinene established the role of these two constituents in imparting the characteristic nutmeg odor.

  10. Comparison of Essential Oils Obtained from Different Extraction Techniques as an Aid in Identifying Aroma Significant Compounds of Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans).

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, S Prasad

    2015-08-01

    Distribution of volatile constituents in the essential oil of nutmeg obtained by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), high vacuum distillation (HVD) and super critical fluid extraction (SFE) was compared with reduced pressure distillation (RPD) and head space (HS) analysis. HS and RPD volatiles were characterized by a high content of sabinene, followed by α-pinene and β-pinene. Interestingly, unlike the SDE, HVD and SFE oils, distillates from HS and RPD were marked by the absence of phenolic ethers namely myristicin, elemicin and safrole. The HS and RPD volatiles possessed a pleasant nutmeg aroma indicating a significant role of terpenic constituents in contributing to the top aroma note. GC-olfactometry (GC-O) of the oils aided in establishing the role of sabinene, α-pinene and β-pinene in contributing to the distinctive note of the spice. A high odor activity value (OAV) of sabinene and α-pinene established the role of these two constituents in imparting the characteristic nutmeg odor. PMID:26434138

  11. Anxiogenic activity of Myristica fragrans seeds.

    PubMed

    Sonavane, G S; Sarveiya, V P; Kasture, V S; Kasture, S B

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, the n-hexane extract of Myristica fragrans (MF) seeds, acetone-insoluble part of the n-hexane extract (AIMF) and trimyristin (TM) were assessed for their anxiogenic activity. The MF (10 and 30 mg/kg), AIMF (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg), and TM (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally exhibited anxiogenic activity in elevated plus-maze (EPM) paradigm. The open-field test and hole-board test were also used to assess anxiogenic activity of AIMF and TM. In the EPM test, MF, AIMF, and TM decreased the time spent by mice in the open arm and the entries in the open arm. Further, the effect of diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p.), serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron (1 mg/kg i.p.), and 5-HT1A receptor agonist, buspirone (1 mg/kg i.p.), on the occupancy in open arm and entries in open arm was significantly reduced by TM. In the open-field test, AIMF as well as TM reduced the number of rearing and locomotion. Both TM and AIMF reduced the number of head pock in the hole-board test. Inhibition of anxiolytic activity of ondansetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist), buspirone (5-HT1A receptor agonist), and diazepam [acting on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor] suggests a nonspecific anxiogenic activity of TM and also a link between 5-HT and GABA systems in the anxiogenic activity of TM.

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Myristica fragrans against Oral Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Zaleha; Shuhairi, Nadia Najwa; Md Fazly Shah Yap, Nordiyana; Harry Sibungkil, Carrie-Anne; Latip, Jalifah

    2012-01-01

    Myristica fragrans Houtt is mostly cultivated for spices in Penang Island, Malaysia. The ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of flesh, mace and seed of Myristica fragrans was evaluated the bactericidal potential against three Gram-positive cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus mitis ATCC 6249, and Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419) and three Gram-negative periodontopathic bacteria (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29522, Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277, and Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586). Antibacterial activities of the extracts was determined by twofold serial microdilution, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 1.25 to 640 mg/mL and 0.075 to 40 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was obtained by subculturing method. Among all extracts tested, ethyl acetate extract of flesh has the highest significant inhibitory effects against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with mean MIC value ranging from 0.625 to 1.25 ± 0.00 (SD) mg/mL; P = 0.017) and highest bactericidal effects at mean MBC value ranging from 0.625 mg/mL to 20 ± 0.00 (SD) mg/mL. While for seed and mace of Myristica fragrans, their ethanol extracts exhibited good antibacterial activity against both groups of test pathogens compared to its ethyl acetate extracts. All of the extracts of Myristica fragrans did not show any antibacterial activities against Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586. Thus, our study showed the potential effect of ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from flesh, seed and mace of Myristica fragrans to be new natural agent that can be incorporated in oral care products.

  13. Chemical constituents and activities of the essential oil from Myristica fragrans against cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne.

    PubMed

    Du, Shu-Shan; Yang, Kai; Wang, Cheng-Fang; You, Chun-Xue; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Guo, Shan-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Zhi-Long

    2014-09-01

    Essential oil extracted from nutmeg seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) by hydrodistillation was subjected to GC/MS and GC analysis. A total of 27 constituents were identified, of which eugenol (19.9%), methylisoeugenol (16.8%), methyleugenol (16.7%), sabinene (11.8%), and terpinen-4-ol (8.5%) were the major components. The essential oil was tested against Lasioderma serricorne for insecticidal and repellent activity, the LD50 value at the end of 24 h exposure period was 19.3 μg/adult. Six active compounds were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. They were identified as eugenol (1), methyleugenol (2), methylisoeugenol (3), elemicin (4), myristicin (5), and safrole (6). Among these isolates, 4 showed the strongest contact toxicity against L. serricorne adults with an LD50 value of 9.8 μg/adult. Repellency of crude oil and active compounds were also determined. Compounds 1, 2, 4, and 5 were strongly repellent against the cigarette beetle and exhibited the same level of repellency compared with the positive control, DEET. The results indicate that the essential oil of M. fragrans and its active constituents have potential for development as natural insecticides and repellents to control L. serricorne.

  14. Chemical constituents and activities of the essential oil from Myristica fragrans against cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne.

    PubMed

    Du, Shu-Shan; Yang, Kai; Wang, Cheng-Fang; You, Chun-Xue; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Guo, Shan-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Zhi-Long

    2014-09-01

    Essential oil extracted from nutmeg seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) by hydrodistillation was subjected to GC/MS and GC analysis. A total of 27 constituents were identified, of which eugenol (19.9%), methylisoeugenol (16.8%), methyleugenol (16.7%), sabinene (11.8%), and terpinen-4-ol (8.5%) were the major components. The essential oil was tested against Lasioderma serricorne for insecticidal and repellent activity, the LD50 value at the end of 24 h exposure period was 19.3 μg/adult. Six active compounds were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. They were identified as eugenol (1), methyleugenol (2), methylisoeugenol (3), elemicin (4), myristicin (5), and safrole (6). Among these isolates, 4 showed the strongest contact toxicity against L. serricorne adults with an LD50 value of 9.8 μg/adult. Repellency of crude oil and active compounds were also determined. Compounds 1, 2, 4, and 5 were strongly repellent against the cigarette beetle and exhibited the same level of repellency compared with the positive control, DEET. The results indicate that the essential oil of M. fragrans and its active constituents have potential for development as natural insecticides and repellents to control L. serricorne. PMID:25238085

  15. Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.): studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Jochen; Ehlers, Dorothea; Maurer, Hans H

    2006-08-01

    Seeds of nutmeg are used as spice, but they are also abused because of psychotropic effects described after ingestion of large doses. It was postulated that these effects could be attributable to metabolic formation of amphetamine derivatives from the main nutmeg ingredients elemicin (EL), myristicin (MY), and safrole (SA). In a case of a suspected nutmeg abuse, neither such amphetamine derivatives nor the main nutmeg ingredients could be detected in urine. The metabolites of EL, MY, and SA were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in rat urine and their presence in human urine of the nutmeg abuser was confirmed. The identified metabolites indicated that EL, MY, and SA were once and twice hydroxylated at the side chain. In addition, EL was O-demethylated at 2 positions followed by side chain hydroxylation. MY and SA were demethylenated and subsequently methylated. In the human urine sample, the following metabolites could be identified: O-demethyl elemicin, O-demethyl dihydroxy elemicin, demethylenyl myristicin, dihydroxy myristicin, and demethylenyl safrole. As in the human urine sample, neither amphetamine derivatives nor the main nutmeg ingredients could be detected in the rat urine samples. Finally, toxicologic detection of nutmeg abuse was possible by identification of the described metabolites of the EL, MY, and SA in urine applying the authors' systematic toxicologic analysis procedure using full-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after acid hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction of analytes, and microwave-assisted acetylation of extracted analytes.

  16. Myristica fragrans seed extract protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojung; Bu, Youngmin; Lee, Beom-Joon; Bae, Jinhyun; Park, Sujin; Kim, Jinsung; Lee, Kyungjin; Cha, Jae-Myung; Ryu, Bongha; Ko, Seok-Jae; Han, Gajin; Min, Byungil; Park, Jae-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Nutmeg (seed of Myristica fragrans [MF]) is one of the most commonly used spices in the world and also a well-known herb for the treatment of various intestinal diseases, including colitis in traditional Korean medicine. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether water extract of MF (MFE) can protect against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in a mouse model. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in balb/c mice. MFE (100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg) was orally administered to the mice twice a day for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, clinical score, and histological score were assessed to determine the effects on colitis. Proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6) were measured to investigate the mechanisms of action. MFE dose dependently inhibited the colon shortening and histological damage to the colon. However, it did not prevent weight loss. MFE also inhibited proinflammatory cytokines. The current results suggest that MFE ameliorates DSS-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines. Further investigation, including the exact mechanisms is needed.

  17. Myristica fragrans seed extract protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojung; Bu, Youngmin; Lee, Beom-Joon; Bae, Jinhyun; Park, Sujin; Kim, Jinsung; Lee, Kyungjin; Cha, Jae-Myung; Ryu, Bongha; Ko, Seok-Jae; Han, Gajin; Min, Byungil; Park, Jae-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Nutmeg (seed of Myristica fragrans [MF]) is one of the most commonly used spices in the world and also a well-known herb for the treatment of various intestinal diseases, including colitis in traditional Korean medicine. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether water extract of MF (MFE) can protect against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in a mouse model. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in balb/c mice. MFE (100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg) was orally administered to the mice twice a day for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, clinical score, and histological score were assessed to determine the effects on colitis. Proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6) were measured to investigate the mechanisms of action. MFE dose dependently inhibited the colon shortening and histological damage to the colon. However, it did not prevent weight loss. MFE also inhibited proinflammatory cytokines. The current results suggest that MFE ameliorates DSS-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines. Further investigation, including the exact mechanisms is needed. PMID:24063406

  18. Improvement of mouse memory by Myristica fragrans seeds.

    PubMed

    Parle, Milind; Dhingra, Dinesh; Kulkarni, S K

    2004-01-01

    Memory is one of the most complex functions of the brain and involves multiple neural pathways and neurotransmitter systems. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Myristica fragrans (MF) seeds on learning and memory in mice. The n-hexane extract of MF was administered orally in three doses (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg p.o.) for 3 successive days to different groups of young and aged mice. The learning and memory parameters were assessed using elevated plus-maze and passive-avoidance apparatus. The effect of MF extract on scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p.)- and diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p.)-induced impairment in learning and memory was also studied. MF extract at the lowest dose of 5 mg/kg p.o. administered for 3 successive days significantly improved learning and memory of young and aged mice. This extract also reversed scopolamine- and diazepam-induced impairment in learning and memory of young mice. MF extract enhanced learning and retention capacities of both young and aged mice. The exact mechanism of the memory-improving effect of MF extract was not explored in the present study. But, the observed memory-enhancing effect may be attributed to a variety of properties (individually or in combination) the plant is reported to possess, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, or perhaps procholinergic activity.

  19. Antihelmintic effects of nutmeg (Myristica fragans) on Anisakis simplex L3 larvae obtained from Micromesistius potassou.

    PubMed

    López, Víctor; Gerique, Javier; Langa, Elisa; Berzosa, César; Valero, Marta Sofía; Gómez-Rincón, Carlota

    2015-06-01

    Anisakis simplex is a foodborne pathogen that can produce human infections and allergic reactions due to the high consumption of raw fish. The seeds of Myristica fragans (Myristicaceae), popularly known as nutmeg, are worldwide used as a culinary spice due to its flavour and properties in food preservation. A nutmeg extract was prepared, analyzed, screened for cytotoxicity and tested against Anisakis simplex L3 larvae. In order to detect the biologically active constituents of the extract, myristicin was tested on the larvae. An acetylcholinesterase inhibition bioassay was also carried out to investigate the antihelmintic mechanism of action. Our results demonstrate that nutmeg exerts antihelmintic effects on Anisakis simplex, being myristicin one of the active compounds. The extract induced a high rate of dead anisakis at concentrations between 0.5 and 0.7 mg/ml without being considered cytotoxic; however, an inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was discarded as the molecular mechanism involved in the activity.

  20. Antihelmintic effects of nutmeg (Myristica fragans) on Anisakis simplex L3 larvae obtained from Micromesistius potassou.

    PubMed

    López, Víctor; Gerique, Javier; Langa, Elisa; Berzosa, César; Valero, Marta Sofía; Gómez-Rincón, Carlota

    2015-06-01

    Anisakis simplex is a foodborne pathogen that can produce human infections and allergic reactions due to the high consumption of raw fish. The seeds of Myristica fragans (Myristicaceae), popularly known as nutmeg, are worldwide used as a culinary spice due to its flavour and properties in food preservation. A nutmeg extract was prepared, analyzed, screened for cytotoxicity and tested against Anisakis simplex L3 larvae. In order to detect the biologically active constituents of the extract, myristicin was tested on the larvae. An acetylcholinesterase inhibition bioassay was also carried out to investigate the antihelmintic mechanism of action. Our results demonstrate that nutmeg exerts antihelmintic effects on Anisakis simplex, being myristicin one of the active compounds. The extract induced a high rate of dead anisakis at concentrations between 0.5 and 0.7 mg/ml without being considered cytotoxic; however, an inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was discarded as the molecular mechanism involved in the activity. PMID:25890576

  1. [Chemical constituents of Myristica fragrans Houttuyn seed and their physiological activities].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Aki; Tanimoto, Shinichi; Abe, Tomo; Kazama, Shunsuke; Tanizawa, Hisayuki; Nomura, Masato

    2008-01-01

    The antioxidative activity of phenylpropanoid compound extracts from nutmeg (Myristica fragragrans Houttuyn) seed was determined. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging method, superoxide disumutase assay, ferric thiocyanate assay, and radical-scavenging effect assay with electron-spin resonance. High antioxidant activity was found in monoterpenoid extracts including terpinene-4-ol (3), alpha-terpineol (4), and 4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol (12). Compound, 12 expressed particularly high antioxidant activity.

  2. In vitro anti-biofilm activity of macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans Houtt. against oral primary colonizer bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rukayadi, Yaya; Kim, Kyu-Hoi; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2008-03-01

    In early dental plaque formation, oral primary colonizers such as Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Actinomyces viscosus are initially attached to the pellicle-coated tooth surface to form a biofilm. The study aimed to determine the efficacy of macelignan, isolated from nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), in removing each single oral primary biofilm in vitro on a polystyrene 96-well microtiter plate. Four biofilm growth phases (4, 12, 20 and 24 h) were evaluated in this study after treatment with macelignan at various concentrations (0.2, 2 and 10 microg/mL) and exposure times (5, 10 and 30 min). Anti-biofilm activity of macelignan was measured as the percentage of the remaining biofilm absorbance after macelignan treatment in comparison with the untreated control. At 24 h of biofilm growth, S. mutans, A. viscosus and S. sanguis biofilms were reduced by up to 30%, 30% and 38%, respectively, after treatment with 10 microg/mL macelignan for 5 min. Increasing the treatment time to 30 min resulted in a reduction of more than 50% of each of the single primary biofilms. The results indicate that macelignan is a potent natural anti-biofilm agent against oral primary colonizers.

  3. Enzyme Inhibition by Molluscicidal Components of Myristica fragrans Houtt. in the Nervous Tissue of Snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Preetee; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, V K; Singh, D K

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of molluscicidal components of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae) on certain enzymes in the nervous tissue of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata Lamarck (Lymnaeidae). In vivo and in vitro treatments of trimyristin and myristicin (active molluscicidal components of Myristica fragrans Houtt.) significantly inhibited the acetylcholinesterase (AChE), acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP/ALP) activities in the nervous tissue of Lymnaea acuminata. The inhibition kinetics of these enzymes indicates that both the trimyristin and myristicin caused competitive noncompetitive inhibition of AChE. Trimyristin caused uncompetitive and competitive/noncompetitive inhibitions of ACP and ALP, respectively whereas the myristicin caused competitive and uncompetitive inhibition of ACP and ALP, respectively. Thus results from the present study suggest that inhibition of AChE, ACP, and ALP by trimyristin and myristicin in the snail Lymnaea acuminata may be the cause of the molluscicidal activity of Myristica fragrans.

  4. Essential Oil Yield Pattern and Antibacterial and Insecticidal Activities of Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Soni, Rajgovind; Sharma, Gaurav; Jasuja, Nakuleshwar Dut

    2016-01-01

    Two Indian spices, Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans, were studied for their essential oil (EO) yielding pattern, insecticidal activity, antibacterial activity, and composition. The essential oils (EOs) of T. ammi (1.94 ± 30 mL/100 gm) and M. fragrans (5.93 ± 90 mL/100 gm) were extracted using hydrodistillation method. In Gas Chromatography analysis, the beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, alpha-p-menth-1-en-4-ol, Limonene, and elemicin were found as major constituents of T. ammi essential oil whereas M. fragrans essential oil mostly contains Gamma-Terpinolene, p-Cymene, Thymol, and beta-pinene. The insecticidal activities of EO were demonstrated using LC50 values against Plodia interpunctella and EO of T. ammi was found comparatively more effective than EO of M. fragrans. Further, individual EO and combination of essential oil were examined for antibacterial activity against three Gram (-) bacterial strains (E. coli-MTCC 443, P. vulgaris-MTCC 1771, and K. pneumoniae-MTCC number 7028) and three Gram (+) bacterial strains (S. aureus-MTCC 3381, B. subtilis-MTCC 10619, and B. megaterium-MTCC 2412) by well agar diffusion method. The essential oil in combination (CEO) exhibited higher antibacterial activity as compared with individual essential oils.

  5. Essential Oil Yield Pattern and Antibacterial and Insecticidal Activities of Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Two Indian spices, Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans, were studied for their essential oil (EO) yielding pattern, insecticidal activity, antibacterial activity, and composition. The essential oils (EOs) of T. ammi (1.94 ± 30 mL/100 gm) and M. fragrans (5.93 ± 90 mL/100 gm) were extracted using hydrodistillation method. In Gas Chromatography analysis, the beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, alpha-p-menth-1-en-4-ol, Limonene, and elemicin were found as major constituents of T. ammi essential oil whereas M. fragrans essential oil mostly contains Gamma-Terpinolene, p-Cymene, Thymol, and beta-pinene. The insecticidal activities of EO were demonstrated using LC50 values against Plodia interpunctella and EO of T. ammi was found comparatively more effective than EO of M. fragrans. Further, individual EO and combination of essential oil were examined for antibacterial activity against three Gram (−) bacterial strains (E. coli-MTCC 443, P. vulgaris-MTCC 1771, and K. pneumoniae-MTCC number 7028) and three Gram (+) bacterial strains (S. aureus-MTCC 3381, B. subtilis-MTCC 10619, and B. megaterium-MTCC 2412) by well agar diffusion method. The essential oil in combination (CEO) exhibited higher antibacterial activity as compared with individual essential oils. PMID:27190677

  6. Essential Oil Yield Pattern and Antibacterial and Insecticidal Activities of Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Soni, Rajgovind; Sharma, Gaurav; Jasuja, Nakuleshwar Dut

    2016-01-01

    Two Indian spices, Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans, were studied for their essential oil (EO) yielding pattern, insecticidal activity, antibacterial activity, and composition. The essential oils (EOs) of T. ammi (1.94 ± 30 mL/100 gm) and M. fragrans (5.93 ± 90 mL/100 gm) were extracted using hydrodistillation method. In Gas Chromatography analysis, the beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, alpha-p-menth-1-en-4-ol, Limonene, and elemicin were found as major constituents of T. ammi essential oil whereas M. fragrans essential oil mostly contains Gamma-Terpinolene, p-Cymene, Thymol, and beta-pinene. The insecticidal activities of EO were demonstrated using LC50 values against Plodia interpunctella and EO of T. ammi was found comparatively more effective than EO of M. fragrans. Further, individual EO and combination of essential oil were examined for antibacterial activity against three Gram (-) bacterial strains (E. coli-MTCC 443, P. vulgaris-MTCC 1771, and K. pneumoniae-MTCC number 7028) and three Gram (+) bacterial strains (S. aureus-MTCC 3381, B. subtilis-MTCC 10619, and B. megaterium-MTCC 2412) by well agar diffusion method. The essential oil in combination (CEO) exhibited higher antibacterial activity as compared with individual essential oils. PMID:27190677

  7. The Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability of Lignans and Malabaricones from the Seeds of Myristica fragrans in the MDCK-pHaMDR Cell Monolayer Model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ni; Xu, Wei; Cao, Gui-Yun; Yang, Yan-Fang; Yang, Xin-Bao; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2016-01-22

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of twelve lignans and three phenolic malabaricones from the seeds of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) were studied with the MDCK-pHaMDR cell monolayer model. The samples were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and the apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were calculated. Among the fifteen test compounds, benzonfuran-type, dibenzylbutane-type and arylnaphthalene-type lignans showed poor to moderate permeabilities with Papp values at 10(-8)-10(-6) cm/s; those of 8-O-4'-neolignan and tetrahydrofuran-lignan were at 10(-6)-10(-5) cm/s, meaning that their permeabilities are moderate to high; the permeabilities of malabaricones were poor as their Papp values were at 10(-8)-10(-7) cm/s. To 5-methoxy-dehydrodiisoeugenol (2), erythro-2-(4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-propan-1-ol acetate (6), verrucosin (8), and nectandrin B (9), an efflux way was involved and the main transporter for 6, 8 and 9 was demonstrated to be P-glycoprotein. The time and concentration dependency experiments indicated the main transport mechanism for neolignans dehydrodiisoeugenol (1), myrislignan (7) and 8 was passive diffusion. This study summarized the relationship between the BBB permeability and structure parameters of the test compounds, which could be used to preliminarily predict the transport of a compound through BBB. The results provide a significant molecular basis for better understanding the potential central nervous system effects of nutmeg.

  8. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of multiple bioactive constituents in fruit extracts of Myristica fragrans and its marketed polyherbal formulations using a polarity switching technique.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Renu; Rameshkumar, Koranappallil Bahuleyan; Kumar, Brijesh

    2015-05-01

    Fruits of Myristica fragrans Houtt. are the source of two valuable spices: nutmeg and mace, traditionally used for its flavoring and medicinal properties and found as an ingredient in many marketed polyherbal formulations and food products. In this study, a sensitive and efficient ultra high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the rapid determination of 16 bioactive constituents in different parts of the fruit of M. fragrans and its marketed polyherbal formulations using a polarity switching technique. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Aquity UPLC BEH C18 column in 9.4 min. Quantitative analysis was performed using multiple reaction monitoring mode with continuous polarity switching in a single analysis. The developed method was found to be accurate with overall recovery in the range from 95.95 to 102.07% (RSD ≤ 1.91%), precise (RSD ≤ 1.98%), and linear (r(2) ≥ 0.9992) over the concentration range of 0.1-200 ng/mL. Quantitative analysis indicated that the total content of the 16 bioactive constituents was highest in the mace of M. fragrans. Thus, this rapid and sensitive method could be utilized as a promising reference method for the quality control of M. fragrans and its marketed herbal formulations/food products.

  9. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of multiple bioactive constituents in fruit extracts of Myristica fragrans and its marketed polyherbal formulations using a polarity switching technique.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Renu; Rameshkumar, Koranappallil Bahuleyan; Kumar, Brijesh

    2015-05-01

    Fruits of Myristica fragrans Houtt. are the source of two valuable spices: nutmeg and mace, traditionally used for its flavoring and medicinal properties and found as an ingredient in many marketed polyherbal formulations and food products. In this study, a sensitive and efficient ultra high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the rapid determination of 16 bioactive constituents in different parts of the fruit of M. fragrans and its marketed polyherbal formulations using a polarity switching technique. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Aquity UPLC BEH C18 column in 9.4 min. Quantitative analysis was performed using multiple reaction monitoring mode with continuous polarity switching in a single analysis. The developed method was found to be accurate with overall recovery in the range from 95.95 to 102.07% (RSD ≤ 1.91%), precise (RSD ≤ 1.98%), and linear (r(2) ≥ 0.9992) over the concentration range of 0.1-200 ng/mL. Quantitative analysis indicated that the total content of the 16 bioactive constituents was highest in the mace of M. fragrans. Thus, this rapid and sensitive method could be utilized as a promising reference method for the quality control of M. fragrans and its marketed herbal formulations/food products. PMID:25631526

  10. Inhibitory effects of macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans HOUTT. on melanin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yumi; Kim, Kyu-Hoi; Shim, Jae-Seok; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro inhibitory effects of macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans HOUTT. on melanogenesis and its related enzymes such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), and tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2) in melan-a murine melanocytes. The IC50 values of macelignan for melanogenesis and tyrosinase were 13 microM and 30 microM, respectively, while those of arbutin as a positive control were 990 microM and 660 microM, respectively. In Western blot analysis, macelignan also significantly decreased tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2 protein expression. These results indicate that macelignan effectively inhibits melanin biosynthesis and thus could be employed as a new skin-whitening agent.

  11. Inhibitory effect on NO production of phenolic compounds from Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Cuong, To Dao; Hung, Tran Manh; Na, MinKyun; Ha, Do Thi; Kim, Jin Cheol; Lee, Dongho; Ryoo, SungWoo; Lee, Jeong Hyung; Choi, Jae Sue; Min, Byung Sun

    2011-11-15

    Three new phenolics: ((7S)-8'-(benzo[3',4']dioxol-1'-yl)-7-hydroxypropyl)benzene-2,4-diol (1), ((7S)-8'-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-7-hydroxypropyl)benzene-2,4-diol (2) and ((8R,8'S)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-8'-methylbutan-8-yl)-3'-methoxybenzene-4',5'-diol (3), along with four known compounds (4-7) were isolated from the seeds of Myristica fragrans. Their chemical structures were established mainly by 1D and 2D NMR techniques and mass spectrometry. Their anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated against LPS-induced NO production in macrophage RAW264.7 cells.

  12. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-antioxidant lignans from Myristica fragrans seeds.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyun Sook; Kim, Min-Jung; Jeong, Hyung Jae; Yang, Min Suk; Park, Ki Hun; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Lee, Woo Song

    2008-01-01

    Six diarylbutane lignans 1-5 and one aryltetralin lignan 6 were isolated from the methanol (95%) extracts of Myristica fragrans seeds and then 7-methyl ether diarylbutane lignan 4 has proven to be new a compound. Their compounds 1-7 were evaluated for LDL-antioxidant activity to identify the most potent LDL-antioxidant 3 with an IC50 value of 2.6 microM in TBARS assay. Due to its potency, compound 3 was tested for complementary in vitro investigations, such as lag time (140 min at 1.0 microM), relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) of ox-LDL (inhibition of 80% at 20 microM and 72% at 10 microM), and fragmentation of apoB-100 (inhibition of 93% at 20 microM) on copper-mediated LDL oxidation. In macrophage-mediated LDL oxidation, the TBARS formation was also inhibited by compound 3.

  13. Cytotoxic and antioxidative phenolic compounds from the traditional Chinese medicinal plant, Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lin; Tao, Hong-Wen; Hao, Xiao-Jiang; Gu, Qian-Qun; Zhu, Wei-Ming

    2009-09-01

    Two new phenolic compounds were isolated from the fruits of Myristica fragrans and their structures were elucidated as (-)-1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl)-9-[4-hydroxy-3-(p-menth-1-en-8-oxy)-phenyl]-1-nonanone ( 1) and (7 R,8 R)-7,8-dihydro-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3'-methoxy-8-methyl-1'-( E-propenyl)benzofuran (2). In addition, the absolute configuration of (+)-Delta8'-7-acetoxy-3,4,3',5'-tetramethoxy-8- O-4'-neolignan (3) was determined for the first time through spectroscopic and chemical methods. Their antioxidative activities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and cytotoxicity against K-562 cells were tested, and (7 S,8 S,7' R,8' S)-4,5'-dihydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-7,7'-epoxylignan (4) showed the corresponding activities with IC(50) values of 39.4 and 2.11 microM, respectively.

  14. Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B by lignans from Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Yang, Senugmi; Na, Min Kyun; Jang, Jun Pil; Kim, Kyung Ah; Kim, Bo Yeon; Sung, Nak Ju; Oh, Won Keun; Ahn, Jong Seog

    2006-08-01

    Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has been proposed as one of the drug targets for treating type 2 diabetes and obesity. Bioassay-guided fractionation of a MeOH extract of the semen of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae) afforded PTP1B inhibitory compounds, meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (1) and otobaphenol (2). Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited PTP1B with IC(50) values of 19.6 +/- 0.3 and 48.9 +/- 0.5 microM, respectively, in the manner of non-competitive inhibitors. Treatment with compound 1 on 32D cells overexpressing the insulin receptor (IR) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation of IR. These results indicate that compound 1 can act as an enhancing agent in intracellular insulin signaling, possibly through the inhibition of PTP1B activity.

  15. Comparative brain cholinesterase-inhibiting activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Myristica fragrans, ascorbic acid, and metrifonate in mice.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Dinesh; Parle, Milind; Kulkarni, S K

    2006-01-01

    The central cholinergic pathways play a prominent role in the learning and memory processes. Acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme that inactivates acetylcholine. The present study was undertaken to estimate the acetylcholinesterase- inhibiting activity of extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Myristica fragrans seeds, and ascorbic acid and compare these values with a standard acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting drug, metrifonate. Aqueous extract of G. glabra (150 mg/kg p.o. for 7 successive days), n-hexane extract of M. fragrans seeds (5 mg/kg p.o. for 3 successive days), ascorbic acid (60 mg/kg i.p. for 3 successive days), and metrifonate (50 mg/kg i.p.) were administered to young male Swiss albino mice. Acetylcholinesterase enzyme was estimated in brains of mice. G. glabra, M. fragrans, ascorbic acid, and metrifonate significantly decreased acetylcholinesterase activity as compared with their respective vehicle-treated control groups.

  16. Fragrant volatile oil composition of Nutmeg Geranium (Pelargonium × fragrans Willd.) from India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ram S; Padalia, Rajendra C; Chauhan, Amit

    2013-04-01

    Hydrodistilled essential oil of 'Nutmeg Geranium' (Pelargonium × fragrans Willd.), grown in foothills of northern India was analysed by capillary gas chromatography (GC/flame ionisation detector (FID)) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 51 constituents, representing 90.2% of the total oil composition were identified. The oil was mainly dominated by monoterpenoids (58.4%), followed by sesquiterpenoids (19.4%), and phenyl propanoids (10.1%). Major constituents of the essential oil were fenchone (10.7%), methyl eugenol (9.9%), α-pinene (9.4%), α-thujene (7.6%), limonene (6.4%), spathulenol (4.7%), sabinene (4.3%), linalool (4.2%), (E)-caryophyllene (4.2%), terpinen-4-ol (3.2%), β-pinene (2.9%), caryophyllene oxide (2.2%) and bicyclogermacrene (2.1%). This is the first report on essential oil composition of Nutmeg Geranium oil grown in India.

  17. Fragrant volatile oil composition of Nutmeg Geranium (Pelargonium × fragrans Willd.) from India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ram S; Padalia, Rajendra C; Chauhan, Amit

    2013-04-01

    Hydrodistilled essential oil of 'Nutmeg Geranium' (Pelargonium × fragrans Willd.), grown in foothills of northern India was analysed by capillary gas chromatography (GC/flame ionisation detector (FID)) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 51 constituents, representing 90.2% of the total oil composition were identified. The oil was mainly dominated by monoterpenoids (58.4%), followed by sesquiterpenoids (19.4%), and phenyl propanoids (10.1%). Major constituents of the essential oil were fenchone (10.7%), methyl eugenol (9.9%), α-pinene (9.4%), α-thujene (7.6%), limonene (6.4%), spathulenol (4.7%), sabinene (4.3%), linalool (4.2%), (E)-caryophyllene (4.2%), terpinen-4-ol (3.2%), β-pinene (2.9%), caryophyllene oxide (2.2%) and bicyclogermacrene (2.1%). This is the first report on essential oil composition of Nutmeg Geranium oil grown in India. PMID:22616953

  18. The Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability of Lignans and Malabaricones from the Seeds of Myristica fragrans in the MDCK-pHaMDR Cell Monolayer Model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ni; Xu, Wei; Cao, Gui-Yun; Yang, Yan-Fang; Yang, Xin-Bao; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of twelve lignans and three phenolic malabaricones from the seeds of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) were studied with the MDCK-pHaMDR cell monolayer model. The samples were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and the apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were calculated. Among the fifteen test compounds, benzonfuran-type, dibenzylbutane-type and arylnaphthalene-type lignans showed poor to moderate permeabilities with Papp values at 10(-8)-10(-6) cm/s; those of 8-O-4'-neolignan and tetrahydrofuran-lignan were at 10(-6)-10(-5) cm/s, meaning that their permeabilities are moderate to high; the permeabilities of malabaricones were poor as their Papp values were at 10(-8)-10(-7) cm/s. To 5-methoxy-dehydrodiisoeugenol (2), erythro-2-(4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-propan-1-ol acetate (6), verrucosin (8), and nectandrin B (9), an efflux way was involved and the main transporter for 6, 8 and 9 was demonstrated to be P-glycoprotein. The time and concentration dependency experiments indicated the main transport mechanism for neolignans dehydrodiisoeugenol (1), myrislignan (7) and 8 was passive diffusion. This study summarized the relationship between the BBB permeability and structure parameters of the test compounds, which could be used to preliminarily predict the transport of a compound through BBB. The results provide a significant molecular basis for better understanding the potential central nervous system effects of nutmeg. PMID:26805808

  19. New inhibitors of nitric oxide production from the seeds of Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gui-Yun; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Xu, Wei; Li, Fei

    2013-12-01

    Six dihydrobenzofuran type neolignans were isolated from the dried ripe seeds of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (family: Myristicaceae) and their chemical structures were identified as licarin B (1), 3'-methoxylicarin B (2), myrisfrageal A (3), isodihydrocainatidin (4), dehydrodiisoeugenol (5), and myrisfrageal B (6), respectively, on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses. Among them, compounds 3 and 6 are new compounds. Compounds 1-6 showed inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated murine monocyte-macrophage RAW264.7 with IC50 values of 53.6, 48.7, 76.0, 36.0, 33.6, and 45.0 μM, respectively. These values were compared to those of the positive controls, indomethacin and L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine, which have IC50 values of 65.3 and 27.1 μM, respectively. Further compounds 3, 5 and 6 suppressed LPS-induced iNOS mRNA expression in a does-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 cells assayed by real-time RT-PCR. Compounds 3, 5 and 6 may inhibit NO overproduction via inhibition of iNOS mRNA expression. The results provided valuable information for further investigation of compounds 1-6 as anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive agents.

  20. New neolignans from the seeds of Myristica fragrans that inhibit nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gui-Yun; Xu, Wei; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Gonzalez, Frank J; Li, Fei

    2015-04-15

    Five new 8-O-4' type neolignans, named myrifralignan A-E (1-5), together with five known analogues (6-10), were isolated from the seeds of Myristica fragrans Houtt. Their chemical structures were determined using several spectroscopic methods. Compounds 3-10 exhibited potent inhibitory activity against the production of nitric oxide (NO) in the RAW264.7 cell line stimulated by lipopolysaccaride. Myrislignan (7) and machilin D (10) were the most potent inhibitors of NO production amongst these compounds. The IC50 values of myrislignan and machilin D were 21.2 and 18.5 μM. And, their inhibitory activity was more than L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine, a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (IC50=27.1 μM). Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis revealed that these neolignans could significantly suppress the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA. These results demonstrated that the 8-O-4' type neolignans are promising candidates as anti-inflammatory agents.

  1. Myristica fragrans Suppresses Tumor Growth and Metabolism by Inhibiting Lactate Dehydrogenase A.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Yeong; Choi, Hee-Jung; Park, Mi-Ju; Jung, Yeon-Seop; Lee, Syng-Ook; Kim, Keuk-Jun; Choi, Jung-Hye; Chung, Tae-Wook; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Most cancer cells predominantly produce ATP by maintaining a high rate of lactate fermentation, rather than by maintaining a comparatively low rate of tricarboxylic acid cycle, i.e., Warburg's effect. In the pathway, the pyruvate produced by glycolysis is converted to lactic acid by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Here, we demonstrated that water extracts from the seeds of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (MF) inhibit the in vitro enzymatic activity of LDH. MF effectively suppressed cell growth and the overall Warburg effect in HT29 human colon cancer cells. Although the expression of LDH-A was not changed by MF, both lactate production and LDH activity were decreased in MF-treated cells under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. In addition, intracellular ATP levels were also decreased by MF treatment, and the uptake of glucose was also reduced by MF treatment. Furthermore, the experiment on tumor growth in the in vivo mice model revealed that MF effectively reduced the growth of allotransplanted Lewis lung carcinoma cells. Taken together, these results suggest that MF effectively inhibits cancer growth and metabolism by inhibiting the activity of LDH, a major enzyme responsible for regulating cancer metabolism. These results implicate MF as a potential candidate for development into a novel drug against cancer through inhibition of LDH activity.

  2. Antimutagenic effects of aqueous fraction of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) leaves on Salmonella typhimurium and Mus musculus.

    PubMed

    Akinboro, Akeem; Bin Mohamed, Kamaruzaman; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Yekeen, Taofeek A

    2014-01-01

    Natural plant extracts offer a promising hope in the prevention/treatment of cancer arising from genetic mutations. This study evaluated in vitro and in vivo mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of aqueous fraction of Myristica fragrans (AFMF) leaves on TA100 strain of Salmonella typhimurium and Mus musculus (Male Swiss albino mice), respectively. The antioxidant activity of AFMF against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined, followed by its phytochemical elucidation using the Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography technique (UPLC). The mutagenicity of AFMF at 4, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1000 µg/well was <2.0 in S. typhimurium and the induced micronucleated polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocytes at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg were not significantly different from the negative control (p≥0.05). The mutagenic activity of benzo[a]pyrene and cyclophosphamide was significantly suppressed above 50.0% throughout the tested concentrations. Fifty percent of the free radicals from DPPH were scavenged by AFMF at 0.11 mg/ml. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of AFMF were 51.0 mg GAE/g and 27 mg QE/g, respectively. Rutin was elucidated by the UPLC technique, and thereby suspected to be the phytochemical responsible for the observed antimutagenic activity. Thus far, AFMF seems to contain a promising chemotherapeutic agent for the prevention of genetic damage that is crucial for cancer development.

  3. Neolignans from the Arils of Myristica fragrans as Potent Antagonists of CC Chemokine Receptor 3.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Toshio; Hachiman, Ikuko; Matsuo, Kazuhiko; Nishida, Eriko; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Hayakawa, Takao; Yoshie, Osamu; Muraoka, Osamu; Nakayama, Takashi

    2016-08-26

    CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) is expressed selectively in eosinophils, basophils, and some Th2 cells and plays a major role in allergic diseases. A methanol extract from the arils of Myristica fragrans inhibited CC chemokine ligand 11-induced chemotaxis in CCR3-expressing L1.2 cells at 100 μg/mL. From this extract, eight new neolignans, maceneolignans A-H (1-8), were isolated, and their stereostructures were elucidated from their spectroscopic values and chemical properties. Of those constituents, compounds 1, 4, 6, and 8 and (+)-erythro-(7S,8R)-Δ(8')-7-hydroxy-3,4-methylenedioxy-3',5'-dimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (11), (-)-(8R)-Δ(8')-3,4-methylenedioxy-3',5'-dimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (17), (+)-licarin A (20), nectandrin B (25), verrucosin (26), and myristicin (27) inhibited CCR3-mediated chemotaxis at a concentration of 1 μM. Among them, 1 (EC50 1.6 μM), 6 (1.5 μM), and 8 (1.4 μM) showed relatively strong activities, which were comparable to that of a synthetic CCR3 selective antagonist, SB328437 (0.78 μM).

  4. Antimutagenic effects of aqueous fraction of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) leaves on Salmonella typhimurium and Mus musculus.

    PubMed

    Akinboro, Akeem; Bin Mohamed, Kamaruzaman; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Yekeen, Taofeek A

    2014-01-01

    Natural plant extracts offer a promising hope in the prevention/treatment of cancer arising from genetic mutations. This study evaluated in vitro and in vivo mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of aqueous fraction of Myristica fragrans (AFMF) leaves on TA100 strain of Salmonella typhimurium and Mus musculus (Male Swiss albino mice), respectively. The antioxidant activity of AFMF against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined, followed by its phytochemical elucidation using the Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography technique (UPLC). The mutagenicity of AFMF at 4, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1000 µg/well was <2.0 in S. typhimurium and the induced micronucleated polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocytes at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg were not significantly different from the negative control (p≥0.05). The mutagenic activity of benzo[a]pyrene and cyclophosphamide was significantly suppressed above 50.0% throughout the tested concentrations. Fifty percent of the free radicals from DPPH were scavenged by AFMF at 0.11 mg/ml. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of AFMF were 51.0 mg GAE/g and 27 mg QE/g, respectively. Rutin was elucidated by the UPLC technique, and thereby suspected to be the phytochemical responsible for the observed antimutagenic activity. Thus far, AFMF seems to contain a promising chemotherapeutic agent for the prevention of genetic damage that is crucial for cancer development. PMID:25520963

  5. New neolignans from the seeds of Myristica fragrans that inhibit nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gui-Yun; Xu, Wei; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Gonzalez, Frank J; Li, Fei

    2015-04-15

    Five new 8-O-4' type neolignans, named myrifralignan A-E (1-5), together with five known analogues (6-10), were isolated from the seeds of Myristica fragrans Houtt. Their chemical structures were determined using several spectroscopic methods. Compounds 3-10 exhibited potent inhibitory activity against the production of nitric oxide (NO) in the RAW264.7 cell line stimulated by lipopolysaccaride. Myrislignan (7) and machilin D (10) were the most potent inhibitors of NO production amongst these compounds. The IC50 values of myrislignan and machilin D were 21.2 and 18.5 μM. And, their inhibitory activity was more than L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine, a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (IC50=27.1 μM). Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis revealed that these neolignans could significantly suppress the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA. These results demonstrated that the 8-O-4' type neolignans are promising candidates as anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:25466017

  6. New inhibitors of nitric oxide production from the seeds of Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gui-Yun; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Xu, Wei; Li, Fei

    2013-12-01

    Six dihydrobenzofuran type neolignans were isolated from the dried ripe seeds of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (family: Myristicaceae) and their chemical structures were identified as licarin B (1), 3'-methoxylicarin B (2), myrisfrageal A (3), isodihydrocainatidin (4), dehydrodiisoeugenol (5), and myrisfrageal B (6), respectively, on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses. Among them, compounds 3 and 6 are new compounds. Compounds 1-6 showed inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated murine monocyte-macrophage RAW264.7 with IC50 values of 53.6, 48.7, 76.0, 36.0, 33.6, and 45.0 μM, respectively. These values were compared to those of the positive controls, indomethacin and L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine, which have IC50 values of 65.3 and 27.1 μM, respectively. Further compounds 3, 5 and 6 suppressed LPS-induced iNOS mRNA expression in a does-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 cells assayed by real-time RT-PCR. Compounds 3, 5 and 6 may inhibit NO overproduction via inhibition of iNOS mRNA expression. The results provided valuable information for further investigation of compounds 1-6 as anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive agents. PMID:23994084

  7. Myristica fragrans Suppresses Tumor Growth and Metabolism by Inhibiting Lactate Dehydrogenase A.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Yeong; Choi, Hee-Jung; Park, Mi-Ju; Jung, Yeon-Seop; Lee, Syng-Ook; Kim, Keuk-Jun; Choi, Jung-Hye; Chung, Tae-Wook; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Most cancer cells predominantly produce ATP by maintaining a high rate of lactate fermentation, rather than by maintaining a comparatively low rate of tricarboxylic acid cycle, i.e., Warburg's effect. In the pathway, the pyruvate produced by glycolysis is converted to lactic acid by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Here, we demonstrated that water extracts from the seeds of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (MF) inhibit the in vitro enzymatic activity of LDH. MF effectively suppressed cell growth and the overall Warburg effect in HT29 human colon cancer cells. Although the expression of LDH-A was not changed by MF, both lactate production and LDH activity were decreased in MF-treated cells under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. In addition, intracellular ATP levels were also decreased by MF treatment, and the uptake of glucose was also reduced by MF treatment. Furthermore, the experiment on tumor growth in the in vivo mice model revealed that MF effectively reduced the growth of allotransplanted Lewis lung carcinoma cells. Taken together, these results suggest that MF effectively inhibits cancer growth and metabolism by inhibiting the activity of LDH, a major enzyme responsible for regulating cancer metabolism. These results implicate MF as a potential candidate for development into a novel drug against cancer through inhibition of LDH activity. PMID:27430914

  8. Neolignans from the Arils of Myristica fragrans as Potent Antagonists of CC Chemokine Receptor 3.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Toshio; Hachiman, Ikuko; Matsuo, Kazuhiko; Nishida, Eriko; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Hayakawa, Takao; Yoshie, Osamu; Muraoka, Osamu; Nakayama, Takashi

    2016-08-26

    CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) is expressed selectively in eosinophils, basophils, and some Th2 cells and plays a major role in allergic diseases. A methanol extract from the arils of Myristica fragrans inhibited CC chemokine ligand 11-induced chemotaxis in CCR3-expressing L1.2 cells at 100 μg/mL. From this extract, eight new neolignans, maceneolignans A-H (1-8), were isolated, and their stereostructures were elucidated from their spectroscopic values and chemical properties. Of those constituents, compounds 1, 4, 6, and 8 and (+)-erythro-(7S,8R)-Δ(8')-7-hydroxy-3,4-methylenedioxy-3',5'-dimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (11), (-)-(8R)-Δ(8')-3,4-methylenedioxy-3',5'-dimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (17), (+)-licarin A (20), nectandrin B (25), verrucosin (26), and myristicin (27) inhibited CCR3-mediated chemotaxis at a concentration of 1 μM. Among them, 1 (EC50 1.6 μM), 6 (1.5 μM), and 8 (1.4 μM) showed relatively strong activities, which were comparable to that of a synthetic CCR3 selective antagonist, SB328437 (0.78 μM). PMID:27419473

  9. The intestinal permeability of neolignans from the seeds of Myristica fragrans in the Caco-2 cell monolayer model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiu-Wei; Huang, Xin; Ma, Lian; Wu, Qi; Xu, Wei

    2010-10-01

    The intestinal permeability and transport of 10 neolignans isolated from MYRISTICA FRAGRANS were studied by using the Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The 10 neolignans were measured by HPLC. Transport parameters and permeability coefficients were then calculated and compared with those of the model compounds, propranolol and atenolol. Among the 10 neolignans, the 8- O-4'-type neolignans demonstrated high permeability while the benzofuran-type neolignans were of poor to moderate permeability. Among them, eight neolignans were transported mainly VIA passive diffusion. These findings indicate that the 8- O-4'-type neolignans are well-absorbed compounds and can be used as oral leading compounds in drug discovery.

  10. [Study on chemical constituents of the essential oil from Myristica fragrans Houtt. by supercritical fluid extraction and steam distillation].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Qin; Zhang, Guoying; Sun, Xiaomin; Liu, Xinxin

    2004-11-01

    Essential oils were extracted from Myristica fragrans Houtt. by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and steam distillation (SD). Their components were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared. 48 compounds were identified for the essential oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide, and its main components have been found to be myristic acid, myristicin, terpinen-4-ol, alpha-pinene and safrole. 38 compounds were identified for the essential oil obtained by SD, and its main components have been found to be beta-pinene, terpinen-4-ol, alpha-pinene, gamma-terpinene and beta-phellandrene.

  11. [Study on chemical constituents of the essential oil from Myristica fragrans Houtt. by supercritical fluid extraction and steam distillation].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Qin; Zhang, Guoying; Sun, Xiaomin; Liu, Xinxin

    2004-11-01

    Essential oils were extracted from Myristica fragrans Houtt. by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and steam distillation (SD). Their components were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared. 48 compounds were identified for the essential oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide, and its main components have been found to be myristic acid, myristicin, terpinen-4-ol, alpha-pinene and safrole. 38 compounds were identified for the essential oil obtained by SD, and its main components have been found to be beta-pinene, terpinen-4-ol, alpha-pinene, gamma-terpinene and beta-phellandrene. PMID:15810588

  12. Standardization of the Unani drug - Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Javetri) - with modern analytical techniques.

    PubMed

    Naikodi, Mohd Abdul Rasheed; Waheed, Mohd Abdul; Shareef, Mohammad Ataullah; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Nagaiah, Kommu

    2011-04-01

    Today, there is a tremendous demand of herbal medicine in the global market and the scarcity of data regarding the parameters and methods employed for assessing the quality of medicines. Aril (Mace) of Myristica fragrans Houtt., known as "Javetri," belonging to the Myristicaceae family, plays a foremost role in the Unani system of medicine. It contains Myristicin, an active principle of drug isolated by column chromatography, and its structure was established by spectroscopic methods. Different solvent drug extracts posses pharmacological properties like hypocholesteremic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal, chemopreventive action, etc. and hence there is a great need to determine the amount of myristicin present in the different extracts. The proposed method employed the High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) DESAGA Sarstedt Gruppe and pre-coated aluminum sheets of silica gel developed with 100% chloroform to quantitatively determine the myristicin concentrations present in various extracts that are responsible for their different pharmacological actions. An attempt was made through instrumental analysis for quantitative estimations that are widely accepted for the quality assessment of herbal drugs such as TLC and HPTLC studies, etc. Physicochemical parameters, microbial load, aflatoxin and heavy metals and fluorescence studies were also carried out to lay down the standard for genuine drug. HPTLC studies were carried out in petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and methanol extracts and detected at 254 nm. Estimated high amount of myristicin in the petroleum ether extract w.r.t. the other extracts was confirmed by spectroscopy. The present paper describes the isolation, characterization and quantification of myristicin along with chemical standardization in order to develop standard parameters for the genuine drug.

  13. Morphology and isozyme band-profile as sexual determinant of nutmeg plant (Myristica fragrants Houttj).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmanah; Maslahat, M.; Nurhayati, dan L.

