Sample records for nutrient intake patterns

  1. Eating patterns and energy and nutrient intakes of US women.

    PubMed

    Haines, P S; Hungerford, D W; Popkin, B M; Guilkey, D K

    1992-06-01

    A longitudinal multivariate analysis was used to determine whether differences in energy and nutrient intakes were present for women classified into different eating patterns. Ten multidimensional eating patterns were created based on the proportion of energy consumed at home and at seven away-from-home locations. Data were from 1,120 women aged 19 through 50 years who were surveyed up to six times over a 1-year period as part of the 1985 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals, US Department of Agriculture. Data from 5,993 days were analyzed. To examine differences in energy and nutrient intakes, longitudinal multivariate analyses were used to control for eating pattern and factors such as demographics, season, and day of week. Younger women in the Fast Food eating pattern consumed the greatest intakes of energy, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium. Well-educated, higher-income women in the Restaurant pattern consumed diets with the highest overall fat density. Nutrient densities for dietary fiber, calcium, vitamin C, and folacin were particularly low in away-from-home eating patterns. In contrast, moderately educated, middle-aged and middle-income women in the Home Mixed eating pattern (70% at home, 30% away from home) consumed the most healthful diets. We conclude that knowledge of demographics such as income and education is not enough to target dietary interventions. Rather, educational efforts must consider both demographics and the location of away-from-home eating. This will allow development of behavioral change strategies that consider food choices dictated by the eating environment as well as personal knowledge and attitude factors related to adoption of healthful food choices.

  2. Patterns of Protein Food Intake Are Associated with Nutrient Adequacy in the General French Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Gavelle, Erwan de; Huneau, Jean-François; Mariotti, François

    2018-02-17

    Protein food intake appears to partially structure dietary patterns, as most current emergent diets (e.g., vegetarian and flexitarian) can be described according to their levels of specific protein sources. However, few data are available on dietary protein patterns in the general population and their association with nutrient adequacy. Based on protein food intake data concerning 1678 adults from a representative French national dietary survey, and non-negative-matrix factorization followed by cluster analysis, we were able to identify distinctive dietary protein patterns and compare their nutrient adequacy (using PANDiet probabilistic scoring). The findings revealed eight patterns that clearly discriminate protein intakes and were characterized by the intakes of one or more specific protein foods: 'Processed meat', 'Poultry', 'Pork', 'Traditional', 'Milk', 'Take-away', 'Beef' and 'Fish'. 'Fish eaters' and 'Milk drinkers' had the highest overall nutrient adequacy, whereas that of 'Pork' and 'Take-away eaters' was the lowest. Nutrient adequacy could often be accounted for by the characteristics of the food contributing to protein intake: 'Meat eaters' had high probability of adequacy for iron and zinc, for example. We concluded that protein patterns constitute strong elements in the background structure of the dietary intake and are associated with the nutrient profile that they convey.

  3. Cooking Schools Improve Nutrient Intake Patterns of People with Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archuleta, Martha; VanLeeuwen, Dawn; Halderson, Karen; Jackson, K'Dawn; Bock, Margaret Ann; Eastman, Wanda; Powell, Jennifer; Titone, Michelle; Marr, Carol; Wells, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether cooking classes offered by the Cooperative Extension Service improved nutrient intake patterns in people with type 2 diabetes. Design: Quasi-experimental using pretest, posttest comparisons. Setting: Community locations including schools, churches, and senior centers. Participants: One hundred seventeen people with…

  4. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and health-risk factors in Korean men.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Say Jin; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Juyoung; Park, Chan; Lee, Lilha; Erickson, Kent L; Jung, In-Kyung

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to identify dietary patterns in Korean men and to determine the associations among dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and health-risk factors. Using baseline data from the Korean Health and Genome Study, dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and associations between these dietary patterns and health-risk factors were analyzed. Three dietary patterns were identified: 1) the "animal-food" pattern (greater intake of meats, fish, and dairy products), 2) the "rice-vegetable" pattern (greater intake of rice, tofu, kimchi, soybean paste, vegetables, and seaweed), and 3) the "noodle-bread" pattern (greater intake of instant noodles, Chinese noodles, and bread). The animal-food pattern (preferred by younger people with higher income and education levels) had a positive correlation with obesity and hypercholesterolemia, whereas the rice-vegetable pattern (preferred by older people with lower income and educational levels) was positively associated with hypertension. The noodle-bread pattern (also preferred by younger people with higher income and education levels) had a positive association with abdominal obesity and hypercholesterolemia. This study identifies three unique dietary patterns in Korean men, which are independently associated with certain health-risk factors. The rice-vegetable dietary pattern, modified for a low sodium intake, might be a healthy dietary pattern for Korean men. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary patterns by cluster analysis in pregnant women: relationship with nutrient intakes and dietary patterns in 7-year-old offspring.

    PubMed

    Freitas-Vilela, Ana Amélia; Smith, Andrew D A C; Kac, Gilberto; Pearson, Rebecca M; Heron, Jon; Emond, Alan; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade; Emmett, Pauline M

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about how dietary patterns of mothers and their children track over time. The objectives of this study are to obtain dietary patterns in pregnancy using cluster analysis, to examine women's mean nutrient intakes in each cluster and to compare the dietary patterns of mothers to those of their children. Pregnant women (n = 12 195) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children reported their frequency of consumption of 47 foods and food groups. These data were used to obtain dietary patterns during pregnancy by cluster analysis. The absolute and energy-adjusted nutrient intakes were compared between clusters. Women's dietary patterns were compared with previously derived clusters of their children at 7 years of age. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to evaluate relationships comparing maternal and offspring clusters. Three maternal clusters were identified: 'fruit and vegetables', 'meat and potatoes' and 'white bread and coffee'. After energy adjustment women in the 'fruit and vegetables' cluster had the highest mean nutrient intakes. Mothers in the 'fruit and vegetables' cluster were more likely than mothers in 'meat and potatoes' (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.00; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.69-2.36) or 'white bread and coffee' (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.87-2.53) clusters to have children in a 'plant-based' cluster. However the majority of children were in clusters unrelated to their mother dietary pattern. Three distinct dietary patterns were obtained in pregnancy; the 'fruit and vegetables' pattern being the most nutrient dense. Mothers' dietary patterns were associated with but did not dominate offspring dietary patterns. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Nutrient profiles of vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Nico S; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Sabate, Joan; Fraser, Gary E

    2013-12-01

    Differences in nutrient profiles between vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary patterns reflect nutritional differences that can contribute to the development of disease. Our aim was to compare nutrient intakes between dietary patterns characterized by consumption or exclusion of meat and dairy products. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 71,751 subjects (mean age=59 years) from the Adventist Health Study 2. Data were collected between 2002 and 2007. Participants completed a 204-item validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns compared were nonvegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco vegetarian, lacto-ovo vegetarian, and strict vegetarian. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze differences in nutrient intakes by dietary patterns and was adjusted for age, sex, and race. Body mass index and other relevant demographic data were reported and compared by dietary pattern using χ(2) tests and analysis of variance. Many nutrient intakes varied significantly between dietary patterns. Nonvegetarians had the lowest intakes of plant proteins, fiber, beta carotene, and magnesium compared with those following vegetarian dietary patterns, and the highest intakes of saturated, trans, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic fatty acids. The lower tails of some nutrient distributions in strict vegetarians suggested inadequate intakes by a portion of the subjects. Energy intake was similar among dietary patterns at close to 2,000 kcal/day, with the exception of semi-vegetarians, who had an intake of 1,707 kcal/day. Mean body mass index was highest in nonvegetarians (mean=28.7 [standard deviation=6.4]) and lowest in strict vegetarians (mean=24.0 [standard deviation=4.8]). Nutrient profiles varied markedly among dietary patterns that were defined by meat and dairy intakes. These differences are of interest in the etiology of obesity and chronic diseases. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Temporal eating patterns: associations with nutrient intakes, diet quality, and measures of adiposity.

    PubMed

    Leech, Rebecca M; Timperio, Anna; Livingstone, Katherine M; Worsley, Anthony; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2017-10-01

    Background: Some evidence suggests that higher energy intake (EI) later in the day is associated with poor diet quality and obesity. However, EI at one eating occasion (EO) is also dependent on EI at surrounding EOs. Studies that examine the distribution of EOs across the day are rare. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine associations between temporal eating patterns, nutrient intakes, diet quality, and measures of adiposity in a representative sample of Australian adults. Design: Dietary data from two 24-h recalls collected during the cross-sectional 2011-2012 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were analyzed ( n = 4544 adults, aged ≥19 y). Temporal eating patterns, based on the distribution of EOs across the day, were determined by using latent class analysis. Diet quality estimated adherence to healthy eating recommendations and was assessed by using the 2013 Dietary Guidelines Index (DGI). Multivariate regression models assessed associations between temporal eating patterns, nutrient intakes, diet quality, and adiposity (body mass index, waist circumference, weight status, and central weight status). Models were adjusted for potential confounders and energy misreporting. Results: Three patterns, labeled "conventional," "later lunch," and "grazing," were identified. Compared with a "conventional" or "later lunch" pattern, men and women with a "grazing" pattern had lower DGI scores and higher intakes of discretionary (noncore) foods ( P < 0.05). Among women, the "grazing" pattern was associated with overweight or obesity (OR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.15, 2.13) and central overweight or obesity (OR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.50). These associations were attenuated after the exclusion of energy misreporters and adjustment for total EI. Conclusions: This study found that a "grazing" temporal eating pattern was modestly but significantly associated with poorer diet quality and adiposity among women, after adjustment for covariates and energy

  8. Nutrient Profiles of Vegetarian and Non Vegetarian Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Sabate, Joan; Fraser, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Differences in nutrient profiles between vegetarian and non vegetarian dietary patterns reflect nutritional differences that may contribute to the development of disease. Objective To compare nutrient intakes between dietary patterns characterized by consumption or exclusion of meat and dairy products. Design Cross-sectional study of 71751 subjects (mean age 59 years) from the Adventist-Health-Study-2. Data was collected between 2002 and 2007. Participants completed a 204-item validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns compared were: non vegetarian, semi vegetarian, pesco vegetarian, lacto-ovo vegetarian and strict vegetarian. ANCOVA was used to analyze differences in nutrient intakes by dietary patterns and were adjusted for age, and sex and race. BMI and other relevant demographic data were reported and compared by dietary pattern using chi-square tests and ANOVA. Results Many nutrient intakes varied significantly between dietary patterns. Non vegetarians had the lowest intakes of plant proteins, fiber, β-Carotene, and Mg than those following vegetarian dietary patterns and the highest intakes of saturated, trans, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic fatty acids. The lower tails of some nutrient distributions in strict vegetarians suggested inadequate intakes by a portion of the subjects. Energy intake was similar among dietary patterns at close to 2000 kcal/d with the exception of semi vegetarians that had an intake of 1713 kcal/d. Mean BMI was highest in non-vegetarians (mean; standard deviation [SD]) (28.7; [6.4]) and lowest in strict vegetarians (24.0; [4.8]). Conclusions Nutrient profiles varied markedly between dietary patterns that were defined by meat and dairy intakes. These differences can be of interest in the etiology of obesity and chronic diseases. PMID:23988511

  9. Nutrient intake and nutrient patterns and risk of lung cancer among heavy smokers: results from the COSMOS screening study with annual low-dose CT.

    PubMed

    Gnagnarella, Patrizia; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Bellomi, Massimo; Rampinelli, Cristiano; Bertolotti, Raffaella; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Palli, Domenico; Veronesi, Giulia

    2013-06-01

    The role of nutrients in lung cancer aetiology remains controversial and has never been evaluated in the context of screening. Our aim was to investigate the role of single nutrients and nutrient patterns in the aetiology of lung cancer in heavy smokers. Asymptomatic heavy smokers (≥20 pack-years) were invited to undergo annual low-dose computed tomography. We assessed diet using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire and collected information on multivitamin supplement use. We performed principal component analysis identifying four nutrient patterns and used Cox proportional Hazards regression to assess the association between nutrients and nutrients patterns and lung cancer risk. During a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, 178 of 4,336 participants were diagnosed with lung cancer by screening. We found a significant risk reduction of lung cancer with increasing vegetable fat consumption (HR for highest vs. lowest quartile = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.31-0.80; P-trend = 0.02). Participants classified in the high "vitamins and fiber" pattern score had a significant risk reduction of lung cancer (HR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.36-0.90, P-trend = 0.01). Among heavy smokers enrolled in a screening trial, high vegetable fat intake and adherence to the "vitamin and fiber" nutrient pattern were associated with reduced lung cancer incidence.

  10. Nutrient intake and meal patterns of Micmac indian and Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, J. L.; Williams, C. N.; Weldon, K. L.

    1977-01-01

    North American Indians have a higher morbidity from gallbladder disease, diabetes mellitus and obesity than other North Americans; this may result from their food intake. Nutrient intake and meal patterns were compared in 120 Micmac Indian and 115 Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS. Findings were compared with the Canadian Dietary Standard (CDS) and the Nutrition Canada national and Indian survey reports. The diet of Indian women had higher carbohydrate, lower protein and lower fibre content than that of Caucasian women, who derived a higher percentage of energy from protein and had a higher intake of vitamin A, niacin and ascorbic acid. Overnight fast was longer among Indian women. A high percentage of all women studied reported diets that did not reach the CDS for total energy intake in kilocalories or for calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin or riboflavin. PMID:861896

  11. Nutrient Intake, Diet Quality, and Weight Measures in Breakfast Patterns Consumed by Children Compared with Breakfast Skippers: NHANES 2001-2008.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-01-01

    Most studies showing that children consuming breakfast have better nutrient intakes, diet quality, and lower weight than breakfast skippers have the incorrect premise that breakfast meals are homogeneous. The purpose of this study was to classify breakfast meals into patterns and determine the association of the breakfast patterns with daily and breakfast nutrient intakes, diet quality, and weight. Data from children (2-18 years of age; N = 14,200) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008 were used. Intake was determined from one day 24-hour dietary recalls. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Body mass index (BMI) z-scores were determined. Twelve patterns (including No Breakfast [∼19% of population]), explaining 63% of the variance in energy from breakfast, were examined. Covariate adjusted general linear models were used to compare outcome variables of consumers of different patterns with breakfast skippers. The p value was Bonferroni corrected (< 0.05/12 = < 0.0042). Consumers of the Eggs/Grain/Meat, Poultry, Fish (MPF)/ Fruit Juice (FJ) and MPF/ Grain/FJ patterns showed higher daily intakes of saturated fats, solid fats, and sodium and lower daily intakes of added sugars than breakfast skippers. Consumers of most breakfast patterns showed higher daily intakes of some nutrients of public health concern (dietary fiber, vitamin D, calcium, and potassium); however, those consuming the Grain or MPF/Grain/FJ pattern did not. Consumers of the Grain/Lower Fat Milk (LFM)/Sweets/FJ, Presweetened (PS) Ready-to-eat Cereal (RTEC)/ LFM, RTEC/LFM, Cooked Cereal/Milk/FJ, and Whole Fruit patterns had higher total HEI-2005 scores than breakfast skippers; those consuming the MPF/ Grain/FJ pattern had lower diet quality than breakfast skippers. Consumption of the Grain/ LFM/Sweets/FJ, PSRTEC/whole milk, Soft Drinks/ FJ/Grain/Potatoes, RTEC/whole milk, and Cooked Cereal/ Milk/ FJ patterns was associated

  12. Nutrient Intake, Diet Quality, and Weight Measures in Breakfast Patterns Consumed by Children Compared with Breakfast Skippers: NHANES 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, Carol E.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.

    2015-01-01

    Most studies showing that children consuming breakfast have better nutrient intakes, diet quality, and lower weight than breakfast skippers have the incorrect premise that breakfast meals are homogeneous. The purpose of this study was to classify breakfast meals into patterns and determine the association of the breakfast patterns with daily and breakfast nutrient intakes, diet quality, and weight. Data from children (2–18 years of age; N = 14,200) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2008 were used. Intake was determined from one day 24-hour dietary recalls. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Body mass index (BMI) z-scores were determined. Twelve patterns (including No Breakfast [∼19% of population]), explaining 63% of the variance in energy from breakfast, were examined. Covariate adjusted general linear models were used to compare outcome variables of consumers of different patterns with breakfast skippers. The p value was Bonferroni corrected (< 0.05/12 = < 0.0042). Consumers of the Eggs/Grain/Meat, Poultry, Fish (MPF)/ Fruit Juice (FJ) and MPF/ Grain/FJ patterns showed higher daily intakes of saturated fats, solid fats, and sodium and lower daily intakes of added sugars than breakfast skippers. Consumers of most breakfast patterns showed higher daily intakes of some nutrients of public health concern (dietary fiber, vitamin D, calcium, and potassium); however, those consuming the Grain or MPF/Grain/FJ pattern did not. Consumers of the Grain/Lower Fat Milk (LFM)/Sweets/FJ, Presweetened (PS) Ready-to-eat Cereal (RTEC)/ LFM, RTEC/LFM, Cooked Cereal/Milk/FJ, and Whole Fruit patterns had higher total HEI-2005 scores than breakfast skippers; those consuming the MPF/ Grain/FJ pattern had lower diet quality than breakfast skippers. Consumption of the Grain/ LFM/Sweets/FJ, PSRTEC/whole milk, Soft Drinks/ FJ/Grain/Potatoes, RTEC/whole milk, and Cooked Cereal/ Milk/ FJ patterns was

  13. Nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity parameters in breakfast patterns compared with no breakfast in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2014-12-01

    The effect of different breakfast consumption patterns on nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity status is unknown. To compare nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity measures of consumers assigned to different breakfast patterns with breakfast skippers. These associations were assessed in adults 19+ years (N=18,988) participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Intake was determined from 1-day 24-hour dietary recall. Diet quality was quantified using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) and waist circumferences were determined. Twelve patterns (including No Breakfast [approximately 19% of population]), explaining 58% of the variance in energy from the breakfast meal, were examined. Covariate adjusted general linear models were used to compare nutrient intakes, Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores, and body mass index/waist circumference of consumers of different patterns with breakfast skippers. The P value was Bonferroni corrected (<0.05/12 breakfast patterns <0.0042). Consumers of the Grain/100% Fruit Juice and Presweetened Ready-to-Eat Cereal (RTEC)/Lower-Fat Milk patterns had lower daily intakes of nutrients to limit (added sugars, saturated fatty acids, solid fats, cholesterol, and sodium) than breakfast skippers. Consumers of the Grain/100% Fruit Juice; Presweetened RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk; and RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit/100% Fruit Juice patterns had higher daily intakes of all shortfall nutrients examined (dietary fiber; vitamins A, D, and C; calcium, potassium, folate, iron, and magnesium) than breakfast skippers. Consumers of the Grain/100% Fruit Juice; Grain; Presweetened RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk; RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit/100% Fruit Juice; Cooked Cereal; Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit; and Whole Fruit patterns had higher Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores than breakfast skippers. Consumers of the Grain/100% Fruit Juice; Presweetened RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk; RTEC

  14. How may a shift towards a more sustainable food consumption pattern affect nutrient intakes of Dutch children?

    PubMed

    Temme, Elisabeth H M; Bakker, Helena M E; Seves, S Marije; Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Dekkers, Arnold L; van Raaij, Joop M A; Ocké, Marga C

    2015-09-01

    Food has a considerable environmental impact. Diets with less meat and dairy reduce environmental impact but may pose nutritional challenges for children. The current modelling study investigates the impact of diets with less or no meat and dairy products on nutrient intakes. Energy and nutrient intakes were assessed for observed consumption patterns (reference) and two replacement scenarios with data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey - Young Children (2005-2006). In the replacement scenarios, 30 % or 100 % of the consumed dairy and meat (in grams) was replaced by plant-derived foods with similar use. The Netherlands. Children (n 1279) aged 2-6 years. Partial and full replacement of meat and dairy foods by plant-derived foods reduced SFA intake by 9 % and 26 %, respectively, while fibre intake was 8 % and 29 % higher. With partial replacement, micronutrient intakes were similar, except for lower vitamin B12 intake. After full meat and dairy replacement, mean intakes of Ca, Zn and thiamin decreased by 5-13 %, and vitamin B12 intake by 49 %, while total intake of Fe was higher but of lower bioavailability. With full replacement, the proportion of girls aged 4-6 years with intakes below recommendations was 15 % for thiamin, 10 % for vitamin B12 and 6 % for Zn. Partial replacement of meat and dairy by plant-derived foods is beneficial for children's health by lowering SFA intake, increasing fibre content and maintaining similar micronutrient intakes. When full replacements are made, attention is recommended to ensure adequate thiamin, vitamin B12 and Zn intakes.

  15. Dietary intake patterns of low-income urban African-American adolescents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Improper dietary intake pattern is a risk factor for chronic disease. Few studies have examined the multifaceted aspects of dietary intake of low-income, urban African American adolescents. Objective: This study aimed to describe dietary intake patterns including energy, nutrient, food g...

  16. Cigarette smoking is associated with unhealthy patterns of nutrient intake: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dallongeville, J; Marécaux, N; Fruchart, J C; Amouyel, P

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the relationship between smoking status and nutrient intakes using a meta-analysis. Publications in English were sought through a Medline search using the following key words: food habits, eating, feeding behavior, diet, food, nutrition, nutritional status or assessment, tobacco use disorder, tobacco, nicotine and smoking. Scanning relevant reference lists of articles and hand searching completed the data collection. No attempt was made to search for unpublished results. Paper selection was based on nutritional surveys including comparisons of smokers with nonsmokers. Fifty-one published nutritional surveys from 15 different countries with 47,250 nonsmokers and 35,870 smokers were used in the analysis. The estimates of size effects were calculated with the mean and variance values of each nutrient intake and the size of the sample. Smokers declared significantly (all P < 10(-5)) higher intakes of energy (+4.9%), total fat (+3.5%), saturated fat (+8.9%), cholesterol (+10.8%) and alcohol (+77.5%) and lower intakes of polyunsaturated fat (-6.5%), fiber (-12.4%), vitamin C (-16.5%), vitamin E (-10.8%) and beta-carotene (-11.8%) than nonsmokers. Protein and carbohydrate intakes did not differ between smokers and nonsmokers. There was no evidence of heterogeneity among studies. In conclusion, the nutrient intakes of smokers differ substantially from those of nonsmokers. Some of these differences may exacerbate the deleterious effects of smoke components on cancer and coronary heart disease risk.

  17. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries.

    PubMed

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S; Fulgoni, Victor L; Schweitzer, Cindy M

    2015-06-08

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003-2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey's reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth "mixed dishes" group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%-20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%-25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries.

  18. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Schweitzer, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003–2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey’s reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth “mixed dishes” group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%–20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%–25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries. PMID:26061017

  19. Nutrient intakes and food patterns of toddlers' lunches and snacks: influence of location.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Paula; Briefel, Ronette; Ponza, Michael; Novak, Timothy; Hendricks, Kristy

    2006-01-01

    To describe nutrient intake and food patterns of lunches and snacks eaten at various locations by US toddlers. A national, cross-sectional telephone survey in which mothers and primary caretakers reported toddlers' food and beverage intake for a 24-hour period. Toddlers (n=632), aged 15 to 24 months, a subset in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study. Means+/-standard errors of the mean, percentages, t tests of mean differences, mean energy and nutrient intake, and nutrient density of toddlers' lunches and snacks. Overall, on any given day, 42.6% of toddlers consumed all meals and snacks at home, 8.1% consumed any meal or snack at day care (and others at home), and 49.3% consumed any meal or snack away from home (all other locations excluding day care). Mean energy intake at lunch ranged from 281 kcal at home to 308 kcal away from home to 332 kcal at day care. There were no significant differences in mean macronutrient intake or fiber intake across locations, but lunches eaten at day care were significantly higher in calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, potassium, and riboflavin compared with those eaten at home or away (P<.05). Mean trans fat intake was significantly (P<.01) lower for lunches consumed at home compared with away from home. For lunches consumed at away locations, the most frequently consumed item, by 35% of toddlers, was french fries. Carbonated beverages were consumed at away lunches by 16% of toddlers, compared with 3% at home and none at day care. Morning snacks provided 124 to 156 kcal and afternoon snacks provided from 139 to 170 kcal, depending on the location. Foods typically eaten at morning snacks for all locations were water, cow's milk, crackers, and 100% juice. Beverages frequently consumed at afternoon snacks were water, whole cow's milk, fruit-flavored drinks, and 100% apple juice. The most frequently consumed foods for an afternoon snack at home or day care were crackers or non-baby food cookies. Nutritious choices such as

  20. Dietary patterns in UK adolescents obtained from a dual-source FFQ and their associations with socio-economic position, nutrient intake and modes of eating.

    PubMed

    Northstone, Kate; Smith, Andrew D A C; Cribb, Victoria L; Emmett, Pauline M

    2014-07-01

    To derive dietary patterns using principal components analysis from separate FFQ completed by mothers and their teenagers and to assess associations with nutrient intakes and sociodemographic variables. Two distinct FFQ were completed by 13-year-olds and their mothers, with some overlap in the foods covered. A combined data set was obtained. Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), Bristol, UK. Teenagers (n 5334) with adequate dietary data. Four patterns were obtained using principal components analysis: a 'Traditional/health-conscious' pattern, a 'Processed' pattern, a 'Snacks/sugared drinks' pattern and a 'Vegetarian' pattern. The 'Traditional/health-conscious' pattern was the most nutrient-rich, having high positive correlations with many nutrients. The 'Processed' and 'Snacks/sugared drinks' patterns showed little association with important nutrients but were positively associated with energy, fats and sugars. There were clear gender and sociodemographic differences across the patterns. Lower scores were seen on the 'Traditional/health conscious' and 'Vegetarian' patterns in males and in those with younger and less educated mothers. Higher scores were seen on the 'Traditional/health-conscious' and 'Vegetarian' patterns in girls and in those whose mothers had higher levels of education. It is important to establish healthy eating patterns by the teenage years. However, this is a time when it is difficult to accurately establish dietary intake from a single source, since teenagers consume increasing amounts of foods outside the home. Further dietary pattern studies should focus on teenagers and the source of dietary data collection merits consideration.

  1. Nutrient intake during peritoneal dialysis at the Prince of Wales Hospital in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wang, Angela Yee-Moon; Sea, Mandy Man-Mei; Ng, Kenway; Kwan, Mandy; Lui, Siu-Fai; Woo, Jean

    2007-05-01

    Individuals undergoing peritoneal dialysis are at increased risk of developing cardiac disease and malnutrition. A cross-sectional survey. 249 Chinese continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients were recruited from the Prince of Wales Hospital in Hong Kong. Another 249 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited from an archive of 1,010 individuals with known food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data. To compare the dietary intake pattern of CAPD patients with controls and evaluate its association with background cardiac disease. Intake of different nutrients was estimated by using a 7-day FFQ. Intake of all nutrients was lower in CAPD patients than controls, with resulting lower overall energy intake. Nutrient intake was decreased further in CAPD patients with background cardiac disease, which corresponded to worse nutritional status. Controlling for age, male sex, body weight, diabetes mellitus, dialysis therapy duration, residual renal function, peritoneal dialysis urea clearance, and Charlson Comorbidity Index score, background cardiac disease was associated independently with less intake of energy and most macronutrients and micronutrients. However, the association between background cardiac disease and energy and most nutrient intake was decreased or even lost when additional adjustment was made for C-reactive protein and serum albumin levels. An FFQ is limited in that nutrient quantitation is not exact and may be underestimated as a result of underreporting by patients. CAPD patients were compared with a control group without cardiovascular disease ascertainment that did not include subjects with diabetes. Chinese CAPD patients had significantly lower nutrient intake than age- and sex-matched controls. The association between cardiac disease and lower dietary macronutrient and micronutrient intake in CAPD patients was mediated in part through systemic inflammation, which also was associated with more malnutrition. More attention should be

  2. Dietary patterns of adolescents in Germany--associations with nutrient intake and other health related lifestyle characteristics.

    PubMed

    Richter, Almut; Heidemann, Christin; Schulze, Matthias B; Roosen, Jutta; Thiele, Silke; Mensink, Gert B M

    2012-03-22

    The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns among a representative sample of German adolescents and their associations with energy and nutrient intake, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, and overweight status. In the analysis, data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents were used. The survey included a comprehensive dietary history interview conducted among 1272 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Dietary patterns were determined with principal component analysis (PCA) based on 48 food groups, for boys and girls separately. Three dietary patterns among boys and two among girls were identified. Among boys, high adherence to the 'western' pattern was associated with higher age, lower socioeconomic status (SES), and lower physical activity level (PA). High adherence to the 'healthy' pattern among boys, but not among girls, was associated with higher SES, and higher PA. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was associated with higher age. Among girls, high adherence to the 'traditional and western' pattern was associated with lower age, lower SES and more hours watching TV per day. The nutrient density of several vitamins and minerals, particularly of B-vitamins and calcium, increased with increasing scores of the 'healthy' pattern among both sexes. Conversely, with increasing scores of the 'western' pattern among boys, most nutrient densities decreased, particularly of fibre, beta-carotene, vitamin D, biotin and calcium. Among girls with higher scores of the 'traditional and western' pattern, nutrient densities of vitamin A, C, E, K and folate decreased. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was correlated with higher densities of vitamin B12 and vitamin D and lower densities of fibre, magnesium and iron. No significant associations between dietary patterns and overweight were found. Higher scores for dietary patterns characterized by higher consumption of take away

  3. Fruit and Vegetable Intake Patterns and Their Associations with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Anthropometric Status and Nutrient Intake Profiles among Malaysian Children Aged 1-6 Years.

    PubMed

    Chong, Kar Hau; Lee, Shoo Thien; Ng, Swee Ai; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2017-07-31

    This study aimed to assess fruit and vegetable intake patterns and their associations with sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric status and nutrient intake profiles among Malaysian children aged 1-6 years. Using the Malaysian dataset of South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS Malaysia), a total of 1307 children aged 1-6 years with complete datasets were included in this analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using age-specific, validated food frequency questionnaires. On average, Malaysian children consumed 0.91 and 1.07 servings of fruits and vegetables per day, respectively. Less than one-fifth of the children achieved the daily recommended servings of fruits (11.7%) and vegetables (15.8%). Fruit intake was associated with age, parental educational level and geographical region, and vegetable intake was associated with ethnicity and geographical region. There was little evidence of an association between fruit and vegetable intake and children's anthropometric status, but an adequate intake of fruits and vegetables contributed significantly and differently to children's micronutrient intake. Future nutrition interventions should focus on addressing the sociodemographic determinants and be tailored to the needs of the low consumers to more effectively promote and encourage the adequate intake of fruit and vegetables among young children.

  4. Energy and Nutrient Intakes: Findings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS).

    PubMed

    Mirnalini, K; Zalilah, M S; Safiah, M Y; Tahir, A; Siti Haslinda, M D; Siti Rohana, D; Khairul Zarina, M Y; Mohd Hasyami, S; Normah, H

    2008-03-01

    Nutrition surveys based on a representative sample of the Malaysian adult population have hitherto not been reported. In 2003, the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, conducted the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS), the first and largest nutrition survey in the country which aimed to provide detailed quantitative information on nutritional status, food and nutrient intakes, and physical activity pattern on a nationwide representative sample of adult subjects between the ages of 18 and 59 years. The survey covered four zones in Peninsular Malaysia (Central, Southern, Northern and East Coast), Sabah and Sarawak. This paper presents the mean and selected percentiles of energy and nutrient intake of 6886 subjects by selected demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Energy contributions by macronutrients and dietary adequacy in relation to the Recommended Nutrient Intake for Malaysians are also described. Information on dietary intake was collected by trained nutritionists using a one day 24-hour diet recall. Dietary data were analysed using Nutritionist Pro, a diet analysis software and statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS ver. 13.0. In most of the demographic and socioeconomic groups, males had higher mean energy (1776 kcal) and nutrient intake and percent achievement of RNI than females (1447 kcal). The proportions of calories derived from macronutrients were within the recommendations for a healthy diet. Intake of micronutrients such as iron, calcium and vitamin A was about 50% of RNI particularly in women. Sodium intake of Malaysians, not reported in earlier studies, is also made available. Under-reporting using the EI/BMR ratio was found in half of the population studied. The present study provides the first national estimates of energy and nutrient intake of the Malaysian adult population. Regular nutrition surveys are needed at the national level to provide valuable information on trends in food and nutrient intake, particularly among age

  5. Usual nutrient intake adequacy among young, rural Zambian children.

    PubMed

    Caswell, Bess L; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Siamusantu, Ward; West, Keith P; Palmer, Amanda C

    2018-01-01

    Inadequate nutrient intakes put children at risk for impaired growth and development. We described diet, usual intakes of energy and macro- and micronutrients and prevalence of nutrient intake adequacies among 4-8-year-old Zambian children. Children not yet in school and living in Mkushi District, Central Province, Zambia were enrolled into an efficacy trial of pro-vitamin A biofortified maize. Children in the non-intervened arm were included in this analysis (n 202). Dietary intake data were collected by tablet-based 24-h recall on a monthly basis over the 6-month trial. Observed nutrient intakes were derived from reported food quantities, standard recipes and food composition tables. Usual nutrient intake distributions were modelled based on observed intakes. Prevalence of inadequacy was estimated by comparing the usual nutrient intake distribution to the nutrient requirement distribution. Frequency and quantity of consumption of commonly reported foods were described and key sources of energy and nutrients were identified. Median usual energy intake was 6422 kJ/d (1535 kcal/d). Most childrens' macronutrient intakes fell within recommended ranges (74-98 %). Estimated prevalences of inadequate intakes of Fe, folate, vitamin B12 and Ca were 25, 57, 76 and >99 %, respectively. Estimated prevalences of inadequacy for other micronutrients were low (0·1-2·2 %). Commonly consumed foods included maize, vegetable oil, tomatoes, rape leaves and small fish (>0·6 servings/d), whereas meat, eggs or dairy were rarely eaten (<0·2 servings/d). These findings suggest that the heavily plant-based diet of rural Zambian children provides inadequate Ca, folate, vitamin B12 and Fe to meet recommended nutrient intakes.

  6. Nutritional status as assessed by nutrient intakes and biomarkers among women of childbearing age--is the burden of nutrient inadequacies growing in America?

    PubMed

    Rai, Deshanie; Bird, Julia K; McBurney, Michael I; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen M

    2015-06-01

    Understanding nutrient intakes among women of childbearing age within the USA is important given the accumulating evidence that maternal body weight gain and nutrient intakes prior to pregnancy may influence the health and well-being of the offspring. The objective of the present study was to evaluate nutritional status in women of childbearing age and to ascertain the influence of ethnicity and income on nutrient intakes. Nutritional status was assessed using data on nutrient intakes through foods and supplements from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Biomarker data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used to assess nutritional status for selected nutrients. Poverty-income ratio was used to assess family income. White (n 1560), African-American (n 889) and Mexican-American (n 761) women aged 19-30 and 31-50 years were included. A nationally representative sample of non-pregnant women of childbearing age resident in the USA. African-American women had the lowest intakes of fibre, folate, riboflavin, P, K, Ca and Mg. Women (31-50 years) with a poverty-income ratio of ≤ 1.85 had significantly lower intakes of almost all nutrients analysed. Irrespective of ethnicity and income, a significant percentage of women were not consuming the estimated recommended amounts (Estimated Average Requirement) of several key nutrients: vitamin A (~80%), vitamin D (~78%) and fibre (~92%). Nutrient biomarker data were generally reflective of nutrient intake patterns among the different ethnic groups. Women of childbearing age in the USA are not meeting nutrient intake guidelines, with differences between ethnic groups and socio-economic strata. These factors should be considered when establishing nutrition science advocacy and policy.

  7. Energy and Nutrient Intake From Pizza in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Binh T.; Dietz, William H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pizza consumption is a top contributor to children’s and adolescents’ caloric intake. The objective of this study was to examine children’s and adolescents’ pizza consumption patterns and its impact on their energy and nutrient intake. METHODS: Twenty-four–hour dietary recall data for children aged 2 to 11 and adolescents aged 12 to 19 were drawn from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We tested changes in consumption patterns, including by race/ethnicity, income, meal occasion, and source. Individual-level fixed effects regression models estimated the impact of pizza consumption on total energy intake (TEI) and intakes of sugar, saturated fat, and sodium. RESULTS: From 2003–2004 to 2009–2010, overall energy intake from pizza declined 25% among children (110 to 83 kcal, P ≤ .05). Among adolescents, although caloric intake from pizza among those who consumed pizza fell (801 to 624 kcal, P ≤ .05), overall pizza intake remained unchanged due to slightly higher pizza consumption prevalence. For children and adolescents, pizza intake fell (P ≤ .05) at dinner time and from fast food. For children and adolescents, respectively, pizza consumption was significantly associated with higher net daily TEI (84 kcal and 230 kcal) and higher intakes of saturated fat (3 g and 5 g) and sodium (134 mg and 484 mg) but not sugar intake, and such affects generally did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Pizza consumption as a snack or from fast-food restaurants had the greatest adverse impact on TEI. CONCLUSIONS: The adverse dietary effects of pizza consumption found in this study suggest that its consumption should be curbed and its nutrient content improved. PMID:25601973

  8. Energy and nutrient intake from pizza in the United States.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Nguyen, Binh T; Dietz, William H

    2015-02-01

    Pizza consumption is a top contributor to children's and adolescents' caloric intake. The objective of this study was to examine children's and adolescents' pizza consumption patterns and its impact on their energy and nutrient intake. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data for children aged 2 to 11 and adolescents aged 12 to 19 were drawn from the 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We tested changes in consumption patterns, including by race/ethnicity, income, meal occasion, and source. Individual-level fixed effects regression models estimated the impact of pizza consumption on total energy intake (TEI) and intakes of sugar, saturated fat, and sodium. From 2003-2004 to 2009-2010, overall energy intake from pizza declined 25% among children (110 to 83 kcal, P ≤ .05). Among adolescents, although caloric intake from pizza among those who consumed pizza fell (801 to 624 kcal, P ≤ .05), overall pizza intake remained unchanged due to slightly higher pizza consumption prevalence. For children and adolescents, pizza intake fell (P ≤ .05) at dinner time and from fast food. For children and adolescents, respectively, pizza consumption was significantly associated with higher net daily TEI (84 kcal and 230 kcal) and higher intakes of saturated fat (3 g and 5 g) and sodium (134 mg and 484 mg) but not sugar intake, and such affects generally did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Pizza consumption as a snack or from fast-food restaurants had the greatest adverse impact on TEI. The adverse dietary effects of pizza consumption found in this study suggest that its consumption should be curbed and its nutrient content improved. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. The influence of academic examinations on energy and nutrient intake in male university students.

    PubMed

    Barker, Margo E; Blain, Richard J; Russell, Jean M

    2015-09-25

    Taking examinations is central to student experience at University and may cause psychological stress. Although stress is recognised to impact on food intake, the effects of undertaking examinations on students' dietary intake have not been well characterised. The purpose of this study was to assess how students' energy and nutrient intake may alter during examination periods. The study design was a within-subject comparison of students' energy and nutrient intake during an examination period contrasted with that outside an examination period (baseline). A total of 20 male students from the University of Sheffield completed an automated photographic 4-d dietary record alongside four 24-h recalls in each time period. Daily energy and nutrient intake was estimated for each student by time period and change in energy and nutrient intake calculated. Intakes at baseline were compared to UK dietary recommendations. Cluster analysis categorised students according to their change in energy intake between baseline and the examination period. Non-parametric statistical tests identified differences by cluster. Baseline intakes did not meet recommendations for energy, non-milk extrinsic sugars, non-starch polysaccharide and sodium. Three defined clusters of students were identified: Cluster D who decreased daily energy intake by 12.06 MJ (n = 5), Cluster S who had similar energy intakes (n = 13) and Cluster I who substantially increased energy intake by 6.37 MJ (n = 2) between baseline and examination period. There were statistically significant differences (all p < 0.05) in change in intake of protein, carbohydrate, calcium and sodium between clusters. Cluster D recorded greater energy, carbohydrate and protein intakes than Cluster I at baseline. The majority of students were dietary resilient. Students who demonstrated hypophagia in the examination period had a high energy and nutrient intake at baseline, conversely those who showed hyperphagia had a low energy and nutrient

  10. Fruit and Vegetable Intake Patterns and Their Associations with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Anthropometric Status and Nutrient Intake Profiles among Malaysian Children Aged 1–6 Years

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Ng, Swee Ai; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess fruit and vegetable intake patterns and their associations with sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric status and nutrient intake profiles among Malaysian children aged 1–6 years. Using the Malaysian dataset of South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS Malaysia), a total of 1307 children aged 1–6 years with complete datasets were included in this analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using age-specific, validated food frequency questionnaires. On average, Malaysian children consumed 0.91 and 1.07 servings of fruits and vegetables per day, respectively. Less than one-fifth of the children achieved the daily recommended servings of fruits (11.7%) and vegetables (15.8%). Fruit intake was associated with age, parental educational level and geographical region, and vegetable intake was associated with ethnicity and geographical region. There was little evidence of an association between fruit and vegetable intake and children’s anthropometric status, but an adequate intake of fruits and vegetables contributed significantly and differently to children’s micronutrient intake. Future nutrition interventions should focus on addressing the sociodemographic determinants and be tailored to the needs of the low consumers to more effectively promote and encourage the adequate intake of fruit and vegetables among young children. PMID:28758956

  11. Nutrient intake disparities in the US: modeling the effect of food substitutions.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Zach; Johnson, LuAnn K; Roemmich, James N; Juan, WenYen; Jahns, Lisa

    2018-05-17

    Diet quality among federal food assistance program participants remains low, and little research has assessed the diet quality of food insecure non-participants. Further research is needed to assess the extent to which food substitutions can improve the nutritional status of these vulnerable populations. Substituting egg dishes for other commonly consumed dishes at certain eating occasions may be an effective strategy for improving the daily nutrient intake among these groups. Eggs are rich in many important nutrients, and are low-cost and part of a wide range of cultural food menus, which are important considerations for low-income and ethnically diverse populations. To help guide the focus of targeted nutrition interventions and education campaigns for vulnerable populations, the present work begins by 1) estimating the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy among these groups, and then models the effect of consuming egg dishes instead of commonly consumed dishes at each eating occasion on 2) the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy, and 3) the mean intake of nutrients. Dietary data from 34,741 adults ≥ 20 y were acquired from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2014. Diet pattern modeling was used to substitute commonly consumed egg dishes for commonly consumed main dishes at breakfast, lunch, and dinner. National Cancer Institute usual intake methods were used to estimate the prevalence of inadequate intake of 31 nutrients pre- and post-substitution, and a novel index was used to estimate change in intake of all nutrients collectively. Substituting eggs for commonly consumed main dishes at lunch or dinner did not change total daily nutrient intake for each group (P > 0.05), but decreased the prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy by 1-4 percentage points (P < 0.01). Substituting eggs for commonly consumed foods at breakfast increased the prevalence of folate inadequacy by 8-12 percentage points among each group (P < 0.01). When making

  12. Adequate nutrient intake can reduce cardiovascular disease risk in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Reusser, Molly E; DiRienzo, Douglas B; Miller, Gregory D; McCarron, David A

    2003-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease kills nearly as many Americans each year as the next seven leading causes of death combined. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease and most of its associated risk factors is markedly higher and increasing more rapidly among African Americans than in any other racial or ethnic group. Improving these statistics may be simply a matter of improving diet quality. In recent years, a substantial and growing body of evidence has revealed that dietary patterns complete in all food groups, including nutrient-rich dairy products, are essential for preventing and reducing cardiovascular disease and the conditions that contribute to it. Several cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, insulin resistance syndrome, and obesity, have been shown to be positively influenced by dietary patterns that include adequate intake of dairy products. The benefits of nutrient-rich dietary patterns have been specifically tested in randomized, controlled trials emphasizing African American populations. These studies demonstrated proportionally greater benefits for African Americans without evidence of adverse effects such as symptoms of lactose intolerance. As currently promoted for the prevention of certain cancers and osteoporosis, regular consumption of diets that meet recommended nutrient intake levels might also be the most effective approach for reducing cardiovascular disease risk in African Americans.

  13. Intake of energy and nutrients. Euronut SENECA investigators.

    PubMed

    Moreiras, O; van Staveren, W A; Cruz, J A; Nes, M; Lund-Larsen, K

    1991-12-01

    As part of the Euronut SENECA study, food consumption has been assessed in 1217 men and 1241 women, born between 1913 and 1918 and living in 18 towns in 12 European countries. The method used was a standardized modified dietary history, including a 3-day estimated record and a food frequency list based on local food patterns. Intakes of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fatty acids, cholesterol and alcohol are described in this paper. As expected, a difference between men and women in energy and nutrient intake was observed in all towns. There was a great variation between towns in mean dietary intakes of all dietary components. Mean energy intake of men ranged from 12.7 MJ in Marki (Poland) to 8.2 MJ in Yverdon (Switzerland) and Chateau Renault-Amboise (France). For women the range was from 10.9 MJ in Marki (Poland) to 6.3 MJ in Yverdon (Switzerland) and Vila Franca de Xira (Portugal). A geographical pattern can be detected for the intake of fatty acids. Intakes of saturated fat were lower in southern than in northern European towns. The calculated ratio for intakes of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids (polyunsaturated fatty acids plus monounsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids) for all participants was higher in the southern European centres than in the northern centres and ranged from 2.7 in Markopoulo (Greece) to 1.2 in Elverum (Norway) and Marki (Poland). Alcohol consumption was considerable higher in men than in women. In men a north-south gradient in alcohol intake can be detected, with the highest intake in the two centres in Italy, where, on average 11% of energy intake was derived from alcohol.

  14. Nutrient intake, nutritional status, and cognitive function with aging.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katherine L

    2016-03-01

    With the demographic aging of populations worldwide, diseases associated with aging are becoming more prevalent and costly to individuals, families, and healthcare systems. Among aging-related impairments, a decline in cognitive function is of particular concern, as it erodes memory and processing abilities and eventually leads to the need for institutionalized care. Accumulating evidence suggests that nutritional status is a key factor in the loss of cognitive abilities with aging. This is of tremendous importance, as dietary intake is a modifiable risk factor that can be improved to help reduce the burden of cognitive impairment. With respect to nutrients, there is evidence to support the critical role of several B vitamins in particular, but also of vitamin D, antioxidant vitamins (including vitamin E), and omega-3 fatty acids, which are preferentially taken up by brain tissue. On the other hand, high intakes of nutrients that contribute to hypertension, atherosclerosis, and poor glycemic control may have negative effects on cognition through these conditions. Collectively, the evidence suggests that considerable slowing and reduction of cognitive decline may be achieved by following a healthy dietary pattern, which limits intake of added sugars, while maximizing intakes of fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Associations between free sugars and nutrient intakes among children and adolescents in the UK.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Sigrid; Francis, Lucy; Newens, Katie; Livingstone, Barbara

    2016-10-01

    This study explored associations between free sugars intake (using non-milk extrinsic sugars as proxy) and nutrient intakes among children aged 1·5-18 years in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008-2012. Dietary records were completed by 2073 children (95 % completed 4 d). Mean free sugars intakes (% energy) were 11·8, 14·7 and 15·4 % in the 1·5-3, 4-10 and 11-18 years age groups, respectively. Nutrient intakes and nutrient density were compared across quintiles (Q1-Q5) of free sugars intake (% energy) within each age group. Energy intake rose from Q1 to Q5 of free sugars, whereas percentages of energy intake from fat, SFA and protein dropped. Associations with micronutrients (mg/d or mcg/d) were mostly non-significant, but among 11-18-year-olds there were significant negative associations with Zn, Se, Fe, Cu, and vitamin A and D. There were stronger negative associations with micronutrient density (mg/mcg per 4·18 MJ) for most nutrients in all age groups. Associations with vitamin C were positive. Results were similar after excluding misreporters. Children aged 4-18 years who consumed average amounts of free sugars or above (>13 % energy or Q3-Q5) had lower diet quality than those consuming <10 % free sugars (Q1), but there were insufficient data to assess diets with 5 % free sugars. High consumers obtained a higher proportion of free sugars from soft drinks, fruit juice and sugar confectionery and less from breakfast cereals. Ultimately, nutrient intakes depend on the total dietary pattern; however, reducing overconsumption of sugary foods and drinks with low nutrient density may help improve diet quality.

  16. Nutrient Intake of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Patients in Semarang City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratri Maharani, Agustina; Restuti, Christina Tri; Sari, Erna; Endah Wahyuningsih, Nur; Murwani, Retno; Hapsari, MMDEAH

    2018-05-01

    Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is an acute infectious disease caused by dengue virus and transmission of the virus is mediated by mosquitoes bites [1]. Host immunity against dengue infection is affected by nutrient adequacy which is depending on nutrient intake [2]. The aim of this study was to determine nutrient intake of DHF patients in Semarang city. The DHF sample cases were obtained from three hospitals in Semarang city (n=48), from the period of March to May 2016 and the control groups were obtained from healthy respondents with matched age, sex, and district location (n=48). Nutrient intake were obtained by food recall and calculated using Nutrisurvey Indonesia. Afterwards, the result of the nutrisurvey will be compared to Indonesian daily value according to Permenkes no. 75 about daily value based on age and gender. The results showed that both in cases and control groups the macro-(energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat) and micro-nutrient (vitamins A., C, B1, B2, B6, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc, and Iron) intake were below 80% of nutrient adequacy. No correlation was found between nutrient adequacy and DHF cases. We find that macro and micronutrient intake in DHF case and control groups are the same and below 80% of nutrient adequacy. The nutrient intake was not related to DHF cases.