    2016-01-01

    Sex information in nutmeg plant is important to distinguish between male and female species. The recommendation of optimum sex-ratio for a nutmeg plantation is 1:10. This research is aimed to discover the morphological characteristic of nutmeg plant and the difference of leaf pattern as sexual determinant between male and female plant with the comparison of isozyme analysis. The result of morphological identification provided from 3 research farm location indicated that female nutmeg was higher, with longer and wider leaf, more vein, bigger diameter of stem and branching angle as compared to male nutmeg. Two parameters which were widht of leaf and branching angle showed significant differences, where female nutmeg plants have wider leaves and branching angle. Isozyme analysis suggested that the analysis of peroxidase enzyme (PER) was better and able to provide more information than aspartarte amino transferase (AAT) and acid phospatase (ACP) Enzymes.

  14. Estimation of trace elements in mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt) and their effect on uterine cervix cancer induced by methylcholanthrene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunjing; Qi, Xiaodan; Shi, Yan; Sun, Yan; Li, Shuyan; Gao, Xiulan; Yu, Haitao

    2012-12-01

    In the present work, trace elemental analysis of mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt) was carried out by the atomic absorption spectrometry technique. The concentrations of various elements analyzed in this medicine were ranked in decreasing order: selenium (Se) > zinc (Zn) > magnesium (Mg) > iron (Fe) > calcium (Ca) > manganese (Mn) > lead (Pb). The concentrations of Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn, Ca, and Se were significantly decreased in serum of methylcholanthrene tumor models (P < 0.001) compared with the control and mace groups. It is consistent with the result of tumor incidence. These trace elements could be directly or indirectly responsible for the antitumor activity of mace. The inorganic elements in this folk remedy can partly account for the antitumor.

  15. Binary Combination of Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans with Piperonyl Butoxide / MGK-264 against Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Farhat; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-264 were used to enhance the toxicity of the active components papain, arecoline and myristicin from the plants Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans, respectively, against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. A time- and dose-dependent relationship was observed for the toxicity of these combinations. The toxic effects of these plant-derived molluscicides in combination with the synergists PB and MGK-264 were several times higher than the effect of the individual treatments. The highest degree of synergism was observed when MGK-264 was used in combination with C. papaya latex (10.47-fold increase) and PB was used with papain (8.35-fold increase).

  16. Chemopreventive action of mace (Myristica fragrans, Houtt) on DMBA-induced papillomagenesis in the skin of mice.

    PubMed

    Jannu, L N; Hussain, S P; Rao, A R

    1991-01-01

    The present paper reports the chemopreventive property of mace (aril covering the seed of Myristica fragrans) on DMBA-induced papillomagenesis in the skin of male Swiss albino mice. When a single topical application of DMBA (150 micrograms in 100 microliters of acetone) was followed, 2 weeks later, by repeated applications of croton oil (1% in acetone, three times/week) skin papillomas appeared in 100% animals and the average tumors per tumor-bearing animal was 5.67. On the other hand, when animals receiving similar treatments were put on a diet containing 1% mace during the periinitiational phase of tumorigenesis, the skin papilloma incidence was reduced to 50% and the average tumor per tumor-bearing mouse was only 1.75. This decline in papilloma was significant (P less than 0.05). PMID:1900737

  17. Binary Combination of Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans with Piperonyl Butoxide / MGK-264 against Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Farhat; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-264 were used to enhance the toxicity of the active components papain, arecoline and myristicin from the plants Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans, respectively, against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. A time- and dose-dependent relationship was observed for the toxicity of these combinations. The toxic effects of these plant-derived molluscicides in combination with the synergists PB and MGK-264 were several times higher than the effect of the individual treatments. The highest degree of synergism was observed when MGK-264 was used in combination with C. papaya latex (10.47-fold increase) and PB was used with papain (8.35-fold increase). PMID:24575245

  18. Mutagenic and antimutagenic assessment of methanol leaf extract of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) using in vitro and in vivo genetic assays.

    PubMed

    Akinboro, Akeem; Mohamed, Kamaruzaman Bin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Ying, Tang Hui; Maidin, Siti Marina

    2012-10-01

    The role of diets in causing cancers necessitates the ongoing search for natural antimutagens of promising anticancer therapeutics. This study determined the potential anticancer efficacy of the leaf extract of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.). Methanol leaf extract of M. fragrans (Houtt.) alone was screened for mutagenicity in the bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) test, using the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain, the Allium cepa, and the mouse in vivo bone marrow micronucleus tests. The antimutagenicity of this extract against benzo[a]pyrene- and cyclophosphamide-induced mutations was evaluated. An antioxidant test on the extract was performed with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, using butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as the standards, whereas its phytochemicals were elucidated by following the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry protocol. In S. typhimurium (TA100), the mutagenicity ratio at 200,500 and 1,000 µg/well was >2. Cell division in the A. cepa root tips and mouse bone marrow was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) inhibited at 2,000 and 4,000 mg/kg, whereas the observed chromosomal aberrations and micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes were non-dose-related and were insignificantly (P ≥ 0.05) different from the negative control. Inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene- and cyclophosphamide-induced mutagenicity by this extract was above 40%. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the extract in the antioxidant test was lower than that of BHA and BHT. Phytochemical compounds, possessing antioxidant activity, may be responsible for the observed effects, suggesting a strong antimutagenic activity of the MeOH leaf extract of M. fragrans, a necessary characteristic of a promising anticancer agent.

  19. Antioxidants in aqueous extract of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) suppress mitosis and cyclophosphamide-induced chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa L. cells.

    PubMed

    Akinboro, Akeem; Mohamed, Kamaruzaman Bin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Sofiman, Othman Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    In this study, freeze-dried water extract from the leaves of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) was tested for mutagenic and antimutagenic potentials using the Allium cepa assay. Freeze-dried water extract alone and its combination with cyclophosphamide (CP) (50 mg/kg) were separately dissolved in tap water at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg. Onions (A. cepa) were suspended in the solutions and controls for 48 h in the dark. Root tips were prepared for microscopic evaluation. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals' scavenging power of the extract was tested using butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as standards. Water extract of Myristica fragrans scavenged free radicals better than BHA, but worse than BHT. The extract alone, as well as in combination with CP suppressed cell division, and induced chromosomal aberrations that were insignificantly different from the negative control (P ≤ 0.05). However, cytotoxic and mutagenic actions of CP were considerably suppressed. The observed effects on cell division and chromosomes of A. cepa may be principally connected to the antioxidant properties of the extract. The obtained results suggest mitodepressive and antimutagenic potentials of water extract of the leaves of M. fragrans as desirable properties of a promising anticancer agent.

  20. Pharmacological studies on Myristica fragrans--antidiarrheal, hypnotic, analgesic and hemodynamic (blood pressure) parameters.

    PubMed

    Grover, J K; Khandkar, S; Vats, V; Dhunnoo, Y; Das, D

    2002-12-01

    Recurrent diarrhea is prevalent in developing countries, particularly in tropical regions. A natural based antidiarrheal home remedy can serve as an ideal health tool to limit diarrhea-related morbidity and mortality. In the traditional Indian medical science of Ayurveda, nutmeg is one such plant said to possess antidiarrheal activity. A study was therefore planned to assess the various pharmacological effects (antidiarrheal, sedative, analgesic and blood pressure) of nutmeg. Both Nutmeg crude suspension (NMC) and petroleum ether (PE), but not aqueous extract (Aq), decreased the mean number of loose stools or increased the latency period. NMC increased intestinal tone while PE had no such effect. PE had no effect on guinea pig ileum, but inhibited the contraction produced by acetylcholine, histamine and prostaglandin. NMC but not PE extract showed a significant but weak analgesic effect. While PE effectively potentiated both phenobarbitone and pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time, NMC was considerably less effective. NMC administered intraduodenally did not produce much effect on blood pressure (BP), but potentiated the action of exogenously administered adrenaline and nor-adrenaline. On the other hand, PE in higher, but not lower, doses caused a precipitous fall in BP not blocked by atropine. Thus, overall extracts of nutmeg showed a good antidiarrheal effect, with a significant sedative property. The extracts possessed only a weak analgesic effect, with no harmful effects on blood pressure and ECG.

  1. A Standardized Composition from Extracts of Myristica Fragrans, Astragalus Membranaceus, and Poria Cocos Protects Liver from Acute Ethanol Insult.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Jia, Qi

    2016-08-01

    Despite the promising advances in therapeutic discovery, there still is a major challenge in the development of a safe, effective, and economical intervention for managing alcohol-related liver disorders. In this study, we describe the potential use of "MAP," a standardized composition comprising three extracts from Myristica fragrans, Astragalus membranaceus, and Poria cocos, in ameliorating alcohol-induced acute liver toxicity. Ethanol-induced acute hepatotoxicity as an animal model of binge drinking was utilized. Mice received oral doses of MAP at 300 mg/kg for four consecutive days. Mice were orally gavaged with 50% ethanol in 12 mL/kg dosing volume following the third dose of MAP every 12 h thereafter for a total of three doses. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T12, and hepatic glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutases (SODs), and triglyceride from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) scoring were also determined. Excessive increases of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly inhibited at 46.3% and 43.6%, respectively, when mice were treated with MAP. MAP replenished the depleted SOD by more than 60%, while causing significant stimulation of GSH productions. MAP showed statistically significant reduction in ballooning degeneration, vascular steatosis, cytoplasmic or nuclear condensation, and shrinkage, as well as inflammations when compared to vehicle-treated alcohol-induced liver toxicity model. Mice treated with MAP showed statistically significant reduction in ASH scoring when compared to vehicle control. Therefore, the composition MAP could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxifying agent for the protection of liver damage caused by alcohol consumptions.

  2. New acyclic bis phenylpropanoid and neolignans, from Myristica fragrans Houtt., exhibiting PARP-1 and NF-κB inhibitory effects.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Acuña, Ulyana; Carcache, Peter J Blanco; Matthew, Susan; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J

    2016-07-01

    The bioassay-guided fractionation of the aril of Myristica fragrans (mace spice) yielded five phenolic compounds, one new acyclic bis phenylpropanoid (1) and four previously known phenolic compounds: compounds (1) (S) 1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-2-(3-methoxy-5-(prop-1-yl) phenyl)-propan-1-ol, (2) benzenemethanol; α-[1-[2,6-dimethoxy-4-(2-propen-1-yl)phenoxy]ethyl]-3,4-dimethoxy-1-acetate, (3) odoratisol A, phenol, 4-[(2S,3S)-2,3-dihydro-7-methoxy-3-methyl-5-(1E)-1-propenyl-2-benzofuranyl]-2,6-dimethoxy, (4) 1,3-benzodioxate-5-methanol,α-[1-[2,6-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)phenoxy]ethyl]-acetate, (5) licarin C; benzofuran,2,3-dihydro-7-methoxy-3-methyl-5-(1E)-1-yl-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl). An NMR tube Mosher ester reaction was used in an approach to characterize and determine the assignment of the absolute configuration of the new isolated chiral alcohol (1). The PARP-1 inhibitory activity was evaluated for compound (1) (IC50=3.04μM), compound (2) (IC50=0.001μM), compound (4) (IC50=22.07μM) and compound (5) (IC50=3.11μM). Furthermore, the isolated secondary metabolites were tested for NF-κB and K-Ras inhibitory activities. When tested in the p65 assay, compounds (2) and (4) displayed potent NF-κB inhibition (IC50=1.5 nM and 3.4nM, respectively).

  3. A Standardized Composition from Extracts of Myristica Fragrans, Astragalus Membranaceus, and Poria Cocos Protects Liver from Acute Ethanol Insult.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Jia, Qi

    2016-08-01

    Despite the promising advances in therapeutic discovery, there still is a major challenge in the development of a safe, effective, and economical intervention for managing alcohol-related liver disorders. In this study, we describe the potential use of "MAP," a standardized composition comprising three extracts from Myristica fragrans, Astragalus membranaceus, and Poria cocos, in ameliorating alcohol-induced acute liver toxicity. Ethanol-induced acute hepatotoxicity as an animal model of binge drinking was utilized. Mice received oral doses of MAP at 300 mg/kg for four consecutive days. Mice were orally gavaged with 50% ethanol in 12 mL/kg dosing volume following the third dose of MAP every 12 h thereafter for a total of three doses. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T12, and hepatic glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutases (SODs), and triglyceride from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) scoring were also determined. Excessive increases of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly inhibited at 46.3% and 43.6%, respectively, when mice were treated with MAP. MAP replenished the depleted SOD by more than 60%, while causing significant stimulation of GSH productions. MAP showed statistically significant reduction in ballooning degeneration, vascular steatosis, cytoplasmic or nuclear condensation, and shrinkage, as well as inflammations when compared to vehicle-treated alcohol-induced liver toxicity model. Mice treated with MAP showed statistically significant reduction in ASH scoring when compared to vehicle control. Therefore, the composition MAP could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxifying agent for the protection of liver damage caused by alcohol consumptions. PMID:27355692

  4. New acyclic bis phenylpropanoid and neolignans, from Myristica fragrans Houtt., exhibiting PARP-1 and NF-κB inhibitory effects.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Acuña, Ulyana; Carcache, Peter J Blanco; Matthew, Susan; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J

    2016-07-01

    The bioassay-guided fractionation of the aril of Myristica fragrans (mace spice) yielded five phenolic compounds, one new acyclic bis phenylpropanoid (1) and four previously known phenolic compounds: compounds (1) (S) 1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-2-(3-methoxy-5-(prop-1-yl) phenyl)-propan-1-ol, (2) benzenemethanol; α-[1-[2,6-dimethoxy-4-(2-propen-1-yl)phenoxy]ethyl]-3,4-dimethoxy-1-acetate, (3) odoratisol A, phenol, 4-[(2S,3S)-2,3-dihydro-7-methoxy-3-methyl-5-(1E)-1-propenyl-2-benzofuranyl]-2,6-dimethoxy, (4) 1,3-benzodioxate-5-methanol,α-[1-[2,6-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)phenoxy]ethyl]-acetate, (5) licarin C; benzofuran,2,3-dihydro-7-methoxy-3-methyl-5-(1E)-1-yl-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl). An NMR tube Mosher ester reaction was used in an approach to characterize and determine the assignment of the absolute configuration of the new isolated chiral alcohol (1). The PARP-1 inhibitory activity was evaluated for compound (1) (IC50=3.04μM), compound (2) (IC50=0.001μM), compound (4) (IC50=22.07μM) and compound (5) (IC50=3.11μM). Furthermore, the isolated secondary metabolites were tested for NF-κB and K-Ras inhibitory activities. When tested in the p65 assay, compounds (2) and (4) displayed potent NF-κB inhibition (IC50=1.5 nM and 3.4nM, respectively). PMID:26920294

  5. Anti-platelet activity of erythro-(7S,8R)-7-acetoxy-3,4,3',5'-tetramethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan from Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Won; Min, Byung-Sun; Lee, Jeong-Hyung

    2013-11-01

    Platelets play a critical role in pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders and strokes. The inhibition of platelet function is beneficial for the treatment and prevention of these diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-platelet activity of erythro-(7S,8R)-7-acetoxy-3,4,3',5'-tetramethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (EATN), a neolignan isolated from Myristica fragrans, using human platelets. EATN preferentially inhibited thrombin- and platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced platelet aggregation without affecting platelet damage in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of 3.2 ± 0.4 and 3.4 ± 0.3 μM, respectively. However, much higher concentrations of EATN were required to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid. EATN also inhibited thrombin-induced serotonin and ATP release, and thromboxane B2 formation in human platelets. Moreover, EATN caused an increase in cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels and attenuated intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in thrombin-activated human platelets. Therefore, we conclude that the inhibitory mechanism of EATN on platelet aggregation may increase cAMP levels and subsequently inhibit intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization by interfering with a common signaling pathway rather than by directly inhibiting the binding of thrombin or PAF to their receptors. This is the first report of the anti-platelet activity of EATN isolated from M. fragrans.

  6. Anti-platelet activity of erythro-(7S,8R)-7-acetoxy-3,4,3',5'-tetramethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan from Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Won; Min, Byung-Sun; Lee, Jeong-Hyung

    2013-11-01

    Platelets play a critical role in pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders and strokes. The inhibition of platelet function is beneficial for the treatment and prevention of these diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-platelet activity of erythro-(7S,8R)-7-acetoxy-3,4,3',5'-tetramethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (EATN), a neolignan isolated from Myristica fragrans, using human platelets. EATN preferentially inhibited thrombin- and platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced platelet aggregation without affecting platelet damage in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of 3.2 ± 0.4 and 3.4 ± 0.3 μM, respectively. However, much higher concentrations of EATN were required to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid. EATN also inhibited thrombin-induced serotonin and ATP release, and thromboxane B2 formation in human platelets. Moreover, EATN caused an increase in cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels and attenuated intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in thrombin-activated human platelets. Therefore, we conclude that the inhibitory mechanism of EATN on platelet aggregation may increase cAMP levels and subsequently inhibit intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization by interfering with a common signaling pathway rather than by directly inhibiting the binding of thrombin or PAF to their receptors. This is the first report of the anti-platelet activity of EATN isolated from M. fragrans. PMID:23296979

  7. Nutmeg oil alleviates chronic inflammatory pain through inhibition of COX-2 expression and substance P release in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei Kevin; Tao, Shan-Shan; Li, Ting-Ting; Li, Yu-Sang; Li, Xiao-Jun; Tang, He-Bin; Cong, Ren-Huai; Ma, Fang-Li; Wan, Chu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic pain, or sometimes referred to as persistent pain, reduces the life quality of patients who are suffering from chronic diseases such as inflammatory diseases, cancer and diabetes. Hence, herbal medicines draw many attentions and have been shown effective in the treatment or relief of pain. Methods and Results Here in this study, we used the CFA-injected rats as a sustainable pain model to test the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of nutmeg oil, a spice flavor additive to beverages and baked goods produced from the seed of Myristica fragrans tree. Conclusions We have demonstrated that nutmeg oil could potentially alleviate the CFA-injection induced joint swelling, mechanical allodynia and heat hyperanalgesia of rats through inhibition of COX-2 expression and blood substance P level, which made it possible for nutmeg oil to be a potential chronic pain reliever. PMID:27121041

  8. African Nutmeg (Monodora Myristica) Lowers Cholesterol and Modulates Lipid Peroxidation in Experimentally Induced Hypercholesterolemic Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Onyenibe, Nwozo Sarah; Fowokemi, Kasumu Titilayo; Emmanuel, Oyinloye Babatunji

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the cholesterol lowering potential and protective ability of aqueous extract of Monodora myristica experimental hypercholesterolemic rats, a short-term study was conducted. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by administering cholesterol orally at a dose of 40 mg/kg/0.3 ml. Plant extracts 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight and Questran 0.26 g/kg were administered five times a week for eight weeks for amelioration. Hypolipidemic effects were evaluated by measuring total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) in the serum, while the protective ability was measured by the extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants levels in post mitochondrial fractions (PMF) of the hepatic and cardiac homogenates. Serum aminotransferases activities were also monitored. Results obtained shows that treatment with M. myristica elicited a significant reduction in serum TC, TG and LDL-C levels while there was concomitant increase in HDL-C of hypercholesterolemic rats. Elevations in serum aminotransferases activities and LPO level were reversed and a significant amelioration was noticed in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants status in the liver and heart of hypercholesterolemic rats. This study suggests that M. myristica possess cholesterol lowering potentials and protective ability in experimental hypercholesterolemia rat model. PMID:26199582

  9. African Nutmeg (Monodora Myristica) Lowers Cholesterol and Modulates Lipid Peroxidation in Experimentally Induced Hypercholesterolemic Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Onyenibe, Nwozo Sarah; Fowokemi, Kasumu Titilayo; Emmanuel, Oyinloye Babatunji

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the cholesterol lowering potential and protective ability of aqueous extract of Monodora myristica experimental hypercholesterolemic rats, a short-term study was conducted. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by administering cholesterol orally at a dose of 40 mg/kg/0.3 ml. Plant extracts 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight and Questran 0.26 g/kg were administered five times a week for eight weeks for amelioration. Hypolipidemic effects were evaluated by measuring total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) in the serum, while the protective ability was measured by the extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants levels in post mitochondrial fractions (PMF) of the hepatic and cardiac homogenates. Serum aminotransferases activities were also monitored. Results obtained shows that treatment with M. myristica elicited a significant reduction in serum TC, TG and LDL-C levels while there was concomitant increase in HDL-C of hypercholesterolemic rats. Elevations in serum aminotransferases activities and LPO level were reversed and a significant amelioration was noticed in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants status in the liver and heart of hypercholesterolemic rats. This study suggests that M. myristica possess cholesterol lowering potentials and protective ability in experimental hypercholesterolemia rat model. PMID:26199582

  10. A Comparative Pharmacokinetic Study of Myrislignan by UHPLC-MS After Oral Administration of a Monomer and Myristica fragrans Extract to Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhe; Yang, Shu; Zhao, Waiou; Li, Rui; Zhao, Chengliang

    2016-01-01

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) method was developed and validated to quantify myrislignan in rat plasma using podophyllotoxin as an internal standard (IS). The chromatographic separation of myrislignan and IS was performed on a 3.0 µm Hypersil C18 column (50 mm × 4.6 mm) with methanol and water containing 0.1% acetic acid (80:20, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. An electrospray ionization was used in the positive selective-ion monitoring mode for the target ions at m/z 397 and m/z 437 for the quantification of myrislignan and IS. The total run time was 3.6 min for each run. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.75-300 ng/mL (r> 0.995) with the lower limit of quantitation at 0.75 ng/mL. Intra- and interday precision was below 11.49%, and the mean accuracy ranged from -9.75 to 7.45%. The proposed method was successfully applied to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of myrislignan after oral administration of the myrislignan monomer and Myristica fragrans extract in rats. Statistical analyses indicate that the pharmacokinetic properties of myrislignan in rats have significant differences between two groups.

  11. A Comparative Pharmacokinetic Study of Myrislignan by UHPLC-MS After Oral Administration of a Monomer and Myristica fragrans Extract to Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhe; Yang, Shu; Zhao, Waiou; Li, Rui; Zhao, Chengliang

    2016-01-01

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) method was developed and validated to quantify myrislignan in rat plasma using podophyllotoxin as an internal standard (IS). The chromatographic separation of myrislignan and IS was performed on a 3.0 µm Hypersil C18 column (50 mm × 4.6 mm) with methanol and water containing 0.1% acetic acid (80:20, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. An electrospray ionization was used in the positive selective-ion monitoring mode for the target ions at m/z 397 and m/z 437 for the quantification of myrislignan and IS. The total run time was 3.6 min for each run. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.75-300 ng/mL (r> 0.995) with the lower limit of quantitation at 0.75 ng/mL. Intra- and interday precision was below 11.49%, and the mean accuracy ranged from -9.75 to 7.45%. The proposed method was successfully applied to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of myrislignan after oral administration of the myrislignan monomer and Myristica fragrans extract in rats. Statistical analyses indicate that the pharmacokinetic properties of myrislignan in rats have significant differences between two groups. PMID:26774114

  12. [Effects of processing on volatile oil constituents in nutmeg and on the contents of myristicin].

    PubMed

    Li, T; Zhou, J; Jiang, W; Li, C

    1990-08-01

    This paper reports a GC analysis of the volatile oil contained in the nutmeg (Semen Myristicae) prepared by simmering wrapped in flour in hot purified talc, scalding in hot purified talc and stir-frying in smoking wheat bran. The experimental results showed that before and after processing the volatile oil compounds in nutmeg are the same and during processing no known compounds disappeared. The contents of the main volatile oil compounds in nutmeg changed, however, before and after processing, including the amounts of myristicin, one of the toxic compounds in nutmeg. It is suggested that the amounts of myristicin could be decreased notably under certain processing conditions. PMID:2093319

  13. Unintentional nutmeg autointoxication.

    PubMed

    Roeters van Lennep, J E; Schuit, S C E; van Bruchem-Visser, R L; Özcan, B

    2015-01-01

    Nutmeg ingestion in large amounts can cause toxic symptoms such as hallucinations, tachycardia and anticholinergic effects. We describe a case of a 37-year-old woman who experienced an unintentional autointoxication of nutmeg. It is likely that nutmeg intoxication is underreported. We suggest to specifically think of nutmeg ingestion in case of symptoms as mentioned above. PMID:26219944

  14. Rapid screening and quantitative determination of bioactive compounds from fruit extracts of Myristica species and their in vitro antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Renu; Mahar, Rohit; Hasanain, Mohammad; Shukla, Sanjeev K; Sarkar, Jayanta; Rameshkumar, K B; Kumar, Brijesh

    2016-11-15

    Efficient and sensitive LC-MS/MS methods have been developed for the rapid screening and determination of bioactive compounds in different fruit parts of four Myristica species, viz., Myristica beddomeii, Myristica fragrans, Myristica fatua and Myristica malabarica. Twenty-one compounds were identified and characterized on the basis of their accurate mass and MS/MS fragmentation pattern using HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and NMR analysis. Quantitative determination of five major bioactive compounds was performed using multiple-reaction monitoring mode with continuous polarity switching by UHPLC-QqQLIT-MS/MS. Moreover, in vitro antiproliferative activity of these Myristica species was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines A549, DLD-1, DU145, FaDu and MCF-7 using SRB assay. Seventeen phytoconstituents were identified and reported for the first time from M. beddomeii and sixteen from M. fatua. Quantification result showed highest total content of five major bioactive compounds in mace of M. fragrans. Evaluation of in vitro antiproliferative activity revealed potent activity in all investigated species except M. fragrans.

  15. Rapid screening and quantitative determination of bioactive compounds from fruit extracts of Myristica species and their in vitro antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Renu; Mahar, Rohit; Hasanain, Mohammad; Shukla, Sanjeev K; Sarkar, Jayanta; Rameshkumar, K B; Kumar, Brijesh

    2016-11-15

    Efficient and sensitive LC-MS/MS methods have been developed for the rapid screening and determination of bioactive compounds in different fruit parts of four Myristica species, viz., Myristica beddomeii, Myristica fragrans, Myristica fatua and Myristica malabarica. Twenty-one compounds were identified and characterized on the basis of their accurate mass and MS/MS fragmentation pattern using HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and NMR analysis. Quantitative determination of five major bioactive compounds was performed using multiple-reaction monitoring mode with continuous polarity switching by UHPLC-QqQLIT-MS/MS. Moreover, in vitro antiproliferative activity of these Myristica species was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines A549, DLD-1, DU145, FaDu and MCF-7 using SRB assay. Seventeen phytoconstituents were identified and reported for the first time from M. beddomeii and sixteen from M. fatua. Quantification result showed highest total content of five major bioactive compounds in mace of M. fragrans. Evaluation of in vitro antiproliferative activity revealed potent activity in all investigated species except M. fragrans. PMID:27283658

  16. Effects of mace and nutmeg on human cytochrome P450 3A4 and 2C9 activity.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuka; Ito, Hideyuki; Hatano, Tsutomu

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions between herbal medicines or food constituents and drugs have been studied as crucial factors determining therapeutic efficacy and outcome. Most of these interactions are attributed to inhibition or induction of activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic enzymes. Inhibition or induction of CYP enzymes by beverages, including grapefruit, pomegranate, or cranberry juice, has been well documented. Because spices are a common daily dietary component, other studies have reported inhibition of CYP activity by spices or their constituents/derivatives. However, a systematic evaluation of various spices has not been performed. In this study, we investigated effects of 55 spices on CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 activity. Cinnamon, black or white pepper, ginger, mace, and nutmeg significantly inhibited CYP3A4 or CYP2C9 activity. Furthermore, bioassay-guided fractionation of mace (Myristica fragrans) led to isolation and structural characterization of a new furan derivative (1) along with other 16 known compounds, including an acylphenol, neolignans, and phenylpropanoids. Among these isolates, (1S,2R)-1-acetoxy-2-(4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)propane (9) exhibited the most potent CYP2C9 inhibitory activity with an IC₅₀ value comparable to that of sulfaphenazole, a CYP2C9 inhibitor. Compound 9 competitively inhibited CYP2C9-mediated 4'-hydroxylation of diclofenac. The inhibitory constant (K(i)) of 9 was determined to be 0.037 µM. Compound 9 was found to be 14-fold more potent than was sulfaphenazole.

  17. [Effects of processing methods on the amounts of volatile oil of nutmeg and on isolation and characterization of the volatile oil constituents].

    PubMed

    Li, T; Zhou, J; Xu, Z; Pan, J; Mao, S

    1990-07-01

    In this paper, the authors investigated the effects of various processing methods, i.e., scalding in hot purified talc, simmering wrapped in flour in hot purified talc and stir-frying in smoking wheat bran, on nutmeg (Semen Myristicae) in terms of the quantities of the volatile oil. The experimental results revealed that the amounts of volatile oil contained in nutmeg vary remarkably with the lengths of cooking time and the fluctuation of temperature. Detected by GC-MS-computer, 32 compounds of nutmeg were characterized, and their contents were determined by GC respectively. PMID:2261071

  18. [Unusual use of nutmeg].

    PubMed

    Krol, Charlotte G; Janssen, Martien J F M

    2010-01-01

    A 20-year-old woman with borderline personality disorder was referred to the emergency department by a psychiatric clinic. After taking 10 g of nutmeg she complained of stomach ache and dizziness. A physical examination showed mild hypothermia and sinus tachycardia. She was admitted for observation and discharged after 24 h to the psychiatric clinic without sequelae. Nutmeg is a spice. Relatively unknown are the hallucinogenic and euphoric effects for which it is used by drug abusers and students. Symptoms appear 6 h after ingestion of at least 10 g of nutmeg and are related to its effects on the central nervous system. Use of the drug can lead to anxiety and feelings of doom and even to psychosis. Dry mouth, nausea and dizziness may also occur. A physical examination may show hypothermia, tachycardia or hypertension or, in rarer cases, hypotension and shock. Symptoms disappear without sequelae after 24-48 h. Treatment consists of supportive measures. In the event of haemodynamic instability, cardiovascular monitoring is indicated.

  19. Antioxidant and Antiinflammatory Compounds in Nutmeg (Myristicafragrans) Pericarp as Determined by in vitro Assays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan-rui; Jayashre, Ettannil; Kumar, Paramasivam Suresh; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2015-08-01

    Nutmeg, Myristicafragrans, is known for its culinary and medicinal values. The nutmeg pericarp, abundant during the production of the seed, is also used in food and beverage preparations. In this study, the pericarp of M. fragrans was evaluated for its bioactive components using in vitro antioxidant and antiinflammatory assays. The hexane, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts inhibited lipid peroxidation (LPO) by 82.5, 70.1 and 73.2%, and cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-1 by 44, 44 and 42% and COX-2 by 47, 41 and 36%, respectively, at 100 microg/mL. The bioassay-guided purifications of extracts yielded 20 compounds belonged to neolignans (0.13%), phenylpropanoids (0.28%), phenolic aldehyde (0.35%), triterpenoids (0.06%), triglycerides (0.20%), sugars (10.2%) and steroids (0.49%). Pure isolates 1-5 inhibited LPO by 70-99% and 3-12 inhibited COX-1 and -2 enzymes by 37-49%. This is the first report on the bioassay-guided characterization of constituents in nutmeg pericarp. Our results support the medicinal claims of nutmeg pericarp.

  20. Antioxidant and Antiinflammatory Compounds in Nutmeg (Myristicafragrans) Pericarp as Determined by in vitro Assays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan-rui; Jayashre, Ettannil; Kumar, Paramasivam Suresh; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2015-08-01

    Nutmeg, Myristicafragrans, is known for its culinary and medicinal values. The nutmeg pericarp, abundant during the production of the seed, is also used in food and beverage preparations. In this study, the pericarp of M. fragrans was evaluated for its bioactive components using in vitro antioxidant and antiinflammatory assays. The hexane, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts inhibited lipid peroxidation (LPO) by 82.5, 70.1 and 73.2%, and cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-1 by 44, 44 and 42% and COX-2 by 47, 41 and 36%, respectively, at 100 microg/mL. The bioassay-guided purifications of extracts yielded 20 compounds belonged to neolignans (0.13%), phenylpropanoids (0.28%), phenolic aldehyde (0.35%), triterpenoids (0.06%), triglycerides (0.20%), sugars (10.2%) and steroids (0.49%). Pure isolates 1-5 inhibited LPO by 70-99% and 3-12 inhibited COX-1 and -2 enzymes by 37-49%. This is the first report on the bioassay-guided characterization of constituents in nutmeg pericarp. Our results support the medicinal claims of nutmeg pericarp. PMID:26434127

  1. Toxicity of Myristica fagrans seed compounds against Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Jung, Woo-Chul; Jang, Young-Su; Hieu, Tran Trung; Lee, Chong-Kyu; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2007-05-01

    The insecticidal constituents of hexane-soluble fraction from a methanolic extract of the seeds from Myristica fragrans (Myristicaceae) against adult females of Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The insecticidal activity of 13 Myristica seed compounds against female B. germanica was examined by using the filter-paper contact toxicity and vapor phase toxicity bioassays. Results were compared with those of the other 23 known compounds of Myristica seed and currently used insecticides: dichlorvos, deltamethrin, permethrin, and propoxur. In contact toxicity tests using female B. germanica, (IS)-(-) -beta-pinene (0.06 mg/cm2) was the most toxic insecticide, based on 24-h LD50 values. The insecticidal activity of this compound was comparable with that of permethrin (0.05 mg/cm2). (1R)-(+) -Camphor, (1S)-(-) -camphor, dipentene, (1R)-(+) -3-pinene, and (+)-alpha-terpineol (0.10-0.14 mg/cm2) were more toxic than propoxur (0.19 mg/cm2). (E)-Sabinene hydrate and propoxur were almost equitoxic. Potent insecticidal activity also was observed with (R)-(+) -citronellal, (S)-(-) -citronellal, (R)-(-) -alpha-phellandrene, (1S)-(-) -alpha-pinene, (1R)-(+) -alpha-pinene, and safrole (0.27-0.48 mg/cm2). In vapor phase toxicity tests, the compounds tested were effective in closed but not in open containers. These results indicate that the effect of these compounds was largely a result of action in the vapor phase. Myristica seed compounds described merit further study as potential insecticides or as leads for the control of cockroaches.

  2. [Quality standards of processed nutmegs].

    PubMed

    Jia, T; Xia, F; Wang, Z

    1998-04-01

    The quality standards of nutmeg and its processed products were studied in such aspects as volatile oil content, extract determination, moisture content, microscopic characteristics, thin-layer chromatography, and so on. This provided a basis for drawing up the quality standards. PMID:11596246

  3. NUTMEG: a neuromagnetic source reconstruction toolbox.

    PubMed

    Dalal, S S; Zumer, J M; Agrawal, V; Hild, K E; Sekihara, K; Nagarajan, S S

    2004-11-30

    We have developed an analysis toolbox called NUTMEG (Neurodynamic Utility Toolbox for Magnetoencephalography) for reconstructing the spatiotemporal dynamics of neural activations and overlaying them onto structural MR images. The toolbox runs under MATLAB in conjunction with SPM2 and can be used with the Linux/UNIX, Mac OS X, and even Windows platforms. Currently, evoked magnetic field data from 4-D Neuroimaging, CTF, and KIT systems can be imported to the toolbox for analysis. NUTMEG uses an eigenspace vector beamforming algorithm to generate a tomographic reconstruction of spatiotemporal magnetic source activity over selected time intervals and spatial regions. The MEG coordinate frame is coregistered with an anatomical MR image using fiducial locations and, optionally, head shape information. This allows the reconstruction to be superimposed onto an MRI to provide a convenient visual correspondence to neuroanatomy. Navigating through the MR volume automatically updates the displayed time series of activation for the selected voxel. Animations can also be generated to view the evolution of neural activity over time. Since NUTMEG displays activations using SPM2's engine, certain SPM functions such as brain rendering and spatial normalization may be applied as well. Finally, as a MATLAB package, the end user can easily add customized functions. Source code is available at http://bil.ucsf.edu/ and distributed under a BSD-style license.

  4. Nutmeg oil: identification and quantitation of its most active constituents as inhibitors of platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Janssens, J; Laekeman, G M; Pieters, L A; Totte, J; Herman, A G; Vlietinck, A J

    1990-05-01

    Three distilled or commercially available nutmeg oils were analysed and their chemical composition compared with their capacity to inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro. It could be clearly shown that eugenol and isoeugenol play the major role in the detected activity of nutmeg. Medicinally, it appears that nutmeg oil and nutmeg powder can be replaced by eugenol and/or isoeugenol. PMID:2115612

  5. Modulation of colon cancer by nutmeg.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Krausz, Kristopher W; Nichols, Robert G; Xu, Wei; Patterson, Andrew D; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2015-04-01

    Colon cancer is the most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer mortality in humans. Using mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, the current study revealed the accumulation of four uremic toxins (cresol sulfate, cresol glucuronide, indoxyl sulfate, and phenyl sulfate) in the serum of mice harboring adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene mutation-induced colon cancer. These uremic toxins, likely generated from the gut microbiota, were associated with an increase in the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and a disorder of lipid metabolism. Nutmeg, which exhibits antimicrobial activity, attenuated the levels of uremic toxins and decreased intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(min/+) mice. Nutmeg-treated Apc(min/+) mice had decreased IL-6 levels and normalized dysregulated lipid metabolism, suggesting that uremic toxins are responsible, in part, for the metabolic disorders that occur during tumorigenesis. These studies demonstrate a potential biochemical link among gut microbial metabolism, inflammation, and metabolic disorders and suggest that modulation of gut microbiota and lipid metabolism using dietary intervention or drugs may be effective in colon cancer chemoprevention strategies.

  6. Modulation of colon cancer by nutmeg.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Krausz, Kristopher W; Nichols, Robert G; Xu, Wei; Patterson, Andrew D; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2015-04-01

    Colon cancer is the most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer mortality in humans. Using mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, the current study revealed the accumulation of four uremic toxins (cresol sulfate, cresol glucuronide, indoxyl sulfate, and phenyl sulfate) in the serum of mice harboring adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene mutation-induced colon cancer. These uremic toxins, likely generated from the gut microbiota, were associated with an increase in the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and a disorder of lipid metabolism. Nutmeg, which exhibits antimicrobial activity, attenuated the levels of uremic toxins and decreased intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(min/+) mice. Nutmeg-treated Apc(min/+) mice had decreased IL-6 levels and normalized dysregulated lipid metabolism, suggesting that uremic toxins are responsible, in part, for the metabolic disorders that occur during tumorigenesis. These studies demonstrate a potential biochemical link among gut microbial metabolism, inflammation, and metabolic disorders and suggest that modulation of gut microbiota and lipid metabolism using dietary intervention or drugs may be effective in colon cancer chemoprevention strategies. PMID:25712450

  7. Multiple biological properties of macelignan and its pharmacological implications.

    PubMed

    Paul, Saswati; Hwang, Jae Kwan; Kim, Hahn Young; Jeon, Won Kyung; Chung, ChiHye; Han, Jung-Soo

    2013-03-01

    Macelignan found in the nutmeg mace of Myristica fragrans obtains increasing attention as a new avenue in treating various diseases. Macelignan has been shown to possess a spectrum of pharmacological activities, including anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, and hepatoprotective activities; recently, it has also been shown to have neuroprotective activities. This review summarizes the current research on the biological effects of macelignan derived from M. fragrans, with emphasis on the importance in understanding and treating complex diseases such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Multiple biological properties of macelignan and its pharmacological implications.

    PubMed

    Paul, Saswati; Hwang, Jae Kwan; Kim, Hahn Young; Jeon, Won Kyung; Chung, ChiHye; Han, Jung-Soo

    2013-03-01

    Macelignan found in the nutmeg mace of Myristica fragrans obtains increasing attention as a new avenue in treating various diseases. Macelignan has been shown to possess a spectrum of pharmacological activities, including anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, and hepatoprotective activities; recently, it has also been shown to have neuroprotective activities. This review summarizes the current research on the biological effects of macelignan derived from M. fragrans, with emphasis on the importance in understanding and treating complex diseases such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23435944

  9. [Comparative study on nutmeg, mace and their processed products].

    PubMed

    Jia, T; Wang, Z; Wang, Y; Li, J

    1997-09-01

    The contents of volatile oil, myristicin, safrol and methyleugenol, as well as the composition and content of fatty oil in nutmeg, mace and their processed products were comparatively studied. The composition of volatile oil and the detection of trimyristin were compared by TLC. A scientific basis for the development and application of mace has thus been provided. PMID:11038942

  10. Pesticide Exposure in the Caribbean: A Case From Nutmeg Processing.

    PubMed

    Akpinar-Elci, Muge; Nguyen, MyNgoc Thuy; Bidaisee, Satesh; Elci, Omur Cinai

    2016-01-01

    Many developed countries around the world have implemented regulations to phase out or greatly restrict the use of pesticides. Pesticides are still utilized with minimal restrictions, however, in fumigating agricultural commodities in developing countries such as Grenada. This special report presents the case of a nutmeg factory worker in Grenada who worked with various pesticides including methyl bromide, magnesium phosphide (magtoxin), and aluminum phosphide (phostoxin) without the proper awareness and utilization of health and safety measures. The nutmeg factory worker later developed metastatic bladder cancer, which may have been triggered by a combination of individual risk factors along with long-term occupational exposure to these pesticides. In this special report, the occupational health importance of prevention in a work environment with significant exposure to pesticides is highlighted as well as some of the fundamental deficiencies in awareness among workers in developing nations concerning the deleterious effects of frequent exposure to pesticides.

  11. Pesticide Exposure in the Caribbean: A Case From Nutmeg Processing.

    PubMed

    Akpinar-Elci, Muge; Nguyen, MyNgoc Thuy; Bidaisee, Satesh; Elci, Omur Cinai

    2016-01-01

    Many developed countries around the world have implemented regulations to phase out or greatly restrict the use of pesticides. Pesticides are still utilized with minimal restrictions, however, in fumigating agricultural commodities in developing countries such as Grenada. This special report presents the case of a nutmeg factory worker in Grenada who worked with various pesticides including methyl bromide, magnesium phosphide (magtoxin), and aluminum phosphide (phostoxin) without the proper awareness and utilization of health and safety measures. The nutmeg factory worker later developed metastatic bladder cancer, which may have been triggered by a combination of individual risk factors along with long-term occupational exposure to these pesticides. In this special report, the occupational health importance of prevention in a work environment with significant exposure to pesticides is highlighted as well as some of the fundamental deficiencies in awareness among workers in developing nations concerning the deleterious effects of frequent exposure to pesticides. PMID:26867293

  12. Soap from Nutmeg: An Integrated Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mattos, Marcio C. S.; Nicodem, David E.

    2002-01-01

    The extraction of trimyristin from nutmeg, its purification, and its conversion to a soap (sodium myristate) are described. Concepts such as the isolation of a natural product, recrystallization, identification of a solid, solubility, acidity and basicity, and organic reaction can be presented to students using integrated experiments in an introductory experimental chemistry laboratory. These experiments can easily be done in three class periods of four hours.

    See Letter re: this article.

  13. [Acute intoxication with nutmeg used as a recreational purpose--a case report].

    PubMed

    Sein Anand, Jacek; Barwina, Małgorzata; Waldman, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of acute nutmeg poisoning used for recreational purposes. Poisoning had a stormy clinical course with symptoms of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and nervous system. The widespread availability of nutmeg suggests that real number of these poisonings may be underestimated in our country.

  14. [Determination of myristicin and safrol in volatile oil of nutmeg and its processed products by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Jia, T; Sha, M; Wang, Z; Cao, A

    1997-07-01

    The contents of myristicin and safrol in the volatile oil of nutmeg and its processed products were determined by HPLC. This method is fast, accurate and gives good resolution. It has also been confirmed that myristicin tends to decrease in varying degrees after the nutmeg has been processed. PMID:11038899

  15. [Acute intoxication with nutmeg used as a recreational purpose--a case report].

    PubMed

    Sein Anand, Jacek; Barwina, Małgorzata; Waldman, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of acute nutmeg poisoning used for recreational purposes. Poisoning had a stormy clinical course with symptoms of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and nervous system. The widespread availability of nutmeg suggests that real number of these poisonings may be underestimated in our country. PMID:24466724

  16. Aflatoxins B and g contamination and aflatoxigenic fungi in nutmeg.

    PubMed

    Okano, Kiyoshi; Tomita, Tsuneyoshi; Ohzu, Yuji; Takai, Mitsuhiro; Ose, Ayaka; Kotsuka, Akiko; Ikeda, Naoko; Sakata, Junko; Kumeda, Yuko; Nakamura, Nobuya; Ichinoe, Masakatsu

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the distribution of aflatoxigenic fungi in 25 imported Indonesian nutmeg samples contaminated with aflatoxins Bs or Bs and Gs. The incidence of aflatoxigenic fungi in the samples contaminated with high levels of aflatoxin was significantly higher than that in the samples with low levels of the toxins(r=0.752). The aflatoxin production of isolates from the samples in cultures of YES broth was examined by means of TLC and HPLC analyses. The ability of isolates to produce aflatoxins did not necessarily correlate with the contamination levels of aflatoxin in the samples. We isolated aflatoxins B and G-producing fungi from 3 samples contaminated with the high levels of aflatoxins B and G. The aflatoxigenic isolates were identified as Aspergillus nomius and A. bombycis based on morphological characters, growth rates at 37°C and 42°C and also molecular-genetic methods. Our results indicate that these two species are mainly responsible for aflatoxin G contamination in nutmeg products.

  17. [Effect of different processing conditions on content of myrisiticin, volatile oil and fatty lipid in semen Myristicae].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Tan, J

    1998-04-01

    The effect of different processing conditions on contents of myrisiticin, volatile oil and fatty lipid in Semen Myristicae was studied by orthogonal design. The result shows that these processing conditions could not influence the contents of myrisiticin, volatile oil and fatty lipid in the processed products of Semen Myristicae, suggesting that processing does not necessarily lower toxicity. PMID:11596247

  18. Nutmeg poisonings: a retrospective review of 10 years experience from the Illinois Poison Center, 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Ehrenpreis, Jamie E; DesLauriers, Carol; Lank, Patrick; Armstrong, P Keelan; Leikin, Jerrold B

    2014-06-01

    Nutmeg is a commonly consumed spice. The toxic effects of nutmeg have been purported to be due mainly to myristicin oil. Prior poison center series of nutmeg exposures show very few unintentional exposures of nutmeg to children younger than 13. Case series from these centers did not record drug exposures combined with nutmeg. This study is a review of Illinois Poison Center (IPC) data regarding nutmeg exposures from January of 2001 to December 2011. The goal of this study was to compare the Illinois data to the literature as well as look for current trends in nutmeg poisonings. The data were extracted using the code for hallucinogenic plants in the IPC database, and poisonings unrelated to nutmeg exposure were eliminated. Medical outcomes were noted as recorded. Thirty-two cases of nutmeg ingestion were reported. Of the 17 (53.1 %) unintentional exposures, 10 subjects (58.8 %) were under the age of 13. Four of the exposures in children under the age of 13 were ocular exposures. Fifteen exposures (46.9 %) were intentional exposures. Of these intentional exposures, five (33.3 %) were recorded to have combined drug intoxication. All of these were between the ages of 15 and 20. One patient with polypharmaceutical exposure required ventilatory support in the hospital. Our study shows an unexpected percentage of unintentional exposures in juveniles under the age of 13, out of the total exposures to nutmeg. Mixing of nutmeg with other drugs was seen and required more intervention in adolescents. More education about these two factors, i.e., nutmeg exposures as intentional polypharmacy in adolescents and unintentional exposures in young children, is advised.

  19. Nutmeg poisonings: a retrospective review of 10 years experience from the Illinois Poison Center, 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Ehrenpreis, Jamie E; DesLauriers, Carol; Lank, Patrick; Armstrong, P Keelan; Leikin, Jerrold B

    2014-06-01

    Nutmeg is a commonly consumed spice. The toxic effects of nutmeg have been purported to be due mainly to myristicin oil. Prior poison center series of nutmeg exposures show very few unintentional exposures of nutmeg to children younger than 13. Case series from these centers did not record drug exposures combined with nutmeg. This study is a review of Illinois Poison Center (IPC) data regarding nutmeg exposures from January of 2001 to December 2011. The goal of this study was to compare the Illinois data to the literature as well as look for current trends in nutmeg poisonings. The data were extracted using the code for hallucinogenic plants in the IPC database, and poisonings unrelated to nutmeg exposure were eliminated. Medical outcomes were noted as recorded. Thirty-two cases of nutmeg ingestion were reported. Of the 17 (53.1 %) unintentional exposures, 10 subjects (58.8 %) were under the age of 13. Four of the exposures in children under the age of 13 were ocular exposures. Fifteen exposures (46.9 %) were intentional exposures. Of these intentional exposures, five (33.3 %) were recorded to have combined drug intoxication. All of these were between the ages of 15 and 20. One patient with polypharmaceutical exposure required ventilatory support in the hospital. Our study shows an unexpected percentage of unintentional exposures in juveniles under the age of 13, out of the total exposures to nutmeg. Mixing of nutmeg with other drugs was seen and required more intervention in adolescents. More education about these two factors, i.e., nutmeg exposures as intentional polypharmacy in adolescents and unintentional exposures in young children, is advised. PMID:24452991

  20. Extraction of light filth from ground nutmeg: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, J J

    1979-05-01

    The official method for extracting light filth from ground nutmeg, 44.116, gives variable recoveries of filth elements and results in large amounts of interfering plant material in the light filth extraction. A new method has been developed using a chloroform pretreatment for heavy filth followed by a water-40% isopropanol-mineral oil flotation of light filth. A comparison of the methods in the collaborative study showed a higher recovery of insect fragments, 90.6 vs. 65.2%, and of rodent hairs, 86.5 vs. 66.5%, for the new method over the present official first action method, 44.116. Frothing, an additional problem with the official method, has been reduced by the new method. The new method has been adopted as official first action to replace the existing method. PMID:573260

  1. Simple and rapid determination of myristicin in human serum.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Dybowski, Michal P

    2013-01-01

    Myristicin (5-allyl-1-methoxy-2,3-methylenodioxybenzene) is the main component of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) essential oil. The increasing use of myristicin as a cheap hallucinogenic intoxicant, frequently causing fatal cases of myristicin poisoning, requires new methods for determination of this compound in blood. This report describes the rapid, simple, and useful procedure for myristicin analysis in human serum, involving myristicin-protein complex degradation before chromatographic analysis. The developed method is characterized by a high recovery (above 99 %), a low detection limit (6.0 ng/g) and good repeatability (average RDS of 2.01 %). PMID:23440626

  2. Simultaneous determination of diastereomers (+)-licarin A and isolicarin A from Myristica fragrans in rat plasma by HPLC and its application to their pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2008-06-01

    A rapid and simple high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed and validated to simultaneously analyze the diastereomers of (+)-licarin A and isolicarin A in rat plasma after intravenous administration. The analytes were extracted from the plasma by solid-phase extraction (SPE). Diastereomeric separation and determination were successfully achieved using a Diamonsil ODS C (18) reversed-phase column (250 mm x 4.6 mm i. d., 5 microm) with an RP18 guard column (8 mm x 4.6 mm i. d., 5 microm) and a mobile phase of MeOH-H (2)O (4 : 1, v/v). UV detection was at 270 nm. The linear ranges of the standard curves were 0.25 - 150.00 microg/mL for (+)-licarin A and 0.10 - 75.00 microg/mL for isolicarin A. The lower limits of detection and quantification were 0.05 and 0.25 microg/mL for (+)-licarin A, and 0.05 and 0.10 microg/mL for isolicarin A, respectively. This assay method was successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetics of diastereomers (+)-licarin A and isolicarin A in rat plasma.

  3. Molecular phylogeny of the nutmeg shells (Neogastropoda, Cancellariidae).

    PubMed

    Modica, Maria Vittoria; Bouchet, Philippe; Cruaud, Corinne; Utge, José; Oliverio, Marco

    2011-06-01

    Cancellariidae, or nutmeg shells, is a family of marine gastropods that feed on the body fluids and the egg cases of marine animals. The 300 or so living species are distributed worldwide, mostly on soft bottoms, from intertidal to depths of about 1000 m. Although they are a key group for the understanding of neogastropod evolution, they are still poorly known in terms of anatomy, ecology and systematics. This paper reports the first mitochondrial multi-gene phylogenetic hypothesis for the group. Data were collected for 50 morphospecies, representative of 22 genera belonging to the three currently recognized subfamilies. Sequences from three genes (12S, 16S and COI) were analyzed with Maximum Likelihood analysis and Bayesian Inference, both as single gene datasets and in two partitioned concatenated alignment. Largely consistent topologies were obtained and discussed with respect to the traditional subfamilial arrangements. The obtained phylogenetic trees were also used to produce Robinson-Foulds supertrees. Our results confirmed the monophyly of the subfamily Plesiotritoninae, while Admetinae and Cancellariinae, as currently conceived, were retrieved as polyphyletic. Based on our findings we propose changes to the systematic arrangement of these subfamilies. At a lower taxonomic rank, our results highlighted the rampant homoplasy of many characters traditionally used to segregate genera, and thus the need of a critical re-evaluation of the contents of many genera (e.g. Nipponaphera, Merica, Sydaphera, Bivetia), the monophyly of which was not recovered.

  4. Effect of oil of nutmeg on the fertility and induction of meiotic chromosome rearrangements in mice and their first generation.

    PubMed

    Pecevski, J; Savković, D; Radivojević, D; Vuksanović, L

    1981-01-01

    The dose-dependent effects of oil of nutmeg on the fertility and induction of chromosomal translocations in treated mice and their F1 males were examined. C3H male mice were treated with oil of nutmeg for 8 successive weeks at 60, 80, 100 and 400 mg/kg body weight. The greatest reduction of fertility occurred in the group treated with 400 mg/kg; chromosomal translocation in directly treated animals was not found. The chromosomal translocations in F1 males, derived from males treated with oil of nutmeg at dose levels of 60, 80 and 100 mg/kg. PMID:7194525

  5. Anti-Herpetic Activity of Callissia fragrans and Simmondsia chinensis Leaf Extracts In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yarmolinsky, Ludmila; Zaccai, Michele; Ben-Shabat, Shimon; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    The antiviral activity of Callissia fragrans and Simnondsia chinensis aquatic and ethanol leaf extracts, as well as purified fractions from these extracts was studied against herpetic viruses in vitro. Ethanol extract of C. fragrans effectively inhibited the infection of Vero cells by HSV-1, HSV-2 in vitro, while its aquatic extract inhibited only VZV. Although S. chinensis leaf extract strongly inhibited all studied viruses, the selectivity index of this extract was very low, due to its high toxicity. However, the majority of its fractions showed low toxicity and higher antiviral activity and therefore very high SI. Strong interactions between virus and extracts were found. PMID:20700398

  6. Antifungal compounds from turmeric and nutmeg with activity against plant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antifungal activity of twenty-two common spices was evaluated against plant pathogens using direct-bioautography coupled Colletotrichum bioassays. Turmeric, nutmeg, ginger, clove, oregano, cinnamon, anise, fennel, basil, black cumin, and black pepper showed antifungal activity against the plant ...

  7. Enhancement of ethanol-induced sleep by whole oil of nutmeg.

    PubMed

    Sherry, C J; Burnett, R E

    1978-04-15

    In young chickens, the whole oil of nutmeg (200 mg/kg) increased the duration of sleep induced by ethanol (1--4 g/kg), particularly deep sleep. Iproniazid (50-400 mg/kg), a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, did not mimic this effect. PMID:565298

  8. MEG/EEG source reconstruction, statistical evaluation, and visualization with NUTMEG.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Sarang S; Zumer, Johanna M; Guggisberg, Adrian G; Trumpis, Michael; Wong, Daniel D E; Sekihara, Kensuke; Nagarajan, Srikantan S

    2011-01-01

    NUTMEG is a source analysis toolbox geared towards cognitive neuroscience researchers using MEG and EEG, including intracranial recordings. Evoked and unaveraged data can be imported to the toolbox for source analysis in either the time or time-frequency domains. NUTMEG offers several variants of adaptive beamformers, probabilistic reconstruction algorithms, as well as minimum-norm techniques to generate functional maps of spatiotemporal neural source activity. Lead fields can be calculated from single and overlapping sphere head models or imported from other software. Group averages and statistics can be calculated as well. In addition to data analysis tools, NUTMEG provides a unique and intuitive graphical interface for visualization of results. Source analyses can be superimposed onto a structural MRI or headshape to provide a convenient visual correspondence to anatomy. These results can also be navigated interactively, with the spatial maps and source time series or spectrogram linked accordingly. Animations can be generated to view the evolution of neural activity over time. NUTMEG can also display brain renderings and perform spatial normalization of functional maps using SPM's engine. As a MATLAB package, the end user may easily link with other toolboxes or add customized functions.

  9. Coumarin derivatives from Ainsliaea fragrans and their anticoagulant activity

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Liang; Xue, Yong-bo; Liu, Zhong; Peng, Si-si; He, Yan; Zhang, Yang; Fang, Rong; Wang, Jian-ping; Luo, Zeng-wei; Yao, Guang-min; Zhang, Jin-wen; Zhang, Geng; Song, Hong-ping; Zhang, Yong-hui

    2015-01-01

    Coumarin derivatives are an important class of C6–C3 plant metabolites that show a variety of bioactivities. Currently, most clinical anticoagulant agents are coumarins, such as warfarin, dicoumarol and acenocoumarol, and patients taking these drugs must be monitored for adverse reactions. In a search for safe and effective anticoagulant compounds from Chinese herbal medicine, a screening procedure on the whole plant of Ainsliaea fragrans was performed. The phytochemical investigation of this plant afforded five new coumarin derivatives, including a pair of natural 4-hydroxycoumarin enantiomers (1), a pair of coumarin enantiomers with a rare polycyclic pyrano[3-2c] carbon skeleton (2) and a 7-hydroxycoumarin derivative (3), together with 5 known biogenetically related compounds (4–8). Enantioseparation of 1 and 2 produced optically pure compounds 1a, 1b, 2a and 2b. The absolute configurations of the new compounds were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In addition, we evaluated the anticoagulant activity of all isolates via activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT) assays in vitro and in vivo. Of note, compound 3 displayed potent anticoagulant activity and no significant hepatic or renal toxicity, which could make it a promising agent for further preclinical evaluation for preventing abnormal blood clotting. PMID:26315062

  10. Quorum Sensing Inhibitory Activity of Giganteone A from Myristica cinnamomea King against Escherichia coli Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Sivasothy, Yasodha; Krishnan, Thiba; Chan, Kok-Gan; Abdul Wahab, Siti Mariam; Othman, Muhamad Aqmal; Litaudon, Marc; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-03-21

    Malabaricones A-C (1-3) and giganteone A (4) were isolated from the bark of Myristica cinnamomea King. Their structures were elucidated and characterized by means of NMR and MS spectral analyses. These isolates were evaluated for their anti-quorum sensing activity using quorum sensing biosensors, namely Escherichia coli [pSB401] and Escherichia coli [pSB1075], whereby the potential of giganteone A (4) as a suitable anti-quorum sensing agent was demonstrated.

  11. Health assessment for Nutmeg Valley, Wolcott, Connecticut, Region 1. CERCLIS No. CTSI88045. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-02

    The Nutmeg Valley Industrial Park is listed on the National Priorities List. The site is an industrial park containing 40 companies (light industry metal working and finishing) and 20 private residences. The contaminants present in groundwater at the site are trichloroethylene, benzene, ethyl benzene, toluene, xylene, methylene chloride, trans 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, pentane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform. Investigation into the extent of contamination in other pathways is ongoing.

  12. Antifungal compounds from turmeric and nutmeg with activity against plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Mohamed M; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Tarawneh, Amer H; Cutler, Stephen J

    2014-12-01

    The antifungal activity of twenty-two common spices was evaluated against plant pathogens using direct-bioautography coupled Colletotrichum bioassays. Turmeric, nutmeg, ginger, clove, oregano, cinnamon, anise, fennel, basil, black cumin, and black pepper showed antifungal activity against the plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Among the active extracts, turmeric and nutmeg were the most active and were chosen for further investigation. The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of three compounds from turmeric (1-3) and three compounds from nutmeg (4-6). Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including HR-MS, 1D, and 2D NMR as curcumin (1), demethoxycurcumin (2) and bisdemethoxy-curcumin (3), erythro-(7R,8R)-Δ(8')-4,7-dihydroxy-3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (4), erythro-(7R,8R)-Δ8'-7-acetoxy-3,4,3',5'-tetra-methoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (5), and 5-hydroxy-eugenol (6). The isolated compounds were subsequently evaluated using a 96-well microbioassay against plant pathogens. At 30 μM, compounds 2 and 3 possessed the most antifungal activity against Phomopsis obscurans and Phomopsis viticola, respectively.

  13. Antifungal compounds from turmeric and nutmeg with activity against plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Mohamed M; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Tarawneh, Amer H; Cutler, Stephen J

    2014-12-01

    The antifungal activity of twenty-two common spices was evaluated against plant pathogens using direct-bioautography coupled Colletotrichum bioassays. Turmeric, nutmeg, ginger, clove, oregano, cinnamon, anise, fennel, basil, black cumin, and black pepper showed antifungal activity against the plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Among the active extracts, turmeric and nutmeg were the most active and were chosen for further investigation. The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of three compounds from turmeric (1-3) and three compounds from nutmeg (4-6). Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including HR-MS, 1D, and 2D NMR as curcumin (1), demethoxycurcumin (2) and bisdemethoxy-curcumin (3), erythro-(7R,8R)-Δ(8')-4,7-dihydroxy-3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (4), erythro-(7R,8R)-Δ8'-7-acetoxy-3,4,3',5'-tetra-methoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (5), and 5-hydroxy-eugenol (6). The isolated compounds were subsequently evaluated using a 96-well microbioassay against plant pathogens. At 30 μM, compounds 2 and 3 possessed the most antifungal activity against Phomopsis obscurans and Phomopsis viticola, respectively. PMID:25173461

  14. Malabaricone C from Myristica cinnamomea exhibits anti-quorum sensing activity.

    PubMed

    Chong, Yee Meng; Yin, Wai Fong; Ho, Chia Yong; Mustafa, Mohamad Rais; Hadi, A Hamid A; Awang, Khalijah; Narrima, Putri; Koh, Chong-Lek; Appleton, David R; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2011-10-28

    A methanol-soluble extract of the bark of Myristica cinnamomea was found to exhibit anti-quorum sensing activity, and subsequent bioassay-guided isolation led to the identification of the active compound malabaricone C (1). Compound 1 inhibited violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 when grown in the presence of a cognate signaling molecule, N-3-oxohexanoyl-homoserine lactone. Furthermore, 1 inhibited the quorum sensing-regulated pyocyanin production and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. These results suggest that the anti-quorum sensing activity of 1 and related molecules should be investigated further.

  15. Comparative evaluation of methods for the detection of 2-alkylcyclobutanones as indicators for irradiation treatment of cashew nuts and nutmeg.

    PubMed

    Breidbach, Andreas; Ulberth, Franz

    2016-06-15

    Irradiation of food products and ingredients must be indicated by proper labeling. This study evaluated the appropriateness of the European Standard EN 1785:2003 for the detection of 2-alkylcyclobutanones, which are radiolysis products of fatty acids, in cashew nuts and nutmeg and confirmed its suitability to detect irradiation of cashew nut samples at average absorbed doses of 1 kGy and above. An alternative method was developed, which is based on matrix solid phase dispersion and subsequent separation and detection of oxime derivatives of 2-alkylcyclobutanones by high performance-high resolution mass spectrometry. It is more rapid, less resource consuming, and more sensitive than EN 1785:2003. This method allowed detection of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in cashew nuts irradiated at 100 Gray and in nutmeg irradiated at 400 Gray. None of the 26 cashew nut and 14 nutmeg samples purchased in different EU Member States contained traces of 2-alkylcyclobutanones.

  16. Comparative evaluation of methods for the detection of 2-alkylcyclobutanones as indicators for irradiation treatment of cashew nuts and nutmeg.

    PubMed

    Breidbach, Andreas; Ulberth, Franz

    2016-06-15

    Irradiation of food products and ingredients must be indicated by proper labeling. This study evaluated the appropriateness of the European Standard EN 1785:2003 for the detection of 2-alkylcyclobutanones, which are radiolysis products of fatty acids, in cashew nuts and nutmeg and confirmed its suitability to detect irradiation of cashew nut samples at average absorbed doses of 1 kGy and above. An alternative method was developed, which is based on matrix solid phase dispersion and subsequent separation and detection of oxime derivatives of 2-alkylcyclobutanones by high performance-high resolution mass spectrometry. It is more rapid, less resource consuming, and more sensitive than EN 1785:2003. This method allowed detection of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in cashew nuts irradiated at 100 Gray and in nutmeg irradiated at 400 Gray. None of the 26 cashew nut and 14 nutmeg samples purchased in different EU Member States contained traces of 2-alkylcyclobutanones. PMID:26868547

  17. Constituents of Fagraea fragrans with Antimycobacterial Activity in Combination with Erythromycin.

    PubMed

    Madmanang, Suwaibah; Cheyeng, Naseebah; Heembenmad, Sareefah; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan; Saising, Jongkon; Seeger, Markus; Chusri, Sasitorn; Chakthong, Suda

    2016-04-22

    Seven new compounds constituted by three secoiridoids (1-3), two isocoumarins (4 and 5), an iridoid (6), and an aromatic derivative (7) in addition to 24 known compounds were isolated from the stem bark of Fagraea fragrans. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. The isolated compounds showed no antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. However, 5-formylisochromen-1-one (4), (-)-mellein (8), and swermacrolactone C (9) exhibited potent antimycobacterial activities against Mycobacterium smegmatis when used in combination with the antibiotic drug erythromycin.

  18. The complete sequence of Cymbidium mosaic virus from Vanilla fragrans in Hainan, China.

    PubMed

    He, Zhen; Jiang, Dongmei; Liu, Aiqin; Sang, Liwei; Li, Wenfeng; Li, Shifang

    2011-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) isolated from vanilla in Hainan province, China was determined for the first time. It comprised 6,224 nucleotides; sequence analysis suggested that the isolate we obtained was a member of the genus Potexvirus, and its sequence shared 86.67-96.61% identities with previously reported sequences. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that CymMV from vanilla fragrans was clustered into subgroup A and the isolates in this subgroup displayed little regional difference.

  19. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light. PMID:20067158

  20. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light.

  1. Impact of cooking and digestion, in vitro, on the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activity of cinnamon, clove and nutmeg.

    PubMed

    Baker, Iona; Chohan, Magali; Opara, Elizabeth I

    2013-12-01

    The impact of cooking and digestion on the antioxidant capacity (AC), estimated total phenolic content (TPC) and anti-inflammatory activity (AA) of culinary spices was determined to investigate their significance as dietary contributors to these properties. Extracts of uncooked (U), cooked (C) and cooked and digested, in vitro, (D) cinnamon, clove and nutmeg were prepared and the TPC, AC and AA, specifically the inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2) and the amount of prostaglandin (PG) synthesized, were determined. Compared to their uncooked (U) counterparts, the following changes were statistically significant: the AC and TPC for (C) clove, and the TPC for (D) clove decreased, the TPC for (D) clove increased, the TPC for (C) nutmeg increased, and the AC and TPC for (D) nutmeg increased, and the TPC for (C) and (D) nutmeg increased. All the spices achieved near 100 % inhibition of COX-2 which was associated with the inhibition of the amount of PG synthesized. Based on estimated levels of ingestion, cinnamon possesses a much higher AC than clove and nutmeg because it is typically used in larger quantities. For AA, (U, C and D) cinnamon and clove maintain near 100 % inhibition of COX-2 but only the inhibitory potential of (D) nutmeg could be ascertained (70 %). Cooking and digestion alter the TPC and AC of these spices although the changes are not consistent between spices or across treatments. In contrast to AC, significant AA is likely to be present in these spices at amounts used in cooking.

  2. Drug abuse in Slovak Republic.

    PubMed

    Kresanek, Jaroslav; Plackova, Silvia; Caganova, Blazena; Klobusicka, Zora

    2005-01-01

    The drug abusing structure has dramatically changed since 1989. While in 1989 the sniffing of the fluid drugs represented 98% of the global drug abuse, the most abused drugs were: heroin, marijuana, cocaine, amphetamine and its derivatives. During last 10 years situation with drug abuse has changed. Currently the most abused drugs: cannabinoides, amphetamines. The plant drugs (Datura stramonium, hallucinogenic mushrooms Psilocybe semilanceata, nutmeg--the seed of Myristica fragrans) combined with the alcohol are popular among the young abusers. According to an analysis of the phone consultations in our Toxicological Information Centre (TIC) we found out, that the number of intoxications with the plant drugs has increased five times during the last year (comparing with the year 2000), because of their easy availability, low price and quick spreading of information.

  3. Toxicological and phytoprotective effect of Keayodendron bridelioides and Monodora myristica extracts in Wister rats

    PubMed Central

    Owumi, Solomon E.; Oloidi, Abiodun C.; Oloye, Cinzia O.; Oladeji, Oludare O.; Obadare, Moses O.; Odunola, Oyeronke A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The potential toxicity of Keayodendron bridelioides (KB), Monodora myristica (MM) were examined, and phytoprotection of MM and KB stemming from their phytochemical contents against sodium arsenite (SA) induced clastogenicity in Wister's rat. Materials and Methods: Dose range studies of KB in rats, genotoxicity of MM and KB by SOS-inductive respomse were investigated using E. coli PQ37. Male rats were exposed to varying concentrations of MM, KB over a five week period to evaluate MM and KB phytoprotectives properties were also evaluated against sodium arsenite induced micronucleated erythrocytes, hepatotoxicity and sperm quality and morphology. Results: In contrast to KB, MM induced micronuclei formation in rat erythrocytes, MM and KB were however not genotoxic. MM, SA alone and in combination were hepatotoxic, characterized by elevated hepatic transaminases. Hepatoxicity were ameliorated by co-administration of KB (P < 0.05). MM and KB did not induce changes in semen morphology (P > 0.05); but decreased sperm count and motility (P < 0.05). Extracts exhibited anti-clastogenic (KB > MM), hepatoprotective (KB > MM) activities and maintained semen viability against SA treatment. Conclusion: Finding applications as herbal medicinal and food components KB and MM may be useful in mitigating the effect of toxicants in biological systems susceptible to oxidative damage. PMID:26109784

  4. Ursolic acid and oleanolic acid from Eriobotrya fragrans inhibited the viability of A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Gao, Yongshun; Song, Gang; Lin, Shunquan

    2015-02-01

    Loquat {Eriobotrya japonica (Lindl.)}, a kind of Chinese herb, has many efficacies such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and curing chronic bronchitis. However, reports on the pharmacological action of wild loquat extract are limited. In this work, the A549 cell line was selected to study the inhibitory effect of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid (UA, OA) from the leaves of E. fragrans. Results showed that UA/OA inhibited A549 cell viability and induced apoptosis in a dose and time dependent manner. The cell fraction in the G0/G1 phase dramatically increased under treatment with UA/OA. Data showed that UA activated the expression of PARP. UA and OA down-regulated MMP-2 and Bcl-2; on the contrary, they up-regulated Bid. This work demonstrated that UA/OA extracted from wild loquat leaves can significantly inhibit the viability of A549 cells.

  5. Effects of Mulching on Soil Properties and Growth of Tea Olive (Osmanthus fragrans).

    PubMed

    Ni, Xue; Song, Weiting; Zhang, Huanchao; Yang, Xiulian; Wang, Lianggui

    2016-01-01

    Different mulches have variable effects on soil physical properties and plant growth. This study aimed to compare the effects of mulching with inorganic (round gravel, RG), organic (wood chips, WC), and living (manila turf grass, MG) materials on soil properties at 0-5-cm and 5-10-cm depths, as well as on the growth and physiological features of Osmanthus fragrans L. 'Rixianggui' plants. Soil samples were collected at three different time points from field plots of O. fragrans plants treated with the different mulching treatments. Moisture at both soil depths was significantly higher after mulching with RG and WC than that in the unmulched control (CK) treatment. Mulching did not affect soil bulk density, pH, or total nitrogen content, but consistently improved soil organic matter. The available nitrogen in the soil increased after RG and WC treatments, but decreased after MG treatment during the experimental period. Mulching improved plant growth by increasing root activity, soluble sugar, and chlorophyll a content, as well as by providing suitable moisture conditions and nutrients in the root zone. Plant height and trunk diameter were remarkably increased after mulching, especially with RG and WC. However, while MG improved plant growth at the beginning of the treatment, the 'Rixianggui' plants later showed no improvement in growth. This was probably because MG competed with the plants for water and available nitrogen in the soil. Thus, our findings suggest that RG and WC, but not MG, improved the soil environment and the growth of 'Rixianggui' plants. Considering the effect of mulching on soil properties and plant growth and physiology, round gravel and wood chips appear to be a better choice than manila turf grass in 'Rixianggui' nurseries. Further studies are required to determine the effects of mulch quality and mulch-layer thickness on shoot and root growths.

  6. Effects of Mulching on Soil Properties and Growth of Tea Olive (Osmanthus fragrans)

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Xue; Song, Weiting; Zhang, Huanchao; Yang, Xiulian; Wang, Lianggui

    2016-01-01

    Different mulches have variable effects on soil physical properties and plant growth. This study aimed to compare the effects of mulching with inorganic (round gravel, RG), organic (wood chips, WC), and living (manila turf grass, MG) materials on soil properties at 0–5-cm and 5–10-cm depths, as well as on the growth and physiological features of Osmanthus fragrans L. ‘Rixianggui’ plants. Soil samples were collected at three different time points from field plots of O. fragrans plants treated with the different mulching treatments. Moisture at both soil depths was significantly higher after mulching with RG and WC than that in the unmulched control (CK) treatment. Mulching did not affect soil bulk density, pH, or total nitrogen content, but consistently improved soil organic matter. The available nitrogen in the soil increased after RG and WC treatments, but decreased after MG treatment during the experimental period. Mulching improved plant growth by increasing root activity, soluble sugar, and chlorophyll a content, as well as by providing suitable moisture conditions and nutrients in the root zone. Plant height and trunk diameter were remarkably increased after mulching, especially with RG and WC. However, while MG improved plant growth at the beginning of the treatment, the ‘Rixianggui’ plants later showed no improvement in growth. This was probably because MG competed with the plants for water and available nitrogen in the soil. Thus, our findings suggest that RG and WC, but not MG, improved the soil environment and the growth of ‘Rixianggui’ plants. Considering the effect of mulching on soil properties and plant growth and physiology, round gravel and wood chips appear to be a better choice than manila turf grass in ‘Rixianggui’ nurseries. Further studies are required to determine the effects of mulch quality and mulch-layer thickness on shoot and root growths. PMID:27508410

  7. Effects of Mulching on Soil Properties and Growth of Tea Olive (Osmanthus fragrans).

    PubMed

    Ni, Xue; Song, Weiting; Zhang, Huanchao; Yang, Xiulian; Wang, Lianggui

    2016-01-01

    Different mulches have variable effects on soil physical properties and plant growth. This study aimed to compare the effects of mulching with inorganic (round gravel, RG), organic (wood chips, WC), and living (manila turf grass, MG) materials on soil properties at 0-5-cm and 5-10-cm depths, as well as on the growth and physiological features of Osmanthus fragrans L. 'Rixianggui' plants. Soil samples were collected at three different time points from field plots of O. fragrans plants treated with the different mulching treatments. Moisture at both soil depths was significantly higher after mulching with RG and WC than that in the unmulched control (CK) treatment. Mulching did not affect soil bulk density, pH, or total nitrogen content, but consistently improved soil organic matter. The available nitrogen in the soil increased after RG and WC treatments, but decreased after MG treatment during the experimental period. Mulching improved plant growth by increasing root activity, soluble sugar, and chlorophyll a content, as well as by providing suitable moisture conditions and nutrients in the root zone. Plant height and trunk diameter were remarkably increased after mulching, especially with RG and WC. However, while MG improved plant growth at the beginning of the treatment, the 'Rixianggui' plants later showed no improvement in growth. This was probably because MG competed with the plants for water and available nitrogen in the soil. Thus, our findings suggest that RG and WC, but not MG, improved the soil environment and the growth of 'Rixianggui' plants. Considering the effect of mulching on soil properties and plant growth and physiology, round gravel and wood chips appear to be a better choice than manila turf grass in 'Rixianggui' nurseries. Further studies are required to determine the effects of mulch quality and mulch-layer thickness on shoot and root growths. PMID:27508410

  8. The Ethanol Extract of Osmanthus fragrans Flowers Reduces Oxidative Stress and Allergic Airway Inflammation in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chien-Ya; Shi, Li-Shian; Wang, Jing-Yao; Tsai, Yu-Cheng; Ye, Yi-Ling

    2013-01-01

    The Osmanthus fragrans flower, a popular herb in Eastern countries, contains several antioxidant compounds. Ben Cao Gang Mu, traditional Chinese medical literature, describes the usefulness of these flowers for phlegm and stasis reduction, arrest of dysentery with blood in the bowel, and stomachache and diarrhea treatment. However, modern evidence regarding the therapeutic efficacy of these flowers is limited. This study was aimed at assessing the antioxidative effects of the ethanol extract of O. fragrans flowers (OFE) in vivo and evaluating its antioxidant maintenance and therapeutic effect on an allergic airway inflammation in mice. After OFE's oral administration to mice, the values obtained in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay as well as the glutathione concentration in the lungs and spleens of mice increased while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances decreased significantly, indicating OFE's significant in vivo antioxidant activity. OFE was also therapeutically efficacious in a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation. Orally administered OFE suppressed ovalbumin-specific IgE production and inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung. Moreover, the antioxidative state of the mice improved. Thus, our findings confirm the ability of the O. fragrans flowers to reduce phlegm and suggest that OFE may be useful as an antiallergic agent. PMID:24386002

  9. Emission and Accumulation of Monoterpene and the Key Terpene Synthase (TPS) Associated with Monoterpene Biosynthesis in Osmanthus fragrans Lour

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiangling; Liu, Cai; Zheng, Riru; Cai, Xuan; Luo, Jing; Zou, Jingjing; Wang, Caiyun

    2016-01-01

    Osmanthus fragrans is an ornamental and economically important plant known for its magnificent aroma, and the most important aroma-active compounds in flowers are monoterpenes, mainly β-ocimene, linalool and linalool derivatives. To understand the molecular mechanism of monoterpene production, we analyzed the emission and accumulation patterns of these compounds and the transcript levels of the genes involved in their biosynthesis in two O. fragrans cultivars during flowering stages. The results showed that both emission and accumulation of monoterpenes varied with flower development and glycosylation had an important impact on floral linalool emission during this process. Gene expression demonstrated that the transcript levels of terpene synthase (TPS) genes probably played a key role in monoterpene production, compared to the genes in the MEP pathway. Phylogenetic analysis showed that OfTPS1 and OfTPS2 belonged to a TPS-g subfamily, and OfTPS3 and OfTPS4 clustered into a TPS-b subfamily. Their transient and stable expression in tobacco leaves suggested that OfTPS1 and OfTPS2 exclusively produced β-linalool, and trans-β-ocimene was the sole product from OfTPS3, while OfTPS4, a predictive sesquiterpene synthase, produced α-farnesene. These results indicate that OfTPS1, OfTPS2, and OfTPS3 could account for the major floral monoterpenes, linalool and trans-β-ocimene, produced in O. fragrans flowers. PMID:26793212

  10. Varietal classification and antioxidant activity prediction of Osmanthus fragrans Lour. flowers using UPLC-PDA/QTOF-MS and multivariable analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fei; Peng, Jiyu; Zhao, Yajing; Huang, Weisu; Jiang, Yirong; Li, Maiquan; Wu, Xiaodan; Lu, Baiyi

    2017-02-15

    This study was aimed to classify the varieties and predict the antioxidant activity of Osmanthus fragrans flowers by UPLC-PDA/QTOF-MS and multivariable analysis. The PLS-DA model successfully classified the four varieties based on both the 21 identified compounds and the effective compounds. For the antioxidant activity prediction, PLS performed well to predict the antioxidant activity of O. fragrans flowers. Furthermore, acteoside, suspensaside A, ligustroside, forsythoside A, phillygenin and caffeic acid were selected as effective compounds by UVE-SPA for prediction. On the basis of effective compounds, PLS, MLR and PCR were applied to establish the calibration models. The UVE-SPA-MLR model was the optimal method to predict the antioxidant activity values with Rp of 0.9200, 0.9010 and 0.8905 for DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, respectively. The results revealed that the UPLC-PDA/QTOF-MS combined with chemometrics could be a new method to classify the varieties and predict the antioxidant activity of O. fragrans flowers. PMID:27664663

  11. Nutmeg mannikins ( Lonchura punctulata) reduce their feeding rates in response to simulated competition.

    PubMed

    Gauvin, Shawn; Giraldeau, Luc-Alain

    2004-03-01

    Group feeding animals experience a number of competitive foraging costs that may result in a lowered feeding rate. It is important to distinguish between reductions in feeding rates that are caused by reduced food availability and physical interactions among foragers from those caused by the mere presence of foraging companions that may be self-imposed in order to obtain some benefit of group membership. Starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris) reduce their feeding rates when in the company of simulated competitors located in an adjacent cage that cannot affect the food availability or interact with the forager. In the present study, we investigate whether the presence of simulated competitors in another species of passerine, nutmeg mannikins ( Lonchura punctulata), can result in self-imposed reductions in feeding rates. When feeding in the company of simulated competitors, mannikins spent more non-foraging time near them, fed more slowly, reduced travel times between patches, reduced their scanning time and pecked more slowly. These results provide evidence that simulated competitors induce a reduction in pecking rate: behavioural interference. These self-imposed responses to competitors may have resulted from attempts to remain close to the non-feeding companions. Such self-imposed reductions in feeding rates may be a widespread yet generally unrecognised foraging cost to group feeding individuals.

  12. Tree size and its relationship with flowering phenology and reproductive output in Wild Nutmeg trees.

    PubMed

    Otárola, Mauricio Fernández; Sazima, Marlies; Solferini, Vera N

    2013-09-01

    Reproductive strategies, sexual selection, and their relationship with the phenotype of individuals are topics widely studied in animals, but this information is less abundant for plants. Variability in flowering phenology among individuals has direct impact on their fitness, but how reproductive phenology is affected by the size of the individuals needs further study. We quantified the flowering intensity, length, and reproductive synchronization of two sympatric dioecious Wild Nutmeg tree species (Virola, Myristicaceae) in the Brazilian Atlantic forest, and analyzed its relationships with tree size. Two distinct strategies in flowering timing and intensity were found between species (annual versus biennial flowering), and among individuals in the annual flowering species (extended versus peak flowering). Only for the annual flowering species the reproductive output is related to tree size and large trees present proportionally higher flower coverage, and lower synchronization than smaller ones. Flowering is massive and highly synchronized in the biennial species. Sex ratios are not different from 1:1 in the two species, and in the two segregated reproductive subgroups in the biennial flowering species. The biennial flowering at individual level is a novelty among reproductive patterns in plants, separating the population in two reproductive subgroups. A proportional increase in the reproductive output with size exists only for the annual flowering species. A biennial flowering can allow resource storage favouring massive flowering for all the individuals diluting their relationship with size. PMID:24223288

  13. Aqueous extract of Monodora myristica ameliorates cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Adenowo, Abiola Fatimah; Osunsanmi, Foluso Oluwagbemiga; Ogunyinka, Bolajoko Idiat; Nwozo, Sarah Onyenibe; Kappo, Abidemi Paul

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, indigenous medicinal plants exhibiting diverse biological activities have been explored in the amelioration of hepatotoxicity. This study investigates the protective effect of Monodora myristica (MM) on cadmium-induced liver damage in experimental animals. Male Wistar albino rats were maintained on 200 mg/L cadmium: Cd (Cd as CdCl2) in the animals' main drinking water to induce hepatotoxicity. Added to this, the animals received aqueous extracts of MM at a dose of 200 or 400 and 20 mg/kg bw of Livolin forte (LF) for 21 days. At the end of the experiment, levels of serum enzyme biomarkers (alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase) as well as total cholesterol (TC), triacylglyceride (TG) and malondialdehyde were significantly raised in the cadmium treated groups. Conversely, cadmium treatment elicited noticeable decrease in hepatic enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione: GSH, catalase: CAT, superoxide dismutase: SOD). Co-treatment with MM at varying doses as well as LF considerably decreased the elevated levels of the serum biomarkers as well as TC, TG and malondialdehyde in the cadmium-treated groups in a dose dependant manner. Additionally, MM exhibited reversal potential on cadmium-toxicity at the tested doses as its administration was accompanied by a pronounced increase in GSH, SOD, and CAT levels. Histopathological results were parallel to these findings. These results demonstrates that aqueous extracts of MM is effective in the amelioration of hepatic damages arising from cadmium-induced toxicity, indicating that the antioxidant bio-constituents of MM play an important role in the prevention of liver toxicity possibly by inhibiting bioaccumulation of free radicals in animal models. PMID:27330907

  14. Impact of cooking and digestion, in vitro, on the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activity of cinnamon, clove and nutmeg.

    PubMed

    Baker, Iona; Chohan, Magali; Opara, Elizabeth I

    2013-12-01

    The impact of cooking and digestion on the antioxidant capacity (AC), estimated total phenolic content (TPC) and anti-inflammatory activity (AA) of culinary spices was determined to investigate their significance as dietary contributors to these properties. Extracts of uncooked (U), cooked (C) and cooked and digested, in vitro, (D) cinnamon, clove and nutmeg were prepared and the TPC, AC and AA, specifically the inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2) and the amount of prostaglandin (PG) synthesized, were determined. Compared to their uncooked (U) counterparts, the following changes were statistically significant: the AC and TPC for (C) clove, and the TPC for (D) clove decreased, the TPC for (D) clove increased, the TPC for (C) nutmeg increased, and the AC and TPC for (D) nutmeg increased, and the TPC for (C) and (D) nutmeg increased. All the spices achieved near 100 % inhibition of COX-2 which was associated with the inhibition of the amount of PG synthesized. Based on estimated levels of ingestion, cinnamon possesses a much higher AC than clove and nutmeg because it is typically used in larger quantities. For AA, (U, C and D) cinnamon and clove maintain near 100 % inhibition of COX-2 but only the inhibitory potential of (D) nutmeg could be ascertained (70 %). Cooking and digestion alter the TPC and AC of these spices although the changes are not consistent between spices or across treatments. In contrast to AC, significant AA is likely to be present in these spices at amounts used in cooking. PMID:23975332

  15. Cloning and Expression Analysis of MEP Pathway Enzyme-encoding Genes in Osmanthus fragrans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chen; Li, Huogeng; Yang, Xiulian; Gu, Chunsun; Mu, Hongna; Yue, Yuanzheng; Wang, Lianggui

    2016-01-01

    The 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of many crucial secondary metabolites, such as carotenoids, monoterpenes, plastoquinone, and tocopherols. In this study, we isolated and identified 10 MEP pathway genes in the important aromatic plant sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans). Multiple sequence alignments revealed that 10 MEP pathway genes shared high identities with other reported proteins. The genes showed distinctive expression profiles in various tissues, or at different flower stages and diel time points. The qRT-PCR results demonstrated that these genes were highly expressed in inflorescences, which suggested a tissue-specific transcript pattern. Our results also showed that OfDXS1, OfDXS2, and OfHDR1 had a clear diurnal oscillation pattern. The isolation and expression analysis provides a strong foundation for further research on the MEP pathway involved in gene function and molecular evolution, and improves our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying this pathway in plants. PMID:27690108

  16. Evaluation of the anxiolytic properties of myristicin, a component of nutmeg, in the male Sprague-Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Emily; Hitchcock, Gavin; Godwin, Stuart; Johnson, Michelle; Sedgwick, William; Jones, Wendy; McCall, Suzanne; Ceremuga, Thomas E

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anxiolytic effects of myristicin, a major compound found in nutmeg, and its potential interaction with the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A)) receptor in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Nutmeg has traditionally been used as a spice in food preparation and as an herbal remedy in the treatment of many medical conditions, including anxiety. Fifty-five rats were divided equally into 5 groups: control (vehicle); myristicin; midazolam (positive control); flumazenil and myristicin; and midazolam and myristicin. The behavioral component of anxiety was examined by using the elevated plus-maze (open-arm and closed-arm times) along with analysis of gross and fine motor movements. Data analysis was performed using a 2-tailed multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and least significant difference post-hoc test. Our data suggest that myristicin does not decrease anxiety by modulation of the GABA(A) receptor but may promote anxiogenesis. When myristicin was combined with midazolam, an antagonist-like effect similar to the flumazenil and myristicin combination was exhibited by a decrease in anxiolysis compared with the midazolam-only group. Myristicin may antagonize the anxiolytic effects of midazolam, increase anxiety, and affect motor movements.

  17. Antimicrobial effects of essential oils of Cinnamosma fragrans on the bacterial communities in the rearing water of Penaeus monodon larvae.

    PubMed

    Sarter, Samira; Randrianarivelo, Roger; Ruez, Philippe; Raherimandimby, Marson; Danthu, Pascal

    2011-04-01

    Farmed shrimps are vectors of various Vibrio species that are considered a potential health hazard. Previous study has shown that Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio alginolyticus dominated in the water and larval samples of shrimp hatchery (Randrianarivelo et al. 2010 ). The effects of two essential oils (EOs) of Cinnamosma fragrans, an endemic plant to Madagascar (B8: linalool-type and B143: 1,8-cineole-type), were determined on the total heterotrophic aerobic bacteria and the Vibrio concentrations in the rearing water of Penaeus monodon hatchery. The assays took place in OSO Farming's shrimp hatchery in Madagascar. EOs were directly added to the water tank. The bacterial concentrations of water tank were assessed on marine agar and thiosulfate citrate bile sucrose agar. The larvae culture corresponded to four replicates each of B8, B143, erythromycin (E), and control (oil and antibiotic free). The bacterial concentration of the rearing water in B8, B143, and antibiotic (E) tanks were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in the control. Further, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the three treatments B8, B143, and E. This study demonstrated that both EOs of C. fragrans, like antibiotic, inhibited bacterial growth in the rearing water of P. monodon larvae. The potential of C. fragrans EO to control the bacterial load in in vivo conditions of P. monodon hatchery makes it a relevant option for producers to minimize risk of Vibrio growth in the rearing water of larvae, which is the primary source of colonization of shrimp larvae.

  18. Composition and cytotoxic activity of essential oils from Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich, Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich) Benth.) and Monodora myristica (Gaertn) growing in Chad and Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer has become a global public health problem and the search for new control measures is urgent. Investigation of plant products such as essential oils from Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopia parviflora might lead to new anticancer therapy. In this study, we have investigated the antineoplastic activity of essential oils from fruits of these plants growing in Chad and Cameroon. Methods The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of fruits of Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopia parviflora collected in Chad and Cameroon were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS and investigated for their antiproliferative activity against the breast cancer cell line (MCF7). Results Overall, monoterpenes were mostly found in the six essential oils. Oils from X. aethiopica and X. parviflora from Chad and Cameroon mainly contain β-pinene at 24.6%, 28.2%, 35.7% and 32.9% respectively. Monodora myristica oils from both origins contain mainly α-phellandrene at 52.7% and 67.1% respectively. The plant origin did not significantly influence the chemical composition of oils. The six essential oils exerted cytotoxic activity against cancer (MCF-7) and normal cell lines (ARPE-19), with more pronounced effect on neoplastic cells in the majority of cases. The highest selectivity was obtained with the essential oils of X. parviflora from Chad and Cameroon (5.87 and 5.54) which were more cytotoxic against MCF-7 than against normal cell line (ARPE-19) with IC50 values of 0.155 μL/mL and 0.166 μL/mL respectively. Conclusions Essential oils from fruits of Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopia parviflora have shown acceptable antineoplastic potency, and might be investigated further in this regard. PMID:24708588

  19. Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in the Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Sweet Osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans Lour.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiguang; Bao, Zhiyi; Zhao, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), a sensitive technique for quantifying gene expression, depends on the stability of the reference gene(s) used for data normalization. Several studies examining the selection of reference genes have been performed in ornamental plants but none in sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans Lour.). Based on transcriptomic sequencing data from O. fragrans buds at four developmental stages, six reference genes (OfACT, OfEF1α, OfIDH, OfRAN1, OfTUB, and OfUBC2) with stable expression (0.5 to 2 fold change in expression levels between any two developmental stages), as well as the commonly used reference gene Of18S, were selected as candidates for gene expression normalization in the RT-qPCR analysis of O. fragrans. For the normalization of RT-qPCR with two dyes, SYBR Green and EvaGreen, the expressional stability of seven candidate reference genes in 43 O. fragrans samples was analyzed using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. For RT-qPCR using SYBR Green, OfRAN1 and OfUBC2 were the optimal reference genes for all samples and different cultivars, OfACT and OfEF1α were suitable for different floral developmental stages, and OfACT was the optimal reference gene for different temperature treatments. The geometric mean values of the optimal reference gene pairs for the normalization of RT-qPCR are recommended to be used for all samples, different cultivars and different floral developmental stages in O. fragrans. For RT-qPCR using EvaGreen, OfUBC2 was the optimal reference gene for all samples and different cultivars, and OfACT was the optimal reference gene for different floral developmental stages and different temperature treatments. As the worst reference gene, Of18S should not be used as a reference gene in O. fragrans in the future. Our results provide a reference gene application guideline for O. fragrans gene expression characterization using RT-qPCR. PMID:26302211

  20. New MADS-box gene in fern: cloning and expression analysis of DfMADS1 from Dryopteris fragrans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qingyang; Li, Wenhua; Fan, Ruifeng; Chang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    MADS genes encode a family of transcription factors, some of which control the identities of floral organs in flowering plants. Most of the MADS-box genes in fern have been cloned and analyzed in model plants, such as Ceratopteris richardii and Ceratopteris pteridoides. In this study, a new MADS-box gene, DfMADS1(GU385475), was cloned from Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott to better understand the role of MADS genes in the evolution of floral organs. The full-length DfMADS1 cDNA was 973 bp in length with a 75 bp 5'-UTR and a 169 bp 3'-UTR. The DfMADS1 protein was predicted to contain a typical MIKC-type domain structure consisting of a MADS domain, a short I region, a K domain, and a C-terminal region. The DfMADS1 protein showed high homology with MADS box proteins from other ferns. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that DfMADS1 belongs to the CRM1-like subfamily. RT-PCR analysis indicated that DfMADS1 is expressed in both the gametophytes and the sporophytes of D. fragrans.

  1. New MADS-Box Gene in Fern: Cloning and Expression Analysis of DfMADS1 from Dryopteris fragrans

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qingyang; Li, Wenhua; Fan, Ruifeng; Chang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    MADS genes encode a family of transcription factors, some of which control the identities of floral organs in flowering plants. Most of the MADS-box genes in fern have been cloned and analyzed in model plants, such as Ceratopteris richardii and Ceratopteris pteridoides. In this study, a new MADS-box gene, DfMADS1(GU385475), was cloned from Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott to better understand the role of MADS genes in the evolution of floral organs. The full-length DfMADS1 cDNA was 973 bp in length with a 75bp 5′-UTR and a 169bp 3′-UTR. The DfMADS1 protein was predicted to contain a typical MIKC-type domain structure consisting of a MADS domain, a short I region, a K domain, and a C-terminal region. The DfMADS1 protein showed high homology with MADS box proteins from other ferns. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that DfMADS1 belongs to the CRM1-like subfamily. RT-PCR analysis indicated that DfMADS1 is expressed in both the gametophytes and the sporophytes of D. fragrans. PMID:24466046

  2. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil of the Inflorescence of Anacamptis coriophora subsp. fragrans (Orchidaceae) from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    El Mokni, Ridha; Hammami, Saoussen; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Peron, Gregorio; Faidi, Khaled; Braude, Jeremy Phillip; Sebei, Houcine; El Aouni, Mohamed Hédi

    2016-06-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil produced by steam distillation of the inflorescences of naturally growing Anacamptis coriophora (L.) R. M. Bateman, Pridgeon & M. W. Chase subsp.fragrans (Pollini) R. M. Bateman, Pridgeon & M. W. Chase (Orchidaceae) from Kroumiria, north-west Tunisia was studied by GC-MS, which led to the identification of 19 volatile components, representing 97% of the oil. The main constituents were methyl-(E)-p-methoxycinnamate (29.3%), 13-heptadecyn-1-ol (18.6%), 2,5-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol (14.1%) and 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)-phenol (9.0%). DPPH radical scavenging revealed a weak antioxidant activity. In addition, the antiproliferative effects were evaluated on BxPC3 human pancreatic carcinoma cells and on 2008 human ovarian cancer cells showing significant effect. This is the first report of the chemical composition of essential oils obtained from A. coriophora subsp. fragrans inflorescences for North Africa. Further studies are needed to understand fully the possible mechanism of action behind the cytotoxic activity of the essential oil.

  3. Osmanthus fragrans Flower Extract and Acteoside Protect Against d-Galactose-Induced Aging in an ICR Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lina; Mao, Shuqin; Lu, Baiyi; Yang, Jiajia; Zhou, Fei; Hu, Yinzhou; Jiang, Yirong; Shen, Canxi; Zhao, Yajing

    2016-01-01

    Osmanthus fragrans flower extract (OFE) is an organic extract from O. fragrans flower, which exhibits neuroprotective, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant effects. Therefore, the protective effect of OFE and acteoside against aging was studied. An aging ICR mouse model was established by chronically administering d-galactose (250 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. d-galactose induced spatial learning and memory impairments that were successfully inhibited by OFE and acteoside, which could shorten escape latency, improve platform crossing times, and increase zone time. The antioxidant potential of OFE and acteoside in vivo was evaluated by estimating the following: activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase and aging-related enzyme, particularly monoamine oxidase; contents of lipid peroxidation methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, advanced glycation end products, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (a DNA damage product); and levels of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2. OFE and acteoside also inhibited d-galactose-induced neurological aging by suppressing the increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein and neurotrophin-3. Considering the dose-dependent protective effects of OFE and acteoside, we concluded that OFE, rich in acteoside, was a good source of natural antiaging compounds.

  4. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil of the Inflorescence of Anacamptis coriophora subsp. fragrans (Orchidaceae) from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    El Mokni, Ridha; Hammami, Saoussen; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Peron, Gregorio; Faidi, Khaled; Braude, Jeremy Phillip; Sebei, Houcine; El Aouni, Mohamed Hédi

    2016-06-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil produced by steam distillation of the inflorescences of naturally growing Anacamptis coriophora (L.) R. M. Bateman, Pridgeon & M. W. Chase subsp.fragrans (Pollini) R. M. Bateman, Pridgeon & M. W. Chase (Orchidaceae) from Kroumiria, north-west Tunisia was studied by GC-MS, which led to the identification of 19 volatile components, representing 97% of the oil. The main constituents were methyl-(E)-p-methoxycinnamate (29.3%), 13-heptadecyn-1-ol (18.6%), 2,5-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol (14.1%) and 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)-phenol (9.0%). DPPH radical scavenging revealed a weak antioxidant activity. In addition, the antiproliferative effects were evaluated on BxPC3 human pancreatic carcinoma cells and on 2008 human ovarian cancer cells showing significant effect. This is the first report of the chemical composition of essential oils obtained from A. coriophora subsp. fragrans inflorescences for North Africa. Further studies are needed to understand fully the possible mechanism of action behind the cytotoxic activity of the essential oil. PMID:27534135

  5. New MADS-box gene in fern: cloning and expression analysis of DfMADS1 from Dryopteris fragrans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qingyang; Li, Wenhua; Fan, Ruifeng; Chang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    MADS genes encode a family of transcription factors, some of which control the identities of floral organs in flowering plants. Most of the MADS-box genes in fern have been cloned and analyzed in model plants, such as Ceratopteris richardii and Ceratopteris pteridoides. In this study, a new MADS-box gene, DfMADS1(GU385475), was cloned from Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott to better understand the role of MADS genes in the evolution of floral organs. The full-length DfMADS1 cDNA was 973 bp in length with a 75 bp 5'-UTR and a 169 bp 3'-UTR. The DfMADS1 protein was predicted to contain a typical MIKC-type domain structure consisting of a MADS domain, a short I region, a K domain, and a C-terminal region. The DfMADS1 protein showed high homology with MADS box proteins from other ferns. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that DfMADS1 belongs to the CRM1-like subfamily. RT-PCR analysis indicated that DfMADS1 is expressed in both the gametophytes and the sporophytes of D. fragrans. PMID:24466046

  6. Health assessment for Nutmeg Valley Road, Wolcott, New Haven County, Connecticut, Region 1. CERCLIS No. CTD980669261. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-30

    The Nutmeg Valley Road National Priorities List (NPL) site is an industrialized area located on the border of Waterbury and Wolcott, Connecticut. Surface soils at industrial/commercial properties within the site have been contaminated with heavy metals, volatile organics, and cyanide. Area groundwater has been shown to contain volatile organics and cyanide. Critical to the public health assessment is the individual consideration of 41 businesses and 31 residential properties contained within the site. A public water system has been extended to areas within the site. Potential exposure pathways of concern consist of ingestion of contaminated groundwater, inhalation of vapors and aerosols formed by industrial or domestic uses of contaminated groundwater, dermal absorption of contaminated groundwater by hygienic and recreational uses, ingestion and inhalation of contaminated soil particulates, and dermal absorption from contact with contaminated soils and sludges.