  17. Several grain dietary patterns are associated with better diet quality and improved shortfall nutrient intakes in US children and adolescents: a study focusing on the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

    PubMed

    Papanikolaou, Yanni; Jones, Julie Miller; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2017-02-20

    The present study identified the most commonly consumed grain food patterns in US children and adolescents (2-18 years-old; N = 8,367) relative to those not consuming grains and compared diet quality and nutrient intakes, with focus on 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2015-2020 DGA) shortfall nutrients. Cluster analysis using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010, identified 8 unique grain food patterns: a) no consumption of main grain groups, b) cakes, cookies and pies, c) yeast bread and rolls, d) cereals, e) pasta, cooked cereals and rice, f) crackers and salty snacks, g) pancakes, waffles and French toast and other grains, and h) quick breads. Energy intake was higher for all grain cluster patterns examined, except 'cereals', compared to no grains. Children and adolescents in the 'yeast bread and rolls', 'cereals', 'pasta, cooked cereals and rice', and 'crackers and salty snacks' patterns had a higher diet quality relative to no grains (all p < 0.01). Energy adjusted (EA) dietary fiber intake was greater in five of the seven grain patterns, ranging from 1.8 - 2.8 g more per day (all p < 0.01), as compared to those consuming no grains. All grain patterns, except cakes, cookies and pies had higher EA daily folate relative to children in the no grains pattern (all p < 0.0001). EA total fat was lower in 'cereals', 'pasta, cooked cereals and rice', and 'pancakes, waffles, French toast and other grains' in comparison to the no grains food pattern (all p < 0.01). EA magnesium intakes were greater in children and adolescents consuming 'yeast bread and rolls', 'pasta, cooked cereals and rice', and 'quick breads', while EA iron was higher in all grain patterns relative to no grains (all p < 0.01). EA vitamin D intake was higher only in children consuming 'cereals' vs. no grain group (p < 0.0001). There were no significant differences in total or added sugar intake across all grain clusters as

  18. Food acquisition habits, nutrient intakes, and anthropometric data of Havasupai adults.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, L A; Benyshek, D C; Martin, J F

    1997-11-01

    To describe the dietary patterns, anthropometric data, and food sources of Havasupai adults (> or = 18 years old) and determine the effect of age and gender. Dietary intakes (one 24-hour recall), anthropometric measures (body mass index [BMI], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]) and demographic data, including sites of food purchases, were obtained. Food sources of selected nutrients were calculated from diet recalls. 92 adults (60 women, 32 men) from the Havasupai Reservation, Supai, Ariz. Descriptive statistics were generated for demographic data. Nutrient intakes, BMI, and WHR were compared across gender and age groups ("Younger" [18 to 59 years old] vs "older" [> or = 60 years old]) by one-way analysis of variance. Two-tailed t tests identified significant differences in selected food practices by age group. Diets were moderately high in fat (35% of energy), saturated fat (12%), and sugar (14%); intakes of zinc, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin B-6, and folate were frequently inadequate (less than two thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowance). Of the 92 subjects, 76 (83%) were obese (BMI > or = 27). Fifty-four of the 60 women (90%) and 24 of the 32 men (75%) exhibited abdominal obesity (no age effect). Thirty-nine of the subjects (42%) consumed at least one food item purchased off the reservation on the day of the recall; the remaining 53 subjects (58%) consumed only food purchased or acquired on the reservation. Older Havasupai were significantly more dependent on the tribal store and other village food sources than were younger adults. Food sources of key nutrients did not differ by age or gender. The dietary patterns of isolated populations may be shaped by the unique limitations of their food sources as well as by factors such as age and gender. Individual and community-wide efforts to improve nutrient intakes and food patterns must recognize these geographic limitations. For populations such as the Havasupai, cooperative marketing and health promotion efforts between

  19. Nutrient intake of children with intractable epilepsy compared with healthy children.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella L; Schall, Joan I; Gallagher, Paul R; Stallings, Virginia A; Bergqvist, A G Christina

    2007-06-01

    Growth retardation is common among children with epilepsy, and poor dietary intake may be one of the causes. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to compare the nutrient intake of children 1 to 8 years of age with intractable epilepsy to healthy children of the same age from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 to 2002 (N=1,718) and with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Children with intractable epilepsy were divided into two age groups: 1.0 to 3.9 and 4.0 to 8.9 years, to correspond with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Forty-three children with intractable epilepsy, mean age=4.7+/-2.2 years, had significantly lower intakes (P<0.05) of total energy; protein; carbohydrate; fat; dietary fiber; vitamins A, E, B-6, and B-12; riboflavin; niacin; folate; calcium; phosphorus; magnesium; zinc; copper; and selenium compared with healthy children. Thirty percent or more of the children with intractable epilepsy in both age groups had intakes below the Recommended Dietary Allowance or Adequate Intake for vitamins D, E, and K; folate; calcium; linoleic acid; and alpha-linolenic acid. Health care professionals caring for children with intractable epilepsy should be aware of this pattern of decreased nutrient intake and educate families to provide an adequate diet and/or consider vitamin/mineral supplementation.

  20. Nutrient intakes of US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers meet or exceed dietary reference intakes.

    PubMed

    Butte, Nancy F; Fox, Mary Kay; Briefel, Ronette R; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Dwyer, Johanna T; Deming, Denise M; Reidy, Kathleen C

    2010-12-01

    To assess the usual nutrient intakes of 3,273 US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, aged 0 to 47 months, surveyed in the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008; and to compare data on the usual nutrient intakes for the two waves of FITS conducted in 2002 and 2008. The FITS 2008 is a cross-sectional survey of a national random sample of US children from birth through age 47 months. Usual nutrient intakes derived from foods, beverages, and supplements were ascertained using a telephone-administered, multiple-pass 24-hour dietary recall. Infants aged birth to 5 months (n=382) and 6 to 11 months (n=505), toddlers aged 12 to 23 months (n=925), and preschoolers aged 24 to 47 months (n=1,461) were surveyed. All primary caregivers completed one 24-hour dietary recall and a random subsample (n=701) completed a second 24-hour dietary recall. The personal computer version of the Software for Intake Distribution Estimation was used to estimate the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles, as well as the proportions below and above cutoff values defined by the Dietary Reference Intakes or the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Usual nutrient intakes met or exceeded energy and protein requirements with minimal risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies. The usual intakes of antioxidants, B vitamins, bone-related nutrients, and other micronutrients were adequate relative to the Adequate Intakes or Estimated Average Requirements, except for iron and zinc in a small subset of older infants, and vitamin E and potassium in toddlers and preschoolers. Intakes of synthetic folate, preformed vitamin A, zinc, and sodium exceeded Tolerable Upper Intake Level in a significant proportion of toddlers and preschoolers. Macronutrient distributions were within acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges, except for dietary fat, in some toddlers and preschoolers. Dietary fiber was low in the vast majority of toddlers and preschoolers, and saturated fat intakes exceeded

  1. Adequacy of nutrient intake in women with restrictive anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Chiurazzi, Chiara; Cioffi, Iolanda; De Caprio, Carmela; De Filippo, Emilia; Marra, Maurizio; Sammarco, Rosa; Di Guglielmo, Maria Luisa; Contaldo, Franco; Pasanisi, Fabrizio

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess energy and nutrient intake in a group of women with restrictive AN (r-AN) compared with a control group. Thirteen r-AN patients and 13 healthy female controls completed 7-d food records. Intake of macro- and micronutrients was compared between the two groups as well as to the Dietary Reference Intake for the Italian Population (LARN) for specific ages. Additionally, the r-AN patients underwent indirect calorimetry for measuring resting energy expenditure (REE). Total energy intake was significantly lower in the r-AN group than in controls (906 ± 224 vs 1660 ± 139, respectively; P < 0.01). Nutrient composition significantly differed, as well. Mean intake of sodium, phosphorus, and zinc was higher in controls than in the women with r-AN (P < 0.01), but neither group of women met LARN recommendations for potassium, calcium, or iron intake. With respect to vitamins, no significant differences were found for riboflavin or vitamins A, B 12 , or C between groups, whereas levels of other vitamins differed (P < 0.01). Both groups failed to meet the LARN recommendation for vitamin D intake; moreover, none of the r-AN patients met recommended intake levels of vitamin E, thiamine, niacin, and folate. Intakes reported by r-AN patients did not meet requirements for most micronutrients evaluated in this study and, as expected, both energy needs and specific dietary patterns differed between groups. Therefore, a careful evaluation of food consumption should be recommended to reduce nutritional gaps in these patients. According to these preliminary observations, nutritional counseling, mainly focused on calcium and vitamin D intake, should be suggested for healthy women, as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Adolescents involved in weight-related and power team sports have better eating patterns and nutrient intakes than non-sport-involved adolescents.

    PubMed

    Croll, Jillian K; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Wall, Melanie; Perry, Cheryl; Harnack, Lisa

    2006-05-01

    To examine eating habits and energy and nutrient intake among adolescents participating in weight-related and power team sports and non-sport-involved adolescents. Data were drawn from Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), which was conducted with 4,746 adolescents from 31 middle and high schools in the Minneapolis/St Paul metropolitan area. Urban secondary schools. Adolescents reporting participation in a weight-related sport, a power team sport, or no consistent participation in a sport. Meal and snack frequency, mean energy and nutrient intake, and mean physical activity. Analyses were conducted by sex across the three groups. General linear models were used to compare mean energy and nutrient intake, composite nutrient adequacy, and mean physical activity across the three groups. Percentages of youth meeting nutrient recommendations were compared across the three groups using chi(2) tests. For both males and females, youth involved in weight-related sports ate breakfast more frequently than non-sport-involved peers (females: 3.6 and 3.2 times per week, respectively, P<0.01; males: 4.7 and 3.7 times per week, respectively, P<0.01). Weight-related and power team sport-involved youth also had higher mean protein, calcium, iron, and zinc intakes than non-sport-involved peers. However, adolescent females had low calcium intake, regardless of sports involvement (weight-related sports 1,091 mg/day, power team sports 1,070 mg/day, and non-sport-involved 1,028 mg/day, P<0.05). Sport-involved adolescents have better eating habits and nutrient intake than their non-sport-involved peers. However, they are still in need of nutrition interventions, particularly around calcium intake.

  3. Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

  4. Inadequate intake of nutrients essential for neurodevelopment in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD)

    PubMed Central

    Fuglestad, Anita J.; Fink, Birgit A.; Eckerle, Judith K.; Boys, Christopher J.; Hoecker, Heather L.; Kroupina, Maria G.; Zeisel, Steven H.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Wozniak, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated dietary intake in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Pre-clinical research suggests that nutrient supplementation may attenuate cognitive and behavioral deficits in FASD. Currently, the dietary adequacy of essential nutrients in children with FASD is unknown. Dietary data were collected as part of a randomized, doubleblind controlled trial of choline supplementation in FASD. Participants included 31 children with FASD, ages 2.5 – 4.9 years at enrollment. Dietary intake data was collected three times during the nine month study via interview-administered 24-hour recalls with the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall. Dietary intake of macronutrients and 17 vitamins/minerals from food were averaged across three data collection points. Observed nutrient intakes were compared to national dietary intake data of children ages 2 – 5 years (What we Eat in America, NHANES 2007–2008) and to the Dietary Reference Intakes. Compared to the dietary intakes of children in the NHANES sample, children with FASD had lower intakes of saturated fat, vitamin D, and calcium. The majority (>50%) of children with FASD did not meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Adequate Intake (AI) for fiber, n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, choline, and calcium. This pattern of dietary intake in children with FASD suggests that there may be opportunities to benefit from nutritional intervention. Supplementation with several nutrients including choline, vitamin D, and n-3 fatty acids, has been shown in animal models to attenuate the cognitive deficits of FASD. These results highlight the potential of nutritional clinical trials in FASD. PMID:23871794

  5. Nutrient patterns and their food sources in an International Study Setting: report from the EPIC study.

    PubMed

    Moskal, Aurelie; Pisa, Pedro T; Ferrari, Pietro; Byrnes, Graham; Freisling, Heinz; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Nailler, Laura; Wendt, Andrea; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Dahm, Christina C; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Quirós, Jose R; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta Castaño, José M; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lentjes, Marleen A; Key, Timothy J; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Beulens, Joline W J; Ericson, Ulrika; Drake, Isabel; Nilsson, Lena M; Winkvist, Anna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Hjartåker, Anette; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses. We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR) data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N = 477,312). Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N = 34,436) provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC) 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores. The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived from FFQs in term of food sources. These outcomes open research opportunities and

  6. Nutrient intakes of US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers meet or exceed dietary reference intakes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of the study reported here was to assess the usual nutrient intakes of 3,273 US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, aged 0 to 47 months, who were surveyed in the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008; and to compare data on the usual nutrient intakes for the two waves of FITS...

  7. Smokers report lower intake of key nutrients than nonsmokers, yet both fall short of meeting recommended intakes.

    PubMed

    Raatz, Susan K; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K; Scheett, Angela; Carriquiry, Alicia; Lemieux, Andrine; Nakajima, Motohiro; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2017-09-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor in the development of preventable disease which may be due to a poorer diet and the reduced nutrient intake of smokers. Our objective was to compare and evaluate the reported intake of current smokers with that of nonsmokers among participants of a study evaluating stress and smoking. We hypothesized (1) that overall energy and nutrient intake would be reduced in smokers compared with nonsmokers and (2) that smokers would have increased noncompliance with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Men and women (smokers n=138, nonsmokers n=46) completed a 3-day diet record at baseline. Mean energy and nutrient intakes were stratified by smoking status and compared with DRI levels. The mean body mass index was 28.3±0.5kg/m 2 for smokers and 27.2±1.0kg/m 2 for nonsmokers. Compared with nonsmokers, the smokers reported lower intakes of energy, total polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, total sugars, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, vitamin C, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin E. Smokers reported reduced compliance with the DRIs for iron, phosphorus, vitamin C, riboflavin, and folate compared with nonsmokers. Unlike other evaluations of smokers vs nonsmokers, we observed no difference in body weight between groups. Smokers and nonsmokers alike reported dietary intakes lower than the DRIs for many nutrients. However, the reported nutrient intake of the smokers was substantially lower than nonsmokers for key nutrients, and they were more likely to not comply with the DRIs for essential nutrients, placing them at increased risk of chronic disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Designing optimal food intake patterns to achieve nutritional goals for Japanese adults through the use of linear programming optimization models.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2015-06-06

    Simultaneous dietary achievement of a full set of nutritional recommendations is difficult. Diet optimization model using linear programming is a useful mathematical means of translating nutrient-based recommendations into realistic nutritionally-optimal food combinations incorporating local and culture-specific foods. We used this approach to explore optimal food intake patterns that meet the nutrient recommendations of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) while incorporating typical Japanese food selections. As observed intake values, we used the food and nutrient intake data of 92 women aged 31-69 years and 82 men aged 32-69 years living in three regions of Japan. Dietary data were collected with semi-weighed dietary record on four non-consecutive days in each season of the year (16 days total). The linear programming models were constructed to minimize the differences between observed and optimized food intake patterns while also meeting the DRIs for a set of 28 nutrients, setting energy equal to estimated requirements, and not exceeding typical quantities of each food consumed by each age (30-49 or 50-69 years) and gender group. We successfully developed mathematically optimized food intake patterns that met the DRIs for all 28 nutrients studied in each sex and age group. Achieving nutritional goals required minor modifications of existing diets in older groups, particularly women, while major modifications were required to increase intake of fruit and vegetables in younger groups of both sexes. Across all sex and age groups, optimized food intake patterns demanded greatly increased intake of whole grains and reduced-fat dairy products in place of intake of refined grains and full-fat dairy products. Salt intake goals were the most difficult to achieve, requiring marked reduction of salt-containing seasoning (65-80%) in all sex and age groups. Using a linear programming model, we identified optimal food intake patterns providing practical food choices and

  9. Socioeconomic Indicators Are Independently Associated with Nutrient Intake in French Adults: A DEDIPAC Study

    PubMed Central

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Cardon, Philippe; Enaux, Christophe; Nicolaou, Mary; Lien, Nanna; Terragni, Laura; Holdsworth, Michelle; Stronks, Karien; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Studies have suggested differential associations of specific indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP) with nutrient intake and a cumulative effect of these indicators on diet. We investigated the independent association of SEP indicators (education, income, occupation) with nutrient intake and their effect modification. This cross-sectional analysis included 91,900 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Nutrient intake was estimated using three 24-h records. We investigated associations between the three SEP factors and nutrient intake using sex-stratified analysis of covariance, adjusted for age and energy intake, and associations between income and nutrient intake stratified by education and occupation. Low educated participants had higher protein and cholesterol intakes and lower fibre, vitamin C and beta-carotene intakes. Low income individuals had higher complex carbohydrate intakes, and lower magnesium, potassium, folate and vitamin C intakes. Intakes of vitamin D and alcohol were lower in low occupation individuals. Higher income was associated with higher intakes of fibre, protein, magnesium, potassium, beta-carotene, and folate among low educated persons only, highlighting effect modification. Lower SEP, particularly low education, was associated with lower intakes of nutrients required for a healthy diet. Each SEP indicator was associated with specific differences in nutrient intake suggesting that they underpin different social processes. PMID:26978393

  10. Socioeconomic Indicators Are Independently Associated with Nutrient Intake in French Adults: A DEDIPAC Study.

    PubMed

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Cardon, Philippe; Enaux, Christophe; Nicolaou, Mary; Lien, Nanna; Terragni, Laura; Holdsworth, Michelle; Stronks, Karien; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2016-03-10

    Studies have suggested differential associations of specific indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP) with nutrient intake and a cumulative effect of these indicators on diet. We investigated the independent association of SEP indicators (education, income, occupation) with nutrient intake and their effect modification. This cross-sectional analysis included 91,900 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Nutrient intake was estimated using three 24-h records. We investigated associations between the three SEP factors and nutrient intake using sex-stratified analysis of covariance, adjusted for age and energy intake, and associations between income and nutrient intake stratified by education and occupation. Low educated participants had higher protein and cholesterol intakes and lower fibre, vitamin C and beta-carotene intakes. Low income individuals had higher complex carbohydrate intakes, and lower magnesium, potassium, folate and vitamin C intakes. Intakes of vitamin D and alcohol were lower in low occupation individuals. Higher income was associated with higher intakes of fibre, protein, magnesium, potassium, beta-carotene, and folate among low educated persons only, highlighting effect modification. Lower SEP, particularly low education, was associated with lower intakes of nutrients required for a healthy diet. Each SEP indicator was associated with specific differences in nutrient intake suggesting that they underpin different social processes.

  11. Nutrient intakes and food consumption patterns among Ontario students in grades six, seven, and eight.

    PubMed

    Hanning, Rhona M; Woodruff, Sarah J; Lambraki, Irene; Jessup, Linda; Driezen, Pete; Murphy, Caroline C

    2007-01-01

    The increased prevalence of overweight in Canadian children has stimulated interest in their lifestyle behaviours. The purpose of this research was to investigate dietary intake and food behaviours of Ontario students in grades six, seven, and eight. Males and females from grades six to eight were recruited from a stratified random selection of schools from Ontario. Data were collected using the web-based "Food Behaviour Questionnaire", which included a 24-hour diet recall and food frequency questionnaire. Nutrients were analyzed using ESHA Food Processor and the 2001 Canadian Nutrient File database. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated based on self-reported weight and height, and classified according to the Centers for Disease Control BMI for age percentiles. The sample included males (n = 315) and females (n = 346) in grades 6, 7, and 8 from 15 schools in Ontario. According to Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating (CFGHE), median intakes were below recommendations for all participants, with the exception of meat and alternatives. Participants consumed a median of 54%, 15%, 31%, 11%, and 8% of total energy from carbohydrates, protein, total fat, saturated fat, and added sugars, respectively. Participants consumed 25% of total energy from foods from the "other" food group (CFGHE). Males had higher intakes of energy, carbohydrates, fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, protein, thiamine, niacin, iron, and zinc than females (all p < 0.05), and consumed more grain products servings (p < 0.05). The high consumption of "other" foods, at the expense of nutrient-dense food groups, may ultimately be contributing to the increased weights in childhood and adolescence.

  12. Maternal Nutrition During Pregnancy: Intake of Nutrients Important for Bone Health.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Natalie K; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Bennett, Kathy; Moloney, David J; Pasco, Julie A

    2017-04-01

    Objectives Maternal nutrition during pregnancy plays an important role in predisposing offspring to the development of chronic disease in adulthood, including osteoporosis. Our aim was to investigate maternal dietary intakes during pregnancy, with a focus on nutrients important for skeletal development in the offspring. Methods In this case-control study, cases were pregnant women recruited for the Vitamin D in Pregnancy Study (n = 350, age 20-40 years) and controls were non-pregnant peers participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study (n = 305, age 20-40 years). Dietary intakes of nutrients were quantified using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Results Compared to controls, cases consumed more energy [median (interquartile range): 7831 (6506-9461) vs. 7136 (6112-8785) kJ/day]; median intakes for cases were greater for carbohydrates [206.2 (172.5-249.9) vs. 188.2 (147.7-217.5) g/day], fat [77.9 (60.3-96.6) vs. 72.1 (53.3-87.4) g/day], potassium [2860 (2363-3442) vs. 2606 (2166-3442) mg/day] and calcium [1022 (819-1264) vs. 918 (782-1264) mg/day] (all p ≤ 0.05). However, pregnant women were not consuming greater amounts of those nutrients which had an increased demand (protein, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc). Similarly, this translated to the likelihood of achieving national recommendations for corresponding nutrients. Conclusions for Practice Compared to their non-pregnant peers, pregnant women were more likely to meet dietary recommendations for calcium and potassium; however, this was not the pattern observed for protein, magnesium and zinc. Future public health messages should perhaps focus on increasing awareness of the importance of all these nutrients during pregnancy.

  13. Early sugar-sweetened beverage consumption frequency is associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Hirota, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    Evidence from Western countries shows that higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with lower quality of young children's diets, but little is known about these relations in non-Western countries with relatively low consumption levels of SSBs. We hypothesized that SSB consumption in infancy would be associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children. The study subjects were 493 Japanese mother-child pairs from a prospective birth cohort study. Dietary data on children were collected from the mothers using self-administered questionnaires when the children were aged 16-24 months and 41-49 months. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between SSB consumption frequency in infancy and later intake of foods and nutrients. At 16-24 months of age, more than half of the children (56.4%) consumed SSBs less than once a week, whereas 11.6% consumed SSBs at least once daily. More frequent consumption of SSBs in infancy was associated with higher intake of confectionaries and SSBs and lower intake of fruits and vegetables at 41-49 months of age. These associations were still evident after adjustment for maternal SSB consumption and socioeconomic status. At the nutrient level, SSB consumption frequency was positively associated with energy intake and inversely associated with intake of many nutrients, such as protein, dietary fiber, and most of the micronutrients examined. In conclusion, higher consumption frequency of SSBs at an early age is associated with poor quality of overall dietary intake among young Japanese children 1.5-2.5 years later. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Culture-Specific Nutrient Intake Assessment Instrument in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Frediani, Jennifer K.; Tukvadze, Nestani; Sanikidze, Ekaterina; Kipiani, Maia; Hebbar, Gautam; Easley, Kirk A.; Shenvi, Neeta; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Tangpricha, Vin; Blumberg, Henry M.; Ziegler, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim To develop and evaluate a culture-specific nutrient intake assessment tool for use in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Tbilisi, Georgia. Methods We developed an instrument to measure food intake over 3 consecutive days using a questionnaire format. The tool was then compared to 24 hour food recalls. Food intake data from 31 subjects with TB were analyzed using the Nutrient Database System for Research (NDS-R) dietary analysis program. Paired t-tests, Pearson correlations and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to assess the agreement between the two methods of dietary intake for calculated nutrient intakes. Results The Pearson correlation coefficient for mean daily caloric intake between the 2 methods was 0.37 (P = 0.04) with a mean difference of 171 kcals/day (p = 0.34). The ICC was 0.38 (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.64) suggesting the within-patient variability may be larger than between-patient variability. Results for mean daily intake of total fat, total carbohydrate, total protein, retinol, vitamins D and E, thiamine, calcium, sodium, iron, selenium, copper, and zinc between the two assessment methods were also similar. Conclusions This novel nutrient intake assessment tool provided quantitative nutrient intake data from TB patients. These pilot data can inform larger studies in similar populations. PMID:23541173

  15. Food crop production, nutrient availability, and nutrient intakes in Bangladesh: exploring the agriculture-nutrition nexus with the 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, John L

    2014-12-01

    Systematic collection of national agricultural data has been neglected in many low- and middle-income countries for the past 20 years. Commonly conducted nationally representative household surveys collect substantial quantities of highly underutilized food crop production data. To demonstrate the potential usefulness of commonly available household survey databases for analyzing the agriculture-nutrition nexus. Using household data from the 2010 Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey, the role and significance of crop selection, area planted, yield, nutrient production, and the disposition of 34 food crops in affecting the adequacy of farming households' nutrient availability and nutrient intake status are explored. The adequacy of each farming household's available energy, vitamin A, calcium, iron, and zinc and households' apparent intakes and intake adequacies are estimated. Each household's total apparent nutrient intake adequacies are estimated, taking into account the amount of each crop that households consume from their own production, together with food purchased or obtained from other sources. Even though rice contains relatively small amounts of micronutrients, has relatively low nutrient density, and is a relatively poor source of nutrients compared with what other crops can produce on a given tract of land, because so much rice is produced in Bangladesh, it is the source of 90% of the total available energy, 85% of the zinc, 67% of the calcium, and 55% of the iron produced by the agricultural sector. The domination of agriculture and diet by rice is a major constraint to improving nutrition in Bangladesh. Simple examples of how minor changes in the five most common cropping patterns could improve farming households' nutritional status are provided. Household surveys' agricultural modules can provide a useful tool for better understanding national nutrient production realities and possibilities.

  16. Harmonization of nutrient intake values.

    PubMed

    King, Janet C; Garza, Cutberto

    2007-03-01

    The conceptual framework for the various NIVs is depicted in figure 1 along with the methodological approaches and applications. The NIVs consist of two values derived from a statistical evaluation of data on nutrient requirements, the average nutrient requirement (ANR), or nutrient toxicities, the upper nutrient level (UNL). The individual nutrient levelx (INLx) is derived from the distribution of average nutrient requirements. The percentile chosen is often 98%, which is equivalent to 2 SD above the mean requirement. Concepts underlying the NIVs include criteria for establishing a nutrient requirement, e.g., ferritin stores, nitrogen balance, or serum vitamin C. Once the requirement for the absorbed nutrient is determined, it may be necessary to adjust the value for food sources, i.e., bioavailability, or host factors, such as the effect of infection on nutrient utilization. Other concepts that committees may want to consider when establishing NIVs include the effects of genetic variation on nutrient requirements and the role of the nutrient in preventing long-term disease. Two fundamental uses of NIVs are for assessing the adequacy of nutrient intakes and for planning diets for individuals and populations. Establishing the NIV using the statistical framework proposed in this report improves the efficacy of the values for identifying risks of nutrient deficiency or excess among individuals and populations. NIVs also are applied to a number of aspects of food and nutrition policy. Some examples include regulatory issues and trade, labeling, planning programs for alleviating public health nutrition problems, food fortification, and dietary guidance.

  17. Epidemiology of dietary nutrient intake in ESRD.

    PubMed

    Kovesdy, Csaba P; Shinaberger, Christian S; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2010-01-01

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is one of the strongest risk factors of adverse outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease including those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who undergo maintenance dialysis treatment. One important determinant of PEW in this patient population is an inadequate amount of protein and energy intake. Compounding the problem are the many qualitative nutritional deficiencies that arise because of the altered dietary habits of dialysis patients. Many of these alterations are iatrogenically induced, and albeit well intentioned, they could induce unintended harmful effects. In order to determine the best possible diet in ESRD patients, one must first understand the complex interplay between the quantity and quality of nutrient intake in these patients, and their impact on relevant clinical outcomes. We review available studies examining the association of nutritional intake with clinical outcomes in ESRD, stressing the complicated and often difficult-to-study inter-relationship between quantitative and qualitative aspects of nutrient intake in nutritional epidemiology. The currently recommended higher protein intake of 1.2 g/kg/day may be associated with a higher phosphorus and potassium burden and with worsening hyperphosphatemia and hyperkalemia, whereas dietary control of phosphorus and potassium by restricting protein intake may increase the risk of PEW. We assess the relevance of associative studies by examining the biologic plausibility of underlying mechanisms of action and emphasize areas in need of further research.

  18. A comparative study of nutrient intakes of migrant and Australian children in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Owles, E N

    1975-07-26

    Little is known about the dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of preschool children in Australia. A study was undertaken in Perth on Australian and migrant children to obtain information on preschool diets. It was found that, although the mean nutrient intakes in both groups were adequate, some individual migrant national groups showed deficiencies of one or more nutrients. Many children were obtaining excessive calories and protein. The consumption of "empty calorie" foods was also high. In order to find different ways to teach good principles and practice of nutrition, the types of media which might influence parents were studied. It was considered that television and, to a lesser degree, radio were media which might exert a considerable effect if they were used to the best advantage. These forms of communication particularly were of potential value, as some migrant parents could not read English and some were illiterate. A positive nutrition education programme to combat commerical food advertising of "empty calorie" foods is recommended.

  19. Usual nutrient intakes of U.S. infants and toddlers generally meet or exceed Dietary Reference Intakes: Findings from NHANES 2009-2012

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To our knowledge, few studies have described the usual nutrient intakes of U.S. children aged <2 y or assessed the nutrient adequacy of their diets relative to the recommended Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). We estimated the usual nutrient intake of U.S. children aged 6-23 months examined in NHAN...

  20. Impact of typical rather than nutrient-dense food choices in the US Department of Agriculture Food Patterns.

    PubMed

    Britten, Patricia; Cleveland, Linda E; Koegel, Kristin L; Kuczynski, Kevin J; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M

    2012-10-01

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Patterns, released as part of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, are designed to meet nutrient needs without exceeding energy requirements. They identify amounts to consume from each food group and recommend that nutrient-dense forms-lean or low-fat, without added sugars or salt-be consumed. Americans fall short of most food group intake targets and do not consume foods in nutrient-dense forms. Intake of calories from solid fats and added sugars exceed maximum limits by large margins. Our aim was to determine the potential effect on meeting USDA Food Pattern nutrient adequacy and moderation goals if Americans consumed the recommended quantities from each food group, but did not implement the advice to select nutrient-dense forms of food and instead made more typical food choices. Food-pattern modeling analysis using the USDA Food Patterns, which are structured to allow modifications in one or more aspects of the patterns, was used. Nutrient profiles for each food group were modified by replacing each nutrient-dense representative food with a similar but typical choice. Typical nutrient profiles were used to determine the energy and nutrient content of the food patterns. Moderation goals are not met when amounts of food in the USDA Food Patterns are followed and typical rather than nutrient-dense food choices are made. Energy, total fat, saturated fat, and sodium exceed limits in all patterns, often by substantial margins. With typical choices, calories were 15% to 30% (ie, 350 to 450 kcal) above the target calorie level for each pattern. Adequacy goals were not substantially affected by the use of typical food choices. If consumers consume the recommended quantities from each food group and subgroup, but fail to choose foods in low-fat, no-added-sugars, and low-sodium forms, they will not meet the USDA Food Patterns moderation goals or the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Copyright © 2012 Academy of

  1. Intake of total and added sugars and nutrient dilution in Australian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-12-14

    This analysis aimed to examine the association between intake of sugars (total or added) and nutrient intake with data from a recent Australian national nutrition survey, the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2007ANCNPAS). Data from participants (n 4140; 51 % male) who provided 2×plausible 24-h recalls were included in the analysis. The values on added sugars for foods were estimated using a previously published ten-step systematic methodology. Reported intakes of nutrients and foods defined in the 2007ANCNPAS were analysed by age- and sex-specific quintiles of %energy from added sugars (%EAS) or %energy from total sugars (%ETS) using ANCOVA. Linear trends across the quintiles were examined using multiple linear regression. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the OR of not meeting a specified nutrient reference values for Australia and New Zealand per unit in %EAS or %ETS. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, BMI z-score and total energy intake. Small but significant negative associations were seen between %EAS and the intakes of most nutrient intakes (all P<0·001). For %ETS the associations with nutrient intakes were inconsistent; even then they were smaller than that for %EAS. In general, higher intakes of added sugars were associated with lower intakes of most nutrient-rich, 'core' food groups and higher intakes of energy-dense, nutrient-poor 'extra' foods. In conclusion, assessing intakes of added sugars may be a better approach for addressing issues of diet quality compared with intakes of total sugars.

  2. Intake of key chronic disease-related nutrients among baby boomers.

    PubMed

    King, Dana E; Xiang, Jun; Brown, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    The dietary habits of baby boomers (people born between 1946 and 1964) undoubtedly will have a substantial impact on their future health; however, dietary information regarding the intake of key chronic disease-related nutrients is lacking for this generation. The objective of this study was to compare the dietary intake of key chronic disease-related nutrients of the baby boomer generation with the previous generation of middle-aged adults. National cross-sectional study comparison analyzing data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) including NHANES III (1988-1994) and the NHANES for 2007-2010, focused on adult respondents ages 46 to 64 years who were not institutionalized at the time of each survey. The two cohorts were compared with regard to dietary intake of key nutritional components. The main outcome measures were intake of total calories, sodium, cholesterol, fat, fruits, vegetables, vitamin C, water, and fiber. The baby boomers' average daily intake of nutrients exceeded that of the previous generation of middle-aged adults for total calories (2118/1999), total fat (82/76 g), sodium (3513/3291 mg), and cholesterol (294/262 g; all P < 0.001). The intake of vitamin C (105/89 g), water (1208/1001 g), and vegetables (199/229 g) was less than that of the previous generation (P < 0.001), and the dietary intake of fruit and fiber was unchanged. In regression analyses, dietary changes remained significant after controlling for age, race, sex, and socioeconomic status (all P < 0.01). The study findings document higher dietary intake of key chronic disease-related nutrients along with reduced vegetable intake among baby boomers compared with the previous generation of middle-aged adults. These findings are indicative of a diet that may contribute to increased rates of chronic disease among individuals in this age group.

  3. Intake of Key Chronic Disease–Related Nutrients among Baby Boomers

    PubMed Central

    King, Dana E.; Xiang, Jun; Brown, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The dietary habits of baby boomers (people born between 1946 and 1964) undoubtedly will have a substantial impact on their future health; however, dietary information regarding the intake of key chronic disease–related nutrients is lacking for this generation. The objective of this study was to compare the dietary intake of key chronic disease–related nutrients of the baby boomer generation with the previous generation of middle-aged adults. Methods National cross-sectional study comparison analyzing data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) including NHANES III (1988–1994) and the NHANES for 2007–2010, focused on adult respondents ages 46 to 64 years who were not institutionalized at the time of each survey. The two cohorts were compared with regard to dietary intake of key nutritional components. The main outcome measures were intake of total calories, sodium, cholesterol, fat, fruits, vegetables, vitamin C, water, and fiber. Results The baby boomers’ average daily intake of nutrients exceeded that of the previous generation of middle-aged adults for total calories (2118/1999), total fat (82/76 g), sodium (3513/3291 mg), and cholesterol (294/262 g; all P < 0.001). The intake of vitamin C (105/89 g), water (1208/1001 g), and vegetables (199/229 g) was less than that of the previous generation (P < 0.001), and the dietary intake of fruit and fiber was unchanged. In regression analyses, dietary changes remained significant after controlling for age, race, sex, and socioeconomic status (all P < 0.01). Conclusions The study findings document higher dietary intake of key chronic disease–related nutrients along with reduced vegetable intake among baby boomers compared with the previous generation of middle-aged adults. These findings are indicative of a diet that may contribute to increased rates of chronic disease among individuals in this age group. PMID:24945165

  4. Combining nutrient intake from food/beverages and vitamin/mineral supplements.

    PubMed

    Garriguet, Didier

    2010-12-01

    To calculate total intake of a nutrient and estimate inadequate intake for a population, the amounts derived from food/beverages and from vitamin/mineral supplements must be combined. The two methods Statistics Canada has suggested present problems of interpretation. Data collected from 34,386 respondents to the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition were used to compare four methods of combining nutrient intake from food/beverages and vitamin/mineral supplements: adding average intake from supplements to the 24-hour food/beverage recall and estimating the usual distribution in the population (Method 1); estimating usual individual intake from food? beverages and adding intake from supplements (Method 2); and dividing the population into supplement users and non-users and applying Method 1 or Method 2 and combining the estimates based on the percentages of users and non-users (Methods 3 and 4). Interpretation problems arise with Methods 1 and 2; for example, the percentage of the population with inadequate intake of vitamin C and folate equivalents falls outside the expected minimum-maximum range. These interpretation problems are not observed with Methods 3 and 4. Interpretation problems that may arise in combining food and supplement intake of a given nutrient are overcome if the population is divided into supplement users and non-users before Method 1 or Method 2 is applied.

  5. Nutrient Patterns and Their Food Sources in Older Persons from France and Quebec: Dietary and Lifestyle Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Allès, Benjamin; Samieri, Cécilia; Lorrain, Simon; Jutand, Marthe-Aline; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues; Shatenstein, Bryna; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Payette, Hélène; Laurin, Danielle; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale

    2016-04-19

    Dietary and nutrient patterns have been linked to health outcomes related to aging. Food intake is influenced by environmental and genetic factors. The aim of the present study was to compare nutrient patterns across two elderly populations sharing a common ancestral cultural background, but living in different environments. The diet quality, lifestyle and socioeconomic characteristics of participants from the Three-City Study (3C, France, n = 1712) and the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge, Quebec, Canada, n = 1596) were analyzed. Nutrient patterns and their food sources were identified in the two samples using principal component analysis. Diet quality was compared across sample-specific patterns by describing weekly food intake and associations with the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI). Three nutrient patterns were retained in each study: a healthy, a Western and a more traditional pattern. These patterns accounted for 50.1% and 53.5% of the total variance in 3C and NuAge, respectively. Higher education and non-physical occupations over lifetime were associated with healthy patterns in both studies. Other characteristics such as living alone, having a body mass index lower than 25 and being an ex-smoker were associated with the healthy pattern in NuAge. No association between these characteristics and the nutrient patterns was noted in 3C. The healthy and Western patterns from each sample also showed an inverse association with C-HEI. The two healthy patterns showed important similarities: adequate food variety, consumption of healthy foods and associations with common sociodemographic factors. This work highlights that nutrient patterns derived using a posteriori methods may be useful to compare the nutritional quality of the diet of distinct populations.

  6. Self-administered structured food record for measuring individual energy and nutrient intake in large cohorts: Design and validation.

    PubMed

    García, Silvia M; González, Claudio; Rucci, Enzo; Ambrosino, Cintia; Vidal, Julia; Fantuzzi, Gabriel; Prestes, Mariana; Kronsbein, Peter

    2018-06-05

    Several instruments developed to assess dietary intake of groups or populations have strengths and weaknesses that affect their specific application. No self-administered, closed-ended dietary survey was previously used in Argentina to assess current food and nutrient intake on a daily basis. To design and validate a self-administered, structured food record (NutriQuid, NQ) representative of the adult Argentine population's food consumption pattern to measure individual energy and nutrient intake. Records were loaded onto a database using software that checks a regional nutrition information system (SARA program), automatically quantifying energy and nutrient intake. NQ validation included two phases: (1) NQ construct validity comparing records kept simultaneously by healthy volunteers (45-75 years) and a nutritionist who provided meals (reference), and (2) verification of whether NQ reflected target population consumption (calories and nutrients), week consumption differences, respondent acceptability, and ease of data entry/analysis. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, repeated measures ANOVA, intraclass correlation coefficient, nonparametric regression, and cross-classification into quintiles. The first validation (study group vs. reference) showed an underestimation (10%) of carbohydrate, fat, and energy intake. Second validation: 109 volunteers (91% response) completed the NQ for seven consecutive days. Record completion took about 9min/day, and data entry 3-6min. Mean calorie intake was 2240±119kcal/day (42% carbohydrates, 17% protein, and 41% fat). Intake significantly increased in the weekend. NQ is a simple and efficient tool to assess dietary intake in large samples. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Canadian infants' nutrient intakes from complementary foods during the first year of life

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Complementary feeding is currently recommended after six months of age, when the nutrients in breast milk alone are no longer adequate to support growth. Few studies have examined macro- and micro-nutrient intakes from complementary foods (CF) only. Our purpose was to assess the sources and nutritional contribution of CF over the first year of life. Methods In July 2003, a cross-sectional survey was conducted on a nationally representative sample of mothers with infants aged three to 12 months. The survey was administered evenly across all regions of the country and included a four-day dietary record to assess infants' CF intakes in household (tablespoon) measures (breast milk and formula intakes excluded). Records from 2,663 infants were analyzed for nutrient and CF food intake according to 12 categories. Mean daily intakes for infants at each month of age from CF were pooled and compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the respective age range. Results At three months of age, 83% of infants were already consuming infant cereals. Fruits and vegetables were among the most common foods consumed by infants at all ages, while meats were least common at all ages except 12 months. Macro- and micro-nutrient intakes from CF generally increased with age. All mean nutrient intakes, except vitamin D and iron, met CF recommendations at seven to 12 months. Conclusions Complementary foods were introduced earlier than recommended. Although mean nutrient intakes from CF at six to 12 months appear to be adequate among Canadian infants, further attention to iron and vitamin D intakes and sources may be warranted. PMID:20565759

  8. Food choice and nutrient intake amongst homeless people.

    PubMed

    Sprake, E F; Russell, J M; Barker, M E

    2014-06-01

    Homeless people in the UK and elsewhere have typically been found to consume a nutritionally inadequate diet. There is need for contemporary research to update our understanding within this field. The present study aimed to provide an insight into the nutrient intake and food choice of a sample of homeless adults. In this mixed-methods study, 24 homeless individuals accessing two charitable meal services in Sheffield, UK, participated in up to four 24-h dietary recalls between April and August 2012. Twelve individuals took part in a semi-structured interview focusing on food choice. Energy intake was significantly lower than the estimated average requirement. Median intakes of vitamin A, zinc, magnesium, potassium and selenium were significantly lower than reference nutrient intakes. Contributions of saturated fat and nonmilk extrinsic sugars to total energy intake were significantly higher, whereas dietary fibre was significantly lower, than population average intakes. Charitable meals made an important contribution to intakes of energy and most micronutrients. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts revealed three major themes: food aspirations; constraints over food choice; and food representing survival. The present study reveals risk of dietary inadequacies amongst homeless people alongside a lack of control over food choices. Charitable meal services are suggested as a vehicle for improving the dietary intake and nutritional health of homeless people. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. [Quantitative analysis of nutrient intake in children under 3 years old. ALSALMA study].

    PubMed

    Dalmau, J; Peña-Quintana, L; Moráis, A; Martínez, V; Varea, V; Martínez, M J; Soler, B

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the nutritional patterns of children under three years of age and to compare the results against the recommendations for energy and nutrient intake. In this cross-sectional epidemiological study, parents completed a dietary diary on their food intake of their children on 4 non-consecutive days. The percentage of children with mean intakes below the recommendations for each age and nutrient was analyzed using the "Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) cut-point method." A total of 186 pediatricians included 1701 children in the study. A total of 95.9% (n=1320) of the children between 7 and 36 months had a protein consumption more than twice that of the Recommended Daily Allowances. The deficiencies observed (% < EAR) in the age groups 13-24 months and 25-36 months, respectively, were: vitamin D in 81.7% and 92.1%; vitamin E in 39.3% and 53.4%; folic acid in 12.5% and 14.8%; calcium in 10.1% and 5.5%; iodine in 27.1% and 31%. It was observed that a higher percentage in the daily intake of proteins (P=.013) and of carbohydrates (P<.0001), and a lower percentage of total lipids (P<.0001), were related to a greater body mass index, regardless of energy intake. The study presents a very detailed view of the eating patterns of Spanish children less than three years of age. The encouragement of healthy feeding should be directed towards the correction of the dietary imbalances detected, in order to promote the future health of children. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Periconceptional nutrient intakes and risks of neural tube defects in California.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Suzan L; Yang, Wei; Shaw, Gary M

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the association of neural tube defects (NTDs) with maternal periconceptional intake of folic acid-containing supplements and dietary nutrients, including folate, among deliveries that occurred after folic acid fortification in selected California counties. The population-based case-control study included fetuses and live born infants with spina bifida (189) or anencephaly (141) and 625 nonmalformed, live born controls delivered from 1999 to 2003. Mothers reported supplement use during telephone interviews, which included a 107-item food frequency questionnaire. For dietary nutrients, intakes <25th, 25th to <75th (reference), and > or =75th percentile were compared, based on control distributions. After adjustment for potential confounders, any versus no supplement intake resulted in ORs of 0.8 (95% CI, 0.5-1.3) for anencephaly and 0.8 (95% CI, 0.6-1.2) for spina bifida. After stratification by maternal intake of vitamin supplements, most factors in the glycemic pathway were not associated with either NTD, with the exception of low levels of fructose and glucose that were significantly associated with anencephaly. Some nutrients that contribute to one-carbon metabolism showed lowered risks (folate, riboflavin, vitamins B(6) and B(12)); others did not (choline, methionine, zinc). Antioxidant nutrients tended to be associated with lowered risks (vitamins C, E, A, beta-carotene, lutein). Mothers' intake of vitamin supplements was modestly if at all associated with a lowered risk of NTDs. Dietary intake of several nutrients contributing to one-carbon metabolism and oxidative stress were associated with reduced NTD risk.

  11. Do breakfast skipping and breakfast type affect energy intake, nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality in young adults? NHANES 1999-2002

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed on energy/nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality using a cross-sectional design. The setting was The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002. The sub...

  12. Differences in Nutrient Intake and Biochemical Nutrient Status Between Sarcopenic and Nonsarcopenic Older Adults-Results From the Maastricht Sarcopenia Study.

    PubMed

    Ter Borg, Sovianne; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Mijnarends, Donja M; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Verlaan, Sjors; Meijboom, Saskia; Luiking, Yvette C; Schols, Jos M G A

    2016-05-01

    There is growing evidence of a relationship between nutrients and muscle mass, strength, and physical performance. Although nutrition is seen as an important pillar of treating sarcopenia, data on the nutritional intake of sarcopenic older adults are limited. To investigate potential nutritional gaps in the sarcopenic population, the present study compared nutrient intake and biochemical nutrient status between sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic older adults. The Maastricht Sarcopenia Study included 227 community-dwelling older adults (≥65 years) from Maastricht, 53 of whom were sarcopenic based on the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People algorithm. Habitual dietary intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire and data on dietary supplement use were collected. In addition, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, magnesium and α-tocopherol/cholesterol, plasma homocysteine and red blood cell n-3, and n-6 fatty acids profiles were assessed. Nutrient intake and biochemical nutrient status of the sarcopenic groups were compared with those of the nonsarcopenic groups. The robustness of these results was tested with a multiple regression analysis, taking into account between-group differences in characteristics. Sarcopenic older adults had a 10%-18% lower intake of 5 nutrients (n-3 fatty acids, vitamin B6, folic acid, vitamin E, magnesium) compared with nonsarcopenic older adults (P < .05). When taking into account dietary supplement intake, a 19% difference remained for n-3 fatty acids intake (P = .005). For the 2 biochemical status markers, linoleic acid and homocysteine, a 7% and 27% difference was observed, respectively (P < .05). The higher homocysteine level confirmed the observed lower vitamin B intake in the sarcopenic group. Observed differences in eicosapentaenoic acid and 25-hydroxyvitamin D between the groups were related to differences in age and living situation. Sarcopenic older adults differed in certain nutritional intakes and

  13. The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid is associated with more adequate nutrient intakes within energy constraints than the 1992 Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-05-01

    The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained.

  14. Dietary Sodium and Other Nutrient Intakes among Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhengxiu; McLean, Rachael; Marshall, Mark

    2018-04-18

    This study describes baseline intakes of sodium and other nutrients in a multi-ethnic sample of hemodialysis patients in New Zealand participating in the SoLID Trial between May/2013 to May/2016. Baseline 3-day weighed food record collections were analyzed using Foodworks 8 Professional food composition database, supplemented by other sources of nutrient information. Intakes of dietary sodium and other nutrients were compared with relevant guidelines and clinical recommendations. Eighty-five participants completed a 3-day weighed food record. The mean (SD) sodium intake was 2502 (957) mg/day at and more than half of the participants exceeded recommended intake levels. Sodium intake was positively associated with energy intake. Only 5% of participants met the recommended calorie density; nine percent of participants ate the recommended minimum of 1.2 g/kg of protein per day; 68% of participants were consuming inadequate fiber at baseline. A high proportion of dialysis patients in SoLID Trial did not meet current renal-specific dietary recommendations. The data show excess sodium intake. It is also evident that there was poor adherence to dietary guidelines for a range of other nutrients. A total diet approach is needed to lower sodium intake and improve total diet quality among hemodialysis patients in New Zealand.

  15. Dietary Sodium and Other Nutrient Intakes among Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhengxiu; Marshall, Mark

    2018-01-01

    This study describes baseline intakes of sodium and other nutrients in a multi-ethnic sample of hemodialysis patients in New Zealand participating in the SoLID Trial between May/2013 to May/2016. Baseline 3-day weighed food record collections were analyzed using Foodworks 8 Professional food composition database, supplemented by other sources of nutrient information. Intakes of dietary sodium and other nutrients were compared with relevant guidelines and clinical recommendations. Eighty-five participants completed a 3-day weighed food record. The mean (SD) sodium intake was 2502 (957) mg/day at and more than half of the participants exceeded recommended intake levels. Sodium intake was positively associated with energy intake. Only 5% of participants met the recommended calorie density; nine percent of participants ate the recommended minimum of 1.2 g/kg of protein per day; 68% of participants were consuming inadequate fiber at baseline. A high proportion of dialysis patients in SoLID Trial did not meet current renal-specific dietary recommendations. The data show excess sodium intake. It is also evident that there was poor adherence to dietary guidelines for a range of other nutrients. A total diet approach is needed to lower sodium intake and improve total diet quality among hemodialysis patients in New Zealand. PMID:29670030

  16. Changes of Dietary Pattern, Food Choice, Food Consumption, Nutrient Intake and Body Mass Index of Korean American College Students with Different Length of Residence in the Los Angeles Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Nam; Tam, Chick F.; Poon, George; Lew, Polong; Kim, Samuel Saychang; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook

    2010-01-01

    This study was to investigate how dietary pattern, food choice, food consumption, nutrient intake and body mass index (BMI) vary with length of residence for Korean American college students. The respondents were 60 Korean American residents living in the Los Angeles Area. They were divided into two groups based on the length of stay in the U.S.:…

  17. Influence of percieved body image on nutrient intake and nutritional health of female students of Moi University.

    PubMed

    Waswa, J

    2011-06-01

    Issues related to dietary patterns and body image concerns have been among western cultures. It would therefore be inappropriate to use these findings as a basis of intervention in developing countries because this is an emerging issue in developing countries. Although this situation may be in Kenya, there is no data to quantify it and thus the need for research in this area. The main objective of this study was to investigate the perceived body image of Moi University undergraduate female students and its influence on their nutrient intake and nutritional health. Cross sectional Survey was done on 260 female students of Moi University aged 20-25. Stratified followed by systematic sampling was used to get the sample. Questionnaires were used to collect data. Measurements of weight, height and mid-upper arm circumference were taken by the researcher using standardized procedures and equipments. SPSS was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data. Chi square tests, t- tests and logistic regression were further done. It was found that most of the respondents with positive (69%) and negative (75%) body image were not comfortable with overweight. The mean BMI was 21.73 +/- 3.03 kg/m2 and MUAC was 26.55 +/- 3.15 cm. Prevalence of underweight and overweight based on BMI was 46% and 9% respectively. Mean intakes of energy, protein, vitamin A and iron were, 1245.92 kcals/day, 36.99g/day, 368.29 RE/day and 12.6g/day respectively. Factors associated with adequacy of nutrient intake were knowledge on food choice and irregular meal patterns. There is need for nutritional counseling and education among university students to address the issue of body image vis a viz food intake since most students skipped meals and this together with knowledge on food choice were found to significantly predict nutrient intake and body image perceptions.

  18. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Comerford, Kevin B.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older) from The NPD Group’s National Eating Trends® (NET®) database during 2011–2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group’s Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week); n = 2584, Average Can Users (3–5 canned items/week); n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week); n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients—potassium, calcium and fiber—when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans. PMID:26184294

  19. Does reduced peri-pubertal nutrient intake influence the ovarian reserve in beef heifers?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reducing nutrient intake in beef heifers after weaning decreases production costs; however, the impact of reduced nutrient intake on the ovarian reserve has not been investigated in this species. In rodent models, caloric restriction increased the number of primordial follicles and decreased the num...

  20. An Examination of Sex Differences in Relation to the Eating Habits and Nutrient Intakes of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Kin-Kit; Concepcion, Rebecca Y.; Lee, Hyo; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Ebbeck, Vicki; Woekel, Erica; Readdy, R. Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine sex differences in eating habits and nutrient intakes and explore whether eating habits mediate the effects of sex on nutrient intakes and whether sex moderates the effects of eating habits on nutrient intakes. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of eating habits and food-intake frequency in a convenience sample of college…

  1. Dietary intake of energy-dense, nutrient-poor and nutrient-dense food sources in children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Rosie; Katz, Tamarah; Liu, Victoria; Quintano, Justine; Brunner, Rebecca; Tong, Chai Wei; Collins, Clare E; Ooi, Chee Y

    2018-04-30

    Prescription of a high-energy, high-fat diet is a mainstay of nutrition management in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, families may be relying on energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods rather than nutrient-dense (ND) foods to meet dietary targets. We aimed to evaluate the relative contribution of EDNP and ND foods to the usual diets of children with CF and identify sociodemographic factors associated with higher EDNP intakes. This is a cross-sectional comparison of children with CF aged 2-18 years and age- and gender-matched controls. Dietary intake was assessed using the Australian Child and Adolescent Eating Survey (ACAES) food frequency questionnaire. Children with CF (n = 80: 37 males; mean age 9.3 years) consumed significantly more EDNP foods than controls (mean age 9.8 years) in terms of both total energy (median [IQR]: 1301 kcal/day (843-1860) vs. 686 kcal/day (480-1032); p < 0.0001), and as a proportion of energy intake (median [IQR]: 44% (34-51) vs. 31% (24-43); p < 0.0001). Although children with CF met their estimated energy requirements (median [IQR]: 158% (124-187) vs. 112% (90-137); p < 0.0001) and their diets were high in fat (median [IQR]: 38% (35-41) vs. 34% (32-36); p < 0.0001), this was largely attributable to EDNP foods. High EDNP intakes (≥10 serves/day) were associated with socioeconomic disadvantage (p = 0.01) and rural residential location (p = 0.03). The energy- and fat-dense CF diet is primarily achieved by overconsumption of EDNP foods, rather than ND sources. This dietary pattern may not be optimal for the future health of children with CF, who are now expected to survive well into adulthood. Copyright © 2018 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. All rights reserved.