  7. Spices Mixture Containing Garlic, Ginger and Nutmeg Has Protective Effects on the Kidneys and Liver of Cadmium Exposed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ugwuja, Emmanuel Ike; Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Ugwu, Nicholas C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the potential protective effect of spice mixture containing garlic, ginger and nutmeg on the liver and kidney of cadmium exposed rats. Methods: Male albino rats (n=30) weighing 120 – 180 g, grouped into five (1-5) of 6 rats/group were studied. Group 1 (NC) rats were administered distilled water (1 ml) orally for 4 weeks and served as the negative control while group 2 (PC) rats were administered low dose (LD) cadmium (25 mg/kg body weight) orally for 4 weeks and served as positive control. Group 3 (TBE) rats were treated with spice mixture (SM); 300 mg/kg body weight orally for 2 weeks and then administered LD cadmium for 4 weeks. While group 4 (CET) rats were concurrently administered LD cadmium and SM for 4 weeks, group 5 (TAE) rats were administered LD cadmium for 4 weeks and then treated with SM for 2 weeks. The whole experiment lasted for 42 day after which the animals were sacrificed and blood collected for determination of biochemical parameters using standard procedures and techniques. Results: Exposure to Cd produced greater increases in the liver function parameters. However treatment with SM significantly (p<0.05) reduced ALT in animals treated after exposure, AST and bilirubin in those treated before exposure and significant (p<0.05) increased serum albumin in animals treated before exposure to Cd. The altered renal function parameters and total serum cholesterol were restored to near normal values following treatment with SM. Conclusion: It may be concluded that concurrent intake of garlic, ginger and nutmeg at culinary dose in the diet has both therapeutic and prophylactic effect at mitigating Cd toxicity and reaffirms the safely of spices combinations as being currently practiced. PMID:27478792

  8. Broad-range and binary-range acyl-acyl-carrier protein thioesterases suggest an alternative mechanism for medium-chain production in seeds.

    PubMed

    Voelker, T A; Jones, A; Cranmer, A M; Davies, H M; Knutzon, D S

    1997-06-01

    In the current model of medium-chain (C8-14) fatty acid biosynthesis in seeds, specialized FatB acyl-acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) thioesterases are responsible for the production of medium chains. We have isolated and characterized FatB cDNAs from the maturing seeds of elm (Ulmus americana) and nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), which accumulate predominantly caprate (10:0)- and myristate (14:0)-containing oils, respectively. In neither species were we able to find cDNAs encoding enzymes specialized for these chain lengths. Nutmeg FatB hydrolyses C14-18 substrates in vitro and expression in Brassica napus seeds leads to an oil enriched in C14-18 saturates. Elm FatB1 displays a binary specificity: one activity is centered on 10:0-ACP, and a second is centered on palmitate (16:0)-ACP. After expression in B. napus seeds the oil is enriched in C10-18 saturates, predominantly 16:0, 14:0, and 10:0. The composition of free fatty acids produced by elm FatB1 in Escherichia coli shifts from C14-16 to mostly C8-10 by increasing the rate of chain termination by this enzyme. These results suggest the existence of an alternative mechanism used in the evolution of medium-chain production, a model of which is presented. PMID:9193098

  9. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Nutmeg Valley area, Wolcott and Waterbury, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullaney, J.R.; Mondazzi, R.A.; Stone, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogeologic investigations in an industrial area in Wolcott and Waterbury, Connecticut, have provided information on the geology, ground-water flow, and water quality of the area. Ground-water contamination by volatile organic compounds was discovered in the 1980?s in the Nutmeg Valley area, where approximately 43 industries and 25 residences use ground water for industrial and domestic supply. Unconsolidated surficial deposits, including glacial stratified deposits and till, are more than 85 feet thick and are interconnected with the underlying bedrock. The horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the stratified deposits ranges from 0.8 to 21 feet per day. Water in the surficial aquifer generally flows toward discharge points along Old Tannery Brook and the Mad River. Water in the bedrock aquifer flows through low-angle unroofing joints, high-angle fractures, and foliation-parallel fractures. Most high-angle water-bearing fractures strike north with an easterly dip. Most of the water pumped from bedrock wells in the study area comes from shallow fractures that are probably in hydraulic connection with the surficial aquifer. Short-circuit flow between fracture zones in wells is a likely pathway for contaminant transport. During periods of low streamflow, only a small amount of ground water discharges directly to Old Tannery Brook or to the Mad River. The amount of discharge is on the same order of magnitude as the estimated ground-water withdrawals. In northern parts of the valley bottom within the study area, downward vertical hydraulic gradients were present between wells in the surficial and bedrock aquifers. In southern parts of the valley, however, vertical gradients were upward from the bedrock to the surficial aquifer. Vertical gradients can change seasonally in response to different amounts of ground-water recharge and to stresses caused by ground-water withdrawals, which can in turn facilitate the spread of contamination. Vapor-diffusion samplers were

  10. Screening of Chonemorpha fragrans Bioactive Extracts for Cytotoxicity Potential and Inhibition Studies of Key Enzymes Involved in Replication

    PubMed Central

    Kedari, Pradnya Prakash; Malpathak, Nutan Padmanabh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chonemorpha fragrans (Moon) Alston, a liana belonging to family Apocynaceae, is used in traditional medicinal systems for the treatment of various ailments. It is an unexplored medicinal plant with respect to its anticancer potential. Objective: Cytotoxicity of sequential as well as crude extracts of in vivo plant parts (leaves, bark, and roots), in vitro cultures, and callus were compared. Materials and Methods: 3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assay was used to compare the extracts of various in vivo plant parts (leaves, bark, and roots) along with in vitro culture systems (in vitro plantlets, callus). Furthermore, the extracts were used to evaluate inhibition of key enzymes involved in replication, i.e. topoisomerase (Topo) I and II, DNA polymerase, to check the probable mechanism of action for this cytotoxicity. Results: MTT assay showed that the chloroform extract of callus has potent anticancer potential. The plant has a promising anticancer activity against human colon epithelium, lung carcinoma, and epidermoidal carcinoma cell lines. It was found to possess Topo as well as DNA polymerase inhibitory activity. Conclusion: The results have pointed toward pharmaceutical importance of this plant. This study is the first report of exploring the antiproliferative potential as well as inhibition studies of key enzymes involved in replication, which was useful to point out probable mechanism of action for extracts of C. fragrans. SUMMARY It's a first report of cytotoxicity studies and inhibition of enzyme involved in the replication process by Chonemorpha fragrans plant extracts. The results reveal the pharmaceutical importance of this plant. From various assays performed here, a potent anticancer potential of chloroform extract of callus was revealed showing Topo I (E. coli and human) inhibitory activity, DNA pol inhibitory activity. Considering the importance of these activities, plant further needs

  11. The effect of humidity after gamma-irradiation on aflatoxin B-1 production of A. Flavus in ground nutmeg and peanut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmy, N.; Chosdu, R.; Matsuyama, A.

    1995-02-01

    The effect of humidity of 75 up to 97% after irradiation on radiosensitivity and aflatoxin B1 production of Aspergillus flavus isolated from Indonesian nutmeg were examined. Irradiation doses used were 0;0.5;1 and 3 kGy. Mould free ground nutmeg and peanut were used as the growth media, and about 10 8 of spores were used to contaminate each of the media. Aflatoxin productions were measured after having incubated 3 days up to 5 months under humidity of 91 and 97%. Prior to HPLC analysis, aflatoxin was cleaned-up using an immunoaffinity column. The results were: (1) A. flavus indicated no or almost no growth under RH of 85% or less. (2) Under 91-97% RH, growth of mycelium and toxin production were inhibited more or less by irradiation up to 1 kGy, although the effectiveness of irradiation varied with different RH and media during postirradiation incubation. (3) By 3 kGy or more, both mycelium growth and toxin production of the mould were found to be completely inhibited. (4) The production of aflatoxin in nutmeg began after having incubated for 25 and 45 days and in peanut for 3 and 6 days under 97 and 91% RH, respectively.

  12. Evaluation of the effectiveness of insecticide trunk injections for control of Latoia lepida (Cramer) in the sweet olive tree Osmanthus fragrans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Zhang, Juan; Li, Yan; Li, Jun; Shi, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The screening of suitable insecticides is a key factor in successfully applying trunk injection technology to ornamental plants. In this study, six chemical pesticides were selected and injected into the trunks of Osmanthus fragrans to control the nettle caterpillar, Latoia lepida (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), using a no-pressure injection system. The absorption rate of the insecticides, the leaf loss due to insect damage, and the mortality and frass amount of L. lepida larvae were evaluated after 77 and 429 days. The results showed that 4% imidacloprid + carbosulfan and 21% abamectin + imidacloprid + omethoate had the fastest conductivity and were completely absorbed into the trunkswithin14 days; however, the efficiencies of these insecticides in controlling L. lepidawere extremely low. Additionally, the treatment 10% emamectin benzoate + clothianidin and 2.5% emamectin benzoate was almost completely absorbed within 30 days and exhibited a longer duration of insecticide efficiency (>80% mortality) in the upper and lower leaves of the canopy. Treatment with these insecticides also resulted in significantly lower leaf loss and frass amounts. We conclude that emamectin benzoate and emamectin benzoate + clothianidin have a rapid uptake into O. fragrans, and are effective as insecticides over long durations. Hence, they may be a suitable control option for L. lepida in O. fragrans plants.

  13. Evaluation of the effectiveness of insecticide trunk injections for control of Latoia lepida (Cramer) in the sweet olive tree Osmanthus fragrans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Shi, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The screening of suitable insecticides is a key factor in successfully applying trunk injection technology to ornamental plants. In this study, six chemical pesticides were selected and injected into the trunks of Osmanthus fragrans to control the nettle caterpillar, Latoia lepida (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), using a no-pressure injection system. The absorption rate of the insecticides, the leaf loss due to insect damage, and the mortality and frass amount of L. lepida larvae were evaluated after 77 and 429 days. The results showed that 4% imidacloprid + carbosulfan and 21% abamectin + imidacloprid + omethoate had the fastest conductivity and were completely absorbed into the trunkswithin14 days; however, the efficiencies of these insecticides in controlling L. lepidawere extremely low. Additionally, the treatment 10% emamectin benzoate + clothianidin and 2.5% emamectin benzoate was almost completely absorbed within 30 days and exhibited a longer duration of insecticide efficiency (>80% mortality) in the upper and lower leaves of the canopy. Treatment with these insecticides also resulted in significantly lower leaf loss and frass amounts. We conclude that emamectin benzoate and emamectin benzoate + clothianidin have a rapid uptake into O. fragrans, and are effective as insecticides over long durations. Hence, they may be a suitable control option for L. lepida in O. fragrans plants. PMID:27688974

  14. Evaluation of the effectiveness of insecticide trunk injections for control of Latoia lepida (Cramer) in the sweet olive tree Osmanthus fragrans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Shi, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The screening of suitable insecticides is a key factor in successfully applying trunk injection technology to ornamental plants. In this study, six chemical pesticides were selected and injected into the trunks of Osmanthus fragrans to control the nettle caterpillar, Latoia lepida (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), using a no-pressure injection system. The absorption rate of the insecticides, the leaf loss due to insect damage, and the mortality and frass amount of L. lepida larvae were evaluated after 77 and 429 days. The results showed that 4% imidacloprid + carbosulfan and 21% abamectin + imidacloprid + omethoate had the fastest conductivity and were completely absorbed into the trunkswithin14 days; however, the efficiencies of these insecticides in controlling L. lepidawere extremely low. Additionally, the treatment 10% emamectin benzoate + clothianidin and 2.5% emamectin benzoate was almost completely absorbed within 30 days and exhibited a longer duration of insecticide efficiency (>80% mortality) in the upper and lower leaves of the canopy. Treatment with these insecticides also resulted in significantly lower leaf loss and frass amounts. We conclude that emamectin benzoate and emamectin benzoate + clothianidin have a rapid uptake into O. fragrans, and are effective as insecticides over long durations. Hence, they may be a suitable control option for L. lepida in O. fragrans plants.

  15. Evaluation of the effectiveness of insecticide trunk injections for control of Latoia lepida (Cramer) in the sweet olive tree Osmanthus fragrans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Zhang, Juan; Li, Yan; Li, Jun; Shi, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The screening of suitable insecticides is a key factor in successfully applying trunk injection technology to ornamental plants. In this study, six chemical pesticides were selected and injected into the trunks of Osmanthus fragrans to control the nettle caterpillar, Latoia lepida (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), using a no-pressure injection system. The absorption rate of the insecticides, the leaf loss due to insect damage, and the mortality and frass amount of L. lepida larvae were evaluated after 77 and 429 days. The results showed that 4% imidacloprid + carbosulfan and 21% abamectin + imidacloprid + omethoate had the fastest conductivity and were completely absorbed into the trunkswithin14 days; however, the efficiencies of these insecticides in controlling L. lepidawere extremely low. Additionally, the treatment 10% emamectin benzoate + clothianidin and 2.5% emamectin benzoate was almost completely absorbed within 30 days and exhibited a longer duration of insecticide efficiency (>80% mortality) in the upper and lower leaves of the canopy. Treatment with these insecticides also resulted in significantly lower leaf loss and frass amounts. We conclude that emamectin benzoate and emamectin benzoate + clothianidin have a rapid uptake into O. fragrans, and are effective as insecticides over long durations. Hence, they may be a suitable control option for L. lepida in O. fragrans plants. PMID:27688974

  16. Toxicological evaluation of myristicin.

    PubMed

    Hallström, H; Thuvander, A

    1997-01-01

    Myristicin, or methoxysafrole, is the principal aromatic constituent of the volatile oil of nutmeg, the dried ripe seed of Myristica fragrans. Myristicin is also found in several members of the carrot family (Umbelliferae). Several intoxications have been reported after an ingestion of approximately 5 g of nutmeg, corresponding to 1-2 mg myristicin/kg body weight (b.w.). Although these intoxications may be ascribed to the actions of myristicin, it is likely that other components of nutmeg may also be involved. The metabolism of myristicin resembles that of safrole. No information is available, however, concerning the quantitative importance of the different metabolic pathways. The acute toxicity of myristicin appears to be low. No toxic effects were observed in rats administered myristicin perorally at a dose of 10 mg/kg b.w., while 6-7 mg/kg b.w. may be enough to cause psychopharmacological effects in man. A weak DNA-binding capacity has been demonstrated, but there are no indications that myristicin exerts carcinogenic activity in short-term assays using mice. Intake estimations indicate that nonalcoholic drinks may be the most important single source of myristicin intake. Based on available data, it seems unlikely that the intake of myristicin from essential oils and spices in food, estimated to a few mg per person and day in this report, would cause adverse effects in humans. It is, however, at present not possible to make a complete risk assessment, as studies regarding genotoxicity and chronic toxicity, including reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity, are still lacking. PMID:9496377

  17. Analysis of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in cashew nut, nutmeg, apricot kernel, and pine nut samples: re-evaluating the uniqueness of 2-alkylcyclobutanones for irradiated food identification.

    PubMed

    Leung, Elvis M K; Tang, Phyllis N Y; Ye, Yuran; Chan, Wan

    2013-10-16

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) have long been considered as unique radiolytic products that can be used as indicators for irradiated food identification. A recent report on the natural existence of 2-ACB in non-irradiated nutmeg and cashew nut samples aroused worldwide concern because it contradicts the general belief that 2-ACBs are specific to irradiated food. The goal of this study is to test the natural existence of 2-ACBs in nut samples using our newly developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method with enhanced analytical sensitivity and selectivity ( Ye , Y. ; Liu , H. ; Horvatovich , P. ; Chan , W. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in irradiated chicken by precolumn derivatization with hydroxylamine . J. Agric. Food Chem. 2013 , 61 , 5758 - 5763 ). The validated method was applied to identify 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone (2-TCB) in nutmeg, cashew nut, pine nut, and apricot kernel samples (n = 22) of different origins. Our study reveals that 2-DCB and 2-TCB either do not exist naturally or exist at concentrations below the detection limit of the existing method. Thus, 2-DCB and 2-TCB are still valid to be used as biomarkers for identifying irradiated food.

  18. Analysis of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in cashew nut, nutmeg, apricot kernel, and pine nut samples: re-evaluating the uniqueness of 2-alkylcyclobutanones for irradiated food identification.

    PubMed

    Leung, Elvis M K; Tang, Phyllis N Y; Ye, Yuran; Chan, Wan

    2013-10-16

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) have long been considered as unique radiolytic products that can be used as indicators for irradiated food identification. A recent report on the natural existence of 2-ACB in non-irradiated nutmeg and cashew nut samples aroused worldwide concern because it contradicts the general belief that 2-ACBs are specific to irradiated food. The goal of this study is to test the natural existence of 2-ACBs in nut samples using our newly developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method with enhanced analytical sensitivity and selectivity ( Ye , Y. ; Liu , H. ; Horvatovich , P. ; Chan , W. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in irradiated chicken by precolumn derivatization with hydroxylamine . J. Agric. Food Chem. 2013 , 61 , 5758 - 5763 ). The validated method was applied to identify 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone (2-TCB) in nutmeg, cashew nut, pine nut, and apricot kernel samples (n = 22) of different origins. Our study reveals that 2-DCB and 2-TCB either do not exist naturally or exist at concentrations below the detection limit of the existing method. Thus, 2-DCB and 2-TCB are still valid to be used as biomarkers for identifying irradiated food. PMID:24066811

  19. Simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination in nutmeg by ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction and immunoaffinity column clean-up coupled with liquid chromatography and on-line post-column photochemical derivatization-fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wei-Jun; Liu, Shu-Yu; Qiu, Feng; Xiao, Xiao-He; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2013-05-01

    A simple and sensitive analytical method based on ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction and immunoaffinity column clean-up coupled with high performance liquid chromatography and on-line post-column photochemical derivatization-fluorescence detection (USLE-IAC-HPLC-PCD-FLD) has been developed for simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in 13 edible and medicinal nutmeg samples marketed in China. AFs and OTA were extracted from nutmeg samples by ultrasonication using a methanol : water (80 : 20, v/v) solution, followed by an IAC clean-up step. Different USL extraction conditions, pre-processing ways for nutmeg sample and clean-up columns for mycotoxins, as well as HPLC-PCD-FLD parameters (mobile phase, column temperature, elution procedure, excitation and emission wavelengths) were optimized. This method, which was appraised for analyzing nutmeg samples, showed satisfactory results with reference to limits of detection (LODs) (from 0.02 to 0.25 μg kg(-1)), limits of quantification (LOQs) (from 0.06 to 0.8 μg kg(-1)), linear ranges (up to 30 ng mL(-1) for AFB1, AFG1 and OTA and 9 ng mL(-1) for AFB2 and AFG2), intra- and inter-day variability (all <2%) and average recoveries (from 79.6 to 90.8% for AFs and from 93.6 to 97.3% for OTA, respectively). The results of the application of developed method in nutmeg samples have elucidated that four samples were detected with contamination of AFs and one with OTA. AFB1 was the most frequently found mycotoxin in 30.8% of nutmeg samples at contamination levels of 0.73-16.31 μg kg(-1). At least two different mycotoxins were co-occurred in three samples, and three AFs were simultaneously detected in one sample.

  20. Simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination in nutmeg by ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction and immunoaffinity column clean-up coupled with liquid chromatography and on-line post-column photochemical derivatization-fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wei-Jun; Liu, Shu-Yu; Qiu, Feng; Xiao, Xiao-He; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2013-05-01

    A simple and sensitive analytical method based on ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction and immunoaffinity column clean-up coupled with high performance liquid chromatography and on-line post-column photochemical derivatization-fluorescence detection (USLE-IAC-HPLC-PCD-FLD) has been developed for simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in 13 edible and medicinal nutmeg samples marketed in China. AFs and OTA were extracted from nutmeg samples by ultrasonication using a methanol : water (80 : 20, v/v) solution, followed by an IAC clean-up step. Different USL extraction conditions, pre-processing ways for nutmeg sample and clean-up columns for mycotoxins, as well as HPLC-PCD-FLD parameters (mobile phase, column temperature, elution procedure, excitation and emission wavelengths) were optimized. This method, which was appraised for analyzing nutmeg samples, showed satisfactory results with reference to limits of detection (LODs) (from 0.02 to 0.25 μg kg(-1)), limits of quantification (LOQs) (from 0.06 to 0.8 μg kg(-1)), linear ranges (up to 30 ng mL(-1) for AFB1, AFG1 and OTA and 9 ng mL(-1) for AFB2 and AFG2), intra- and inter-day variability (all <2%) and average recoveries (from 79.6 to 90.8% for AFs and from 93.6 to 97.3% for OTA, respectively). The results of the application of developed method in nutmeg samples have elucidated that four samples were detected with contamination of AFs and one with OTA. AFB1 was the most frequently found mycotoxin in 30.8% of nutmeg samples at contamination levels of 0.73-16.31 μg kg(-1). At least two different mycotoxins were co-occurred in three samples, and three AFs were simultaneously detected in one sample. PMID:23486692

  1. Crystal structure of an aryl cyclo­hexyl nona­noid, an anti­proliferative mol­ecule isolated from the spice Myristica malabarica

    PubMed Central

    Bauri, Ajoy Kumar; Foro, Sabine; Do, Nhu Quynh Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, C21H26O5, an aryl cyclo­hexyl nona­noid {systematic name: 3,5-dihy­droxy-2-[9-(4-hy­droxy­phen­yl)nona­noyl]cyclo­hexa-2,4-dien-1-one}, extracted from the spice plant Myristica malabarica comprises two ring components, a 4-hy­droxy­phenyl moiety and a 3,5-di­hydroxy­cyclo­hexa-2,4-dienone moiety linked by a nona­noyl chain. The mol­ecule has an extended essentially planar conformation stabilized by an intra­molecular hy­droxy O—H⋯Ocarbon­yl hydrogen bond, giving a dihedral angle between the two ring systems of 6.37 (15)°. The C, O and H atoms associated with one of the hy­droxy groups of the cyclo­hexa­dienone component are disordered over two sets of sites with site occupancies of 0.6972 and 0.3028. In the crystal, hy­droxy O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to carbonyl O-atom acceptors form large centrosymmetric R 2 2(36) cyclic dimers, which are further extended into supra­molecular one-dimensional ribbon structures along [1-11]. PMID:27746930

  2. Do Ecological Niche Model Predictions Reflect the Adaptive Landscape of Species?: A Test Using Myristica malabarica Lam., an Endemic Tree in the Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraju, Shivaprakash K.; Gudasalamani, Ravikanth; Barve, Narayani; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Narayanagowda, Ganeshaiah Kotiganahalli; Ramanan, Uma Shaanker

    2013-01-01

    Ecological niche models (ENM) have become a popular tool to define and predict the “ecological niche” of a species. An implicit assumption of the ENMs is that the predicted ecological niche of a species actually reflects the adaptive landscape of the species. Thus in sites predicted to be highly suitable, species would have maximum fitness compared to in sites predicted to be poorly suitable. As yet there are very few attempts to address this assumption. Here we evaluate this assumption. We used Bioclim (DIVA GIS version 7.3) and Maxent (version 3.3.2) to predict the habitat suitability of Myristica malabarica Lam., an economically important tree occurring in the Western Ghats, India. We located populations of the trees naturally occurring in different habitat suitability regimes (from highly suitable to poorly suitable) and evaluated them for their regeneration ability and genetic diversity. We also evaluated them for two plant functional traits, fluctuating asymmetry – an index of genetic homeostasis, and specific leaf weight – an index of primary productivity, often assumed to be good surrogates of fitness. We show a significant positive correlation between the predicted habitat quality and plant functional traits, regeneration index and genetic diversity of populations. Populations at sites predicted to be highly suitable had a higher regeneration and gene diversity compared to populations in sites predicted to be poor or unsuitable. Further, individuals in the highly suitable sites exhibited significantly less fluctuating asymmetry and significantly higher specific leaf weight compared to individuals in the poorly suitable habitats. These results for the first time provide an explicit test of the ENM with respect to the plant functional traits, regeneration ability and genetic diversity of populations along a habitat suitability gradient. We discuss the implication of these resultsfor designing viable species conservation and restoration programs. PMID

  3. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of different types of natural populations in Osmanthus fragrans Lour. and the relationships with sex ratio, population structure, and geographic isolation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaoqing; Wu, Shuai; Wang, Yiguang; Zhao, Hongbo; Zhang, Yuanyan

    2014-01-01

    Osmanthus fragrans Lour., an evergreen small tree, has the rare sexual system of androdioecy (coexistence of males and hermaphrodites), once with wide-spread natural distribution in the areas of the South Yangzi river basin. However, due to excessive human utilization, natural distribution became fragmented and the number and size of natural populations reduced sharply. With four different types of natural populations from the same region as research object, we aim to provide a comparative analysis on the relationships among genetic diversity, sexual system, population structure and size, and geographic isolation by ISSR. In genetic parameters of N e , H e , and I, the LQGC population had the highest value and the LQZGQ population had the lowest value. These indicated that LQGC population showed the highest genetic diversity, followed by QDH and JN population, and LQZGQ population exhibited the lowest genetic diversity. Genetic diversity in populations is closely related to population structure, reproduction mode, and sex ratio. However, there seems to be no obvious correlation between genetic diversity and population size. The results of AMOVA showed that genetic variations mostly occurred within populations. It indicates that no significant genetic differentiation among populations occurs, and geographic isolation has no significant effect on genetic diversity. PMID:25436228

  4. Ionic-liquid-assisted microwave distillation coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction followed by GC-MS for the rapid analysis of essential oil in Dryopteris fragrans.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jiao; Gai, Qing-Yan; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Zhao, Chun-Jian; Fu, Yu-Jie; Ma, Wei

    2013-12-01

    A rapid, green and effective miniaturized sample preparation technique, ionic-liquid-assisted microwave distillation coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction was developed for the extraction of essential oil from dried Dryopteris fragrans. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate was the optimal ionic liquid as the destruction agent of plant cell walls and microwave absorption was medium. n-Heptadecane (2.0 μL) was adopted as the suspended microdrop solvent in the headspace for the extraction and concentration of essential oil. The optimal parameters of the proposed method were an irradiation power of 300 W, sample mass of 0.9 g, mass ratio of ionic liquids to sample of 2.8, extraction temperature of 79°C, and extraction time of 3.6 min. In comparison to the previous reports, the proposed technique could equally monitor all the essential oil components with no significant differences in a simple way, which was more rapid and required a much lower amount of sample.

  5. Ionic-liquid-assisted microwave distillation coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction followed by GC-MS for the rapid analysis of essential oil in Dryopteris fragrans.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jiao; Gai, Qing-Yan; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Zhao, Chun-Jian; Fu, Yu-Jie; Ma, Wei

    2013-12-01

    A rapid, green and effective miniaturized sample preparation technique, ionic-liquid-assisted microwave distillation coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction was developed for the extraction of essential oil from dried Dryopteris fragrans. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate was the optimal ionic liquid as the destruction agent of plant cell walls and microwave absorption was medium. n-Heptadecane (2.0 μL) was adopted as the suspended microdrop solvent in the headspace for the extraction and concentration of essential oil. The optimal parameters of the proposed method were an irradiation power of 300 W, sample mass of 0.9 g, mass ratio of ionic liquids to sample of 2.8, extraction temperature of 79°C, and extraction time of 3.6 min. In comparison to the previous reports, the proposed technique could equally monitor all the essential oil components with no significant differences in a simple way, which was more rapid and required a much lower amount of sample. PMID:24174124

  6. Myristicin from nutmeg induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and down regulates genes of the DNA damage response pathways in human leukaemia K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Martins, Célia; Doran, Carolina; Silva, Inês C; Miranda, Claudia; Rueff, José; Rodrigues, António S

    2014-07-25

    Myristicin, an allylbenzene, is a major active component of various spices, such as nutmeg and cinnamon, plants from the Umbelliferae family or in some essential oils, such as oils of clove or marjoram. Human exposure to myristicin is low but widespread due to consumption of these spices and essential oils, added to food (e.g. cola drinks) or in traditional medicine. Occasionally high dose exposure occurs, leading to various clinical symptoms, however the molecular mechanisms underlying them are unknown. Our previous studies revealed that myristicin is not genotoxic and yet presented apoptotic activity. Therefore, in this work we assessed the apoptotic mechanisms induced by myristicin in human leukaemia cells. In order to gain further insight on the potential of myristicin to modulate gene expression we also analysed alterations in expression of 84 genes associated with the DNA damage response pathway. The results obtained show that myristicin can induce apoptosis as characterised by alterations in the mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, PARP-cleavage and DNA fragmentation. The gene expression profile revealed an overall down regulation of DNA damage response genes after exposure to myristicin, with significant under-expression of genes associated with nucleotide excision repair (ERCC1), double strand break repair (RAD50, RAD51) and DNA damage signalling (ATM) and stress response (GADD45A, GADD45G). On the whole, we demonstrate that myristicin can alter mitochondrial membrane function, induce apoptosis and modulate gene expression in human leukaemia K562 cells. This study provides further detail on the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological activity of myristicin.

  7. Myristicin from nutmeg induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and down regulates genes of the DNA damage response pathways in human leukaemia K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Martins, Célia; Doran, Carolina; Silva, Inês C; Miranda, Claudia; Rueff, José; Rodrigues, António S

    2014-07-25

    Myristicin, an allylbenzene, is a major active component of various spices, such as nutmeg and cinnamon, plants from the Umbelliferae family or in some essential oils, such as oils of clove or marjoram. Human exposure to myristicin is low but widespread due to consumption of these spices and essential oils, added to food (e.g. cola drinks) or in traditional medicine. Occasionally high dose exposure occurs, leading to various clinical symptoms, however the molecular mechanisms underlying them are unknown. Our previous studies revealed that myristicin is not genotoxic and yet presented apoptotic activity. Therefore, in this work we assessed the apoptotic mechanisms induced by myristicin in human leukaemia cells. In order to gain further insight on the potential of myristicin to modulate gene expression we also analysed alterations in expression of 84 genes associated with the DNA damage response pathway. The results obtained show that myristicin can induce apoptosis as characterised by alterations in the mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, PARP-cleavage and DNA fragmentation. The gene expression profile revealed an overall down regulation of DNA damage response genes after exposure to myristicin, with significant under-expression of genes associated with nucleotide excision repair (ERCC1), double strand break repair (RAD50, RAD51) and DNA damage signalling (ATM) and stress response (GADD45A, GADD45G). On the whole, we demonstrate that myristicin can alter mitochondrial membrane function, induce apoptosis and modulate gene expression in human leukaemia K562 cells. This study provides further detail on the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological activity of myristicin. PMID:24792648

  8. Nectandrin B, a lignan isolated from nutmeg, inhibits liver X receptor-α-induced hepatic lipogenesis through AMP-activated protein kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Du Gon; Kim, Eun Kyung; Yang, Jin Won; Song, Jae Sook; Kim, Young-Mi

    2015-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is recognized as the most commonly occurring chronic liver disease. Liver X receptor α (LXRα) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c play a central role in de novo fatty acid synthesis. This study investigated pharmacological effects of nectandrin B, a lignan isolated from nutmeg extract, on hepatic lipogenesis stimulated by LXRα-SREBP-1c-mediated pathway and the possible molecular basis. The reporter gene assay revealed that nectandrin B completely represses LXRα activity enhanced by a synthetic LXRα ligand (T0901317) in HepG2 cells. The inhibitory effect was further supported by the suppression of mRNA expression of LXRα target genes, SREBP-1c and LXRα itself. Nectandrin B also inhibited the increase in SREBP-1c expression promoted by insulin plus high glucose, major contributors to hepatic lipid accumulation. LXRα-SREBP-1c-mediated induction of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and fatty acid synthase, major genes for de novo lipogenesis, was suppressed by nectandrin B. Moreover, Oil Red O staining showed that nectandrin B notably attenuates LXRα-induced lipid accumulation. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibits the activities of LXRα and SREBP-1c. Nectandrin B strongly activated AMPK signaling in HepG2 cells. Taken together, the suppressive effects of nectandrin B on lipogenic gene expression and lipid accumulation in hepatocytes may be due to its inhibitory effect on the LXRα-SREBP-1c pathway presumably via AMPK activation. These results suggest the potential of nectandrin B as a therapeutic candidate for fatty liver disease. PMID:26790190

  9. Analysis of aroma-active compounds in three sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans) cultivars by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS*

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xuan; Mai, Rong-zhang; Zou, Jing-jing; Zhang, Hong-yan; Zeng, Xiang-ling; Zheng, Ri-ru; Wang, Cai-yun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Aroma is the core factor in aromatherapy. Sensory evaluation of aromas differed among three sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans) cultivar groups. The purpose of this study was to investigate the aroma-active compounds responsible for these differences. Methods: Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to analyze the aroma-active compounds and volatiles of creamy-white (‘Houban Yingui’, HBYG), yellow (‘Liuye Jingui’, LYJG), and orange (‘Gecheng Dangui’, GCDG) cultivars. Results: Seventeen aroma-active compounds were detected among 54 volatiles. trans-β-Ocimene, trans-β-ionone, and linalool, which were major volatiles, were identified as aroma-active, while cis-3-hexenyl butanoate, γ-terpinene, and hexyl butanoate were also aroma-active compounds, although their contents were low. Analysis of the odors was based on the sum of the modified frequency (MF) values of aroma-active compounds in different odor groups. HBYG contained more herb odors, contributed by cis-β-ocimene and trans-β-ocimene, while LYJG had more woody/violet/fruity odors released by trans-β-ionone, α-ionone, and hexyl butanoate. In GCDG, the more floral odors were the result of cis-linalool oxide, trans-linalool oxide, and linalool. Conclusions: Aroma-active compounds were not necessarily only the major volatiles: some volatiles with low content also contributed to aroma. The aroma differences among the three cultivars resulted from variation in the content of different odor groups and in the intensities of aroma-active compounds. PMID:25001223

  10. Hepatocyte-protective effect of nectandrin B, a nutmeg lignan, against oxidative stress: Role of Nrf2 activation through ERK phosphorylation and AMPK-dependent inhibition of GSK-3β.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae-Sook; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Choi, Yong-Won; Oh, Won Keun; Kim, Young-Mi

    2016-09-15

    Oxidative stress can contribute to the development and progression of liver diseases, such as drug-induced or alcoholic liver injury, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Nectandrin B is a bioactive lignan isolated from nutmeg extract. To date, little information is available about its pharmacological activities in the liver. This study investigated the hepatocyte-protective effect of nectandrin B against tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative injury and the underlying molecular mechanism. The cell viability assay revealed that nectandrin B prevents apoptosis stimulated by tert-butylhydroperoxide in both HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes. Nectandrin B also attenuated ROS production and restored the depleted glutathione level. Real-time PCR and immunoblot analyses showed that the expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase, an enzyme responsible for the glutathione biosynthesis, was induced by nectandrin B, indicating its indirect antioxidative effect. The NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) regulates gene expression of an array of antioxidant enzymes in hepatocytes. Nectandrin B stimulated Nrf2 activation as evidenced by its enhanced nuclear accumulation and increased antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase activity. Intriguingly, the hepatocyte-protective effect of nectandrin B against oxidative damage was completely abrogated by Nrf2 knockdown using Nrf2 specific siRNA. Nectandrin B promoted ERK activation, but inactivated GSK-3β through the AMPK-mediated inhibitory phosphorylation. The enforced overexpression of dominant-negative mutant of MEK1 or AMPKα, or wild-type GSK-3β inhibited the increase in the NQO1-ARE-luciferase activity stimulated by nectandrin B, suggesting that both ERK and AMPK-GSK-3β signalings are involved in the activation of Nrf2/ARE pathway by nectandrin B. Consistent with this, cytoprotection and restoration of glutathione level by nectandrin B was also blocked by the overexpression of dominant

  11. Assortment of the plants in the Medieval diet in Czech countries (based on archaeobotanical finds).

    PubMed

    Culíková, V

    2000-01-01

    be said that they formed a common part of the diet. Among imported fruit and spices from the peak period of the Middle Ages we succeeded in finding a date-tree (Phoenix dactylifera), nutmeg tree (Myristica fragrans) and, by means of pollen analysis, maybe a clove tree (Eugenia caryophyllata). PMID:15828207

  12. Assortment of the plants in the Medieval diet in Czech countries (based on archaeobotanical finds).

    PubMed

    Culíková, V

    2000-01-01

    be said that they formed a common part of the diet. Among imported fruit and spices from the peak period of the Middle Ages we succeeded in finding a date-tree (Phoenix dactylifera), nutmeg tree (Myristica fragrans) and, by means of pollen analysis, maybe a clove tree (Eugenia caryophyllata).

  13. Biological screening of 100 plant extracts for cosmetic use (I): inhibitory activities of tyrosinase and DOPA auto-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Lee, K T; Kim, B J; Kim, J H; Heo, M Y; Kim, H P

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate several plant extracts with a view to developing melanogenesis inhibitors. In this study, 100 plant extracts were screened to elucidate their whitening effects using in vitro inhibition of tyrosinase and DOPA auto-oxidation activity. Several plant extracts such as Chaenomeles speciosa, Dryopteris crassirhizoma, Gastrodia ellata, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Morus alba, Myristica fragrans, Rheum palmatum and Sophora japonica showed inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity. Plant extracts including Bupleurum falcatum, Caragana sinica, Morus alba and Tussilago farfara showed inhibition of DOPA auto-oxidation activity. PMID:18505483

  14. In vitro anti-rotavirus activity of some medicinal plants used in Brazil against diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, J L S; Lopes, R C; Oliveira, D B; Costa, S S; Miranda, M M F S; Romanos, M T V; Santos, N S O; Wigg, M D

    2005-07-14

    Acute diarrhea, especially in children, is a very common disease with worldwide distribution and with a significant public health impact. Rotaviruses have been recognized as the major agents of diarrhea in infants and young children in developed as well as developing countries. In Brazil, diarrhea is one of the principal causes of death, mainly in the infant population. To fight diarrhea, traditional Brazilian medicine uses a great variety of plants. In this work, 12 medicinal plant species were screened for simian (SA-11) and human (HCR3) rotaviruses inhibition in vitro. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, the extracts from Artocarpus integrifolia L. (Moraceae) bark (480 microg/ml) and Spondias lutea L. (Anacardiaceae) leaves (160 microg/ml) had antiviral activity against both viruses. They showed inhibition of 99.2% and 97%, respectively, for human rotavirus, and 96.4% and 96.2% for simian rotavirus. The extracts from Myristica fragrans Houtt (Myristicaceae) seeds (160 microg/ml) and Spongias lutea bark (40 microg/ml) inhibited human rotavirus (90% and 82.2% inhibition, respectively), whereas the extracts from Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae) leaves (4 microg/ml) and Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) leaves (8 microg/ml) showed activity only against simian rotavirus (82.2% and 93.8% inhibition, respectively). Our results indicate that the extracts of Artocarpus integrifolia, Myristica fragrans and Spongias lutea can be useful in the treatment of human diarrhea if the etiologic agent is a rotavirus.

  15. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from some common spices against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Chaubey, Mukesh Kumar

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the essential oil from seven common spices, Anethum graveolens, Cuminum cyminum, Illicium verum, Myristica fragrans, Nigella sativa, Piper nigrum and Trachyspermum ammi was isolated and its insecticidal, oviposition, egg hatching and developmental inhibitory activities were determined against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis. Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger apparatus. These essential oils caused death of adults and larvae of Callosobruchus chinensis when fumigated. The 24-h LC(50) values against the adults of the insect were 8.9 mul, 10.8 mul, 11.0 mul, 12.5 mul, 13.6 mul, 14.8 mul and 15.6 mul for N. sativa, A. graveolens, C. cyminum, I. verum, P. nigrum, M. fragrans and T. ammi oils respectively. On the other hand, against larval stage these values were 6.4 mul, 7.9 mul, 8.9 mul, 11.1 mul, 11.7 mul, 12.2 mul and 13.5 mul for N. sativa, A. graveolens, C. cyminum, I. verum, P. nigrum, M. fragrans and T. ammi respectively. These essential oils reduced the oviposition potential, egg hatching rate, pupal formation and emergence of adults of F(1) progeny of the insect when fumigated with sublethal concentrations. These essential oils also caused chronic toxicity as the fumigated insects caused less damage to the stored grains. The essential oil of N. sativa was found most effective against all the different stages of the Callosobruchus chinensis followed by A. graveolens, C. cyminum, I. verum, P. nigrum, M. fragrans and T. ammi oils. All the responses were found concentration-dependent. The toxic and developmental inhibitory effects may be due to suffocation and inhibition of various biosynthetic processes of the insects at different developmental stages. PMID:18270466

  16. Interesting Asian Plants: Their Compounds and Effects on Electrophysiology and Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2011-01-01

    There have been numerous non-scientific reports on the behavioural effects of Asian plants in humans who consumed these plants wholly or part thereof. Knowledge passed from generation to generation informs us of plants that increase effort and stamina, such as during paddy planting after the ingestion of Mitragyna speciosa Korth (ketum) as a tea supplement. Centella asiatica and Myristica fragrans are used as herbs to improve memory and to treat epilepsy, respectively. Zizyphus mauritiana is used to treat headache and burn pain, acts as an antitussive, and reduces rigor mortis immediately after death. These plants, which have been identified to exhibit analgaesic, muscle-relaxing, and nootropic effects, may contain important bio-compounds for medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical research in Malaysia. The electrophysiology properties of these plants and their effects on epilepsy, behaviour, and pain will lead Malaysia to future new drug discoveries. PMID:22589667

  17. Interesting asian plants: their compounds and effects on electrophysiology and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2011-10-01

    There have been numerous non-scientific reports on the behavioural effects of Asian plants in humans who consumed these plants wholly or part thereof. Knowledge passed from generation to generation informs us of plants that increase effort and stamina, such as during paddy planting after the ingestion of Mitragyna speciosa Korth (ketum) as a tea supplement. Centella asiatica and Myristica fragrans are used as herbs to improve memory and to treat epilepsy, respectively. Zizyphus mauritiana is used to treat headache and burn pain, acts as an antitussive, and reduces rigor mortis immediately after death. These plants, which have been identified to exhibit analgaesic, muscle-relaxing, and nootropic effects, may contain important bio-compounds for medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical research in Malaysia. The electrophysiology properties of these plants and their effects on epilepsy, behaviour, and pain will lead Malaysia to future new drug discoveries. PMID:22589667

  18. In Vitro Antibacterial Effects of Five Volatile Oil Extracts Against Intramacrophage Brucella Abortus 544

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mariri, Ayman; Saour, George; Hamou, Razan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Brucella abortus is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium that can cause a highly contagious disease in sheep, goats, cattle and one-humped camels. It is responsible for one of the most important zoonosis in human. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Mentha piperita, Origanum majorana, Citrus lemon, Cinnamomum verum and Myristica fragrans essential volatile oil extracts on human macrophages infected by B. abortus 544. Methods: Essential volatile oil extracts from M. piperita, O. majorana, C. lemon, C. verum and M. fragrans were extracted. Human macrophages were cultured at a density of 2×105 cells per well in sterile 96-well microtiter plates, and infected with B. abortus 544 at a ratio of 1:100 bacteria/cell. Then essential volatile oil extracts were added at a concentration of 1%. At specified times; cells were washed, lysed with 0.1% Triton, and plated on 2YT agar to determine the number of intracellular bacteria. Results: Cinnamomum verum volatile oil at a concentration of 1% had the highest antibacterial activity against B. abortus 544 inside human macrophages. Its inhibitory effect observed from 24 h and continued till 144 h after the infection. Moreover, C. verum (0.1%) in combination with 1% concentration of M. piperita, O. majorana, C. lemon or M. fragrans volatile oil extracts produced a synergistic inhibitory effect against B. abortus 544. Conclusion: The results indicate that, among the five selected oil extracts, C. verum volatile oil applied either separately or in combination with other oil extracts had the most effective antimicrobial activity against Brucella. PMID:23115441

  19. Steady Habits and Wooden Nutmegs; Connecticut Libraries in the Year 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Norman D.

    By the year 2000, Connecticut libraries in general will be organized as they now are, serve most of the needs that they currently do, continue to focus on books as their primary stock-in-trade, and look and function very much as they do today. By 2000, however, their basic services will be augmented and strengthened by the use of information…

  20. [Determination of eugenol, methyleugenol and methylisoeugenol in volatile oil of differently processed nutmeg].

    PubMed

    Jia, T; Sha, M; Cao, A; Wamg, Z; Xia, F

    1997-08-01

    A HPLC method for the determination of eugenol, methyleugenol and methylisoeugenol in the volatile oil of differently processed natmeg has been used. The result has shown that the content of eugenol is only sliahtly changed before and after processing, but that of methyleugenol and methylisoeugenol has obviously increased. PMID:11038913

  1. In vitro evaluation of five different herbal extracts as an antimicrobial endodontic irrigant using real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Vinothkumar, Thilla S; Rubin, Mohamed I; Balaji, Lakshmi; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam

    2013-01-01

    Context: Sodium hypochlorite is the most commonly used irrigant but it has disadvantage like high cytotoxicity. So there is a need to find an alternative to 5.25% Sodium hypochlorite against microorganism Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Literature has shown that these 5 extracts namely Terminalia chebula, Myristica frangrans, Aloe barbadensis, Curcuma longa and Azadaricta indica has good properties which can be used as a potential endodontic irrigant. Aims: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of various herbal extracts namely Curcuma longa (CL), Azadiracta indica (AI), Aloe barbadensis (AV), Myristica fragrans (MF) and Terminalia chebula (TC) as endodontic irrigant against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Materials and Methods: Eighty-four teeth were extracted and suspended with Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. A preliminary study was first performed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts. The irrigating groups were divided into five herbal groups and 2 control groups. After irrigating the teeth the remaining microbial load was determined using qPCR. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using Oneway Anova/Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc Tukey's HSD and was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Results: It was shown that Neem was highly efficient to 5.25% NaOCl in reducing Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans within the root canals when compared with other extracts. Conclusions: Neem leaf extract has a significant antimicrobial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans compared to 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. PMID:23716972

  2. In vitro growth-inhibitory effect of ethanol GRAS plant and supercritical CO₂ hop extracts on planktonic cultures of oral pathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Pilna, J; Vlkova, E; Krofta, K; Nesvadba, V; Rada, V; Kokoska, L

    2015-09-01

    Conventional chemical antiseptics used for treatment of oral infections often produce side-effects, which restrict their long-term use. Plants are considered as perspective sources of novel natural antiseptics. However, little is still known about their inhibitory properties against oral pathogens. The objective of this study was to test in vitro antimicrobial activities of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) species against planktonic cultures of cariogenic, periodontal and candidal microorganisms and identify active compounds of the most active extracts. Growth-inhibitory effects of ethanol extracts from 109 GRAS plant species, six Humulus lupulus cultivars and two hop supercritical CO2 extracts were evaluated using broth microdilution method. The chemical analysis was done through high-performance liquid chromatography. Best results were obtained for supercritical CO2 and ethanol extracts of H. lupulus with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ≥8 μg/mL and ≥16 μg/mL, respectively. The chemical analysis of supercritical CO2H. lupulus extracts revealed that α- and β-acids were their main constituents. Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens showed antibacterial effect against Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus salivarius (MIC=64-128 μg/mL). These strains were further inhibited by Zanthoxylum clava-herculis (MIC=64-128 μg/mL) and Myristica fragrans (both MIC≥128 μg/mL). The latter also exhibited antimicrobial activity against Fusobacterium nucleatum (MIC=64 μg/mL). Punica granatum possessed inhibitory effects against Candida albicans (MIC=128 μg/mL) and F. nucleatum (MIC=64 μg/mL). The results indicate that supercritical CO2H. lupulus extracts together with ethanol extracts of C. annuum, C. frutescens, M. fragrans, P. granatum and Z. clava-herculis are promising materials for further investigation on new antiseptic agents of oral care products.

  3. Pediculicidal effect of herbal shampoo against Pediculus humanus capitis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Watcharawit, R; Soonwera, M

    2013-06-01

    Human head lice infestation is an important public health problem in Thailand. Lice resistance is increasing, chemical pediculicides have lost their efficacy and thus alternative products such as herbal shampoos have been proposed to treat lice infestation. The present study investigated the efficacy of twenty nine herbal shampoos based on zinbiberaceae plants, piperaceae plants and native plants against human head lice and compared them with malathion shampoo (A-lices shampoo®: 1% w/v malathion) and commercial shampoo (BabiMild Natural'N Mild®) in order to assess their in vitro efficacy. All herbal shampoo were more effective than commercial shampoo with 100% mortality at 60 seconds and LT50 values ranged from 11.30 to 31.97 seconds, meanwhile, commercial shampoo caused 14.0-15.0% mortality and LT50 values ranged from 83.96 to 87.43 seconds. The nine herbal shampoos from Zingiber cassumunar, Piper betle, Piper ribesioides, Averrhoa bilimbi, Clitoria ternatea, Plectranthus amboincus, Myristica fragrans, Tacca chantrieri and Zanthoxylum limonella were more effective pediculicide than malathion shampoo with 100% mortality at 30 seconds and LT50 values ranged from 11.30-13.58 seconds, on the other hand malathion shampoo showed LT50 values ranging from 12.39 to 13.67 seconds. LT50 values indicated the order of pediculicidal activity in the herbal shampoos as Z. cassumunar shampoo > P. betle shampoo > Za. limonella shampoo > Av. bilimbi shampoo > P. ribesioides shampoo > My. fragrans shampoo > T. chantrieri shampoo > Pl. amboincus shampoo. Our data showed that eight of the twenty nine herbal shampoos in this study were of high potential pediculicide to human head lice treatments for Thai children. PMID:23959497

  4. Pediculicidal effect of herbal shampoo against Pediculus humanus capitis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Watcharawit, R; Soonwera, M

    2013-06-01

    Human head lice infestation is an important public health problem in Thailand. Lice resistance is increasing, chemical pediculicides have lost their efficacy and thus alternative products such as herbal shampoos have been proposed to treat lice infestation. The present study investigated the efficacy of twenty nine herbal shampoos based on zinbiberaceae plants, piperaceae plants and native plants against human head lice and compared them with malathion shampoo (A-lices shampoo®: 1% w/v malathion) and commercial shampoo (BabiMild Natural'N Mild®) in order to assess their in vitro efficacy. All herbal shampoo were more effective than commercial shampoo with 100% mortality at 60 seconds and LT50 values ranged from 11.30 to 31.97 seconds, meanwhile, commercial shampoo caused 14.0-15.0% mortality and LT50 values ranged from 83.96 to 87.43 seconds. The nine herbal shampoos from Zingiber cassumunar, Piper betle, Piper ribesioides, Averrhoa bilimbi, Clitoria ternatea, Plectranthus amboincus, Myristica fragrans, Tacca chantrieri and Zanthoxylum limonella were more effective pediculicide than malathion shampoo with 100% mortality at 30 seconds and LT50 values ranged from 11.30-13.58 seconds, on the other hand malathion shampoo showed LT50 values ranging from 12.39 to 13.67 seconds. LT50 values indicated the order of pediculicidal activity in the herbal shampoos as Z. cassumunar shampoo > P. betle shampoo > Za. limonella shampoo > Av. bilimbi shampoo > P. ribesioides shampoo > My. fragrans shampoo > T. chantrieri shampoo > Pl. amboincus shampoo. Our data showed that eight of the twenty nine herbal shampoos in this study were of high potential pediculicide to human head lice treatments for Thai children.