  2. The relationship among dental status, nutrient intake, and nutritional status in older people.

    PubMed

    Sheiham, A; Steele, J G; Marcenes, W; Lowe, C; Finch, S; Bates, C J; Prentice, A; Walls, A W

    2001-02-01

    Dental health status may influence nutrition. The objective of this part of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey was to assess if there is a relationship between dental status in people 65 years and older and intake of certain nutrients and any link between dental status and blood-derived values of key nutrients. Random national samples of independently living subjects and those living in institutions had dental examinations, interviews, four-day food diaries, and blood and urine analyzed. In the sample living independently, intakes of most nutrients were lower in edentate than dentate subjects. Intake of non-starch polysaccharides, protein, calcium, non-heme iron, niacin, and vitamin C was significantly lower in edentate subjects. People with 21 or more teeth consumed more of most nutrients, particularly of non-starch polysaccharide. This relationship in intake was not apparent in the hematological analysis. Plasma ascorbate and plasma retinol were the only analytes significantly associated with dental status.

  3. Nutrient intake values (NIVs): a recommended terminology and framework for the derivation of values.

    PubMed

    King, Janet C; Vorster, Hester H; Tome, Daniel G

    2007-03-01

    Although most countries and regions around the world set recommended nutrient intake values for their populations, there is no standardized terminology or framework for establishing these standards. Different terms used for various components of a set of dietary standards are described in this paper and a common set of terminology is proposed. The recommended terminology suggests that the set of values be called nutrient intake values (NIVs) and that the set be composed of three different values. The average nutrient requirement (ANR) reflects the median requirement for a nutrient in a specific population. The individual nutrient level (INLx) is the recommended level of nutrient intake for all healthy people in the population, which is set at a certain level x above the mean requirement. For example, a value set at 2 standard deviations above the mean requirement would cover the needs of 98% of the population and would be INL98. The third component of the NIVs is an upper nutrient level (UNL), which is the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects for almost all individuals in a specified life-stage group. The proposed framework for deriving a set of NIVs is based on a statistical approach for determining the midpoint of a distribution of requirements for a set of nutrients in a population (the ANR), the standard deviation of the requirements, and an individual nutrient level that assures health at some point above the mean, e.g., 2 standard deviations. Ideally, a second set of distributions of risk of excessive intakes is used as the basis for a UNL.

  4. Calcium, nutrient and food intake of Greek Orthodox Christian monks during a fasting and non-fasting week.

    PubMed

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Vardavas, Constantine; Hatzis, Christos; Kafatos, Anthony

    2008-10-01

    To assess the Ca, nutrient and food intake of Greek Orthodox Christian monks during a vegetarian-type fasting week, compared with their normal diet. Dietary data collection (using 7 d weighed food records), anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, as well as serum glucose and lipid analyses, were performed during Palm Sunday week (fasting) and the week following Pentecost Sunday (non-fasting). Mean daily nutrient and food (g/d) intakes were calculated from the food records. The study took place in two monasteries in the Municipality of Heraklion, Crete. The study involved ten healthy monks aged 25-65 years, with BMI > 30 kg/m2, who had been performing fasts for the last 24.4 (SD 10.4) years and lived in monasteries in Crete during April-June 2005. Nutrient and food intake profiles were more favourable during the fasting week, when participants had lower intakes of total and saturated fat and trans-fatty acids, and higher intakes of dietary fibre, Fe, folate, legumes and fish/seafood. Ca intake was lower when participants fasted, whereas consumption of dairy products, meat and eggs increased significantly in the non-fasting week. Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher, whereas blood lipid levels were more favourable during the fasting week. The periodic vegetarianism recommended by the Greek Orthodox Church contributes to the favourable profiles of several biomarkers of health among this sample of monks. The fasting rituals described are an important component of the traditional diet of Crete and should be emphasised in nutrition education programmes promoting this Mediterranean eating pattern.

  5. Association of usual intake of added sugars with nutrient adequacy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recommendations for intakes of added sugars have varied considerably and the scientific basis supporting these recommendations has been inconsistent. The goal of this study was to examine the association of usual intake (UI) of added sugars and nutrient adequacy in those participating in NHANES 2009...

  6. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility in Merino Sheep Fed Peanut Straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanim, C.; Muhlisin

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to compare nutrient intake and digestibility between male and female Merino fed peanut straw as sole feed. Four male and five female Merino sheep ages 10 to 12 month with average weight of 40 kg were used in this study. All animals were confined in individual metabolism cages and nylon nets were fitted bellow the cages for faecal collection. This experiment was done with 14 d adaptation period and 7 d collection period. Representative sample of feed, refusal feed, and faeces were analysed proximate including dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), and extract-free nitrogen (EFN). Data collected were used to calculate nutrient intake and digestibility. All nutrient intake in male Merino was higher (P<0.05) than female one, whereas digestibility of DM, CP, and CF in male Merino sheep were higher (P<0.05) than female sheep. It could be concluded male Merino sheep consumed feed more than female, but they had similar value of digestibility.

  7. Nutrient intake, peripheral edema, and weight change in elderly recuperative care patients.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Dennis H; Johnson, Larry E; Dennis, Richard A; Roberson, Paula K; Garner, Kimberly K; Padala, Prasad R; Padala, Kalpana P; Bopp, Melinda M

    2013-06-01

    It is unclear whether serial measures of body weight are valid indicators of nutritional status in older patients recovering from illness. Objectives. Investigate the relative influence of nutrient intake and changes in peripheral edema on weight change. A prospective cohort study of 404 older men (mean age = 78.7±7.5 years) admitted to a transitional care unit of a Department of Veterans Affairs nursing home. Body weight and several indicators of lower extremity edema were measured at both unit admission and discharge. Complete nutrient intake assessments were performed daily. Over a median length of stay of 23 days (interquartile range: 15-41 days), 216 (53%) participants gained or lost more than or equal to 2.5% of their body weight. Two hundred eighty-two (70%) participants had recognizable lower extremity pitting edema at admission and/or discharge. The amount of weight change was strongly and positively correlated with multiple indicators of both nutrient intake and the change in the amount of peripheral edema. By multivariable analysis, the strongest predictor of weight change was maximal calf circumference change (partial R (2) = .35, p < .0001), followed by average daily energy intake (partial R (2) = .14, p < .0001), and the interaction of energy intake by time (partial R (2) = .02, p < .0001). Many older patients either gain or lose a significant amount of weight after admission to a transitional care unit. Because of the apparent high prevalence of co-occurring changes in total body water, the weight changes do not necessarily represent changes in nutritional status. Although repeat calf circumference measurements may provide some indication as to how much of the weight change is due to changes in body water, there is currently no viable alternative to monitoring the nutrient intake of older recuperative care patients in order to ensure that their nutrient needs are being met.

  8. Dietary behaviour, food and nutrient intake of women do not change during pregnancy in Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asayehu, Tamene Taye; Lachat, Carl; Henauw, Stefaan De; Gebreyesus, Seifu Hagos

    2017-04-01

    Although pregnant women are required to increase food and nutrient intake to accommodate for the increased nutritional demands, information on dietary behaviour and nutrient intake is limited. This study aimed to identify the adequacy and differences in intake between pregnant and non-pregnant women in a rural community of Butajira district, Southern Ethiopia. Simple random sampling was used to recruit 159 pregnant and 164 non-pregnant women. An interactive multiple pass 24-h recall survey was used to evaluate the food and nutrient intake of the study participants. Except for iron, vitamin A and C, intakes of macro and micronutrient were below the recommendations. Almost all study participants were deficient in energy, protein, calcium, folate and niacin intakes. There was no significant difference in the mean dietary intake of all nutrients between pregnant and non-pregnant women (p > 0.05). The prevalence of inadequacy was comparable between pregnant and non-pregnant women in all of the nutrient intakes except for Zn, where the prevalence of inadequacy was much higher among the pregnant women. Nearly all (99.0%) of the pregnant women were deficient in niacin, folate and calcium. Although all pregnant women considered it important to increase food intake during pregnancy, only a quarter of women reported to do so. In conclusion, pregnant women in the rural community of Butajira district do not make significant dietary intake adjustments to account for increased nutrient needs during pregnancy. In food insecure areas, such as ours, nutritional counselling complemented with supplementary feeding programmes could be key to ensure adequate dietary intake. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Children's executive function and high-calorie, low-nutrient food intake: mediating effects of child-perceived adult fast food intake.

    PubMed

    Tate, Eleanor B; Unger, Jennifer B; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R

    2015-04-01

    This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Southern California elementary schools. Fourth- and fifth-grade children (N = 1,005) participating in the Pathways to Health obesity prevention program. Child EF problems were associated with higher concurrent HCLN intake (B = 0.29, SE = 0.10, p < .001) and had a significant indirect effect through higher perceived frequency of parent fast food intake (indirect effect = 0.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.11, 0.25], p < .001). Longitudinally, child EF problems did not significantly predict higher HCLN intake a year and a half later (B = 0.01, SE = 0.10, p = .92, n = 848) but did have a significant indirect effect through higher perceived parent fast food intake (indirect effect = 0.05, 95% CI = [0.02, 0.10], p < .001). Children's EF difficulties may increase their perception of parent concurrent fast food intake, contributing to their own unhealthy food intake. However, EF problems may not directly affect HCLN intake across time, except when problems are associated with child perception of more frequent parent consumption of convenience foods. Future research is needed to investigate the possibility that helping children perceive and understand role models' convenience food consumption may improve child dietary consumption patterns. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  10. Nutrient Intake and Anemia Risk in the WHI Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Stanaway, Jeffrey; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Arendell, Leslie; Chen, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Background Nutritional anemia among post-menopausal women is preventable; recent data on prevalence are limited. Objective To investigate the association between nutrient intakes and anemia prevalence, in relation to both incidence and persistence, in a longitudinal sample of post-menopausal women. We hypothesized that anemia prevalence, incidence and persistence would be greater among women reporting lower intake of B12, folate and iron. Design Prospective cohort analysis. Participants/setting Observational Cohort of the Women’s Health Initiative(WHI-OS) including 93,676 postmenopausal women, age 50 to 79 years, were recruited across the United States at 40 clinical study sites. Women were enrolled between 1993 and 1998; data collection for these analyses continued through 2000. Main outcome measures Anemia was defined as a blood hemoglobin concentration of <12.0 mg/dL. Persistent anemia was defined as anemia present at each measurement time point. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire for iron, folate, B12, red meat and cold breakfast cereal; inadequacies were based on dietary reference intakes for women over age 50 years. Statistical analysis Descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) were used to characterize the population demographics, anemia rates and diet. Unconditional logistic regression was used to investigate associations between diet and incident and persistent anemia. Associations are presented as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Anemia was identified in 3,979 women or 5.5% of the cohort. Inadequate intakes of multiple anemia-associated nutrients were less frequent in non-Hispanic whites (7.4%) than other race/ethnic groups (inadequacies demonstrated in 14.6 to 16.3% of sample). Age, body mass index and smoking were associated with anemia. Women with anemia reported lower intakes of energy, protein, folate, B12, iron, vitamin C and red meat. Multiple (more than a single nutrient) dietary deficiencies

  11. Application of nutrient intake values (NIVs).

    PubMed

    Vorster, Hester H; Murphy, Suzanne P; Allen, Lindsay H; King, Janet C

    2007-03-01

    The process of applying nutrient intake values (NIVs) for dietary assessment, planning, and implementing programs is discussed in this paper. In addition to assessing, monitoring, and evaluating nutritional situations, applications include planning food policies, strategies, and programs for promotion of optimal nutrition and preventing and treating malnutrition (both over- and undernutrition). Other applications include nutrition education, food and nutrient legislation, marketing and labeling, research, product development, food procurement and trade (import and export), food aid, and therapeutic (clinical) nutrition. Specific examples of how NIVs are used to develop food labels, fortification policies, and food-based dietary guidelines are described. Applications in both developed and developing countries are also described. In summary, NIVs are the scientific backbone of all aspects of nutrition policy in countries and regions worldwide.

  12. The Association between Breakfast Skipping and Body Weight, Nutrient Intake, and Metabolic Measures among Participants with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijuan; Cordeiro, Lorraine S.; Liu, Jinghua; Ma, Yunsheng

    2017-01-01

    The effect of skipping breakfast on health, especially in adults, remains a controversial topic. A secondary data analysis was conducted to examine associations between breakfast eating patterns and weight loss, nutrient intake, and metabolic parameters among participants with metabolic syndrome (MetS) (n = 240). Three randomly selected 24-h dietary recalls were collected from each participant at baseline and at the one-year visit. Skipped breakfast was seen in 32.9% at baseline and in 17.4% at the one-year visit, respectively. At baseline, after adjustment for demographics and physical activity, participants who ate breakfast had a higher thiamin, niacin, and folate intake than did breakfast skippers (p < 0.05); other selected parameters including body weight, dietary quality scores, nutrient intake, and metabolic parameters showed no significant differences between the two groups (p ≥ 0.05). From baseline to one year, after adjustment for covariates, mean fat intake increased by 2.7% (95% confidence intervals (CI): −1.0, 6.5%) of total energy in breakfast skippers in comparison to the 1.2% decrease observed in breakfast eaters (95% CI: −3.4, 1.1%) (p = 0.02). Mean changes in other selected parameters showed no significant differences between breakfast skippers and eaters (p > 0.05). This study did not support the hypothesis that skipping breakfast has impact on body weight, nutrient intakes, and selected metabolic measures in participants with MetS. PMID:28420112

  13. Nutrient Intake and Food Restriction in Children with Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyunjin; Kim, Ran; Sim, Jiyeon; Park, Eunah; Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the status of food restriction and the list of restricted foods in children with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD), and to find out the effect of food restriction on the changes in nutrient intake and the severity of the disease. Sixty two patient children aged 12 months to 13 years presenting AD with a SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index between 20 and 50 were enrolled. The presence of food limitation, and list of restricted foods were surveyed through the caretakers and the patients were divided into 3 groups by the number of restricted food: non-restricted group, one to three restricted group, and more than three restricted group. Dietary intake was assessed for 3 months using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Half of the subjects restricted foods. The restriction was higher in the order of soda, food additives, walnut, peanut, and other nuts as a single food item; and shellfish and crustacean group, processed foods, nuts, milk & dairy products, and meats as a food group. More than three restricted group ingested more fruits and less fish and meats, resulting in high consumption of vitamin C (p = 0.027). No significant difference in the ratio of nutrient intake by the number of restricted foods was observed in other nutrients. Significant improvement of AD symptom was observed in non-restricted group (p = 0.036) and one to three restricted group (p = 0.003). It is necessary to provide proper nutrition information and systematic and continuous nutrition management for balanced nutrient intake and disease improvement in children with AD. PMID:23429834

  14. An examination of sex differences in relation to the eating habits and nutrient intakes of university students.

    PubMed

    Li, Kin-Kit; Concepcion, Rebecca Y; Lee, Hyo; Cardinal, Bradley J; Ebbeck, Vicki; Woekel, Erica; Readdy, R Tucker

    2012-01-01

    To examine sex differences in eating habits and nutrient intakes and explore whether eating habits mediate the effects of sex on nutrient intakes and whether sex moderates the effects of eating habits on nutrient intakes. Cross-sectional survey of eating habits and food-intake frequency in a convenience sample of college students. Male students (n = 172) consumed a higher energy content from fat, a larger amount of fiber, and more fruits and vegetables, and engaged less often in various healthful eating habits (eg, reading food labels, having breakfast) than female students (n = 316). Sex predicted the 3 dietary nutrient intakes partially through eating habits. Interactions between sex and eating habits were nonsignificant. Results reinforce that university students' nutrient intakes are less than ideal. Women and men may have different needs for nutritional improvement. However, the effects of health promotion concerning eating habits may be similarly effective between the sexes. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a food-based diet quality score for Japanese: associations of the score with nutrient intakes in young, middle-aged and older Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Nozomi; Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Okubo, Hitomi; Kobayashi, Satomi; Suga, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Several previous studies have shown that a diet score based on the Japanese food guide Spinning Top (the original score) is associated with both favourable and unfavourable dietary intake patterns. We developed a food-based diet quality score (the modified score) and examined associations with nutrient intakes. Subjects were 3963 young (all aged 18 years), 3800 middle-aged (mean age 47·7 (sd 3·9) years) and 2211 older (mean age 74·4 (sd 5·2) years) Japanese women. Dietary intakes were assessed using comprehensive (for the young and middle-aged) and brief-type (for the older) diet history questionnaires. The original score was calculated based on intakes of grains, vegetables, fish/meat, milk, fruits, and snacks/alcoholic beverages. The modified score was similarly calculated, but included Na from seasonings and without applying the upper cut-off values for dietary components where increased consumption is advocated for Japanese women (grains, vegetables, fish/meat, milk, and fruits). The original score was positively associated with intakes of carbohydrate, dietary fibre, and all the vitamins and minerals examined including Na and inversely with intakes of fats and alcohol in young and middle-aged women. In older women, the original score was inversely associated with intakes of all nutrients except for carbohydrate and vitamin C. However, the modified score was associated positively with intakes of protein, carbohydrate, dietary fibre, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, vitamins A, C and E, and folate and inversely with intakes of fats, alcohol and Na in all generations. In conclusion, the modified diet score was positively associated with favourable nutrient intake patterns in Japanese women.

  16. Fruit and vegetable intakes in relation to plasma nutrient concentrations in women in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Frankenfeld, Cara L; Lampe, Johanna W; Shannon, Jackilen; Gao, Dao L; Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta M; Chen, Chu; King, Irena B; Thomas, David B

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the validity of fruit and vegetable intakes as it relates to plasma carotenoid and vitamin C concentrations in Chinese women, using three classification schemes. Intakes were calculated using an interviewer-administered FFQ. Fruits and vegetables, botanical groups and high-nutrient groups were evaluated. These three classification schemes were compared with plasma carotenoid and vitamin C concentrations from blood samples collected within 1 week of questionnaire completion. Shanghai, China. Participants (n 2031) comprised women who had participated in a case-control study of diet and breast-related diseases nested within a randomized trial of breast self-examination among textile workers (n 266 064) Fruit intake was significantly (P < 0·05) and positively associated with plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, α-carotene, β-carotene, retinyl palmitate and vitamin C. Fruit intake was inversely associated with γ-tocopherol and lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations. Vegetable consumption was significantly and positively associated with γ-tocopherol and β-cryptoxanthin concentrations. Each botanical and high-nutrient group was also significantly associated with particular plasma nutrient concentrations. Fruit and vegetable intakes and most plasma nutrient concentrations were significantly associated with season of interview. These results suggest that the manner in which fruits and vegetables are grouped leads to different plasma nutrient exposure information, which may be an important consideration when testing and generating hypotheses regarding disease risk in relation to diet. Interview season should be considered when evaluating the associations of reported intake and plasma nutrients with disease outcomes.

  17. Inadequacy of nutrients intake among pregnant women in the deep south of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sukchan, Phnom; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Songwathana, Praneed; Sornsrivichai, Vosasit; Kuning, Metta

    2010-09-24

    The deep south of Thailand is an area which has been affected by violence since 2004, yet the concurrent coverage of antenatal care has remained at over 90%. Our study aimed to describe the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy among pregnant women who attended antenatal care clinics in hospitals in the study area and assess factors associated with nutrient inadequacy. Pregnant women from four participating hospitals located in lower southern Thailand were surveyed during January-December 2008. Nutrient intake was estimated based on information provided by the women on the amount, type and frequency of various foods eaten. Logistic regression was used to assess individual and community factors associated with inadequate nutrient intake, defined as less than two thirds of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA). The prevalence of carbohydrate, protein, fat, calories, calcium, phosphorus, iron, thiamine, riboflavin, retinol, niacin, vitamin C, folic acid and iodine inadequacy was 86.8%, 59.2%, 78.0%, 83.5%, 55.0%, 29.5%, 45.2%, 85.0%, 19.2%, 3.8%, 43.2%, 0.8%, 0.0% and 0.8%, respectively. Maternal age, education level, gestational age at enrollment and pre-pregnancy body mass index and level of violence in the district were significantly associated with inadequacy of carbohydrate, protein, phosphorus, iron, thiamine and niacin intake. Nutrient intake inadequacy among pregnant women was common in this area. Increasing levels of violence was associated with nutrient inadequacy in addition to individual factors.

  18. Nutrient Intakes Linked to Better Health Outcomes Are Associated with Higher Diet Costs in the US

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Drewnowski, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Degrees of nutrient intake and food groups have been linked to differential chronic disease risk. However, intakes of specific nutrients may also be associated with differential diet costs and unobserved differences in socioeconomic status (SES). The present study examined degrees of nutrient intake, for every key nutrient in the diet, in relation to diet cost and SES. Methods Socio-demographic data for a stratified random sample of adult respondents in the Seattle Obesity Study were obtained through telephone survey. Dietary intakes were assessed using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) (n = 1,266). Following standard procedures, nutrient intakes were energy-adjusted using the residual method and converted into quintiles. Diet cost for each respondent was estimated using Seattle supermarket retail prices for 384 FFQ component foods. Results Higher intakes of dietary fiber, vitamins A, C, D, E, and B12, beta carotene, folate, iron, calcium, potassium, and magnesium were associated with higher diet costs. The cost gradient was most pronounced for vitamin C, beta carotene, potassium, and magnesium. Higher intakes of saturated fats, trans fats and added sugars were associated with lower diet costs. Lower cost lower quality diets were more likely to be consumed by lower SES. Conclusion Nutrients commonly associated with a lower risk of chronic disease were associated with higher diet costs. By contrast, nutrients associated with higher disease risk were associated with lower diet costs. The cost variable may help somewhat explain why lower income groups fail to comply with dietary guidelines and have highest rates of diet related chronic disease. PMID:22662168

  19. Variability of nutrients intake, lipid profile and cardiovascular mortality among geographical areas in Spain: The DRECE study.

    PubMed

    Gómez de la Cámara, Agustín; De Andrés Esteban, Eva; Urrútia Cuchí, Gerard; Calderón Sandubete, Enrique; Rubio Herrera, Miguel Ángel; Menéndez Orenga, Miguel; Lora Pablos, David

    2017-11-07

    It has often been suggested that cardiovascular mortality and their geographical heterogeneity are associated with nutrients intake patterns and also lipid profile. The large Spanish study Dieta y Riesgo de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares en España (DRECE) investigated this theory from 1991 to 2010. Out of the 4,783 Spanish individuals making up the DRECE cohort, 220 subjects (148 men and 72 women) died (4.62%) during the course of the study. The mean age of patients who died from cardiovascular causes (32 in all) was 61.08 years 95% CI (57.47-64.69) and 70.91% of them were males. The consumption of nutrients and the lipid profile by geographical area, studied by geospatial models, showed that the east and southern area of the country had the highest fat intake coupled to a high rate of unhealthy lipid profile. It was concluded that the spatial geographical analysis showed a relationship between high fat intake, unhealthy lipid profile and cardiovascular mortality in the different geographical areas, with a high variability within the country.

  20. Dietary Supplements Contribute Substantially to the Total Nutrient Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women

    PubMed Central

    Haugen, Margaretha; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2008-01-01

    Background Use of dietary supplements during pregnancy may give an important contribution to nutrient intake, and for nutrients like folate and vitamin D supplements are recommended. Our objective was to study use and contribution of dietary supplement to nutrient intake among women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Methods This study is based on 40,108 women participating in MoBa which is conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The women had filled inversion 2 of the food frequency questionnaire in MoBa between February 2002 and February 2005. Results 81% reported use of one or more dietary supplements. The most commonly used category was cod liver oil/fish oil supplements (59%) followed by singular folic acid supplements (36%) and multivitamin/multimineral supplements (31%). The nutrient contribution of the dietary supplements varied from 65% for folate and vitamin D to 1% for potassium among supplement users. The dietary intake of vitamin D, folate, iodine and iron did not reach the Nordic Recommendations for pregnant women. Conclusions Use of supplements improved the intake of folate, iron and vitamin D, but not sufficiently to reach the recommended amounts. PMID:18645244

  1. Tracking of energy and nutrient intakes from adolescence to young adulthood: the experiences of the Young Hearts Project, Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, A M; Robson, P J; Livingstone, M B E; Cran, G W; Strain, J J; Murray, L J; Savage, J M; Boreham, C A G

    2006-12-01

    To assess tracking of energy and nutrient intakes between adolescence and young adulthood. Longitudinal study of a random sample of adolescents (aged 15 years at baseline). The extent of tracking of dietary intakes (assessed by diet history) was investigated using weighted kappa statistics (kappa). Northern Ireland population survey. Adolescents who participated in the Young Hearts Project, Northern Ireland at age 15 years, and subsequently at young adulthood aged between 20 and 25 years (n=245 males, n=231 females). Despite overall increases in height and weight (both P<0.001), increases in body mass index in males (P<0.001) and body fatness in females (P<0.001), median reported intakes of energy (kJ kg(-1) day(-1)), carbohydrate (g day(-1)) and fat (g day(-1)) decreased (all P<0.001) over time. Expressed as nutrient densities (per MJ), diets at young adulthood were overall richer in thiamin, vitamin B6, total folate (all P<0.001), vitamin C (P<0.01) and vitamin D (P<0.05). Whereas the nutrient density of the males' diets decreased over time for calcium (P<0.05) and vitamin A (P<0.001), iron and riboflavin densities increased in the females' diet (P<0.001). Tracking of energy (MJ day(-1)) and nutrient intakes (expressed per MJ day(-1)) at the individual level was only poor to fair (all kappa<0.25), indicating substantial drift of subjects between the low, medium and high classes of intake with increasing age. These data suggest that individual dietary patterns exhibited at 15 years of age are unlikely to be predictive of dietary intakes at young adulthood.

  2. [Evaluation of diet and nutrient intake in children under three years old. ALSALMA pilot study].

    PubMed

    Dalmau, J; Moráis, A; Martínez, V; Peña-Quintana, L; Varea, V; Martínez, M J; Soler, B

    2014-07-01

    The present study evaluates energy and nutrient intake in Spanish children under three years of age, and compares the results with the current recommendations in order to identify possible inadequate nutrient intake. A cross-sectional pilot study. The mothers completed a diet diary for four non-consecutive days, recording the products and amounts consumed by their children. Nutrient intake was calculated, and the results were compared with the dietary reference intakes (DRI) for each age group. A total of 188 children (93 boys and 95 girls) aged 0-6 (n=41), 7-12 (n=24), 13-24 (n=57), and 25-36 months (n=66) were included. Statistically significant differences in DRI were observed for most of the nutrients analyzed. Protein intake, in particular was 376% of DRI in children between 1-3 years of age. By age groups, 96% of the children aged 7-12 months, 88% of the children aged 13-24 months, and 97% of the children aged 25-36 months showed protein intakes more than two-fold DRI. Nutrient intake differed from the DRI, particularly as regards proteins. A new study is required to determine whether the observed study deviations could be representative of the national population of this age group, as well as the possible effects on child health. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutrient intake and use of dietary supplements among US adults with disabilities.

    PubMed

    An, Ruopeng; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Andrade, Flavia

    2015-04-01

    Physical, mental, social, and financial hurdles in adults with disabilities may limit their access to adequate nutrition. To examine the impact of dietary supplement use on daily total nutrient intake levels among US adults 20 years and older with disabilities. Study sample came from 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative repeated cross-sectional survey. Disability was classified into 5 categories using standardized indices. Nutrient intakes from foods and dietary supplements were calculated from 2 nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Two-sample proportion tests and multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the adherence rates to the recommended daily nutrient intake levels between dietary supplement users and nonusers in each disability category. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and dietary supplement use was assessed using multiple logistic regressions, accounting for complex survey design. A substantial proportion of the US adult population with disabilities failed to meet dietary guidelines, with insufficient intakes of multiple nutrients. Over half of the US adults with disabilities used dietary supplements. Dietary supplement use was associated with higher adherence rates for vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, and zinc intake among adults with disabilities. Women, non-Hispanic Whites, older age, higher education, and higher household income were found to predict dietary supplement use. Proper use of dietary supplements under the guidance of health care providers may improve the nutritional status among adults with disabilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Smokers report lower intake of key nutrients than nonsmokers yet both fall short of meeting recommended intakes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Smoking is a risk factor in the development of preventable disease which may be partly due to the reduced nutrient intake of smokers. Our objective was to compare and evaluate the reported intake of current smokers to that of nonsmokers in participants of a study evaluating stress and smoking. Men a...

  5. Intake of antioxidant nutrients and coefficients of variation in pregnant women with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Menezes de Oliveira, Alane Cabral; Albuquerque Santos, Arianne; Rodrigues Bezerra, Alexandra; Machado Tavares, Myrian Cicyanne; Rocha de Barros, Amanda Maria; Costa Ferreira, Raphaela

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress appears to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Evidence suggests that adequate intake of antioxidants can modulate this condition. The objective of this study was to assess the intake of antioxidant nutrients and coefficients of variation in pregnant women with preeclampsia. In a cross-sectional study in the public health network of the city of Maceió, Brazil, a dietary survey was performed consisting of 24-hour food recalls, with subsequent adjustment of nutrients using the estimated average requirement as the cutoff point, and a questionnaire on frequency of consumption of antioxidants. We studied 90 pregnant women with preeclampsia (PWP) and 90 pregnant women without preeclampsia (PWoP) with mean ages of 25.8±6.7 years and 24.1±6.2 years (p=0.519), respectively. A low mean intake of antioxidants (vitamin A, selenium, zinc and copper) was observed in both PWP and PWoP, although intakes of vitamin A (p=0.045) and selenium (p=0.008) were higher in PWoP. In addition, we observed high coefficients of variation in nutrient intakes in both groups, which were higher for vitamin C (p<0.001), vitamin A (p=0.006) and copper (p=0.005) in PWP. Consumption of antioxidant nutrients by pregnant women with preeclampsia is inadequate, with considerable daily variations in intake, which points to a need for nutrition education strategies aimed at improving intakes, because diet is without doubt a key factor in the modulation of oxidative stress caused by preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutrient Intakes: Individuals in 48 States, Year 1977-78. Nationwide Food Consumption Survey 1977-78. Report No. I-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This report presents 3-day nutrient intake data for about 36,100 individuals in 48 states. Data are provided in 157 tables, and results are summarized in the text. The contribution of 14 food groups to intakes of food energy and 14 nutrients are presented. Also included are the average intakes of food energy and nutrients, the nutrient densities…

  7. Nutrient Intake, Apolipoprotein A5 -1131T>C Polymorphism and Its Relationship with Obesity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, M. I.; Sari, D. I.

    2017-03-01

    Obesity is associated with the development of some of the most prevalent diseases of modern society. The World Health Organization estimates that at least 2.8 million adult die each year as result of being obesity. Nutrient intake is a key environmental factor that may interact with genotype to affect risk of obesity. The aim of study was assess the relation between nutrient intake and apolipoprotein A5 -1131T>C polimorphism with obesity. A cross sectional study has been carried out on 139 subjects. Nutrient intake data was collected by using a 24 hour dietary recall and analyzed by nutrisurvey software. Anthropometric variables were measured and body mass index (BMI). Apolipoprotein A5 -1131T>C polymorphism was visualized with 5% agarose gel after restriction length fragment polymorphism (RFLP) digested with MseI. Results : Subjects in this study were 55 male and 84 female, with average age 19.20 ± 1.08, 75 had obese and 64 non obese. Based on the chi square test is found a relationship between total energy intake and protein intake in obese group compared to the non-obese group (p = 0.029, p = 0.006) and no relationship was found in Apolipoprotein A5 -1131T> C polymorphism with obesity. These findings indicate that nutrient intake no depending with apolipoprotein A5 gene variant to modulate obesity

  8. Nutrient intake in community-dwelling adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa and in healthy adolescents123

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Madhusmita; Tsai, Patrika; Anderson, Ellen J; Hubbard, Jane L; Gallagher, Katie; Soyka, Leslie A; Miller, Karen K; Herzog, David B; Klibanski, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a common time for the onset of anorexia nervosa (AN), a condition associated with long-term medical and hormonal consequences. Objective The objective was to compare the nutrient intakes of community-dwelling girls with AN with those of healthy adolescents and to describe the associations between specific nutrient intakes and nutritionally dependent hormones. Design Nutrient intakes in 39 community-dwelling girls with AN and 39 healthy adolescents aged 12.1–18.7 y were determined by using 4-d food records. Fasting adiponectin, leptin, ghrelin, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations were measured. Indirect calorimetry was used to assess respiratory quotient and resting energy expenditure. Results In contrast with the control group, the AN group consumed fewer calories from fats (P < 0.0001) and more from carbohydrates (P = 0.0009) and proteins (P < 0.0001). Intake of individual fat components was lower and of dietary fiber higher in the AN group. No significant between-group differences were observed in dietary intakes of calcium, zinc, and iron; however, total intake was greater in the AN group because of greater supplement use (P = 0.006, 0.02, and 0.01, respectively). The AN group had greater intakes of vitamins A, D, and K and of most of the B vitamins, and significantly more girls with AN met the Dietary Reference Intake for calcium (P = 0.01) and vitamin D (P = 0.02) from supplement use. Fat intake predicted ghrelin, insulin, and IGF-I concentrations; carbohydrate intake predicted adiponectin. Resting energy expenditure was lower (P < 0.0001) and leisure activity levels higher in the AN group. Conclusions Despite outpatient follow-up, community-dwelling girls with AN continue to have lower fat and higher fiber intakes than do healthy adolescents, which results in lower calorie intakes. Nutritionally related hormones are associated with specific nutrient intakes. PMID:17023694

  9. Nutrient intake of European adolescents: results of the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.

    PubMed

    Diethelm, Katharina; Huybrechts, Inge; Moreno, Luis; De Henauw, Stefaan; Manios, Yannis; Beghin, Laurent; González-Gross, Marcela; Le Donne, Cinzia; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Castillo, Manuel J; Widhalm, Kurt; Patterson, Emma; Kersting, Mathilde

    2014-03-01

    An adequate nutritional intake in childhood and adolescence is crucial for growth and the prevention of youth and adult obesity and nutrition-related morbidities. Improving nutrient intake in children and adolescents is of public health importance. The purpose of the present study was to describe and evaluate the nutrient intake in a European sample using the D-A-CH nutrient intake recommendations and the Nutritional Quality Index (NQI). The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study is a cross-sectional study, the main objective of which is to obtain comparable data on a variety of nutritional and health-related parameters in adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years. Eight cities in Europe. The initial sample consisted of 3528 European adolescents. Among these, 1590 adolescents (54% female) had sufficient and plausible dietary data on energy and nutrient intakes from two 24 h recalls using the HELENA-DIAT software. The intakes of most macronutrients, vitamins and minerals were in line with the D-A-CH recommendations. While the intakes of SFA and salt were too high, the intake of PUFA was too low. Furthermore, the intakes of vitamin D, folate, iodine and F were less than about 55% of the recommendations. The median NQI was about 71 (of a maximum of 100). The intakes of most nutrients were adequate. However, further studies using suitable criteria to assess nutrient status are needed. Public health initiatives should educate children and adolescents regarding balanced food choices.

  10. Gastric volume rather than nutrient content inhibits food intake.

    PubMed

    Phillips, R J; Powley, T L

    1996-09-01

    To evaluate the separate contributions of distension and nutrient stimulation of the stomach to the inhibition of short-term food intake and, particularly, to reassess previous analyses based on the inflatable gastrointestinal cuff, four experiments were performed. Rats equipped with pyloric cuffs and indwelling gastric catheters consumed a liquid diet ad libitum. Their consumption during short-term (30 min) feeding bout was measured after gastric infusions on cuff-open and cuff-closed trials. Animals taking meals (approximately 5 ml) with cuffs closed immediately after receiving intragastric infusions of 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 ml of normal saline exhibited both suppression at the smallest infusion and a dose-dependent reduction across the other volumes (experiment 1). Additionally, when the test diet concentration was varied, animals with their cuffs closed consumed a constant volume, not a constant number of calories (experiment 2). Furthermore, cuff-closed animals exhibited no more suppression to 5-ml intragastric infusions of nutrients (including, on different trials, 50 and 100% Isocal diet; 10, 20, and 40% glucose; and 40% sucrose and 40% fructose) than to the same volume of saline (experiments 3 and 4). In contrast, on cuff-open trials in which gastric contents could empty into the duodenum, these same nutrient loads were more effective (except fructose) than saline in producing suppression of food intake. In summary, although both limited gastric distension with the pylorus occluded and intestinal nutrient stimulation with the cuff open effectively reduced intake, cuff-closed gastric loads of mixed macronutrients or carbohydrate solutions of 2-8 kcal, pH from 5.8 to 6.7, and osmolarities between 117 and 2,294 mosM/kg produced only the distension-based suppression generated by the same volume of saline.

  11. Poor nutrient intake and high obese rate in an urban African American population with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Jen, K-L Catherine; Brogan, Kathryn; Washington, Olivia G M; Flack, John M; Artinian, Nancy T

    2007-02-01

    To describe the nutrient intake patterns and general health conditions in an African American (AA) hypertensive population living in Detroit, MI. Demographic, anthropometric, general health condition and 3-day dietary recalls were collected from 387 AAs in community-based settings. Only data from 342 participants who met the inclusion criteria were reported. The obesity and type 2 diabetes prevalence in this minority population were significantly higher, and both energy and nutrient intakes were significantly lower than the RDAs or those reported in NHANES. Female participants reported their highest weight at an earlier age but their body weight reduced in the older group. No such trend was observed in male participants. Both males and females consumed significantly fewer servings of fruit, vegetable and grains as recommended by USDA. As household income increased, the consumption of fruits and vegetables were also increased. In order to reduce the incidence of obesity and hypertension in this minority population, dietary intervention should begin at adolescence or even earlier. DASH diet would be beneficial for this population.

  12. Children's intake of fruit and selected energy-dense nutrient-poor foods is associated with fathers' intake.

    PubMed

    Hall, Laura; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Burrows, Tracy L; Lubans, David R; Callister, Robin

    2011-07-01

    Parental dietary intake, lifestyle behavior, and parenting style influence a child's weight status. Few studies have examined associations between parent-child dietary intake, or specific father-child associations. This cross-sectional study examined associations between father-child dietary intakes of fruit, vegetables, and selected energy-dense nutrient-poor foods. The study population consisted of overweight fathers with 50 father-child dyads included in the analysis; median (interquartile range) age of fathers was 39±8.0 years; body mass index was 32.7±5.3; and their primary school-aged children (n=50) (54% boys aged 8.5±3.0 years, body mass index z score 0.6±1.6) who had been targeted to participate in the Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids pilot trial in the Hunter region, New South Wales, Australia in 2008. Dietary intakes of fathers and children were assessed using validated food frequency questionnaires, with mothers reporting their child's food intake. Descriptive statistics were reported and Spearman's rank order correlations used to test the strength of associations between father-child intakes. Fathers' median (interquartile range) daily fruit and vegetable intakes were 0.9 (1.5) and 2.2 (1.3) servings/day, respectively, whereas children consumed 2.1 (2.4) fruit and 2.9 (2.1) vegetable servings/day. Moderately-strong positive correlations were found between father-child fruit intakes (r=0.40, P<0.01), cookies (r=0.54, P<0.001), and potato chips (r=0.33, P<0.05). There were no associations between intakes of vegetables, ice cream, chocolate, or french fries (P>0.05). Children's intakes of fruit and some energy-dense nutrient-poor foods but not vegetables were related to their father's intakes. The targeting of fathers should be tested in experimental studies as a potential strategy to improve child and family eating habits. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. School lunches in Japan: their contribution to healthier nutrient intake among elementary-school and junior high-school children.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-06-01

    The role of school lunches in diet quality has not been well studied. Here, we aimed to determine the contribution of school lunches to overall nutrient intake in Japanese schoolchildren. The study was conducted nationwide under a cross-sectional design. A non-consecutive, three-day diet record was performed on two school days and a non-school day separately. The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake was estimated for intakes on one of the school days and the non-school day, and for daily habitual intake estimated by the best-power method. The relationship between food intake and nutrient intake adequacy was examined. Fourteen elementary and thirteen junior high schools in Japan. Elementary-school children (n 629) and junior high-school children (n 281). Intakes between the school and non-school days were significantly different for ≥60 % of nutrients. Almost all inadequacies were more prevalent on the non-school day. Regarding habitual intake, a high prevalence of inadequacy was observed for fat (29·9-47·7 %), dietary fibre (18·1-76·1 %) and salt (97·0-100 %). Inadequate habitual intake of vitamins and minerals (except Na) was infrequent in elementary-school children, but was observed in junior high-school children, particularly boys. School lunches appear to improve total diet quality, particularly intake of most vitamins and minerals in Japanese children. However, excess intakes of fat and salt and insufficient intake of dietary fibre were major problems in this population. The contribution of school lunches to improving the intakes of these three nutrients was considered insufficient.

  14. Evaluation of the Brazilian population's intake of antioxidant nutrients and their relation with the nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Tureck, Camila; Locateli, Gelvani; Corrêa, Vanesa Gesser; Koehnlein, Eloá Angélica

    2017-01-01

    The study of dietary antioxidants has gained prominence owing to the elucidation of the deleterious effects of oxidative stress to the human body. Objective: To evaluate the Brazilian population's intake of antioxidant nutrients and their association with the nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was carried out including secondary data on food consumption of 33,459 individuals from both sexes, aged 10 years or older, from all Brazilian regions based on microdata of the "2008-2009 Household Budget Survey, Brazilian Dairy Survey." The content of vitamins E, A, and C; zinc; manganese; copper; and selenium from 188 food items, divided into 12 groups, according to the habitual consumption form was analyzed. The means of antioxidant nutrient intake according to the nutritional status were compared using Bonferroni's t-test. Higher percentages of insufficient intake of vitamins than antioxidant minerals were seen. A significant difference in the intake of vitamin E as to the nutritional status was noticed, wherein the intake in overweight individuals was lower than in those with proper weight. Participants with low weight presented lower intake of almost all antioxidant minerals, except for copper, in which the intake of participants with low weight was equal to those with normal weight. High percentages of insufficient intake of antioxidant nutrients were observed in the studied population, especially vitamins. It was also found that the intake of antioxidant nutrients varied based on nutritional status, gender, and life stage.

  15. Mushroom intake is associated with better nutrient intake and diet quality: 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The association between mushroom consumption and nutrient intake or diet quality has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between these variables in a nationally representative sample of adults. Dietary intake was determined using a 24-hour recall on adult 1...

  16. To what extent do food purchases reflect shoppers' diet quality and nutrient intake?

    PubMed

    Appelhans, Bradley M; French, Simone A; Tangney, Christy C; Powell, Lisa M; Wang, Yamin

    2017-04-11

    Food purchasing is considered a key mediator between the food environment and eating behavior, and food purchasing patterns are increasingly measured in epidemiologic and intervention studies. However, the extent to which food purchases actually reflect individuals' dietary intake has not been rigorously tested. This study examined cross-sectional agreement between estimates of diet quality and nutrient densities derived from objectively documented household food purchases and those derived from interviewer-administered 24-h diet recalls. A secondary aim was to identify moderator variables associated with attenuated agreement between purchases and dietary intake. Primary household food shoppers (N = 196) collected and annotated receipts for all household food and beverage purchases (16,356 total) over 14 days. Research staff visited participants' homes four times to photograph the packaging and nutrition labels of each purchased item. Three or four multiple-pass 24-h diet recalls were performed within the same 14-d period. Nutrient densities and Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) scores were calculated from both food purchase and diet recall data. HEI-2010 scores derived from food purchases (median = 60.9, interquartile range 49.1-71.7) showed moderate agreement (ρc = .57, p < .0001) and minimal bias (-2.0) with HEI-2010 scores from 24-h recalls (median = 60.1, interquartile range 50.8-73.9). The degree of observed bias was unrelated to the number of food/beverage purchases reported or participant characteristics such as social desirability, household income, household size, and body mass. Concordance for individual nutrient densities from food purchases and 24-h diet recalls varied widely from ρc = .10 to .61, with the strongest associations observed for fiber (ρc = .61), whole fruit (ρc = .48), and vegetables (ρc = .39). Objectively documented household food purchases yield an unbiased and reasonably accurate estimate

  17. Nutrient Sensing Systems in Fish: Impact on Food Intake Regulation and Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Soengas, José L.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence obtained in recent years in a few species, especially rainbow trout, supports the presence in fish of nutrient sensing mechanisms. Glucosensing capacity is present in central (hypothalamus and hindbrain) and peripheral [liver, Brockmann bodies (BB, main accumulation of pancreatic endocrine cells in several fish species), and intestine] locations whereas fatty acid sensors seem to be present in hypothalamus, liver and BB. Glucose and fatty acid sensing capacities relate to food intake regulation and metabolism in fish. Hypothalamus is as a signaling integratory center in a way that detection of increased levels of nutrients result in food intake inhibition through changes in the expression of anorexigenic and orexigenic neuropeptides. Moreover, central nutrient sensing modulates functions in the periphery since they elicit changes in hepatic metabolism as well as in hormone secretion to counter-regulate changes in nutrient levels detected in the CNS. At peripheral level, the direct nutrient detection in liver has a crucial role in homeostatic control of glucose and fatty acid whereas in BB and intestine nutrient sensing is probably involved in regulation of hormone secretion from endocrine cells. PMID:28111540

  18. Predictors and dietary consequences of frequent intake of high-sugar, low-nutrient foods in 1-year-old children participating in the ABIS study.

    PubMed

    Brekke, Hilde K; van Odijk, Jenny; Ludvigsson, Johnny

    2007-01-01

    Foods rich in sugar have been suggested to contribute to the increasing prevalence of obesity in children. The aim of this report is to investigate the dietary pattern in 1-year-old children who frequently receive foods rich in sugar but low in nutrients and to study associated demographic and parental factors. During 1977-9, 21,700 infants were invited to participate in this prospective, population-based, longitudinal cohort study. Screening questionnaires were completed for 16,070 infants after delivery. Follow-up questionnaires from 10,762 children at 1 year of age are included in the analysis. It was found that 24% of the children received sweets/pastries more often than one or two times per week. They had a higher intake of French fries, potato crisps and cream as well as a lower intake of fruit and vegetables. A frequent intake of sugar-rich, low-nutrient foods was significantly associated with several maternal factors (high intake of sweets/pastries during pregnancy, young age, mother living alone) as well as presence of older siblings. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and maternal overweight were of borderline significance. Parental education level was inversely associated with the frequency of intake of sweets/pastries in the child. Children who frequently receive sweets/pastries also have an otherwise unfavourable dietary pattern. Several parental and demographic factors were associated with this feeding pattern, especially high intake of sweets/pastries during pregnancy. Screening of pregnant women for risk predictors like consumption of sweets/pastries, young age and smoking could be possible ways of identifying children at future risk for low dietary quality.

  19. Systematic review of nutrient intake and growth in children with multiple IgE-mediated food allergies.

    PubMed

    Sova, Cassandra; Feuling, Mary Beth; Baumler, Megan; Gleason, Linda; Tam, Jonathan S; Zafra, Heidi; Goday, Praveen S

    2013-12-01

    Food allergies affect up to 8% of American children. The current recommended treatment for food allergies is strict elimination of the allergens from the diet. Dietary elimination of nutrient-dense foods may result in inadequate nutrient intake and impaired growth. The purpose of this review was to critically analyze available research on the effect of an elimination diet on nutrient intake and growth in children with multiple food allergies. A systematic review of the literature was conducted and a workgroup was established to critically analyze each relevant article. The findings were summarized and a conclusion was generated. Six studies were analyzed. One study found that children with food allergies are more likely to be malnourished than children without food allergies. Three studies found that children with multiple food allergies were shorter than children with 1 food allergy. Four studies assessed nutrient intake of children with multiple food allergies, but the inclusion and comparison criteria were different in each of the studies and the findings were conflicting. One study found that children with food allergies who did not receive nutrition counseling were more likely to have inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D. Children with multiple food allergies have a higher risk of impaired growth and may have a higher risk of inadequate nutrient intake than children without food allergies. Until more research is available, we recommend monitoring of nutrition and growth of children with multiple food allergies to prevent possible nutrient deficiencies and to optimize growth.

  20. Added sugar intake that exceeds current recommendations is associated with nutrient dilution in older Australians.

    PubMed

    Moshtaghian, Hanieh; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Charlton, Karen E; Probst, Yasmine C; Gopinath, Bamini; Mitchell, Paul; Flood, Victoria M

    2016-09-01

    A nutrient dilution effect of diets high in added sugar has been reported in some older populations, but the evidence is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between added sugar intakes (according to recommended guidelines) and nutrient intake, food consumption, and body mass index (BMI). A cross-sectional analysis of data collected between 2007 and 2009 from participants of the Blue Mountains Eye study 4 was performed (n = 879). Dietary intake was assessed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Added sugar content of foods was determined by applying a systematic step-wise method. BMI was calculated from measured weight and height. Food and nutrient intakes and BMI were assessed according to categories of percentage energy from added sugar (EAS% < 5%, EAS% = 5%-10%, and EAS% >10%) using analysis of covariance for multivariate analysis. Micronutrient intake including retinol equivalents, vitamins B6, B12, C, E, and D, and minerals including calcium, iron, and magnesium showed a significant inverse association with EAS% intakes (Ptrend < 0.05). In people with the lowest intake of added sugars (<5% energy) intake of alcohol, fruits, and vegetables were higher and intake of sugar sweetened beverages was lower compared to other participants (all Ptrend < 0.001). BMI was similar between the three EAS% categories. Energy intake from added sugar greater than the recommended level of 10% is associated with lower micronutrient intakes, indicating micronutrient dilution. Conversely, added sugar intakes <5% of energy intake are associated with higher micronutrient intakes. This information may inform dietary messages targeted at optimizing diet quality in older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Beverage Consumption Patterns and Micronutrient and Caloric Intake from Beverages in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Venci, Brittany; Hodac, Nicole; Lee, Seung-Yeon; Shidler, Marcelle; Krikorian, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine total water intake and patterns of beverage consumption, and its contribution to total daily micronutrients and calories in older adults with mild memory decline. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was used with 60 independent community-dwelling older adults (71.7 ± 5.4 years) with mild cognitive impairment, who were mostly female, well-educated, and white. Three-day food records were analyzed using the Nutrition Data Systems for Research. Descriptive statistics were conducted for a summary of demographics, the average intakes of beverages, and the contribution of beverages to total calorie and micronutrient intakes. Total daily water intake was 53.6 ± 26.7 fl oz and milk, plain water, and tea/coffee were beverages consumed most frequently. Beverage consumption contributed substantially to the intake of vitamin D (29.4%), calcium (26.4%), riboflavin (22.0%), magnesium (18.9%), and vitamin C (18.1%), but constituted only ∼12.5% of total energy. These findings suggest that nutrient-dense beverages play a fundamental role in overall micronutrient intake, despite comprising a small component of daily caloric intake. Incorporating adequate amounts of such beverages in meals and snacks may help older adults meet their nutrient recommendations.