  5. In vitro growth-inhibitory effect of ethanol GRAS plant and supercritical CO₂ hop extracts on planktonic cultures of oral pathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Pilna, J; Vlkova, E; Krofta, K; Nesvadba, V; Rada, V; Kokoska, L

    2015-09-01

    Conventional chemical antiseptics used for treatment of oral infections often produce side-effects, which restrict their long-term use. Plants are considered as perspective sources of novel natural antiseptics. However, little is still known about their inhibitory properties against oral pathogens. The objective of this study was to test in vitro antimicrobial activities of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) species against planktonic cultures of cariogenic, periodontal and candidal microorganisms and identify active compounds of the most active extracts. Growth-inhibitory effects of ethanol extracts from 109 GRAS plant species, six Humulus lupulus cultivars and two hop supercritical CO2 extracts were evaluated using broth microdilution method. The chemical analysis was done through high-performance liquid chromatography. Best results were obtained for supercritical CO2 and ethanol extracts of H. lupulus with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ≥8 μg/mL and ≥16 μg/mL, respectively. The chemical analysis of supercritical CO2H. lupulus extracts revealed that α- and β-acids were their main constituents. Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens showed antibacterial effect against Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus salivarius (MIC=64-128 μg/mL). These strains were further inhibited by Zanthoxylum clava-herculis (MIC=64-128 μg/mL) and Myristica fragrans (both MIC≥128 μg/mL). The latter also exhibited antimicrobial activity against Fusobacterium nucleatum (MIC=64 μg/mL). Punica granatum possessed inhibitory effects against Candida albicans (MIC=128 μg/mL) and F. nucleatum (MIC=64 μg/mL). The results indicate that supercritical CO2H. lupulus extracts together with ethanol extracts of C. annuum, C. frutescens, M. fragrans, P. granatum and Z. clava-herculis are promising materials for further investigation on new antiseptic agents of oral care products. PMID:26232134

  6. Catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles synthesized using essential oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilas, Vidya; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    There are numerous reports on phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and various phytochemicals are involved in the reduction and stabilization. Pure explicit phytosynthetic protocol for catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles is of importance as it is an environmentally benign green method. This paper reports the use of essential oil of Myristica fragrans enriched in terpenes and phenyl propenes in the reduction and stabilization. FTIR spectra of the essential oil and the synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles are in accordance with the GC-MS spectral analysis reports. Nanosilver is initially characterized by an intense SPR band around 420 nm, followed by XRD and TEM analysis revealing the formation of 12-26 nm sized, highly pure, crystalline silver nanoparticles. Excellent catalytic and bioactive potential of the silver nanoparticles is due to the surface modification. The chemocatalytic potential of nanosilver is exhibited by the rapid reduction of the organic pollutant, para nitro phenol and by the degradation of the thiazine dye, methylene blue. Significant antibacterial activity of the silver colloid against Gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone - 12 mm) and Gram negative, Escherichia coli (inhibition zone - 14 mm) is demonstrated by Agar-well diffusion method. Strong antioxidant activity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles is depicted through NO scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, reducing power, DPPH and total antioxidant activity assays.

  7. A preliminary investigation of anticholinesterase activity of some Iranian medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some commonly used herbal medicine in Iran to introduce a new source for management of Alzheimer’s disease. A total of 18 aqueous-methanolic extract (1:1; v/v) from the following plants: Brassica alba, Brassica nigra, Camellia sinensis, Cinchona officinalis, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus x aurantium, Ferula assafoetida, Humulus lupulus, Juglans regia, Juniperus sabina, Myristica fragrans, Pelargonium graveolens, Pistacia vera, Punica granatum, Rheum officinale, Rosa damascena, Salix alba, and Zizyphus vulgaris were prepared and screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using in vitro Ellman spectrophotometric method. Results According to the obtained results, the order of inhibitory activity (IC50 values, μg /ml) of extracts from highest to the lowest was: C. sinensis (5.96), C. aurantifolia (19.57), Z. vulgaris (24.37), B. nigra (84.30) and R. damascena (93.1). Conclusions The results indicated and confirmed the traditional use of these herbs for management of central nervous system disorders. C. sinensis showed the highest activity in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. However, further investigations on identification of active components in the extracts are needed. PMID:24401532

  8. meso-Dihydroguaiaretic acid inhibits hepatic lipid accumulation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myoung-Su; Kim, Kyung Jin; Kim, Daeyoung; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic lipid accumulation is a major risk factor for dyslipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and insulin resistance. The present study was conducted to evaluate hypolipidemic effects of meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (MDA), anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory compound isolated from the Myristica fragrans HOUTT., by oil red O staining, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Western blot. MDA significantly inhibited insulin-induced hepatic lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. The lipid-lowering effect of MDA was accompanied by increased expression of proteins involved in fatty acid oxidation and decreased expression of lipid synthetic proteins. In addition, MDA activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as determined by phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), a downstream target of AMPK. The effects of MDA on lipogenic protein expression were suppressed by pretreatment with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. Taken together, these findings show that MDA inhibits insulin-induced lipid accumulation in human HepG2 cells by suppressing expression of lipogenic proteins through AMPK signaling, suggesting a potent lipid-lowering agent. PMID:21963507

  9. Larvicidal and adulticidal activities of some medicinal plants against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi (Liston).

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, N; Varma, Pushkala; Gurusubramanian, G

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to test the efficacy of 11 commonly available medicinal plants and compare its efficacy in relation to larvicidal and mosquitocidal activities against larvae and adults of Anopheles stephensi (Liston). All the medicinal plants and the mixture were effective against larvae of A. stephensi as evidenced by low lethal concentration and lethal time. The lethality varied in adults and plant extracts of mixture; Eucalyptus globulus, Cymbopogan citratus, Artemisia annua, Justicia gendarussa, Myristica fragrans, Annona squamosa, and Centella asiatica were found to be most effective. Larval mortality between 80% and 100% was observed in mixture treatment, C. asiatica and E. globulus. The adults that emerged from all the treatments were malformed. Further, the treated larvae showed significant decrement in the levels of protein, carbohydrate, and lipids and affect negatively the presence of certain amino acids. The present findings have important implications in the practical control of mosquito larvae and adults in the aquatic ecosystem as the medicinal plants studied are commonly available in large quantities. These plant extracts are easy to prepare, inexpensive, and safe for mosquito control which might be used directly as larvicidal and mosquitocidal agents in small volume aquatic habitats or breeding sites of around human dwellings. PMID:18787842

  10. Scientific Evaluation of Edible Fruits and Spices Used for the Treatment of Peptic Ulcer in Traditional Iranian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Shams-Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Abbasabadi, Zahra; Rahimi, Roja

    2013-01-01

    In traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), several edible fruits and spices are thought to have protective and healing effects on peptic ulcer (PU). The present study was conducted to verify anti-PU activity of these remedies. For this purpose, edible fruits and spices proposed for the management of PU in TIM were collected from TIM sources, and they were searched in modern medical databases to find studies that confirmed their efficacy. Findings from modern investigations support the claims of TIM about the efficacy of many fruits and spices in PU. The fruit of Phyllanthus emblica as a beneficial remedy for PU in TIM has been demonstrated to have antioxidant, wound healing, angiogenic, anti-H. pylori, cytoprotective, antisecretory, and anti-inflammatory properties. The fruit of Vitis vinifera has been found to be anti-H. pylori, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, angiogenic, cytoprotective, and antioxidant. The fruit and aril of seed from Myristica fragrans exert their beneficial effects in PU by increasing prostaglandin, modulation of nitric oxide and inflammatory mediators, wound healing, antisecretory, antacid, antioxidant, and anti-H. pylori activities, and improving angiogenesis. Pharmacological and clinical studies for evaluation of efficacy of all TIM fruits and spices in PU and their possible mechanisms of action are recommended. PMID:24066235

  11. Large scale screening of commonly used Iranian traditional medicinal plants against urease activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study H. pylori infection is an important etiologic impetus usually leading to gastric disease and urease enzyme is the most crucial role is to protect the bacteria in the acidic environment of the stomach. Then urease inhibitors would increase sensitivity of the bacteria in acidic medium. Methods 137 Iranian traditional medicinal plants were examined against Jack bean urease activity by Berthelot reaction. Each herb was extracted using 50% aqueous methanol. The more effective extracts were further tested and their IC50 values were determined. Results 37 plants out of the 137 crude extracts revealed strong urease inhibitory activity (more than 70% inhibition against urease activity at 10 mg/ml concentration). Nine of the whole studied plants crude extracts were found as the most effective with IC50 values less than 500 μg/ml including; Rheum ribes, Sambucus ebulus, Pistachia lentiscus, Myrtus communis, Areca catechu, Citrus aurantifolia, Myristica fragrans, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Nicotiana tabacum. Conclusions The most potent urease inhibitory was observed for Sambucus ebulus and Rheum ribes extracts with IC50 values of 57 and 92 μg/ml, respectively. PMID:23351780

  12. Catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles synthesized using essential oil.

    PubMed

    Vilas, Vidya; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

    2014-11-11

    There are numerous reports on phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and various phytochemicals are involved in the reduction and stabilization. Pure explicit phytosynthetic protocol for catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles is of importance as it is an environmentally benign green method. This paper reports the use of essential oil of Myristica fragrans enriched in terpenes and phenyl propenes in the reduction and stabilization. FTIR spectra of the essential oil and the synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles are in accordance with the GC-MS spectral analysis reports. Nanosilver is initially characterized by an intense SPR band around 420 nm, followed by XRD and TEM analysis revealing the formation of 12-26 nm sized, highly pure, crystalline silver nanoparticles. Excellent catalytic and bioactive potential of the silver nanoparticles is due to the surface modification. The chemocatalytic potential of nanosilver is exhibited by the rapid reduction of the organic pollutant, para nitro phenol and by the degradation of the thiazine dye, methylene blue. Significant antibacterial activity of the silver colloid against Gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone--12 mm) and Gram negative, Escherichia coli (inhibition zone--14 mm) is demonstrated by Agar-well diffusion method. Strong antioxidant activity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles is depicted through NO scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, reducing power, DPPH and total antioxidant activity assays. PMID:24956490

  13. Metabolic characterization of meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid in liver microsomes and in mice.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jang Su; Oh, Soo Jin; Lee, Ji-Yoon; Ryu, Chang Seon; Kim, Young-Mi; Lee, Byung Hoon; Kim, Sang Kyum

    2015-02-01

    meso-Dihydroguaiaretic acid (MDGA) is a major component of Myristica fragrans and Machilus thunbergii that is traditionally used as a spice and for medicinal purposes. Despite reports of various biological activities exerted by MDGA, there is no information regarding its metabolic properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the metabolic stability and cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitory potential of MDGA, using pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs) to characterize its metabolic properties. In addition, pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in mice treated intravenously (5 mg/kg) or orally (20 mg/kg) with MDGA for comparison with our in vitro results. The half-life of MDGA in HLMs and mouse liver microsomes incubated with NADPH, UDPGA or NADPH plus UDPGA was 25.41 and 22.74, 0.39 and 0.20 or 0.28 and 0.22 min, respectively. In our pharmacokinetic study, MDGA rapidly declined in plasma and had low bioavailability, which was attributable to extensive metabolism by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and CYPs. Among CYP isoforms, CYP2E1 activity was selectively inhibited by MDGA through a competitive inhibitory mode, with an inhibitory constant (Ki) value of 13.1 µM. These results suggest that MDGA can be used as a selective CYP2E1 inhibitor in vitro, which warrants evaluation of the pharmacological significance of MDGA-induced CYP2E1 inhibition. PMID:25533794

  14. Scientific evaluation of edible fruits and spices used for the treatment of peptic ulcer in traditional Iranian medicine.

    PubMed

    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Shams-Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Abbasabadi, Zahra; Rahimi, Roja

    2013-01-01

    In traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), several edible fruits and spices are thought to have protective and healing effects on peptic ulcer (PU). The present study was conducted to verify anti-PU activity of these remedies. For this purpose, edible fruits and spices proposed for the management of PU in TIM were collected from TIM sources, and they were searched in modern medical databases to find studies that confirmed their efficacy. Findings from modern investigations support the claims of TIM about the efficacy of many fruits and spices in PU. The fruit of Phyllanthus emblica as a beneficial remedy for PU in TIM has been demonstrated to have antioxidant, wound healing, angiogenic, anti-H. pylori, cytoprotective, antisecretory, and anti-inflammatory properties. The fruit of Vitis vinifera has been found to be anti-H. pylori, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, angiogenic, cytoprotective, and antioxidant. The fruit and aril of seed from Myristica fragrans exert their beneficial effects in PU by increasing prostaglandin, modulation of nitric oxide and inflammatory mediators, wound healing, antisecretory, antacid, antioxidant, and anti-H. pylori activities, and improving angiogenesis. Pharmacological and clinical studies for evaluation of efficacy of all TIM fruits and spices in PU and their possible mechanisms of action are recommended. PMID:24066235

  15. The Genetic Basis of Chemical Tolerance in a Wild Population of the Estuarine Fish, Fundulus heterclitus (NUTMEG)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wild populations of the killifish Fundulus heteroclitus residing in heavily contaminated North American Atlantic coast estuaries have recently and independently evolved dramatic, heritable, and adaptive polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) tolerance. However, currently available genomi...

  16. Inhibitory effect of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid from Eriobotrya fragrans on A549 cell viability in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y S; Yuan, Y; Song, G; Lin, S Q

    2016-01-01

    Loquat [Eriobotrya japonica (Lindl.)] is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been used as an anti-inflammatory and for curing chronic bronchitis among other potential applications. Extracted ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) from wild loquat were previously found capable of suppressing the proliferation of A549 cells in vitro. In the current study, nude mice were used to determine the inhibitory effect of UA and OA on tumor formation in vivo. The results demonstrate that UA and OA reduced the proliferation of A549 cells in nude mice, and increased the expression of Bid while decreasing the protein levels of MMP-2, Ki-67, and CD34. In this study, we identified potential antitumor activity in a wild loquat extract containing UA and OA, which demonstrates that traditional Chinese medicine may have a role in treating certain types of cancer. PMID:27323036

  17. Inhibitory effect of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid from Eriobotrya fragrans on A549 cell viability in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y S; Yuan, Y; Song, G; Lin, S Q

    2016-05-13

    Loquat [Eriobotrya japonica (Lindl.)] is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been used as an anti-inflammatory and for curing chronic bronchitis among other potential applications. Extracted ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) from wild loquat were previously found capable of suppressing the proliferation of A549 cells in vitro. In the current study, nude mice were used to determine the inhibitory effect of UA and OA on tumor formation in vivo. The results demonstrate that UA and OA reduced the proliferation of A549 cells in nude mice, and increased the expression of Bid while decreasing the protein levels of MMP-2, Ki-67, and CD34. In this study, we identified potential antitumor activity in a wild loquat extract containing UA and OA, which demonstrates that traditional Chinese medicine may have a role in treating certain types of cancer.

  18. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to botanical extracts used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Mahady, Gail B; Pendland, Susan L; Stoia, Adenia; Hamill, Frank A; Fabricant, Daniel; Dietz, Birgit M; Chadwick, Lucas R

    2005-11-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (HP), identified in 1982, is now recognized as the primary etiological factor associated with the development of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, HP infections are also associated with chronic gastritis, gastric carcinoma and primary gastric B-cell lymphoma. For centuries, herbals have been used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of ailments, including gastrointestinal (GI) disorders such as dyspepsia, gastritis and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, the mechanism of action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic effects has not been completely elucidated. As part of an ongoing screening program, the study assessed the in vitro susceptibility of 15 HP strains to botanical extracts, which have a history of traditional use in the treatment of GI disorders. Methanol extracts of Myristica fragrans (seed) had a MIC of 12.5 microg/mL; Zingiber officinale (ginger rhizome/root) and Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary leaf) had an MIC of 25 microg/mL. Methanol extracts of botanicals with a MIC of 50 microg/mL included Achillea millefolium, Foeniculum vulgare (seed), Passiflora incarnata (herb), Origanum majorana (herb) and a (1:1) combination of Curcuma longa (root) and ginger rhizome. Botanical extracts with a MIC of 100 microg/mL included Carum carvi (seed), Elettaria cardamomum (seed), Gentiana lutea (roots), Juniper communis (berry), Lavandula angustifolia (flowers), Melissa officinalis (leaves), Mentha piperita (leaves) and Pimpinella anisum (seed). Methanol extracts of Matricaria recutita (flowers) and Ginkgo biloba (leaves) had a MIC > 100 microg/mL.

  19. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to botanical extracts used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Mahady, Gail B; Pendland, Susan L; Stoia, Adenia; Hamill, Frank A; Fabricant, Daniel; Dietz, Birgit M; Chadwick, Lucas R

    2005-11-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (HP), identified in 1982, is now recognized as the primary etiological factor associated with the development of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, HP infections are also associated with chronic gastritis, gastric carcinoma and primary gastric B-cell lymphoma. For centuries, herbals have been used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of ailments, including gastrointestinal (GI) disorders such as dyspepsia, gastritis and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, the mechanism of action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic effects has not been completely elucidated. As part of an ongoing screening program, the study assessed the in vitro susceptibility of 15 HP strains to botanical extracts, which have a history of traditional use in the treatment of GI disorders. Methanol extracts of Myristica fragrans (seed) had a MIC of 12.5 microg/mL; Zingiber officinale (ginger rhizome/root) and Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary leaf) had an MIC of 25 microg/mL. Methanol extracts of botanicals with a MIC of 50 microg/mL included Achillea millefolium, Foeniculum vulgare (seed), Passiflora incarnata (herb), Origanum majorana (herb) and a (1:1) combination of Curcuma longa (root) and ginger rhizome. Botanical extracts with a MIC of 100 microg/mL included Carum carvi (seed), Elettaria cardamomum (seed), Gentiana lutea (roots), Juniper communis (berry), Lavandula angustifolia (flowers), Melissa officinalis (leaves), Mentha piperita (leaves) and Pimpinella anisum (seed). Methanol extracts of Matricaria recutita (flowers) and Ginkgo biloba (leaves) had a MIC > 100 microg/mL. PMID:16317658

  20. Anti-Freckles Herbal Treatment in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zakerin, Sara; Fahimi, Shirin; Rezghi, Maedeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Freckles are numerous pigmented spots of the skin, mainly confined to the face, even arms and back. Although freckles are light-brown macules, most frequently observed in individuals with red or blond hair, they are common to Asian people too. Freckles increase in number, size, and depth of pigmentation during the summer months. Histologically, freckles show increased production of melanin pigment by a normal number of melanocytes. Freckles commonly stop spreading before adolescence and last for life, but could sometimes be subtle in adulthood. Treatments are often requested for cosmetic purposes. Before the advent of lasers, treatment modalities for pigmentary disorders included surgical excision, dermabrasion, chemical bleaching, and peeling. These treatments may lead to unwanted side effects of potential scarring or undesired pigmentation changes. In Iranian traditional medicine (ITM), freckles have been known as well. “Namash” was the term used by ITM scholars to indicate freckles. There is a wide range of plants, which were prescribed by Iranian physicians for the treatment of freckles. The purpose of this study is to find the most frequent useful herbs for freckles as mentioned in ITM references. Methods: Seven ITM references were studied for anti-freckles medicines. The references were Canon of Medicine (Avicenna), Alhavi (Razes) Tuhfat ul-Momineen (Momen tonekaboni), Makhzan-ul-Adwiah (Aghili), Ikhtiyarat Badi’i (Ansari), Al-abnia An-Haghyegh el-advia (Heravi), and al-jāmi li-mufradāt al-adwiyawa al-aghdhiya (Ibn al-Baitar). Moreover, plants were ordered according to their repetition in the references. Afterwards, traditional names of the selected plants were matched with the scientific names using botanical text references. Results: This study demonstrated that Myristica fragrans Houtt, Cicer arietema L., Eruca sativa Lam., Lilium candidium L., Amygdalus communis L., Arum italicum L. were the most frequent herbs mentioned in ITM

  1. Antimalarial activities of medicinal plants and herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Thiengsusuk, Artitaya; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2013-04-01

    Malaria is one of the world's leading killer infectious diseases with high incidence and morbidity. The problem of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been aggravating particularly in Southeast Asia. Therefore, development of new potential antimalarial drugs is urgently required. The present study aimed to investigate antimalarial activities of a total of 27 medicinal plants and 5 herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) P. falciparum clones. Antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of all plants/herbal formulations against K1 and 3D7 P. falciparum clones was assessed using SYBR Green I-based assay. All plants were initially screened at the concentration of 50 μg/ml to select the candidate plants that inhibited malaria growth by ≥50%. Each candidate plant was further assessed for the IC50 value (concentration that inhibits malaria growth by 50%) to select the potential plants. Selectivity index (SI) of each extract was determined from the IC50 ratio obtained from human renal epithelial cell and K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone. The ethanolic extracts from 19 medicinal plants/herbal formulation exhibited promising activity against both K1 and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 μg/ml. Among these, the extracts from the eight medicinal plants (Plumbago indica Linn., Garcinia mangostana Linn., Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Dioscorea membranacea Pierre., Artemisia annua Linn., Piper chaba Hunt., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Kaempferia galanga Linn.) and two herbal formulations (Benjakul Formulation 1 and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai Formulation) showed potent antimalarial activity with median range IC50 values of less than 10 μg/ml against K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone or both. All except G. mangostana Linn. and A. annua Linn. showed high selective antimalarial activity against both clones with SI>10. Further studies on antimalarial

  2. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS Analysis of Flavonoids from Leaves of Different Cultivars of Sweet Osmanthus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiguang; Fu, Jianxin; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Osmanthus fragrans Lour. has traditionally been a popular ornamental plant in China. In this study, ethanol extracts of the leaves of four cultivar groups of O. fragrans were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization and mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). The results suggest that variation in flavonoids among O. fragrans cultivars is quantitative, rather than qualitative. Fifteen components were detected and separated, among which, the structures of 11 flavonoids and two coumarins were identified or tentatively identified. According to principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) based on the abundance of these components (expressed as rutin equivalents), 22 selected cultivars were classified into four clusters. The seven cultivars from Cluster III ('Xiaoye Sugui', 'Boye Jingui', 'Wuyi Dangui', 'Yingye Dangui', 'Danzhuang', 'Foding Zhu', and 'Tianxiang Taige'), which are enriched in rutin and total flavonoids, and 'Sijigui' from Cluster II which contained the highest amounts of kaempferol glycosides and apigenin 7-O-glucoside, could be selected as potential pharmaceutical resources. However, the chemotaxonomy in this paper does not correlate with the distribution of the existing cultivar groups, demonstrating that the distribution of flavonoids in O. fragrans leaves does not provide an effective means of classification for O. fragrans cultivars based on flower color. PMID:27649119

  3. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS Analysis of Flavonoids from Leaves of Different Cultivars of Sweet Osmanthus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiguang; Fu, Jianxin; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Hongbo

    2016-09-14

    Osmanthus fragrans Lour. has traditionally been a popular ornamental plant in China. In this study, ethanol extracts of the leaves of four cultivar groups of O. fragrans were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization and mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). The results suggest that variation in flavonoids among O. fragrans cultivars is quantitative, rather than qualitative. Fifteen components were detected and separated, among which, the structures of 11 flavonoids and two coumarins were identified or tentatively identified. According to principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) based on the abundance of these components (expressed as rutin equivalents), 22 selected cultivars were classified into four clusters. The seven cultivars from Cluster III ('Xiaoye Sugui', 'Boye Jingui', 'Wuyi Dangui', 'Yingye Dangui', 'Danzhuang', 'Foding Zhu', and 'Tianxiang Taige'), which are enriched in rutin and total flavonoids, and 'Sijigui' from Cluster II which contained the highest amounts of kaempferol glycosides and apigenin 7-O-glucoside, could be selected as potential pharmaceutical resources. However, the chemotaxonomy in this paper does not correlate with the distribution of the existing cultivar groups, demonstrating that the distribution of flavonoids in O. fragrans leaves does not provide an effective means of classification for O. fragrans cultivars based on flower color.

  4. Myristicin and phenytoin toxicity in an infant.

    PubMed

    Sivathanu, Shobhana; Sampath, Sowmya; David, Henry Suresh; Rajavelu, Kulandai Kasthuri

    2014-06-05

    A developmentally normal infant presented with repeated episodes of afebrile status epilepticus following nutmeg ingestion. He had developed two episodes of afebrile status epilepticus and had received different treatments earlier, but the details of treatment were not available. On admission, he redeveloped convulsions and loading doses of phenytoin, phenobarbitone and midazolam were administered. However, seizures persisted and extrapyramidal movements, nystagmus and visual dysfunction were noted. Iatrogenic phenytoin toxicity was considered and confirmed by drug levels. His symptoms completely disappeared after discontinuation of phenytoin therapy. The initial seizures were attributed to myristicin, an active component of nutmeg, because of the temporal association. However, the subsequent seizures were due to phenytoin toxicity caused by administration of multiple loading doses. This case highlights that nutmeg, a spice, can cause serious toxic effects like status epilepticus. Furthermore, treatment of status epilepticus with phenytoin can cause iatrogenic seizures due to its narrow therapeutic range.

  5. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane. PMID:27451203

  6. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane.

  7. Myristicin and phenytoin toxicity in an infant.

    PubMed

    Sivathanu, Shobhana; Sampath, Sowmya; David, Henry Suresh; Rajavelu, Kulandai Kasthuri

    2014-01-01

    A developmentally normal infant presented with repeated episodes of afebrile status epilepticus following nutmeg ingestion. He had developed two episodes of afebrile status epilepticus and had received different treatments earlier, but the details of treatment were not available. On admission, he redeveloped convulsions and loading doses of phenytoin, phenobarbitone and midazolam were administered. However, seizures persisted and extrapyramidal movements, nystagmus and visual dysfunction were noted. Iatrogenic phenytoin toxicity was considered and confirmed by drug levels. His symptoms completely disappeared after discontinuation of phenytoin therapy. The initial seizures were attributed to myristicin, an active component of nutmeg, because of the temporal association. However, the subsequent seizures were due to phenytoin toxicity caused by administration of multiple loading doses. This case highlights that nutmeg, a spice, can cause serious toxic effects like status epilepticus. Furthermore, treatment of status epilepticus with phenytoin can cause iatrogenic seizures due to its narrow therapeutic range. PMID:24903724

  8. Aflatoxin contamination in foods and foodstuffs in Tokyo: 1986-1990.

    PubMed

    Tabata, S; Kamimura, H; Ibe, A; Hashimoto, H; Iida, M; Tamura, Y; Nishima, T

    1993-01-01

    Aflatoxins were determined in 3054 samples of foods or foodstuffs, including cereals, nuts, beans, spices, dairy products, dry fruits, and edible oil. Samples were collected in Tokyo from 1986 to 1990. Aflatoxins were found in rice products, adlay, corn, crude sugar, peanut products, pistachio nuts, brazil nuts, sesame products, butter beans, white pepper, red pepper, paprika, nutmeg, and mixed spices. The highest incidence of aflatoxin contamination was observed in nutmeg (80%), and the highest level of aflatoxin B1 was observed in pistachio nuts (1382 ppb). PMID:8448440

  9. Cephaloascus Hanawa (1920)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Cephaloascus and is to be published in “The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition.” The genus Cephaloascus has two species. One, C. albidus, has been isolated from spoiled cranberry pumace, and the second, C. fragrans, is predominantly isolated fr...

  10. Rapid, effective DNA isolation from Osmanthus via alkaline lysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Osmanthus contains many popular ornamental species including fragrant tea-olive (O. fragrans) and Fortune’s tea-olive (Osmanthus x fortunei). Growers seek improved Osmanthus varieties; however, few molecular tools exist for this genus. Furthermore, the variability of leaf structure and pre...

  11. Effects of different spices used in production of fermented sausages on growth of and curvacin A production by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174.

    PubMed

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Leroy, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc

    2004-08-01

    Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a fermented sausage isolate, produces the listericidal bacteriocin curvacin A. The effect of different spices relevant for the production of fermented sausages was investigated in vitro through laboratory fermentations with a meat simulation medium and an imposed pH profile relevant for Belgian-type fermented sausages. The influence on the growth characteristics and especially on the kinetics of curvacin A production with L. curvatus LTH 1174 was evaluated. Pepper, nutmeg, rosemary, mace, and garlic all decreased the maximum specific growth rate, while paprika was the only spice that increased it. The effect on the lag phase was minor except for nutmeg and especially for garlic, which increased it, yet garlic was stimulatory for biomass production. The maximum attainable biomass concentration (X(max)) was severely decreased by the addition of 0.40% (wt/vol) nutmeg, while 0.35% (wt/vol) garlic or 0.80% (wt/vol) white pepper increased X(max). Nutmeg decreased both growth and bacteriocin production considerably. Garlic was the only spice enhancing specific bacteriocin production, resulting in higher bacteriocin activity in the cell-free culture supernatant. Finally, lactic acid production was stimulated by the addition of pepper, and this was not due to the manganese present because an amount of manganese that was not growth limiting was added to the growth medium. Addition of spices to the sausage mixture is clearly a factor that will influence the effectiveness of bacteriocinogenic starter cultures in fermented-sausage manufacturing. PMID:15294818

  12. Effects of different spices used in production of fermented sausages on growth of and curvacin A production by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174.

    PubMed

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Leroy, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc

    2004-08-01

    Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a fermented sausage isolate, produces the listericidal bacteriocin curvacin A. The effect of different spices relevant for the production of fermented sausages was investigated in vitro through laboratory fermentations with a meat simulation medium and an imposed pH profile relevant for Belgian-type fermented sausages. The influence on the growth characteristics and especially on the kinetics of curvacin A production with L. curvatus LTH 1174 was evaluated. Pepper, nutmeg, rosemary, mace, and garlic all decreased the maximum specific growth rate, while paprika was the only spice that increased it. The effect on the lag phase was minor except for nutmeg and especially for garlic, which increased it, yet garlic was stimulatory for biomass production. The maximum attainable biomass concentration (X(max)) was severely decreased by the addition of 0.40% (wt/vol) nutmeg, while 0.35% (wt/vol) garlic or 0.80% (wt/vol) white pepper increased X(max). Nutmeg decreased both growth and bacteriocin production considerably. Garlic was the only spice enhancing specific bacteriocin production, resulting in higher bacteriocin activity in the cell-free culture supernatant. Finally, lactic acid production was stimulated by the addition of pepper, and this was not due to the manganese present because an amount of manganese that was not growth limiting was added to the growth medium. Addition of spices to the sausage mixture is clearly a factor that will influence the effectiveness of bacteriocinogenic starter cultures in fermented-sausage manufacturing.

  13. PubMed Central

    Pesavento, G.; Ostuni, M.; Calonico, C.; Rossi, S.; Capei, R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of moulds known to be carcinogenic for humans, and therefore should not be ingested in high doses. This study aimed to determine the level of mould and aflatoxin contamination in dehydrated chilli and nutmeg imported from India and Indonesia, respectively, packaged in Italy, and commercialized worldwide. We tested 63 samples of chilli (22 sanitized through heat treatment and 41 not heat-treated) and 52 samples of nutmeg (22 heat-treated and 30 not heat-treated) for aflatoxin, moulds and moisture content. Heat-treated samples were less contaminated than untreated samples. Spices in powder form (both chilli and nutmeg) were more contaminated than whole ones. In untreated spices, we observed a positive correlation between mould and moisture content. Of the powdered nutmeg and chilli samples, 72.5% and 50% tested positive for aflatoxin contamination, with a range of 0-17.2 μg kg-1 and 0-10.3 μg kg-1, respectively. The steam treatment of spices would be useful in reducing the initial amount of moulds. Although the risk from the consumption of spices contaminated with aflatoxins is minimal, owing to the small amount used in food, preventive screening of the whole food chain is very important, especially because the most frequently identified toxin was B1, which is the most dangerous of the four toxins (B1, B2, G1, G2). PMID:27582627

  14. Influence of certain essential oils on carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes and acid-soluble sulfhydryls in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, S; Sharma, R; Kale, R K; Rao, A R

    1994-01-01

    The influence of essential oils from naturally occurring plant dietary items such as cardamom, celery seed, cumin seed, coriander, ginger, nutmeg, and zanthoxylum on the activities of hepatic carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, and glutathione S-transferase) and acid-soluble sulfhydryl level was investigated in Swiss albino mice. Each oil was fed by gavage at 10 microliters/day for 14 days, and then the animals were sacrificed and their hepatic enzyme activities and sulfhydryl levels were evaluated. Only nutmeg and zanthoxylum oils induced cytochrome P450 level significantly (p < 0.05), whereas cardamom oil caused a significant reduction in its activity (p < 0.05). Furthermore, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity was significantly elevated only by treatment with ginger oil (p < 0.01), whereas nutmeg oil caused a significant reduction in its activity (p < 0.01). The remaining oils did not significantly alter the level of cytochrome P450 and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity. Glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly elevated in all experimental groups (p < 0.1-p < 0.001) compared with controls. The acid-soluble sulfhydryl was significantly elevated only by the essential oils of cardamom (p < 0.05), nutmeg (p < 0.05), and zanthoxylum (p < 0.01). Our observations suggest that intake of essential oils affects the host enzymes associated with activation and detoxication of xenobiotic compounds, including chemical carcinogens and mutagens. PMID:8072879

  15. Study of the Effectivity of Several Tree Canopy Types on Roadside Green Belt in Influencing The Distribution Vertically and Horizontally of CO gas Emitted from Transportation Activities to Vicinity of The Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistyantara, Bambang; Nasrullah, Nizar; Sitti Fatimah, Indung; Indah Pratiwi, Prita

    2016-01-01

    High volume of vehicle leads to the increase of emission of pollutants level in major cities of Indonesia. Carbon monoxide (CO) is categorized as the main gas pollutants from transportation that are harmful to human health. Plants could be used as roadside green belt to reduce the level of pollutants emitted from the transportation. The purpose of this research is to determine tree canopy type that effectively reduce CO gas concentration, to determine the relation between tree canopy types and pollutant distribution vertically and horizontally. The research was conducted on roadside green belt of Jagorawi Highway, especially on the plot of glodogan (Polyanthea fragrans), plot of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) and a control plot (open filed). Air sampling was conducted to measure the concentration of CO at three elevation 1.5 m, 5 m, and 10 m at each distance 0 m, 10 m, and 30 m. Concentration of CO was analysed using Iodometri method. Vertical distribution of CO gas shows that the concentration increases with the increasing of sampling elevation on the plot of Polyalthia fragrans and Swietenia mahogany, but the control plot shows the opposite. Horizontal distribution shows that the concentration decreases at the distance 10 m on the plot of Polyalthia fragrans and Swietenia mahogany, but the concentration increases again at the distance 30 m. At the distance 10 m and an elevation 1.5 m, the highest decline percentage of CO occurs on the plot of Swietenia mahogany (45.1%), on the plot of Polyalthia fragrans is just 22.2%, while in control plot, it increases by 2.2%. At the distance 30 m and elevation 1.5 m, the concentration increased again on all of the plots. Thus roadside green belt with a thickness 10 m is not effective in reducing the concentration of CO at the distance 30 m or in residential areas.

  16. The potential effectiveness of essential oils as a treatment for headlice, Pediculus humanus capitis.

    PubMed

    Veal, L

    1996-08-01

    Essential oils of aniseed, cinnamon leaf, red thyme, tea tree, peppermint, nutmeg, rosemary, and pine were tested in vitro against lice, Pediculus humanus. All the oils except for rosemary and pine were found to be effective in the laboratory when applied in an alcoholic solution and followed by a rinse the following morning in an essential oil/vinegar/water mixture. Peppermint and nutmeg were only used as a blend rather than as individual oils. Problems of solubility and toxicity are discussed, as are possible mechanisms of action. Phenols, phenolic ethers, ketones, and oxides (1,8-cineole) appear to be the major toxic components of these essential oils when used on lice. Aldehydes and sesquiterpenes may also play a role. PMID:9439284

  17. The potential effectiveness of essential oils as a treatment for headlice, Pediculus humanus capitis.

    PubMed

    Veal, L

    1996-08-01

    Essential oils of aniseed, cinnamon leaf, red thyme, tea tree, peppermint, nutmeg, rosemary, and pine were tested in vitro against lice, Pediculus humanus. All the oils except for rosemary and pine were found to be effective in the laboratory when applied in an alcoholic solution and followed by a rinse the following morning in an essential oil/vinegar/water mixture. Peppermint and nutmeg were only used as a blend rather than as individual oils. Problems of solubility and toxicity are discussed, as are possible mechanisms of action. Phenols, phenolic ethers, ketones, and oxides (1,8-cineole) appear to be the major toxic components of these essential oils when used on lice. Aldehydes and sesquiterpenes may also play a role.

  18. Effects of gamma-irradiation on the free radical and antioxidant contents in nine aromatic herbs and spices.

    PubMed

    Calucci, Lucia; Pinzino, Calogero; Zandomeneghi, Maurizio; Capocchi, Antonella; Ghiringhelli, Silvia; Saviozzi, Franco; Tozzi, Sabrina; Galleschi, Luciano

    2003-02-12

    Nine spice and aromatic herb samples (i.e., basil, bird pepper, black pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg, oregano, parsley, rosemary, and sage) were gamma-irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy according to commercial practices. The effects of the disinfection treatment on the content of organic radicals and some nutrients (namely, vitamin C and carotenoids) in the samples were investigated by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Irradiation resulted in a general increase of quinone radical content in all of the investigated samples, as revealed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The fate of these radicals after storage for 3 months was also investigated. The cellulose radical was clearly observed in a few samples. Significant losses of total ascorbate were found for black pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg, oregano, and sage, whereas a significant decrease of carotenoids content was observed for cinnamon, oregano, parsley, rosemary, bird pepper, and sage.

  19. Integration of GC/MS Instrumentation into the Undergraduate Laboratory: Separation and Identification of Fatty Acids in Commercial Fats and Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinson, Judith F.; Neyer-Hilvert, Jennifer

    1997-09-01

    A laboratory experiment using a gas chromatography/mass selective detection method has been developed for the isolation, identification, and quantitation of fatty acid content of commercial fats and oils. Results for corn, nutmeg, peanut, and safflower oils are compared with literature values, and the results for corn oil are compared for two different trials of the experiment. In addition, a number of variations on the experiment are suggested including possible extension of the experiment for use in an instrumental analysis course.

  20. Constituents of aromatic plants: elemicin.

    PubMed

    De Vincenzi, M; De Vincenzi, A; Silano, M

    2004-09-01

    No results of short-term or chronic toxicity studies have been found. Elemicin did induce UDS in hepatocytes from male rats. Studies on carcinogenicity were negative, but the 1'-hydroxy-metabolite of elemicin gave positive and negative results. The total intake of elemicin from essential oil seems to be limited. The main source of intake appears to be nutmeg. Further studies are needed to evaluate if the intake of elemicin may represent a health risk. PMID:15351123

  1. [Decontamination of some spices by ethylene oxide. Development of 2-chloroethanol and ethylene glycol during the preservation].

    PubMed

    Chaigneau, M; Muraz, B

    1993-01-01

    After the disinfection by ethylene oxide and storage by ethylene oxide in definite conditions of 16 spices (parsley, chervil, tarragone, chive, thyme, rosemary, coriander, nutmeg, mace, cinnamon, allspices, clove, pepper), the authors observed the fast loss of residual ethylene oxide and ethyleneglycol. On the contrary, the persistence of 2-chloroethanol was followed up for 6 months. They turn their attention to the toxicity of this compound to ensure the protection of customers.

  2. The Influence of Spices on the Volatile Compounds of Cooked Beef Patty

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Samooel; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Il Suk; Nam, Ki Chang; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the influences of spices on the amounts and compositions of volatile compounds released from cooked beef patty. Beef patty with 0.5% of spice (nutmeg, onion, garlic, or ginger powder, w/w) was cooked by electronic pan until they reached an internal temperature of 75℃. A total of 46 volatile compounds (6 alcohols, 6 aldehydes, 5 hydrocarbons, 6 ketones, 9 sulfur compounds, and 14 terpenes) from cooked beef patties were detected by using purgeand- trap GC/MS. The addition of nutmeg, onion, or ginger powder significantly reduced the production of the volatile compounds via lipid oxidation in cooked beef patty when compared to those from the control. Also, the addition of nutmeg and garlic powder to beef patty generated a lot of trepans or sulfur volatile compounds, respectively. From these results, the major proportion by chemical classes such as alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, ketones, sulfur compounds, and terpenes was different depending on the spice variations. The results indicate that addition of spices to the beef patty meaningfully changes the volatile compounds released from within. Therefore, it can be concluded that spices can interact with meat aroma significantly, and thus, the character of each spice should be considered before adding to the beef patty. PMID:26760934

  3. The Influence of Spices on the Volatile Compounds of Cooked Beef Patty.

    PubMed

    Jung, Samooel; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Il Suk; Nam, Ki Chang; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Kyung Heang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the influences of spices on the amounts and compositions of volatile compounds released from cooked beef patty. Beef patty with 0.5% of spice (nutmeg, onion, garlic, or ginger powder, w/w) was cooked by electronic pan until they reached an internal temperature of 75℃. A total of 46 volatile compounds (6 alcohols, 6 aldehydes, 5 hydrocarbons, 6 ketones, 9 sulfur compounds, and 14 terpenes) from cooked beef patties were detected by using purgeand- trap GC/MS. The addition of nutmeg, onion, or ginger powder significantly reduced the production of the volatile compounds via lipid oxidation in cooked beef patty when compared to those from the control. Also, the addition of nutmeg and garlic powder to beef patty generated a lot of trepans or sulfur volatile compounds, respectively. From these results, the major proportion by chemical classes such as alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, ketones, sulfur compounds, and terpenes was different depending on the spice variations. The results indicate that addition of spices to the beef patty meaningfully changes the volatile compounds released from within. Therefore, it can be concluded that spices can interact with meat aroma significantly, and thus, the character of each spice should be considered before adding to the beef patty. PMID:26760934

  4. Antibacterial activity of alimentary plants against Staphylococcus aureus growth.

    PubMed

    Pérez, C; Anesini, C

    1994-01-01

    Alimentary plants were screened for antibacterial activity against a penicillin G resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Twenty-five samples of plant material corresponding to 21 species from 13 families were used. Both aqueous and ethanol extracts were obtained from them. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar-well diffusion method, using cephazolin as a standard antibiotic. Seventeen ethanol extracts were found active. Eugenia caryophyllata (clavo de olor*) flowers, Myristica fragans (nuez moscada*) seeds, Theobroma cacao (cacao*) seed bark, Triticum sp (trigo*) fruit, Zea mays (maíz*) fruit and Piper nigrum (pimienta*) ripe fruit produced some of the more active extracts (* = Argentine vulgar names).

  5. Responses of Leaf-level Carbon Assimilation and Transpiration to Root-zone Water Potential Changes in a Subtropical Tree Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicheng, Z.; Guan, H.; Han, G.; Zhang, X.

    2013-12-01

    Photosynthetic carbon assimilation in terrestrial ecosystems significantly contributes to global carbon balance in the atmosphere. While vegetation photosynthesizes to fix CO2, it simultaneously transpires H2O. These two interdependent processes are regulated by leaf stomata which are sensitive to environmental conditions (such as root zone soil moisture). Knowledge of the responses of leaf-level transpiration and carbon assimilation to a change of root-zone soil moisture condition is important to understand how these processes influence water balance and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems, and to understand the capacity of trees to cope with future climate changes.We will present the results of a one-year observational study on a subtropical evergreen broadleaf tree species (Osmanthus fragrans) in the central south China. The observations were carried out on two 8-year Osmanthus fragrans trees in a plantation site from 1 Sep, 2012 to 31 Aug, 2013. A portable infrared gas exchange analyzer (Li-6400, Li-COR, Inc., Lincoln, Nebraska, USA) was used to measure leaf photosynthesis and leaf transpiration on clear days. Root zone soil water potential was estimated from predawn stem water potential using stem psychrometers (ICT, Australia). Sap flow and micrometeorological data were also collected. The results show that the average leaf carbon assimilation rate at light saturation decreases quickly with the root zone water potential from 0 to -1 MPa, and slowly after the root zone water potential falls below -1 MPa. The average leaf transpiration at light saturation shows a similar pattern. Leaf-level water use efficiency increases slowly with a decrease of root-zone water potential from 0 to -1 MPa, and keeps constant when the root zone gets drier. This relationship provides a potential to estimate whole-tree carbon assimilation from sap flow measurements. Leaf assimilation rates at light saturation in early morning vs. root-zone water potential for Osmanthus

  6. Nutritional evaluation of some Nigerian wild seeds.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ekperigin, M Mofoluso

    2004-04-01

    Some wild seeds, namely Parkia biglobosa, Tetracarpidum conophorum, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Irvingia gabonensis, Afzelia africana, Prosporis africana and Monodora myristica, were randomly collected from various parts of Nigeria and analyzed with regard to their proximate, mineral, antinutrient composition and zinc bioavailability. The results revealed that the seeds had high protein (6.5-24.2%), fat (19.0-58.5%), mineral (Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ca, Na, K, P) and phytate (1043.6-2905.2 mg/100 g) contents, while the cyanide content was low (3.7-6.4 mg/kg). However, Co, Pb and Ni were not detected in all the samples. The calculated [Ca] [phytate]/[Zn] molar ratios (which is the best index for predicting Zn bioavailability) for all the seeds revealed that Parkia biglobosa, Irvingia gabonensis and Prosporis africana had a calculated molar ratio above 0.50 mol/kg (critical level), thus indicating reduced bioavailability of Zn to a critical level. In view of the high fat, protein, mineral and low cyanide contents, the high phytate content would not be expected to reduce bioavailability of Zn in some of the wild seeds (Afzelia africana, Pentaclethra macrophylla and Monodora myristica). These wild seeds could be good nutrient sources if integrated fully into human and animal nutrition. However, further studies will be carried out on the protein quality and toxicological potentials of these wild seeds.

  7. Micropropagation and in vitro conservation of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews).

    PubMed

    Divakaran, Minoo; Babu, K Nirmal

    2009-01-01

    Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews (syn. V. fragrans Salisb.), a source of natural vanillin, plays a major positive role in the economy of several countries. A native to the Central America, its primary gene pool is threatened by deforestation and over collection that has resulted in disappearance of natural habitats and wild species. Therefore, multiplication and conservation of vanilla diversity is of paramount importance because of its narrow genetic base. It plays an important role in the production of disease free planting material for commercial cultivation. Simple protocols for micropropagation, in vitro conservation and synthetic seed production are described in this chapter which could further be applied to other related vanilla species as well.

  8. 'Just a pinch of salt'. An experimental comparison of the effect of repeated exposure and flavor-flavor learning with salt or spice on vegetable acceptance in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Bouhlal, Sofia; Issanchou, Sylvie; Chabanet, Claire; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2014-12-01

    Children's vegetable intake is below the recommended amounts. No studies to date have tested the relevance of using salt or spices to increase children's vegetable acceptance. Our objective was to compare the effect of repeated exposure (RE) and of flavor-flavor learning (FFL) on toddlers' acceptance of a non-familiar vegetable. Two unconditioned stimuli were used: salt and a salt-associated spice. Toddlers attending six nurseries were assigned to 3 groups in a between subject design. Groups were exposed 8 times to a basic salsify puree (0.2% salt w/w; RE group; n = 47), a salty salsify puree (0.5% salt w/w; FFL-Salt group; n = 54) or a spiced salsify puree (0.2% salt and 0.02% nutmeg w/w; FFL-Nutmeg group; n = 50). Acceptance (intake and liking) of the target vegetable (basic salsify puree) and of a control vegetable (carrot puree) was evaluated at pre-exposure, at each exposure of the learning period, at post-exposure, and at 1, 3 and 6 months after exposure. In all groups, intake of the target vegetable increased from pre- to post-exposure. This increase was significantly higher in the RE group (64 ± 11 g) than in the FFL-Salt group (23 ± 11 g) and marginally higher than in the FFL-Nutmeg group (36 ± 11 g). No difference between groups was observed on the increase in liking of the target vegetable from pre- to post-exposure. The increase of the target vegetable intake was still observed after 6 months for all groups. Thus, repeated exposure appears to be the simplest choice to increase vegetable intake on the short and long term in toddlers.