  2. Nutrient intake: A cross-national analysis of trends and economic correlates.

    PubMed

    Dave, Dhaval; Doytch, Nadia; Kelly, Inas Rashad

    2016-06-01

    Nutrition is a key input in the health production function, and a better understanding of how we eat can aid in guiding effective policy change towards better population health. This study documents prevalence rates, trends in, and potential correlates of nutrient intake for panels of countries, categorized by geographical regions and levels of development. We assemble data from 209 countries, spanning 51 years (1961-2011), based on original data compilations using 960 country-years for BMI, 370 country-years for glucose, and 321 country-years for cholesterol. Our estimates inform the nature and scope of nutrient intake on a global scale, and contribute towards an understanding of the drivers of the general upward trend in food intake and obesity. The cross-national trends, across countries spanning the spectrum of economic development and geographic regions, suggest that simply analyzing aggregate caloric intake masks the heterogeneity in trends for the various food groups. Food groups analyzed include cereals, sugars and sweeteners, vegetable oils, meat, starch, milk, fruits, animal fats, alcoholic beverages, oil crops, pulses, vegetables, fish, and eggs. Fixed effects regression analyses reveal that caloric intake is strongly associated with hunger depth, body mass index, cholesterol levels, and glucose levels. Moreover, changes in real GDP per capita, labor force participation, and health care inputs in a nation can partly explain the increase in caloric intake. We note that substantial heterogeneity remains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of Frequency of Multi-Vitamin/Multi-Mineral Supplement Intake on Nutritional Adequacy and Nutrient Deficiencies in U.S. Adults.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Frei, Balz B; Fulgoni, Victor L; Weaver, Connie M; Zeisel, Steven H

    2017-08-09

    Although >50% of U.S. adults use dietary supplements, little information is available on the impact of supplement use frequency on nutrient intakes and deficiencies. Based on nationally representative data in 10,698 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2009 to 2012, assessments were made of intakes from food alone versus food plus multi-vitamin/multi-mineral supplements (MVMS) of 17 nutrients with an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), and of the status of five nutrients with recognized biomarkers of deficiency. Compared to food alone, MVMS use at any frequency was associated with a lower prevalence of inadequacy ( p < 0.01) for 15/17 nutrients examined and an increased prevalence of intakes >UL for 7 nutrients, but the latter was ≤4% for any nutrient. Except for calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D, most frequent MVMS use (≥21 days/30 days) virtually eliminated inadequacies of the nutrients examined, and was associated with significantly lower odds ratios of deficiency for the examined nutrient biomarkers except for iron. In conclusion, among U.S. adults, MVMS use is associated with decreased micronutrient inadequacies, intakes slightly exceeding the UL for a few nutrients, and a lower risk of nutrient deficiencies.

  4. Changes in time-trends of nutrient intake from fortified and non-fortified food in German children and adolescents--15 year results of the DONALD study. Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study.

    PubMed

    Sichert-Hellert, W; Kersting, M; Manz, F

    2001-04-01

    Although fortified products have played an increasing role in food marketing since the 1980s in Germany, data as to the consumption of fortified food is sparse. To assess long-term data on changes in fortified food supply or consumption patterns, nutrient intake, and time trends in the DONALD Study (Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study). Between 1985 and 2000 consumption of nutrient intake (total and from fortified foods) was evaluated and time trends in energy and nutrient intake were assessed on the basis of 3-day weighed dietary records (n = 4193) of 2-14 year-old males (n = 383) and females (n = 404) enrolled in the DONALD Study. Nutrient intake was expressed as percentage of the current German recommendations. Food products were defined as fortified if enriched with at least one of the following nutrients: Vitamin A or provitamin A carotenoids (summarised as Vitamin A), Vitamins E, B1, B2, B6, C, niacin, folate, calcium or iron. Nutrient supplements and medicine were excluded from this evaluation. Time trends were analysed using linear and non-linear regression models (PROC MIXED, SAS 6.12). In percent of German references [3], non-fortified food contributed to folate intake by 20-30%, to Vitamin E by about 40%, to Vitamin B1 by 50-65%, to Vitamin A, C, B2, calcium, iron by about 65-95%, and to Vitamin B6 and niacin intake by 100% and more. Fortified food alone provided no more than 5% of calcium intake, about 10-20% of iron, Vitamin A and folate intake, up to 40-50% of Vitamin C, B1, B2, E, niacin and up to 80% of Vitamin B6 intake. During the 15 year period of the DONALD Study with total food, we only found a significant linear time trend for Vitamin C, whereas significant non-linear time trends were found for calcium, Vitamin E, B1, B2, B6, niacin and folate. In the latter there was a uniform increase until 1994 and a decrease thereafter. For iron and Vitamin A no significant time trend could be identified. Only iron and

  5. Nutrient Intake in Vietnamese Preschool and School-Aged Children is Not Adequate: The Role of Dairy.

    PubMed

    Bao Khanh, Le Nguyen; Burgers, Minke R; Huu Chinh, Nguyen; Tuoc, Bui Van; Dinh Dung, Nguyen; Deurenberg, Paul; Schaafsma, Anne

    2016-03-01

    The traditional Vietnamese diet carries the risk of micronutrient deficiencies, and a substantial part of children <11 years do not meet the Vietnamese recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for a range of nutrients. Dairy products are known for their high nutrient density and milk in particular for its provision of high-quality protein and relevant concentrations of calcium, magnesium, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, and pantothenic acid. The present study aimed to evaluate the contribution of dairy to the overall nutrient intakes in the diets of Vietnamese children and to gain insight into factors affecting dairy consumption. Food intake, including dairy, was assessed by a 24-hour recall in 2811 Vietnamese children clustered into 4 age-groups: 1.0 to 2.9, 3.0 to 5.9, 6.0 to 8.9, and 9.0 to 11.9 years, and dairy was categorized into 6 product groups based on available information in the Vietnamese food composition table. Higher dairy intake was associated with significantly higher intakes (in % estimated average requirement and %RDA) of all assessed nutrients, and largest effects and strongest associations were found for vitamin B2, calcium, vitamin D, fat, vitamin B1, protein, vitamin A, and zinc. Age, area of residence, and wealth status influenced the consumption of dairy products. Furthermore, age also influenced nutrient intake adequacy, which was generally lower at older age, especially after the age of 6 years. The nutrient composition of the diet in especially Vietnamese school-aged children requires attention, and (fortified) dairy can play an important role in this. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Nutrient Intake Is Associated with Longevity Characterization by Metabolites and Element Profiles of Healthy Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Da; Zhao, Shancang; Li, Danlei; Chang, Fang; Tian, Xiangxu; Huang, Guohong; Zhu, Zhenjun; Liu, Dong; Dou, Xiaowei; Li, Shubo; Zhao, Mouming; Li, Quanyang

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between diet and metabolites as well as element profiles in healthy centenarians are important but remain inconclusive. Therefore, to test the interesting hypothesis that there would be distinctive features of metabolites and element profiles in healthy centenarians, and that these would be associated with nutrient intake; the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), total bile acids and ammonia in feces, phenol, p-cresol, uric acid, urea, creatinine and ammonia in urine, and element profiles in fingernails were determined in 90 healthy elderly people, including centenarians from Bama county (China)—a famous longevous region—and elderly people aged 80–99 from the longevous region and a non-longevous region. The partial least squares-discriminant analysis was used for pattern recognition. As a result, the centenarians showed a distinct metabolic pattern. Seven characteristic components closely related to the centenarians were identified, including acetic acid, total SCFA, Mn, Co, propionic acid, butyric acid and valeric acid. Their concentrations were significantly higher in the centenarians group (p < 0.05). Additionally, the dietary fiber intake was positively associated with butyric acid contents in feces (r = 0.896, p < 0.01), and negatively associated with phenol in urine (r = −0.326, p < 0.01). The results suggest that the specific metabolic pattern of centenarians may have an important and positive influence on the formation of the longevity phenomenon. Elevated dietary fiber intake should be a path toward health and longevity. PMID:27657115

  7. Intake patterns and dietary associations of soya protein consumption in adults and children in the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2.

    PubMed

    Mudryj, Adriana N; Aukema, Harold M; Yu, Nancy

    2015-01-28

    Soya foods are one of the recommended alternatives to meat in many dietary guidelines. While this is expected to increase the intake of some nutrients, potential concerns regarding others have been raised. The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence and the association of soya food consumption with nutrient intakes and dietary patterns of Canadians (age ≥ 2 years). Cross-sectional data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey (Cycle 2.2; n 33,218) were used to classify soya consumers and non-consumers. Soya consumers were further divided into two groups based on their soya protein intake. Sample weights were applied and logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between nutrient intakes and soya consumption, with cultural background, sex, age and economic status being included as covariates. On any given day, 3.3% (n 1085) of Canadians consume soya foods, with females, Asian Canadians and adults with post-secondary education being more likely to be soya consumers. As a whole, adolescent and adult respondents who had consumed at least one soya food during their 24 h dietary recall had higher energy intakes, as well as increased intakes of nutrients such as protein, fibre, vitamin C, vitamin B6, naturally occurring folate, thiamin, Ca, P, Mg, PUFA, Fe and K and lowered intakes of saturated fat. These data indicate that soya food consumption is associated with improved diet quality of Canadians. However, future research is necessary to investigate the association between increased energy intake and soya consumption.

  8. Consumption of various forms of apples is associated with a better nutrient intake and improved nutrient adequacy in diets of children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Theresa A; O'Neil, Carol E; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of fruit has been associated with a variety of health benefits, yet, 75% of children have usual intakes of total fruit below minimum recommended amounts. Apples are the second most commonly consumed fruit in the United States; however, no studies have examined the impact of apple consumption on nutrient intake and adequacy in children's diets. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between apple (various forms) consumption with nutrient intake and nutrient adequacy in a nationally representative sample of children. Participants were children aged 2-18 years (n=13,339), from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2010. Least square means of total energy and nutrient intake, and the percentage of the population below the estimated average requirement (EAR) or above the adequate intake (AI) among apple consumers and non-consumers were examined. Consumers of total apple products had higher (p<0.01) total intakes of fiber, magnesium, and potassium and lower intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acid, and sodium than non-consumers. Apple consumers had higher (p<0.01) total sugar intake, but lower intake of added sugars compared to non-consumers. A lower (p<0.01) percentage of apple consumers were below the EAR for 13 of the 16 nutrients studied. Apple consumers had approximately a 10 percentage unit difference below the EAR for calcium and magnesium, and vitamins A, C, D, and E, than non-consumers. The percentage above the AI for fiber was significantly (p<0.0001) higher among total apple consumers (6.24±0.45 g) compared to non-consumers (0.57±0.07 g). The results were similar for individual apple products (i.e. apple juice, applesauce, and whole apples). Consumption of any forms of apples provided valuable nutrients in the diets of children.

  9. The effect of sensory-nutrient congruency on food intake after repeated exposure: do texture and/or energy density matter?

    PubMed

    Hogenkamp, P S

    2014-09-01

    Sensory properties guide the amount that people eat. In particular, food texture plays an important role in a food's 'expected satiation', which in turn affects the food-related decision making process. One hypothesis is that incongruent pairing of a textural cue with a post-ingestive outcome compromises this process, leading to poor energy compensation. Several studies examined the effect of both energy density and sensory characteristics (i.e. increased creaminess and thickness) on expectations, subjective appetite and food intake. To add to this literature, a re-analysis of data assessed whether the effect of sensory-nutrient pairings on energy intake compensation persisted after repeated exposure to a food. In this cross-over design, 27 participants consumed two preloads with 'congruent' (low-energy/liquid; high-energy/semi-solid) and two preloads with 'incongruent' (low-energy/semi-solid; high-energy/liquid) texture-nutrient combinations for nine subsequent meals, during which ad libitum intake was measured. Intake at first exposure did not differ between the low-energy (280±150kcal) and high-energy preloads (292±183kcal) in the incongruent conditions. By contrast, it was greater after the low-energy (332±203kcal) than after the high-energy (236±132kcal) preload in the congruent conditions (energy∗incongruent/congruent, p=0.04). Post-exposure, this pattern changed: intake depended on the energy density of the preloads in all conditions, and was greater after low-energy preloads (day∗energy∗incongruent/congruent-interaction for breakfast: p=0.02). Thus, manipulating the sensory properties of a food influenced energy compensation and meal size, but only at initial exposure. Repeated exposure 'corrected' the initial lack of compensation observed in conditions with incongruent sensory-nutrient pairings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Food and nutrient intake among workers with different shift systems.

    PubMed

    Hemiö, Katri; Puttonen, Sampsa; Viitasalo, Katriina; Härmä, Mikko; Peltonen, Markku; Lindström, Jaana

    2015-07-01

    Over 20% of employees in Europe work in shifts. Shift work increases the risk for chronic diseases, but a healthy lifestyle may attenuate the adverse effect of shift work. The aim of this study was to explore food and nutrient intake differences between working time groups. The participants were 1478 employees (55% of men) of an airline divided into three working time groups: day work (n=608), shift work without in-flight work (n=541) and in-flight work (n=329). Measures included laboratory tests, physical measurements, a questionnaire, and food and nutrient intake estimations by a validated 16-item food intake questionnaire. Shift working men were less likely to consume vegetables (p<0.001) and fruits (p=0.049) daily than male day and in-flight workers. In women, energy intake from saturated fat was higher among shift workers compared with day workers (12.6 vs 12.2 E%, p=0.023). In older female participants, energy intake from fat and saturated fat was higher in the shift work and in-flight work groups than in the day work group (p<0.001). In this study, shift work and working environment were associated with dietary habits, and this association was not explained by other characteristics such as workers' educational level. Shift workers' increased risk for chronic diseases should be taken into account and lifestyle counselling including advice in nutrition should be incorporated in routine occupational healthcare of shift workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. High sugar consumption and poor nutrient intake among drug addicts in Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Saeland, M; Haugen, M; Eriksen, F-L; Wandel, M; Smehaugen, A; Böhmer, T; Oshaug, A

    2011-02-01

    Poor dietary habits among drug addicts represent health hazards. However, very few studies have focused on dietary intake as an independent health risk factor in relation to this group. The objective of the present study was to examine the dietary habits of drug addicts living on the fringes of an affluent society. The study focused on food access, food preferences, intake of energy and nutrients, and related nutrient blood concentrations. The respondent group consisted of 123 male and seventy-two female drug addicts, who participated in a cross-sectional study that included a 24 h dietary recall, blood samples, anthropometrical measurements and a semi-structured interview concerning food access and preferences. Daily energy intake varied from 0 to 37 MJ. Food received from charitable sources and friends/family had a higher nutrient density than food bought by the respondents. Added sugar accounted for 30 % of the energy intake, which was mirrored in biomarkers. Sugar and sugar-sweetened food items were preferred by 61 % of the respondents. Of the respondents, 32 % had a TAG concentration above the reference values, while 35 % had a cholesterol concentration beneath the reference values. An elevated serum Cu concentration indicated inflammation among the respondents. Further research on problems related to the diets of drug addicts should focus on dietary habits and aim to uncover connections that may reinforce inebriation and addiction.

  12. Assessing the adequacy of essential nutrient intake in obese dogs undergoing energy restriction for weight loss: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    German, Alexander J; Holden, Shelley L; Serisier, Samuel; Queau, Yann; Biourge, Vincent

    2015-10-07

    Canine obesity is usually treated with dietary energy restriction, but data are limited regarding nutritional adequacy. The aim of the current study was to compare intake of essential nutrients with National Research Council recommendations in obese dogs during weight management with a purpose-formulated diet. Twenty-seven dogs were included in this non-randomised retrospective observational cohort study. All were determined to be systemically well, and without significant abnormalities based upon physical examination and clinicopathological assessments. The dogs underwent a controlled weight loss protocol of at least 182 days' duration using a high protein high fibre weight loss diet. Median, maximum, and minimum daily intakes of all essential nutrients were compared against NRC 2006 recommended allowances (RA) for adult dogs. Median weight loss was 28 % (16-40 %), mean daily energy intake was 61 kcal/kg(0.75) (44-74 kcal/kg(0.75)), and no clinical signs of nutrient deficiency were observed in any dog. Based upon the average nutrient content of the diet, daily intake of the majority of essential nutrients was greater than their NRC 2006 recommended allowance (RA per kg body weight(0.75)), except for selenium, choline, methionine/cysteine, tryptophan, magnesium, and potassium. However, apart from choline (2/27 dogs) and methionine/cysteine (2/27 dogs), all essential nutrients remained above NRC minimum requirements (MR) throughout the trial. When fed the diet used in the current study, daily intakes of most essential nutrients meet both their NRC 2006 RA and MR in obese dogs during weight loss. In light of absence of clinical signs of nutrient deficiency, it is unclear what significance intakes less that NRC cut-offs for some nutrients have (especially selenium and choline), and further studies are recommended.

  13. Contribution of indigenous foods towards nutrient intakes and nutritional status of women in the Santhal tribal community of Jharkhand, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Magsumbol, Melina S; Lyngdoh, Tanica; Kamboj, Preeti; Goldberg, Gail

    2016-08-01

    The indigenous food environment, dietary intake and nutritional status of women in the Santhal tribal community of Jharkhand were assessed. Contribution of indigenous foods to nutritional status and nutrient intakes was explored. Exploratory cross-sectional study with a longitudinal dietary intake assessment component. Household and dietary surveys were conducted to elicit information on socio-economic and demographic profile and food consumption patterns at household level. A 24 h dietary recall for two consecutive days (repeat surveys in two more seasons) and anthropometric assessments were carried out on one woman per household. Households (n 151) with at least one woman of reproductive age in four villages of Godda district of Jharkhand, India. Women aged 15-49 years. Almost all households owned agricultural land and grew fruits and vegetables in backyards for household consumption. A wide variety of indigenous foods were reported but dietary recalls revealed low intake. Women consumed adequate energy and protein but micronutrient intake was inadequate (less than 66 % of recommended) in the majority (more than 50 %) for Ca, Fe, vitamin B2, folate and vitamin B12. Women consuming indigenous foods in the past 2 d had significantly higher intakes of Ca (P=0·008) and Fe (P=0·010) than those who did not. Varying degrees of underweight were observed in 50 % of women with no significant association between underweight and consumption of indigenous foods. Promotion of preferential cultivation of nutrient-dense indigenous food sources and effective nutrition education on their importance may facilitate better micronutrient intakes among women in Santhal community of Jharkhand.

  14. Contribution of cod liver oil-related nutrients (vitamins A, D, E and eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) to daily nutrient intake and their associations with plasma concentrations in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lentjes, M A H; Mulligan, A A; Welch, A A; Bhaniani, A; Luben, R N; Khaw, K–T

    2015-01-01

    Background Total nutrient intake (TNI) is intake from food and supplements. This provides an assessment of nutrient adequacy and the prevalence of excessive intake, as well as the response with respect to biomarkers. Cod liver oil (CLO) is the most frequently consumed supplement in the UK, containing nutrients that might have varying influences on health. We calculated TNI for vitamins A, D and E, as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and assessed associations with the respective blood concentrations. Methods Seven-day diet diaries and blood samples were taken from two subsets of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk) cohort (age range 39–79 years; n = 1400 for vitamin D; n = 6656 for remaining nutrients). TNI was calculated for the subgroups: nonsupplement users, those consuming the nutrient in supplement form and those consuming a supplement without this nutrient. Results CLO-related nutrients were supplemented by 15%–33%, which approximately doubled median intakes. Almost everyone in the supplement + vitamin A group reached the estimated average requirement; however, guideline levels were likely to be exceeded. Partial correlations between intake of vitamins A and D and biomarkers were low and modestly strengthened by the inclusion of supplement sources (correlation = 0.01–0.13). Correlations between biomarker and TNI of vitamin E and EPA+DHA were in the range 0.40–0.46; however, vitamin E exceeding food intake resulted in attenuated coefficients. Linear associations between food or TNI EPA+DHA and plasma were weak but consistent across subgroups. Conclusions CLO-related nutrients contribute substantially to nutrient intake, with a risk of over-consumption. Apart from EPA+DHA, biomarker data suggest that CLO-related nutrients in supplements are not linearly associated with vitamin status. PMID:25228113

  15. Contribution of cod liver oil-related nutrients (vitamins A, D, E and eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) to daily nutrient intake and their associations with plasma concentrations in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort.

    PubMed

    Lentjes, M A H; Mulligan, A A; Welch, A A; Bhaniani, A; Luben, R N; Khaw, K-T

    2015-12-01

    Total nutrient intake (TNI) is intake from food and supplements. This provides an assessment of nutrient adequacy and the prevalence of excessive intake, as well as the response with respect to biomarkers. Cod liver oil (CLO) is the most frequently consumed supplement in the UK, containing nutrients that might have varying influences on health. We calculated TNI for vitamins A, D and E, as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and assessed associations with the respective blood concentrations. Seven-day diet diaries and blood samples were taken from two subsets of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk) cohort (age range 39-79 years; n = 1400 for vitamin D; n = 6656 for remaining nutrients). TNI was calculated for the subgroups: nonsupplement users, those consuming the nutrient in supplement form and those consuming a supplement without this nutrient. CLO-related nutrients were supplemented by 15%-33%, which approximately doubled median intakes. Almost everyone in the supplement + vitamin A group reached the estimated average requirement; however, guideline levels were likely to be exceeded. Partial correlations between intake of vitamins A and D and biomarkers were low and modestly strengthened by the inclusion of supplement sources (correlation = 0.01-0.13). Correlations between biomarker and TNI of vitamin E and EPA+DHA were in the range 0.40-0.46; however, vitamin E exceeding food intake resulted in attenuated coefficients. Linear associations between food or TNI EPA+DHA and plasma were weak but consistent across subgroups. CLO-related nutrients contribute substantially to nutrient intake, with a risk of over-consumption. Apart from EPA+DHA, biomarker data suggest that CLO-related nutrients in supplements are not linearly associated with vitamin status. © 2014 Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Dietetic Association.

  16. Arsenic methylation capacity in relation to nutrient intake and genetic polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Loira, Brenda; Hernández-Alcaraz, César; Gandolfi, A Jay; Cebrián, Mariano E; Burguete-García, Ana; García-Martínez, Angélica; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2018-07-01

    Nutrients and genetic polymorphisms participating in one-carbon metabolism may explain interindividual differences in inorganic arsenic (iAs) methylation capacity, which in turn may account for variations in susceptibility to iAs-induced diseases. 1) To evaluate the association between polymorphisms in five one-carbon metabolism genes (FOLH1 c.223 T > C, MTHFD1 c.1958 G > A, MTHFR c.665 C > T, MTR c.2756 A > G, and MTRR c.66 A > G) and iAs methylation capacity; 2) To assess if previously reported associations between nutrient intake and iAs methylation capacity are modified by those polymorphisms. Women (n = 1027) exposed to iAs in Northern Mexico were interviewed. Blood and urine samples were collected. Nutrient dietary intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. iAs methylation capacity was calculated from urinary iAs species (iAs, monomethylarsonic acid [MMA] and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA]) measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-ICP-MS). One polymorphism in each of the five genes evaluated was genotyped by allelic discrimination. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate if genetic polymorphisms modified the associations between iAs methylation capacity parameters and nutrient intake. The median (min-max) concentration of total arsenic (TAs) was 20.2 (1.3-2776.0) µg/g creatinine in the study population. Significant interactions for iAs metabolism were only found with FOLH1 c.223 T > C polymorphism and vitamin B12 intake, so that CT and CC genotype carriers had significantly lower %iAs, and higher DMA/iAs with an increased vitamin B12 intake, as compared to carriers of wild-type TT. Differences in dietary nutrient intake and genetic variants in one-carbon metabolism may jointly influence iAs methylation capacity. Confirmation of these interactions in other populations is warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal one-carbon nutrient intake and cancer risk in offspring

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary intake of one-carbon nutrients, particularly folate, vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and choline have been linked to the risk of cancers of the colon and breast in both human and animal studies. More recently, experimental and epidemiological data have emerged to suggest t...

  18. Consumption of various forms of apples is associated with a better nutrient intake and improved nutrient adequacy in diets of children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; O'Neil, Carol E.; Fulgoni, Victor L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Consumption of fruit has been associated with a variety of health benefits, yet, 75% of children have usual intakes of total fruit below minimum recommended amounts. Apples are the second most commonly consumed fruit in the United States; however, no studies have examined the impact of apple consumption on nutrient intake and adequacy in children's diets. Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the association between apple (various forms) consumption with nutrient intake and nutrient adequacy in a nationally representative sample of children. Design Participants were children aged 2–18 years (n=13,339), from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010. Least square means of total energy and nutrient intake, and the percentage of the population below the estimated average requirement (EAR) or above the adequate intake (AI) among apple consumers and non-consumers were examined. Results Consumers of total apple products had higher (p<0.01) total intakes of fiber, magnesium, and potassium and lower intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acid, and sodium than non-consumers. Apple consumers had higher (p<0.01) total sugar intake, but lower intake of added sugars compared to non-consumers. A lower (p<0.01) percentage of apple consumers were below the EAR for 13 of the 16 nutrients studied. Apple consumers had approximately a 10 percentage unit difference below the EAR for calcium and magnesium, and vitamins A, C, D, and E, than non-consumers. The percentage above the AI for fiber was significantly (p<0.0001) higher among total apple consumers (6.24±0.45 g) compared to non-consumers (0.57±0.07 g). The results were similar for individual apple products (i.e. apple juice, applesauce, and whole apples). Conclusion Consumption of any forms of apples provided valuable nutrients in the diets of children. PMID:26445211

  19. Total food duplicate study on nutrient intake of working women in Manila, the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, H; Zhang, Z W; Agetano, M G; Subida, R D; Inouguchi, N; Watanabe, T; Shimbo, S; Higashikawa, K; Ikeda, M

    1998-03-01

    Intakes of various nutrients by working women in Manila, the Philippines, was surveyed by the total food duplicate method, with foci to elucidate relative weight of three meals and snack in addition to quantitative evaluation of nutrient intakes. In practice, 45 women (average age; 37.2 years) volunteered, who were all nonsmokers and nonhabitual drinkers, and mostly married. In parallel, hematology, serum biochemistry, anthropometry and clinical examinations were conducted. On average, the women took 1787 kcal energy, 57 g protein, and 54 g lipid daily. Comparison with the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for Filipinos showed that intakes of energy and major nutrients were adequate, whereas that of minerals (e.g., 15 mg Fe/day vs. 26 mg Fe/day as RDA) and vitamins (e.g., 0.65 mg vitamin B1/day vs. 1 mg/day as RDA) were generally insufficient. Prevalence of anemia was however rather low with an average hemoglobin concentration of 12.9 g/100 ml blood. Rice was the staple source of energy for daily life, and beef rather than fish and shellfish was the leading source of protein. Lunch was the richest meal of a day (with the largest intake of energy, protein and lipid), and snacks rather than dinner appeared to be next substantial.

  20. [Association between hematopoietic nutrient intake and the origin of nutritional anemia in women of childbearing age in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Manjarrés, Luz Mariela; Díaz, Abel; Carriquiry, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Compare the nutritional origin of anemia by sociodemographic variables and analyze its association with deficient hematopoietic nutrient intake. The database of Colombia's 2005 National Survey of Nutritional Status was used. The data were obtained through complex representative sampling of the population and processed using SPSS v.15. Anemic women of childbearing age were selected and divided into two groups according to serum ferritin levels. Their customary hematopoietic nutrient intake and risk of deficiency were determined. The proportions of anemia types were compared by sociodemographic variables using the F-distribution, the Rao-Scott second order correction (P < 0.05). The association between the origin of the anemia and classification of the nutrient was analyzed using the odds ratio (OR). 595 women. Non-hypoferric anemia (67.2%) predominated, with no statistical difference by sociodemographic variable, except in the Pacific region (hypoferric anemia, 52.1%). The prevalence of deficiency in the customary intake of hematopoietic nutrients was high. There was no significant association between the deficit in consumption and the origin of the anemia. Non-hypoferric anemia was most common, with no difference by sociodemographic indicators except in the Pacific region. All the women were at high risk of deficiency in their customary hematopoietic nutrient intake, but a statistically significant association between the deficiency and the origin of the nutritional anemia was not observed. Programs to improve nutrient intake and a continued search for causes of nutritional anemia other than iron deficiency are justified.

  1. Dietary Nutrient Intake, Ethnicity, and Epigenetic Silencing of Lung Cancer Genes Detected in Sputum in New Mexican Smokers.

    PubMed

    Leng, Shuguang; Picchi, Maria A; Kang, Huining; Wu, Guodong; Filipczak, Piotr T; Juri, Daniel E; Zhang, Xiequn; Gauderman, W James; Gilliland, Frank D; Belinsky, Steven A

    2018-02-01

    Lung cancer gene methylation detected in sputum assesses field cancerization and predicts lung cancer incidence. Hispanic smokers have higher lung cancer susceptibility compared with non-Hispanic whites (NHW). We aimed to identify novel dietary nutrients affecting lung cancer gene methylation and determine the degree of ethnic disparity in methylation explained by diet. Dietary intakes of 139 nutrients were assessed using a validated Harvard food frequency questionnaire in 327 Hispanics and 1,502 NHWs from the Lovelace Smokers Cohort. Promoter methylation of 12 lung cancer genes was assessed in sputum DNA. A global association was identified between dietary intake and gene methylation ( P permutation = 0.003). Seventeen nutrient measurements were identified with magnitude of association with methylation greater than that seen for folate. A stepwise approach identified B12, manganese, sodium, and saturated fat as the minimally correlated set of nutrients whose optimal intakes could reduce the methylation by 36% ( P permutation < 0.001). Six protective nutrients included vitamin D, B12, manganese, magnesium, niacin, and folate. Approximately 42% of ethnic disparity in methylation was explained by insufficient intake of protective nutrients in Hispanics compared with NHWs. Functional validation of protective nutrients showed an enhanced DNA repair capacity toward double-strand DNA breaks, a mechanistic biomarker strongly linked to acquisition of lung cancer gene methylation in smokers. Dietary intake is a major modifiable factor for preventing promoter methylation of lung cancer genes in smokers' lungs. Complex dietary supplements could be developed on the basis of these protective nutrients for lung cancer chemoprevention in smokers. Hispanic smokers may benefit the most from this complex for reducing their lung cancer susceptibility. Cancer Prev Res; 11(2); 93-102. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Salivary Composition Is Associated with Liking and Usual Nutrient Intake

    PubMed Central

    Méjean, Caroline; Morzel, Martine; Neyraud, Eric; Issanchou, Sylvie; Martin, Christophe; Bozonnet, Sophie; Urbano, Christine; Schlich, Pascal; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine; Feron, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Salivary flow and composition have an impact on flavor perception. However, very few studies have explored the relationship between saliva, individual liking and usual dietary intake. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association of salivary flow and composition with both a liking for fat, saltiness and sweetness and the usual nutrient intake in an adult French population. Liking for fat, saltiness, and sweetness were inferred from liking scores obtained during hedonic tests on 32 food products among 282 French adults participating in the Nutrinet-Santé Study. Before assessing liking, resting saliva was collected. Standard biochemical analyses were performed to assess specific component concentrations and enzymatic activities. Dietary data were collected using three web-based 24h records. Relationships between salivary flow and composition, sensory liking and nutrient intake were assessed using linear regression. Total antioxidant capacity was positively associated with simple carbohydrate intake (β = 31.3, 95% CI = 1.58; 60.99) and inversely related to complex carbohydrate consumption (β = -52.4, 95% CI = -87.51; -19.71). Amylolysis was positively associated with both total (β = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.01; 0.38) and simple carbohydrate intake (β = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.01; 0.39). Salivary flow was positively associated with liking for fat (β = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.03; 0.25). Proteolysis was positively associated with liking for saltiness and for fat (β = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.02; 0.59; β = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.01; 0.56, respectively). Amylolysis was inversely associated with liking for sweetness (β = -10.13, 95% CI = -19.51; -0.75). Carbonic anhydrase 6 was inversely associated with liking for saltiness (β = -46.77, 95% CI = -86.24; -7.30). Saliva does not substantially vary according to a usual diet, except for carbohydrate intake, whereas the specific association between salivary flow/composition and sensory liking suggests the influence of saliva characteristics in

  3. Nutrient intake, serum lipids and iron status of colligiate rugby players.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Hiroyuki; Iide, Kazuhide; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Kumagai, Kenya; Oshikata, Reika; Miyahara, Keiko; Oda, Kazuto; Miyamoto, Noriko; Nakazawa, Anthony

    2013-02-13

    There are two main playing positions in rugby (backs and forwards), which demonstrate different exercise patterns, roles, and physical characteristics. The purpose of this study was: 1) to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise the athletes about nutrition practices that might enhance performance, and 2) to compare serum lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins (apo), lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity, and iron status of forwards and backs. The sporting group was divided into 18 forwards and 16 backs and were compared with 26 sedentary controls. Dietary information was obtained with a food frequency questionnaire. There were significant differences among the three groups. The forwards had the highest body weight, body mass index, percentage of body fat (calculated by sum of four skinfold thicknesses), as well as the highest lean body mass, followed by the backs and the control group. The mean carbohydrate intake was marginal and protein intake was lower than the respective recommended targets in all three groups. The mean intakes of calcium, magnesium, and vitamins A, B1, B2, and C were lower than the respective Japanese recommended dietary allowances or adequate dietary intakes for the rugby players. The forwards had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL2-C than the backs and had significantly higher apo B and LCAT activity than the controls. The backs showed significantly higher HDL-C, HDL3-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apo A-I, and LCAT activity than the controls. Four forwards (22%), five backs (31%), and three controls (12%) had hemolysis. None of the rugby players had anemia or iron depletion. The findings of our study indicate that as the athletes increased their carbohydrate and protein intake, their performance and lean body mass increased. Further, to increase mineral and vitamin intakes, we recommended athletes increase their consumption of green and other vegetables

  4. Nutrient intake, serum lipids and iron status of colligiate rugby players

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are two main playing positions in rugby (backs and forwards), which demonstrate different exercise patterns, roles, and physical characteristics. The purpose of this study was: 1) to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise the athletes about nutrition practices that might enhance performance, and 2) to compare serum lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins (apo), lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity, and iron status of forwards and backs. Methods The sporting group was divided into 18 forwards and 16 backs and were compared with 26 sedentary controls. Dietary information was obtained with a food frequency questionnaire. Results There were significant differences among the three groups. The forwards had the highest body weight, body mass index, percentage of body fat (calculated by sum of four skinfold thicknesses), as well as the highest lean body mass, followed by the backs and the control group. The mean carbohydrate intake was marginal and protein intake was lower than the respective recommended targets in all three groups. The mean intakes of calcium, magnesium, and vitamins A, B1, B2, and C were lower than the respective Japanese recommended dietary allowances or adequate dietary intakes for the rugby players. The forwards had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL2-C than the backs and had significantly higher apo B and LCAT activity than the controls. The backs showed significantly higher HDL-C, HDL3-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apo A-I, and LCAT activity than the controls. Four forwards (22%), five backs (31%), and three controls (12%) had hemolysis. None of the rugby players had anemia or iron depletion. Conclusion The findings of our study indicate that as the athletes increased their carbohydrate and protein intake, their performance and lean body mass increased. Further, to increase mineral and vitamin intakes, we recommended athletes increase their

  5. Seasonal sediment and nutrients transport patterns

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is essential to understand sediment and nutrient sources and their spatial and temporal patterns in order to design effective mitigation strategies. However, long-term data sets to determine sediment and nutrient loadings are scarce and expensive to collect. The goal of this study was to determin...

  6. Dietary intake of antioxidant nutrients is associated with semen quality in young university students.

    PubMed

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Mendiola, Jaime; López-Espín, José J; Sarabia-Cos, Laura; Vivero-Salmerón, Guillermo; Vioque, Jesús; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva M; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M

    2012-09-01

    What are the associations between the dietary intake of antioxidant nutrients and semen parameters in young men? Our study suggests that some sperm parameters are sensitive to dietary intake of antioxidant nutrients. A few reports have suggested that some dietary factors might be related to semen quality. However, the relationship between the intake of antioxidant nutrients and semen quality in young men remains unexplored. In this cross-sectional study, 215 young men were included between October 2010 and November 2011. Healthy university students with complete dietary and semen quality data were analyzed. Dietary intake was recorded using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The associations between the energy-adjusted nutrient intake of antioxidants in quartiles and the semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, sperm morphology, total sperm count and total motile sperm count were assessed using multivariate linear regression. Out of 240 students who contacted us, 223 (92.9%) were eligible to participate in this study, and 215 attended the clinical appointment. In the multivariate adjusted linear regression models, there was a positive association between dietary intakes of cryptoxanthin (P(trend) = 0.03), vitamin C (P(trend) = 0.04), lycopene (P(trend) = 0.03) and β-carotene (P(trend) = 0.04) and total motile sperm count. The semen volume increased with higher intakes of vitamin C (P(trend) = 0.04). Only one sample of semen was taken for each subject. However, there are indications that one semen sample may be sufficient to characterize the semen quality of the individuals in epidemiological studies. Bias due to measurement errors may also occur since there is no perfect method to assess diet. However, any bias due to measurement error would be non-differential and would reduce, not increase, the strength of the associations. Although selection bias in cross-sectional studies might not always be ruled out, our subjects were university student

  7. Is nutrient intake associated with physical activity levels in healthy young adults?

    PubMed

    Yan, Yi; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Shook, Robin P; Hurley, Thomas G; Hebert, James R; Blair, Steven N

    2016-08-01

    Both physical activity (PA) and diet are important contributors to health and well-being; however, there is limited information on the association of these behaviours and whether observed associations differ by weight. The present study aimed to evaluate whether nutrient intake is associated with PA and if this association varies by weight in young adults. Cross-sectional study to analyse the association between PA and nutrient intake. Participants were stratified as normal weight (18·5 kg/m2 intakes of minerals (except Ca, Fe and Zn), B-vitamins and choline (P for trend <0·05). In the overweight/obese group, higher PAL was associated with higher intakes of fibre, K, Na and Cu (P for trend <0·05). These differences, however, were no longer significant after additionally controlling for total energy intake. More active young adults have higher intakes of essential micronutrients. The benefits of PA may be predominantly due to a higher overall food intake while maintaining energy balance rather than a healthier diet.

  8. Relationship between oral health, nutrient intake and nutritional status in a sample of Brazilian elderly people.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Fabiola Bof; de França Caldas, Arnaldo; Kitoko, Pedro Makumbundu

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the oral health condition, the nutrient intake and the body mass index (BMI) in elderly people. Impaired dentition has been associated with an inadequate consumption of key nutrients and with changes in nutritional status in elderly people. The sample comprised 887 elderly people, aged 60 and over, of whom 816 underwent a clinical oral examination and were allocated into groups according to the numbers of teeth and number of posterior occluding pairs of natural teeth. Nutritional status was determined using the BMI. Dietary intake was assessed by a 24-h diet recall interview and the data from these records were converted to nutritional intake using DietPro software. Differences between means were evaluated using ANOVA, together with the Tukey test or Dunnet test, according to the normality of the data. Associations between categorical variables were tested using chi-square analysis. Ages ranged from 60 to 96 years (mean, 71.46 years), with 47% of the respondents in the 60-to 69-year-old group. A high DMFT index (mean, 27.81) was observed with the missing component accounting for 88.8% of the index. Significant differences were observed between the mean intake of nutrients and the number of posterior occluding pairs of natural teeth (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the number of teeth and BMI. Nutrient intake is associated with the oral health status as defined by clinical measures.

  9. Changes in dairy food and nutrient intakes in Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Parker, Carole E; Vivian, Wendy J; Oddy, Wendy H; Beilin, Lawrence J; Mori, Trevor A; O'Sullivan, Therese A

    2012-11-22

    Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P < 0.05, and from 33.6% to 20.5% meeting for magnesium, P < 0.01). Mean intakes of calcium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin A also decreased with age (P < 0.01). Mean dairy intake decreased from 536 ± 343 g/day to 464 ± 339 g/day (P < 0.01), due mostly to a decrease in regular milk, although flavoured milk consumption increased in boys. Cheese and butter were the only products to show a significantly increased consumption over the period. Girls decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 serves/day of dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health.

  10. Parental nutrient intake and risk of retinoblastoma resulting from new germline RB1 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Bunin, Greta R; Li, Yimei; Ganguly, Arupa; Meadows, Anna T; Tseng, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We conducted a case-control study to examine the role of parents’ nutrient intake before their child’s conception in the child’s risk of sporadic bilateral retinoblastoma, which results from a new germline RB1 mutation. Methods Parents of 206 cases from 9 North American institutions and 269 friend and relative controls participated; fathers of 182 cases and 223 controls and mothers of 202 cases and 260 controls provided useable information in telephone interviews on their diet in the year before the child’s conception. We also asked parents about supplements, a significant source of nutrients in users. Results Father’s intake of dairy-associated nutrients and his use of calcium supplements were associated with decreased risk while his intake of copper, manganese, and vitamin E was associated with increased risk. Mother’s use of multivitamins close to conception was associated with lower risk as was her intake of several micronutrients found in these supplements. In analyses to elucidate the primary factor from multiple correlated factors, the most robust findings were for father’s calcium intake (adjusted OR=0.46 – 0.63 for 700 mg increase) and calcium supplement use (OR=0.35 – 0.41) and mother’s multivitamin use (ORs 0.28 – 0.48). Conclusions There are few directly relevant studies but some data indirectly support the biologic plausibility of the inverse associations with father’s calcium intake and mother’s use of multivitamins; however, we cannot rule out contributions of bias, confounding, or chance. Our findings provide a starting point for further investigation of diet in the etiology of retinoblastoma and new germline mutation generally. PMID:23224327

  11. [Food consumption and energy and nutrient intakes in a group of Roman adolescents].

    PubMed

    Martone, D; D'Addesa, D; Scanu, A; Censi, L; Bevilacqua, N; D'Addezio, L; Menghetti, E

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess food consumption in a group of Roman adolescents in order to compare the energy and nutrient intakes with requirements. The authors have carried out a food survey on the whole scholastic population of two schools of Rome from 2003 to 2005. Nutritional status of students was assessed by measuring height, weight according to international indications. Food consumption was assessed by food records. Seventy hundred and seventy three subjects (773) 52% males, with an average age of 12.3 + or - 0.9 years were surveyed. The average daily intakes of fruit (128 g), vegetables (161 g), and legumes (12 g) were lower than recommended. The percentage of energy intake from fat (39%) and that from saturated fats (12%) were high. On the other hand, the percentage of energy intake from carbohydrates was low (46%) even if that from saturated fats (12%) was rather high. The students' diet was characterized by low intakes of fibre (16 g), calcium (815 mg) and iron (12 mg) in both males and females. Results indicate that the diet of these students is unbalanced in terms of macronutrients and deficient for some micro-nutrients, suggesting the need for nutrition education policy.

  12. Opportunities for Intervention Strategies for Weight Management: Global Actions on Fluid Intake Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Lafontan, Max; Visscher, Tommy L.S.; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie; Yumuk, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    Water is an essential nutrient for all physiological functions and particularly important for thermoregulation. About 60% of our body weight is made of water. Under standard conditions (18-20 °C and moderate activity), water balance is regulated within 0.2 % of body weight over a 24-hour period. Water requirement varies between individuals and according to environmental conditions. Concerning considerations related to obesity, the health impact of fluid intake is commonly overlooked. Fluid intake advices are missing in most of food pyramids offered to the public, and water requirements and hydration challenges remain often neglected. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize and discuss the role of water consumption in the context of other important public health measures for weight management. Attention will be focused on fluid intake patterns and hydration-related questions in the context of global interventions and/or physical activity programs settled in weight management protocols. PMID:25765164

  13. Soil nutrient availability and reproductive effort drive patterns in nutrient resorption in Pentachlethra macroloba

    Treesearch

    K. L. Tully; Tana Wood; A. M. Schwantes; D. Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The removal of nutrients from senescing tissues, nutrient resorption, is a key strategy for conserving nutrients in plants. However, our understanding of what drives patterns of nutrient resorption in tropical trees is limited. We examined the effects of nutrient sources (stand-level and tree-level soil fertility) and sinks (reproductive effort) on nitrogen (N) and...

  14. Dietary sources of energy and nutrient intake among children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen; Ducharme-Smith, Kirstie; Davis, Laura; Hui, Wun Fung; Warady, Bradley A; Furth, Susan L; Abraham, Alison G; Betoko, Aisha

    2017-07-01

    Our purpose was to identify the main food contributors to energy and nutrient intake in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this cross-sectional study of dietary intake assessed using Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) cohort study, we estimated energy and nutrient intake and identified the primary contributing foods within this population. Completed FFQs were available for 658 children. Of those, 69.9% were boys, median age 12 (interquartile range (IQR) 8-15 years). The average daily energy intake was 1968 kcal (IQR 1523-2574 kcal). Milk was the largest contributor to total energy, protein, potassium, and phosphorus intake. Fast foods were the largest contributors to fat and sodium intake, the second largest contributors to energy intake, and the third largest contributors to potassium and phosphorus intake. Fruit contributed 12.0%, 8.7%, and 6.7% to potassium intake for children aged 2-5, 6-13, and 14-18 years old, respectively. Children with CKD consumed more sodium, protein, and calories but less potassium than recommended by the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) guidelines for pediatric CKD. Energy, protein, and sodium intake is heavily driven by consumption of milk and fast foods. Limiting contribution of fast foods in patients with good appetite may be particularly important for maintaining recommended energy and sodium intake, as overconsumption can increase the risk of obesity and cardiovascular complications in that population.

  15. [Consumption pattern and recommended intakes of sugar].

    PubMed

    Quiles i Izquierdo, Joan

    2013-07-01

    Sugars are sweet-flavored carbohydrates that provide energy to the body. The adult brain uses about 140 g of glucose per day, amount which can represent up to 50 of the total number of carbohydrates consumed. In our country the sugar in food consumption pattern remains constant, while the consumption of soft drinks has increased in the past four years. The national survey of dietary intake of Spain (ENIDE, 2010-11) estimated that 20% of calories intake comes from carbohydrates called sugars. Sugar consumption has been associated with various pathologies (diabetes, obesity, tooth decay, cardiovascular disease) but these relationships are not consistent enough. Food information through nutritional labeling, including sugars present in food, pretend to protect the consumer health and to guarantee their right to information so they can make their own decisions with criterion. In view of different appraisals and existing studies, and above all, in the absence of a solid scientific evidence that concrete data on which make recommendations, the best nutritional advice for the general population could be a diet varied and balanced with food and nutrients from different sources, combining such a diet with exercise and physical activity. More specifically in terms of moderate consumption of sugar in the previous context of varied and balanced diet is perfectly compatible. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Food and Nutrient Intake among 12-Month-Old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi Infants

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Kolve, Cathrine Solheim; Kverndalen, Ingrid; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to describe food and nutrient intake among 12-month-old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants, with a focus on iron and vitamin D intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2013 through September 2014. Eighty-nine mothers/infants of Somali origin and 77 mothers/infants of Iraqi origin residing in Eastern Norway participated in the study. Data were collected using two 24-h multiple-pass recalls. Forty percent of the Norwegian-Somali infants and 47% of the Norwegian-Iraqi infants were breastfed at 12 months of age (p = 0.414). Median energy percentages (E%) from protein, fat and carbohydrates were within the recommended intake ranges, except the level of saturated fats (12–13 E%). Median intakes of almost all micronutrients were above the recommended daily intakes. Most of the infants consumed iron-enriched products (81%) and received vitamin D supplements (84%). The median intakes of iron and vitamin D were significantly higher among infants receiving iron-enriched products and vitamin D supplements compared to infants not receiving such products (p < 0.001). The findings indicate that the food and nutrient intake of this group of infants in general seems to be in accordance with Norwegian dietary recommendations. Foods rich in iron and vitamin D supplements were important sources of the infants’ intake of iron and vitamin D and should continue to be promoted. PMID:27690092

  17. Food and Nutrient Intake among 12-Month-Old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi Infants.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Kolve, Cathrine Solheim; Kverndalen, Ingrid; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-09-28

    The aim of the present paper was to describe food and nutrient intake among 12-month-old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants, with a focus on iron and vitamin D intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2013 through September 2014. Eighty-nine mothers/infants of Somali origin and 77 mothers/infants of Iraqi origin residing in Eastern Norway participated in the study. Data were collected using two 24-h multiple-pass recalls. Forty percent of the Norwegian-Somali infants and 47% of the Norwegian-Iraqi infants were breastfed at 12 months of age ( p = 0.414). Median energy percentages (E%) from protein, fat and carbohydrates were within the recommended intake ranges, except the level of saturated fats (12-13 E%). Median intakes of almost all micronutrients were above the recommended daily intakes. Most of the infants consumed iron-enriched products (81%) and received vitamin D supplements (84%). The median intakes of iron and vitamin D were significantly higher among infants receiving iron-enriched products and vitamin D supplements compared to infants not receiving such products ( p < 0.001). The findings indicate that the food and nutrient intake of this group of infants in general seems to be in accordance with Norwegian dietary recommendations. Foods rich in iron and vitamin D supplements were important sources of the infants' intake of iron and vitamin D and should continue to be promoted.

  18. Ready-to-eat cereals improve nutrient, milk and fruit intake at breakfast in European adolescents.

    PubMed

    Michels, Nathalie; De Henauw, Stefaan; Beghin, Laurent; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Hallstrom, Lena; Kafatos, Anthony; Kersting, Mathilde; Manios, Yannis; Marcos, Ascensión; Molnar, Denes; Roccaldo, Romana; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Sjostrom, Michael; Reye, Béatrice; Thielecke, Frank; Widhalm, Kurt; Claessens, Mandy

    2016-03-01

    Breakfast consumption has been recommended as part of a healthy diet. Recently, ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) became more popular as a breakfast item. Our aim was to analyse the dietary characteristics of an RTEC breakfast in European adolescents and to compare them with other breakfast options. From the European multi-centre HELENA study, two 24-h dietary recalls of 3137 adolescents were available. Food items (RTEC or bread, milk/yoghurt, fruit) and macro- and micronutrient intakes at breakfast were calculated. Cross-sectional regression analyses were adjusted for gender, age, socio-economic status and city. Compared to bread breakfasts (39 %) and all other breakfasts (41.5 %), RTEC breakfast (19.5 %) was associated with improved nutrient intake (less fat and less sucrose; more fibre, protein and some micronutrients like vitamin B, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus) at the breakfast occasion. Exceptions were more simple sugars in RTEC breakfast consumers: more lactose and galactose due to increased milk consumption, but also higher glucose and fructose than bread consumers. RTEC consumers had a significantly higher frequency (92.5 vs. 50.4 and 60.2 %) and quantity of milk/yoghurt intake and a slightly higher frequency of fruit intake (13.4 vs. 10.9 and 8.0 %) at breakfast. Among European adolescents, RTEC consumers showed a more favourable nutrient intake than consumers of bread or other breakfasts, except for simple sugars. Therefore, RTEC may be regarded as a good breakfast option as part of a varied and balanced diet. Nevertheless, more research is warranted concerning the role of different RTEC types in nutrient intake, especially for simple sugars.

  19. Local food-based complementary feeding recommendations developed by the linear programming approach to improve the intake of problem nutrients among 12-23-month-old Myanmar children.

    PubMed

    Hlaing, Lwin Mar; Fahmida, Umi; Htet, Min Kyaw; Utomo, Budi; Firmansyah, Agus; Ferguson, Elaine L

    2016-07-01

    Poor feeding practices result in inadequate nutrient intakes in young children in developing countries. To improve practices, local food-based complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) are needed. This cross-sectional survey aimed to describe current food consumption patterns of 12-23-month-old Myanmar children (n 106) from Ayeyarwady region in order to identify nutrient requirements that are difficult to achieve using local foods and to formulate affordable and realistic CFR to improve dietary adequacy. Weekly food consumption patterns were assessed using a 12-h weighed dietary record, single 24-h recall and a 5-d food record. Food costs were estimated by market surveys. CFR were formulated by linear programming analysis using WHO Optifood software and evaluated among mothers (n 20) using trial of improved practices (TIP). Findings showed that Ca, Zn, niacin, folate and Fe were 'problem nutrients': nutrients that did not achieve 100 % recommended nutrient intake even when the diet was optimised. Chicken liver, anchovy and roselle leaves were locally available nutrient-dense foods that would fill these nutrient gaps. The final set of six CFR would ensure dietary adequacy for five of twelve nutrients at a minimal cost of 271 kyats/d (based on the exchange rate of 900 kyats/USD at the time of data collection: 3rd quarter of 2012), but inadequacies remained for niacin, folate, thiamin, Fe, Zn, Ca and vitamin B6. TIP showed that mothers believed liver and vegetables would cause worms and diarrhoea, but these beliefs could be overcome to successfully promote liver consumption. Therefore, an acceptable set of CFR were developed to improve the dietary practices of 12-23-month-old Myanmar children using locally available foods. Alternative interventions such as fortification, however, are still needed to ensure dietary adequacy of all nutrients.

  20. Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of cardiovascular risk factors in adults participating in the ...

  1. Taste perception, associated hormonal modulation, and nutrient intake

    PubMed Central

    Loper, Hillary B.; La Sala, Michael; Dotson, Cedrick

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that taste perception influences food intake. After ingestion, gustatory receptors relay sensory signals to the brain, which segregates, evaluates, and distinguishes the stimuli, leading to the experience known as “flavor.” It is well accepted that five taste qualities – sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and umami – can be perceived by animals. In this review, the anatomy and physiology of human taste buds, the hormonal modulation of taste function, the importance of genetic chemosensory variation, and the influence of gustatory functioning on macronutrient selection and eating behavior are discussed. Individual genotypic variation results in specific phenotypes of food preference and nutrient intake. Understanding the role of taste in food selection and ingestive behavior is important for expanding our understanding of the factors involved in body weight maintenance and the risk of chronic diseases including obesity, atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, liver disease, and hypertension. PMID:26024495

  2. Meeting and exceeding dairy recommendations: effects of dairy consumption on nutrient intakes and risk of chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Beth H; Quann, Erin E; Miller, Gregory D

    2013-01-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans indicate the US population is experiencing an epidemic of overweight and obesity while maintaining a nutrient-poor, energy-dense diet associated with an increased risk of osteoarthritis, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. To build upon the review of published research in the Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, this article aims to review the scientific literature pertaining to the consumption of dairy foods and the effects of dairy consumption on nutrient intakes and chronic disease risk published between June 2010, when the report was released, and September 2011. PubMed was searched for articles using the following key words: dairy, milk, nutrient intake, bone health, body composition, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and blood pressure. Evidence indicates that increasing dairy consumption to the recommended amount, i.e., three servings daily for individuals ≥9 years of age, helps close gaps between current nutrient intakes and recommendations. Consuming more than three servings of dairy per day leads to better nutrient status and improved bone health and is associated with lower blood pressure and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23550782

  3. The New Zealand Food Composition Database: A useful tool for assessing New Zealanders' nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Sivakumaran, Subathira; Huffman, Lee; Sivakumaran, Sivalingam

    2018-01-01

    A country-specific food composition databases is useful for assessing nutrient intake reliably in national nutrition surveys, research studies and clinical practice. The New Zealand Food Composition Database (NZFCDB) programme seeks to maintain relevant and up-to-date food records that reflect the composition of foods commonly consumed in New Zealand following Food Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations/International Network of Food Data Systems (FAO/INFOODS) guidelines. Food composition data (FCD) of up to 87 core components for approximately 600 foods have been added to NZFCDB since 2010. These foods include those identified as providing key nutrients in a 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Nutrient data obtained by analysis of composite samples or are calculated from analytical data. Currently >2500 foods in 22 food groups are freely available in various NZFCDB output products on the website: www.foodcomposition.co.nz. NZFCDB is the main source of FCD for estimating nutrient intake in New Zealand nutrition surveys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Almond consumption is associated with better nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between almond consumption, the most widely consumed tree nut in the US, and nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and weight/adiposity in adults. Data from adults (N=24,808), 19+ years, participating in the NHANES 2001-2010 were u...

  5. Adequacy and change in nutrient and food intakes with aging in a seven-year cohort study in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Zhu, K; Devine, A; Suleska, A; Tan, C Y; Toh, C Z J; Kerr, D; Prince, R L

    2010-11-01

    As women age total dietary intake falls which may increase the risk of dietary deficiencies in some individuals. The aims of this study were to investigate the changes in nutrient and dietary intakes that occurred with aging in a seven-year longitudinal study of elderly Australian women and to evaluate the adequacy of their dietary intakes. Longitudinal population based study on health with ageing. 911 free-living elderly women aged 70-85 years at baseline from a cohort of 1500 elderly women. At baseline, 60 and 84 months, self-reported Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) and demographics were collected and anthropometry measured. During the 84 month subjects lost height (1.8 cm) and body weight (1.9 kg). Intakes of energy and macronutrients carbohydrate, fat and protein declined significantly over the 84 months. Mean energy derived from saturated fat was above, whereas energy derived from carbohydrate was below, recommended levels of intake at all time points. Intakes of vitamins and minerals all declined with age and subjects had suboptimal intakes of folate, vitamin E and calcium at all time points. The serve sizes for potato and meat and the consumption of milk, bread and variety of vegetables declined significantly over time reflecting changes in nutrient intake. Ageing is associated with reduced food intake resulting in inadequate intakes in energy, and some nutrients. Nutrition policy for elderly women should include advice to maintain or increase intakes of carbohydrate, milk, vegetables and fruit whilst continuing to reduce fat intake.

  6. Intake of energy and nutrients; harmonization of Food Composition Databases.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Victoria, Emilio; Martinez de Victoria, Ignacio; Martinez-Burgos, M Alba

    2015-02-26

    Food composition databases (FCDBs) provide detailed information about the nutritional composition of foods. The conversion of food consumption into nutrient intake need a Food composition database (FCDB) which lists the mean nutritional values for a given food portion. The limitations of FCDBs are sometimes little known by the users. Multicentre studies have raised several methodology challenges which allow to standardize nutritional assessments in different populations and geographical areas for food composition and nutrient intake. Differences between FCDBs include those attributed to technical matters, such as description of foods, calculation of energy and definition of nutrients, analytical methods, and principles for recipe calculation. Such differences need to be identified and eliminated before comparing data from different studies, especially when dietary data is related to a health outcome. There are ongoing efforts since 1984 to standardize FCDBs over the world (INFOODS, EPIC, EuroFIR, etc.). Food composition data can be gathered from different sources like private company analysis, universities, government laboratories and food industry. They can also be borrowed from scientific literature or even from the food labelling. There are different proposals to evaluate the quality of food composition data. For the development of a FCDB it is fundamental document in the most detailed way, each of the data values of the different components and nutrients of a food. The objective of AECOSAN (Agencia Española de Consumo Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrición) and BEDCA (Base de Datos Española de Composición de Alimentos) association was the development and support of a reference FCDB in Spain according to the standards to be defined in Europe. BEDCA is currently the only FCDB developed in Spain with compiled and documented data following EuroFIR standards. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2015. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Nutrient intake and blood iron status of male collegiate soccer players.

    PubMed

    Noda, Yuka; Iide, Kazuhide; Masuda, Reika; Kishida, Reina; Nagata, Atsumi; Hirakawa, Fumiko; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Imamura, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: 1) to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise athletes about nutrition practices that might enhance performance, and 2) to evaluate the dietary iron intake and blood iron status of Japanese collegiate soccer players. The subjects were 31 soccer players and 15 controls. Dietary information was obtained with a food frequency questionnaire. The mean carbohydrate (6.9 g.kg-1 BW) and protein (1.3 g/kg) intakes of the soccer players were marginal in comparisons with recommended targets. The mean intakes of calcium, magnesium, vitamin A, B1, B2, and C were lower than the respective Japanese recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate dietary intakes in the soccer players. The mean intakes of green and other vegetables, milk and dairy products, fruits, and eggs were lower than the recommended targets. Thus, we recommended athletes to increase the intake of these foodstuffs along with slight increase in carbohydrate and lean meat. The mean intake of iron was higher than the respective RDA in the soccer players. A high prevalence of hemolysis (71%) in the soccer players was found. None of the soccer players and controls had anemia. Two soccer players had iron depletion, while none was found in the controls. In those players who had iron deficiency, the training load need to be lowered and/or iron intake may be increased.

  8. Changes in food and nutrient intake of 6- to 17-year-old Germans between the 1980s and 2006.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Anna; Vohmann, Claudia; Richter, Almut; Heseker, Helmut; Mensink, Gert B M

    2009-10-01

    To compare the food consumption and nutrient intakes of German children and adolescents in the 1980s with present dietary habits. Two cross-sectional representative surveys, the German National Food Consumption Study (Nationale Verzehrsstudie, NVS) from 1985-8 and the nutrition module 'EsKiMo' of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) from 2006, were analysed for differences in food and nutrient intakes stratified by age and sex groups. Secondary analyses of data from representative observational studies. Children and adolescents aged 6-17 years living in Germany in the 1980s (n 2265) and in 2006 (n 2506). Food consumption was characterised by higher amounts of vegetables/pulses, fruits/nuts and beverages and less meat products/sausages, butter, fats/oils, potatoes/potato products and bread/pastries in 2006 than in 1985-8. The overall changes in food intake were reflected in improvements of macronutrient composition, increased water intake and lower energy density of the diet. Intake of most vitamins and minerals increased in relation to energy intake, but the nutrient density of the diet for vitamins B12 and D decreased. The most critical nutrients observed in NVS and EsKiMo were folate, vitamin D, vitamin A, vitamin E, Ca and Fe. In addition, dietary fibre intake was relatively low and fatty acid and carbohydrate compositions were not favourable. Further efforts will be necessary to improve dietary habits among children and adolescents.

  9. Comparison of food and nutrient intakes between cohorts of the HAPIEE and Whitehall II studies

    PubMed Central

    Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Kubinova, Ruzena; Bobak, Martin; Brunner, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Differences in dietary habits have been suggested as an important reason for the large health gap between Eastern and Western European populations. Few studies have compared individual-level nutritional data directly between the two regions. This study addresses this hypothesis by comparing food, drink and nutrient intakes in four large population samples. Methods: Czech, Polish and Russian participants of the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study, and British participants in the Whitehall II study, altogether 29 972 individuals aged 45–73 years, were surveyed in 2002–2005. Dietary data were collected by customised food frequency questionnaires. Reported food, drink and nutrient intake data were harmonised and compared between cohorts using multivariable adjusted quantile regression models. Results: Median fruit and vegetable intakes were lower in the pooled Eastern European sample, but not in all country cohorts, compared with British subjects. Median daily consumption of fruits were 275, 213, 130 and 256 g in the Czech, Polish, Russian and Whitehall II cohort, respectively. The respective median daily intakes of vegetables were 185, 197, 292 and 246 g. Median intakes of animal fat foods and saturated fat, total fat and cholesterol nutrients were significantly higher in the Czech, Polish and Russian cohorts compared with the British; for example, median daily intakes of saturated fatty acids were 31.3, 32.5, 29.2 and 25.4 g, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there are important differences in dietary habits between and within Eastern and Western European populations which may have contributed to the health gap between the two regions. PMID:26637342

  10. Ethnic differences in the nutrient intake adequacy of premenopausal US women: results from the Third National Health Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Arab, Lenore; Carriquiry, Alicia; Steck-Scott, Susan; Gaudet, Mia M

    2003-08-01

    To examine the adequacy of dietary intake of calcium; folate; and vitamins C, D, E, B-6, and B-12 in premenopausal US women of differing ethnicity. Analyses of single and duplicate 24-hour recalls were conducted to determine dietary intake during the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Three thousand five hundred eighty-five randomly selected women aged 20 to 50 years from across the United States who were not pregnant or lactating were examined between 1988 and 1994. Usual nutrient intake distributions were estimated using the Iowa State University method for adjustment of the distribution. The Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method was used to determine the proportion of women with inadequate intake for each nutrient in each ethnic group. More than 75% of women irrespective of ethnic group had usual intakes of calcium lower than the new Adequate Intake. More than 90% of the women had inadequate intakes of folate and vitamin E from food sources alone. More than half of smokers had inadequate intakes of vitamin C. Intakes of vitamins B-6 and B-12 were low in less than 10% of these women. This article provides evidence that a high proportion of premenopausal US women are underconsuming a variety of nutrients. Dietary intakes alone are not currently adequate to meet the new recommended intakes. Nutritional supplement use is widespread and effective, but does not eliminate the concerns for at-risk populations. Awareness of the general inadequacies in intakes of vitamin E and folic acid at large, and in many women vitamin C as well, can help direct individual dietary recommendations and place the emphasis in group counseling on nutrients that are of widespread concern. In addition, foods rich in vitamins B-6 and of general nutritional benefit should be emphasized among African American women in the United States as a substantial proportion of this group is still showing inadequate intakes from foods.

  11. Nutrient intakes, major food sources and dietary inadequacies of Inuit adults living in three remote communities in Nunavut, Canada.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Hopping, B N; Roache, C; Sheehy, T

    2013-12-01

    Inuit in Nunavut, Canada, are currently undergoing a nutritional transition that may contribute to an increased prevalence of chronic disease. Information is lacking about the extent to which contemporary Inuit diets are meeting current dietary recommendations. A culturally appropriate quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) developed and validated for Inuit in Nunavut, Canada, was used to assess food and nutrient intake in a cross-sectional sample of adults. Participants included 175 women and 36 men with mean (SD) ages of 42.4 (13.2) and 42.1 (15.0) years, respectively. The response rate for those who completed the study was 79% with 208 QFFQs included for analysis. Reported mean daily energy intakes were: men 15,171 kJ (3626 kcal); women 11,593 kJ (2771 kcal). Dietary inadequacy was expressed as the percentage of participants reporting intakes below the sex- and age-specific estimated average requirements (EARs). For nutrients without EARs, adequate intakes were used. Energy and sodium intakes exceeded the recommendations. Less than 10% of participants met recommendations for dietary fibre intake. Vitamin E intakes were below EARs for ≥97% of participants, whereas >20% reported inadequate vitamin A, folate and magnesium intakes. Among women, >50% reported inadequate calcium and vitamin D intakes. Non-nutrient-dense foods contributed 30% of energy, 73% of sugars and 22% of fat. Traditional foods contributed 56% of protein and 49% of iron. The present study demonstrates a relatively high prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes among Inuit. The results may be used to monitor the nutrition transition among Inuit, evaluate nutritional interventions, and inform public health policy decision-making. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  12. Evaluation of dietary intake data using the tolerable upper intake levels.

    PubMed

    Carriquiry, Alicia L; Camaño-Garcia, Gabriel

    2006-02-01

    We discuss the problem of assessing nutrient intake relative to the tolerable upper intake levels (UL) for the nutrient proposed by the Institute of Medicine and focus on 2 important topics: the estimation of usual nutrient intake distributions and the extent to which intakes above the UL can be considered risky. With the information that is currently available for most nutrients, it is not possible to estimate the proportion of individuals in a group with intakes that place them at risk. This is because the shape of the dose-response curve needed to carry out a risk assessment is unknown for most nutrients. Thus, intakes above UL cannot be declared to be unsafe. Intakes below the UL, however, are likely to pose no risk to individuals in the group. Because determining the proportion of individuals with intakes below the UL requires estimation of an upper-tail percentile of the intake distribution, the use of 1-d intake data or otherwise unadjusted intake data are likely to lead to severely biased estimates. It is important to remove within-individual variance in intakes from daily intakes so that the tails of the usual intake distribution are accurately estimated. Underreporting of the amount of nutrients consumed will tend to shift the estimated usual nutrient intake distribution downwards. In this case, the true proportion of individuals with intakes below the UL is likely to be overestimated.

  13. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Cifelli, Christopher J; Houchins, Jenny A; Demmer, Elieke; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2016-07-11

    Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387) were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i) plant-based foods; (ii) protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy); and (iii) milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i) and (ii) had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2-18 years) and adults (≥19 years), the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that increasing plant

  14. Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R

    2015-12-02

    This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals) among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2-18 years old (n = 10,298) of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level) least square means (p < 0.05/3 race/ethnic groups). All children, regardless of race or ethnicity consumed processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children.

  15. Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals) among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2–18 years old (n = 10,298) of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level) least square means (p < 0.05/3 race/ethnic groups). All children, regardless of race or ethnicity consumed processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children. PMID:26633491

  16. Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Relation to Energy and Nutrient Intake at Full-Service Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    An, Ruopeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Drinking plain water, such as tap or bottled water, provides hydration and satiety without adding calories. We examined plain water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in relation to energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants. Methods: Data came from the 2005–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, comprising a nationally-representative sample of 2900 adults who reported full-service restaurant consumption in 24-h dietary recalls. Linear regressions were performed to examine the differences in daily energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants by plain water and SSB consumption status, adjusting for individual characteristics and sampling design. Results: Over 18% of U.S. adults had full-service restaurant consumption on any given day. Among full-service restaurant consumers, 16.7% consumed SSBs, 2.6% consumed plain water but no SSBs, and the remaining 80.7% consumed neither beverage at the restaurant. Compared to onsite SSB consumption, plain water but no SSB consumption was associated with reduced daily total energy intake at full-service restaurants by 443.4 kcal, added sugar intake by 58.2 g, saturated fat intake by 4.4 g, and sodium intake by 616.8 mg, respectively. Conclusion: Replacing SSBs with plain water consumption could be an effective strategy to balance energy/nutrient intake and prevent overconsumption at full-service restaurant setting. PMID:27153083

  17. Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Relation to Energy and Nutrient Intake at Full-Service Restaurants.

    PubMed

    An, Ruopeng

    2016-05-04

    Drinking plain water, such as tap or bottled water, provides hydration and satiety without adding calories. We examined plain water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in relation to energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants. Data came from the 2005-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, comprising a nationally-representative sample of 2900 adults who reported full-service restaurant consumption in 24-h dietary recalls. Linear regressions were performed to examine the differences in daily energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants by plain water and SSB consumption status, adjusting for individual characteristics and sampling design. Over 18% of U.S. adults had full-service restaurant consumption on any given day. Among full-service restaurant consumers, 16.7% consumed SSBs, 2.6% consumed plain water but no SSBs, and the remaining 80.7% consumed neither beverage at the restaurant. Compared to onsite SSB consumption, plain water but no SSB consumption was associated with reduced daily total energy intake at full-service restaurants by 443.4 kcal, added sugar intake by 58.2 g, saturated fat intake by 4.4 g, and sodium intake by 616.8 mg, respectively. Replacing SSBs with plain water consumption could be an effective strategy to balance energy/nutrient intake and prevent overconsumption at full-service restaurant setting.

  18. Intakes and adequacy of potentially important nutrients for cognitive development among 5-year-old children in the Seychelles Child Development and Nutrition Study.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Alison J; Mulhern, Maria S; McSorley, Emeir M; Wallace, Julie M W; Bonham, Maxine P; Faure, Jude; Romain, Sarah; Esther, Christina; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Watson, Gene E; Myers, Gary J; Clarkson, Thomas W; Davidson, Philip W; Strain, J J

    2012-09-01

    To assess the nutritional adequacy of Seychellois children in relation to nutrients reported to be important for cognitive development. Dietary intakes were assessed by 4 d weighed food diaries and analysed using dietary analysis software (WISP version 3·0; Tinuviel Software, UK). Individual nutrient intakes were adjusted to usual intakes and, in order to investigate adequacy, were compared with the UK Estimated Average Requirements for children aged 4-6 years. Children 5 years old were followed up as part of the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS), located in the high-fish-consuming population of Mahé, Republic of Seychelles. Analysis was carried out on a sample of 229 children (118 boys, 111 girls). Children consumed a diet of which fortified cereal and milk products contributed the most to nutrient intakes. The majority (≥80 %) of children met requirements for several nutrients important for child development including Fe, folate and Se. Adjusted dietary intakes of Cu, Zn, iodine, niacin and vitamin A were below the Estimated Average Requirement or Recommended Nutrient Intake. Mean adjusted energy intakes (boys 4769 kJ/d (1139·84 kcal/d), girls 4759 kJ/d (1137·43 kcal/d)) were lower than the estimated energy requirement (boys 5104 kJ/d (1220 kcal/d), girls 5042 kJ/d (1205 kcal/d)) for 88 % of boys and 86 % of girls. Nutrition was adequate for most children within the SCDNS cohort. Low intakes of some nutrients (including Zn, niacin and vitamin A) could reflect nutritional database inaccuracies, but may require further investigation. The study provides valuable information on the adequacy of intakes of nutrients which could affect the growth and development of Seychellois children.

  19. Intakes and adequacy of potentially important nutrients for cognitive development among 5-year-old children in the Seychelles Child Development and Nutrition Study

    PubMed Central

    McAfee, Alison J; Mulhern, Maria S; McSorley, Emeir M; Wallace, Julie MW; Bonham, Maxine P; Faure, Jude; Romain, Sarah; Esther, Christina; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Watson, Gene E; Myers, Gary J; Clarkson, Thomas W; Davidson, Philip W; Strain, JJ

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the nutritional adequacy of Seychellois children in relation to nutrients reported to be important for cognitive development. Design Dietary intakes were assessed by 4 d weighed food diaries and analysed using dietary analysis software (WISP version 3·0; Tinuviel Software, UK). Individual nutrient intakes were adjusted to usual intakes and, in order to investigate adequacy, were compared with the UK Estimated Average Requirements for children aged 4–6 years. Setting Children 5 years old were followed up as part of the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS), located in the high-fish-consuming population of Mahé, Republic of Seychelles. Subjects Analysis was carried out on a sample of 229 children (118 boys, 111 girls). Results Children consumed a diet of which fortified cereal and milk products contributed the most to nutrient intakes. The majority (≥80 %) of children met requirements for several nutrients important for child development including Fe, folate and Se. Adjusted dietary intakes of Cu, Zn, iodine, niacin and vitamin A were below the Estimated Average Requirement or Recommended Nutrient Intake. Mean adjusted energy intakes (boys 4769 kJ/d (1139·84 kcal/d), girls 4759 kJ/d (1137·43 kcal/d)) were lower than the estimated energy requirement (boys 5104 kJ/d (1220 kcal/d), girls 5042 kJ/d (1205 kcal/d)) for 88% of boys and 86% of girls. Conclusions Nutrition was adequate for most children within the SCDNS cohort. Low intakes of some nutrients (including Zn, niacin and vitamin A) could reflect nutritional database inaccuracies, but may require further investigation. The study provides valuable information on the adequacy of intakes of nutrients which could affect the growth and development of Seychellois children. PMID:22321870

  20. Validation of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess food groups and nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Ojeda, Gabriela; Vizmanos-Lamotte, Barbara; Márquez-Sandoval, Yolanda Fabiola; Rodríguez-Rocha, Norma Patricia; López-Uriarte, Patricia Josefina; Fernández-Ballart, Joan D

    2013-11-01

    Semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) analyze average food and nutrient intake over extended periods to associate habitual dietary intake with health problems and chronic diseases. A tool of this nature applicable to both women and men is not presently available in Mexico. To validate a FFQ for adult men and women. The study was conducted on 97 participants, 61% were women. Two FFQs were administered (with a one-year interval) to measure reproducibility. To assess validity, the second FFQ was compared against dietary record (DR) covering nine days. Statistical analyses included Pearson correlations and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC). The de-attenuation of the ICC resulting from intraindividual variability was controlled. The validity analysis was complemented by comparing the classification ability of FFQ to that of DR through concordance between intake categories and Bland-Altman plots. Reproducibility: ICC values for food groups ranged 0.42-0.87; the range for energy and nutrients was between 0.34 and 0.82. ICC values for food groups ranged 0.35-0.84; the range for energy and nutrients was between 0.36 and 0.77. Most subjects (56.7-76.3%) classified in the same or adjacent quintile for energy and nutrients using both methods. Extreme misclassification was <6.3% for all items. Bland-Altman plots reveal high concordance between FFQ and DR. FFQ produced sufficient levels of reproducibility and validity to determine average daily intake over one year. These results will enable the analysis of possible associations with chronic diseases and dietary diagnoses in adult populations of men and women. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Gender differences in food and nutrient intakes and status indices from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 years and over.

    PubMed

    Bates, C J; Prentice, A; Finch, S

    1999-09-01

    To determine the patterns and possible explanations for gender differences in food choices, nutrient intakes and status indices, especially for micronutrients, in a representative sample of older people living in Britain, who participated in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 y and over during 1994-95. The Survey procedures included a health-and-lifestyle interview, a four-day weighed diet record, anthropometric measurements and a fasting blood sample for biochemical indices. Eighty randomly-selected postcode sectors from mainland Britain. Of 1556 older people not living in institutions who were interviewed, 80% agreed to provide a complete four-day diet record and 63% agreed to give a blood sample for status index measurements. None. The most highly significant gender differences in food choices were that women ate more butter, full-fat milk and certain beverages, cakes, apples, pears and bananas, whereas men ate more eggs, sugar, certain meat products and drank more alcoholic drinks, especially beer and lager. When adjusted for energy intakes, the younger women (65-79 y) had higher intakes than the younger men, of fat, retinol, vitamin C and calcium. The older women (80+ y) had higher intakes than older men, of fat and vitamin E, but lower intakes of protein, zinc and beta-carotene. The younger women had better status indices than the younger men: for alpha- and beta-carotenes, beta-cryptoxanthin and vitamin C. Women had higher plasma concentrations of cholesterol and HDL cholesterol, phosphate and copper, but lower indices of iron and vitamin D status, than men. These gender differences in status were not altered by inclusion of the corresponding nutrient intakes in the model. There are gender differences in food choices, in energy and nutrient intakes and in nutritional blood status indices in older British people, especially those aged 65-79 y. Some of the status differences are attenuated in the age group of 80 y and older, whereas

  2. Energy and macronutrient intake and dietary pattern among school children in Bahrain: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is increasing in Bahrain and there is lack of information on the energy and macronutrient intake of children. The objective of this research was to study the energy and macronutrient intake as well as food frequency pattern of Bahraini school children. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted on Bahraini school boys and girls aged 6-18 years from all the 11 populated regions of the country. Data on food intake consisted of a 24-hour dietary recall and was obtained by interviewing a sub-sample of the study population. Information was also obtained through a self-administered questionnaire for the entire sample on the weekly frequency of food items that were grouped into 7 categories based on similarity of nutrient profiles. Dietary analysis was performed using the Nutritionist 5 (First Data Bank Version 1.6 1998). Results While the average energy intake of students was close to the Estimated Average Requirements of the UK Reference standards, protein intake substantially exceeded the Reference Nutrient Intake values as did daily sugar consumption. Dietary fiber fell short of the Dietary Recommended Values (UK) and 36%-50% students exceeded the Energy % limits for total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. The Polyunsaturated: Saturated fat ratio remained at an unacceptable level of 0.6 for girls and boys. While sweets, snacks and regular soda drinks were popular, milk, fruits and vegetables were not commonly consumed. Conclusions High sugar consumption, low intake of dietary fiber and high energy % of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol by many Bahraini children, is likely to increase their risk of obesity and cardiovascular diseases in later life. Nutrition education programs in schools should emphasize the importance of healthy balanced diets for growth and health maintenance of children as well as dietary prevention of diseases. PMID:21645325

  3. Coronary heart disease prevention: Nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns

    PubMed Central

    Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N.; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2018-01-01

    Diet is a key modifiable risk factor in the prevention and risk reduction of coronary heart disease (CHD). Results from the Seven Countries Study in the early 1970s spurred an interest in the role of single nutrients such as total fat in CHD risk. With accumulating evidence, we have moved away from a focus on total fat to the importance of considering the quality of fat. Recent meta-analyses of intervention studies confirm the beneficial effects of replacing saturated fat with polyunsaturated fatty acids on CHD risk. Scientific evidence for a detrimental role of trans fat intake from industrial sources on CHD risk has led to important policy changes including listing trans fatty acid content on the “Nutrition Facts” panel and banning the use of trans fatty acids in food service establishments in some cities. The effects of such policy changes on changes in CHD incidence are yet to be evaluated. There has been a surging interest in the protective effects of vitamin D in primary prevention. Yet, its associations with secondary events have been mixed and intervention studies are needed to clarify its role in CHD prevention. Epidemiological and clinical trial evidence surrounding the benefit of B vitamins and antioxidants such as carotenoids, vitamin E, and vitamin C, have been contradictory. While pharmacological supplementation of these vitamins in populations with existing CHD has been ineffective and, in some cases, even detrimental, data repeatedly show that consumption of a healthy dietary pattern has considerable cardioprotective effects for primary prevention. Results from these studies and the general ineffectiveness of nutrient-based interventions have shifted interest to the role of foods in CHD risk reduction. The strongest and most consistent protective associations are seen with fruit and vegetables, fish, and whole grains. Epidemiological and clinical trial data also show risk reduction with moderate alcohol consumption. In the past decade, there has

  4. Breakfast skipping and breakfast type are associated with daily nutrient intakes and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Seokhwa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Emerging evidence shows that eating breakfast and breakfast types may be associated with health outcomes and dietary intakes in various populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between breakfast types in Korean adults with their daily nutrient intakes and health outcomes. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 11,801 20- to 64-year-old adults (age 42.9 ± 11.8 yrs [mean ± standard error of the mean]; male 41.1%, female 58.9%) in 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey data were divided into 5 groups based on breakfast types in a 24-hr dietary recall: rice with 3 or more side dishes (Rice3+, 35.3%), rice with 0-2 side dishes (Rice0-2, 34.73%), noodles (1.56%), bread and cereal (6.56%), and breakfast skipping (21.63%). Daily nutrient intakes and the risk of metabolic syndrome were compared among five groups. RESULTS Compared with Korean Recommended Nutrient Intake levels, the breakfast-skipping group showed the lowest intake level in most nutrients, whereas the Rice3+ group showed the highest. Fat intake was higher in the bread and noodle groups than in the other groups. When compared with the Rice3+ group, the odds ratios for the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome were increased in the breakfast skipping, Rice0-2, and noodle groups after controlling for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS The rice-based breakfast group showed better nutritional status and health outcomes when eating with 3 or more side dishes. Nutrition education is needed to emphasize both the potential advantage of the rice-based, traditional Korean diet in terms of nutritional content and the importance of food diversity. PMID:26060541

  5. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California…

  6. Food choice, plate waste and nutrient intake of elementary- and middle-school students participating in the US National School Lunch Program.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephanie L; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie

    2014-06-01

    To (i) evaluate food choices and consumption patterns of elementary- and middle-school students who participate in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and (ii) compare students' average nutrient intake from lunch with NSLP standards. Plate waste from elementary- and middle-school students' lunch trays was measured in autumn 2010 using a previously validated digital photography method. Percentage waste was estimated to the nearest 10 % for the entrée, canned fruit, fresh fruit, vegetable, grain and milk. Univariate ANOVA determined differences in percentage waste between schools, grades and genders. Daily nutrient intake was calculated using the district's menu analysis and percentage waste. Elementary and middle schools in northern Colorado (USA). Students, grades 1-8. Plate waste was estimated from 899 lunch trays; 535 elementary- and 364 middle-school students. Only 45 % of elementary- and 34 % middle-school students selected a vegetable. Elementary-school students wasted more than a third of grain, fruit and vegetable menu items. Middle-school students left nearly 50 % of fresh fruit, 37 % of canned fruit and nearly a third of vegetables unconsumed. Less than half of the students met the national meal standards for vitamins A and C, or Fe. Few students' lunch consumption met previous or new, strengthened NSLP lunch standards. Due to the relatively low intake of vegetables, intakes of vitamins A and C were of particular concern. Effective behavioural interventions, combined with marketing, communications and behavioural economics, will likely be necessary to encourage increased vegetable intake to meet the new meal standards.

  7. Geographic and socioeconomic diversity of food and nutrient intakes: a comparison of four European countries.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Elly; Kuijsten, Anneleen; Dofková, Marcela; Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Turrini, Aida; Dubuisson, Carine; Favret, Sandra; Havard, Sabrina; Trolle, Ellen; Van't Veer, Pieter; Geleijnse, Johanna M

    2018-03-28

    Public health policies and actions increasingly acknowledge the climate burden of food consumption. The aim of this study is to describe dietary intakes across four European countries, as baseline for further research towards healthier and environmentally-friendlier diets for Europe. Individual-level dietary intake data in adults were obtained from nationally-representative surveys from Denmark and France using a 7-day diet record, Italy using a 3-day diet record, and Czech Republic using two replicates of a 24-h recall. Energy-standardised food and nutrient intakes were calculated for each subject from the mean of two randomly selected days. There was clear geographical variability, with a between-country range for mean fruit intake from 118 to 199 g/day, for vegetables from 95 to 239 g/day, for fish from 12 to 45 g/day, for dairy from 129 to 302 g/day, for sweet beverages from 48 to 224 ml/day, and for alcohol from 8 to 15 g/day, with higher intakes in Italy for fruit, vegetables and fish, and in Denmark for dairy, sweet beverages and alcohol. In all countries, intakes were low for legumes (< 20 g/day), and nuts and seeds (< 5 g/day), but high for red and processed meat (> 80 g/day). Within countries, food intakes also varied by socio-economic factors such as age, gender, and educational level, but less pronounced by anthropometric factors such as overweight status. For nutrients, intakes were low for dietary fibre (15.8-19.4 g/day) and vitamin D (2.4-3.0 µg/day) in all countries, for potassium (2288-2938 mg/day) and magnesium (268-285 mg/day) except in Denmark, for vitamin E in Denmark (6.7 mg/day), and for folate in Czech Republic (212 µg/day). There is considerable variation in food and nutrient intakes across Europe, not only between, but also within countries. Individual-level dietary data provide insight into the heterogeneity of dietary habits beyond per capita food supply data, and this is crucial to balancing healthy and

  8. Little evidence for intralocus sexual conflict over the optimal intake of nutrients for life span and reproduction in the black field cricket Teleogryllus commodus

    PubMed Central

    Rapkin, James; Archer, C. Ruth; Grant, Charles E.; Jensen, Kim; House, Clarissa M.; Wilson, Alastair J.; Hunt, John

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There is often large divergence in the effects of key nutrients on life span (LS) and reproduction in the sexes, yet nutrient intake is regulated in the same way in males and females given dietary choice. This suggests that the sexes are constrained from feeding to their sex‐specific nutritional optima for these traits. Here, we examine the potential for intralocus sexual conflict (IASC) over optimal protein and carbohydrate intake for LS and reproduction to constrain the evolution of sex‐specific nutrient regulation in the field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. We show clear sex differences in the effects of protein and carbohydrate intake on LS and reproduction and strong positive genetic correlations between the sexes for the regulated intake of these nutrients. However, the between‐sex additive genetic covariance matrix had very little effect on the predicted evolutionary response of nutrient regulation in the sexes. Thus, IASC appears unlikely to act as an evolutionary constraint on sex‐specific nutrient regulation in T. commodus. This finding is supported by clear sexual dimorphism in the regulated intake of these nutrients under dietary choice. However, nutrient regulation did not coincide with the nutritional optima for LS or reproduction in either sex, suggesting that IASC is not completely resolved in T. commodus. PMID:28640400

  9. Nutritional status of pre-pregnant and pregnant women residing in Bogor district, Indonesia: a cross-sectional dietary and nutrient intake study.

    PubMed

    Madanijah, Siti; Briawan, Dodik; Rimbawan, Rimbawan; Zulaikhah, Zulaikhah; Andarwulan, Nuri; Nuraida, Lilis; Sundjaya, Tonny; Murti, Laksmi; Shah, Priyali; Bindels, Jacques

    2016-07-01

    The diet of Indonesian women of childbearing age is relatively poor, posing increased risk for suboptimal pregnancy outcome. In a cross-sectional study including 403 women in three economic quintiles (Q), we investigated differences in dietary intake and nutrition sufficiency according to economic status and whether regular dietary intakes of pregnant women (PW, n 203) differ from that of pre-pregnant women (PPW, n 200). Dietary intake data were collected using 2×24 h dietary recall and FFQ. Energy, protein, Fe, Ca, Zn, vitamin A and vitamin C intakes were calculated utilising Food Composition Tables and compared with Indonesian recommendations for adequacy. Energy and protein intakes <70 % and Fe, Ca, Zn, vitamin A and vitamin C intakes <77 % of the local recommendation were considered insufficient. A higher intake of milk/dairy products (Q3, Q4), fruits and vegetables (Q2) and snacks (Q3) in PW was observed compared with PPW, but insufficient to meet nutrient requirements. Nutrient intake calculations showed insufficiency in 26 % of PPW for protein and up to 70 % for Fe. Deficient nutrient intakes in PW were found in 49 % of the subjects for energy and up to 85 % for Fe. Energy and protein intakes decreased with decreasing economic quintiles in PPW and PW. Ca and vitamin A intakes were lower in Q2 compared with Q4. The proportion of animal protein in Q2-PW was low (31 %). Biochemical status parameters in a subset showed that anaemia and Fe and Zn deficiencies were prevalent among PPW and PW. Habitual diets in the study area did not meet the nutrient requirements for both PPW and PW across the investigated economic groups.

  10. Impact of protected mealtimes on ward mealtime environment, patient experience and nutrient intake in hospitalised patients.

    PubMed

    Hickson, M; Connolly, A; Whelan, K

    2011-08-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem in hospitalised inpatients, resulting in a range of negative clinical, patient-centred and economic sequelae. Protected mealtimes (PM) aim to enhance the quality of the mealtime experience and maximise nutrient intake in hospitalised patients. The present study aimed to measure mealtime environment, patient experience and nutrient intake before and after the implementation of PM.   PM were implemented in a large teaching hospital through a range of different approaches. Direct observations were used to assess ward-level mealtime environment (e.g. dining room use, removal of distractions) (40 versus 34 wards) and individual patient experience (e.g. assistance with eating, visitors present) (253 versus 237 patients), and nutrient intake was assessed with a weighed food intake at lunch (39 versus 60 patients) at baseline and after the implementation of PM, respectively. Mealtime experience showed improvements in three objectives: more patients were monitored using food/fluid charts (32% versus 43%, P = 0.02), more were offered the opportunity to wash hands (30% versus 40%, P = 0.03) and more were served meals at uncluttered tables (54% versus 64%, P = 0.04). There was no difference in the number of patients experiencing mealtime interruptions (32% versus 25%, P = 0.14). There was no difference in energy intake (1088 versus 837 kJ, P = 0.25) and a decrease in protein intake (14.0 versus 7.5 g, P = 0.04) after PM. Only minor improvements in mealtime experience were made after the implementation of PM and so it is not unexpected that macronutrient intake did not improve. The implementation of PM needs to be evaluated to ensure improvements in mealtime experience are made such that measurable improvements in nutritional and clinical outcomes ensue. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  11. Challenges in sodium intake reduction and meal consumption patterns among participants with metabolic syndrome in a dietary trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinsong; Olendzki, Barbara C; Wedick, Nicole M; Persuitte, Gioia M; Culver, Annie L; Li, Wenjun; Merriam, Philip A; Carmody, James; Fang, Hua; Zhang, Zhiying; Olendzki, Gin-Fei; Zheng, Liang; Ma, Yunsheng

    2013-12-18

    Dietary guidelines suggest limiting daily sodium intake to <2,300 mg for the general population, and <1,500 mg/d for those with certain cardiovascular risk factors. Despite these recommendations, few Americans are able to achieve this goal. Identifying challenges in meeting these guidelines is integral for successful compliance. This analysis examined patterns and amount of daily sodium intake among participants with metabolic syndrome enrolled in a one-year dietary intervention study. Two hundred forty participants with metabolic syndrome enrolled in a dietary intervention trial to lose weight and improve dietary quality. Three 24-hour dietary recalls were collected at each visit which provided meal patterns and nutrient data, including sodium intake. A secondary data analysis was conducted to examine sodium consumption patterns at baseline and at one-year study visits. Sodium consumption patterns over time were examined using linear mixed models. The percentage of meals reported eaten in the home at both baseline and one-year follow-up was approximately 69%. Follow-up for the one-year dietary intervention revealed that the participants who consumed sodium greater than 2,300 mg/d declined from 75% (at baseline) to 59%, and those that consumed higher than 1,500 mg/d declined from 96% (at baseline) to 85%. Average sodium intake decreased from 2,994 mg at baseline to 2,558 mg at one-year (P < 0.001), and the sodium potassium ratio also decreased from 1.211 to 1.047 (P < 0.001). Sodium intake per meal varied significantly by meal type, location, and weekday, with higher intake at dinner, in restaurants, and on weekends. At-home lunch and dinner sodium intake decreased (P < 0.05), while dinner sodium intake at restaurant/fast food chains increased from baseline to one-year (P < 0.05). Sodium intake for the majority of participants exceeded the recommended dietary guidelines. Findings support actions that encourage low-sodium food preparation at

  12. Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption and daily energy and nutrient intakes in US adults.

    PubMed

    An, R

    2016-01-01

    Calorie intake and diet quality are influenced by the source of food and the place of consumption. This study examines the impacts of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on daily energy and nutrient intakes in US adults. Nationally representative data of 18,098 adults 18 years of age and above from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2010 waves were analyzed. Outcomes included daily intake of total calories and 24 nutrients of public health concern. The key predictors were any food/beverage consumption in a day from fast-food or full-service restaurant, differentiated by consumption at home versus away from home. First-difference estimator addressed confounding bias from time-invariant unobservables such as personal food/beverage preferences by using within-individual variations in diet and restaurant consumption status between two nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption, respectively, were associated with a net increase in daily total energy intake of 190.29 and 186.74 kcal, total fat of 10.61 and 9.58 g, saturated fat of 3.49 and 2.46 g, cholesterol of 10.34 and 57.90 mg, and sodium of 297.47 and 411.92 mg. The impact of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on energy and nutrient intakes differed by sex, race/ethnicity, education, income and weight status. Increased total energy, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium intake were substantially larger when full-service restaurant food was consumed away from home than at home. A holistic policy intervention is warranted to target the American's overall dining-out behavior rather than fast-food consumption alone.

  13. Association of nutrient-dense snack combinations with calories and vegetable intake.

    PubMed

    Wansink, Brian; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Brumberg, Adam

    2013-01-01

    With other factors such as general diet and insufficient exercise, eating non-nutrient dense snack foods such as potato chips contributes to childhood obesity. We examined whether children consumed fewer calories when offered high-nutrient dense snacks consisting of cheese and vegetables than children who were offered non-nutrient dense snacks (ie, potato chips). Two hundred one children (115 girls) entering the third to sixth grades were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 snacking conditions: (1) potato chips only, (2) cheese-only, (3) vegetables only, and (4) cheese and vegetables. Children were allowed to eat snacks freely provided while watching 45-minute TV programs. Satiety was measured before they started eating snacks, in the middle of the study, and 20 minutes after they finished eating the snacks. Parents completed a questionnaire regarding their family environment. Children consumed 72% fewer calories when eating a combined snack compared with when they were served potato chips, P < .001. Children who ate the combination snack needed significantly fewer calories to achieve satiety than those who ate potato chips, P < .001. The effects of the snack conditions on caloric intake were more pronounced among overweight or obese children (P = .02) and those from low-involvement families (P = .049) The combination snack of vegetables and cheese can be an effective means for children to reduce caloric intake while snacking. The effect was more pronounced among children who were overweight or obese and children from low-involvement families.

  14. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Cifelli, Christopher J.; Houchins, Jenny A.; Demmer, Elieke; Fulgoni, Victor L.

    2016-01-01

    Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387) were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i) plant-based foods; (ii) protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy); and (iii) milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i) and (ii) had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2–18 years) and adults (≥19 years), the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that increasing plant

  15. Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of CVRF in adults participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake and cluster analysis was used to identify the snacking patterns. Height and weight were obtained and the health indices that were evaluated included diastolic and systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerides, blood glucose, and insulin. Results The sample was participants (n = 18,988) 19+ years (50% males; 11% African-Americans; 72% white, 12% Hispanic-Americans, and 5% other). Cluster analyses generated 12 distinct snacking patterns, explaining 61% of the variance in snacking. Comparisons of snacking patterns were made to the no snack pattern. It was found that miscellaneous snacks constituted the most common snacking pattern (17%) followed by cakes/cookies/pastries (12%) and sweets (9%). Most snacking patterns were associated with higher energy intakes. Snacking patterns cakes/cookies/pastries, vegetables/legumes, crackers/salty snacks, other grains and whole fruit were associated with lower intakes of saturated fatty acids. Added sugars intakes were higher in the cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, milk desserts, and soft drinks patterns. Five snack patterns (cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, vegetable/legumes, milk desserts, soft drinks) were associated with lower sodium intakes. Several snack patterns were associated with higher intakes of potassium, calcium, fiber, vitamin A, and magnesium. Five snacking patterns (miscellaneous snacks; vegetables/legumes; crackers/salty snacks; other grains; and whole fruit) were associated with better diet quality scores. Alcohol was associated with

  16. Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Theresa A; O'Neil, Carol E; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2014-04-23

    The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of CVRF in adults participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake and cluster analysis was used to identify the snacking patterns. Height and weight were obtained and the health indices that were evaluated included diastolic and systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerides, blood glucose, and insulin. The sample was participants (n = 18,988) 19+ years (50% males; 11% African-Americans; 72% white, 12% Hispanic-Americans, and 5% other). Cluster analyses generated 12 distinct snacking patterns, explaining 61% of the variance in snacking. Comparisons of snacking patterns were made to the no snack pattern. It was found that miscellaneous snacks constituted the most common snacking pattern (17%) followed by cakes/cookies/pastries (12%) and sweets (9%). Most snacking patterns were associated with higher energy intakes. Snacking patterns cakes/cookies/pastries, vegetables/legumes, crackers/salty snacks, other grains and whole fruit were associated with lower intakes of saturated fatty acids. Added sugars intakes were higher in the cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, milk desserts, and soft drinks patterns. Five snack patterns (cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, vegetable/legumes, milk desserts, soft drinks) were associated with lower sodium intakes. Several snack patterns were associated with higher intakes of potassium, calcium, fiber, vitamin A, and magnesium. Five snacking patterns (miscellaneous snacks; vegetables/legumes; crackers/salty snacks; other grains; and whole fruit) were associated with better diet quality scores. Alcohol was associated with a lower body mass index and

  17. Energy and nutrient intake and acceptability of nutritionally balanced school meals in Filipino students.

    PubMed

    Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda; Neufingerl, Nicole; Magsadia, Clarita; Hiemstra, Harry; Patalen, Chona; Eilander, Ans

    2014-09-01

    School meals provide an excellent opportunity to improve children's diet. To investigate dietary intakes and acceptance of nutritionally balanced school meals ("nutrimeals") as compared with regular ("baseline") school meals among Filipino students. The study employed a before-after intervention design with one group. Students 13 to 16 years of age from a public school in Metro Manila (n = 112) consumed baseline school meals for 2 weeks followed by consumption of nutri-meals for 7 weeks. Served meals and plate waste were weighed to calculate food and nutrient intakes. Acceptability of meals was assessed daily in a random subsample using a seven-point hedonic scale. Analysis of covariance corrected for age and sex was conducted to test for differences in nutrient intakes and acceptability between nutri-meals and baseline meals. Feeding nutri-meals resulted in a higher intake of vegetables (95.3 ± 13.8 g), fruit (76.5 ± 6.3 g), and fish (19.1 ± 3.3 g) than baseline meals. Energy and protein intakes significantly increased by 140.7 ± 2.8 kcal and 3.2 ± 0.1 g, respectively. The quality of fat intake improved compared with baseline meals (p < .001). Micronutrient intake from nutri-meals was significantly higher than that from baseline meals (except for zinc), contributing 6% to 79% of recommended daily intakes. Most students (> 90%) liked both baseline and nutrimeals; however, the mean acceptability score for baseline meals was slightly higher (0.2 ± 0.07 points, p = .004). Nutritionally balanced nutri-meals may be a healthier and acceptable alternative to regular Filipino school meals. Further optimization of nutri-meals is required to meet the nutritional needs of adolescents and reduce sodium content.

  18. Taste perception, associated hormonal modulation, and nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Loper, Hillary B; La Sala, Michael; Dotson, Cedrick; Steinle, Nanette

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that taste perception influences food intake. After ingestion, gustatory receptors relay sensory signals to the brain, which segregates, evaluates, and distinguishes the stimuli, leading to the experience known as "flavor." It is well accepted that five taste qualities – sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and umami – can be perceived by animals. In this review, the anatomy and physiology of human taste buds, the hormonal modulation of taste function, the importance of genetic chemosensory variation, and the influence of gustatory functioning on macronutrient selection and eating behavior are discussed. Individual genotypic variation results in specific phenotypes of food preference and nutrient intake. Understanding the role of taste in food selection and ingestive behavior is important for expanding our understanding of the factors involved in body weight maintenance and the risk of chronic diseases including obesity, atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, liver disease, and hypertension. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Fetal Neurobehavioral Development and the Role of Maternal Nutrient Intake and Psychological Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spann, Marisa; Smerling, Jennifer; Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Foss, Sophie; Monk, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Measuring and understanding fetal neurodevelopment provides insight regarding the developing brain. Maternal nutrient intake and psychological stress during pregnancy each impact fetal neurodevelopment and influence childhood outcomes and are thus important factors to consider when studying fetal neurobehavioral development. The authors provide an…

  20. Dietary intake of energy, nutrients and water in elderly people living at home or in nursing home.

    PubMed

    Engelheart, S; Akner, G

    2015-03-01

    There is a lack of detailed information on dietary intake in elderly people at an individual level, which is crucial for improvement of nutritional support. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary intake in elderly people in two types of living situations. Observational study, analysing prospective data. The dietary intake was studied in elderly people living at home or in nursing home, in different cities of Sweden. A total of 264 elderly people (mean age 84) participated in the observational study. Dietary intake was measured using weighed food records and food diaries, comparing females and males. The observed dietary intake was related to Recommended intake and Lower intake level. All dietary intake and patient characteristic variables showed large individual differences (ranges). We found no significant differences (p>0.05) between those living at home and nursing home residents regarding the average intake of energy, protein and water when expressed as total intake per kg of body weight. A very low daily intake of energy (<20 kcal/kg body weight/day) was observed in 16% of the participants. For vitamin D and iron, 19% and 15%, respectively, had intakes below the Lower intake level. There was no correlation between intake of energy, protein or water and resident characteristics such as age, autonomy, morbidity, nutritional state or cognition. The large individual differences (ranges) in energy, nutrients and water show that the use of mean values when analysing dietary intake data from elderly people is misleading. From a clinical perspective it is more important to consider the individual intake of energy, nutrients and water. Ageism is intrinsic in the realm of 'averageology'.

  1. Nutrient intake and hormonal status of premenopausal vegetarian Seventh-day Adventists and premenopausal nonvegetarians.

    PubMed

    Shultz, T D; Leklem, J E

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between dietary nutrients and plasma estrone, estradiol-17 beta, estriol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and prolactin levels was investigated in 14 premenopausal Seventh-day Adventist vegetarian (SV) women and 9 premenopausal non-Seventh-day Adventist nonvegetarian (NV) women. The SV subjects consumed less fat, especially saturated fat, and used significantly less fried food than the NV subjects. Plasma levels of estrone and estradiol-17 beta in the SV subjects were significantly lower than in the NV subjects. SV estradiol-17 beta and estriol levels were positively correlated with linoleic acid and protein intake, while NV prolactin levels were significantly correlated with intakes of oleic and linoleic acids and total fat. The data suggest that specific dietary nutrients were related to the hormonal milieu of these SV and NV subjects.

  2. Little evidence for intralocus sexual conflict over the optimal intake of nutrients for life span and reproduction in the black field cricket Teleogryllus commodus.

    PubMed

    Rapkin, James; Archer, C Ruth; Grant, Charles E; Jensen, Kim; House, Clarissa M; Wilson, Alastair J; Hunt, John

    2017-09-01

    There is often large divergence in the effects of key nutrients on life span (LS) and reproduction in the sexes, yet nutrient intake is regulated in the same way in males and females given dietary choice. This suggests that the sexes are constrained from feeding to their sex-specific nutritional optima for these traits. Here, we examine the potential for intralocus sexual conflict (IASC) over optimal protein and carbohydrate intake for LS and reproduction to constrain the evolution of sex-specific nutrient regulation in the field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. We show clear sex differences in the effects of protein and carbohydrate intake on LS and reproduction and strong positive genetic correlations between the sexes for the regulated intake of these nutrients. However, the between-sex additive genetic covariance matrix had very little effect on the predicted evolutionary response of nutrient regulation in the sexes. Thus, IASC appears unlikely to act as an evolutionary constraint on sex-specific nutrient regulation in T. commodus. This finding is supported by clear sexual dimorphism in the regulated intake of these nutrients under dietary choice. However, nutrient regulation did not coincide with the nutritional optima for LS or reproduction in either sex, suggesting that IASC is not completely resolved in T. commodus. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Ultra-processed Food Intake and Obesity: What Really Matters for Health-Processing or Nutrient Content?