  9. 'Just a pinch of salt'. An experimental comparison of the effect of repeated exposure and flavor-flavor learning with salt or spice on vegetable acceptance in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Bouhlal, Sofia; Issanchou, Sylvie; Chabanet, Claire; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2014-12-01

    Children's vegetable intake is below the recommended amounts. No studies to date have tested the relevance of using salt or spices to increase children's vegetable acceptance. Our objective was to compare the effect of repeated exposure (RE) and of flavor-flavor learning (FFL) on toddlers' acceptance of a non-familiar vegetable. Two unconditioned stimuli were used: salt and a salt-associated spice. Toddlers attending six nurseries were assigned to 3 groups in a between subject design. Groups were exposed 8 times to a basic salsify puree (0.2% salt w/w; RE group; n = 47), a salty salsify puree (0.5% salt w/w; FFL-Salt group; n = 54) or a spiced salsify puree (0.2% salt and 0.02% nutmeg w/w; FFL-Nutmeg group; n = 50). Acceptance (intake and liking) of the target vegetable (basic salsify puree) and of a control vegetable (carrot puree) was evaluated at pre-exposure, at each exposure of the learning period, at post-exposure, and at 1, 3 and 6 months after exposure. In all groups, intake of the target vegetable increased from pre- to post-exposure. This increase was significantly higher in the RE group (64 ± 11 g) than in the FFL-Salt group (23 ± 11 g) and marginally higher than in the FFL-Nutmeg group (36 ± 11 g). No difference between groups was observed on the increase in liking of the target vegetable from pre- to post-exposure. The increase of the target vegetable intake was still observed after 6 months for all groups. Thus, repeated exposure appears to be the simplest choice to increase vegetable intake on the short and long term in toddlers. PMID:25171850

  10. Contact dermatitis to Vicks VapoRub.

    PubMed

    Noiles, Kristin; Pratt, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Vicks VapoRub (VVR) is a commonly used inhalant ointment that helps relieve symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections. It contains several plant substances, including turpentine oil, eucalyptus oil, and cedar leaf oil, which can potentially irritate or sensitize the skin, as well as camphor, menthol, nutmeg oil, and thymol. Although many reports describe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to the various constituents in VVR ointment, there are no cases of VVR directly causing ACD. We present a case of a patient who developed an ACD secondary to application of her VVR.

  11. Contact dermatitis to Vicks VapoRub.

    PubMed

    Noiles, Kristin; Pratt, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Vicks VapoRub (VVR) is a commonly used inhalant ointment that helps relieve symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections. It contains several plant substances, including turpentine oil, eucalyptus oil, and cedar leaf oil, which can potentially irritate or sensitize the skin, as well as camphor, menthol, nutmeg oil, and thymol. Although many reports describe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to the various constituents in VVR ointment, there are no cases of VVR directly causing ACD. We present a case of a patient who developed an ACD secondary to application of her VVR. PMID:20487662

  12. Modulatory effects of essential oils from spices on the formation of DNA adduct by aflatoxin B1 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hashim, S; Aboobaker, V S; Madhubala, R; Bhattacharya, R K; Rao, A R

    1994-01-01

    Essential oils from common spices such as nutmeg, ginger, cardamom, celery, xanthoxylum, black pepper, cumin, and coriander were tested for their ability to suppress the formation of DNA adducts by aflatoxin B1 in vitro in a microsomal enzyme-mediated reaction. All oils were found to inhibit adduct formation very significantly and in a dose-dependent manner. The adduct formation appeared to be modulated through the action on microsomal enzymes, because an effective inhibition on the formation of activated metabolite was observed with each oil. The enzymatic modulation is perhaps due to the chemical constituents of the oils, and this could form a basis for their potential anticarcinogenic roles. PMID:8058527

  13. Complete genome sequence of antibiotic and anticancer agent violacein producing Massilia sp. strain NR 4-1.

    PubMed

    Myeong, Nu Ri; Seong, Hoon Je; Kim, Hye-Jin; Sul, Woo Jun

    2016-04-10

    Massilia sp. NR 4-1 was a violacein producing strain newly isolated from topsoil under nutmeg tree, Torreya nucifera in Korean national monument Bijarim Forest. Violacein is a novel class of drug exhibiting anticancer and antibiotic activities originated from l-tryptophan. Here, we present the complete genome of Massilia sp. strain NR 4-1 of 6,361,416bp and total 5285 coding sequences (CDSs) including a complete violacein biosynthesis pathway, vioABCDE. The genome sequence of Massilia sp. NR 4-1 will provide stable and efficient biotechnological applications of violacein production. PMID:26916415

  14. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from five selected herbs.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Mei-Lin; Lin, Chih-Chien; Lin, Wei-Chao; Yang, Chao-Hsun

    2011-01-01

    Eucalyptus bridgesiana, Cymbopogon martinii, Thymus vulgaris, Lindernia anagallis, and Pelargonium fragrans are five species of herbs used in Asia. Their essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS, and a total of 36 components were detected. The results of our study indicated that, except for the essential oil of P. fragrans, all of the essential oils demonstrated obvious antimicrobial activity against a broad range of microorganisms. The C. martinii essential oil, which is rich in geraniol, was the most effective antimicrobial additive. All of the essential oils demonstrated antioxidant activities on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, β-carotene/linoleic acid assay, and nitric oxide radical scavenging assay. Furthermore, the T. vulgaris essential oil, which possesses plentiful thymol, exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. For P. acnes-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the essential oils of P. aeruginosa, C. martinii, and T. vulgaris reduced the TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-8 secretion levels of THP-1 cells. PMID:21979069

  15. Investigation of antibacterial activity of aspidin BB against Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chang; Guo, Na; Li, Na; Peng, Xiao; Wang, Peng; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, antibacterial activity of four kinds of phloroglucinol derivatives extracted from Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott against S. aureus, S. epidermidis and P. acnes has been tested. Aspidin BB exerted the strongest antibacterial activity with minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) values ranging from 7.81 to 15.63 μg/mL. The time-kill assay indicated that aspidin BB could kill P. acnes completely at 2 MIC (MBC) within 4 h. By using AFM, we demonstrated extensive cell surface alterations of aspidin BB-treated P. acnes. SDS-PAGE of supernatant proteins and lipid peroxidation results showed that aspidin BB dose-dependently affected membrane permeability of P. acnes. DNA damage and protein degradation of P. acnes were also verified. SDS-PAGE of precipitated proteins revealed possible targets of aspidin BB, i.e., heat shock proteins (26 kDa) and lipase (33 kDa) which could all cause inflammation. Aspidin BB also seriously increased the inhibition rate of lipase activity from 10.20 to 65.20 % to possibly inhibit the inflammation. In conclusions, the effective constituents of D. fragrans (L.) Schott to treat acne might be phloroglucinol derivatives including aspidin BB, aspidin PB, aspidinol and dryofragin. Among this, aspidin BB inhibited the growth of P. acnes by disrupting their membrane, DNA and proteins and finally leaded to the cell death. The obtained data highlighted the potential of using aspidin BB as an alternative treatment for acne vulgaris. PMID:26596576

  16. Aflatoxins in spices marketed in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Martins, H M; Bernardo, F

    2001-04-01

    Seventy-nine prepackaged samples of 12 different types of spice powders (five cardamom, five cayenne pepper, eight chilli, five cloves, seven cumin, five curry) powder, five ginger, five mustard, 10 nutmeg, 12 paprika, five saffron and seven white pepper) were selected from supermarkets and ethnic shops in Lisbon (Portugal) for estimation of aflatoxins by immunoaffinity column clean-up followed by HPLC. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was detected in 34 samples of prepackaged spices (43.0%). All of the cayenne pepper samples were contaminated with levels ranging from 2 to 32 microg AFB1/kg. Three nutmeg samples contained levels ranging from 1 to 5 microg/kg, three samples had levels ranging from 6 to 20 microg/kg, and there were two with 54 microg/kg and 58 microg/ kg. Paprika contained levels of aflatoxin B1 ranging from 1 to 20 microg/kg. Chilli, cumin, curry powder, saffron and white pepper samples had levels ranging from 1 to 5 microg/kg. Aflotoxins were not detected in cardamon, cloves, ginger and mustard. None of the samples analysed contained aflatoxins B2, G1 and G2. PMID:11339266

  17. Total and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.

    PubMed

    Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P

    2012-06-01

    Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation. PMID:22492273

  18. Total and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.

    PubMed

    Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P

    2012-06-01

    Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation.

  19. Effect of some essential oils on phagocytosis and complement system activity.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rosés, Renato; Risco, Ester; Vila, Roser; Peñalver, Pedro; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2015-02-11

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro activity of 15 essential oils, 4 essential oil fractions, and 3 pure compounds (thymol, carvacrol, and eugenol) on phagocytosis by human neutrophils and on complement system. Samples were characterized by GC and GC-MS. Most of the oils (nutmeg, clove, niaouli, tea tree, bay laurel, lemon, red thyme, ginger), nutmeg terpenes, eugenol, and carvacrol showed mild to moderate inhibition of phagocytosis (25-40% inhibition at doses ranging from 40 to 60 μg/mL); highest inhibitory activity was found for thymol (72% at 56 μg/mL), whereas the mixture of bornyl and isobornyl acetates showed a mild stimulating activity (21% at 56 μg/mL). All samples were inactive in the alternative pathway of complement system, whereas on classical pathway, clove oil, eugenol, palmarosa oil, red thyme oil, tarragon oil, and carvacrol showed the highest activity, with IC50 values ranging from 65 to 78 μg/mL.

  20. Wildlife disease and conservation in Hawaii: pathogenicity of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in experimentally infected Iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, C.T.; Woods, K.L.; Dusek, R.J.; Sileo, L.S.; Iko, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    Native Hawaiian forest birds are facing a major extinction crisis with more than 75% of species recorded in historical times either extinct or endangered. Reasons for this catastrophe include habitat destruction, competition with non-native species, and introduction of predators and avian diseases. We tested susceptibility of Iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea), a declining native species, and Nutmeg Mannikins (Lonchura punctulata), a common non-native species, to an isolate of Plasmodium relictum from the island of Hawaii. Food consumption, weight, and parasitaemia were monitored in juvenile Iiwi that were infected by either single (low-dose) or multiple (high-dose) mosquito bites. Mortality in both groups was significantly higher than in uninfected controls, reaching 100% of high-dose birds and 90% of low-dose birds. Significant declines in food consumption and a corresponding loss of body weight occurred in malaria-infected birds. Both sex and body weight had significant effects on survival time, with males more susceptible than females and birds with low initial weights more susceptible than those with higher initial weights. Gross and microscopic lesions in malaria fatalities included massive enlargement of the spleen and liver, hyperplasia of the reticuloendothelial system with extensive deposition of malarial pigment, and overwhelming anaemia in which over 30% of the circulating erythrocytes were parasitized. Nutmeg Mannikins, by contrast, were completely refractory to infection. Our findings support previous studies documenting high susceptibility of native Hawaiian forest birds to avian malaria. This disease continues to threaten remaining high elevation populations of endangered native birds.

  1. Insecticidal and oviposition deterrent properties of some spices against coleopteran beetle, Sitophilus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Devi, Kalpana C; Devi, Sumithra S

    2013-06-01

    Eighteen spices were screened for their insecticidal potential and antiovipositional properties against the rice weevil- Sitophilus oryzae-a serious insect pest of stored food grains. The bioefficacy of the powders and hexane extracts of selected spices were determined by assessing the toxicity, effect on F1 progeny, contact toxicity, persistence and seed viability. Responses varied with the spices, dosage and exposure time. Powders of mace and pepper, at 1% level were highly effective resulting in total mortality of S. oryzae by one week followed by nutmeg and clove with 100% mortality and cinnamon and star anise with 90% mortality at 5% concentration. These spices also completely inhibited F1 progeny. The hexane extracts of these spices at 1,000 ppm showed insecticidal activity, with pepper extract recording 100% mortality by 5 days. S. oryzae was susceptible to clove oil resulting in 92% mortality. Mortality was 51.63% in nutmeg, 66.6% in cinnamon, and 79.8% in case of mace and star anise. Hexane extracts of star anise, cinnamon and clove at 0.59 μl/cm(2) on filter paper discs induced 100% mortality by 72 h. These spices offered protection to wheat up to 9 months without affecting seed germination thereby showing promise as grain protectants. PMID:24425960

  2. Effect of some essential oils on phagocytosis and complement system activity.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rosés, Renato; Risco, Ester; Vila, Roser; Peñalver, Pedro; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2015-02-11

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro activity of 15 essential oils, 4 essential oil fractions, and 3 pure compounds (thymol, carvacrol, and eugenol) on phagocytosis by human neutrophils and on complement system. Samples were characterized by GC and GC-MS. Most of the oils (nutmeg, clove, niaouli, tea tree, bay laurel, lemon, red thyme, ginger), nutmeg terpenes, eugenol, and carvacrol showed mild to moderate inhibition of phagocytosis (25-40% inhibition at doses ranging from 40 to 60 μg/mL); highest inhibitory activity was found for thymol (72% at 56 μg/mL), whereas the mixture of bornyl and isobornyl acetates showed a mild stimulating activity (21% at 56 μg/mL). All samples were inactive in the alternative pathway of complement system, whereas on classical pathway, clove oil, eugenol, palmarosa oil, red thyme oil, tarragon oil, and carvacrol showed the highest activity, with IC50 values ranging from 65 to 78 μg/mL. PMID:25599399

  3. Christmas gingerbread (Lebkuchen) and Christmas cheer--review of the potential role of mood elevating amphetamine-like compounds formed in vivo and in furno.

    PubMed

    Idle, J R

    2005-01-01

    The typical spices used in winter include nutmeg, cinnamon, clove and anise. These spices contain two groups of chemicals, the allylbenzenes and their isomers, the propenylbenzenes. It was suggested 40 years ago by Alexander Shulgin that these substances act as metabolic precursors of amphetamines. The biotransformation of these precursors to nitrogen-containing metabolites is reviewed. These reactions have not been reported in humans. Whether or not the pharmacology and toxicology of spices such as nutmeg can be explained on the basis of their allylbenzene or propenylbenzene content is speculative. Humans may be exposed to amphetamines derived from these precursors in forno, the formation during baking and cooking, for example in the preparation of Lebkuchen, or Christmas gingerbread. It is possible that this may be responsible, in part, for uplifting our mood in winter. However, the role of these aromatic substances, acting simply as odours, evoking old memories of winters past, cannot be ignored. Whether spices have a true pharmacological effect or they act as aromatherapy remains to be elucidated through clinical and laboratory studies.

  4. Spatiotemporal strategies that facilitate recruitment in a habitat specialist tree species.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Shivani; Somanathan, Hema

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of processes underlying plant recruitment emerges from species and habitats that are widely distributed at regional and global scales. However, the applicability of dispersal-recruitment models and the role of dispersal limitation versus microsite limitation have not been examined for specialized habitats. In patchy, freshwater Myristica swamp forests (Western Ghats, India), we examine the roles of primary seed dispersal, secondary seed removal and microsite suitability for the establishment of a swamp specialist tree, Myristica fatua We estimated primary seed shadows, performed secondary removal experiments and enumerated recruits in swamp sites. Steady-state fruiting was observed with the extended production (>7 months) of small numbers of fruits. Frugivores dropped most of the large and heavy seeds under parent crowns, while a few seeds were transported over short distances by hornbills. Seed placement experiments indicated that removal, germination and establishment were similar within swamp microsites, while seeds failed to survive in matrix habitats surrounding the swamp. Crabs, which were major secondary removers of M. fatua, did not alter the initial seed dispersal patterns substantially, which led to the retention of seeds within the swamp. Distribution of saplings and adults from previous seasons also suggest that dispersal-recruitment dynamics in the swamp specialist M. fatua did not strictly follow predictions of Janzen-Connell model while abiotic effects were significant. Large seeds, steady-state fruiting and small crop sizes may be significant selective forces facilitating escape from density and distance-dependent effects in space and time in specialist plant species such as M. fatua. PMID:27179540

  5. Spatiotemporal strategies that facilitate recruitment in a habitat specialist tree species

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Shivani; Somanathan, Hema

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of processes underlying plant recruitment emerges from species and habitats that are widely distributed at regional and global scales. However, the applicability of dispersal-recruitment models and the role of dispersal limitation versus microsite limitation have not been examined for specialized habitats. In patchy, freshwater Myristica swamp forests (Western Ghats, India), we examine the roles of primary seed dispersal, secondary seed removal and microsite suitability for the establishment of a swamp specialist tree, Myristica fatua. We estimated primary seed shadows, performed secondary removal experiments and enumerated recruits in swamp sites. Steady-state fruiting was observed with the extended production (>7 months) of small numbers of fruits. Frugivores dropped most of the large and heavy seeds under parent crowns, while a few seeds were transported over short distances by hornbills. Seed placement experiments indicated that removal, germination and establishment were similar within swamp microsites, while seeds failed to survive in matrix habitats surrounding the swamp. Crabs, which were major secondary removers of M. fatua, did not alter the initial seed dispersal patterns substantially, which led to the retention of seeds within the swamp. Distribution of saplings and adults from previous seasons also suggest that dispersal-recruitment dynamics in the swamp specialist M. fatua did not strictly follow predictions of Janzen-Connell model while abiotic effects were significant. Large seeds, steady-state fruiting and small crop sizes may be significant selective forces facilitating escape from density and distance-dependent effects in space and time in specialist plant species such as M. fatua. PMID:27179540

  6. A Review of Traditional Medicinal Plants from Kachin State, Northern Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Aung, Hain Thanda; Sein, Myint Myint; Aye, Mya Mu; Thu, Zaw Min

    2016-03-01

    Medicinal plants are a vital source of medication in developing countries. In Kachin State, Northern Myanmar, the people have a long history of the use of traditional plants for medicinal purposes. This article deals with the 25 most used medicinal plants in Kachin State. They are: Drynariafortunei, Tetrastigma serrulatum, Bauhinia championii, Goniothalamus cheliensis, Juglans regia, Houttuynia cordata, Osmanthus fragrans, Pothos chinensis, Tabemaemontana coronaria, Eryngiumfoetidum, Chloranthus spicatus, Peperomia pellucida, Zanthoxylum armatum, Polygonumfagopyrum, Cymbidiumfloribundum, Amomum kravanh, Coscinium fenestratum, Solanum nigrum, Gnetum parvifolium, Desmodium triquetum, Begonia augustinec, Mappianthus iodoides, Erycibe obtusifolia, Schefflera venulosa, Holarrhena antidysenterica. The different traditional applications, the known chemical constituents and medicinal properties are reported for each plant. The efficacy of several of these plants has been supported by some scientific evidence, while other plants have to be submitted to further investigations to prove the beneficial medicinal properties attributed to them.

  7. Protocols for Biotechnological Interventions in Improvement of Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews.).

    PubMed

    Divakaran, Minoo; Babu, K Nirmal; Peter, K V

    2016-01-01

    Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews (syn. V. fragrans Salisb.), a native of Central America, is the primary source of natural vanillin and plays a major role in the global economy. The gene pool of vanilla is threatened by deforestation and overcollection that has resulted in disappearance of natural habitats and wild species. Continuous vegetative propagation and lack of natural seed set and sufficient variations in the gene pool hamper crop improvement programs. In vitro techniques, one of the key tools of plant biotechnology, can be employed for overcoming specific problems, viz. production of disease-free clones, inducing somaclonal variations, developing hybrids, gene pool conservation, incorporating desired traits by distant hybridization, genetic engineering, etc. However, realization of these objectives necessitates standardization of protocols. This chapter describes the various protocols optimized for crop improvement in Vanilla species. PMID:27108309

  8. A Review of Traditional Medicinal Plants from Kachin State, Northern Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Aung, Hain Thanda; Sein, Myint Myint; Aye, Mya Mu; Thu, Zaw Min

    2016-03-01

    Medicinal plants are a vital source of medication in developing countries. In Kachin State, Northern Myanmar, the people have a long history of the use of traditional plants for medicinal purposes. This article deals with the 25 most used medicinal plants in Kachin State. They are: Drynariafortunei, Tetrastigma serrulatum, Bauhinia championii, Goniothalamus cheliensis, Juglans regia, Houttuynia cordata, Osmanthus fragrans, Pothos chinensis, Tabemaemontana coronaria, Eryngiumfoetidum, Chloranthus spicatus, Peperomia pellucida, Zanthoxylum armatum, Polygonumfagopyrum, Cymbidiumfloribundum, Amomum kravanh, Coscinium fenestratum, Solanum nigrum, Gnetum parvifolium, Desmodium triquetum, Begonia augustinec, Mappianthus iodoides, Erycibe obtusifolia, Schefflera venulosa, Holarrhena antidysenterica. The different traditional applications, the known chemical constituents and medicinal properties are reported for each plant. The efficacy of several of these plants has been supported by some scientific evidence, while other plants have to be submitted to further investigations to prove the beneficial medicinal properties attributed to them. PMID:27169181

  9. [Evaluation of three-dimensional flammability of eight forest fuels based on thermogravimetric analysis in Nanchang region, China].

    PubMed

    Jin, Sen; Wang, Shun-rao

    2015-12-01

    Pyrolysis characteristics of litter of eight tree species in Nanchang were studied based on thermogarvimetric analysis results. Three components of flammability of the eight species, i.e. ignitibility, combustibility and sustainability, were evaluated by pyrolysis parameters obtained from the analysis. Results showed that the eight species could be grouped into two categories: the first one included Camellia oleifera and Cinnamomum camphora, which were highly ignitable but low combustible and sustainable, the other included Cedrus deodara, Liriodendron chinensis, Phyllostachys heterocycla, Cinnamomum burmanni, Osmanthus fragrans and Ginkgo biloba, which were low ignitable but highly combustible and sustainable. This further indicated that rankings by each flammability component were usually not identical, showing the complexity of flammability and necessity of multi-dimensional flammability evaluation. Three-dimensional flammability evaluation could reflect different profiles of the feature and aid better understanding and explanation of fire behavior. PMID:27112002

  10. Protocols for Biotechnological Interventions in Improvement of Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews.).

    PubMed

    Divakaran, Minoo; Babu, K Nirmal; Peter, K V

    2016-01-01

    Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews (syn. V. fragrans Salisb.), a native of Central America, is the primary source of natural vanillin and plays a major role in the global economy. The gene pool of vanilla is threatened by deforestation and overcollection that has resulted in disappearance of natural habitats and wild species. Continuous vegetative propagation and lack of natural seed set and sufficient variations in the gene pool hamper crop improvement programs. In vitro techniques, one of the key tools of plant biotechnology, can be employed for overcoming specific problems, viz. production of disease-free clones, inducing somaclonal variations, developing hybrids, gene pool conservation, incorporating desired traits by distant hybridization, genetic engineering, etc. However, realization of these objectives necessitates standardization of protocols. This chapter describes the various protocols optimized for crop improvement in Vanilla species.

  11. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 April 2010 - 31 May 2010.

    PubMed

    Andree, K; Axtner, Jan; Bagley, M J; Barlow, E J; Beebee, T J C; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Bermingham, Eldredge; Boisselier-Dubayle, M C; Bozarth, Christine A; Brooks, Christopher P; Brown, R P; Catanese, Gaetano; Cavers, S; Ceron-Souza, Ivania; Chak, Solomon T C; Chan, M N; Charles-Dominique, P; Chen, C Y; Chen, J D; Chinchilla, Leah; DA Silva, D; Dafreville, S; Daunt, F; Delatte, H; Dorge, T; Duncan, N; Durand, J D; Duvernell, D; Estep, Matt; Fan, Sigang; Fattahi, R; Villela, Oscar Flores; Fong, Yokking; Fréville, H; Funes, Victoria; Gallardo-Escarate, C; Ganeshaiah, K N; Ghaffari, M R; Girod, C; Gomez-Moliner, B J; Gonzalez-Porter, Gracia P; Gosa, A; Govers, F; Guérin, F; Guindo, Diarah; Hailer, Frank; Haye, P A; Hoelmer, Kim A; Hofmann, S; Hong, Yan; Hu, Chaoqun; Huang, S W; Humeau, L; Infante, Carlos; Jackson, S A; Jacobsen, E; Jowkar, A; Kafi, M; Kermani, M J; Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Kyung Seok; Kim, Min-Young; Knibb, W; Koita, Ousmane A; Korpelainen, H; Lambourdiere, J; Lasso, Eloisa; Leblois, R; Lee, Hang; Lee, Seunghwan; Leung, F C C; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Li, Chunhong; Li, Y; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Lizana, M; Loughry, W J; Luo, Peng; Madeira, M J; Mahmoodi, P; Maldonado, Jesús E; Mardi, M; Mendes, O; Miehe, G; Muth, Peter; Nacci, D; Naveen Kumar, L; Ng, Wai-Chuen; Pailler, T; Parzies, Heiko K; Perez, Laura; Pfunder, M; Pietiläinen, M; Pirseyedi, S M; Porta, D; Porta, J; Porta, J M; Quilici, S; Rakotoarivelo, F P; Ramesha, B T; Ravikanth, G; Riéra, B; Risterucci, A M; Roberts, D A; Samadi, S; Sarasola-Puente, V; Sarrazin, E; Sarthou, C; Schmidt, Anke; Segovia, N I; Shen, K N; Simiand, C; Sman, Muhammad Hidayat Bin; Solhoy, T; Sommer, Simone; Sumangala, R C; Taubert, Ramona; Tejangkura, T; Telford, A; Testa, A; Tollon-Cordet, C; Tzeng, W N; Uma Shaanker, R; Van Der Lee, T A J; VAN Mourik, Thomas A; Vasudeva, R; Wai, T C; Wang, R L; Welch, Mark E; Weltzien, Eva; Whitehead, A; Woodard, Anastasia; Xia, Jianjun; Zeinolabedini, M; Zhang, Lvping

    2010-11-01

    This article documents the addition of 396 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Anthocidaris crassispina, Aphis glycines, Argyrosomus regius, Astrocaryum sciophilum, Dasypus novemcinctus, Delomys sublineatus, Dermatemys mawii, Fundulus heteroclitus, Homalaspis plana, Jumellea rossii, Khaya senegalensis, Mugil cephalus, Neoceratitis cyanescens, Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Phytophthora infestans, Piper cordulatum, Pterocarpus indicus, Rana dalmatina, Rosa pulverulenta, Saxifraga oppositifolia, Scomber colias, Semecarpus kathalekanensis, Stichopus monotuberculatus, Striga hermonthica, Tarentola boettgeri and Thermophis baileyi. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Aphis gossypii, Sooretamys angouya, Euryoryzomys russatus, Fundulus notatus, Fundulus olivaceus, Fundulus catenatus, Fundulus majalis, Jumellea fragrans, Jumellea triquetra Jumellea recta, Jumellea stenophylla, Liza richardsonii, Piper marginatum, Piper aequale, Piper darienensis, Piper dilatatum, Rana temporaria, Rana iberica, Rana pyrenaica, Semecarpus anacardium, Semecarpus auriculata, Semecarpus travancorica, Spondias acuminata, Holigarna grahamii, Holigarna beddomii, Mangifera indica, Anacardium occidentale, Tarentola delalandii, Tarentola caboverdianus and Thermophis zhaoermii. PMID:21565124

  12. The Effect of Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Several Essential Oils on Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuegui; Hao, Qiang; Chen, Yiqu; Jiang, Surong; Yang, Qunfang; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The major chemical components of four essential oils (EOs) extracted from dry leaves of Citrus limonum, Cymbopogon citratus, Litsea cubeba, and Muristica fragrans were analyzed with gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and their fumigant, contact, and repellent activities against 10th instar and adults of Tenebrio molitor were also assayed. The results indicated that the major constituents of C. limonum and Cy. citrates were D-limonene (38.22%) and 3,7-dimethyl-6-octenal (26.21%), while which of L. cubeba and M. fragrans were (E)-3, 7-dimethyl-2, 6-octadienal (49.78%) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (79.31%), respectively. Contact activities of L. cubeba and C. limonum with LC50 values of 21.2 and 13.9 µg/cm(2) at 48 h and repellence activities (>89.0% repellence indexes) (P < 0.05) at 12 h on 10th instar were better than those of the other two EOs. Nevertheless, the fumigation activities of L. cubeba on 10th instar and adults (LC50 = 2.7, 3.7 μl/liter) were stronger than those of C. limonum (LC50 = 10.9, 12.0 μl/liter) at 96 h and significant (not overlapping confidence intervals). The EOs of L. cubeba and C. limonum have clearly elongated the growth and development of larvae, egg, and slightly shorten pupae and adults of T. molitor compared with the control. The mainly active ingredients of L. cubeba and C. limonum, including D-limonene and β-pinene, were demonstrated to coinhibit the actives of AChE and enhance the toxicities on 10th instar of T. molitor. These results indicate that the EOs of L. cubeba and C. limonum could have great potential as botanical insecticides against T. molitor.

  13. The Effect of Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Several Essential Oils on Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuegui; Hao, Qiang; Chen, Yiqu; Jiang, Surong; Yang, Qunfang; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The major chemical components of four essential oils (EOs) extracted from dry leaves of Citrus limonum, Cymbopogon citratus, Litsea cubeba, and Muristica fragrans were analyzed with gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and their fumigant, contact, and repellent activities against 10th instar and adults of Tenebrio molitor were also assayed. The results indicated that the major constituents of C. limonum and Cy. citrates were D-limonene (38.22%) and 3,7-dimethyl-6-octenal (26.21%), while which of L. cubeba and M. fragrans were (E)-3, 7-dimethyl-2, 6-octadienal (49.78%) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (79.31%), respectively. Contact activities of L. cubeba and C. limonum with LC50 values of 21.2 and 13.9 µg/cm2 at 48 h and repellence activities (>89.0% repellence indexes) (P < 0.05) at 12 h on 10th instar were better than those of the other two EOs. Nevertheless, the fumigation activities of L. cubeba on 10th instar and adults (LC50 = 2.7, 3.7 μl/liter) were stronger than those of C. limonum (LC50 = 10.9, 12.0 μl/liter) at 96 h and significant (not overlapping confidence intervals). The EOs of L. cubeba and C. limonum have clearly elongated the growth and development of larvae, egg, and slightly shorten pupae and adults of T. molitor compared with the control. The mainly active ingredients of L. cubeba and C. limonum, including D-limonene and β-pinene, were demonstrated to coinhibit the actives of AChE and enhance the toxicities on 10th instar of T. molitor. These results indicate that the EOs of L. cubeba and C. limonum could have great potential as botanical insecticides against T. molitor. PMID:26254287

  14. The Effect of Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Several Essential Oils on Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuegui; Hao, Qiang; Chen, Yiqu; Jiang, Surong; Yang, Qunfang; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The major chemical components of four essential oils (EOs) extracted from dry leaves of Citrus limonum, Cymbopogon citratus, Litsea cubeba, and Muristica fragrans were analyzed with gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and their fumigant, contact, and repellent activities against 10th instar and adults of Tenebrio molitor were also assayed. The results indicated that the major constituents of C. limonum and Cy. citrates were D-limonene (38.22%) and 3,7-dimethyl-6-octenal (26.21%), while which of L. cubeba and M. fragrans were (E)-3, 7-dimethyl-2, 6-octadienal (49.78%) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (79.31%), respectively. Contact activities of L. cubeba and C. limonum with LC50 values of 21.2 and 13.9 µg/cm(2) at 48 h and repellence activities (>89.0% repellence indexes) (P < 0.05) at 12 h on 10th instar were better than those of the other two EOs. Nevertheless, the fumigation activities of L. cubeba on 10th instar and adults (LC50 = 2.7, 3.7 μl/liter) were stronger than those of C. limonum (LC50 = 10.9, 12.0 μl/liter) at 96 h and significant (not overlapping confidence intervals). The EOs of L. cubeba and C. limonum have clearly elongated the growth and development of larvae, egg, and slightly shorten pupae and adults of T. molitor compared with the control. The mainly active ingredients of L. cubeba and C. limonum, including D-limonene and β-pinene, were demonstrated to coinhibit the actives of AChE and enhance the toxicities on 10th instar of T. molitor. These results indicate that the EOs of L. cubeba and C. limonum could have great potential as botanical insecticides against T. molitor. PMID:26254287

  15. Generation of XUV light by resonant frequency tripling in a two-wiggler FEL amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, R.; De Salvo Souza, L.; Pierini, P.; Scharlemann, E. T.

    1990-10-01

    FEL operation at short wavelengths is limited by electron-beam quality, by the availability of mirrors for oscillators and by the availability of input sources for FEL amplifiers. It is possible to use an FEL amplifier as a resonant-frequency tripling device, generating light and strong bunching at the third harmonic of a conventional input source in an initial wiggler section, then using a second wiggler section resonant at the tripled frequency to amplify the short-wavelength light. Neither mirrors nor a short-wavelength input source are required, and some relaxation of the electron-beam quality appears to be possible. We illustrate the scheme with a one-dimensional model and then with NUTMEG simulations of an 80 nm FEL amplifier initiated by a 240 nm input signal, in which an efficiency of the electron-beam power conversion to 80 nm light of nearly 10-4 was obtained.

  16. Generation of XUV light by resonant frequency tripling in a two-wiggler FEL amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, R.; Desalvosouza, L.; Pierini, P.; Scharlemann, E. T.

    FEL operation at short wavelength is limited by electron beam quality, by the availability of mirrors for oscillators, and by the availability of input sources for FEL amplifiers. It is possible to use and FEL amplifier as a resonant frequency tripling device, generating light and strong bunching at the 3rd harmonic of a conventional input source in an initial section of wiggler, then using a second section of wiggler resonant at the tripled frequency to amplify the short wavelength light. Neither mirrors nor a short-wavelength input source are required, and some relaxation of electron beam quality appears to be possible. We illustrate the scheme with a one-dimensional model and then with NUTMEG simulations of an 80 nm FEL amplifier initiated by a 240 nm input signal, in which an efficiency of conversion of electron beam power to 80 nm light of nearly 10(exp -4) was obtained.

  17. Generation of XUV light by resonant frequency tripling in a two-wiggler FEL amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Bonifacio, R.; de Salvo Souza, L.; Pierini, P. . Dipt. di Fisica Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan ); Scharlemann, E.T. )

    1989-01-01

    FEL operation at short wavelength is limited by electron beam quality, by the availability of mirrors for oscillators, and by the availability of input sources for FEL amplifiers. It is possible to use and FEL amplifier as a resonant frequency tripling device, generating light and strong bunching at the 3rd harmonic of a conventional input source in an initial section of wiggler, then using a second section of wiggler resonant at the tripled frequency to amplify the short wavelength light. Neither mirrors nor a short-wavelength input source are required, and some relaxation of electron beam quality appears to be possible. We illustrate the scheme with a one-dimensional model and then with NUTMEG simulations of an 80 nm FEL amplifier initiated by a 240 nm input signal, in which an efficiency of conversion of electron beam power to 80 nm light of nearly 10{sup -4} was obtained. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Effects of flavorings, storage conditions, and storage time on survival of Staphylococcus aureus in Sürk cheese.

    PubMed

    Masatcioğlu, Tuğrul M; Avşar, Yahya K

    2005-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the cumulative effects of flavorings (chili pepper, thyme, mint, cumin, nutmeg, allspice, clove, cinnamon, black pepper, salt, and hot red pepper paste), storage conditions, and storage time on the survival of Staphylococcus aureus in Sürk cheese and to monitor the associated chemical changes. Sürk cheese, a traditional Turkish cheese, was produced by heating diluted nonfat yogurt and adding flavorings to the resultant acid-heat curd. The cheese was later inoculated with S. aureus, shaped conically, and stored aerobically for mold growth and anaerobically in olive oil for 30 days at room temperature. The moisture content of aerobically stored cheese decreased over time and led to increases in total solids, salt, salt-in-moisture, and ash content during ripening (P < 0.05). The presence or absence of the flavorings had no significant effect, whereas storage conditions and storage duration decreased the survival of S. aureus (P < 0.05).

  19. Antioxidant activity of spice extracts in a liposome system and in cooked pork patties and the possible mode of action.

    PubMed

    Kong, Baohua; Zhang, Huiyun; Xiong, Youling L

    2010-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to assess the antioxidant efficacy of spice extracts in cooked meat. In experiment 1, antioxidant activity of 13 common spice extracts was screened in a liposome system. Six of the extracts (clove, rosemary, cassia bark, liquorice, nutmeg, and round cardamom), identified to have the greatest total phenolic contents, were strongly inhibitory of TBARS formation. In experiment 2, 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing power, and metal chelation of these six spice extracts were evaluated. Clove exhibited the greatest reducing power, and all had strong DPPH scavenging activity. In experiment 3, clove, rosemary, and cassia bark extracts were further tested for in situ antioxidant efficacy. Cooked pork patties containing these spice extracts had markedly reduced TBARS formation and off-flavour scores but a more stable red colour, during storage. The results demonstrated strong potential of spice extracts as natural antioxidants in cooked pork products. PMID:20430533

  20. In vitro antagonistic activity of monoterpenes and their mixtures against 'toe nail fungus' pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ramsewak, Russel S; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Stommel, Manfred; Selanders, Louise

    2003-04-01

    The antibiotic effect of the active ingredients in Meijer medicated chest rub (eucalyptus oil, camphor and menthol) as well as the inactive ingredients (thymol, oil of turpentine, oil of nutmeg and oil of cedar leaf) were studied in vitro using the fungal pathogens responsible for onychomycosis, such as the dermatophytes Tricophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton fl occosum and Epidermophyton stockdale. The zones of inhibition data revealed that camphor (1). menthol (2). thymol (3). and oil of Eucalyptus citriodora were the most efficacious components against the test organisms. The MIC(100) for mixtures of these four components in various carrier solvents revealed that formulations consisting of 5 mg/mL concentrations of each have a potential to be efffective in controlling onychomycosis. PMID:12722144

  1. In vitro and in vivo anti-plasmodial activity of essential oils, including hinokitiol.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Kamei, Kiyoko; Yamamura, Mariko; Nishiya, Hajime; Inouye, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Miki; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-03-01

    Abstract. The anti-plasmodial activity of 47 essential oils and 10 of their constituents were screened for in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Five of these essential oils (sandalwood, caraway, monarda, nutmeg, and Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondai) and 2 constituents (thymoquinone and hinokitiol) were found to be active against P. falciparum in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values equal to or less than 1.0 microg/ml. Furthermore, in vivo analysis using a rodent model confirmed the anti-plasmodial potential of subcutaneously administered sandalwood oil, and percutaneously administered hinokitiol and caraway oil against rodent P. berghei. Notably, these oils showed no efficacy when administered orally, intraperitoneally or intravenously. Caraway oil and hinokitiol dissolved in carrier oil, applied to the skin of hairless mice caused high levels in the blood, with concentrations exceeding their IC50 values. PMID:23082579

  2. The analysis of essential oils and extracts (oleoresins) from seasonings--a critical review.

    PubMed

    Salzer, U J

    1977-01-01

    A critical review of the analytical methods employed for the determination of the relevant components of seasonings is presented. Where the available methods were inadequate, new ones have been devised. Particular emphasis has been placed on those methods of analysis that provide a rapid and sufficiently accurate appraisal of seasoning extracts and essential oils from seasonings under routine control laboratory conditions. At the same time, the margin of error of these methods has been determined. The individual seasoning extracts were assessed according to the following criteria: (1) essential oil--cardamom, laurel leaves, cloves, origanum (marjoram), sage, and thyme; (2) essential oil and nonvolatile lipids--dillseed, coriander, caraway, mace, nutmeg, pimento (allspice), and celery seed; (3) essential oil and/or pungent ingredients--capsicum, ginger, and pepper; (4) essential oil and/or coloring matter--turmeric (curcuma) and paprika; (5) essential oil and other components--garlic, onion, and cinnamon. PMID:336288

  3. In vitro and in vivo anti-plasmodial activity of essential oils, including hinokitiol.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Kamei, Kiyoko; Yamamura, Mariko; Nishiya, Hajime; Inouye, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Miki; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-03-01

    Abstract. The anti-plasmodial activity of 47 essential oils and 10 of their constituents were screened for in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Five of these essential oils (sandalwood, caraway, monarda, nutmeg, and Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondai) and 2 constituents (thymoquinone and hinokitiol) were found to be active against P. falciparum in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values equal to or less than 1.0 microg/ml. Furthermore, in vivo analysis using a rodent model confirmed the anti-plasmodial potential of subcutaneously administered sandalwood oil, and percutaneously administered hinokitiol and caraway oil against rodent P. berghei. Notably, these oils showed no efficacy when administered orally, intraperitoneally or intravenously. Caraway oil and hinokitiol dissolved in carrier oil, applied to the skin of hairless mice caused high levels in the blood, with concentrations exceeding their IC50 values.

  4. A preliminary study of the effect of essential oils on skeletal and smooth muscle in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lis-Balchin, M; Hart, S

    1997-11-01

    The pharmacological activity of nine commercial essential oils was studied on the rat isolated phrenic nerve diaphragm preparation and compared with activity on field-stimulated guinea-pig ileum preparations. The essential oils at final bath concentrations of 2 x 10(-5) and 2 x 10(-4) g/ml produced four different effects on skeletal muscle, whilst only a contracture with or without a decrease in response to field stimulation in smooth muscle. The first type of effect on skeletal muscle involved a contracture and inhibition of the twitch response to nerve stimulation shown by a sample of clary sage, dill, fennel, frankincense and nutmeg; a second, shown by thyme produced a contracture without a change in the twitch response; a third, shown by lavender reduced the twitch response alone and the fourth, shown by camphor, increased the size of the twitch response. Angelica root oil at the highest concentration studied showed no response on skeletal muscle. PMID:9421254

  5. Inhibition of listeriolysin O and phosphatidylcholine-specific production in Listeria monocytogenes by subinhibitory concentrations of plant essential oils.

    PubMed

    Smith-Palmer, A; Stewartt, J; Fyfe, L

    2002-07-01

    Successful infection by Listeria monocytogenes is dependent upon a range of bacterial extracellular proteins including a cytolysin termed listeriolysin O and phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C. Five plant essential oils--bay, clove, cinnamon, nutmeg and thyme--significantly reduced the production of listeriolysin O by L. monocytogenes. The greatest change was observed after culture with oil of thyme, which reduced haemolysis to 52.1 haemolytic units (HU)/ml compared with 99.8 HU/ml observed with the control. Oil of clove was the only oil that also significantly reduced phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C activity. These changes were observed despite the oils causing no change to the final bacterial concentration or total extracellular protein concentration. PMID:12132773

  6. Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.

    PubMed

    Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  7. Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.

    PubMed

    Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes. PMID:27386114

  8. Aflatoxins in various food from Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hacıbekiroğlu, I; Kolak, U

    2013-01-01

    The present work reports the total aflatoxin and aflatoxin B1 levels in 62 food samples from Istanbul, Turkey. The total aflatoxin content in dried American cucumber, squash, tomato, okra and saffron samples was found to be 1.7 μg/kg. AFB1 levels in five dried vegetables (red bell pepper, American cucumber, squash, tomato and okra), two tea (linden and jasmine flower) and three spice samples (cardamom, galangal and saffron) were 1 μg/kg. Of the tested samples, 76% exceeded legal limits of total aflatoxin. The highest levels were determined in chestnut (232.9 μg/kg), nutmeg (206.1 μg/kg) and sumac (182.5 μg/kg). These findings confirm the existing knowledge that food should be regularly and effectively controlled. PMID:24779934

  9. Selective isolation of components from natural volatile oil by countercurrent chromatography with cyclodextrins as selective reagent.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shengqiang; Lu, Mengxia; Chu, Chu; Yan, Jizhong; Huang, Juan; Ying, Yongfei

    2016-04-29

    Selective separation of chemical components from seven kinds of volatile oil by countercurrent chromatography with three types of cyclodextrins as selective reagent was investigated in this work. Preparative separation of chemical components from volatile oil is generally quite challenging due to their extremely complexity of the composition. A biphasic solvent system n-hexane-0.10 mol L(-1) cyclodextrin (1:1, v/v) was selected for separation of components from volatile oil and three types of cyclodextrins were investigated, including β-cyclodexrin, methyl-β-cyclodexrin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodexrin. All kinds of volatile oils are from seven kinds of traditional Chinese herb. Results showed that some chemical components could be well separated with high purity from each kind of volatile oil using different type of cyclodextrin as selective reagent. For example, germacrone and curcumenone could be selectively separated from volatile oil of Curcumae Rhizoma with methyl-β-cyclodexrin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodexrin as selector respectively, and other five components were selectively separated from volatile oil of Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Myristicae Semen, Aucklandiae Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix by countercurrent chromatography with different cyclodexrin as selective reagent. Separation mechanism for separation of components from volatile oil by countercurrent chromatography with cyclodextrin as selective reagent was proposed. Peak resolution of the present separation method could be greatly influenced by the chemical compositions of volatile oil. PMID:27036211

  10. Selective isolation of components from natural volatile oil by countercurrent chromatography with cyclodextrins as selective reagent.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shengqiang; Lu, Mengxia; Chu, Chu; Yan, Jizhong; Huang, Juan; Ying, Yongfei

    2016-04-29

    Selective separation of chemical components from seven kinds of volatile oil by countercurrent chromatography with three types of cyclodextrins as selective reagent was investigated in this work. Preparative separation of chemical components from volatile oil is generally quite challenging due to their extremely complexity of the composition. A biphasic solvent system n-hexane-0.10 mol L(-1) cyclodextrin (1:1, v/v) was selected for separation of components from volatile oil and three types of cyclodextrins were investigated, including β-cyclodexrin, methyl-β-cyclodexrin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodexrin. All kinds of volatile oils are from seven kinds of traditional Chinese herb. Results showed that some chemical components could be well separated with high purity from each kind of volatile oil using different type of cyclodextrin as selective reagent. For example, germacrone and curcumenone could be selectively separated from volatile oil of Curcumae Rhizoma with methyl-β-cyclodexrin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodexrin as selector respectively, and other five components were selectively separated from volatile oil of Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Myristicae Semen, Aucklandiae Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix by countercurrent chromatography with different cyclodexrin as selective reagent. Separation mechanism for separation of components from volatile oil by countercurrent chromatography with cyclodextrin as selective reagent was proposed. Peak resolution of the present separation method could be greatly influenced by the chemical compositions of volatile oil.

  11. Leaf and whole-tree water use relations of Australian rainforest species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Yoko; Laurance, Susan; Liddell, Michael; Lloyd, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Climate change induces drought events and may therefore cause significant impact on tropical rainforests, where most plants are reliant on high water availability - potentially affecting the distribution, composition and abundance of plant species. Using an experimental approach, we are studying the effects of a simulated drought on lowland rainforest plants at the Daintree Rainforest Observatory (DRO), in tropical northern Australia. Before to build up the rainout infrastructure, we installed sap flow meters (HRM) on 62 rainforest trees. Eight tree species were selected with diverse ecological strategies including wood density values ranging from 0.34 to 0.88 g/cm3 and could be replicated within a 1ha plot: Alstonia scholaris (Apocynaceae), Argyrondendron peralatum (Malvaceae), Elaeocarpus angustifolius (Elaeocarpaceae), Endiandra microneura (Lauraceae), Myristica globosa (Myristicaceae), Syzygium graveolens (Myrtaceae), Normanbya normanbyi (Arecaceae), and Castanospermum australe (Fabaceae). Our preliminary results from sap flow data obtained from October 2013 to December of 2014 showed differences in the amount of water used by our trees varied in response to species, size and climate. For example Syzygium graveolens has used a maximum of 60 litres/day while Argyrondendrum peralatum used 13 litres/day. Other potential causes for differential water-use between species and the implications of our research will be discussed. We will continue to monitor sap flow during the rainfall exclusion (2014 to 2016) to determine the effects of plant physiological traits on water use strategies.

  12. Free radical scavenging activity, metal chelation and antioxidant power of some of the Indian spices.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Amit Singh; Bhatnagar, Deepak

    2007-01-01

    Food constituents are the major source of various phytochemicals and micronutrients. The importance of these dietary constituents has been stressed in recent years due to their antioxidant and anticarcinogenic potential. Spices used in Indian foods such as cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), mace (aril of Myristica fragans), and greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum) were tested for their antioxidant properties in vitro. The metal chelating activity, bleomycin dependent DNA oxidation, diphenyl-p-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and the ferric reducing /antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured in rat liver homogenate in presence of spices. Metal chelating activity was significantly high with all the spice extracts except mace. The spices due to higher reducing potential (in presence of bleomycin-FeCl_{3}) showed increased DNA oxidation. Cloves showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, followed by licorice, mace and cardamom. FRAP values for cloves were also the highest, while other spices showed comparatively lesser FRAP values. The results show that the spices tested are strong antioxidants and may have beneficial effects on human health.