    PubMed

    Poti, Jennifer M; Braga, Bianca; Qin, Bo

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this narrative review was to summarize and critique recent evidence evaluating the association between ultra-processed food intake and obesity. Four of five studies found that higher purchases or consumption of ultra-processed food was associated with overweight/obesity. Additional studies reported relationships between ultra-processed food intake and higher fasting glucose, metabolic syndrome, increases in total and LDL cholesterol, and risk of hypertension. It remains unclear whether associations can be attributed to processing itself or the nutrient content of ultra-processed foods. Only three of nine studies used a prospective design, and the potential for residual confounding was high. Recent research provides fairly consistent support for the association of ultra-processed food intake with obesity and related cardiometabolic outcomes. There is a clear need for further studies, particularly those using longitudinal designs and with sufficient control for confounding, to potentially confirm these findings in different populations and to determine whether ultra-processed food consumption is associated with obesity independent of nutrient content.

  4. Nutrient Intakes of Men and Women Collegiate Athletes with Disordered Eating

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Pamela S.; Beck, Niels C.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the macro- and micronutrient intakes of men and women collegiate athletes with disordered eating behaviors and to compare the nutrient intakes of athletes with restrictive- versus binge-eating behaviors. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I University athletes (n = 232) were administered an anonymous, written questionnaire to compare nutrient intakes, desired weight change, and weight control behaviors in athletes with restrictive- (R) and binge- (B) eating behaviors to those in asymptomatic (A) athletes. T-tests, χ2 statistic, and ANOVA were used to test for differences among disordered eating groups within genders (p < 0.05). Data are means ± standard error of the mean. Among men athletes, those with disordered eating consumed a smaller percentage of energy from carbohydrate compared to controls (R = 49.7 ± 1.5; B = 48.7 ± 2.3; A = 53.4 ± 0.7%). Among female athletes, those with disordered eating wanted to lose a greater percentage of their current body weight than did asymptomatic athletes (B = -6.1 ± 1.4; R = -6.7 ± 1.1; A = -3.7 ± 0.4%). Women who were classified with binge eating consumed significantly more alcohol than did controls (B = 6.8 ± 1.3; A = 3.9 ± 0.4 g alcohol per day). Athletes with disordered eating were more likely to report restricting their intake of carbohydrate and fat and using supplements to control their weight than asymptomatic athletes. Disordered eating was not associated with greater frequencies of inadequate micronutrient intake in either gender. Athletes with disordered eating may be at significantly greater risk for nutritional inadequacies than athletes who are asymptomatic due to macronutrient restriction and greater alcohol consumption. Key Points Athletes with disordered eating were more likely to report restricting their intake of carbohydrate and fat and using supplements to control their weight than asymptomatic athletes Among female athletes, those

  5. Dietary patterns of rural older adults are associated with weight and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Ledikwe, Jenny H; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Mitchell, Diane C; Miller, Carla K; Jensen, Gordon L

    2004-04-01

    To characterize dietary patterns of rural older adults and relate patterns to weight and nutritional status. Cross-sectional. Rural Pennsylvania. One hundred seventy-nine community-dwelling adults aged 66 to 87 years. A home visit was conducted to collect demographic, health behavior, and anthropometric data and a blood sample. Five 24-hour dietary recall were administered. Cluster analysis classified participants into dietary patterns using food subgroup servings. Chi-square, analysis of covariance, and logistic regression were used to assess differences across clusters. A low-nutrient-dense cluster (n=107), with higher intake of breads, sweet breads/desserts, dairy desserts, processed meats, eggs, and fats/oils, and a high-nutrient-dense cluster (n=72) with higher intake of cereals, dark green/yellow vegetables, other vegetables, citrus/melons/berries, fruit juices, other fruits, milks, poultry, fish, and beans, were identified. Those in the high-nutrient-dense cluster had lower energy intake; higher energy-adjusted intake of fiber, iron, zinc, folate, and vitamins B(6), B(12), and D; higher Healthy Eating Index scores; higher plasma vitamin B(12) levels; and a lower waist circumference. Those with a low-nutrient-dense dietary pattern were twice as likely to be obese, twice as likely to have low plasma vitamin B(12) levels, and three to 17 times more likely to have low nutrient intake. This study provides support for recommending a high-nutrient-dense dietary pattern for older adults. Behavioral interventions encouraging diets characterized by high-nutrient-dense foods may improve weight and nutritional status of older adults.

  6. [Regional differences in mortality and food and nutrient intake and their associations among secondary healthcare service areas in Hokkaido].

    PubMed

    Kishi, Tomoko; Okada, Emiko; Sato, Atsuko; Ishikawa, Masako; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Nakamura, Koshi; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2018-01-01

    Objective Hokkaido is a geographically vast area comprising a variety of natural environments and major industries. Therefore, we presume that there are large differences in lifestyles and lifestyle-related disease mortality in community people based on region. The aim of this study was to investigate the regional differences in mortality and food and nutrient intake, and their associations among secondary healthcare service areas in Hokkaido.Methods This study's design was ecological. We collected mortality data using public health statistics from the year 2005 to 2009 of the Hokkaido prefecture. We calculated the average of the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) over those five years. Data on food and nutrient intake were obtained from the Hokkaido Health and Nutrition Survey in 2006 conducted in the Hokkaido prefecture. The association between mortality and nutritional status was examined using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient.Results The mortality rates were higher in the southern and eastern areas of Hokkaido and in the lower internal area in the northern area of Hokkaido and the Tokachi area. There were regional differences of 400-500 kcal of energy, 20-30 g of protein, 4-5 g of salt, 60 g of green and yellow vegetables, and 100 g of other vegetables among 21 secondary healthcare service areas in Hokkaido. In women alone, we observed a positive association between cancer mortality and fat intake from dairy products. By contrast, we observed an inverse, significant association between cancer mortality and rice intake, and cardiovascular mortality and soybean and soybean product intake, only in women.Conclusion We present regional differences in mortality and food and nutrient intake among secondary healthcare areas in Hokkaido. We also reveal a significant association between mortality and food and nutrient intake only in women. Further research is needed to examine whether socioeconomic, environmental, or other lifestyle factors are

  7. Increased energy density of the home-delivered lunch meal improves 24-hour nutrient intakes in older adults.

    PubMed

    Silver, Heidi J; Dietrich, Mary S; Castellanos, Victoria H

    2008-12-01

    As food intake declines with aging, older adults develop energy and nutrient inadequacies. It is important to design practical approaches to combat insufficient dietary intakes to decrease risk for acute and chronic diseases, illness, and injury. Manipulating the energy density of meals has improved energy intakes in institutional settings, but the effects on community-residing older adults who are at nutrition risk have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine whether enhancing the energy density of food items regularly served in a home-delivered meals program would increase lunch and 24-hour energy and nutrient intakes. In a randomized crossover counterbalanced design, 45 older adult Older American Act Nutrition Program participants received a regular and enhanced version of a lunch meal on alternate weeks. The types of foods, portion sizes (gram weight), and appearance of the lunch meal was held constant. Consumption of the enhanced meal increased average lunch energy intakes by 86% (P<0.001) and 24-hour energy intakes by 453 kcal (from 1,423.1+/-62.2 to 1,876.2+/-78.3 kcal, P<0.001). The 24-hour intakes of several key macronutrients and micronutrients also improved. These data suggest that altering the energy density of regularly served menu items is an effective strategy to improve dietary intakes of free-living older adults.

  8. Caregivers' male gender is associated with poor nutrient intake in AD families (NuAD-trial).

    PubMed

    Puranen, T M; Pietila, S E; Pitkala, K H; Kautiainen, H; Raivio, M; Eloniemi-Sulkava, U; Jyvakorpi, S K; Suominen, M

    2014-07-01

    Alzheimer patients (AD) are known to be at risk for malnutrition and their older spouses may also have nutritional problems. The aim of our study was to clarify the association of caregivers' sex on the nutrient intake of AD couples. Our study uses the baseline data of a randomized nutritional trial exploring the effectiveness of nutrition intervention among home-dwelling AD patients. The central AD register in Finland was used to recruit AD patients living with a spousal caregiver, 99 couples participated in our study. Nutritional status was assessed using the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Nutrient intakes for both AD patients and their spouses were calculated from 3-day food diaries. The mean age of caregivers and AD spouses was 75.2 (SD 7.0) and 77.4 years (SD 5.6), respectively. According to the MNA, 40% of male and 52% of female AD spouses were at risk for malnutrition. Among male caregivers, the mean energy and protein intakes were 1605 kcal (SD 458) and 0.93 g/body kg (SD 0.30), whereas the respective figures for their female AD spouses were 1313 kcal (SD 340) and 0.86 g/body kg (SD 0.32), respectively. Among female caregivers, the mean energy and protein intakes were 1536 kcal (SD 402) and 1.00 g/body kg (SD 0.30), whereas the respective figures for their male AD spouses were 1897 kcal (SD 416) and 1.04 g/body kg (SD 0.30). The interaction between male caregiver sex and lower energy (p<0.001) and lower protein intake (p=0.0048) (adjusted for age and MMSE) was significant. Similar differences between caregiver sexes were observed with the intake of various nutrients. A gender difference exists in the ability to cope with caregiver responsibilities related to nutrition. A need exists for tailored nutritional guidance among older individuals and especially among male caregivers.

  9. Detecting Beer Intake by Unique Metabolite Patterns.

    PubMed

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian; Bech, Lene; Lund, Erik; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-12-02

    Evaluation of the health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1), 18 participants were given, one at a time, four different test beverages: strong, regular, and nonalcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort, and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e., N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum of iso-α-acids and tricyclohumols) and the production process (i.e., pyro-glutamyl proline and 2-ethyl malate), was selected to establish a compliance biomarker model for detection of beer intake based on MSt1. The model predicted the MSt2 samples collected before and up to 12 h after beer intake correctly (AUC = 1). A biomarker model including four metabolites representing both beer raw materials and production steps provided a specific and accurate tool for measurement of beer consumption.

  10. Food and nutrient intakes of French frequent seafood consumers with regard to fish consumption recommendations: results from the CALIPSO study.

    PubMed

    Sirot, Véronique; Dumas, Céline; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Margaritis, Irène

    2011-05-01

    Besides providing n-3 fatty acids with nutritional and health benefits, seafood consumption may contribute to the reduction of nutrient prevalences of inadequacy. To evaluate the contributions of seafood and other food groups to nutrient intakes of frequent seafood consumers, food consumption was evaluated through an FFQ on 991 French men and women (18-81 years) consuming seafood at least twice a week. Intakes, prevalence of inadequacies, risks of upper limit excess and food contributions to intakes were assessed for thirty-three nutrients. Mean fat contributions to total energy intakes (38·3 and 39·0 % for men and women, respectively) met French recommendations, but mean carbohydrate intakes (40·9 and 39·7 %, respectively) were insufficient. Micronutrient inadequacies were lower than in the French general population, the highest being for vitamin C (41·3 and 40·1 % for men and women, respectively), vitamin E (35·0 and 35·3 % for men and women, respectively) and Mg (37·5 and 25·5 % for men and women, respectively). Upper safety limits (USL) were exceeded mostly for Zn (6·2 %), Ca (3·7 %), retinol (2·0 %) and Cu (0·9 %). Mean contributions of seafood to vitamin D, B12, I and Se intakes ranged 40-65 %. Molluscs and crustaceans significantly contributed to vitamin B12 (13·7 %), Cu (11·4 %), Fe (11·5 %), Zn (8·4 %) and I (6·1 %) intakes, and canned fish contributed to vitamin D intake (13·4 %). Besides fish, contributions of mollusc and crustacean consumption to nutrient intakes should be considered from a public health viewpoint. Consuming seafood at least twice a week induces moderate inadequacies and risks of exceeding USL for some micronutrients, whereas macronutrient intakes remained imbalanced.

  11. Impact of Breakfast Skipping and Breakfast Choice on the Nutrient Intake and Body Mass Index of Australian Children

    PubMed Central

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Kim, Jean; Sritharan, Nilani; Petocz, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Recent data on breakfast consumption among Australian children are limited. This study examined the impact of breakfast skipping and breakfast type (cereal or non-cereal) on nutrient intakes, likelihood of meeting nutrient targets and anthropometric measures. A secondary analysis of two 24-h recall data from the 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey was conducted (2–16 years; n = 4487) to identify (a) breakfast skippers and (b) breakfast consumers, with breakfast consumers further sub-divided into (i) non-cereal and (ii) cereal consumers. Only 4% skipped breakfast and 59% of skippers were 14–16 years. Breakfast consumers had significantly higher intakes of calcium and folate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat than breakfast skippers. Cereal consumers were more likely to meet targets and consume significantly higher fibre, calcium, iron, had significantly higher intakes of folate, total sugars and carbohydrate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat and sodium than non-cereal consumers. The prevalence of overweight was lower among breakfast consumers compared to skippers, and among cereal consumers compared to-cereal consumers (p < 0.001), while no significant differences were observed for mean body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score, waist circumference and physical activity level across the categories. Breakfast and particularly breakfast cereal consumption contributes important nutrients to children’s diets. PMID:27517957

  12. Trends in food consumption and nutrient intake in Germany between 2006 and 2012: results of the German National Nutrition Monitoring (NEMONIT).

    PubMed

    Gose, Maria; Krems, Carolin; Heuer, Thorsten; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2016-04-01

    The German National Nutrition Monitoring (NEMONIT) is a longitudinal and nationwide study to assess changes in food consumption and nutrient intake in Germany. A sample of 1840 participants (baseline age: 14-80 years) was drawn from the nationally representative German National Nutrition Survey (NVS) II (2005-2007). The participants have been interviewed by telephone annually since 2008. Food consumption was assessed by two 24-h recalls in the NVS II and the 4 years of NEMONIT (2008-2012/2013), respectively. Energy and nutrient intakes were calculated using the German Nutrient Database 3.02. Diet quality was evaluated using the Healthy Eating Index-NVS (HEI-NVS) II. Time trends were analysed by generalised estimating equation. Consumption of fruit/fruit products and fruit juice/nectar among men and women decreased, whereas consumption of water, soft drinks and coffee/tea increased over the 6-year period. Furthermore, increased consumption of confectionery and animal fats was observed among women. HEI-NVS II did not change since NVS II in both sexes. There were no changes in energy and protein intakes, but carbohydrate intake declined while fat intake increased over time. Regarding micronutrients, a decreasing intake of thiamin, riboflavin and vitamin B6 was observed in both sexes, but intake of Mg, Fe and niacin increased among women over time. In conclusion, food consumption and nutrient intake remained relatively stable between 2005-2007 and 2012/2013 within this German cohort. A few favourable and unfavourable changes were observed. Compared with national dietary guidelines, consumption of food of plant origin remained too low and consumption of meat/meat products remained too high in Germany.

  13. The Nutritional Geometry of Resource Scarcity: Effects of Lean Seasons and Habitat Disturbance on Nutrient Intakes and Balancing in Wild Sifakas

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Mitchell T.; Raharison, Jean-Luc; Raubenheimer, David R.; Chapman, Colin A.; Rothman, Jessica M.

    2015-01-01

    Animals experience spatial and temporal variation in food and nutrient supply, which may cause deviations from optimal nutrient intakes in both absolute amounts (meeting nutrient requirements) and proportions (nutrient balancing). Recent research has used the geometric framework for nutrition to obtain an improved understanding of how animals respond to these nutritional constraints, among them free-ranging primates including spider monkeys and gorillas. We used this framework to examine macronutrient intakes and nutrient balancing in sifakas (Propithecus diadema) at Tsinjoarivo, Madagascar, in order to quantify how these vary across seasons and across habitats with varying degrees of anthropogenic disturbance. Groups in intact habitat experience lean season decreases in frugivory, amounts of food ingested, and nutrient intakes, yet preserve remarkably constant proportions of dietary macronutrients, with the proportional contribution of protein to the diet being highly consistent. Sifakas in disturbed habitat resemble intact forest groups in the relative contribution of dietary macronutrients, but experience less seasonality: all groups’ diets converge in the lean season, but disturbed forest groups largely fail to experience abundant season improvements in food intake or nutritional outcomes. These results suggest that: (1) lemurs experience seasonality by maintaining nutrient balance at the expense of calories ingested, which contrasts with earlier studies of spider monkeys and gorillas, (2) abundant season foods should be the target of habitat management, even though mortality might be concentrated in the lean season, and (3) primates’ within-group competitive landscapes, which contribute to variation in social organization, may vary in complex ways across habitats and seasons. PMID:26061401

  14. Tolerance for Nutrient Imbalance in an Intermittently Feeding Herbivorous Cricket, the Wellington Tree Weta

    PubMed Central

    Wehi, Priscilla M.; Raubenheimer, David; Morgan-Richards, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Organisms that regulate nutrient intake have an advantage over those that do not, given that the nutrient composition of any one resource rarely matches optimal nutrient requirements. We used nutritional geometry to model protein and carbohydrate intake and identify an intake target for a sexually dimorphic species, the Wellington tree weta (Hemideina crassidens). Despite pronounced sexual dimorphism in this large generalist herbivorous insect, intake targets did not differ by sex. In a series of laboratory experiments, we then investigated whether tree weta demonstrate compensatory responses for enforced periods of imbalanced nutrient intake. Weta pre-fed high or low carbohydrate: protein diets showed large variation in compensatory nutrient intake over short (<48 h) time periods when provided with a choice. Individuals did not strongly defend nutrient targets, although there was some evidence for weak regulation. Many weta tended to select high and low protein foods in a ratio similar to their previously identified nutrient optimum. These results suggest that weta have a wide tolerance to nutritional imbalance, and that the time scale of weta nutrient balancing could lie outside of the short time span tested here. A wide tolerance to imbalance is consistent with the intermittent feeding displayed in the wild by weta and may be important in understanding weta foraging patterns in New Zealand forests. PMID:24358369

  15. Relationship between snacking patterns, diet quality and risk of overweight and abdominal obesity in children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Snacking is very common among Americans; the impact of variety of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and weight status is unclear. This study examined the associations of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and weight in U.S. children 2-18 years participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and ...

  16. Challenges in sodium intake reduction and meal consumption patterns among participants with metabolic syndrome in a dietary trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary guidelines suggest limiting daily sodium intake to <2,300 mg for the general population, and <1,500 mg/d for those with certain cardiovascular risk factors. Despite these recommendations, few Americans are able to achieve this goal. Identifying challenges in meeting these guidelines is integral for successful compliance. This analysis examined patterns and amount of daily sodium intake among participants with metabolic syndrome enrolled in a one-year dietary intervention study. Methods Two hundred forty participants with metabolic syndrome enrolled in a dietary intervention trial to lose weight and improve dietary quality. Three 24-hour dietary recalls were collected at each visit which provided meal patterns and nutrient data, including sodium intake. A secondary data analysis was conducted to examine sodium consumption patterns at baseline and at one-year study visits. Sodium consumption patterns over time were examined using linear mixed models. Results The percentage of meals reported eaten in the home at both baseline and one-year follow-up was approximately 69%. Follow-up for the one-year dietary intervention revealed that the participants who consumed sodium greater than 2,300 mg/d declined from 75% (at baseline) to 59%, and those that consumed higher than 1,500 mg/d declined from 96% (at baseline) to 85%. Average sodium intake decreased from 2,994 mg at baseline to 2,558 mg at one-year (P < 0.001), and the sodium potassium ratio also decreased from 1.211 to 1.047 (P < 0.001). Sodium intake per meal varied significantly by meal type, location, and weekday, with higher intake at dinner, in restaurants, and on weekends. At-home lunch and dinner sodium intake decreased (P < 0.05), while dinner sodium intake at restaurant/fast food chains increased from baseline to one-year (P < 0.05). Conclusion Sodium intake for the majority of participants exceeded the recommended dietary guidelines. Findings support actions that

  17. Assessing Child Nutrient Intakes Using a Tablet-Based 24-Hour Recall Tool in Rural Zambia.

    PubMed

    Caswell, Bess L; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Dyer, Brian; Siamusantu, Ward; Klemm, Rolf D W; Palmer, Amanda C

    2015-12-01

    Detailed dietary intake data in low-income populations are needed for research and program evaluation. However, collection of such data by paper-based 24-hour recall imposes substantial demands for staff time and expertise, training, materials, and data entry. To describe our development and use of a tablet-based 24-hour recall tool for conducting dietary intake surveys in remote settings. We designed a 24-hour recall tool using Open Data Kit software on an Android tablet platform. The tool contains a list of local foods, questions on portion size, cooking method, ingredients, and food source and prompts to guide interviewers. We used this tool to interview caregivers on dietary intakes of children participating in an efficacy trial of provitamin A-biofortified maize conducted in Mkushi, a rural district in central Zambia. Participants were children aged 4 to 8 years not yet enrolled in school (n = 938). Dietary intake data were converted to nutrient intakes using local food composition and recipe tables. We developed a tablet-based 24-hour recall tool and used it to collect dietary data among 928 children. The majority of foods consumed were maize, leafy vegetable, or small fish dishes. Median daily energy intake was 6416 kJ (1469 kcal). Food and nutrient intakes assessed using the tablet-based tool were consistent with those reported in prior research. The tool was easily used by interviewers without prior nutrition training or computing experience. Challenges remain to improve programming, but the tool is an innovation that enables efficient collection of 24-hour recall data in remote settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Nutrient intake of working women in Bangkok, Thailand, as studied by total food duplicate method.

    PubMed

    Matsuda-Inoguchi, N; Shimbo, S; Zhang, Z W; Srianujata, S; Banjong, O; Chitchumroonchokchai, C; Watanabe, T; Nakatsuka, H; Higashikawa, K; Ikeda, M

    2000-03-01

    To establish a general view of food habits in Thailand, and to make a quantitative assessment of rice dependency of Thai people. Cross-sectional study. Community. 52 non-smoking and non-habitually drinking adult women in Bangkok participated in the study. The participants offered 24 h food duplicates and peripheral blood samples, and underwent clinical examination including anthropometry. The duplicates were subjected to nutritional evaluation taking advantage of the Thai food composition tables (FCTs), and analyzed for eight nutrient elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The participants took 1630 kcal from 55 g protein (63% from animal sources), 57 g lipid (mostly from vegetable oil), and 224 g carbohydrate (60% from rice) daily. Nutrient intake at lunch was as large as that at dinner. About a half of the women had insufficient energy intake (ie <80% RDA) whereas 4% had an excess (>120%). Protein intake was sufficient in most cases, whereas lipid intake was in excess in more than a half of the women. Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn and possibly P intakes were below the RDA values in many participants. FCT-based estimates agreed well with the ICP-MS measures in cases of Fe and Ca but tended to be greater than the measures by 50% with regard to P. Lunch as substantial as dinner for Thai urbanites. There was a marked dependency on rice as an energy source. Whereas protein intake is generally sufficient, the intake of Ca (and to a lesser extent Fe) was insufficient in a majority of the study participants. Dai-ichi Mutual Life Insurance, Japan; the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the government of Japan.

  19. What do prisoners eat? Nutrient intakes and food practices in a high-secure prison.

    PubMed

    Hannan-Jones, Mary; Capra, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    There are limited studies on the adequacy of prisoner diet and food practices, yet understanding these are important to inform food provision and assure duty of care for this group. The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intakes of prisoners to inform food and nutrition policy in this setting. This research used a cross-sectional design with convenience sampling in a 945-bed male high-secure prison. Multiple methods were used to assess food available at the group level, including verification of food portion, quality and practices. A pictorial tool supported the diet history method. Of 276 eligible prisoners, 120 dietary interviews were conducted and verified against prison records, with 106 deemed plausible. The results showed the planned food to be nutritionally adequate, with the exception of vitamin D for older males and long-chain fatty acids, with Na above upper limits. The Australian dietary targets for chronic disease risk were not achieved. High energy intakes were reported with median 13·8 (se 0·3) MJ. Probability estimates of inadequate intake varied with age groups: Mg 8 % (>30 years), 2·9 % (70 years), 1·5 % (<70 years); folate 3·5 %; Zn and I 2·7 %; and vitamin A 2·3 %. Nutrient intakes were greatly impacted by self-funded snacks. Results suggest the intakes to be nutritionally favourable when compared with males in the community. This study highlights the complexity of food provision in the prison environment and also poses questions for population-level dietary guidance in delivering appropriate nutrients within energy limits.

  20. Systematic review to support the development of nutrient reference intake values: challenges and solutions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Workshops sponsored by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the World Health Organization (WHO) suggested that incorporating systematic reviews into the process of updating nutrient reference values would enhance the transparency of the process. The IOM issues the Dietary Reference Intake values (DR...

  1. Maternal diet quality and nutrient intake in the gestational period: results from the delta healthy sprouts comparative impact trial.

    PubMed

    Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Thomson, Jessica L; Goodman, Melissa H; Olender, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    A woman's diet while pregnant can play an important role in her reproductive health as well as the health of her unborn child. Diet quality and nutrient intake amongst pregnant women residing in the rural Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of the United States is inadequate. The Delta Healthy Sprouts Project was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of women and their infants residing in the LMD region. This paper reports results pertaining to maternal diet quality and nutrient intake in the gestational period. The experimental arm (PATE) received monthly home visits beginning in the second trimester using the Parents as Teachers curriculum enhanced with a nutrition and lifestyle behavior curriculum. The control arm (PAT) received monthly home visits using the Parents as Teachers curriculum only. Maternal diet was assessed via 24-h dietary recall at gestational months (GM) 4 (baseline), 6, and 8. Diet quality was computed using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010). Gestational period retention rates for PAT and PATE arms were 77 % (33/43) and 67 % (26/39), respectively. Significant effects were not found for time, treatment, or time by treatment for the HEI-2010 total or component scores, macro- or micronutrient intake or percentage of women meeting recommended nutrient intakes. Perhaps due to low participant enrollment and higher than expected rates of drop out and noncompliance, we were not able to demonstrate that the enhanced nutrition and lifestyle curriculum (PATE) intervention had a significant effect on diet quality or nutrient intake during pregnancy in this cohort of rural, Southern, primarily African American women. clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01746394. Registered 5 December 2012.

  2. Dietary supplement use and nutrient intake in HIV-infected persons.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Kristy M; Sansavero, Mara; Houser, Robert F; Tang, Alice M; Wanke, Christine A

    2007-04-01

    Dietary supplement use was assessed in 368 HIV-infected patients enrolled in the Nutrition for Healthy Living cohort. The objective was to describe the dietary, demographic, and health characteristics of the HIV-infected persons who use different types of dietary supplements. Each patient was categorized in 1 of 4 dietary supplement groups. Extremes in intake of micronutrients were common. Men and women who consumed no supplements reported inadequate intakes of a number of micronutrients. Men using nonvitamin/nonmineral (NVNM) supplements had diets higher in fiber, protein, and 13 of 14 vitamins and minerals. Almost 90% of male NVNM supplement users ingested 1 or more vitamins or minerals in amounts above the tolerable upper limit. Male NVNM supplement users were more likely to be white, well educated, and receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy and more likely to have higher annual incomes, higher CD4 counts, and lower HIV RNA levels. HIV-infected women who were using NVNM supplements exhibited similar trends. Micronutrient inadequacy and excess are relatively common in persons living with HIV infection. Practitioners need to judiciously address optimal nutrient intake from both diet and dietary supplements in this population.

  3. Nutrient Intake Is Insufficient among Senegalese Urban School Children and Adolescents: Results from Two 24 h Recalls in State Primary Schools in Dakar

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentino, Marion; Landais, Edwige; Bastard, Guillaume; Carriquiry, Alicia; Wieringa, Frank T.; Berger, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in children from primary state schools of Dakar (Senegal). The objectives of the present study were to assess the overall diet of these children, to report insufficient/excessive energy and nutrient intakes and to investigate association between insufficient nutrient intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Children attending urban state primary schools in the Dakar area were selected through a two-stage random cluster sampling (30 schools × 20 children). Dietary intake data were obtained from two 24 h recalls and blood samples were collected from 545 children (aged 5–17 years, 45% < 10 years, 53% girls) and adjusted for intra-individual variability to estimate nutrient usual intakes. Energy intake was insufficient and unbalanced with insufficient contribution of protein and excessive contribution of fat to global energy intake in one third of the children. Proportions of children with insufficient intake were: 100% for calcium, 100% for folic acid, 79% for vitamin A, 69% for zinc, 53% for vitamin C and 46% for iron. Insufficient iron and protein intake were risk factors for iron deficiency (odds ratio, OR 1.5, 2.2). Insufficient zinc intake and energy intake from protein were risk factors for zinc deficiency (OR 1.8, 3.0, 1.7, 2.9). Insufficient iron and vitamin C intake, and insufficient energy intake from protein were risk factors for marginal vitamin A status (OR 1.8, 1.8, 3.3). To address nutritional deficiencies associated with a diet deficient in energy, protein and micronutrients, nutrition education or school feeding programs are needed in urban primary schools of Senegal. PMID:27775598

  4. Nutrient Intake Is Insufficient among Senegalese Urban School Children and Adolescents: Results from Two 24 h Recalls in State Primary Schools in Dakar.

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, Marion; Landais, Edwige; Bastard, Guillaume; Carriquiry, Alicia; Wieringa, Frank T; Berger, Jacques

    2016-10-20

    Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in children from primary state schools of Dakar (Senegal). The objectives of the present study were to assess the overall diet of these children, to report insufficient/excessive energy and nutrient intakes and to investigate association between insufficient nutrient intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Children attending urban state primary schools in the Dakar area were selected through a two-stage random cluster sampling (30 schools × 20 children). Dietary intake data were obtained from two 24 h recalls and blood samples were collected from 545 children (aged 5-17 years, 45% < 10 years, 53% girls) and adjusted for intra-individual variability to estimate nutrient usual intakes. Energy intake was insufficient and unbalanced with insufficient contribution of protein and excessive contribution of fat to global energy intake in one third of the children. Proportions of children with insufficient intake were: 100% for calcium, 100% for folic acid, 79% for vitamin A, 69% for zinc, 53% for vitamin C and 46% for iron. Insufficient iron and protein intake were risk factors for iron deficiency (odds ratio, OR 1.5, 2.2). Insufficient zinc intake and energy intake from protein were risk factors for zinc deficiency (OR 1.8, 3.0, 1.7, 2.9). Insufficient iron and vitamin C intake, and insufficient energy intake from protein were risk factors for marginal vitamin A status (OR 1.8, 1.8, 3.3). To address nutritional deficiencies associated with a diet deficient in energy, protein and micronutrients, nutrition education or school feeding programs are needed in urban primary schools of Senegal.

  5. Nutrient and food group intakes of women with and without Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle M; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert; Torgersen, Leila; Knopf-Berg, Cecilie; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known concerning the dietary habits of eating disordered women during pregnancy that may lie in the causal pathway of adverse birth outcomes. Objective To examine the nutrient and food group intake of women with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) during pregnancy and compare their intake to women with no eating disorders. Design Data on 30,040 mother-child pairs are from the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study was used in cross-sectional analyses. Dietary information was collected using a food frequency questionnaire during the first half of pregnancy. Statistical testing by eating disorder categories with the non-eating disorder category as the referent group were conducted using log (means) adjusted for confounding and multiple comparisons. Food group differences were conducted using a Wilcoxon two-sided normal approximation test also adjusting for multiple comparisons. Results Women with BED before and during pregnancy had higher intakes of total energy, total mono-saturated and saturated fat, and lower intakes of folate, potassium, and vitamin C compared to the referent (p<.02). Women with incident BED during pregnancy had higher total energy and saturated fat intake compared to the referent (p=.01). Several differences emerged in food group consumption between women with and without eating disorders including intakes of artificial sweeteners, sweets, juice, fruits and fats. Conclusions Women with BN before and during pregnancy and those with BED before pregnancy exhibit dietary patterns different from women without eating disorders, that are reflective of their symptomatology, and may influence pregnancy outcomes. PMID:18469258

  6. Use of household supermarket sales data to estimate nutrient intakes: a comparison with repeat 24-hour dietary recalls.

    PubMed

    Eyles, Helen; Jiang, Yannan; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2010-01-01

    Electronic supermarket sales data provide a promising, novel way of estimating nutrient intakes. However, little is known about how these data reflect the nutrients consumed by an individual household member. A cross-sectional survey of 49 primary household shoppers (age [mean+/-standard deviation age]=48+/-14 years; 84% female) from Wellington, New Zealand, was undertaken. Three months of baseline electronic supermarket sales data were compared with individual dietary intakes estimated from four random 24-hour dietary recalls collected during the same 3-month period. Spearman rank correlations between household purchases and individual intakes ranged from 0.54 for percentage of energy from saturated fat (P<0.001) to 0.06 for sodium (P=0.68). Other correlation coefficients were: percentage of energy from carbohydrate, 0.48; and protein, 0.44; energy density of nonbeverages, 0.37 (kcal/oz); percentage of energy from total fat, 0.34; sugar, 0.33 (oz/kcal); and energy density of beverages, 0.09 (oz/kcal; all P values <0.05). This research suggests that household electronic supermarket sales data may be a useful surrogate measure of some nutrient intakes of individuals, particularly percentage of energy from saturated and total fat. In the case of a supermarket intervention, an effect on household sales of percentage energy from saturated and total fat is also likely to impact the saturated and total fat intake of individual household members. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nutrient intake and balancing among female Colobus angolensis palliatus inhabiting structurally distinct forest areas: Effects of group, season, and reproductive state.

    PubMed

    Dunham, Noah T; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2018-06-08

    Understanding intraspecific behavioral and dietary variation is critical for assessing primate populations' abilities to persist in habitats characterized by increasing anthropogenic disturbances. While it is evident that some species exhibit considerable dietary flexibility (in terms of species-specific plant parts) in relation to habitat disturbance, it is unclear if primates are characterized by similar variation and flexibility regarding nutrient intake. This study examined the effects of group, season, and reproductive state on nutrient intake and balancing in adult female Colobus angolensis palliatus in the Diani Forest, Kenya. During July 2014 to December 2015, estimates of nutrient intake were recorded for eight females from three groups inhabiting structurally and ecologically distinct forest areas differing in tree species composition and density. There were differences in metabolizable energy (ME) and macronutrient intakes among groups, seasons, and reproductive states. Most notably, females inhabiting one of the more disturbed forest areas consumed less ME and macronutrients compared to females in the more intact forest area. Contrary to prediction, females in early lactation consumed significantly less ME and macronutrients compared to non-lactating and late lactation females. Despite differences in macronutrient intake, the relative contribution of macronutrients to ME were generally more conservative among groups, seasons, and reproductive states. Average daily intake ratios of non-protein energy to available protein ranged from approximately 3.5:1-4.3:1 among groups. These results indicate that female C. a. palliatus demonstrate a consistent nutrient balancing strategy despite significant intergroup differences in consumption of species-specific plant parts. Data from additional colobine species inhabiting different forest types are required to assess the extent to which nutrient balancing is constrained by phylogeny or is more flexible to local

  8. Eating with others and meal location are differentially associated with nutrient intake by sex: The Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE).

    PubMed

    Pachucki, Mark C; Karter, Andrew J; Adler, Nancy E; Moffet, Howard H; Warton, E Margaret; Schillinger, Dean; O'Connell, Bethany Hendrickson; Laraia, Barbara

    2018-08-01

    Though eating with others is often a social behavior, relationships between social contexts of eating and nutrient intake have been underexplored. This study evaluates how social aspects of eating - frequencies of eating meals with others, meals prepared at home, and meals outside the home - are associated with nutrient intake. Because diet improvement can reduce complications of diabetes mellitus, we surveyed a multi-ethnic cohort of persons with type 2 diabetes (n = 770) about social aspects of diet (based on 24-hour recalls). Sex-stratified multiple regression analyses adjusted for confounders assessed the relationship between frequency of eating with others and nutrient intake (total energy, energy from fat, energy from carbohydrates, Healthy Eating Index/HEI, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension/DASH score). Although there was slight variation in men's versus women's propensity to share meals, after adjustment for confounders, there was no consistently significant association between meals with others and the 5 nutrient intake measures for either men or women. The directions of association between categories of eating with others and diet quality (HEI and DASH scores) - albeit not significant - were different for men (positive) and women (mostly negative), which warrants further investigation. The next analyses estimated nutrient intake associated with meals prepared at home, and meals consumed outside the home. Analyses indicated that greater meal frequency at home was associated with significantly better scores on diet quality indices for men (but not women), while meal frequency outside the home was associated with poorer diet quality and energy intake for women (but not men). Better measurement of social dimensions of eating may inform ways to improve nutrition, especially for persons with diabetes for whom diet improvement can result in better disease outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Core food intakes of Australian children aged 9-10 years: nutrients, daily servings and diet quality in a community cross-sectional sample.

    PubMed

    Whitrow, M J; Moran, L; Davies, M J; Collins, C E; Burrows, T L; Edwards, S; Moore, V M

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate core food intakes in 9-10-year-old Australian children by considering adequacy of nutrient intakes, comparing servings of core food groups with Australian recommendations and scoring overall diet quality. Children from an established community-based cohort study completed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Daily intakes of energy, macronutrients, micronutrients, servings of core (i.e. nutrient-rich) foods and a diet quality index were calculated and compared with appropriate standards. Sex and socio-economic differences were examined. The 436 children participating were from low to high socio-economic status families. As a group, over half of the children met estimated average requirements for key macro- and micronutrients, with the exception of fibre (inadequate in 41% of boys and 24% of girls). Children obtained 55% of their daily energy from core foods. Most children had fewer than the recommended servings of vegetables (91%) and meat/alternatives (99.8%), whereas boys generally ate fewer servings of grains and cereals than recommended (87%), and girls ate fewer servings of dairy (83%). Diet quality scores indicated room for improvement (median score of 26 for boys and 25 for girls, out of a maximum of 73 points). As a group, a large proportion of children were able to meet their daily nutrient requirements. However, achieving this through noncore foods meant that diets were high in salt, saturated fat and sugar; more servings of core foods and greater dietary diversity would be preferable. These results suggest that families need more support to optimise dietary patterns of children in this age group. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  10. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    PubMed

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in non-consumers. The PANDiet index was significantly higher in yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p < 0.001). The adequacy sub-score for 17 nutrients for which usual intake should be above the reference value was significantly higher among yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet.

  11. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fankun; Wu, Fengyun; Zou, Shipu; Chen, Ying; Feng, Chang; Fan, Guangqin

    2016-06-08

    Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296) and non-ADHD (n = 296) aged 6-14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006). Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014). Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003). In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children.

  12. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fankun; Wu, Fengyun; Zou, Shipu; Chen, Ying; Feng, Chang; Fan, Guangqin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296) and non-ADHD (n = 296) aged 6–14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006). Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014). Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003). In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children. PMID:27338457

  13. Stoichiometric patterns in foliar nutrient resorption across multiple scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Sasha C.; Townsend, Alan R.; Davidson, Eric A.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2012-01-01

    *Nutrient resorption is a fundamental process through which plants withdraw nutrients from leaves before abscission. Nutrient resorption patterns have the potential to reflect gradients in plant nutrient limitation and to affect a suite of terrestrial ecosystem functions. *Here, we used a stoichiometric approach to assess patterns in foliar resorption at a variety of scales, specifically exploring how N : P resorption ratios relate to presumed variation in N and/or P limitation and possible relationships between N : P resorption ratios and soil nutrient availability. *N : P resorption ratios varied significantly at the global scale, increasing with latitude and decreasing with mean annual temperature and precipitation. In general, tropical sites (absolute latitudes < 23°26′) had N : P resorption ratios of < 1, and plants growing on highly weathered tropical soils maintained the lowest N : P resorption ratios. Resorption ratios also varied with forest age along an Amazonian forest regeneration chronosequence and among species in a diverse Costa Rican rain forest. *These results suggest that variations in N : P resorption stoichiometry offer insight into nutrient cycling and limitation at a variety of spatial scales, complementing other metrics of plant nutrient biogeochemistry. The extent to which the stoichiometric flexibility of resorption will help regulate terrestrial responses to global change merits further investigation.

  14. Calcium Intake and Nutritional Adequacy in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-López, Nuria; Llopis-González, Agustín; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María

    2017-01-01

    Calcium is an important nutrient for child development. The main objective of this study was to assess calcium intake and its adequacy with dietary reference intake (DRI) in Spanish children. The ANIVA (Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia) study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During two academic years 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, 1176 schoolchildren aged 6–9 years were selected from 14 primary schools in Valencia (Spain). Three-day food records were used to assess dietary intake, completed by parents/guardian. Anthropometric data (weight and height) were evaluated in all subjects. Nutritional intake was compared to estimated average requirements (EARs) and adequate intake (AI) values to determine nutritional adequacy. A percentage of 25.77% had inadequate calcium intake, and a significantly higher prevalence was observed in girls (p = 0.006). Adequate calcium intake showed a positive association with the height z-score (p = 0.032). When assessing dietary patterns, schoolchildren with adequate calcium intakes had better nutritional adequacy in all nutrients, except cholesterol (p = 0.086) and fluorine (p = 0.503). These results suggest a public health problem that must be addressed through nutrition education programs to increase intake of calcium-rich food and to correct the associated dietary pattern. PMID:28230804

  15. Calcium Intake and Nutritional Adequacy in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study.

    PubMed

    Rubio-López, Nuria; Llopis-González, Agustín; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María

    2017-02-21

    Calcium is an important nutrient for child development. The main objective of this study was to assess calcium intake and its adequacy with dietary reference intake (DRI) in Spanish children. The ANIVA (Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia) study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During two academic years 2013-2014 and 2014-2015, 1176 schoolchildren aged 6-9 years were selected from 14 primary schools in Valencia (Spain). Three-day food records were used to assess dietary intake, completed by parents/guardian. Anthropometric data (weight and height) were evaluated in all subjects. Nutritional intake was compared to estimated average requirements (EARs) and adequate intake (AI) values to determine nutritional adequacy. A percentage of 25.77% had inadequate calcium intake, and a significantly higher prevalence was observed in girls ( p = 0.006). Adequate calcium intake showed a positive association with the height z -score ( p = 0.032). When assessing dietary patterns, schoolchildren with adequate calcium intakes had better nutritional adequacy in all nutrients, except cholesterol ( p = 0.086) and fluorine ( p = 0.503). These results suggest a public health problem that must be addressed through nutrition education programs to increase intake of calcium-rich food and to correct the associated dietary pattern.

  16. Validity and practicability of smartphone-based photographic food records for estimating energy and nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Kong, Kaimeng; Zhang, Lulu; Huang, Lisu; Tao, Yexuan

    2017-05-01

    Image-assisted dietary assessment methods are frequently used to record individual eating habits. This study tested the validity of a smartphone-based photographic food recording approach by comparing the results obtained with those of a weighed food record. We also assessed the practicality of the method by using it to measure the energy and nutrient intake of college students. The experiment was implemented in two phases, each lasting 2 weeks. In the first phase, a labelled menu and a photograph database were constructed. The energy and nutrient content of 31 randomly selected dishes in three different portion sizes were then estimated by the photograph-based method and compared with a weighed food record. In the second phase, we combined the smartphone-based photographic method with the WeChat smartphone application and applied this to 120 randomly selected participants to record their energy and nutrient intake. The Pearson correlation coefficients for energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate content between the weighed and the photographic food record were 0.997, 0.936, 0.996, and 0.999, respectively. Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement between the two methods. The estimated protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake by participants was in accordance with values in the Chinese Residents' Nutrition and Chronic Disease report (2015). Participants expressed satisfaction with the new approach and the compliance rate was 97.5%. The smartphone-based photographic dietary assessment method combined with the WeChat instant messaging application was effective and practical for use by young people.

  17. Macronutrient, vitamin, and mineral intakes in the EPIC-Germany cohorts.

    PubMed

    Schulze, M B; Linseisen, J; Kroke, A; Boeing, H

    2001-01-01

    This article presents intakes of nutrients in the EPIC-Heidelberg and the EPIC-Potsdam (European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) studies. Estimates are based on standardized 24-hour dietary recalls. Recalls from 1,013 men and 1,078 women in Heidelberg and from 1,032 men and 898 women in Potsdam were included in the analysis. The estimated nutrient intake was based on the German Food Code and Nutrient Data Base version II.3. Analyses were carried out stratified by sex and weighted for the day of the week and age. Men in Potsdam reported significantly higher intakes of energy (mean Potsdam = 10,718 kJ, mean Heidelberg = 10,387 kJ) and higher intakes of vitamins and minerals as compared with men in Heidelberg. However, Heidelberg men consumed more alcohol, alpha-tocopherol, phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium. Potsdam women reported lower energy (mean Potsdam = 7,537 kJ, mean Heidelberg = 7,855 kJ), alcohol, and cholesterol intakes as compared with Heidelberg women. Vitamin and mineral intakes were lower too, except for retinol and ascorbic acid. The intakes of energy and most nutrients observed in the Potsdam and Heidelberg study populations were within the range reported from other German studies. The observed differences between both study populations indicate different dietary patterns, increasing the exposure variation in the EPIC study. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Impact of a nutrition award scheme on the food and nutrient intakes of 2- to 4-year-olds attending long day care.

    PubMed

    Bell, Lucinda K; Hendrie, Gilly A; Hartley, Jo; Golley, Rebecca K

    2015-10-01

    Early childhood settings are promising avenues to intervene to improve children's nutrition. Previous research has shown that a nutrition award scheme, Start Right - Eat Right (SRER), improves long day care centre policies, menus and eating environments. Whether this translates into improvements in children's dietary intake is unknown. The present study aimed to determine whether SRER improves children's food and nutrient intakes. Pre-post cohort study. Twenty long day care centres in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. Children aged 2-4 years (n 236 at baseline, n 232 at follow-up). Dietary intake (morning tea, lunch, afternoon tea) was assessed pre- and post-SRER implementation using the plate wastage method. Centre nutrition policies, menus and environments were evaluated as measures of intervention fidelity. Comparisons between baseline and follow-up were made using t tests. At follow-up, 80 % of centres were fully compliant with the SRER award criteria, indicating high scheme implementation and adoption. Intake increased for all core food groups (range: 0·2-0·4 servings/d, P<0·001) except for vegetable intake. Energy intake increased and improvements in intakes of eleven out of the nineteen nutrients evaluated were observed. SRER is effective in improving children's food and nutrient intakes at a critical time point when dietary habits and preferences are established and can inform future public health nutrition interventions in this setting.

  19. Posting point-of-purchase nutrition information in university canteens does not influence meal choice and nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Hoefkens, Christine; Lachat, Carl; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John; Verbeke, Wim

    2011-08-01

    Growing concern over the relation between out-of-home eating and overweight has triggered the use of point-of-purchase (POP) nutrition information when eating out of the home. In canteens that offer various unhealthy choices, the posting of POP nutrition information has the potential to improve meal choices and dietary intakes. The objective of this study was to increase the proportion of consumed meals that comply with recommendations for energy, saturated fat, sodium, and vegetable content by 5%. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used. A total of 224 customers of 2 university canteens completed a questionnaire used for consumer profiling and 3-d food records to assess their meal choices and nutrient intakes. The 12 best meal combinations received star ratings and descriptors for nutrients or food groups that did not comply. Reported meal choices in canteens and nutrient intakes did not improve after the intervention (P > 0.05). The nutritional profile of the meal choice, obtained from a qualitative and quantitative nutritional assessment of meals, mirrored the nutritional profile of all meals offered (P > 0.05) and not that of the recommended meals offered (P < 0.001). Meal choices were not compensated for later in the day (P > 0.05). The healthiest choices were made by participants with greater objective nutrition knowledge, stronger health and weight-control motives, and a greater openness to change meal choices at baseline (P < 0.05). The posting of nutrition information in university canteens did not effectively change meal choices and nutrient intakes. Despite the intervention, meal choices were largely determined by meals offered. Therefore, nutrition-information interventions in canteens may be more effective with a healthier meal supply. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01249508.

  20. A low pulse food intake may contribute to the poor nutritional status and low dietary intakes of adolescent girls in rural southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Roba, Alemzewed C; Gabriel-Micheal, Kebebush; Zello, Gordon A; Jaffe, Joann; Whiting, Susan J; Henry, Carol J

    2015-01-01

    Poor nutrition in adolescent girls poses critical health risks on future pregnancy and birth outcomes especially in developing countries. Our purpose was to assess nutritional status and dietary intake of rural adolescent girls and determine pulse and food intake patterns associated with poor nutritional status. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in a traditional pulse growing region of southern Ethiopia on 188 girls between 15 to 19 years of age, with 70% being from food insecure families. Prevalence of stunting (30.9%) and underweight (13.3%) were associated with low food and nutrient intake. Diets were cereal-based, with both animal source foods and pulses rarely consumed. Improving dietary intakes of female adolescents with nutrient dense foods would ensure better health for themselves and for the next generation.

  1. Monosodium Glutamate Intake, Dietary Patterns and Asthma in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zumin; Yuan, Baojun; Wittert, Gary A.; Pan, Xiaoqun; Dai, Yue; Adams, Robert; Taylor, Anne W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Emerging evidence shows that diet is related to asthma. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the association between monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake, overall dietary patterns and asthma. Methods Data from 1486 Chinese men and women who participated in the Jiangsu Nutrition Study (JIN) were analyzed. In this study, MSG intake and dietary patterns were quantitatively assessed in 2002. Information on asthma history was collected during followed-up in 2007. Results Of the sample, 1.4% reported ever having asthma. MSG intake was not positively associated with asthma. There was a significant positive association between ‘traditional’ (high loadings on rice, wheat flour, and vegetable) food pattern and asthma. No association between ’macho’ (rich in meat and alcohol), ‘sweet tooth’ (high loadings on cake, milk, and yoghurt) ‘vegetable rich’ (high loadings on whole grain, fruit, and vegetable) food patterns and asthma was found. Smoking and overweight were not associated with asthma in the sample. Conclusion While a ‘Traditional’ food pattern was positively associated with asthma among Chinese adults, there was no significant association between MSG intake and asthma. PMID:23240044

  2. Food and Nutrients Intake in the School Lunch Program among School Children in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhenru; Gao, Runying; Bawuerjiang, Nadila; Zhang, Yali; Huang, Xiaoxu; Cai, Meiqin

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the intake of food and nutrients among primary, middle, and high schools students in Shanghai, and provide recommendations for possible amendments in new school lunch standards of Shanghai. Twenty schools were included in the school lunch menu survey. Of those, seven schools enrolled 5389 students and conducted physical measurement of plate waste and a questionnaire survey. The amount of food and nutrients was compared according to the new China National Dietary Guideline for School Children (2016) and Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (2013). The provision of livestock and poultry meat in menus was almost 5–8 times the recommended amount. The amount of seafood was less than the recommended amount, and mostly came from half-processed food. The average percentage of energy from fat was more than 30% in students of all grades. The greatest amount of food wasted was vegetables with 53%, 42%, and 31%, respectively, among primary, middle and high school students. Intake of Vitamin A, Vitamin B2, calcium, and iron was about 50% of the recommended proportion. Only 24.0% students were satisfied with the taste of school lunches. Higher proportions of livestock and poultry meat and low intake of vegetables have become integral problems in school lunch programs. Additionally, more attention needs to be paid to the serving size in primary schools with five age groups. PMID:28590431

  3. Nutrient Intake and Depression Symptoms in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-López, Nuria; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Pico, Yolanda; Livianos-Aldana, Lorenzo; Llopis-González, Agustín

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between nutritional intake and depressive symptoms in Valencian schoolchildren. The ANIVA (Antropometria y Nutricion Infantil de Valencia) study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During academic year 2013–2014, 710 schoolchildren aged 6–9 years were selected from eleven primary schools in Valencia (Spain). Children’s dietary intake was measured on three-day food records, completed by parents/guardians; children completed the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) Questionnaire to measure depressive symptoms. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI), and z-scores were evaluated in all subjects. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Spanish dietary recommended intakes (DRIs); 20.70% of the sample presented depressive symptoms. We identified a positive association between children with depressive symptoms and non-depressive symptoms for thiamin, vitamin K, and bromine (p < 0.05), and a negative association for protein, carbohydrates, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B12 and E, zinc, manganese, cobalt, and aluminum (p < 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found between both groups according to the DRIs for intakes of total energy (p = 0.026), fiber (p < 0.001), vitamin C (p < 0.001), vitamin E (p = 0.004), magnesium (p = 0.018), and iron (p = 0.013). Our results demonstrated that carbohydrates were the most closely associated factor with depressive symptoms, and highlight the potential significant public health implications of inadequate nutritional intake on schoolchildren’s mental health. PMID:27011198

  4. Nutrient Intake and Depression Symptoms in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study.

    PubMed

    Rubio-López, Nuria; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Pico, Yolanda; Livianos-Aldana, Lorenzo; Llopis-González, Agustín

    2016-03-22

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between nutritional intake and depressive symptoms in Valencian schoolchildren. The ANIVA (Antropometria y Nutricion Infantil de Valencia) study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During academic year 2013-2014, 710 schoolchildren aged 6-9 years were selected from eleven primary schools in Valencia (Spain). Children's dietary intake was measured on three-day food records, completed by parents/guardians; children completed the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) Questionnaire to measure depressive symptoms. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI), and z-scores were evaluated in all subjects. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Spanish dietary recommended intakes (DRIs); 20.70% of the sample presented depressive symptoms. We identified a positive association between children with depressive symptoms and non-depressive symptoms for thiamin, vitamin K, and bromine (p < 0.05), and a negative association for protein, carbohydrates, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B12 and E, zinc, manganese, cobalt, and aluminum (p < 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found between both groups according to the DRIs for intakes of total energy (p = 0.026), fiber (p < 0.001), vitamin C (p < 0.001), vitamin E (p = 0.004), magnesium (p = 0.018), and iron (p = 0.013). Our results demonstrated that carbohydrates were the most closely associated factor with depressive symptoms, and highlight the potential significant public health implications of inadequate nutritional intake on schoolchildren's mental health.