  13. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment of a ground-water contamination area in Wolcott, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, J.R.; Casey, G.D.; Mondazzi, R.A.; Frick, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    Contamination of ground water by volatile organic compounds and inorganic constituents has been identified at a number of industrial sites in the Town of Wolcott, Connecticut. Contamination is also present at a municipal landfill in the City of Waterbury that is upgradient from the industrial sites in the local ground-water-flow system. The study area, which lies in the Western Highlands of Connecticut, is in the Mad River Valley, a tributary to the Naugatuck River. Geohydrologic units (aquifer materials) include unconsolidated glacial sediments (surficial materials) and fractured crystalline (metamorphic) bedrock. Surficial materials include glacial till, coarse-grained andfine-grained glacial stratified deposits, and postglacial floodplain alluvium and swamp deposits. The ground-water-flow system in the surficial aquifer is complex because the hydraulic properties of the surficial materials are highly variable. In the bedrock aquifer, ground water moves exclusively through fractures. Hydrologic characteristics of the crystalline bedrock-degree of confinement, hydraulic conductivity, storativity, and porosity-are poorly defined in the study area. Further study is needed to adequately assess ground-water flow and contaminant migration under current or past hydrologic conditions. All known water-supply wells in the study area obtain water from the bedrock aquifer. Twenty households in a hillside residential area on Tosun Road currently obtain drinking water from private wells tapping the bedrock aquifer. The extent of contamination in the bedrock aquifer and the potential for future contamination from known sources of contamination in the surficial aquifer is of concern to regulatory agencies. Previous investigations have identified ground-water contamination by volatile organic compounds at the Nutmeg Valley Road site area. Contamination has been associated with on-site disposal of heavy metals, chlorinated and non-chlorinated volatile organic compounds, and

  14. Mycotoxins in foods in Lower Saxony (Germany): results of official control analyses performed in 2009.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, Lilli; Reinhardt, Katja

    2011-05-01

    In this presentation, the mycotoxin levels-as analysed by the analytical centre for mycotoxin surveillance of the state food laboratory (LAVES Braunschweig)-for approximately 500 food samples are reported. The samples were collected in the year 2009 at retail in the German federal state of Lower Saxony. Aflatoxin and ochratoxin A were analysed in dried fruits, spices, cereals and tree nuts. Ochratoxin A was detected in all samples of dried vine fruits, at levels up to 8.1 μg/kg. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A were also found in nutmeg and curry powder: the maximum regulatory levels for aflatoxins were exceeded in 25% of the nutmeg samples. Nearly all samples of basmati rice contained aflatoxins, although at levels below the maximum regulatory level in all but one sample. Aflatoxins were also detected in about 50% of hazelnut samples, in 20% of the samples the maximum levels was exceeded (maximum 23.2 μg/kg). In contrast, aflatoxin contents in pistachios were surprisingly low. Fusarium toxins were analysed in cereals and cereal products such as flour, bread, and pasta. Deoxynivalenol (DON) was the predominant toxin found in these samples: DON was found in about 40% of the samples, although the maximum levels were not exceeded (max. 418 μg/kg). Fumonisins (FBs) and zearalenone (ZEA) were specifically analysed in maize products (snacks, flour and oil). Most of these samples (80%) were positive, but at levels not exceeding the maximum levels. Maximum levels were 98 μg/kg (ZEA) and 577 μg/kg (sum of FB1 and FB2). Ergot alkaloids (six major alkaloids) were analysed in rye flour, and approximately 50% were positive. The highest concentration of ergot alkaloids was 1,063 μg/kg; the predominant alkaloids were ergotamine and ergocristine. In conclusion, the results indicate that continuous and efficient control measures for mycotoxins in a wide range of critical foods are necessary to ensure compliance with maximum levels. Although the mycotoxin levels in the vast

  15. [Selection of winter plant species for wetlands constructed as sewage treatment systems and evaluation of their wastewater purification potentials].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-hua; Wu, Xiao-fu; Chen, Ming-li; Jiang, Li-juan; Li, Ke-lin; Lei, Dian; Wang, Hai-bin

    2010-08-01

    In order to establish an evaluation system for selection of winter wetland plants possessing high wastewater purification potentials in subtropics areas, designed sewage treatment experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 25 species of winter wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including harmful environment-resistant enzyme and substrate enzyme activities into the commonly applied plant screening and assessment indexes system. The obtained results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested winter plants in their root length and vigor, leaf malonaldehyde (MDA), biomass, average nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and uptake, and urease and phosphoric acid enzyme activities in the root areas. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Oenanthe javanica, Brassicacapestris, Juncus effusu, Saxifragaceae, Iris pseudoacorus, Osmanthus fragrans and Iris ensata; those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calendula officinalis, Aucuba japonica, Ligustrum lucidu, Beta vulgaris, Rhododendron simsii and Ilex latifolia; and those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calistephus chinensis, Rosa chinensis, Antirrhinums, Liriope palatyphylla, Zephyranthes candida, Fatshedera lizei, Petunia hybrida, Ilex quihoui, Dianthus caryophyllus and Loropetalum chinensis.

  16. [Breeding ecology of Chinese Bulbul in the urban environment of Hangzhou, China].

    PubMed

    Lan, Si-Si; Zhang, Qin; Huang, Qin; Chen, Shui-Hua

    2013-06-01

    The Chinese Bulbul, Pycnonotus sinensis, is one of the most abundant and widely distributed birds of south China, settling even in dense urban areas. From March-July 2012, we surveyed the Chinese Bulbul in the urban environment of Hangzhou, China, to gain a clearer perspective on their breeding ecology. Totally, 117 nests were found, mainly on the trees of Osmanthus fragrans (84.6%, n=117) in residential areas,street tree strips, and green belt. Our results include several noteworthy observations: nest height from the ground was 3.16±0.91 m (n=117); egg-laying begins in early April with peak times from April 11-25; and the nesting period was 11.85±1.12 days (n=47). In terms of fertility and reproduction, we also observed that the average incubation period was 11.34±1.12 days (n=32); average clutch size was 3.37±0.48 eggs (n=103); hatching success 68.3%, fledging rate 52.1%, and the total breeding success 35.58% (n=117). The main causes of breeding failure included egg and fledgling predation, as well as human disturbance.

  17. Revision of the Neotropical diving beetle genus Hydrodessus J. Balfour-Browne, 1953 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae, Bidessini).

    PubMed

    Miller, Kelly B

    2016-01-01

    The Neotropical diving beetle genus Hydrodessus J. Balfour-Browne, 1953 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Bidessini) is revised. Thirty species are recognized. The following new species are described: Hydrodessus bimaculatus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus brevis sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus concolorans sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus continuus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus disjunctus sp. n. (Suriname), Hydrodessus fasciatus sp. n. (Brazil), Hydrodessus imparilis sp. n. (Ecuador), Hydrodessus keithi sp. n. (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador), Hydrodessus kurti sp. n. (Suriname), Hydrodessus kylei sp. n. (Suriname, Venezuela), Hydrodessus laetus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus latotibialis sp. n. (Peru), Hydrodessus maculatus sp. n. (Guyana, Venezuela), Hydrodessus morsus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus palus sp. n. (Venezuela), and Hydrodessus tenuatus sp. n. (Suriname). The following new synonyms are established: Hydrodessus fragrans Spangler, 1985 = Hydrodessus biguttatus (Guignot, 1957) syn. n. and Hydrodessus robinae Spangler, 1985 = Hydrodessus octospilus (Guignot, 1957), syn. n. One species is transferred from Hydrodessus to Amarodytes Régimbart, Amarodytes soekhnandanae (Makhan, 1994), comb. n. Habitus photographs (dorsal and lateral) and photos of the ventral surfaces are provided for most species. Line drawings of male and female genitalia and other diagnostic features are also provided along with distribution maps. PMID:27110208

  18. Revision of the Neotropical diving beetle genus Hydrodessus J. Balfour-Browne, 1953 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae, Bidessini)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kelly B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Neotropical diving beetle genus Hydrodessus J. Balfour-Browne, 1953 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Bidessini) is revised. Thirty species are recognized. The following new species are described: Hydrodessus bimaculatus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus brevis sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus concolorans sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus continuus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus disjunctus sp. n. (Suriname), Hydrodessus fasciatus sp. n. (Brazil), Hydrodessus imparilis sp. n. (Ecuador), Hydrodessus keithi sp. n. (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador), Hydrodessus kurti sp. n. (Suriname), Hydrodessus kylei sp. n. (Suriname, Venezuela), Hydrodessus laetus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus latotibialis sp. n. (Peru), Hydrodessus maculatus sp. n. (Guyana, Venezuela), Hydrodessus morsus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus palus sp. n. (Venezuela), and Hydrodessus tenuatus sp. n. (Suriname). The following new synonyms are established: Hydrodessus fragrans Spangler, 1985 = Hydrodessus biguttatus (Guignot, 1957) syn. n. and Hydrodessus robinae Spangler, 1985 = Hydrodessus octospilus (Guignot, 1957), syn. n. One species is transferred from Hydrodessus to Amarodytes Régimbart, Amarodytes soekhnandanae (Makhan, 1994), comb. n. Habitus photographs (dorsal and lateral) and photos of the ventral surfaces are provided for most species. Line drawings of male and female genitalia and other diagnostic features are also provided along with distribution maps. PMID:27110208

  19. [Breeding ecology of Chinese Bulbul in the urban environment of Hangzhou, China].

    PubMed

    Lan, Si-Si; Zhang, Qin; Huang, Qin; Chen, Shui-Hua

    2013-06-01

    The Chinese Bulbul, Pycnonotus sinensis, is one of the most abundant and widely distributed birds of south China, settling even in dense urban areas. From March-July 2012, we surveyed the Chinese Bulbul in the urban environment of Hangzhou, China, to gain a clearer perspective on their breeding ecology. Totally, 117 nests were found, mainly on the trees of Osmanthus fragrans (84.6%, n=117) in residential areas,street tree strips, and green belt. Our results include several noteworthy observations: nest height from the ground was 3.16±0.91 m (n=117); egg-laying begins in early April with peak times from April 11-25; and the nesting period was 11.85±1.12 days (n=47). In terms of fertility and reproduction, we also observed that the average incubation period was 11.34±1.12 days (n=32); average clutch size was 3.37±0.48 eggs (n=103); hatching success 68.3%, fledging rate 52.1%, and the total breeding success 35.58% (n=117). The main causes of breeding failure included egg and fledgling predation, as well as human disturbance. PMID:23775993

  20. Production of camptothecin in cultures of Chonemorpha grandiflora

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, A. V.; Patwardhan, A. A.; Lele, U.; Malpathak, N. P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Chonemorpha grandiflora (Syn. Chonemorpha fragrans (Apocynaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant. It is used in different preparations, such as sudarsanasavam and kumaryasavam used in Kerala Ayurvedic system. C. grandiflora is used for the treatment of fever and stomach disorders. Phytochemical investigations have revealed the presence of steroidal alkaloids, such as chonemorphine and funtumafrine in C. grandiflora. Camptothecin, a well-known anticancer alkaloid has been detected in ethanolic extracts of stem with bark and callus cultures derived from C. grandiflora. Methods: Callus cultures of C. grandiflora were raised on Murashige and Skoog’s medium supplemented with 2, 4-D. Stem with bark and callus were used for phytochemical analysis mainly the alkaloids. Detection and identification of camptothecin was carried out using thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance thin-layer chromatography, (HPTLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: An important anticancer alkaloid, camptothecin was detected in ethanolic extracts of stem with bark and callus cultures of C. grandiflora. camptothecin content was 0.013 mg/g in stem with bark and 0.003 mg/g in callus. Conclusion: This is the first report on in vivo and in vitro production of camptothecin in C. grandiflora. Camptothecin is known to occur only in six plant sources so, alternative sources for camptothecin are needed. Thus of C. grandiflora could be a new promising alternative source of camptothecin. PMID:21589755

  1. Diversity of Geotrichum candidum Strains Isolated from Traditional Cheesemaking Fabrications in France

    PubMed Central

    Marcellino, N.; Beuvier, E.; Grappin, R.; Guéguen, M.; Benson, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    The diversity of French fungus-ripened cheeses is due partly to the succession of fungi that colonize the cheese during ripening. Geotrichum candidum appears in the early stages of ripening on soft cheeses such as Camembert and semihard cheeses such as St. Nectaire and Reblochon. Its lipases and proteases promote flavor development, and its aminopeptidases reduce bitterness imparted by low-molecular-weight peptides in cheese. We assessed the genetic diversity of G. candidum strains by using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR correlated with phenotypic tests for carbon assimilation and salt tolerance. Strains were isolated from milk, curd, and cheese collected in seven major cheesemaking regions of France. Sixty-four isolates were characterized. We found high genetic diversity of G. candidum even within the same cheesemaking regions. Strains did not group according to region. All of the strains from the Haute-Savoie were able to assimilate lactate as the sole source of carbon, while lactate assimilation varied among strains from the Auvergne. Strains varied in d-mannitol assimilation, and none used citrate as the sole source of carbon. Yeast-like colony morphology predominated in Reblochon, while all of the strains isolated from St. Nectaire were filamentous. The RAPD-PCR technique readily differentiated Geotrichum fragrans isolated from milk and curd in a St. Nectaire cheesemaking facility. This study reveals an enormous diversity of G. candidum that has been empirically selected through the centuries by the cheesemakers of France. PMID:11571181

  2. [Selection of winter plant species for wetlands constructed as sewage treatment systems and evaluation of their wastewater purification potentials].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-hua; Wu, Xiao-fu; Chen, Ming-li; Jiang, Li-juan; Li, Ke-lin; Lei, Dian; Wang, Hai-bin

    2010-08-01

    In order to establish an evaluation system for selection of winter wetland plants possessing high wastewater purification potentials in subtropics areas, designed sewage treatment experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 25 species of winter wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including harmful environment-resistant enzyme and substrate enzyme activities into the commonly applied plant screening and assessment indexes system. The obtained results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested winter plants in their root length and vigor, leaf malonaldehyde (MDA), biomass, average nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and uptake, and urease and phosphoric acid enzyme activities in the root areas. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Oenanthe javanica, Brassicacapestris, Juncus effusu, Saxifragaceae, Iris pseudoacorus, Osmanthus fragrans and Iris ensata; those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calendula officinalis, Aucuba japonica, Ligustrum lucidu, Beta vulgaris, Rhododendron simsii and Ilex latifolia; and those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calistephus chinensis, Rosa chinensis, Antirrhinums, Liriope palatyphylla, Zephyranthes candida, Fatshedera lizei, Petunia hybrida, Ilex quihoui, Dianthus caryophyllus and Loropetalum chinensis. PMID:21090294

  3. [Selection and purification potential evaluation of woody plant in vertical flow constructed wetlands in the subtropical area].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Fu; Hao, Jun; Chen, Ming-Li; Zhu, Guang-Yu

    2014-02-01

    In order to solve the problem that wetland herbaceous plants tend to die during winter in subtropics areas, selection and purification potential evaluation experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 16 species of woody wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including the morphological characteristics, physiological characteristics, as well as nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation of the woody wetland plants. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested woody plants in their survival rate, height increase, root length increase and vigor, Chlorophyll content, Superoxide dismutase, Malonaldehyde, Proline, Peroxidase, biomass, average concentration and accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Nerium oleander and Hibiscus syriacus. Those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Trachycarpus fortune, Llex latifolia Thunb., Gardenia jasminoides, Serissa foetida and Ilex crenatacv Convexa. And those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Jasminum udiflorum, Hedera helix, Ligustrum vicaryi, Ligustrum lucidum, Buxus sempervives, Murraya paniculata, Osmanthus fragrans, Mahoniafortune and Photinia serrulata. PMID:24812951

  4. Dryofragin inhibits the migration and invasion of human osteosarcoma U2OS cells by suppressing MMP-2/9 and elevating TIMP-1/2 through PI3K/AKT and p38 MAPK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Su, Yan; Wan, Daqian; Song, Wenqi

    2016-08-01

    Dryofragin, a phloroglucinol derivative extracted from Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott, was found to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the mechanism involved in the suppression of cancer cell metastasis by dryofragin remains unclear. Our study investigated the mechanisms for the antitumor properties of dryofragin on the migration and invasion of human osteosarcoma U2OS cells. Dryofragin suppressed the migration and invasive ability of U2OS cells, and it decreased the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and elevated the expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Western blotting assays indicated that dryofragin was effective in suppressing the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), Akt, and p38 MAPK. These results suggest that dryofragin inhibited U2OS cell migration and invasion by reducing the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and elevating the expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 through the PI3K/AKT and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. Above all, we conclude that dryofragin represents an anti-invasive agent and may potentially be applicable in osteosarcoma therapy. PMID:27243922

  5. Allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics.

    PubMed

    Swerts, S; Van Gasse, A; Leysen, J; Faber, M; Sabato, V; Bridts, C H; Jorens, P G; De Clerck, L S; Ebo, D G

    2014-03-01

    Despite their frequent use, allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics is rarely reported in literature. We present a review of the different classes of drugs of abuse that might be involved in allergies: central nervous system (CNS) depressants (such as cannabis, opioids and kava), CNS stimulants (cocaine, amphetamines, khat and ephedra) and hallucinogens such as ketamine and nutmeg. Diagnosis of drug and narcotic allergy generally relies upon careful history taking, complemented with skin testing eventually along with quantification of sIgE. However, for various reasons, correct diagnosis of most of these drug allergies is not straightforward. For example, the native plant material applied for skin testing and sIgE antibody tests might harbour irrelevant IgE-binding structures that hamper correct diagnosis. Diagnosis might also be hampered due to uncertainties associated with the non-specific histamine releasing characteristics of some compounds and absence of validated sIgE tests. Whether the introduction of standardized allergen components and more functional tests, that is, basophil activation and degranulation assays, might be helpful to an improved diagnosis needs to be established. It is anticipated that due to the rare character of these allergies further validation is although necessary.

  6. Antibacterial activity of 11 essential oils against Bacillus cereus in tyndallized carrot broth.

    PubMed

    Valero, M; Salmerón, M C

    2003-08-15

    The antibacterial activity of 11 essential oils from aromatic plants against the strain INRA L2104 of the foodborne pathogen Bacillus cereus grown in carrot broth at 16 degrees C was studied. The quantity needed by the essential oils of nutmeg, mint, clove, oregano, cinnamon, sassafras, sage, thyme or rosemary to produce 14-1110% relative extension of the lag phase was determined. Total growth inhibition of bacterial spores was observed for some of the antimicrobial agents assayed. The addition of 5 microl cinnamon essential oil per 100 ml of broth in combination with refrigeration temperatures of

  7. Safrole induces cell death in human tongue squamous cancer SCC-4 cells through mitochondria-dependent caspase activation cascade apoptotic signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fu-Shun; Huang, An-Cheng; Yang, Jai-Sing; Yu, Chun-Shu; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2012-07-01

    Safrole is one of important food-borne phytotoxin that exhibits in many natural products such as oil of sassafras and spices such as anise, basil, nutmeg, and pepper. This study was performed to elucidate safrole-induced apoptosis in human tongue squamous carcinoma SCC-4 cells. The effect of safrole on apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and DAPI staining and its regulatory molecules were studied by Western blotting analysis. Safrole-induced apoptosis was accompanied with up-regulation of the protein expression of Bax and Bid and down-regulation of the protein levels of Bcl-2 (up-regulation of the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2), resulting in cytochrome c release, promoted Apaf-1 level and sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in a time-dependent manner. We also used real-time PCR to show safrole promoted the mRNA expressions of caspase-3, -8, and -9 in SCC-4 cells. These findings indicate that safrole has a cytotoxic effect in human tongue squamous carcinoma SCC-4 cells by inducing apoptosis. The induction of apoptosis of SCC-4 cells by safrole is involved in mitochondria- and caspase-dependent signal pathways.

  8. Oxaliplatin-induced sinusoidal obstruction syndrome mimicking metastatic colon cancer in the liver

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, JUNG-HYE; WON, YOUNG-WOONG; KIM, HYUN SUNG; OH, YOUNG-HA; LIM, SANGHYEOK; KIM, HAN-JOON

    2016-01-01

    Oxaliplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of colorectal cancer; however, it may cause liver injury, particularly sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). Although SOS does not usually present with focal lesions on radiological images, the present study describes the case of a 22-year-old woman with oxaliplatin-induced SOS mimicking metastatic colon cancer in the liver. An abdominal computed tomography revealed a novel 1 cm, low-density lesion in segment 1 of the liver following the administration of the fourth round of oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer. Since the lesion was indistinguishable from metastasis, even with detailed imaging studies, including magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography-computed tomography, an isolated caudate lobectomy was planned. The cut surface of the resected liver showed a localized reddish congested lesion measuring 1.4 cm in diameter. The adjacent hepatic parenchyma also demonstrated diffuse sinusoidal congestion with a nutmeg-like appearance. Histologically, the lesion exhibited severe sinusoidal congestion with peliosis hepatis-like features. The widened sinusoidal space was outlined by markedly attenuated hepatic cords and filled with erythrocytes. The final diagnosis was oxaliplatin-induced SOS. The patient recovered completely and was relapse-free at the time of writing. PMID:27073565

  9. The Antioxidant and Starch Hydrolase Inhibitory Activity of Ten Spices in an In Vitro Model of Digestion: Bioaccessibility of Anthocyanins and Carotenoids

    PubMed Central

    Jayawardena, Nilakshi; Watawana, Mindani I.; Jayathilaka, Ruchini T.; Waisundara, Viduranga Y.

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory activities of cardamom, cloves, coriander, cumin seeds, curry leaves, fenugreek, mustard seeds, nutmeg, sweet cumin, and star anise extracts were investigated in an in vitro model of digestion mimicking the gastric and duodenal conditions. The total phenolic contents in all spice extracts had statistically significantly (P < 0.05) increased following both gastric and duodenal digestion. This was also in correlation with the antioxidant assays quantifying the water-soluble antioxidant capacity of the extracts. The lipophilic Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity assay did not indicate a statistically significant change in the values during any of the digestion phases. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) reductions in the anthocyanin contents were observed during the digestion phases in contrast to the carotenoid contents. With the exception of the cumin seed extract, none of the spice extracts showed statistically significant changes in the initial starch hydrolase enzyme inhibitory values prior to gastric and duodenal digestion. In conclusion, this study was able to prove that the 10 spices were a significant source of total phenolics, antioxidant, and starch hydrolase inhibitory activities. PMID:26693245

  10. Efficacy of plant essential oils against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria associated with ready-to-eat vegetables: antimicrobial and sensory screening.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Jorge; Rodriguez, Gabriel; Barry-Ryan, Catherine; Bourke, Paula

    2008-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils (EOs) against foodborne pathogens and key spoilage bacteria pertinent to ready-to-eat vegetables and to screen the selected EOs for sensory acceptability. The EOs basil, caraway, fennel, lemon balm, marjoram, nutmeg, oregano, parsley, rosemary, sage, and thyme were evaluated. The bacteria evaluated were Listeria spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus spp., Bacillus cereus, Salmonella, Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas spp. Quantitative antimicrobial analyses were performed using an absorbance-based microplate assay. Efficacy was compared using MIC, the half maximum inhibitory concentration, and the increase in lag phase. Generally, gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to EOs than were gram-negative bacteria, and Listeria monocytogenes strains were among the most sensitive. Of the spoilage organisms, Pseudomonas spp. were the most resistant. Oregano and thyme EOs had the highest activity against all the tested bacteria. Marjoram and basil EOs had selectively high activity against B. cereus, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. coli, and Salmonella, and lemon balm and sage EOs had adequate activity against L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. Within bacterial species, EO efficacy was dependent on strain and in some cases the origin of the strain. On a carrot model product, basil, lemon balm, marjoram, oregano, and thyme EOs were deemed organoleptically acceptable, but only oregano and marjoram EOs were deemed acceptable for lettuce. Selected EOs may be useful as natural and safe additives for promoting the safety and quality of ready-to-eat vegetables. PMID:18810868

  11. Endocardiosis and congestive heart failure in a captive ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Kubba, M A G; Al-Azreg, S A

    2013-01-01

    A seven-year-old blue-necked male ostrich was found dead after a few days of illness. The animal was living in an open yard of 25 square meters along with three other females. They were given concentrate-rich ration with free access to green leaves and water. Autopsy revealed cardiac enlargement due to left ventricular hypertrophy and right ventricular dilatation. The left aterioventricular valves were irregularly thickened and contracted. The lungs were engorged with blood and the liver had nutmeg appearance. The small intestine showed segmental sub-serosal petechial hemorrhages. Histological examination revealed myxomatous degeneration of the left aterioventricular valves, pulmonary congestion and edema, congestion of periacinar hepatic zone and fatty degeneration of outer zones, renal glomerulosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. The affected parts of the small intestine showed villous atrophy with lacteal distention. The venules in the affected intestinal segment were severely dilated while the arterioles had narrow lumen and irregular wall thickening with hyaline deposition. The current article reports an endocardiosis in ostrich and discusses other vascular disorders.

  12. Safrole induces cell death in human tongue squamous cancer SCC-4 cells through mitochondria-dependent caspase activation cascade apoptotic signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fu-Shun; Huang, An-Cheng; Yang, Jai-Sing; Yu, Chun-Shu; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2012-07-01

    Safrole is one of important food-borne phytotoxin that exhibits in many natural products such as oil of sassafras and spices such as anise, basil, nutmeg, and pepper. This study was performed to elucidate safrole-induced apoptosis in human tongue squamous carcinoma SCC-4 cells. The effect of safrole on apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and DAPI staining and its regulatory molecules were studied by Western blotting analysis. Safrole-induced apoptosis was accompanied with up-regulation of the protein expression of Bax and Bid and down-regulation of the protein levels of Bcl-2 (up-regulation of the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2), resulting in cytochrome c release, promoted Apaf-1 level and sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in a time-dependent manner. We also used real-time PCR to show safrole promoted the mRNA expressions of caspase-3, -8, and -9 in SCC-4 cells. These findings indicate that safrole has a cytotoxic effect in human tongue squamous carcinoma SCC-4 cells by inducing apoptosis. The induction of apoptosis of SCC-4 cells by safrole is involved in mitochondria- and caspase-dependent signal pathways. PMID:21591240

  13. Effects of flavorings, storage conditions, and storage time on survival of Staphylococcus aureus in Sürk cheese.

    PubMed

    Masatcioğlu, Tuğrul M; Avşar, Yahya K

    2005-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the cumulative effects of flavorings (chili pepper, thyme, mint, cumin, nutmeg, allspice, clove, cinnamon, black pepper, salt, and hot red pepper paste), storage conditions, and storage time on the survival of Staphylococcus aureus in Sürk cheese and to monitor the associated chemical changes. Sürk cheese, a traditional Turkish cheese, was produced by heating diluted nonfat yogurt and adding flavorings to the resultant acid-heat curd. The cheese was later inoculated with S. aureus, shaped conically, and stored aerobically for mold growth and anaerobically in olive oil for 30 days at room temperature. The moisture content of aerobically stored cheese decreased over time and led to increases in total solids, salt, salt-in-moisture, and ash content during ripening (P < 0.05). The presence or absence of the flavorings had no significant effect, whereas storage conditions and storage duration decreased the survival of S. aureus (P < 0.05). PMID:16013393

  14. Antibacterial activity of 11 essential oils against Bacillus cereus in tyndallized carrot broth.

    PubMed

    Valero, M; Salmerón, M C

    2003-08-15

    The antibacterial activity of 11 essential oils from aromatic plants against the strain INRA L2104 of the foodborne pathogen Bacillus cereus grown in carrot broth at 16 degrees C was studied. The quantity needed by the essential oils of nutmeg, mint, clove, oregano, cinnamon, sassafras, sage, thyme or rosemary to produce 14-1110% relative extension of the lag phase was determined. Total growth inhibition of bacterial spores was observed for some of the antimicrobial agents assayed. The addition of 5 microl cinnamon essential oil per 100 ml of broth in combination with refrigeration temperatures of

  15. Inhibitory activity of spices and essential oils on psychrotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fabio, A; Corona, A; Forte, E; Quaglio, P

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate "in vitro" the inhibitory effects of spices and essential oils on the growth of psycrotrophic food-borne bacteria: Aeromonas hydrophila, Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica. The sensitivity to nine spices and their oils (chilli, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, nutmeg, oregano, rosemary, sage, thyme) was studied. Antibacterial activity was evaluated on liquid and solid medium. Spices: 1% concentration of each spice was added separately to Triptic Soy Broth and then inoculated to contain 10(8)/ml organism and held to 4 degrees C for 7 days. Populations of test organism were determined on Triptic Soy Agar. Oils: Inhibition of growth was tested by using the paper disc agar diffusion method (at 35, 20 and 4 degrees C) and measuring their inhibition zone. MIC was determined by the broth microdilution method. Some culinary spices produce antibacterial activity: inhibition of growth ranged from complete (cinnamon and cloves against A. hydrophila) to no inhibition. Antibacterial inhibition zone ranged from 8 mm to 45 mm: thyme essential oil showed the greatest inhibition against A. hydrophila. PMID:12578319

  16. Hot spices influence permeability of human intestinal epithelial monolayers.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Jarolim, E; Gajdzik, L; Haberl, I; Kraft, D; Scheiner, O; Graf, J

    1998-03-01

    Indirect evidence suggests that hot spices may interact with epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract to modulate their transport properties. Using HCT-8 cells, a cell line from a human ileocoecal carcinoma, we studied the effects of spices on transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), permeability for fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextrans with graded molecular weight, and morphological alterations of tight junctions by immunofluorescence using an anti-ZO-1 antibody, a marker for tight junction integrity. Two different reactivity patterns were observed: paprika and cayenne pepper significantly decreased the TER and increased permeability for 10-, 20- and 40-kDa dextrans but not for -70 kDa dextrans. Simultaneously, tight junctions exhibited a discontinuous pattern. Applying extracts from black or green pepper, bay leaf or nutmeg increased the TER and macromolecular permeability remained low. Immunofluorescence ZO-1 staining was preserved. In accordance with the above findings, capsaicin transiently reduced resistance and piperine increased resistance, making them candidates for causing the effects seen with crude spice extracts. The observation that Solanaceae spices (paprika, cayenne pepper) increase permeability for ions and macromolecules might be of pathophysiological importance, particularly with respect to food allergy and intolerance.

  17. Antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils and essences against five important food-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Smith-Palmer, A; Stewart, J; Fyfe, L

    1998-02-01

    The antimicrobial properties of 21 plant essential oils and two essences were investigated against five important food-borne pathogens, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The oils of bay, cinnamon, clove and thyme were the most inhibitory, each having a bacteriostatic concentration of 0.075% or less against all five pathogens. In general, Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to inhibition by plant essential oils than the Gram-negative bacteria. Campylobacter jejuni was the most resistant of the bacteria investigated to plant essential oils, with only the oils of bay and thyme having a bacteriocidal concentration of less than 1%. At 35 degrees C, L. monocytogenes was extremely sensitive to the oil of nutmeg. A concentration of less than 0.01% was bacteriostatic and 0.05% was bacteriocidal, but when the temperature was reduced to 4 degrees, the bacteriostatic concentration was increased to 0.5% and the bacteriocidal concentration to greater than 1%. PMID:9569693

  18. Acaricidal Activity of Eugenol Based Compounds against Scabies Mites

    PubMed Central

    Pasay, Cielo; Mounsey, Kate; Stevenson, Graeme; Davis, Rohan; Arlian, Larry; Morgan, Marjorie; Vyszenski-Moher, DiAnn; Andrews, Kathy; McCarthy, James

    2010-01-01

    Backgound Human scabies is a debilitating skin disease caused by the “itch mite” Sarcoptes scabiei. Ordinary scabies is commonly treated with topical creams such as permethrin, while crusted scabies is treated with topical creams in combination with oral ivermectin. Recent reports of acaricide tolerance in scabies endemic communities in Northern Australia have prompted efforts to better understand resistance mechanisms and to identify potential new acaricides. In this study, we screened three essential oils and four pure compounds based on eugenol for acaricidal properties. Methodology/Principal Findings Contact bioassays were performed using live permethrin-sensitive S. scabiei var suis mites harvested from pigs and permethrin-resistant S. scabiei var canis mites harvested from rabbits. Results of bioassays showed that clove oil was highly toxic against scabies mites. Nutmeg oil had moderate toxicity and ylang ylang oil was the least toxic. Eugenol, a major component of clove oil and its analogues –acetyleugenol and isoeugenol, demonstrated levels of toxicity comparable to benzyl benzoate, the positive control acaricide, killing mites within an hour of contact. Conclusions The acaricidal properties demonstrated by eugenol and its analogues show promise as leads for future development of alternative topical acaricides to treat scabies. PMID:20711455

  19. Grenada.

    PubMed

    1985-07-01

    Grenada's population characteristics, geographical features, history, political conditions, and foreign relations are profiled. The 1984 population of Grenada has been estimated at 92,000, with an annual growth rate of 0.9%. The population is mainly of black African decent, and Christianity is the principal religion. English is the official language, although some vestigial French patois remains. 6 years of education is compulsory; 85% of the adult population is literate. Grenada's infant mortality rate is 16.7/1000 live births. Life expectancy is 69 years. Of a work force of 36,000, 23.5% are employed in agriculture, 24.1% in industry. The 1983 gross domestic product (GDP) was $116 million, and the 1983 per capita GDP was $1261. Grenada's economy is based largely on agriculture, with tourism becoming an increasingly important source of foreign exchange over the last 15 years. Within agriculture, fresh fruits and vegetables have overtaken cocoa, bananas, and nutmeg as the largest export earner. Despite its potential, Grenada has faced serious economic problems is recent years. Unemployment may be as high as 1/3 of the labor force; the government has had diffculty in balancing its recurrent budget; agricultural revenues and production are down from historical levels; and the tourist industry is only now showing a rebound after several years of decline. Grenada's economy is now undergoing a shift in orientation, in which private sector investment, both domestic and foreign, is seen to be the main engine of economic development. PMID:12178119

  20. Exploring the costs and benefits of social information use: an appraisal of current experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Rieucau, Guillaume; Giraldeau, Luc-Alain

    2011-01-01

    Research on social learning has focused traditionally on whether animals possess the cognitive ability to learn novel motor patterns from tutors. More recently, social learning has included the use of others as sources of inadvertent social information. This type of social learning seems more taxonomically widespread and its use can more readily be approached as an economic decision. Social sampling information, however, can be tricky to use and calls for a more lucid appraisal of its costs. In this four-part review, we address these costs. Firstly, we address the possibility that only a fraction of group members are actually providing social information at any one time. Secondly, we review experimental research which shows that animals are circumspect about social information use. Thirdly, we consider the cases where social information can lead to incorrect decisions and finally, we review studies investigating the effect of social information quality. We address the possibility that using social information or not is not a binary decision and present results of a study showing that nutmeg mannikins combine both sources of information, a condition that can lead to the establishment of informational cascades. We discuss the importance of empirically investigating the economics of social information use. PMID:21357217

  1. Historical perspective on the usage of perfumes and scented Articles in ancient Indian literatures

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Goli Penchala; Pratap, G. Penchala; Neelima, M.; Satyanrayanashastry, Vd Pammi

    2008-01-01

    In India perfumes and scented articles were in use from pre Vedic and Vedic periods for religious practices, social customs, and domestic rituals and later gradually became part and parcel of human life. Perfumes were also used in cosmetics and beauty aids. Medicinal values of many perfumes were well known to ancient Indians and were used in both rituals and to treat diseases. Medicated fumigation (dhupan) was an advanced method for medicinal purposes. Medicated oils, collyriums, powders were prepared from perfumes used externally in many diseases. Perfumes were also anointed in various body parts (Anulepan). Chewing betel leaves along with fragrant material like nutmeg, mace, etc. (Tambulam) was used with a view to rendering mouth clean and fragrant. usage of scented oils to massage body(Abhyanga) which keeps the skin smooth, healthy and invigorating; Udvartanam, massaging various body parts; Udgarshanam, scrubbing; Utsadanam rubbing with scented powders etc., were some of the health protective and disease eliminating procedures. Scented drugs and perfumes enhance the quality, activity and pleasantness of these processes. PMID:22557310

  2. Allelochemicals in foliage of unfavored tree hosts of the gypsy moth,Lymantria dispar L. : 1. Alkaloids and other components ofLiriodendron tulipifera L. (Magnoliaceae),Acer rubrum L. (Aceraceae), andCornus florida L. (Cornaceae).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, P; Gross, P; Provan, G J; Pacheco, D Y; Stermitz, F R

    1990-05-01

    Early theories on plant chemical defense against herbivory emphasized that apparent and unapparent plants were primarily defended by different types of compounds. More and more evidence suggests that both quantitative and qualitative defenses are found in apparent plants and that they can play a defensive role against herbivores. A survey of the literature on the gypsy moth suggests not only that there is a large variety of qualitative compounds, as well as the expected quantitative ones, but that unfavored hosts of the gypsy moth are associated with the presence of alkaloids. Foliage of three tree species,Liriodendron tulipifera L.,Acer rubrum L., andCornus florida L., was examined to confirm the presence of alkaloids and other major secondary metabolites. The known sesquiterpene lactone, lipiferolide, and the sugar derivative, liriodendritol, were components ofL. tulipifera leaves, along with a bisphenylpropanoid previously found only in nutmeg. Alkaloid content [i.e., (-)-N-methylcrotsparine content] was low and leaves tested positive for HCN. Leaves ofA. rubrum L. were examined for the presence of gramme, but none could be detected. No alkaloids were detected inCornus florida.

  3. Efficacy of plant essential oils against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria associated with ready-to-eat vegetables: antimicrobial and sensory screening.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Jorge; Rodriguez, Gabriel; Barry-Ryan, Catherine; Bourke, Paula

    2008-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils (EOs) against foodborne pathogens and key spoilage bacteria pertinent to ready-to-eat vegetables and to screen the selected EOs for sensory acceptability. The EOs basil, caraway, fennel, lemon balm, marjoram, nutmeg, oregano, parsley, rosemary, sage, and thyme were evaluated. The bacteria evaluated were Listeria spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus spp., Bacillus cereus, Salmonella, Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas spp. Quantitative antimicrobial analyses were performed using an absorbance-based microplate assay. Efficacy was compared using MIC, the half maximum inhibitory concentration, and the increase in lag phase. Generally, gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to EOs than were gram-negative bacteria, and Listeria monocytogenes strains were among the most sensitive. Of the spoilage organisms, Pseudomonas spp. were the most resistant. Oregano and thyme EOs had the highest activity against all the tested bacteria. Marjoram and basil EOs had selectively high activity against B. cereus, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. coli, and Salmonella, and lemon balm and sage EOs had adequate activity against L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. Within bacterial species, EO efficacy was dependent on strain and in some cases the origin of the strain. On a carrot model product, basil, lemon balm, marjoram, oregano, and thyme EOs were deemed organoleptically acceptable, but only oregano and marjoram EOs were deemed acceptable for lettuce. Selected EOs may be useful as natural and safe additives for promoting the safety and quality of ready-to-eat vegetables.

  4. Identification of irradiated dry ingredients on the basis of starch damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, J.; Koncz, A.; Sharif, M. M.

    Irradiated samples of several ground spices, i.e. white pepper, black pepper, nutmeg. and ginger showed considerable loss of viscosity of their heat gelatinized suspensions as compared to that of unirradiated controls. Viscosimetric studies were also performed with a number of untreated pepper samples of various origin to estimate the "natural" variation of rheological properties. Following such preliminary experiments, storage studies were performed with ground black pepper samples of various water activity levels, either untreated or treated with gamma radiation doses of 4, 8, 16, and 32 kGy, respectively. Subsequent to irradiation, the samples were stored for 100 days at room temperature and under relative humidities in equilibrium with their respective moisture content (25 %, 50 %, and 75 % R.H., resp.). Statistically significant differences of the apparent viscosity of heat gelatinized suspensions remained detectable between untreated samples and those irradiated with 8 kGy or higher doses during the entire storage period. However, the apparent viscosity of high-moisture (75 % E.R.H.) untreated samples was decreasing during long-term storage. Differences between viscosities of untreated and irradiated samples were enlarged when measured at elevated temperatures such as 50 °C in the rotational viscosimeter, or in the boiling-water bath of a Falling Number apparatus.

  5. LEARNING TO CHOOSE AMONG SOCIAL FORAGING STRATEGIES IN ADULT HOUSE SPARROWS (Passer domesticus).

    PubMed

    Belmaker, Amos; Motro, Uzi; Feldman, Marcus W; Lotem, Arnon

    2012-11-01

    Social foragers may be regarded as being engaged in a producer-scrounger game in which they can search for food independently or join others who have discovered food. Research on the producer-scrounger game has focused mainly on the different factors influencing its ESS solution, but very little is known about the actual mechanisms that shape players' decisions. Recent work has shown that early experience can affect producer-scrounger foraging tendencies in young house sparrows, and that in nutmeg mannikins learning is involved in reaching the ESS. Here we show that direct manipulation of the success rate experienced by adult sparrows when following others can change their strategy choice on the following day. We presented to live sparrows an experimental regime, where stuffed adult house sparrows in a feeding position were positioned on a foraging grid that included two reward regimes: a positive one, in which the stuffed models were placed near food, and a negative one, in which the models were placed away from food. There was a significant increase in joining behavior after the positive treatment (exhibited by 84% of the birds), but no change after the negative treatment. Further analysis demonstrated that sparrows more frequently used the strategy with which they were more successful (usually joining), and that differences in strategy use were correlated with differences in success. These results suggest that adult birds can monitor their success and learn to choose among social foraging strategies in the producer-scrounger game. PMID:23226911

  6. Safety assessment of myristic acid as a food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Burdock, George A; Carabin, Ioana G

    2007-04-01

    Myristic acid is used in the food industry as a flavor ingredient. It is found widely distributed in fats throughout the plant and animal kingdom, including common human foodstuffs, such as nutmeg. Myristic acid (a 14-carbon, straight-chain saturated fatty acid) has been shown to have a low order of acute oral toxicity in rodents. It may be irritating in pure form to skin and eyes under exaggerated exposure conditions, but is not known or predicted to induce sensitization responses. Myristic acid did not induce a mutagenic response in either bacterial or mammalian systems in vitro. Relevant subchronic toxicity data are available on closely related fatty acid analogs. In particular, a NOEL of >6000mg/kg was reported for lauric acid (a 12-carbon, straight-chain saturated fatty acid) following dietary exposure to male rats for 18 weeks and a NOEL of >5000mg/kg was reported for palmitic acid (a 16-carbon, straight-chain saturated fatty acid) following dietary exposure to rats for 150 days. The data and information that are available indicate that at the current level of intake, food flavoring use of myristic acid does not pose a health risk to humans.

  7. Lipid bilayer membrane affinity rationalizes inhibition of lipid peroxidation by a natural lignan antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Podloucká, Pavlína; Berka, Karel; Fabre, Gabin; Paloncýová, Markéta; Duroux, Jean-Luc; Otyepka, Michal; Trouillas, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Lipid peroxidation is a degenerative oxidative process that modifies the structure of membranes, influencing their biological functions. Lignans, natural polyphenolic antioxidants widely distributed in plants, can prevent this membrane damage by free-radical scavenging. Here, we rationalize the difference in lipid peroxidation inhibition activity of argenteane, a natural dilignan isolated from wild nutmeg, and 3,3'-dimethoxy-1,1'-biphenyl-2,2'-diol, which represents the central part of argenteane responsible for its antioxidant activity. Although both compounds have the same capacity to scavenge free radicals, argenteane is a more active inhibitor of lipid peroxidation. We show that both compounds penetrate into DOPC and PLPC lipid bilayers and adopt similar positions and orientations, which therefore does not explain the difference in their lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. However, free energy profiles indicate that argenteane has a significantly higher affinity to the lipid bilayer, and thus a higher effective concentration to scavenge radicals formed during lipid peroxidation. This finding explains the higher activity of argenteane to inhibit lipid peroxidation. PMID:23560800

  8. Benign Hepatic Mesenchymal Hamartoma (HMH) - A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shaileshkumar Radheshyam; Misra, Vatsala; Verma, Kachnar; Gupta, Pooja; Dhingra, Vishal

    2014-03-01

    A one-year-old male child presented with progressive enlargement of abdomen and loss of appetite which he had suffered from, since 4 months. Physical examination showed a palpable mass in right hypochondrium. Ultrasonography and MRI showed a solid mass arising from right lobe of liver. The resected mass was well encapsulated, yellowish white in colour and it measured 20 x 18 x 17cm. Cut surface showed a Nutmeg like appearance. Histology showed a well-defined, fibrous capsule with numerous ducts which were lined by flat to low cuboidal epithelium and which were surrounded by concentric layers of fibrous tissue which showed myxoid changes at places. Intervening area showed normal appearing hepatocytes with clear cell changes, dilated congested sinusoids, along with extramedullary haematopoiesis. Based on distinctive morphological features, a histological diagnosis of Benign Hepatic Mesenchymal Hamartoma of liver was made. IHC was not done, as no specific marker has been described for making a differential diagnosis. Benign Hepatic Mesenchymal Hamrtoma (HMH) of liver is an extremely rare tumour of childhood and therefore, the case was considered worth documentation. PMID:24783100

  9. Allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics.

    PubMed

    Swerts, S; Van Gasse, A; Leysen, J; Faber, M; Sabato, V; Bridts, C H; Jorens, P G; De Clerck, L S; Ebo, D G

    2014-03-01

    Despite their frequent use, allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics is rarely reported in literature. We present a review of the different classes of drugs of abuse that might be involved in allergies: central nervous system (CNS) depressants (such as cannabis, opioids and kava), CNS stimulants (cocaine, amphetamines, khat and ephedra) and hallucinogens such as ketamine and nutmeg. Diagnosis of drug and narcotic allergy generally relies upon careful history taking, complemented with skin testing eventually along with quantification of sIgE. However, for various reasons, correct diagnosis of most of these drug allergies is not straightforward. For example, the native plant material applied for skin testing and sIgE antibody tests might harbour irrelevant IgE-binding structures that hamper correct diagnosis. Diagnosis might also be hampered due to uncertainties associated with the non-specific histamine releasing characteristics of some compounds and absence of validated sIgE tests. Whether the introduction of standardized allergen components and more functional tests, that is, basophil activation and degranulation assays, might be helpful to an improved diagnosis needs to be established. It is anticipated that due to the rare character of these allergies further validation is although necessary. PMID:24588864

  10. The use of Chinese herbal drugs in Islamic medicine.

    PubMed

    Heyadri, Mojtaba; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Ayati, Mohammad Hosein; Quintern, Detlev; Nimrouzi, Majid; Heyadri, Mojtaba

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates some of the ways that Chinese medicine has been transferred to the Western world and to Islamic territories. During the Golden Age of Islam (8th to 13th century CE), the herbal drug trade promoted significant commercial and scientific exchange between China and the Muslim world. Chinese herbal drugs have been described by medieval Muslim medical scholars such as Tabari (870 CE), Rhazes (925 CE), Haly Abbas (982 CE), Avicenna (1037 CE) and Jurjani (1137 CE). The term al-sin (the Arabic word for China) is used 46 times in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine in reference to herbal drugs imported from China. Cinnamon (dar sini; "Chinese herb"), wild ginger (asaron), rhubarb (rivand-e sini), nutmeg (basbasa), incense tree wood (ood), cubeb (kababe) and sandalwood (sandal) were the most frequently mentioned Chinese herbs in Islamic medical books. There are also multiple similarities between the clinical uses of these herbs in both medical systems. It appears that Chinese herbal drugs were a major component of the exchange of goods and knowledge between China and the Islamic and later to the Western world amid this era. PMID:26559361

  11. Automated Aflatoxin Analysis Using Inline Reusable Immunoaffinity Column Cleanup and LC-Fluorescence Detection.

    PubMed

    Rhemrev, Ria; Pazdanska, Monika; Marley, Elaine; Biselli, Scarlett; Staiger, Simone

    2015-01-01

    A novel reusable immunoaffinity cartridge containing monoclonal antibodies to aflatoxins coupled to a pressure resistant polymer has been developed. The cartridge is used in conjunction with a handling system inline to LC with fluorescence detection to provide fully automated aflatoxin analysis for routine monitoring of a variety of food matrixes. The handling system selects an immunoaffinity cartridge from a tray and automatically applies the sample extract. The cartridge is washed, then aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 are eluted and transferred inline to the LC system for quantitative analysis using fluorescence detection with postcolumn derivatization using a KOBRA® cell. Each immunoaffinity cartridge can be used up to 15 times without loss in performance, offering increased sample throughput and reduced costs compared to conventional manual sample preparation and cleanup. The system was validated in two independent laboratories using samples of peanuts and maize spiked at 2, 8, and 40 μg/kg total aflatoxins, and paprika, nutmeg, and dried figs spiked at 5, 20, and 100 μg/kg total aflatoxins. Recoveries exceeded 80% for both aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxins. The between-day repeatability ranged from 2.1 to 9.6% for aflatoxin B1 for the six levels and five matrixes. Satisfactory Z-scores were obtained with this automated system when used for participation in proficiency testing (FAPAS®) for samples of chilli powder and hazelnut paste containing aflatoxins. PMID:26651571

  12. Biological and Nonbiological Antioxidant Activity of Some Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rosés, Renato; Risco, Ester; Vila, Roser; Peñalver, Pedro; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2016-06-15

    Fifteen essential oils, four essential oil fractions, and three pure compounds (thymol, carvacrol, and eugenol), characterized by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were investigated for biological and nonbiological antioxidant activity. Clove oil and eugenol showed strong DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free-radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 13.2 μg/mL and 11.7 μg/mL, respectively) and powerfully inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human neutrophils stimulated by PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) (IC50 = 7.5 μg/mL and 1.6 μg/mL) or H2O2 (IC50 = 22.6 μg/mL and 27.1 μg/mL). Nutmeg, ginger, and palmarosa oils were also highly active on this test. Essential oils from clove and ginger, as well as eugenol, carvacrol, and bornyl acetate inhibited NO (nitric oxide) production (IC50 < 50.0 μg/mL). The oils of clove, red thyme, and Spanish oregano, together with eugenol, thymol, and carvacrol showed the highest myeloperoxidase inhibitory activity. Isomers carvacrol and thymol displayed a disparate behavior in some tests. All in all, clove oil and eugenol offered the best antioxidant profile. PMID:27214068

  13. Eugenol alters the integrity of cell membrane and acts against the nosocomial pathogen Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Devi, K Pandima; Sakthivel, R; Nisha, S Arif; Suganthy, N; Pandian, S Karutha

    2013-03-01

    Eugenol, a member of the phenylpropanoids class of chemical compounds, is a clear to pale yellow oily liquid extracted from certain essential oils especially from clove oil, nutmeg, cinnamon, and bay leaf. The antibacterial activity of eugenol and its mechanism of bactericidal action against Proteus mirabilis were evaluated. Treatment with eugenol at their minimum inhibitory concentration [0.125 % (v/v)] and minimum bactericidal concentration [0.25 % (v/v)] reduced the viability and resulted in complete inhibition of P. mirabilis. A strong bactericidal effect on P. mirabilis was also evident, as eugenol inactivated the bacterial population within 30 min exposure. Chemo-attractant property and the observance of highest antibacterial activity at alkaline pH suggest that eugenol can work more effectively when given in vivo. Eugenol inhibits the virulence factors produced by P. mirabilis as observed by swimming motility, swarming behavior and urease activity. It interacts with cellular membrane of P. mirabilis and makes it highly permeable, forming nonspecific pores on plasma membrane, which in turn directs the release of 260 nm absorbing materials and uptake of more crystal violet from the medium into the cells. SDS-polyacrylamide gel, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis further proves the disruptive action of eugenol on the plasma membrane of P. mirabilis. The findings reveal that eugenol shows an excellent bactericidal activity against P. mirabilis by altering the integrity of cell membrane. PMID:23444040

  14. The Antioxidant and Starch Hydrolase Inhibitory Activity of Ten Spices in an In Vitro Model of Digestion: Bioaccessibility of Anthocyanins and Carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Jayawardena, Nilakshi; Watawana, Mindani I; Jayathilaka, Ruchini T; Waisundara, Viduranga Y

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory activities of cardamom, cloves, coriander, cumin seeds, curry leaves, fenugreek, mustard seeds, nutmeg, sweet cumin, and star anise extracts were investigated in an in vitro model of digestion mimicking the gastric and duodenal conditions. The total phenolic contents in all spice extracts had statistically significantly (P < 0.05) increased following both gastric and duodenal digestion. This was also in correlation with the antioxidant assays quantifying the water-soluble antioxidant capacity of the extracts. The lipophilic Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity assay did not indicate a statistically significant change in the values during any of the digestion phases. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) reductions in the anthocyanin contents were observed during the digestion phases in contrast to the carotenoid contents. With the exception of the cumin seed extract, none of the spice extracts showed statistically significant changes in the initial starch hydrolase enzyme inhibitory values prior to gastric and duodenal digestion. In conclusion, this study was able to prove that the 10 spices were a significant source of total phenolics, antioxidant, and starch hydrolase inhibitory activities. PMID:26693245

  15. De novo transcriptome sequencing of Cryptotermes domesticus and comparative analysis of gene expression in response to different wood species.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenjing; Huang, Zhenyou; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Shijun; Liu, Xiaolin; Gu, Daifei

    2016-01-10

    The drywood termite Cryptotermes domesticus is an important worldwide pest with limited genomic resources that causes substantial damage to dry timber and structural lumber. Here, we performed transcriptome sequencing for Cr. domesticus pseudergate using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. A total of 108,745,470 clean reads were collected and assembled into 302,979 contigs with an average length of 648bp and an N50 length of 893bp. A total of 185,248 unigenes and 100,680 proteins were identified among the assembled contigs. Of these, there were 152,317 (50.27%) contigs with significant similarity to publicly available databases. To understand how the termites respond to phylogenetically diverse wood species, variations in gene expression were examined among pseudergates feeding on three wood species from different plant families, Casuarina equisetifolia (CE), Koompassia excelsa (KE) and Myristica sp. (MS). A total of 417 (118 up-regulated/299 down-regulated), 599 (148 up-regulated/451 down-regulated) and 505 (223 up-regulated/282 down-regulated) differentially expressed genes were detected in KE vs. CE, KE vs. MS and CE vs. MS, respectively. Digital gene expression analysis indicated that different wood species played an important role in the expression of termite genes, such as genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, and proteins with catalytic activity and hydrolase activity. Additionally, the genes encoding cellulase were identified and analyzed. This study provides the first primary transcriptome of Cr. domesticus and lays a foundation for future functional genomics studies in the feeding responses. PMID:26410413

  16. Evidence in support of the role of disturbance vegetation for women’s health and childcare in Western Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In savannah-dominated Bénin, West Africa, and forest-dominated Gabon, Central Africa, plants are a major source of healthcare for women and children. Due to this high demand and the reliance on wild populations as sources for medicinal plants, overharvesting of African medicinal plants is a common concern. Few studies in Western Africa, however, have assessed variations in harvest patterns across different ecological zones and within local communities. Methods We investigated which vegetation types women accessed to harvest medicinal plants by conducting 163 questionnaires with market vendors and women from urban and rural communities. We made botanical vouchers of cited species and collected information on their vegetation type and cultivation status. Results Secondary vegetation was a crucial asset; over 80% of the 335 Beninese and 272 Gabonese plant species came from disturbance vegetation and home gardens. In Bénin, access to trade channels allowed female market vendors to use more vulnerable species than rural and urban women who harvested for personal use. In Gabon, no relationship was found between vulnerable plant use and informant type. Conclusions This study highlights the underemphasized point that secondary vegetation is an asset for women and children’s health in both savanna-dominated and forest-dominated landscapes. The use of disturbance vegetation demonstrates women’s resilience in meeting healthcare needs in the limited amount of space that is available to them. Species of conservation concern included forest species and savanna trees sold at markets in Bénin, especially Xylopia aethiopica, Khaya senegalensis, and Monodora myristica, and the timber trees with medicinal values in Gabon, such as Baillonella toxisperma. PMID:24885805

  17. EBBR Observation and fluctuation of evapotranspiration in a Cambodian evergreen forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, A.; Tanaka, K.; Nobuhiro, T.; Kabeya, N.; Tamai, K.; Chann, S.; Keth, N.