  5. Changes in food intake patterns associated with body weight loss during a 12-week health promotion program and a 9-month follow-up period in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Nakade, Makiko; Lee, Jung Su; Kawakubo, Kiyoshi; Kondo, Kanae; Mori, Katsumi; Akabayashi, Akira

    2009-05-01

    Recently, food intake pattern analysis associated with body weight has been conducted instead of traditional dietary analysis focusing on a single nutrient or food group, but there have been few studies examining the association between change in food intake patterns and body weight loss. In this study, short- and long-term relationships between changes in food intake patterns and body weight loss were examined. Subjects were 506 overweight/obese men and women who participated in a 12-week health promotion program and a follow-up check 9 months later. Diet was assessed with a FFQ and food intake patterns named "Plant foods and seafood" and "Sweets, meats, dairy products and alcohol" were derived by cluster analysis using the intake of 17 food groups at the baseline. During the program, body weight loss of the subjects changed pattern from "Sweets, meats, dairy products and alcohol" to "Plant foods and seafood" (SP group) was significantly larger than that of the subjects who showed an opposite pattern change (PS group) or the subjects who maintained "Sweets, meats, dairy products and alcohol" pattern after adjusting for age, sex, body weight at the baseline, changes in energy intake and exercise habit. Body weight loss of the SP group was also significantly greater than that of the PS group during the follow-up period. Changes in food intake patterns were related to body weight loss and changing the pattern from "Sweets, meats, dairy products and alcohol" to "Plant foods and seafood" was most effective for short- and long-term body weight loss.: © 2009 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of dietary food and nutrient intake and bone density in children with eczema.

    PubMed

    Leung, T F; Wang, S S; Kwok, F Yy; Leung, L Ws; Chow, C M; Hon, K L

    2017-10-01

    Dietary restrictions are common among patients with eczema, and such practice may lead to diminished bone mineral density. This study investigated dietary intake and bone mineral density in Hong Kong Chinese children with eczema. This cross-sectional and observational study was conducted in a university-affiliated teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Chinese children aged below 18 years with physician-diagnosed eczema were recruited from our paediatric allergy and dermatology clinics over a 6-month period in 2012. Subjects with stable asthma and/or allergic rhinitis who were free of eczema and food allergy as well as non-allergic children were recruited from attendants at our out-patient clinics as a reference group. Intake of various foods and nutrients was recorded using a food frequency questionnaire that was analysed using Foodworks Professional software. Bone mineral density at the radius and the tibia was measured by quantitative ultrasound bone sonometry, and urinary cross-linked telopeptides were quantified by immunoassay and corrected for creatinine level. Overall, 114 children with eczema and 60 other children as reference group were recruited. Eczema severity of the patients was classified according to the objective SCORing Atopic Dermatitis score. Males had a higher daily energy intake than females (median, 7570 vs 6736 kJ; P=0.035), but intake of any single food item or nutrient did not differ between them. Compared with the reference group, children with eczema had a higher intake of soybeans and miscellaneous dairy products and lower intake of eggs, beef, and shellfish. Children with eczema also consumed less vitamin D, calcium, and iron. The mean (standard deviation) bone mineral density Z-score of children with eczema and those in the reference group were 0.52 (0.90) and 0.55 (1.12) over the radius (P=0.889), and 0.02 (1.03) and -0.01 (1.13) over the tibia (P=0.886), respectively. Urine telopeptide levels were similar between the groups. Calcium intake

  7. Potential foraging decisions by a desert ungulate to balance water and nutrient intake in a water-stressed environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gedir, Jay V.; Cain, James W.; Krausman, Paul R.; Allen, Jamison D.; Duff, Glenn C.; Morgart, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons) and moisture (autumn and winter) during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains), female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8–55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental water during

  8. Potential Foraging Decisions by a Desert Ungulate to Balance Water and Nutrient Intake in a Water-Stressed Environment.

    PubMed

    Gedir, Jay V; Cain, James W; Krausman, Paul R; Allen, Jamison D; Duff, Glenn C; Morgart, John R

    2016-01-01

    Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons) and moisture (autumn and winter) during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains), female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8-55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental water during

  9. Potential Foraging Decisions by a Desert Ungulate to Balance Water and Nutrient Intake in a Water-Stressed Environment

    PubMed Central

    Gedir, Jay V.; Cain, James W.; Krausman, Paul R.; Allen, Jamison D.; Duff, Glenn C.

    2016-01-01

    Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons) and moisture (autumn and winter) during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains), female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8–55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental water during

  10. Nutrient and food group intakes of women with and without bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle M; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert; Torgersen, Leila; Knopf-Berg, Cecilie; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2008-05-01

    Little is known concerning the dietary habits during pregnancy of women with eating disorders that may lie in the causal pathway of adverse birth outcomes. We examined the nutrient and food group intakes of women with bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder during pregnancy and compared these with intakes of women with no eating disorders. Data on 30,040 mother-child pairs from the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were used in cross-sectional analyses. Dietary information was collected by using a food-frequency questionnaire during the first half of pregnancy. Statistical testing by eating disorder categories with the non-eating-disorder category as the referent group was conducted by using log means adjusted for confounding and multiple comparisons. Food group differences were analyzed by using a Wilcoxon's two-sided normal approximation test that was also adjusted for multiple comparisons. Women with binge-eating disorder before and during pregnancy had higher intakes of total energy, total fat, monounsaturated fat, and saturated fat, and lower intakes of folate, potassium, and vitamin C than the referent (P < 0.02). Women with incident binge-eating disorder during pregnancy had higher intakes of total energy and saturated fat than the referent (P = 0.01). Several differences emerged in food group consumption between women with and without eating disorders, including intakes of artificial sweeteners, sweets, juice, fruit, and fats. Women with bulimia nervosa before and during pregnancy and those with binge-eating disorder before pregnancy exhibit dietary patterns that differ from those in women without eating disorders, that are reflective of their symptomatology, and that may influence pregnancy outcomes.

  11. Comparative validity of the ASSO–Food Frequency Questionnaire for the web-based assessment of food and nutrients intake in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tabacchi, Garden; Filippi, Anna Rita; Breda, João; Censi, Laura; Amodio, Emanuele; Napoli, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino; Jemni, Monèm; Firenze, Alberto; Mammina, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Background A new web-based food frequency questionnaire (the ASSO–FFQ) was developed within the ASSO Project funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. Objective The aim of the present study is to assess the validity of the ASSO–FFQ at food groups, energy, and nutrients level. Design and subjects The validation study compared the ASSO–FFQ against a weighted food record (WFR) measuring foods, beverages and supplements intake, compiled during the week following the ASSO–FFQ administration. Ninety-two subjects aged 14–17, recruited from secondary schools in Palermo (Italy), completed the ASSO–FFQ and WFR. The intake of 24 food groups, energy, and 52 nutrients were taken as main outcomes. Tests for paired observations, Spearman and Pearson’s correlation coefficients (cc), kappa statistics and classification in quintiles, Bland–Altman plots and multiple regressions, on untransformed and transformed data were used for the statistical analysis. Results High cc (≥0.40) were found for soft drinks, milk, tea/coffee, vegetables, and lactose; fair energy-adjusted cc (0.25–0.40) for water, alcoholic drinks, breakfast cereals, fishery products, savory food, fruit juice, eggs, and 19 nutrients. The subjects classified in the same or adjacent quintile for food groups ranged from 40% (alcoholic drinks) to 100% (dried fruit); for energy and nutrients from 43% (phosphorus, thiamin, niacin) to 77% (lactose). Mean differences were not significant for water, soft drinks, meat, sweets, animal fats, milk and white bread, and vitamin B12 and folate. Limits of Agreement were broad for all food groups and nutrients. School, gender, alcohol consumption and between meals mainly affected most food groups’ intake differences. Gender stratification showed females had increased Pearson’s cc for energy and 28 nutrients, such as almost all fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Conclusions The ASSO–FFQ could be applied in epidemiological studies for the assessment of

  12. Comparative validity of the ASSO-Food Frequency Questionnaire for the web-based assessment of food and nutrients intake in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tabacchi, Garden; Filippi, Anna Rita; Breda, João; Censi, Laura; Amodio, Emanuele; Napoli, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino; Jemni, Monèm; Firenze, Alberto; Mammina, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    A new web-based food frequency questionnaire (the ASSO-FFQ) was developed within the ASSO Project funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. The aim of the present study is to assess the validity of the ASSO-FFQ at food groups, energy, and nutrients level. The validation study compared the ASSO-FFQ against a weighted food record (WFR) measuring foods, beverages and supplements intake, compiled during the week following the ASSO-FFQ administration. Ninety-two subjects aged 14-17, recruited from secondary schools in Palermo (Italy), completed the ASSO-FFQ and WFR. The intake of 24 food groups, energy, and 52 nutrients were taken as main outcomes. Tests for paired observations, Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficients (cc), kappa statistics and classification in quintiles, Bland-Altman plots and multiple regressions, on untransformed and transformed data were used for the statistical analysis. High cc (≥0.40) were found for soft drinks, milk, tea/coffee, vegetables, and lactose; fair energy-adjusted cc (0.25-0.40) for water, alcoholic drinks, breakfast cereals, fishery products, savory food, fruit juice, eggs, and 19 nutrients. The subjects classified in the same or adjacent quintile for food groups ranged from 40% (alcoholic drinks) to 100% (dried fruit); for energy and nutrients from 43% (phosphorus, thiamin, niacin) to 77% (lactose). Mean differences were not significant for water, soft drinks, meat, sweets, animal fats, milk and white bread, and vitamin B12 and folate. Limits of Agreement were broad for all food groups and nutrients. School, gender, alcohol consumption and between meals mainly affected most food groups' intake differences. Gender stratification showed females had increased Pearson's cc for energy and 28 nutrients, such as almost all fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. The ASSO-FFQ could be applied in epidemiological studies for the assessment of dietary consumption in adolescents to adequately rank food, energy and nutrient intakes

  13. National Diet and Nutrition Survey: UK food consumption and nutrient intakes from the first year of the rolling programme and comparisons with previous surveys

    PubMed Central

    Whitton, Clare; Nicholson, Sonja K; Roberts, Caireen; Prynne, Celia J; Pot, Gerda; Olson, Ashley; Fitt, Emily; Cole, Darren; Teucher, Birgit; Bates, Beverley; Henderson, Helen; Pigott, Sarah; Deverill, Claire; Swan, Gillian; Stephen, Alison M

    2011-01-01

    The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) is a cross-sectional survey designed to gather data representative of the UK population on food consumption, nutrient intakes and nutritional status. The objectives of this paper were to identify and describe food consumption and nutrient intakes in the UK from the first year of the NDNS Rolling Programme (2008-09) and compare these with the 2000-01 NDNS of adults aged 19-64y and the 1997 NDNS of young people aged 4-18y. Differences in median daily food consumption and nutrient intakes between the surveys were compared by sex and age group (4-10y, 11-18y and 19-64y). There were no changes in energy, total fat or carbohydrate intakes between the surveys. Children 4-10y had significantly lower consumption of soft drinks (not low calorie), crisps and savoury snacks and chocolate confectionery in 2008-09 than in 1997 (all P< 0.0001). The percentage contribution of non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES) to food energy was also significantly lower than in 1997 in children 4-10y (P< 0.0001), contributing 13.7-14.6% in 2008-09 compared with 16.8% in 1997. These changes were not as marked in older children and there were no changes in these foods and nutrients in adults. There was still a substantial proportion (46%) of girls 11-18y and women 19-64y (21%) with mean daily iron intakes below the Lower Reference Nutrient Intake (LRNI). Since previous surveys there have been some positive changes in intakes especially in younger children. However, further attention is required in other groups, in particular adolescent girls. PMID:21736781

  14. Balancing the benefits and costs of traditional food substitution by indigenous Arctic women of childbearing age: Impacts on persistent organic pollutant, mercury, and nutrient intakes.

    PubMed

    Binnington, Matthew J; Curren, Meredith S; Chan, Hing Man; Wania, Frank

    2016-09-01

    For indigenous Arctic Canadians, traditional food consumption represents a key source of nutrients and environmental contaminants. Particularly, ingestion of marine mammal blubber and meat may lead to persistent organic pollutant levels and mercury intakes that exceed regulatory thresholds for sensitive populations. We investigated whether temporary adjustments to the consumption of traditional food derived from marine mammals appreciably impacted contaminant exposure and nutrient intakes among indigenous women of childbearing age. Such adjustments can be motivated by the desire to lower contaminant exposure or to increase nutrition, or by the diminishing availability of other traditional food sources. We combined the contaminant fate and transport model GloboPOP with the food chain bioaccumulation model ACC-Human Arctic to simulate polychlorinated biphenyl exposures in female 2007-08 Inuit Health Survey participants. We also calculated daily mercury and nutrient intake rates. Our results suggest that a temporary decrease in marine mammal consumption is largely ineffective at reducing exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, because of their long elimination half-lives. In contrast, substitution of marine mammals was highly efficient at reducing mercury intake, but also appreciably lowered intakes of iron, manganese, selenium, and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The impact of increasing intake of traditional food derived from marine mammals during childbearing age greatly depended on baseline consumption rates; replacement is ill-advised for those who already consume a lot of traditional food due to greater polychlorinated biphenyl and mercury exposures, while replacement was potentially beneficial for those with very limited marine mammal consumption due to increased nutrient intakes. Our calculations primarily suggest that considering baseline traditional food intake rates is critical to devising reproductive dietary adjustment strategies that maximize nutrient

  15. Home availability of fruit and vegetables and obesogenic foods as an indicator of nutrient intake in 50 year olds from Canterbury, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Grant, Emily; Gearry, Richard Blair; Wilson, Renée; Pearson, John; Skidmore, Paula Marie Louise

    2017-05-01

    The home food environment is known to influence children's diet and selected health outcomes. However, similar research in adults is scarce. The home is arguably the most important food environment for New Zealand adults as the majority of food consumed is stored and prepared in the home. Therefore we investigated relationships between home food availability and nutrient intake in 50 year olds from Canterbury, New Zealand. A cross-sectional study where participants completed a home food inventory and a four-day estimated food diary. Regression analysis was used to investigate relationships between home availability of 'Fruit and Vegetables' and 'Obesogenic Foods' and intake of selected nutrients, adjusting for Body Mass Index and demographic factors. Men and women (n=216) aged 50 were randomly selected from Canterbury District Health Board area electoral rolls. Women with a high 'Obesogenic Foods' score were significantly more likely to have a high intake of saturated fat (OR 5.8, CI: 1.67, 19.6) and high sugar intake (OR 3.1, CI: 1.23, 7.58). Men with a high 'Obesogenic Foods' score were less likely to have high folate (OR 0.14, CI: 0.05, 0.40) and fibre intake (OR 0.21, CI: 0.07, 0.60). Men and women with a higher 'Fruit and Vegetables' score were more likely to have high vitamin C intake (OR 5.6 and 4.5 respectively). Home Food Inventory scores are associated with selected nutrient intakes, particularly in women, suggesting that they are useful for identifying those groups with less favourable nutrient intakes. Future research should investigate whether these scores can predict health outcomes.

  16. Food and Nutrient Intake and Nutritional Status of Finnish Vegans and Non-Vegetarians

    PubMed Central

    Elorinne, Anna-Liisa; Alfthan, Georg; Erlund, Iris; Kivimäki, Hanna; Paju, Annukka; Salminen, Irma; Turpeinen, Ursula; Voutilainen, Sari; Laakso, Juha

    2016-01-01

    Background Vegetarian and vegan diets have become more popular among adolescents and young adults. However, few studies have investigated the nutritional status of vegans, who may be at risk of nutritional deficiencies. Objective To compare dietary intake and nutritional status of Finnish long-term vegans and non-vegetarians. Methods Dietary intake and supplement use were estimated using three-day dietary records. Nutritional status was assessed by measuring biomarkers in plasma, serum, and urine samples. Vegans’ (n = 22) data was compared with those of sex- and age-matched non-vegetarians (n = 19). Results All vegans adhered strictly to their diet; however, individual variability was marked in food consumption and supplementation habits. Dietary intakes of key nutrients, vitamins B12 and D, were lower (P < 0.001) in vegans than in non-vegetarians. Nutritional biomarker measurements showed lower concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), iodine and selenium (corrected for multiple comparisons, P < 0.001), Vegans showed more favorable fatty acid profiles (P < 0.001) as well as much higher concentrations of polyphenols such as genistein and daidzein (P < 0.001). Eicosapentaenoic acid proportions in vegans were higher than expected. The median concentration of iodine in urine was below the recommended levels in both groups. Conclusions Long-term consumption of a vegan diet was associated with some favorable laboratory measures but also with lowered concentrations of key nutrients compared to reference values. This study highlights the need for nutritional guidance to vegans. PMID:26840251

  17. Food and Nutrient Intake and Nutritional Status of Finnish Vegans and Non-Vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Elorinne, Anna-Liisa; Alfthan, Georg; Erlund, Iris; Kivimäki, Hanna; Paju, Annukka; Salminen, Irma; Turpeinen, Ursula; Voutilainen, Sari; Laakso, Juha

    2016-01-01

    Vegetarian and vegan diets have become more popular among adolescents and young adults. However, few studies have investigated the nutritional status of vegans, who may be at risk of nutritional deficiencies. To compare dietary intake and nutritional status of Finnish long-term vegans and non-vegetarians. Dietary intake and supplement use were estimated using three-day dietary records. Nutritional status was assessed by measuring biomarkers in plasma, serum, and urine samples. Vegans' (n = 22) data was compared with those of sex- and age-matched non-vegetarians (n = 19). All vegans adhered strictly to their diet; however, individual variability was marked in food consumption and supplementation habits. Dietary intakes of key nutrients, vitamins B12 and D, were lower (P < 0.001) in vegans than in non-vegetarians. Nutritional biomarker measurements showed lower concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), iodine and selenium (corrected for multiple comparisons, P < 0.001), Vegans showed more favorable fatty acid profiles (P < 0.001) as well as much higher concentrations of polyphenols such as genistein and daidzein (P < 0.001). Eicosapentaenoic acid proportions in vegans were higher than expected. The median concentration of iodine in urine was below the recommended levels in both groups. Long-term consumption of a vegan diet was associated with some favorable laboratory measures but also with lowered concentrations of key nutrients compared to reference values. This study highlights the need for nutritional guidance to vegans.

  18. Breast milk composition and infant nutrient intakes during the first 12 months of life.

    PubMed

    Grote, V; Verduci, E; Scaglioni, S; Vecchi, F; Contarini, G; Giovannini, M; Koletzko, B; Agostoni, C

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify human milk supply and intake of breastfed infants up to age 12 months. In addition, human milk composition was quantified per energetic macronutrient and fatty-acid composition in a subsample of lactating mothers. One hundred and seventy-four Italian breastfed children were followed using test-weighing and 3-day food protocols from birth to age 12 months. From a subsample of 30 mothers breast milk samples were collected at child ages one (T1), two (T2), three (T3) and six (T6) months, and were analyzed for the amount of protein, digestible carbohydrates, total lipids and fatty-acid composition. One hundred and forty-two (82%) filled in at least one 3-day food protocol within the first 12 months of life and complied with test-weighing of all milk feeds. The number of valid food protocols declined from 126 infants at 1 month to 77 at 12 months of age. Only galactose, non-protein nitrogen and protein decreased significantly from age 1 to age 6 months of lactation. Maternal body mass index and age affected fatty-acid levels in human milk. Median human milk intake decreased from 625 ml at T1, over 724 ml at T3 to 477 ml/day at T6. Average energy and %energy from protein intake per day increased from 419 kcal (s.d. 99) and 8.4% (1.0) at T1, respectively, to 860 kcal (145) and 16.1% (2.6) at T12. These data provide a reference range of nutrient intakes in breastfed infants and may provide guidance for defining optimal nutrient intakes for infants that cannot be fully breastfed.

  19. Constraints and opportunities for implementing nutrition-specific, agricultural and market-based approaches to improve nutrient intake adequacy among infants and young children in two regions of rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Hotz, Christine; Pelto, Gretel; Armar-Klemesu, Margaret; Ferguson, Elaine F; Chege, Peter; Musinguzi, Enock

    2015-12-01

    Several types of interventions can be used to improve nutrient intake adequacy in infant and young child (IYC) diets, including fortified foods, home fortification, nutrition education and behaviour change communication (BCC) in addition to agricultural and market-based strategies. However, the appropriate selection of interventions depends on the social, cultural, physical and economic context of the population. Derived from two rural Kenyan populations, this analysis combined information from: (1) a quantitative analysis to derive a set of food-based recommendations (FBRs) to fill nutrient intake gaps in IYC diets and identify 'problem nutrients' for which intake gaps require solutions beyond currently available foods and dietary patterns, and (2) an ethnographic qualitative analysis to identify contextual factors posing opportunities or constraints to implementing the FBRs, including perceptions of cost, convenience, accessibility and appropriateness of the recommended foods for IYC diets and other social or physical factors that determine accessibility of those foods. Opportunities identified included BCC to increase the acceptability and utilisation of green leafy vegetables (GLV) and small fish and agronomic interventions to increase the productivity of GLV and millet. Value chains for millet, beans, GLV, milk and small fish should be studied for opportunities to increase their accessibility in local markets. Processor-level interventions, such as partially cooked fortified dry porridge mixes or unfortified cereal mixes incorporating millet and beans, may increase the accessibility of foods that provide increased amounts of the problem nutrients. Multi-sectoral actors and community stakeholders should be engaged to assess the feasibility of implementing these locally appropriate strategies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Nutrient Intakes from Restaurants: 2011-2012 What We Eat in America, NHANES Tables 45-56

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Food Surveys Research Group of the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center has analyzed nutrient intakes from foods and beverages consumed from restaurants and released 12 additional summary data tables. Using dietary data from the What We Eat in America (WWEIA), National Health and Nutritio...

  1. Dietary intakes of essential nutrients among Arab and Berber ethnic groups on rural Tunisian island.

    PubMed

    Baroudi, Thouraya; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Abid, Hafaoua Kammoun; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel; Alouane, Leila Trabelsi

    2010-01-01

    The dietary intake was investigated and food sources were identified among Tunisian ethnic groups from Jerba Island in the south of Tunisia. Ninety-four subjects of moderate socioeconomic status (47 Berbers and 47 Arabs) aged 32 to 64 y completed a 1-mo qualitative food-frequency questionnaire and a single 24-h dietary recall, and dietary intakes and demographic status were observed from 2006 to 2007. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was not significantly associated with Arab men compared with Berber men. Therefore, obesity was significantly associated with Berber women (P<0.001). Height was significantly different between Arab and Berber women (P<0.001). There were no significant differences in energy intake between men and women. Protein intake was not significantly different between ethnic groups. Milk and dairy products in the Berber group were significantly different from the Arab group. Intakes of calcium, zinc, iron, and folate were below recommended nutrient intakes in men and women in the two ethnic groups. Vitamin E intake was greater in Berbers than in Arabs (P<0.01). Ethnicity was significantly associated with dietary intakes in the two ethnic groups of Jerba Island.

  2. Recording the nutrient intake of nursing home residents by food weighing method and measuring the physical activity.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Weiss, M; Heseker, H

    2003-01-01

    The nutrient intake of 47 female nursing home residents, able to eat without help, and of 20 eating-dependent seniors was measured by weighing method. Hand grip strength was examined by a dynamometer. Furthermore the level of physical activity of the seniors able to eat without help was determined by means of a questionnaire. The results showed that the median energy intake of self-feeding elderly women was 1620 kcal (850-4450 kcal). More than one third of the seniors consumed less than 1700 kcal / d. The intake of vitamins and minerals remained below 40-90% of the recommended level. One important cause for the inadequate micronutrient intake was that 30% of the total energy intake is met by foods of a low nutrient density (cakes, cookies, spreadable fats, soups). The eating-dependent seniors were at high risk for protein-calorie malnutrition, consuming an average of 1130 kcal / d and 34 g protein / d. The level of physical activity was very low. Only 34% of the seniors were active for more than 2 hours per week (walking, gymnastics). 30% of the residents were largely inactive although they were able to walk. It is often ignored that immobility is a major risk factor for the development of malnutrition. Firstly inactivity accelerates the loss of muscle mass. This loss of metabolically active tissue decreases the energy requirements thus leading to a loss of appetite and reduced food intake.

  3. Physical limitations in meal preparation and consumption are associated with lower musculoskeletal nutrient (calcium, vitamin D, magnesium, and phosphorus) intakes in homebound older adults.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, J; Johnson, C M; Dean, W R

    2012-08-01

    Although homebound older adults are at increased risk for poor nutritional health and adverse nutrition-related outcomes, little attention has focused on the tasks involved in meal preparation and consumption and the influence of those tasks on dietary intake. We examined the self-reported dietary intake from 3, 24-h dietary recalls and physical limitations in meal preparation and consumption (LMPC) activities from a randomly recruited sample of 345 homebound older men and women. Ordered logistic regression was used to examine the correlation of demographic characteristics and 6 activities with relative intakes of key musculoskeletal nutrients (calcium, vitamin D, magnesium, and phosphorus). At least 70% reported not meeting ⅔ recommended intakes for calcium and vitamin D; 12.5% failed to achieve ⅔ recommended intakes in at least three of the four nutrients. More than 12% of the sample reported it was very difficult or they were unable to perform at least 3 LMPC tasks. Regression results indicated that reporting the greatest LMPC increased the odds for lower intake of musculoskeletal nutrients. Independent of sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported difficulty in meal preparation and consumption was associated with lower dietary intakes of musculoskeletal nutrients. These results suggest the need to assess difficulty in meal preparation and consumption for the growing population of homebound older adults who participate in supplemental nutrition programs. This brief, 6-item measure may help identify older adults at risk of poor nutritional health and declining function.

  4. Nutrient intake and food habits of soccer players: analyzing the correlates of eating practice.

    PubMed

    García-Rovés, Pablo M; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Angeles M; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2014-07-18

    Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player's career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players.

  5. Nutrient Intake and Food Habits of Soccer Players: Analyzing the Correlates of Eating Practice

    PubMed Central

    García-Rovés, Pablo M.; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Ángeles M.; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players. PMID:25045939

  6. A genome-wide linkage scan for dietary energy and nutrient intakes: the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study.

    PubMed

    Collaku, Agron; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rice, Treva; Leon, Arthur S; Rao, D C; Skinner, James S; Wilmore, Jack H; Bouchard, Claude

    2004-05-01

    A poor diet is a risk factor for chronic diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and some cancers. Twin and family studies suggest that genetic factors potentially influence energy and nutrient intakes. We sought to identify genomic regions harboring genes affecting total energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat intakes. We performed a genomic scan in 347 white sibling pairs and 99 black sibling pairs. Dietary energy and nutrient intakes were assessed by using Willett's food-frequency questionnaire. Single-point and multipoint Haseman-Elston regression techniques were used to test for linkage. These subjects were part of the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study, a multicenter project undertaken by 5 laboratories. In the whites, the strongest evidence of linkage appeared for dietary energy and nutrient intakes on chromosomes 1p21.2 (P = 0.0002) and 20q13.13 (P = 0.00007), and that for fat intake appeared on chromosome 12q14.1 (P = 0.0013). The linkage evidence on chromosomes 1 and 20 related to total energy intake rather than to the intake of specific macronutrients. In the blacks, promising linkages for macronutrient intakes occurred on chromosomes 12q23-q24.21, 1q32.1, and 7q11.1. Several potential candidate genes are encoded in and around the linkage regions on chromosomes 1p21.2, 12q14.1, and 20q13.13. These are the first reported human quantitative trait loci for dietary energy and macronutrient intakes. Further study may refine these quantitative trait loci to identify potential candidate genes for energy and specific macronutrient intakes that would be amenable to more detailed molecular studies.

  7. The Geometry of Nutrient Space-Based Life-History Trade-Offs: Sex-Specific Effects of Macronutrient Intake on the Trade-Off between Encapsulation Ability and Reproductive Effort in Decorated Crickets.

    PubMed

    Rapkin, James; Jensen, Kim; Archer, C Ruth; House, Clarissa M; Sakaluk, Scott K; Castillo, Enrique Del; Hunt, John

    2018-04-01

    Life-history theory assumes that traits compete for limited resources, resulting in trade-offs. The most commonly manipulated resource in empirical studies is the quantity or quality of diet. Recent studies using the geometric framework for nutrition, however, suggest that trade-offs are often regulated by the intake of specific nutrients, but a formal approach to identify and quantify the strength of such trade-offs is lacking. We posit that trade-offs occur whenever life-history traits are maximized in different regions of nutrient space, as evidenced by nonoverlapping 95% confidence regions of the global maximum for each trait and large angles (θ) between linear nutritional vectors and Euclidean distances (d) between global maxima. We then examined the effects of protein and carbohydrate intake on the trade-off between reproduction and aspects of immune function in male and female Gryllodes sigillatus. Female encapsulation ability and egg production increased with the intake of both nutrients, whereas male encapsulation ability increased with protein intake but calling effort increased with carbohydrate intake. The trade-offs between traits was therefore larger in males than in females, as demonstrated by significant negative correlations between the traits in males, nonoverlapping 95% confidence regions, and larger estimates of θ and d. Under dietary choice, the sexes had similar regulated intakes, but neither optimally regulated nutrient intake for maximal trait expression. We highlight the fact that greater consideration of specific nutrient intake is needed when examining nutrient space-based trade-offs.

  8. Uniform modeling of bacterial colony patterns with varying nutrient and substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarcz, Deborah; Levine, Herbert; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Ariel, Gil

    2016-04-01

    Bacteria develop complex patterns depending on growth condition. For example, Bacillus subtilis exhibit five different patterns depending on substrate hardness and nutrient concentration. We present a unified integro-differential model that reproduces the entire experimentally observed morphology diagram at varying nutrient concentrations and substrate hardness. The model allows a comprehensive and quantitative comparison between experimental and numerical variables and parameters, such as colony growth rate, nutrient concentration and diffusion constants. As a result, the role of the different physical mechanisms underlying and regulating the growth of the colony can be evaluated.

  9. Designing Fuzzy Algorithms to Develop Healthy Dietary Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Golaleh; Ejtahed, Hanieh-Sadat; Sarsharzadeh, Mohammad Mahdi; Nazeri, Pantea; Mirmiran, Parvin

    2013-01-01

    Background Fuzzy logic, a mathematical approach, defines the percentage of desirability for recommended amount of food groups and describes the range of intakes, from deficiency to excess. Objectives The purpose of this research was to find the best fuzzy dietary pattern that constraints energy and nutrients by the iterative algorithm. Materials and Methods An index is derived that reflects how closely the diet of an individual meets all the nutrient requirements set by the dietary reference intake. Fuzzy pyramid pattern was applied for the energy levels from 1000 to 4000 Kcal which estimated the range of recommended servings for seven food groups including fruits, vegetables, grains, meats, milk, oils, fat and added sugar. Results The optimum (lower attention – upper attention) recommended servings per day for fruits, vegetables, grain, meat, dairy, and oils of the 2000 kcal diet were 4.06 (3.75-4.25), 6.69 (6.25-7.00), 5.69 (5.75-6.25), 4.94 (4.5-5.2), 2.75(2.50-3.00), and 2.56 (2.5-2.75), respectively. The fuzzy pattern met most recommended nutrient intake levels except for potassium and vitamin E, which were estimated at 98% and 69% of the dietary reference intake, respectively. Conclusions Using fuzzy logic provides an elegant mathematical solution for finding the optimum point of food groups in dietary pattern. PMID:24454416

  10. Food patterns, flour fortification, and intakes of calcium and vitamin D: a longitudinal study of Danish adults

    PubMed Central

    Osler, M.; Heitmann, B. L.

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Deficiencies in calcium and vitamin D intakes are involved in the aetiology of osteoporosis, and health authorities recommend that the population consume a diet providing sufficient calcium and vitamin D. However, in 1987 the Danish Government withdrew a mandatory fortification of flour with calcium. This study examines intakes of calcium and vitamin D over time, in relation to food patterns, recommendations, and legislation. DESIGN: Food and nutrient intakes were measured by a short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a thorough diet history interview, in 1987/88, and again six years later. SETTING: Copenhagen County, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 329 men and women, aged 35-65 years at first examination in 1987/88. RESULTS: At both examinations the non-enriched median intakes of calcium in men as well as women were above the recommended 600 mg/day. However, apparently the fortification of flour supplied up to 30% of the total calcium intake, and without the mandatory fortification, the percentage of adults with intakes below this recommendation increased from 6% to 22%. This group of subjects consumed cheese, milk, and oatmeal less often than those who had calcium intakes over 600 mg/day. During the study period the median intakes of vitamin D, which were well below the recommended 5 micrograms/day, did not change significantly. Associations between foods and vitamin D intakes were, in general, weak and insignificant, except for a positive association with fish intake. CONCLUSIONS: Data on calcium intakes suggest that the decision to stop the mandatory fortification of flour with calcium may have been premature. The short FFQ may be used for a rough classification of people in relation to their calcium intake, while this method seems insufficient for ranking vitamin D intakes.   PMID:9616420

  11. Nutrient intakes among children and adolescents eating usual pizza products in school lunch compared with pizza meeting HealthierUS School Challenge criteria.

    PubMed

    Hur, In Young; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla

    2014-05-01

    Pizza is a popular food that can contribute to high intakes of saturated fat and sodium among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare daily nutrient intakes when a pizza product meeting the US Department of Agriculture's criteria for competitive food entrées under the HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) was substituted for usual pizza products consumed during foodservice-prepared school lunch. The study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008) dietary recall data from a cross-sectional sample of US children and adolescents (age 5 to 18 years, n=337) who ate pizza during school lunch on 1 day of dietary recall. Daily nutrient intakes based on the consumption of usual pizza products for school lunch (pre-modeled) were compared with intakes modeled by substituting nutrient values from an HUSSC whole-grain pizza product (post-modeled). Paired t tests were used to make the comparison. Post-modeled intakes were lower in daily energy, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium compared with pre-modeled intakes among children and adolescents (P<0.01). Protein, dietary fiber, vitamin A, and potassium intakes were higher in the post-modeled intake condition compared with the pre-modeled condition (P<0.01). Substituting the healthier pizza product for usual pizza products may significantly improve dietary quality of children and adolescents eating pizza for school lunch, indicating that it could be an effective approach to improve the nutritional quality of school lunch programs. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutrient Intake and Body Habitus After Spinal Cord Injury: An Analysis by Sex and Level of Injury

    PubMed Central

    Groah, Suzanne L; Nash, Mark S; Ljungberg, Inger H; Libin, Alexander; Hamm, Larry F; Ward, Emily; Burns, Patricia A; Enfield, Gwen

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To examine nutrient intake and body mass index (BMI) in the spinal cord injury (SCI) population according to level of injury and sex. Design: Cross-sectional study conducted at 2 SCI treatment centers. Participants/Methods: Seventy-three community-dwelling individuals with C5-T12 ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) A or B SCI. Subjects were divided into 4 groups: male tetraplegia (N = 24), male paraplegia (N = 37), female tetraplegia (N = 1), and female paraplegia (N = 11). Mean age was 38 years; 84% were male; 34% were white, 41% were African American, and 25% were Hispanic. Participants completed a 4-day food log examining habitual diet. Dietary composition was analyzed using Food Processor II v 7.6 software. Results: Excluding the 1 woman with tetraplegia, total calorie intake for the other 3 groups was below observed values for the general population. The female paraplegia group tended to have a lower total calorie intake than the other groups, although macronutrient intake was within the recommended range. The male tetraplegia group, male paraplegia group, and the 1 woman with tetraplegia all had higher than recommended fat intake. Intake of several vitamins, minerals, and macronutrients did not meet recommended levels or were excessively low, whereas sodium and alcohol intake were elevated. Using adjusted BMI tables, 74.0% of individuals with SCI were overweight or obese. Conclusions: Women with paraplegia tended to maintain healthier diets, reflected by lower caloric and fat intakes, fewer key nutrients falling outside recommended guidelines, and less overweight or obesity. Individuals with tetraplegia tended to take in more calories and had higher BMIs, and using adjusted BMI, the majority of the population was overweight or obese. The majority of people with SCI would benefit from nutritional counseling to prevent emerging secondary conditions as the population with SCI ages. PMID:19264046

  13. Caloric and nutrient intake in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder treated with extended-release methylphenidate: analysis of a cross-sectional nutrition survey.

    PubMed

    Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel

    2014-02-01

    To study calorie and nutrients intake in a group of patients diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) under treatment with extended-release methylphenidate (MPH-ER), and to analyse the need to design nutrition intervention strategies. Observational (case-control). Navarra Hospital Complex, Pamplona, Spain. A total of 100 patients diagnosed with ADHD under treatment with MPH-ER and 100 healthy children (control group). A nutrition survey was carried out (food intake registration of 3 consecutive school days). Calorie and nutrient intake, as well as nutrition status, were evaluated and compared in both groups. Nutritional status in ADHD group was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in control group. Calorie intake in mid-morning snack, lunch and afternoon snack was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the control group. Calorie intake in supper was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the ADHD group. There were no significant differences in breakfast. Total calorie intake, as well as protein, carbohydrates, fat, fibre, calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, selenium and phosphorous, thiamine, niacin, vitamin B6 and folate intake, in control group was significantly higher than in ADHD group. The daily calorie and nutrients intake in patients under treatment with MPH-ER is, generally, lower than in healthy population of similar age. The need to impart programmes of nutrition education simultaneously with multimodal treatment in order to avoid the nutrition consequences of treatment with MPH should be considered.

  14. The third National Food Consumption Survey, INRAN-SCAI 2005-06: major dietary sources of nutrients in Italy.

    PubMed

    Sette, Stefania; Le Donne, Cinzia; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Mistura, Lorenza; Ferrari, Marika; Leclercq, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    To promote healthy food consumption patterns, information is required on the contribution of food groups to total nutrient intake. The objective of this paper is to identify the main dietary sources of nutrients in the diet of the population in Italy. Data collected through individual food records within the INRAN-SCAI 2005-06 survey were required. The final sample included 3323 subjects aged 0.1-97.7 years. The percentage contributed by each food category to the intake of energy, dietary fibre and of 26 nutrients was calculated. Above 3 years of age, the main contributors to macro- and micro-nutrient intakes were similar among the various age-sex groupings with few exceptions. These data might be used to develop specific strategies for Italy in order to increase the intake of dietary fibre and to decrease that of total fats and of sugars in the population.

  15. Foods, Nutrients, and Dietary Patterns: Interconnections and Implications for Dietary Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Tapsell, Linda C; Neale, Elizabeth P; Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2016-05-01

    Dietary guidelines provide evidence-based statements on food choices to meet nutritional requirements and reduce the risk of prevailing chronic disease. They involve a substantial amount of research translation, and their implementation has important health consequences. Foods, however, are complex combinations of nutrients and other compounds that act synergistically within the food and across food combinations. In addition, the evidence base underpinning dietary guidelines accesses research that reflects different study designs, with inherent strengths and limitations. We propose a systematic approach for the review of evidence that begins with research on dietary patterns. This research will identify the combinations of foods that best protect, or appear deleterious to, health. Next, we suggest that evidence be sought from research that focuses on the effects of individual foods. Finally, nutrient-based research should be considered to explain the mechanisms by which these foods and dietary patterns exert their effects, take into account the effects of ingredients added to the food supply, and enable assessments of dietary sufficiency. The consideration of individual nutrients and food components (e.g., upper limits for saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium) provides important benchmarks for evaluating overall diet quality. The concepts of core and discretionary foods (nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor foods, respectively) enable distinctions between foods, and this has implications for the relation between food policy and food manufacturing. In summary, evidence supporting healthy dietary patterns provides the foundation for the development of dietary guidelines. Further reference to individual foods and nutrients follows from the foundation of healthy dietary patterns. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Relative validity of the Iowa Fluoride Study targeted nutrient semi-quantitative questionnaire and the block kids' food questionnaire for estimating beverage, calcium, and vitamin D intakes by children.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Teresa A; Eichenberger Gilmore, Julie M; Broffitt, Barbara; Stumbo, Phyllis J; Levy, Steven M

    2008-03-01

    Food frequency questionnaires are commonly developed and subsequently used to investigate relationships between dietary intake and disease outcomes; such tools should be validated in the population of interest. We investigated the relative validities of the Iowa Fluoride Study targeted nutrient semi-quantitative questionnaire and Block Kids' Food Questionnaire in assessing beverage, calcium, and vitamin D intakes using 3-day diaries for reference. Cross-sectional. Children who completed Iowa Fluoride Study nutrient questionnaire at age 9.0+/-0.7 years (n=223) and/or the Block Kids' Food Questionnaire at age 8.3+/-0.3 years (n=129) and 3-day diaries during similar time periods. Intakes of beverages, calcium, and vitamin D. Spearman correlation coefficients, weighted kappa statistics, and percentages of exact agreement were used to estimate relative validities. Correlations between milk intakes (r=0.572) reported on diaries and the Iowa Fluoride Study nutrient questionnaires were higher than correlations for 100% juice, juice drinks, soda pop, and water (r=0.252 to 0.379). Correlations between milk intakes (r=0.571) and 100% juice intakes (r=0.550) reported on diaries and Block Kids' Food Questionnaires were higher than correlations for other beverages (r=0.223 to 0.326). Correlations with diaries for calcium (r=0.462) and vitamin D (r=0.487) intakes reported on Iowa Fluoride Study nutrient questionnaires were similar to correlations with diaries for calcium (r=0.515) and vitamin D (r=0.512) reported on Block Kids' Food Questionnaires. Weighted kappa statistics were similar between the Iowa Fluoride Study nutrient questionnaires and the Block Kids' Food Questionnaires for milk, 100% juice, and vitamin D, but were higher on the Iowa Fluoride Study nutrient questionnaires than on the Block Kids' Food Questionnaires for calcium. Percentages of exact agreement were higher for calcium, but lower for vitamin D for intakes reported on the Iowa Fluoride Study nutrient

  17. Race and Region Are Associated with Nutrient Intakes among Black and White Men in the United States12

    PubMed Central

    Newby, P. K.; Noel, Sabrina E.; Grant, Rachael; Judd, Suzanne; Shikany, James M.; Ard, Jamy

    2011-01-01

    Stroke mortality rates and prevalence of several chronic diseases are higher in Southern populations and blacks in the US. This study examined the relationships of race (black, white) and region (Stroke Belt, Stroke Buckle, other) with selected nutrient intakes among black and white American men (n = 9229). The Block 98 FFQ assessed dietary intakes and multivariable linear regression analysis was used to examine whether race and region were associated with intakes of fiber, saturated fat, trans fat, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and cholesterol. Race and region were significant predictors of most nutrient intakes. Black men consumed 1.00% lower energy from saturated fat compared with white men [multivariable-adjusted β: 1.00% (95% CI = −0.88, −1.13)]. A significant interaction between race and region was detected for trans fat (P < 0.0001), where intake was significantly lower among black men compared with white men only in the Stroke Belt [multivariable-adjusted β: −0.21 (95% CI = −0.11, −0.31)]. Among black men, intakes of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium were lower, whereas cholesterol was higher, compared with white men (P < 0.05 for all). Comparing regions, men in the Stroke Buckle had the lowest intakes of fiber, potassium, magnesium, and calcium compared with those in the Stroke Belt and other regions; men in both the Stroke Buckle and Stroke Belt had higher intakes of cholesterol compared with those in other regions (P < 0.005 for all). Given these observed differences in dietary intakes, more research is needed to understand if and how they play a role in the health disparities and chronic disease risks observed among racial groups and regions in the US. PMID:21178088

  18. Relative validity of an FFQ to estimate daily food and nutrient intakes for Chilean adults.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, Mahshid; Martinez, Solange; Zhang, Xiaohe; Seron, Pamela; Lanas, Fernando; Islam, Shofiqul; Merchant, Anwar T

    2013-10-01

    FFQ are commonly used to rank individuals by their food and nutrient intakes in large epidemiological studies. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate an FFQ to rank individuals participating in an ongoing Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study in Chile. An FFQ and four 24 h dietary recalls were completed over 1 year. Pearson correlation coefficients, energy-adjusted and de-attenuated correlations and weighted kappa were computed between the dietary recalls and the FFQ. The level of agreement between the two dietary assessment methods was evaluated by Bland-Altman analysis. Temuco, Chile. Overall, 166 women and men enrolled in the present study. One hundred men and women participated in FFQ development and sixty-six individuals participated in FFQ validation. The FFQ consisted of 109 food items. For nutrients, the crude correlation coefficients between the dietary recalls and FFQ varied from 0.14 (protein) to 0.44 (fat). Energy adjustment and de-attenuation improved correlation coefficients and almost all correlation coefficients exceeded 0.40. Similar correlation coefficients were observed for food groups; the highest de-attenuated energy adjusted correlation coefficient was found for margarine and butter (0.75) and the lowest for potatoes (0.12). The FFQ showed moderate to high agreement for most nutrients and food groups, and can be used to rank individuals based on energy, nutrient and food intakes. The validation study was conducted in a unique setting and indicated that the tool is valid for use by adults in Chile.

  19. Nutrient intake and nutritional status of newly diagnosed patients with cancer from the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Menon, Kavitha; Razak, Shariza Abdul; Ismail, Karami A; Krishna, Bhavaraju Venkata Murali

    2014-09-30

    Cancer therapy in Malaysia primarily focuses on the clinical management of patients with cancer and malnutrition continues to be one of the major causes of death in these patients. There is a dearth of information on the nutrient intake and status of newly diagnosed patients with cancer prior to the initiation of treatment. The present study aims to assess the nutrient intake and status of newly diagnosed patients with cancer from the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a convenient sample of newly diagnosed adult patients with cancer (n = 70) attending the Oncology clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, clinical status, anthropometry, dietary intake and biochemical data including blood samples was obtained. The mean (SD) age, triceps skin fold (TSF), mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and body mass index (BMI) of participants was 21.1(3.9) years, 17.6(7.9) mm, 24.1(5.5) cm, and 21.1(3.9) Kg/m(2), respectively; 39% participants had BMI <18.5 Kg/m(2). One-third of newly diagnosed patients with cancer were undernourished (i.e. women: MUAC <220 mm; men: <230 mm). The proportion (%) of participants with low haemoglobin (<120 g/L) and serum albumin (<38 g/dL) were 62% and 26%, respectively. The older women had significantly lower macro and micro nutrient intakes compared to men in the same age group (P <0.05). At the time of diagnosis, greater than one-third of patients with cancer from the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia were underweight and undernourished. The majority of patients with cancer had poor micronutrient intakes; the older women had a poor macro and micronutrient intakes. Before the initiation of rigorous clinical management of patients with cancer, screening for nutritional status, subsequent nutrition counseling, and interventions are essential to improve their nutritional status; consequently, response to cancer

  20. Maternal Dietary Nutrient Intake and Its Association  with Preterm Birth: A Case-control Study in Beijing,  China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Hong; Perkins, Anthony; Wang, Yan; Sun, Jing

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate dietary nutrient intake among Chinese pregnant women by comparison with Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) and to explore the association between dietary nutrients and preterm birth. A case-control design was conducted in Beijing with 130 preterm delivery mothers in case group and 381 term delivery mothers in control group. Information on mothers' diet was collected using a food frequency questionnaire, and nutrients and energy intakes were subsequently calculated based on DRIs. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare the differences between term and preterm groups in relation to dietary nutrients. Dietary nutrient intakes were imbalanced in both groups compared with Chinese DRIs. Preterm delivery mothers had a lower level of fat and vitamin E intake than term delivery mothers (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed lower vitamin E intake in preterm delivery mothers with a prepregnancy BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 (p < 0.05) and higher carbohydrate intake in preterm delivery mothers with prepregnancy BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2 (p < 0.05). An imbalanced diet in both groups and low level of dietary intakes of fat and vitamin E in preterm group suggest health education measures should be taken to improve the dietary quality of pregnant women, especially for those with an abnormal prepregnancy BMI.

  1. Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial: baseline evaluation of selected nutrients and food group intake.

    PubMed

    Vitolins, Mara Z; Anderson, Andrea M; Delahanty, Linda; Raynor, Hollie; Miller, Gary D; Mobley, Connie; Reeves, Rebecca; Yamamoto, Monica; Champagne, Catherine; Wing, Rena R; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth

    2009-08-01

    Little has been reported regarding food and nutrient intake in individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, and most reports have been based on findings in select groups or individuals who self-reported having diabetes. To describe the baseline food and nutrient intake of the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial participants, compare participant intake to national guidelines, and describe demographic and health characteristics associated with food group consumption. The Look AHEAD trial is evaluating the effects of a lifestyle intervention (calorie control and increased physical activity for weight loss) compared with diabetes support and education on long-term cardiovascular and other health outcomes. Participants are 45 to 75 years old, overweight or obese (body mass index [BMI] > or = 25), and have type 2 diabetes. In this cross-sectional analysis, baseline food consumption was assessed by food frequency questionnaire from 2,757 participants between September 2000 and December 2003. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize intake by demographic characteristics. Kruskal-Wallis tests assessed univariate effects of characteristics on consumption. Multiple linear regression models assessed factors predictive of intake. Least square estimates were based on final models, and logistic regression determined factors predictive of recommended intake. Ninety-three percent of the participants exceeded the recommended percentage of calories from fat, 85% exceeded the saturated fat recommendation, and 92% consumed too much sodium. Also, fewer than half met the minimum recommended servings of fruit, vegetables, dairy, and grains. These participants with pre-existing diabetes did not meet recommended food and nutrition guidelines. These overweight adults diagnosed with diabetes are exceeding recommended intake of fat, saturated fats, and sodium, which may contribute to increasing their risk of cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases.