    2006-12-01

    In the Mekong River basin, the increase in farming associated with a rapidly growing population has lead to a dramatic reduction in forest area. The incidence of illegal logging and wood collection is also increasing throughout the entire Asian Monsoon area, including Cambodia. According to Cambodian government statistics, the proportion of forested area in Cambodia has declined from 74% in the 1970s to 58% in 1993. Despite this reduction, the area covered by forests in Cambodia remains high compared to that in adjacent countries. We measured several meteorological elements associated with evapotranspiration, runoff, and precipitation in the broadleaf forest watersheds in Kampong Thom Province of central Cambodia. The topography of the watershed studied was relatively gentle. Meteorological factors were observed with a 60-m-high meteorological observation tower to determine the amount of evapotranspiration. The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system was used to calculate the energy budget above the forest canopy for estimating evapotranspiration. Moreover, an automatic rain gauge was placed at the top of the observation tower and an interception plot was established for calculating the rainfall interception ratio by forest coverage near the tower. The main vegetation species at the research site were Vatica odorata and Myristica iners. The mean tree height in the upper crown layer at the research site was 27 m, and the maximum tree height was 45 m. Meteorological data for estimation of evapotranspiration were collected from October 2003 to September 2004. The SPAC model, used for analyzing characteristics of evapotranspiration variation, is a multilayer model considering factors such as Reynolds stress, temperature and H2O exchanges of leaves and ground surface, radiation transfer within the canopy, atmospheric diffusion within and above the canopy, energy balance for leaves and ground surface, interception of rainfall, and water budget for leaves. Several

  18. De novo transcriptome sequencing of Cryptotermes domesticus and comparative analysis of gene expression in response to different wood species.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenjing; Huang, Zhenyou; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Shijun; Liu, Xiaolin; Gu, Daifei

    2016-01-10

    The drywood termite Cryptotermes domesticus is an important worldwide pest with limited genomic resources that causes substantial damage to dry timber and structural lumber. Here, we performed transcriptome sequencing for Cr. domesticus pseudergate using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. A total of 108,745,470 clean reads were collected and assembled into 302,979 contigs with an average length of 648bp and an N50 length of 893bp. A total of 185,248 unigenes and 100,680 proteins were identified among the assembled contigs. Of these, there were 152,317 (50.27%) contigs with significant similarity to publicly available databases. To understand how the termites respond to phylogenetically diverse wood species, variations in gene expression were examined among pseudergates feeding on three wood species from different plant families, Casuarina equisetifolia (CE), Koompassia excelsa (KE) and Myristica sp. (MS). A total of 417 (118 up-regulated/299 down-regulated), 599 (148 up-regulated/451 down-regulated) and 505 (223 up-regulated/282 down-regulated) differentially expressed genes were detected in KE vs. CE, KE vs. MS and CE vs. MS, respectively. Digital gene expression analysis indicated that different wood species played an important role in the expression of termite genes, such as genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, and proteins with catalytic activity and hydrolase activity. Additionally, the genes encoding cellulase were identified and analyzed. This study provides the first primary transcriptome of Cr. domesticus and lays a foundation for future functional genomics studies in the feeding responses.

  19. A comparative study on the potential of epiphytic yeasts isolated from tropical fruits to produce flavoring compounds.

    PubMed

    Grondin, Eric; Shum Cheong Sing, Alain; Caro, Yanis; Raherimandimby, Marson; Randrianierenana, Ando Lalaniaina; James, Steve; Nueno-Palop, Carmen; François, Jean Marie; Petit, Thomas

    2015-06-16

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in identifying and characterizing the yeast flora associated with diverse types of habitat because of the many potential desirable technological properties of these microorganisms, especially in food applications. In this study, a total of 101 yeast strains were isolated from the skins of tropical fruits collected in several locations in the South West Indian Ocean. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) ribosomal RNA gene identified 26 different species. Among them, two species isolated from the skins of Cape gooseberry and cocoa beans appeared to represent putative new yeast species, as their LSU D1/D2 sequence was only 97.1% and 97.4% identical to that of the yeasts Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Candida pararugosa, respectively. A total of 52 Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) were detected by Head Space Solid Phase Micro Extraction coupled to Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy (HS-SPME-GC/MS) from the 26 yeast species cultivated on a glucose rich medium. Among these VOCs, 6 uncommon compounds were identified, namely ethyl but-2-enoate, ethyl 2-methylbut-2-enoate (ethyl tiglate), ethyl 3-methylbut-2-enoate, 2-methylpropyl 2-methylbut-2-enoate, butyl 2-methylbut-2-enoate and 3-methylbutyl 2-methylbut-2-enoate, making them possible yeast species-specific markers. In addition, statistical methods such as Principal Component Analysis allowed to associate each yeast species with a specific flavor profile. Among them, Saprochaete suaveolens (syn: Geotrichum fragrans) turned to be the best producer of flavor compounds, with a total of 32 out of the 52 identified VOCs in its flavor profile.

  20. Cell differentiation and tissue formation in the unique fruits of devil's claws (Martyniaceae).

    PubMed

    Horbens, Melanie; Gao, Jie; Neinhuis, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Martyniaceae are characterized by capsules with two upwardly curved, horn-shaped extensions representing morphologically specialized epizoochorous fruits. Because the capsules are assumed to cling to hooves and ankles of large mammals, fiber arrangement and tissue combinations within the endocarp ensuring proper attachment to the vector's feet during transport are of particular interest. In this first detailed anatomical investigation, the functional adaptation of the fruits and their implications for the specific dispersal mode are provided. The peculiar fiber arrangement may also be of interest for future biomimetic composite materials.• Methods: Endocarp anatomy and details of tissue differentiation were examined in fruits of Ibicella lutea and Proboscidea louisianica subsp. fragrans combining light microscopy, SEM, and x-ray microtomography analysis.• Key results: While tips of the extensions are predominantly reinforced by longitudinally oriented fibers, in the middle segment these fibers are densely packed in individual bundles entwined and separated by transversely elongated cells. Within the capsule wall, the fiber bundles are embedded in a dense mesh of transversely oriented fibers that circularly reinforce and protect the loculus. This fibrous pericarp tissue develops within few days by localized cell divisions and intrusive growth of primarily isodiametric parenchyma cells in the pistil.• Conclusions: The study allows insight into a unique and complex example of functionally driven cell growth and tissue formation. Long-horned fruits of Martyniaceae obviously are highly specialized to epizoochorous dispersal, pointing to primary vector-related seed dispersal. The highly ordered arrangement of fibers results in a great mechanical firmness.

  1. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by aspidin PB through the p53/p21 and mitochondria-dependent pathways in human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wan, Daqian; Jiang, Chaoyin; Hua, Xin; Wang, Ting; Chai, Yimin

    2015-10-01

    Aspidin PB is a natural product extracted from Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott, which has been characterized for its various biological activities. We reported that aspidin PB induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through the p53/p21 and mitochondria-dependent pathways in human osteosarcoma cells. Aspidin PB inhibited the proliferation of Saos-2, U2OS, and HOS cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Aspidin PB induced changes in the cell cycle regulators (cyclin A, pRb, CDK2, p53, and p21), which caused cell cycle arrest in the S phase. We also explored the role of siRNA targeted to p53; it led to a dose-dependent attenuation of aspidin PB-induced apoptosis signaling. Moreover, after treatment with aspidin PB, the p21-silenced cells decreased significantly at the S phase. Aspidin PB increased the percentage of cells with mitochondrial membrane potential disruption. Western blot analysis showed that aspidin PB inhibited Bcl-2 expression and induced Bax expression to disintegrate the outer mitochondrial membrane and caused cytochrome C release. Mitochondrial cytochrome C release was associated with the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 cascades. Furthermore, the double-stranded DNA breaks and reactive oxygen species signaling were both involved in aspidin PB-induced DNA damage. In addition, aspidin PB inhibited tumor growth significantly in U2OS xenografts. Above all, we conclude that aspidin PB represents a valuable natural source and may potentially be applicable in osteosarcoma therapy. PMID:26181229

  2. Low-angle X-ray scattering properties of irradiated spices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, A. P. G.; Braz, D.; Barroso, R. C.; Lopes, R. T.

    2007-09-01

    The scattering of X-rays at low angles (LAXS) is a technique dominated by the coherent scattering process. One characteristic observation of low-angle coherent scattering is the so-called molecular interference effect, being characterized by the presence of one or more peaks in the forward direction of scattering. In the present study, LAXS profiles from five different spices are carefully measured in order to establish characteristic scattering signatures. Samples of Ceylon cinnamon, cumin, nutmeg, paprika and black pepper were bought in local market in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The LAXS patterns were obtained using a Shimadzu DRX 6000 diffractometer in reflection geometry. Coherent scattering patterns are measured for the samples for θ=5-35°. The data were collected in 0.05° increments every 3 s. In order to evaluate the possible molecular structure changes caused to the irradiation procedure, the signatures obtained for control (non-irradiated) spices were compared with spice samples irradiated with different doses varying from 3 to 40 kGy. The LAXS patterns of all samples were obtained after 30, 60, 90, 120 days to evaluate the effect of storage period. Scattering profiles from spices irradiated with different irradiation doses were obtained and the results compared. For each spice, there is no considerable deviation in shape in function of the irradiation dose. It indicates that the molecular structure of each analyzed spices is preserved considering the dose range chosen. The results show that the molecular structure was found to be stable during storage at the ambient temperature for up to 4 months.

  3. Development of a numerical computer code and circuit element models for simulation of firing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, K.H. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1990-07-02

    Numerical simulation of firing systems requires both the appropriate circuit analysis framework and the special element models required by the application. We have modified the SPICE circuit analysis code (version 2G.6), developed originally at the Electronic Research Laboratory of the University of California, Berkeley, to allow it to be used on MSDOS-based, personal computers and to give it two additional circuit elements needed by firing systems--fuses and saturating inductances. An interactive editor and a batch driver have been written to ease the use of the SPICE program by system designers, and the interactive graphical post processor, NUTMEG, supplied by U. C. Berkeley with SPICE version 3B1, has been interfaced to the output from the modified SPICE. Documentation and installation aids have been provided to make the total software system accessible to PC users. Sample problems show that the resulting code is in agreement with the FIRESET code on which the fuse model was based (with some modifications to the dynamics of scaling fuse parameters). In order to allow for more complex simulations of firing systems, studies have been made of additional special circuit elements--switches and ferrite cored inductances. A simple switch model has been investigated which promises to give at least a first approximation to the physical effects of a non ideal switch, and which can be added to the existing SPICE circuits without changing the SPICE code itself. The effect of fast rise time pulses on ferrites has been studied experimentally in order to provide a base for future modeling and incorporation of the dynamic effects of changes in core magnetization into the SPICE code. This report contains detailed accounts of the work on these topics performed during the period it covers, and has appendices listing all source code written documentation produced.

  4. Food selection of the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) under semi-wild conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Boyd K.; Shukor, M. N.; Magintan, David

    2013-11-01

    A study on the selection of food plants by captive Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) was undertaken in a 30 hectare natural forest enclosure at the Sungai Dusun Wildlife Reserve, Malaysia. Tapirs browsed on 217 species of plants (from 99 genera and 49 families) from a total of the 1142 specimens collected and identified. Food plants were heavily dominated by sapling trees and shrubs which comprised 93% of all plants taken, with the remainder comprising woody lianas, vines and herbaceous plants. Although tapirs browsed on a wide variety of plant species, the top 30 species consumed represented more than 60% of all the plants selected, whilst the vast majority of species were rarely eaten. More than 80 species of trees and shrubs were available, but not eaten at all. The most readily consumed species were the sub-canopy and understorey trees Xerospermum noronhianum, Aporosa prainiana and Baccaurea parviflora, while Aporosa, Knema and Xerospermum were the dominant plant genera. The Phyllanthaceae (leaf flowers), Myristicaceae (nutmegs) and Sapindaceae (rambutans) were the most commonly selected families comprising 45% of the diet. Tapirs fed on saplings trees up to 8.3 m in height, while plants taller than about 1.6 m were bent, broken or pushed to the ground to gain access to the foliage. Sapling stems up to 4.2 cm in diameter could be snapped by biting, while larger trees to 7 cm diameter could be pushed down. Tapirs typically fed on the newer leaves and shoots, however, often only consuming half of the available foliage on a plant. This study documents 160 new plant species suitable as Malayan tapir food, and is consistent with the generalist, but selective browsing nature of the Tapirus species in general.

  5. The Science of Salsa: Antimicrobial Properties of Salsa Components to Learn Scientific Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Tamara L.; Arriola, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Most ethnic foods and cooking practices have incorporated the use of spices and other food additives. Many common spices have crossed cultural boundaries and appear in multiple ethnic cuisines. Recent studies have demonstrated that many of these ingredients possess antimicrobial properties against common food spoilage microorganisms. We developed a laboratory exercise that promotes the use of scientific methodology to evaluate the effectiveness of salsa components at inhibiting the growth of undesirable microorganisms. Tomato, onion, garlic, cilantro, and jalapeño were tested for antimicrobial properties against a representative fungus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the common food spoilage bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli. Each component was ethanol extracted and a modification of the Kirby-Bauer method of antimicrobial sensitivity was employed. Garlic demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effects against all organisms tested. Onion demonstrated a slight inhibition of all four organisms, while cilantro showed some inhibition of all three bacteria but no effect against the fungus. Jalapeño may have slightly inhibited E. coli and S. aureus, as evidenced by a consistently measured increase in the zone of inhibition that was not statistically significant when compared to that of the control. Following the initial exercise, students were given the opportunity to repeat the exercise using other spices such as cinnamon, clove, nutmeg, and coriander. Student learning outcomes were evaluated using preliminary and secondary surveys, mainly focusing on definitions of science and hypothesis as well as the process of science. Students enjoyed this exercise and met the learning goals of understanding the process and methodology of science, as well as the interdisciplinarity inherent in the sciences. Student learning was evidenced by an increase in the number of correct responses on the secondary survey in comparison to the preliminary. PMID

  6. Effect of cinnamon, clove and some of their constituents on the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and alanine absorption in the rat jejunum.

    PubMed

    Kreydiyyeh, S I; Usta, J; Copti, R

    2000-09-01

    The effect of a water extract of some spices on the in vitro activity of the rat jejunal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase was investigated. Extracts of nutmeg, cinnamon, clove, cumin, coriander, turmeric and caraway all inhibited the ATPase, while anise seed and white pepper exerted no significant effects. The extracts of clove and cinnamon had the most potent inhibitory effect on the intestinal ATPase as compared to extracts of other spices. They also inhibited the in vitro Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in a crude kidney homogenate and the activity of an isolated dog kidney Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. The alcoholic extract of cinnamon, compared to the aqueous extract, had a stronger inhibitory action on the jejunal enzyme and a lower IC(50) value, which was not significantly different from the one observed with cinnamaldehyde, the major volatile oil present cinnamon, suggesting that in alcoholic extracts cinnamaldehyde is the major inhibitory component. The IC(50) values of eugenol, aqueous clove extract and ethanolic clove extract all fell within the same range and were not significantly different from each other, suggesting that eugenol is the major inhibitory component in both alcoholic and aqueous extracts. Based on the IC(50) values, the order of sensitivity of the enzyme to the spices extracts is as follows: isolated dog kidney ATPase>rat kidney ATPase>rat intestine ATPase. The aqueous extracts of clove and cinnamon also significantly lowered the absorption of alanine from the rat intestine. It was concluded that the active principle(s) in clove and cinnamon can permeate the membrane of the enterocytes and inhibit the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase that provides the driving force for many transport processes. PMID:10930696

  7. Indonesia's great frontier and migration policy.

    PubMed

    Maloney, C

    1987-01-01

    The population of Indonesia is 175 million, of which 65% live in Java. Java has only 7% of the land area, causing a population density of 2,000/square mile. This has lead the government to introduce a policy of transmigration which encourages people to move from Java to the larger outer islands. In the last 35 years 4.3 million people have moved from Java to Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, and Irian Jaya. The total area of Indonesia stretches over 3,200 miles and has 16,000 islands of which 1,000 are inhabited. It has vast resources of oil, lumber, rubber, tin, palm oil, copra, coffee, tea, pepper, cloves, nutmeg, and quinine. Indonesia is also rich in minerals, including coal, bauxite, iron ore, and gold. Even with a national family planning program, population growth has reached 2.1% a year. 3 other islands that people are induced to move from are Madura, Bali, and Lombok, although their population densities are less then Java. The small islands near Singapore are being developed and Batam will be a free port to compete with Hong Kong. The most intense migration has been to Kalimantan (Borneo) which has 4 provinces. The migration policy began in 1905 and by 1930 100,000 people, had moved to other islands; 600,000 people were relocated to plantations in Java for labor needs. In 1979-84, a more ambitious program costing 2.3 billion moved 1.5 million people. In the most recent 1984-89 plan, a goal of 3.1 million were to be relocated but due to budgetary restrictions only 150,000 families have moved. The main social issue addresses the domination of other people by Javanese, not only in numbers but cultural differences. Some observers say the real reason for migration is political in ensuring the boundaries and geographic integrity of Indonesia. PMID:12316071

  8. Genotoxicity and endoreduplication inducing activity of the food flavouring eugenol.

    PubMed

    Maralhas, Alexandra; Monteiro, Ana; Martins, Célia; Kranendonk, Michel; Laires, António; Rueff, José; Rodrigues, António S

    2006-05-01

    Eugenol (1-allyl-3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzene; CAS No. 97-53-0), a compound extracted from clove oil and marjoram, is widely used as a food flavouring substance and is present in spices such as basil, cinnamon and nutmeg. It is also used in dentistry as an antiseptic and analgesic. Structural similarities with the class IIB IARC carcinogen safrole raises questions on its putative carcinogenicity. We evaluated the genotoxicity of eugenol in V79 cells using chromosomal aberrations (CAs), with and without rat liver biotransformation (S9). Eugenol induced CAs, with significant increases (3.5% aberrant cells) at 2500 microM, demonstrating cytotoxicity at higher doses. S9 increased the induction of CAs in a dose-dependent manner to 15% at 2500 microM, with a high frequency of chromatid exchanges. In particular, an increase of endoreduplicated cells was observed, from 0% at control levels to 2.3 and 5% at 2000 microM, without and with S9, respectively. Since endoreduplication has been linked to inhibition of topoisomerase II, the topoisomerase II inhibitor ICRF-193 was used as a control inducer of endoreduplication (0.1-0.5 microM), increasing the number of endoreduplicated cells from 0% (control) to 3.5% (0.5 microM). S9 did not influence endoreduplication by ICRF-193. Both eugenol and ICRF-193 were also assayed for inhibition of topoisomerase II, and both showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect, with ICRF-193 being a more potent inhibitor. Our results confirm that eugenol is genotoxic and raises the possibility of it having topoisomerase II inhibiting activity. PMID:16595588

  9. Neuroprotection and enhanced neurogenesis by extract from the tropical plant Knema laurina after inflammatory damage in living brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Häke, Ines; Schönenberger, Silvia; Neumann, Jens; Franke, Katrin; Paulsen-Merker, Katrin; Reymann, Klaus; Ismail, Ghazally; Bin Din, Laily; Said, Ikram M; Latiff, A; Wessjohann, Ludger; Zipp, Frauke; Ullrich, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory reactions in the CNS, resulting from a loss of control and involving a network of non-neuronal and neuronal cells, are major contributors to the onset and progress of several major neurodegenerative diseases. Therapeutic strategies should therefore keep or restore the well-controlled and finely-tuned balance of immune reactions, and protect neurons from inflammatory damage. In our study, we selected plants of the Malaysian rain forest by an ethnobotanic survey, and investigated them in cell-based-assay-systems and in living brain tissue cultures in order to identify anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. We found that alcoholic extracts from the tropical plant Knema laurina (Black wild nutmeg) exhibited highly anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in cell culture experiments, reduced NO- and IL-6-release from activated microglia cells dose-dependently, and protected living brain tissue from microglia-mediated inflammatory damage at a concentration of 30 microg/ml. On the intracellular level, the extract inhibited ERK-1/2-phosphorylation, IkB-phosphorylation and subsequently NF-kB-translocation in microglia cells. K. laurina belongs to the family of Myristicaceae, which have been used for centuries for treatment of digestive and inflammatory diseases and is also a major food plant of the Giant Hornbill. Moreover, extract from K. laurina promotes also neurogenesis in living brain tissue after oxygen-glucose deprivation. In conclusion, extract from K. laurina not only controls and limits inflammatory reaction after primary neuronal damage, it promotes moreover neurogenesis if given hours until days after stroke-like injury.

  10. The ethnobotany of psychoactive plant use: a phylogenetic perspective

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Psychoactive plants contain chemicals that presumably evolved as allelochemicals but target certain neuronal receptors when consumed by humans, altering perception, emotion and cognition. These plants have been used since ancient times as medicines and in the context of religious rituals for their various psychoactive effects (e.g., as hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives). The ubiquity of psychoactive plants in various cultures motivates investigation of the commonalities among these plants, in which a phylogenetic framework may be insightful. A phylogeny of culturally diverse psychoactive plant taxa was constructed with their psychotropic effects and affected neurotransmitter systems mapped on the phylogeny. The phylogenetic distribution shows multiple evolutionary origins of psychoactive families. The plant families Myristicaceae (e.g., nutmeg), Papaveraceae (opium poppy), Cactaceae (peyote), Convolvulaceae (morning glory), Solanaceae (tobacco), Lamiaceae (mints), Apocynaceae (dogbane) have a disproportionate number of psychoactive genera with various indigenous groups using geographically disparate members of these plant families for the same psychoactive effect, an example of cultural convergence. Pharmacological traits related to hallucinogenic and sedative potential are phylogenetically conserved within families. Unrelated families that exert similar psychoactive effects also modulate similar neurotransmitter systems (i.e., mechanistic convergence). However, pharmacological mechanisms for stimulant effects were varied even within families suggesting that stimulant chemicals may be more evolutionarily labile than those associated with hallucinogenic and sedative effects. Chemically similar psychoactive chemicals may also exist in phylogenetically unrelated lineages, suggesting convergent evolution or differential gene regulation of a common metabolic pathway. Our study has shown that phylogenetic analysis of traditionally used psychoactive plants suggests

  11. Isoeugenol has a non-disruptive detergent-like mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Mygind, Tina; Piotrowska, Roxana; Foss, Morten; Meyer, Rikke L.

    2015-01-01

    Isoeugenol is an essential oil constituent of nutmeg, clove, and cinnamon. Despite isoeugenol's promising antimicrobial activity, no studies have yet investigated its mode of antibacterial action at the molecular level. The aim of this study is to clarify isoeugenol's antibacterial mode of action using the Gram-negative and Gram-positive model organisms Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua, respectively. We determined the antimicrobial activity of isoeugenol against the model organisms, and examined how isoeugenol affects cell morphology, cell membrane permeabilization, and how isoeugenol interacts with phospholipid membranes using vesicle and supported lipid bilayer models. Isoeugenol demonstrated a bactericidal activity against E. coli and L. innocua that did not affect cell morphology, although the cell membrane was permeabilized. We hypothesized that the cell membrane was the primary site of action, and studied this interaction in further detail using purified membrane model systems. Isoeugenol's permeabilization of calcein-encapsulated vesicles was concentration dependent, and isoeugenol's interaction with giant unilamellar vesicles indicated increased membrane fluidity and a non-disruptive permeabilization mechanism. This contradicted membrane fluidity measurements on supported lipid bilayers (SLBs), which indicated decreased membrane fluidity. However, further investigations demonstrated that the interaction between isoeugenol and bilayers was reversible, and caused membranes to display heterogeneous topography, an increased mass, and a higher degree of hydration. In conclusion, we propose that isoeugenol interacts with membranes in a reversible non-disruptive detergent-like manner, which causes membrane destabilization. Furthermore, we argue that isoeugenol increases membrane fluidity. Our work contributes to the understanding of how essential oil constituents interact with cell components. PMID:26284043

  12. Detection of some irradiated spices on the basis of radiation induced damage of starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, J.; Sharif, M. M.; Koncz, Á.

    Untreated and irradiated samples of spices were suspended in water, alkalized, and after heat-gelatinization, the apparent viscosity was determined by a rotational viscometer. Several spices, i.e. white pepper, black pepper, nutmeg and ginger showed considerable loss of viscosity as a function of γ-radiation dose in the dose range required for microbial decontamination of natural spices. Less promising results were obtained with spices such as allspice, garlic powder, and onion powder forming low-viscosity heat-treated suspensions even when unirradiated viscometric studies were also performed with a number of pepper samples of various origin to estimate the "natural" variation of rheological properties. Irradiation and storage studies were performed with ground black pepper samples of moisture contents in equilibrium with air of 25%, 50% and 75% R.H., respectively, either untreated or irradiated with 4, 8, 16 or 32 kGy, to study the effect of equilibrium relative humidity and storage time on detectability of radiation treatment. During the entire storage period of 100 days, statistically significant differences of the apparent viscosities of heat-gelatinized suspensions remained detectable between untreated samples and those irradiated with 8 kGy or higher doses. The apparent viscosity of high-moisture (75% E.R.H.) untreated samples was decreasing during long-term storage. Differences between viscosities of untreated and irradiated samples were enlarged when measured at elevated temperatures such as 50°C in the rotational viscometer, or in the boiling-water bath of a falling number apparatus. Other analytical indices such as onset and peak temperatures of gelatinization endotherms by DSC (damaged starch content), by colorimetry, reducing sugar content, alcohol-induced turbidity of hot water extracts of pepper samples, have been changed less dramatically by irradiation than the apparent viscosity of the gelatinized suspensions

  13. Poisoning of sheep by Vernonia plantaginoides (Less.) Hieron in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Fernando; Romero, Agustin; Quinteros, Carina; Araújo, Ruben; García Y Santos, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    Vernonia plantaginoides (Less.) Hieron, previously known as Vernonia squarrosa, is a rhizomatous subshrub with purple flowers that is prevalent in the natural grassland of Uruguay, Argentina, and southern Brazil. We report an outbreak of V. plantaginoides (yuyo moro) intoxication in sheep in Treinta y Tres Department, northeastern Uruguay. A total of 54 of 463 (12%) recently weaned lambs died 2-7 days after entering a natural pasture that had been invaded by sprouting V. plantaginoides The first cases were found dead. Affected lambs showed marked jaundice, edema of the face, ears, and eyelids, and severe photodermatitis. At the autopsies of 3 lambs, the carcass was yellow, the liver was enlarged with a marked acinar pattern ("nutmeg liver"), and hemorrhages were observed on serous membranes. Microscopic lesions were characterized by diffuse periacinar hepatocellular necrosis and cholemic nephrosis. Three female lambs were experimentally dosed with the aerial parts of V. plantaginoides collected immediately after the outbreak. The lamb that was dosed once with 40 g/kg body weight died after 36 h with severe hepatic necrosis. The lamb dosed with 20 g/kg daily for 4 days showed clinical signs and microscopic lesions in the liver with multiple apoptotic hepatocytes in the periacinar zone. The third lamb, dosed with 30, 17, and 15 g/kg daily over 3 days, respectively, showed transient clinical signs and a rise in liver enzymes, but recovered, and no lesions were found postmortem. These results demonstrate that V. plantaginoides was responsible for severe field outbreaks of poisoning in sheep in Uruguay. PMID:27240570

  14. Structure-plant phytotoxic activity relationship of 7,7'-epoxylignanes, (+)- and (-)-verrucosin: simplification on the aromatic ring substituents.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Satoshi; Nakayama, Kumiko; Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Shuto, Yoshihiro

    2014-10-15

    The synthesized 7-aryl derivatives of (7R,7'S,8S,8'S)-(+)-verrucosin were applied to growth inhibitory activity test against ryegrass at 1mM. 7-(3-Ethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl) derivative 12 and 7-(2-hydroxyphenyl) derivative 4 showed comparable activity to those of (+)-verrucosin against the root (-95%) and the shoot (-60%), respectively. The growth inhibitory activity test against lettuce using synthesized 7-aryl derivatives of (7S,7'R,8R,8'R)-(-)-verrucosin at 1mM showed that the activities of 7-(3-hydroxyphenyl) derivative 20 and 7-(3-ethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl) derivative 28 are similar to that of (-)-verrucosin against the root (-95%). Against the shoot, 7-(3-hydroxyphenyl) derivative 20 showed higher activity (-80%) than that of (-)-verrucosin (-60%). As the next step, (7S,7'R,8R,8'R)-7-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-7'-aryl-(-)-verrucosin derivatives, in which the most effective 3-hydroxyphenyl group is employed as 7-aromatic ring, were synthesized for the assay against lettuce. In this experiment, 7'-(2-hydroxyphenyl) derivative 37 and 7'-(3-hydroxyphenyl) derivative 38 showed similar activity to that of derivative 20. The effect of 7- and 7'-aryl structures of 7,7'-epoxylignanes on the plant growth inhibitory activity was clarified. The 7- and 7'-aryl structures were simplified to show comparable activity to or higher activity than that of (-)-verrucosin. The plant growth inhibitory activity of a nutmeg component, (+)-fragransin C3b, was estimated as -80% inhibition at 1mM against ryegrass roots. PMID:25248684

  15. Isoeugenol has a non-disruptive detergent-like mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Mygind, Tina; Piotrowska, Roxana; Foss, Morten; Meyer, Rikke L

    2015-01-01

    Isoeugenol is an essential oil constituent of nutmeg, clove, and cinnamon. Despite isoeugenol's promising antimicrobial activity, no studies have yet investigated its mode of antibacterial action at the molecular level. The aim of this study is to clarify isoeugenol's antibacterial mode of action using the Gram-negative and Gram-positive model organisms Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua, respectively. We determined the antimicrobial activity of isoeugenol against the model organisms, and examined how isoeugenol affects cell morphology, cell membrane permeabilization, and how isoeugenol interacts with phospholipid membranes using vesicle and supported lipid bilayer models. Isoeugenol demonstrated a bactericidal activity against E. coli and L. innocua that did not affect cell morphology, although the cell membrane was permeabilized. We hypothesized that the cell membrane was the primary site of action, and studied this interaction in further detail using purified membrane model systems. Isoeugenol's permeabilization of calcein-encapsulated vesicles was concentration dependent, and isoeugenol's interaction with giant unilamellar vesicles indicated increased membrane fluidity and a non-disruptive permeabilization mechanism. This contradicted membrane fluidity measurements on supported lipid bilayers (SLBs), which indicated decreased membrane fluidity. However, further investigations demonstrated that the interaction between isoeugenol and bilayers was reversible, and caused membranes to display heterogeneous topography, an increased mass, and a higher degree of hydration. In conclusion, we propose that isoeugenol interacts with membranes in a reversible non-disruptive detergent-like manner, which causes membrane destabilization. Furthermore, we argue that isoeugenol increases membrane fluidity. Our work contributes to the understanding of how essential oil constituents interact with cell components. PMID:26284043

  16. A natural compound macelignan protects midbrain dopaminergic neurons from inflammatory degeneration via microglial arginase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Kiyofuji, Kana; Kurauchi, Yuki; Hisatsune, Akinori; Seki, Takahiro; Mishima, Satoshi; Katsuki, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Inflammatory events involving activated microglia have been recognized to play an important role in pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson disease. Compounds regulating activation profiles of microglia may provide therapeutic benefits for Parkinson disease characterized by degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Here we examined the effect of macelignan, a compound derived from nutmeg, on inflammatory degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Treatment of midbrain slice cultures with interferon (IFN)-γ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) caused a substantial decrease in viable dopaminergic neurons and an increase in nitric oxide (NO) production indicated by extracellular nitrite accumulation. Application of macelignan (10 μM) concomitantly with LPS prevented the loss of dopaminergic neurons. Besides nitrite accumulation, up-regulation of inducible NO synthase protein expression in response to IFN-γ/LPS was confirmed by Western blotting, and immunohistochemical examination revealed expression of inducible NO synthase in a subpopulation of Iba-1-poitive microglia. However, macelignan did not affect any of these NO-related parameters. On the other hand, macelignan promoted expression of arginase-1 in midbrain slice cultures irrespective of the presence or the absence of IFN-γ/LPS treatment. Arginase-1 expression was mainly localized in a subpopulation of Iba-1-positive cells. Importantly, the neuroprotective effect of macelignan was antagonized by N(ω)-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine, a specific arginase inhibitor. The neuroprotective effect of macelignan was also prevented by GW9662, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) antagonist. Overall, these results indicate that macelignan, a compound with PPARγ agonist activity, can provide neuroprotective effect on dopaminergic neurons in an arginase-dependent but NO-independent manner. PMID:25917324

  17. A natural compound macelignan protects midbrain dopaminergic neurons from inflammatory degeneration via microglial arginase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Kiyofuji, Kana; Kurauchi, Yuki; Hisatsune, Akinori; Seki, Takahiro; Mishima, Satoshi; Katsuki, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Inflammatory events involving activated microglia have been recognized to play an important role in pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson disease. Compounds regulating activation profiles of microglia may provide therapeutic benefits for Parkinson disease characterized by degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Here we examined the effect of macelignan, a compound derived from nutmeg, on inflammatory degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Treatment of midbrain slice cultures with interferon (IFN)-γ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) caused a substantial decrease in viable dopaminergic neurons and an increase in nitric oxide (NO) production indicated by extracellular nitrite accumulation. Application of macelignan (10 μM) concomitantly with LPS prevented the loss of dopaminergic neurons. Besides nitrite accumulation, up-regulation of inducible NO synthase protein expression in response to IFN-γ/LPS was confirmed by Western blotting, and immunohistochemical examination revealed expression of inducible NO synthase in a subpopulation of Iba-1-poitive microglia. However, macelignan did not affect any of these NO-related parameters. On the other hand, macelignan promoted expression of arginase-1 in midbrain slice cultures irrespective of the presence or the absence of IFN-γ/LPS treatment. Arginase-1 expression was mainly localized in a subpopulation of Iba-1-positive cells. Importantly, the neuroprotective effect of macelignan was antagonized by N(ω)-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine, a specific arginase inhibitor. The neuroprotective effect of macelignan was also prevented by GW9662, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) antagonist. Overall, these results indicate that macelignan, a compound with PPARγ agonist activity, can provide neuroprotective effect on dopaminergic neurons in an arginase-dependent but NO-independent manner.

  18. Antioxidative, antiproliferative and biochemical effects in HepG2 cells of a homeopathic remedy and its constituent plant tinctures tested separately or in combination.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Rolf

    2003-01-01

    Hepeel is a homeopathic remedy commonly used to treat primary and secondary functional disorders of the liver. It consists of highly diluted extracts from the following plants: Chelidonium from Chelidonium majus, L., Carduus marianus from Silybum marianum, L., Veratrum from Veratrum album L., Colocynthis from Citrullus colocynthis L., Lycopodium from Lycopodium clavatum L., Nux moschata from Myristica fragans, Houtt, and China from Cinchona pubescens, Vahl. The antioxidative, antiproliferative and biochemical effects in HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells of serial dilutions of these plant tinctures were tested, either separately or in various combinations. Upon damage of the cells with tert-butyl hydroperoxide, Carduus marianus, China and Nux moschata, in decreasing order, showed the strongest antioxidative effects. Greater than 95% inhibition of total production of malondialdehyde was reached with these three tinctures at dilutions of D4. The complete combination of the tinctures (COMB) realised in the homeopathic remedy showed an effect corresponding to the combined effects of the individual tinctures. The antiproliferative influence on the incorporation of 3H-thymidine into DNA in normal HepG2 cells was significant (p < 0.01) but relatively weak, and decreased in the order Carduus marianus, Chelidonium, Colocynthis and Veratrum. At a dilution of D4 Colocynthis showed the strongest inhibition (13.5%). The effect of the combination of Colocynthis and Veratrum was markedly higher (22.3%) than that of the individual tinctures, but was not additive. With this combination, cell numbers were reduced. COMB had similar effects on proliferation and cell numbers, with the antiproliferative effect starting at a dilution of 1:40. The conjugation of 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene with glutathione was induced only by Carduus marianus and COMB, while all other tinctures were ineffective. Neither the individual tinctures, nor COMB showed cytotoxic effects in the dilutions tested. These

  19. Characteristics of sewage sludge and distribution of heavy metal in plants with amendment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jia-yin; Chen, Ling; Zhao, Jian-fu; Ma, Na

    2006-01-01

    In order to better understand land application of sewage sludge, the characterization of heavy metals and organic pollutants were investigated in three different sewage sludges in Shanghai City, China. It was found that the total concentrations of Cd in all of sewage sludge and total concentrations of Zn in Jinshan sewage sludge, as well as those of Zn, Cu, and Ni in Taopu sludge are higher than Chinese regulation limit of pollutants for sludge to be used in agriculture. Leachability of Hg in all of studied samples and that of Cd in Taopu sewage sludge exceed the limit values of waste solid extraction standard in China legislation. Based on the characteristics for three kinds of sewage sludge, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soil amended with Quyang sewage sludge on the accumulation of heavy metal by Begonia semperflorens-hybr; Ophiopogon japonicus (L.F.) Ker-Gaw; Loropetalum chindense-var. rubrum; Dendranthema morifolium; Viola tricolor; A ntirrhinum majus; Buxus radicans Sieb; Viburnum macrocephalum; Osmanthus fragrans Lour; Cinnamomum camphora siebold and Ligustrum lucidum ait. Results showed that 8 species of plant survived in the amended soil, and moreover they flourished as well as those cultivated in the control soil. The heavy metal concentration in plants varied with species, As, Pb, Cd and Cr concentration being the highest in the four herbaceous species studied, particularly in the roots of D. morifolium. These plants, however, did not show accumulator of As, Pb, Cd and Cr. The highest concentration of Ni and Hg was found in the roots of D. morifolium, followed by the leaves of B. semperflorens-hybr. Levels of Zn and Cu were much higher in D. morifolium than in the other plant species. D. morifolium accumulated Ni, Hg, Cu and Zn, which may contribute to the decrease of heavy metal contents in the amended soil. Treatment with sewage sludge did not significantly affect the uptake of heavy metals by the L. chindense-var. rubrum

  20. Characteristics of sewage sludge and distribution of heavy metal in plants with amendment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jia-yin; Chen, Ling; Zhao, Jian-fu; Ma, Na

    2006-01-01

    In order to better understand land application of sewage sludge, the characterization of heavy metals and organic pollutants were investigated in three different sewage sludges in Shanghai City, China. It was found that the total concentrations of Cd in all of sewage sludge and total concentrations of Zn in Jinshan sewage sludge, as well as those of Zn, Cu, and Ni in Taopu sludge are higher than Chinese regulation limit of pollutants for sludge to be used in agriculture. Leachability of Hg in all of studied samples and that of Cd in Taopu sewage sludge exceed the limit values of waste solid extraction standard in China legislation. Based on the characteristics for three kinds of sewage sludge, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soil amended with Quyang sewage sludge on the accumulation of heavy metal by Begonia semperflorens-hybr; Ophiopogon japonicus (L.F.) Ker-Gaw; Loropetalum chindense-var. rubrum; Dendranthema morifolium; Viola tricolor; A ntirrhinum majus; Buxus radicans Sieb; Viburnum macrocephalum; Osmanthus fragrans Lour; Cinnamomum camphora siebold and Ligustrum lucidum ait. Results showed that 8 species of plant survived in the amended soil, and moreover they flourished as well as those cultivated in the control soil. The heavy metal concentration in plants varied with species, As, Pb, Cd and Cr concentration being the highest in the four herbaceous species studied, particularly in the roots of D. morifolium. These plants, however, did not show accumulator of As, Pb, Cd and Cr. The highest concentration of Ni and Hg was found in the roots of D. morifolium, followed by the leaves of B. semperflorens-hybr. Levels of Zn and Cu were much higher in D. morifolium than in the other plant species. D. morifolium accumulated Ni, Hg, Cu and Zn, which may contribute to the decrease of heavy metal contents in the amended soil. Treatment with sewage sludge did not significantly affect the uptake of heavy metals by the L. chindense-var. rubrum

  1. Changes in prevalence of avian malaria on the Alakai`i Plateau, Kaua`i. Hawai`i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Utzurrum, Ruth B.

    2010-01-01

    We determined prevalence of malarial infections in samples of native and non-native forest birds that were sampled at three locations on the Alaka`i Plateau between 1994-1997 and again between 2007-2009. The three sites spanned the elevational range of the plateau and were located at Kawaikōī Stream (1100 m), the upper drainage of Mōhihi Stream (1250 m) and the vicinity of Halepa`akai Stream near Sincock’s Bog (1350 m). We detected a dramatic and significant increase in prevalence of avian malaria both at the lower (Kawaikōī) and upper (Halepa`akai) ends of the Alaka`i Plateau during the past decade. Overall prevalence of infection increased threefold from 11% to 30% at Kawaikōī Stream and tenfold from 2% to 20% at Halepa`akai Stream. Much of this increase is likely a result of local transmission, since two sedentary native species, `Elepaio and Kaua`i `Amakihi, have experienced some of the largest increases in prevalence. Curiously, prevalence has not changed significantly at Mōhihi Stream and remains at approximately 10%. We also detected avian trypanosomes (Trypanosoma sp.) in both recent and historic blood samples from Nutmeg Mannikins (Lonchura punctulata) that were captured on the plateau. This is the first report of this mosquito-transmitted blood protozoan from the Hawaiian Islands and evidence indicates that it has been a previously undetected blood parasite in the islands for at least 15 years and likely longer. We found no evidence to indicate that the parasite has spread to native Hawaiian forest birds, but our sample sizes are limited. While our study was not designed to detect the specific factors responsible for the changes in prevalence of malaria at lower and upper portions of the plateau, the results are consistent with predicted increases in prevalence that might be expected in a warming climate and clearly show that environmental conditions necessary to support transmission of malaria now exist throughout major portions of the Alaka

  2. Plant extracts and plant-derived compounds: promising players in a countermeasure strategy against radiological exposure.

    PubMed

    Kma, Lakhan

    2014-01-01

    Radiation exposure leads to several pathophysiological conditions, including oxidative damage, inflammation and fibrosis, thereby affecting the survival of organisms. This review explores the radiation countermeasure properties of fourteen (14) plant extracts or plant-derived compounds against these cellular manifestations. It was aimed at evaluating the possible role of plants or its constituents in radiation countermeasure strategy. All the 14 plant extracts or compounds derived from it and considered in this review have shown some radioprotection in different in vivo, ex-vivo and or in vitro models of radiological injury. However, few have demonstrated advantages over the others. C. majus possessing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects appears to be promising in radioprotection. Its crude extracts as well as various alkaloids and flavonoids derived from it, have shown to enhance survival rate in irradiated mice. Similarly, curcumin with its antioxidant and the ability to ameliorate late effect of radiation exposure, combined with improvement in survival in experimental animal following irradiation, makes it another probable candidate against radiological injury. Furthermore, the extracts of P. hexandrum and P. kurroa in combine treatment regime, M. piperita, E. officinalis, A. sinensis, nutmeg, genistein and ginsan warrants further studies on their radioprotective potentials. However, one that has received a lot of attention is the dietary flaxseed. The scavenging ability against radiation-induced free radicals, prevention of radiation-induced lipid peroxidation, reduction in radiation cachexia, level of inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis, are some of the remarkable characteristics of flaxseed in animal models of radiation injury. While countering the harmful effects of radiation exposure, it has shown its ability to enhance survival rate in experimental animals. Further, flaxseed has been tested and found to be equally effective when

  3. Identification and characterization of reactive metabolites in myristicin-mediated mechanism-based inhibition of CYP1A2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ai-Hong; He, Xin; Chen, Jun-Xiu; He, Li-Na; Jin, Chun-Huan; Wang, Li-Li; Zhang, Fang-Liang; An, Li-Jun

    2015-07-25

    Myristicin belongs to the methylenedioxyphenyl or allyl-benzene family of compounds, which are found widely in plants of the Umbelliferae family, such as parsley and carrot. Myristicin is also the major active component in the essential oils of mace and nutmeg. However, this compound can cause adverse reactions, particularly when taken inappropriately or in overdoses. One important source of toxicity of natural products arises from their metabolic biotransformations into reactive metabolites. Myristicin contains a methylenedioxyphenyl substructure, and this specific structural feature may allow compounds to cause a mechanism-based inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes and produce reactive metabolites. Therefore, the aim of this work was to identify whether the role of myristicin in CYP enzyme inhibition is mechanism-based inhibition and to gain further information regarding the structure of the resulting reactive metabolites. CYP cocktail assays showed that myristicin most significantly inhibits CYP1A2 among five CYP enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4 and CYP2C19) from human liver microsomes. The 3.21-fold IC50 shift value of CYP1A2 indicates that myristicin may be a mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP1A2. Next, reduced glutathione was shown to block the inhibition of CYP1A2, indicating that myristicin utilized a mechanism-based inhibition. Phase I metabolism assays identified two metabolites, 5-allyl-1-methoxy-2,3-dihydroxybenzene (M1) and 1'-hydroxymyristicin or 2',3'-epoxy-myristicin (M2). Reduced glutathione capturing assays captured the glutathione-M1 adduct, and the reactive metabolites were identified using UPLC-MS(2) as a quinone and its tautomer. Thus, it was concluded that myristicin is a mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP1A2, and the reactive metabolites are quinone tautomers. Additionally, the cleavage process of the glutathione-M1 adduct was analyzed in further detail. This study provides additional information on the metabolic mechanism of myristicin

  4. Linking Above- and Belowground Dynamics in Tropical Urban Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, E. E.; Marin-Spiotta, E.

    2013-12-01

    Secondary forests that emerge after a long history of agriculture can have altered plant community composition and relative abundances of different species. These forests can look and behave differently compared to pre-agricultural forests due changes in primary productivity, resource allocation, and phenology, which can significantly affect processes such as carbon accumulation and nutrient availability. Our research explores how alternative successional trajectories following intensive agricultural use affect linkages among the establishment of novel plant communities, soil nutrient availability and turnover, and soil microbial community composition and function. We hypothesize that different plant species composition due to differing land use legacies and successional trajectories would drive changes in soil microbial community structure and function, affecting soil C and N chemistry and turnover. We conducted this research in the subtropical dry forest life zone of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands where island-wide abandonment of sugarcane resulted in a mosaic of sites in different stages of forest succession. We identified replicate sites with the following post-sugarcane trajectories: 1) natural forest regeneration, 2) low intensity pasture use, followed by reforestation with timber plantation, which are no longer being managed, 3) high intensity pasture use and recent natural forest regeneration, and 4) high intensity pasture use and current active grazing. During 2011-2013, we sampled soils seasonally (0-10 cm) and measured tree species composition. The successional trajectories showed distinct tree species composition. The first two trajectories yielded 40-year old mixed-species secondary forest, dominated by the dry forest tree species Melicoccus bijugatas, Guapira fragrans, Maniklara zapota, and Sideroxylon foetidissimum. The tree species Melicoccus bijugatas primarily drove differences between the first two trajectories (natural forest regeneration vs