  2. Theoretical Impact of Replacing Whole Cow's Milk by Young-Child Formula on Nutrient Intakes of UK Young Children: Results of a Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Eussen, Simone R B M; Pean, Josephine; Olivier, Leanne; Delaere, Fabien; Lluch, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Research into the role of young-child formulae (YCF) in a child's diet is limited and there is no consensual recommendation on its use. We evaluated the theoretical nutritional impact of replacing the existing practice of consuming cow's milk by YCF. From the UK Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children, whole cow's milk consumers, aged 12-18 months (n = 591) were selected for simulation scenarios. In Scenario 1, we tested the replacement of all whole cow's milk (434 ± 187 ml/day) by a matching volume of YCF, and in Scenario 2, all whole cow's milk was replaced by the on-pack recommended daily intake of 300 ml. Nutrient intakes before and after simulation scenarios were compared and evaluated against nutrient recommendations. Intakes of protein and saturated fatty acids were significantly decreased, whereas essential fatty acid intakes were increased. The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy before simulation was 95.2% for vitamin D and 53.8% for iron. After simulation, inadequacy decreased to 4.9% (Scenario 1) and 0% (Scenario 2) for vitamin D and to 2.7% (Scenario 1) and 1.1% (Scenario 2) for iron. Replacement of habitual cow's milk intake by a matching volume or 300 ml of YCF may lead to nutritional intakes more in line with recommendations in young children. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Body Mass Index, Nutrient Intakes, Health Behaviours and Nutrition Knowledge: A Quantile Regression Application in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shih-Neng; Tseng, Jauling

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess various marginal effects of nutrient intakes, health behaviours and nutrition knowledge on the entire distribution of body mass index (BMI) across individuals. Design: Quantitative and distributional study. Setting: Taiwan. Methods: This study applies Becker's (1965) model of health production to construct an individual's BMI…

  4. Methyl-Donor and Cofactor Nutrient Intakes in the First 2–3 Years and Global DNA Methylation at Age 4: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Rachael M.; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare E.; Mossman, David; Wong-Brown, Michelle W.; Chan, Eng-Cheng; Evans, Tiffany-Jane; Attia, John R.; Smith, Tenele; Butler, Trent

    2018-01-01

    Background: During the early postnatal period, the impact of nutrition on DNA methylation has not been well studied in humans. The aim was to quantify the relationship between one-carbon metabolism nutrient intake during the first three years of life and global DNA methylation levels at four years. Design: Childhood dietary intake was assessed using infant feeding questionnaires, food frequency questionnaires, 4-day weighed food records and 24-h food records. The dietary records were used to estimate the intake of methionine, folate, vitamins B2, B6 and B12 and choline. The accumulative nutrient intake specific rank from three months to three years of age was used for analysis. Global DNA methylation (%5-methyl cytosines (%5-mC)) was measured in buccal cells at four years of age, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) commercial kit. Linear regression models were used to quantify the statistical relationships. Results: Data were collected from 73 children recruited from the Women and their Children’s Health (WATCH) study. No association was found between one-carbon metabolism nutrient intake and global DNA methylation levels (P 0.05). Global DNA methylation levels in males were significantly higher than in females (median %5-mC: 1.82 vs. 1.03, males and females respectively, (P 0.05)). Conclusion: No association was found between the intake of one-carbon metabolism nutrients during the early postnatal period and global DNA methylation levels at age four years. Higher global DNA methylation levels in males warrants further investigation. PMID:29495543

  5. Energy and nutrient intake according to away-from-home food consumption in the Northeast Region: an analysis of the 2008-2009 National Dietary Survey.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Jessica Brito; Moreira, Tyciane Maria Vieira; Mota, Caroline da Costa; Pontes, Carolinne Reinaldo; Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira

    2017-01-01

    Away-from-home food consumption has increased in Brazil and is associated with fewer nutritious food choices. To describe energy and specific nutrient intake among consumers and non-consumer of away-from-home food in the Northeast Region. A sample of 11,674 individuals from the National Dietary Survey data, which is part of the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey, from the Northeast Region, was analyzed. Individuals provided two dietary records in nonconsecutive days, informing the place where foods were consumed (at-home or away-from-home). Away-from-home food was defined as foods acquired and consumed away from home. Linear regression models were developed to assess the relationship between away-from-home food consumption in one of the two-day food record and the energy and nutrient intake, adjusted for age, gender, and per capita income. Away-from-home food consumption, in at least one of the two-day food record, was reported by 42% of individuals in the Northeast Region. Individuals who consumed food away from home in the Northeast Region presented poor nutrient intake compared to those who did not report consumption away from home, with higher intake of energy, free sugar, saturated fat, and trans fat and lower intake of protein, iron, and dietary fiber, regardless of age, gender, and income (p < 0.05). Away-from-home food consumption in the Northeast Region contributed to higher energy and poorer nutrient intake. Therefore, the development of public policies and strategies that favor health food choices when individuals eat away from home is necessary.

  6. Eating ready-to-eat cereal for breakfast is positively associated with daily nutrient intake, but not weight, in Mexican-American children and adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) has been associated with improved nutrient intake and weight status, but intake has not been studied in Mexican-American (MA) children. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutrient intake, mean adequacy ratio (MAR), and weight were associated with classificat...

  7. Pregnant Canadian Women Achieve Recommended Intakes of One-Carbon Nutrients through Prenatal Supplementation but the Supplement Composition, Including Choline, Requires Reconsideration.

    PubMed

    Masih, Shannon P; Plumptre, Lesley; Ly, Anna; Berger, Howard; Lausman, Andrea Y; Croxford, Ruth; Kim, Young-In; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2015-08-01

    Folate, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and choline are involved in one-carbon metabolism and play critical roles in pregnancy including prevention of birth defects and promotion of neurodevelopment. However, excessive intakes may adversely affect disease susceptibility in offspring. Intakes of these nutrients during pregnancy are not well characterized. Our aim was to determine dietary and supplemental intakes and major dietary sources of one-carbon nutrients during pregnancy. In pregnant women (n = 368) at ≤16 wk postconception, supplement use >30 d before pregnancy was assessed by maternal recall and supplement and dietary intakes in early (0-16 wk) and late pregnancy (23-37 wk) were assessed by food-frequency questionnaire. Preconception, 60.1% (95% CI: 55.8, 64.3) of women used B vitamin-containing supplements. This increased to 92.8% (95% CI: 89.6, 95.2) in early and 89.0% (95% CI: 85.0, 92.3) in late pregnancy. Median supplemental folic acid, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 were 1000 μg/d, 2.6 μg/d, and 1.9 mg/d, respectively. Forty-one percent and 50% of women had dietary intakes of folate and vitamin B-6 less than the estimated average requirement (520 mg/d dietary folate equivalents and 1.6 mg/d, respectively). Eight-seven percent of women had choline intakes less than the Adequate Intake (450 mg/d). Dietary intakes did not change appreciably during pregnancy. Fruits and vegetables and fortified foods contributed ∼57% to total dietary folate intake. Fruits and vegetables contributed ∼32% to total dietary vitamin B-6 intake and dairy and egg products contributed ∼37% to total dietary vitamin B-12 intake. Vitamin supplements were an important source of one-carbon nutrients during pregnancy in our sample. Without supplements, many women would not have consumed quantities of folate and vitamin B-6 consistent with recommendations. Given the importance of choline in pregnancy, further research to consider inclusion in prenatal supplements is warranted. This

  8. The relationship between dental status, food selection, nutrient intake, nutritional status, and body mass index in older people.

    PubMed

    Marcenes, Wagner; Steele, Jimmy George; Sheiham, Aubrey; Walls, Angus Willian Gilmour

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviewed the findings from a national survey in Great Britain which assessed whether dental status affected older people's food selection, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. The survey analyzed national random samples of free-living and institution subjects for dental examination, interview, and four-day food diary as well as blood and urine tests In the free-living sample, intakes of non-starch polysaccharides, protein, calcium, non-heme iron, niacin, and vitamin C were significantly lower in edentulous as compared to dentate subjects. People with 21 or more teeth consumed more of most nutrients, particularly non-starch polysaccharides. This relationship in intake was not apparent in the hematological analysis. Plasma ascorbate and retinol were the only analytes significantly associated with dental status. Having 21 or more teeth increased the likelihood of having an acceptable body mass index (BMI). Thus, maintaining a natural and functional dentition defined as having more than twenty teeth into old age plays an important role in having a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables, a satisfactory nutritional status, and an acceptable BMI.

  9. High saturated-fat and low-fibre intake: a comparative analysis of nutrient intake in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Breen, C; Ryan, M; McNulty, B; Gibney, M J; Canavan, R; O'Shea, D

    2014-02-03

    The aim of dietary modification, as a cornerstone of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) management, is to optimise metabolic control and overall health. This study describes food and nutrient intake in a sample of adults with T2DM, and compares this to recommendations, and to intake in age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and social-class matched adults without T2DM. A cross-sectional analysis of food and nutrient intake in 124 T2DM individuals (64% male; age 57.4±5.6 years, BMI 32.5±5.8 kg m(-2)) and 124 adults (age 57.4±7.0 years, BMI 31.2±5.0 kg m(-2)) with no diabetes (ND) was undertaken using a 4-day semiweighed food diary. Biochemical and anthropometric variables were also measured. While reported energy intake was similar in T2DM vs ND (1954 vs 2004 kcal per day, P=0.99), T2DM subjects consumed more total-fat (38.8% vs 35%, P0.001), monounsaturated-fat (13.3% vs 12.2%; P=0.004), polyunsaturated-fat (6.7% vs 5.9%; P<0.001) and protein (18.6% vs 17.5%, P0.01). Both groups exceeded saturated-fat recommendations (14.0% vs 13.8%). T2DM intakes of carbohydrate (39.5% vs 42.9%), non-milk sugar (10.4% vs 15.0%) and fibre (14.4 vs 18.9 g) were significantly lower (P<0.001). Dietary glycaemic load (GL) was also lower in T2DM (120.8 vs 129.2; P=0.02), despite a similar glycaemic index (59.7 vs 60.1; P=0.48). T2DM individuals reported consuming significantly more wholemeal/brown/wholegrain breads, eggs, oils, vegetables, meat/meat products, savoury snacks and soups/sauces and less white breads, breakfast cereals, cakes/buns, full-fat dairy, chocolate, fruit juices, oily fish and alcohol than ND controls. Adults with T2DM made different food choices to ND adults. This resulted in a high saturated-fat diet, with a higher total-fat, monounsaturated-fat, polyunsaturated-fat and protein content and a lower GL, carbohydrate, fibre and non-milk sugar content. Dietary education should emphasise and reinforce the importance of higher fibre, fruit, vegetable and wholegrain

  10. Dietary intake of nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Brinkman, Maree T; Hodge, Allison M; Bassett, Julie K; Bolton, Damien; Longano, Anthony; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; English, Dallas R; Milne, Roger L; Giles, Graham G

    2018-07-15

    Nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism may play a role in carcinogenesis through DNA replication, repair and methylation mechanisms. Most studies on urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) have focused on folate. We sought to examine the association between B-group vitamins and methionine intake and UCC risk, overall and by subtype, and to test whether these associations are different for population subgroups whose nutritional status may be compromised. We followed participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (N = 41,513) for over 20 years and observed 500 UCC cases (89% originating in the bladder; superficial: 279, invasive: 221). Energy-adjusted dietary intakes of B vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B8, B9 and B12) and methionine were estimated from a 121-item food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline (1990-1994), using the residuals method. We used Cox regression models to compute hazard ratios (HRs) of UCC risk per standard deviation (SD) of log-transformed nutrient intakes and 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for potential confounders. We investigated associations by tumor subtype, and tested interactions with sex, country of birth, smoking and alcohol drinking. The risk of UCC appeared not to be associated with intake of B-group vitamins or methionine, and findings were consistent across tumor subtypes and across demographic and lifestyle characteristics of the participants. A potential interaction between vitamin B1 and alcohol drinking was observed (all participants: HR per 1 SD = 0.99 (0.91-1.09), never drinkers: HR = 0.81 (0.69-0.97), p-interaction = 0.02), which needs to be confirmed by other studies. Our findings do not indicate that dietary intake of nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism are associated with UCC risk. © 2018 UICC.

  11. Exploring Problems in Following the Hemodialysis Diet and Their Relation to Energy and Nutrient Intakes: The BalanceWise Study.

    PubMed

    St-Jules, David E; Woolf, Kathleen; Pompeii, Mary Lou; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2016-03-01

    To identify the problems experienced by hemodialysis (HD) patients in attempting to follow the HD diet and their relation to energy and nutrient intakes. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the BalanceWise Study. Participants included community-dwelling adults recruited from outpatient HD centers. After excluding participants with incomplete dietary analyses (n = 50), 140 African American and white (40/60%) men and women (52/48%) on chronic intermittent HD for at least 3 months (median 3 years) were included. Participant responses, on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "not at all a problem" to "a very important problem for me," to 34 questions pertaining to potential barriers to following the HD diet in the previous 2 months were classified as either a problem (1) or not a problem (2-5). Energy and nutrient intakes determined using the Nutrition Data System for Research® based on 3, non-consecutive, unscheduled, 2-pass 24-hour dietary recalls collected on 1 dialysis and 1 non-dialysis weekday, and 1 non-dialysis weekend day. More than half of participants reported having problems related to specific behavioral factors (e.g., feeling deprived), technical difficulties (e.g., tracking nutrients), and physical condition (e.g., appetite), but issues of time and food preparation and behavioral factors tended to be most deterministic of reported dietary intakes. Longer duration of HD was associated with lower intakes of protein, potassium, and phosphorus (P < .05). Registered dietitian nutritionists should consider issues of time and food preparation, and behavioral factors in their nutrition assessment of HD patients and should continually monitor HD patients for changes in protein intake that may occur over time. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploring problems in following the hemodialysis diet, and their relation to energy and nutrient intakes: The Balance Wise Study

    PubMed Central

    St-Jules, DE.; Woolf, K.; Pompeii, M.; Sevick, MA.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the problems experienced by hemodialysis (HD) patients in attempting to follow the HD diet, and their relation to energy and nutrient intakes. Design Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the BalanceWise Study. Setting Community-dwelling adults recruited from outpatient HD centers. Subjects After excluding participants with incomplete dietary analyses (n = 50), 140 community-dwelling African American and white (40/60%) men and women (52/48%) on chronic intermittent HD for at least three months (median three years) were included. Intervention Participant responses, on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from “not at all a problem” to “a very important problem for me”, to 34 questions pertaining to potential barriers to following the HD diet in the previous two months were classified as either a problem (1) or not a problem (2–5). Main Outcome Measure Energy and nutrient intakes determined using the Nutrition Data System for Research® based on three, non-consecutive, unscheduled, two-pass 24-hour dietary recalls collected on one dialysis and one non-dialysis weekday, and one non-dialysis weekend day. Results More than half of participants reported having problems related to specific behavioral factors (e.g., feeling deprived), technical difficulties (e.g., tracking nutrients) and physical condition (e.g., appetite), but issues of time and food preparation, and behavioral factors tended to be most deterministic of reported dietary intakes. Longer duration of HD was associated with lower intakes of protein, potassium, and phosphorus (p <0.05). Conclusion Registered dietitian nutritionists should consider issues of time and food preparation, and behavioral factors in their nutrition assessment of HD patients, and should continually monitor HD patients for changes in protein intake that may occur over time. PMID:26586249

  13. Dietary patterns, food groups, and nutrients as predictors of plasma choline and betaine in middle-aged and elderly men and women.

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, Svetlana V; Tell, Grethe S; Vollset, Stein E; Ulvik, Arve; Drevon, Christian A; Ueland, Per M

    2008-12-01

    Choline and betaine are linked to phospholipid and one-carbon metabolism. Blood concentrations or dietary intake of these quaternary amines have been related to the risk of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. We aimed to determine dietary predictors of plasma choline and betaine among middle-aged and elderly subjects recruited from an area without folic acid fortification. This is a population-based study of 5812 men and women aged 47-49 and 71-74 y, within the Hordaland Health Study cohort. Plasma concentrations per increasing quartile of intake of foods, beverages, and nutrients were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, and dietary patterns were assessed by factor analysis. Plasma choline was predicted by egg consumption (0.16 micromol/L; P < 0.0001) and cholesterol intake (0.16 micromol/L; P < 0.0001), and betaine was predicted by consumption of high-fiber bread (0.65 micromol/L; P < 0.0001); high-fat dairy products (-0.70 micromol/L; P < 0.0001); complex carbohydrates, fiber, folate, and thiamine (0.66-1.44 micromol/L; P patterns, whereas betaine was negatively associated with a Western dietary pattern with a high loading for meat, pizza, sugar, and fat (P < 0.0001). In this population of middle-aged and elderly men and women, recruited from an area with relatively low folate intake, neither plasma choline nor betaine was positively associated with consumption of animal products, fruit, or vegetables, but each was positively associated with the intake of specific food items such as eggs (choline) and bread (betaine).

  14. Quantitative estimates of dietary intake with special emphasis on snacking pattern and nutritional status of free living adults in urban slums of Delhi: impact of nutrition transition

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Archna; Gupta, Vidhu; Ghosh, Arpita; Lock, Karen; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna

    2016-01-01

    Background The nutritional landscape of India is experiencing the fallout of urbanization and globalization. The changes are manifest in dietary patterns as well as health outcomes. The study aimed at assessing household dietary intake pattern with special emphasis on snacking pattern, anthropometric and lipid profiles in low socio-economic status households in an urban slum of Delhi. Methods Community based cross-sectional study in 260 households of a purposively selected urban slum in North-East district of Delhi, India. Family dietary surveys including consumption pattern of commercial food products rich in Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils (PHVOs), 24 h dietary recall and assessment of dietary diversity using Household Diet Diversity Scores (HDDS) were done. Assessment of nutritional status using anthropometric and lipid profile on a subsample (n =130) were also conducted. Results Median energy and fat intake were adequate. Micronutrient intake was found to be inadequate for vitamin A, riboflavin, calcium and folate. PHVO usage was low (<20 % households). Milk (39 %), green leafy vegetables (25 %) and fruits (25 %) intake were below recommendations. Mean HDDS was 7.87. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was high (66.7 %). Lipid profile showed mean HDL-C levels lower than recommendations for females. Conclusion Community based awareness programs for prevention of non-communicable diseases should incorporate healthy diet and lifestyle practices with emphasis on quantity and quality of nutrient intake. This must be considered as an integral part of chronic disease prevention strategy for underprivileged communities in urban India. PMID:26918196

  15. Quantitative estimates of dietary intake with special emphasis on snacking pattern and nutritional status of free living adults in urban slums of Delhi: impact of nutrition transition.

    PubMed

    Singh, Archna; Gupta, Vidhu; Ghosh, Arpita; Lock, Karen; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna

    2015-10-14

    The nutritional landscape of India is experiencing the fallout of urbanization and globalization. The changes are manifest in dietary patterns as well as health outcomes. The study aimed at assessing household dietary intake pattern with special emphasis on snacking pattern, anthropometric and lipid profiles in low socio-economic status households in an urban slum of Delhi. Community based cross-sectional study in 260 households of a purposively selected urban slum in North-East district of Delhi, India. Family dietary surveys including consumption pattern of commercial food products rich in Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils (PHVOs), 24 h dietary recall and assessment of dietary diversity using Household Diet Diversity Scores (HDDS) were done. Assessment of nutritional status using anthropometric and lipid profile on a subsample ( n =130) were also conducted. Median energy and fat intake were adequate. Micronutrient intake was found to be inadequate for vitamin A, riboflavin, calcium and folate. PHVO usage was low (<20 % households). Milk (39 %), green leafy vegetables (25 %) and fruits (25 %) intake were below recommendations. Mean HDDS was 7.87. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was high (66.7 %). Lipid profile showed mean HDL-C levels lower than recommendations for females. Community based awareness programs for prevention of non-communicable diseases should incorporate healthy diet and lifestyle practices with emphasis on quantity and quality of nutrient intake. This must be considered as an integral part of chronic disease prevention strategy for underprivileged communities in urban India.

  16. Foods, Nutrients, and Dietary Patterns: Interconnections and Implications for Dietary Guidelines12

    PubMed Central

    Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2016-01-01

    Dietary guidelines provide evidence-based statements on food choices to meet nutritional requirements and reduce the risk of prevailing chronic disease. They involve a substantial amount of research translation, and their implementation has important health consequences. Foods, however, are complex combinations of nutrients and other compounds that act synergistically within the food and across food combinations. In addition, the evidence base underpinning dietary guidelines accesses research that reflects different study designs, with inherent strengths and limitations. We propose a systematic approach for the review of evidence that begins with research on dietary patterns. This research will identify the combinations of foods that best protect, or appear deleterious to, health. Next, we suggest that evidence be sought from research that focuses on the effects of individual foods. Finally, nutrient-based research should be considered to explain the mechanisms by which these foods and dietary patterns exert their effects, take into account the effects of ingredients added to the food supply, and enable assessments of dietary sufficiency. The consideration of individual nutrients and food components (e.g., upper limits for saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium) provides important benchmarks for evaluating overall diet quality. The concepts of core and discretionary foods (nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor foods, respectively) enable distinctions between foods, and this has implications for the relation between food policy and food manufacturing. In summary, evidence supporting healthy dietary patterns provides the foundation for the development of dietary guidelines. Further reference to individual foods and nutrients follows from the foundation of healthy dietary patterns. PMID:27184272

  17. Energy and nutrient intake in preschool and school age Mexican children: National Nutrition Survey 1999.

    PubMed

    Barquera, Simón; Rivera, Juan A; Safdie, Margarita; Flores, Mario; Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Campirano, Fabricio

    2003-01-01

    To estimate energy and nutrient intake and adequacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999). Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n = 1,309) and school (n = 2,611) children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions, socio-economic strata, and between urban and rural areas, and indigenous vs. non-indigenous children. Median energy intake in pre-school children was 949 kcal and in school children 1,377 kcal, with adequacies < 70% for both groups. Protein adequacy was > 150% in both age groups. The North and Mexico City regions had the highest fat intake and the lowest fiber intake. Children in the South region, indigenous children, and those in the lowest socio-economic stratum had higher fiber and carbohydrate intakes and the lowest fat intake. These children also showed the highest risks of inadequacies for vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, iron, zinc and calcium. Mexico is experiencing a nutrition transition with internal inequalities across regions and socio-economic strata. Food policy must account for these differences in order to optimize resources directed at social programs. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.

  18. Temporal patterns of caffeine intake in the United States.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika; Lau, Annette; Richardson, Philip; Roberts, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    To investigate whether caffeine intake among adolescents and adults in the U.S. varies across the week or throughout the day, data from a 7-day online beverage consumption survey (2010-2011) were analyzed. Mean (206.8-213.0 mg/day) and 90th percentile (437.4-452.6 mg/day) daily caffeine intakes among consumers 13 years and older were relatively constant across the week with no marked difference among weekdays versus weekend days. Percent consumers of caffeinated beverages likewise remained stable across the week. Mean daily caffeine intake for coffee and energy drink consumers 13 years and older was higher than contributions for tea and carbonated soft drink consumers. Caffeinated beverage consumers (13 + yrs) consumed most of their caffeine in the morning (61% versus 21% and 18% in the afternoon and evening) which was driven by coffee. Caffeinated beverage consumption patterns among adolescents (13-17 yrs) - who typically consume less daily caffeine - were more evenly distributed throughout the day. These findings provide insight into U.S. temporal caffeine consumption patterns among specific caffeinated beverage consumers and different age brackets. These data suggest that while caffeine intakes do not vary from day-to-day, mornings generally drive the daily caffeine intake of adults and is predominantly attributed to coffee. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of feeding cassava bioethanol waste on nutrient intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in growing goats.

    PubMed

    Cherdthong, Anusorn; Pornjantuek, Boonserm; Wachirapakorn, Chalong

    2016-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of various levels of cassava bioethanol waste (CBW) on nutrient intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites in growing goats. Twelve crossbred, male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) growing goats with initial body weight (BW) of 20±3 kg were randomly assigned according to a completely randomized design (CRD). The dietary treatments were total mixed ration (TMR) containing various levels of CBW at 0, 10, and 20 % dry matter (DM). CBW contained crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL) at 11, 69, 47, and 23 % DM, respectively. The TMR diets were offered ad libitum and contained CP at 15 % DM. Inclusion of CBW at 10 % DM in TMR did not alter feed intake (g DM and g/kg BW(0.75)) and CP intake when compared to the control fed group (0 % CBW). Total OM intake was lower in the 20 % CBW group than in the others (P < 0.01). The digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, and NDF were not changed for the TMR including 10 % CBW compared to the control group (P > 0.05) whereas when 20 % CBW was incorporated to diet, intermediate digestibility coefficients were decreased. Average ruminal pH values ranged from 6-7. Rumen NH3-N and PUN concentration at 0, 3, and 6 h post-feeding were not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05). Thus, inclusion of 10 % CBW in TMR diets does not adversely affect nutrient intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolite in fattening goats, and CBW may be effectively used as an alternative roughage source in the diets of goats.

  20. Energy intake and snack choice by the meal patterns of employed people

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se Min

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide descriptive information on meal and snack patterns and to investigate snacks in relation to energy intake and food choice according to the meal patterns of employed people in Korea. 683 employed people (292 males, 391 females) were interviewed to collect one day dietary data by using 24-h dietary recall. A recorded day was divided into 3 meal and 3 snack periods by the respondent's criteria and the time of consumption. To analyze the eating pattern participants were divided as the more frequent snack eaters (MFSE) and the less frequent snack eaters (LFSE). They were also categorized into 6 groups according to the frequency of all eating occasions. The common meal pattern in nearly half of the subjects (47.6%) was composed of three meals plus one or two snacks per day. A trend of an increasing the number of snacks in between main meals emerges, although the conventional meal pattern is still retained in most employed Korean adults. Women, aged 30-39, and urban residents, had a higher number of being MFSE than LFSE. Increasing eating occasions was associated with higher energy, protein, and carbohydrate intakes, with the exception of fat intakes. 16.8% of the total daily energy intake came from snack consumption, while the 3 main meals contributed 83.2%. Energy and macronutrient intakes from snacks in the MFSE were significantly higher than the LFSE. Instant coffee was the most popular snack in the morning and afternoon, whereas heavy snacks and alcohol were more frequently consumed by both of the meal skipper groups (≤2M+2,3S and ≤2M+0,1S) in the evening. In conclusion, meal pattern is changing to reflect an increase of more snacks between the three main meals. Meal and snack patterns may be markers for the energy and macronutrient intakes of employed people in Korea. PMID:20198208

  1. Variation in nutrient digestibility and energy intake are key contributors to differences in postweaning growth performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, C K; Patience, J F

    2014-05-01

    Pig weight variation represents an important source of lost production and profitability in the swine industry. To date, few experiments have classified how pigs of the same age but different weight utilize dietary energy and nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to characterize how pigs with varying weaning weights (WW) and postweaning growth performance differ in apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy or nutrient digestibility or energy utilization. Ninety-six barrows weaned at 18 to 22 d of age were selected from 960 to represent the 10% of the lightest (LWW), median (MWW), and heaviest (HWW) at weaning (n = 32 pigs per WW category). Pigs were housed in metabolism crates for a 5-d acclimation period and a 27-d study and fed ad libitum quantities of a common diet containing titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker. Fecal grab samples and total urine were collected during a 3-d collection period at the beginning and end of the experiment. After the experiment, pigs within each WW category were further classified into the 33% slowest, median, or fastest ADG categories. This resulted in a total of 9 treatments in a nested design. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. There were no differences in ATTD according to WW at the beginning or end of the experiment, or when ADG was nested within WW at the beginning of the experiment. However, the ATTD of DM, GE, N, and ash, as well as the related DE, ME, and NE content, were greatest (P < 0.01) in the median ADG categories of pigs at the end of the experiment. Energy intake increased with increasing WW (P < 0.001; NE intake = 1.40, 1.64, and 1.89 Mcal/d for pigs from the LWW, MWW, and HWW, respectively). However, the ratio of calculated to actual ME intake was lower in LWW pigs than HWW pigs (P = 0.04; 1.03 and 1.10 for LWW and HWW pigs, respectively). When ADG was nested within WW category, both increasing WW and ADG increased (P < 0.001) energy intake, utilization, and efficiency

  2. Effectiveness in improving knowledge, practices, and intakes of "key problem nutrients" of a complementary feeding intervention developed by using linear programming: experience in Lombok, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Fahmida, Umi; Kolopaking, Risatianti; Santika, Otte; Sriani, Sriani; Umar, Jahja; Htet, Min Kyaw; Ferguson, Elaine

    2015-03-01

    Complementary feeding recommendations (CFRs) with the use of locally available foods can be developed by using linear programming (LP). Although its potential has been shown for planning phases of food-based interventions, the effectiveness in the community setting has not been tested to our knowledge. We aimed to assess effectiveness of promoting optimized CFRs for improving maternal knowledge, feeding practices, and child intakes of key problem nutrients (calcium, iron, niacin, and zinc). A community-intervention trial with a quasi-experimental design was conducted in East Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia, on children aged 9-16 mo at baseline. A CFR group (n = 240) was compared with a non-CFR group (n = 215). The CFRs, which were developed using LP, were promoted in an intervention that included monthly cooking sessions and weekly home visits. The mother's nutrition knowledge and her child's feeding practices and the child's nutrient intakes were measured before and after the 6-mo intervention by using a structured interview, 24-h recall, and 1-wk food-frequency questionnaire. The CFR intervention improved mothers' knowledge and children's feeding practices and improved children's intakes of calcium, iron, and zinc. At the end line, median (IQR) nutrient densities were significantly higher in the CFR group than in the non-CFR group for iron [i.e., 0.6 mg/100 kcal (0.4-0.8 mg/100 kcal) compared with 0.5 mg/100 kcal (0.4-0.7 mg/100 kcal)] and niacin [i.e., 0.8 mg/100 kcal (0.5-1.0 mg/100 kcal) compared with 0.6 mg/100 kcal (0.4-0.8 mg/100 kcal)]. However, median nutrient densities for calcium, iron, niacin, and zinc in the CFR group (23, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.5 mg/100 kcal, respectively) were still below desired densities (63, 1.0, 0.9, and 0.6 mg/100 kcal, respectively). The CFRs significantly increased intakes of calcium, iron, niacin, and zinc, but nutrient densities were still below desired nutrient densities. When the adoption of optimized CFRs is

  3. Food Group Intake and Micronutrient Adequacy in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Lynn L.; Singer, Martha R.; Qureshi, M. Mustafa; Bradlee, M. Loring; Daniels, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the contribution of food group intakes to micronutrient adequacy among 2379 girls in the National Growth and Health Study during three age periods (9–13, 14–18, and 19–20 years). Data on food and nutrient intakes from 3-day diet records over 10 years were used to estimate mean intakes and percent meeting Dietary Guidelines (DGA) recommendations for food intakes and Institute of Medicine’s recommendations for vitamins and minerals. More than 90% of girls failed to consume the recommended amounts of fruit, vegetables and dairy; 75% consumed less than the recommended amounts in the “meat” group. The vast majority of girls of all ages had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins D and E. In contrast, they consumed >750 kcal/day (~40% of total energy) from the DGA category of solid fat and added sugars, about five times the recommended maximum intakes. This study shows the importance of consuming a variety of foods in all five food groups, including those that are more energy dense such as dairy and meats, in order to meet a broad range of nutrient guidelines. Diet patterns that combined intakes across food groups led to greater improvements in overall nutritional adequacy. PMID:23201841

  4. Assessment of nutrient and water intake among adolescents from sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Eliene F; Da Costa, Teresa H M; Nogueira, Julia A D; Vivaldi, Lúcio J

    2008-06-01

    Adolescents aged 11-14 years (n 326), belonging to organized sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil were interviewed. Subjects (n 107) provided four non-consecutive days of food consumption and 219 subjects provided two non-consecutive days of intake. The objective was to assess their nutrient and water intake according to dietary reference intake values and their energy and macronutrient intake by sex and sports groups they were engaged in: endurance, strength-skill or mixed, according to the guidelines established by the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM). Dietary data were corrected for intra-individual variation. Total energy expenditure was higher among endurance athletes (P < 0.001) following their higher training time (P < 0.001) when compared to adolescents engaged in strength-skill or mixed sports. Total energy intake was only significantly higher among endurance-engaged females (P = 0.05). Protein intake of males was above the guidelines established by the ACSM for all sports groups. All male sport groups fulfilled the intake levels of carbohydrate per kg body weight but only females engaged in endurance sports fulfilled carbohydrate guidelines. Intakes of micronutrients with low prevalence of adequate intake were: vitamins B1, E and folate, magnesium and phosphorus. Few adolescents ( < 5 %) presented adequate intake for calcium, fibre, drinking water and beverages. For micronutrients, prevalence of adequacies were lower for females than males, except for liquids and water. Nutrition guidance is needed to help adolescents fulfil specific guidelines of macronutrient intake for their sports and to improve their intake of micronutrients and water. Special attention should be given to female adolescent athletes.

  5. Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study: do vitamin and mineral supplements contribute to nutrient adequacy or excess among US infants and toddlers?

    PubMed

    Briefel, Ronette; Hanson, Charlotte; Fox, Mary Kay; Novak, Timothy; Ziegler, Paula

    2006-01-01

    To report the prevalence of dietary supplement use in a random sample of US infants 4 to 24 months of age, and to compare demographic characteristics, usual nutrient intakes, and food patterns of supplement users and nonusers. Data from 24-hour recalls collected for the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study were analyzed. Recalls included nutrient contributions from dietary supplements as well as all foods and beverages. We estimated usual energy and nutrient intakes of supplement users and nonusers, as well as the prevalence of nutrient adequacy and excess in the two groups. We also compared demographic characteristics and food patterns of supplement users and nonusers and, for supplement users, estimated the proportion of total intake provided by foods and the proportion provided by supplements. A national random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers age 4 to 24 months, including 430 vitamin and/or mineral supplement users and 2,592 nonusers. We compared means, percentile distributions, and proportions by age and supplement subgroup, and applied the Dietary Reference Intakes to assess usual nutrient intakes. We conducted regression analysis to determine which population characteristics predict the use of dietary supplements in this population. Overall, 8% of infants age 4 to 5 months received some type of dietary supplement. The prevalence of supplement use increased with age, to 19% among infants 6 to 11 months and 31% among toddlers 12 to 24 months. The vast majority of supplement users (97%) received only one type of supplement, most commonly a multivitamin and/or mineral supplement. Vitamin/mineral supplement use among infants and toddlers was associated with being a first-born child and being reported by the primary caretaker as being a picky eater. Characteristics that were independent predictors of supplement use were living in the Northeast, being male, and living in a household with fewer children. We found no significant differences between supplement

  6. Innu food consumption patterns: traditional food and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Atikessé, Laura; de Grosbois, Sylvie Boucher; St-Jean, Mélissa; Penashue, Basile Mashen; Benuen, Manipia

    2010-01-01

    Food consumption patterns of an Innu community were described and the benefits of traditional food (TF) were investigated in relation to body mass index (BMI). A cross-sectional study was conducted using food frequency and 24-hour recall questionnaires to evaluate consumption patterns (n=118) and to assess energy and nutrient intakes from TF and store-bought food (SBF) (n=161). Body mass index was calculated with a sub-sample of 45 participants. Mean yearly TF meal consumption was significantly related to age (p=0.05). Participants reporting high TF and low SBF consumption presented with a normal body weight (BMI=24.1) at the lower quartile and a slightly overweight status (BMI=25.8) at the median. Mean values for protein and carbohydrate intake were higher than the Dietary Reference Intakes, whereas dietary fibre intake was below these guidelines for both genders. Store-bought food provided higher levels of energy and nutrients, except for protein. Although Innu consume high amounts of TF and SBF, a lack of some essential nutrients was observed. Because TF intake was related to a tendency toward a lower BMI, a combined, targeted diet could be proposed. Health services could reinforce the importance of TF consumption and promote traditional dietary practices that offer advantages at many levels.

  7. A profile of New Zealand 'Asian' participants of the 2008/09 Adult National Nutrition Survey: focus on dietary habits, nutrient intakes and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Parackal, Sherly M; Smith, Claire; Parnell, Winsome Ruth

    2015-04-01

    To investigate similarities and differences in dietary habits, nutrient intakes and health outcomes of South Asians (SA) and East and South-East Asians (ESEA) and the New Zealand European and Other (NZEO) group, and to examine differences within 'Asian' subgroups according to duration of residence. Nutrient intake data from 24 h diet recalls and data from the dietary habits questionnaire, anthropometry and biochemical analyses from the cross-sectional 2008/09 Adult National Nutrition Survey in New Zealand were compared for participants categorized as SA, ESEA and NZEO. Adults aged 15 years and older (n 2995). New Zealand households. SA were more likely to 'never' eat red meat in comparison to NZEO (P<0.001) and among females also in comparison to ESEA (P<0.05). Intakes of fats and some micronutrients (riboflavin, vitamin B6, B12, Se) were lower among SA than NZEO (P<0.05). Lower intakes of Zn and vitamin B12 were reported by SA females compared with ESEA and NZEO females (P<0.05). A higher percentage of SA were obese using ethnic-specific cut-offs, had lower indices of Fe status and reported diagnosed diabetes compared with NZEO and ESEA. Recent SA male migrants had higher intakes of β-carotene, vitamin C and Ca compared with long-term migrants (P<0.05). The results of the present study indicate that dietary habits, nutrient intakes, blood profile and body size differ significantly between Asian subgroups. It also provides some evidence for changes in dietary intakes according to duration of residence especially for SA males.

  8. Consumption of ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) among Malaysian children and association with socio-demographics and nutrient intakes - findings from the MyBreakfast study.

    PubMed

    Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Norimah, A Karim; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Tan, Sue Yee; Appukutty, Mahenderan; Hopkins, Sinead; Thielecke, Frank; Ong, Moi Kim; Ning, Celia; Tee, E Siong

    2017-01-01

    Background : The association between different types of breakfast meals and nutrient intakes has been studied to a lesser extent. Objective : This study compared nutrient intakes at breakfast and throughout the day between Malaysian children who consumed ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) and those who did not. Methods : Anthropometric and dietary data for 1955 children aged 6-12 years from the MyBreakfast study were used in the analysis. Results : Overall, 18% of the children consumed RTEC at breakfast on at least one of the recall days. RTEC consumption was associated with younger age, urban areas, higher income and education level of parents. Among consumers, RTEC contributed 10% and 15% to daily intakes of calcium and iron respectively and ≥20% to daily intakes of vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin. RTEC consumers had significantly higher mean intakes of vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, iron and sugar but lower intakes of fat and sodium than non-RTEC consumers at breakfast and for the total day. Conclusion : Consumption of fortified RTEC at breakfast was associated with lower fat and sodium intakes and higher intakes of several micronutrients both at breakfast and for the total day. However, total sugar intakes appeared to be higher.

  9. Enhanced efficiency fertilisers: a review of formulation and nutrient release patterns.

    PubMed

    Timilsena, Yakindra Prasad; Adhikari, Raju; Casey, Phil; Muster, Tim; Gill, Harsharn; Adhikari, Benu

    2015-04-01

    Fertilisers are one of the most important elements of modern agriculture. The application of fertilisers in agricultural practices has markedly increased the production of food, feed, fuel, fibre and other plant products. However, a significant portion of nutrients applied in the field is not taken up by plants and is lost through leaching, volatilisation, nitrification, or other means. Such a loss increases the cost of fertiliser and severely pollutes the environment. To alleviate these problems, enhanced efficiency fertilisers (EEFs) are produced and used in the form of controlled release fertilisers and nitrification/urease inhibitors. The application of biopolymers for coating in EEFs, tailoring the release pattern of nutrients to closely match the growth requirement of plants and development of realistic models to predict the release pattern of common nutrients have been the foci of fertiliser research. In this context, this paper intends to review relevant aspects of new developments in fertiliser production and use, agronomic, economic and environmental drives for enhanced efficiency fertilisers and their formulation process and the nutrient release behaviour. Application of biopolymers and complex coacervation technique for nutrient encapsulation is also explored as a promising technology to produce EEFs. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Nutrient Status of Adults with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    GORDON, CATHERINE M.; ANDERSON, ELLEN J.; HERLYN, KAREN; HUBBARD, JANE L.; PIZZO, ANGELA; GELBARD, RONDI; LAPEY, ALLEN; MERKEL, PETER A.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition is thought to influence disease status in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This cross-sectional study sought to evaluate nutrient intake and anthropometric data from 64 adult outpatients with cystic fibrosis. Nutrient intake from food and supplements was compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes for 16 nutrients and outcomes influenced by nutritional status. Attention was given to vitamin D and calcium given potential skeletal implications due to cystic fibrosis. Measurements included weight, height, body composition, pulmonary function, and serum metabolic parameters. Participants were interviewed about dietary intake, supplement use, pulmonary function, sunlight exposure, and pain. The participants’ mean body mass index (±standard deviation) was 21.8±4.9 and pulmonary function tests were normal. Seventy-eight percent used pancreatic enzyme replacement for malabsorption. Vitamin D deficiency [25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)<37.5 nmol/L] was common: 25 (39%) were deficient despite adequate vitamin D intake. Lipid profiles were normal in the majority, even though total and saturated fat consumption represented 33.0% and 16.8% of energy intake, respectively. Reported protein intake represented 16.9% of total energy intake (range 10%–25%). For several nutrients, including vitamin D and calcium, intake from food and supplements in many participants exceeded recommended Tolerable Upper Intake Levels. Among adults with cystic fibrosis, vitamin D deficiency was common despite reported adequate intake, and lipid profiles were normal despite a relatively high fat intake. Mean protein consumption was adequate, but the range of intake was concerning, as both inadequate or excessive intake may have deleterious skeletal effects. These findings call into question the applicability of established nutrient thresholds for patients with cystic fibrosis. PMID:18060897

  11. Food-group and nutrient-density intakes by Hispanic and Latino backgrounds in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    PubMed

    Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Ginsberg, Mindy; Himes, John H; Liu, Kiang; Loria, Catherine M; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Rock, Cheryl L; Rodriguez, Brendaly; Gellman, Marc D; Van Horn, Linda

    2014-06-01

    Hispanics are a heterogeneous group of individuals with a variation in dietary habits that is reflective of their cultural heritage and country of origin. It is important to identify differences in their dietary habits because it has been well established that nutrition contributes substantially to the burden of preventable diseases and early deaths in the United States. We estimated the distribution of usual intakes (of both food groups and nutrients) by Hispanic and Latino backgrounds by using National Cancer Institute methodology. The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos is a population-based cohort study that recruited participants who were 18-74 y of age from 4 US cities in 2008-2011 (Miami, Bronx, Chicago, and San Diego). Participants who provided at least one 24-h dietary recall and completed a food propensity questionnaire (n = 13,285) were included in the analyses. Results were adjusted for age, sex, field center, weekend, sequencing, and typical amount of intake. Overall, Cubans (n = 2128) had higher intakes of total energy, macronutrients (including all subtypes of fat), and alcohol than those of other groups. Mexicans (n = 5371) had higher intakes of vitamin C, calcium, and fiber. Lowest intakes of total energy, macronutrients, folate, iron, and calcium were reported by Dominicans (n = 1217), whereas Puerto Ricans (n = 2176) had lowest intakes of vitamin C and fiber. Food-group servings reflected nutrient intakes, with Cubans having higher intakes of refined grains, vegetables, red meat, and fats and Dominicans having higher intakes of fruit and poultry, whereas Puerto Ricans had lowest intakes of fruit and vegetables. Central and South Americans (n = 1468 and 925, respectively) were characterized by being second in their reported intakes of fruit and poultry and the highest in fish intake in comparison with other groups. Variations in diet noted in this study, with additional analysis, may help explain diet-related differences in health

  12. Unique dietary patterns and chronic disease risk profiles of adult men: the Framingham nutrition studies.

    PubMed

    Millen, Barbara E; Quatromoni, Paula A; Pencina, Michael; Kimokoti, Ruth; Nam, Byung-H O; Cobain, Sonia; Kozak, Waldemar; Appugliese, Danielle P; Ordovas, Jose; D'Agostino, Ralph B

    2005-11-01

    To identify the dietary patterns of adult men and examine their relationships with nutrient intake and chronic disease risk over long-term follow-up. Baseline 145-item food frequency questionnaires from 1,666 Framingham Offspring-Spouse cohort men were used to identify comprehensive dietary patterns. Independent 3-day dietary records at baseline and 8 years later provided estimates of subjects' nutrient intake by dietary pattern. Chronic disease risk factor status was compared at baseline and 16-year follow-up across all male dietary patterns. Cluster analysis was applied to food frequency data to identify non-overlapping male dietary patterns. Analysis of covariance and logistic regression were used to compare nutrient intake, summary nutritional risk scores, and chronic disease risk status at baseline and follow-up by male dietary pattern. Five distinct and comprehensive dietary patterns of Framingham Offspring-Spouse men were identified and ordered according to overall nutritional risk: Transition to Heart Healthy, Higher Starch, Average Male, Lower Variety, and Empty Calories. Nutritional risk was high and varied by dietary pattern; key nutrient contrasts were stable over 8-year follow-up. Chronic disease risk also varied by dietary pattern and specific subgroup differences persisted over 16 years, notably rates of overweight/obesity and smoking. Quantitative cluster analysis applied to food frequency questionnaire data identified five distinct, comprehensive, and stable dietary patterns of adult Framingham Offspring-Spouse cohort men. The close associations between the dietary patterns, nutritional risk, and chronic disease profiles of men emphasize the importance of targeted preventive nutrition interventions to promote health in the male population.

  13. The nutrient-load hypothesis: patterns of resource limitation and community structure driven by competition for nutrients and light.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Verena S; Stomp, Maayke; Huisman, Jef

    2012-06-01

    Resource competition theory predicts that the outcome of competition for two nutrients depends on the ratio at which these nutrients are supplied. Yet there is considerable debate whether nutrient ratios or absolute nutrient loads determine the species composition of phytoplankton and plant communities. Here we extend the classical resource competition model for two nutrients by including light as additional resource. Our results suggest the nutrient-load hypothesis, which predicts that nutrient ratios determine the species composition in oligotrophic environments, whereas nutrient loads are decisive in eutrophic environments. The underlying mechanism is that nutrient enrichment shifts the species interactions from competition for nutrients to competition for light, which favors the dominance of superior light competitors overshadowing all other species. Intermediate nutrient loads can generate high biodiversity through a fine-grained patchwork of two-species and three-species coexistence equilibria. Depending on the species traits, however, competition for nutrients and light may also produce multiple alternative stable states, suppressing the predictability of the species composition. The nutrient-load hypothesis offers a solution for several discrepancies between classical resource competition theory and field observations, explains why eutrophication often leads to diversity loss, and provides a simple conceptual framework for patterns of biodiversity and community structure observed in nature.

  14. Effect of a strict vegan diet on energy and nutrient intakes by Finnish rheumatoid patients.

    PubMed

    Rauma, A L; Nenonen, M; Helve, T; Hänninen, O

    1993-10-01

    Dietary intake data of 43 Finnish rheumatoid arthritis patients were collected using 7-day food records. The subjects were randomized into a control and a vegan diet groups, consisting of 22 and 21 subjects, respectively. The subjects in the vegan diet group received an uncooked vegan diet ('living food') for 3 months, and they were tutored daily by a living-food expert. The subjects in the control group continued their usual diets and received no tutoring. Adherence to the strict vegan diet was assessed on the basis of urinary sodium excretion and by the information on consumption of specific food items (wheatgrass juice and the rejuvelac drink). The use of these drinks was variable, and some boiled vegetables were consumed occasionally. However, only one of the subjects in the vegan diet group lacked a clear decrease in urinary sodium excretion. Rheumatoid patients had lower than recommended intakes of iron, zinc and niacin, and their energy intake was low compared to mean daily energy intake of the healthy Finnish females of the same age. Shifting to the uncooked vegan diet significantly increased the intakes of energy and many nutrients. In spite of the increased energy intake, the group on the vegan diet lost 9% of their body weight during the intervention period, indicating a low availability of energy from the vegan diet.

  15. Dietary pattern analysis: a comparison between matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects.

    PubMed

    Clarys, Peter; Deriemaeker, Peter; Huybrechts, Inge; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Mullie, Patrick

    2013-06-13

    Dietary pattern analysis, based on the concept that foods eaten together are as important as a reductive methodology characterized by a single food or nutrient analysis, has emerged as an alternative approach to study the relation between nutrition and disease. The aim of the present study was to compare nutritional intake and the results of dietary pattern analysis in properly matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects. Vegetarians (n = 69) were recruited via purposeful sampling and matched non-vegetarians (n = 69) with same age, gender, health and lifestyle characteristics were searched for via convenience sampling. Two dietary pattern analysis methods, the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) were calculated and analysed in function of the nutrient intake. Mean total energy intake was comparable between vegetarians and omnivorous subjects (p > 0.05). Macronutrient analysis revealed significant differences between the mean values for vegetarians and omnivorous subjects (absolute and relative protein and total fat intake were significantly lower in vegetarians, while carbohydrate and fibre intakes were significantly higher in vegetarians than in omnivorous subjects). The HEI and MDS were significantly higher for the vegetarians (HEI = 53.8.1 ± 11.2; MDS = 4.3 ± 1.3) compared to the omnivorous subjects (HEI = 46.4 ± 15.3; MDS = 3.8 ± 1.4). Our results indicate a more nutrient dense pattern, closer to the current dietary recommendations for the vegetarians compared to the omnivorous subjects. Both indexing systems were able to discriminate between the vegetarians and the non-vegetarians with higher scores for the vegetarian subjects.

  16. The Effect of Using Mobile Technology-Based Methods That Record Food or Nutrient Intake on Diabetes Control and Nutrition Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Porter, Judi; Huggins, Catherine E; Truby, Helen; Collins, Jorja

    2016-12-17

    (1) Background: Mobile technologies may be utilised for dietary intake assessment for people with diabetes. The published literature was systematically reviewed to determine the effect of using mobile electronic devices to record food or nutrient intake on diabetes control and nutrition outcomes; (2) Methods: The review protocol was registered with PROSPERO: registration number CRD42016050079, and followed PRISMA guidelines. Original research of mobile electronic devices where food or nutrient intake was recorded in people with diabetes with any treatment regimen, and where this intervention was compared with usual care or alternative treatment models, was considered. Quality was assessed using the Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research; (3) Results: Nine papers formed the final library with a range of interventions and control practices investigated. The food/nutrient intake recording component of the intervention and patient engagement with the technology was not well described. When assessed for quality, three studies rated positive, five were neutral and one negative. There was significantly greater improvement in HbA1c in the intervention group compared to the control group in four of the nine studies; (4) Conclusion: Based on the available evidence there are no clear recommendations for using technology to record dietary data in this population.

  17. The Effect of Using Mobile Technology-Based Methods That Record Food or Nutrient Intake on Diabetes Control and Nutrition Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Judi; Huggins, Catherine E.; Truby, Helen; Collins, Jorja

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Mobile technologies may be utilised for dietary intake assessment for people with diabetes. The published literature was systematically reviewed to determine the effect of using mobile electronic devices to record food or nutrient intake on diabetes control and nutrition outcomes; (2) Methods: The review protocol was registered with PROSPERO: registration number CRD42016050079, and followed PRISMA guidelines. Original research of mobile electronic devices where food or nutrient intake was recorded in people with diabetes with any treatment regimen, and where this intervention was compared with usual care or alternative treatment models, was considered. Quality was assessed using the Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research; (3) Results: Nine papers formed the final library with a range of interventions and control practices investigated. The food/nutrient intake recording component of the intervention and patient engagement with the technology was not well described. When assessed for quality, three studies rated positive, five were neutral and one negative. There was significantly greater improvement in HbA1c in the intervention group compared to the control group in four of the nine studies; (4) Conclusion: Based on the available evidence there are no clear recommendations for using technology to record dietary data in this population. PMID:27999302

  18. Evaluation of an FFQ to assess total energy and nutrient intakes in severely obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Shukri, Nor A; Bolton, Jennifer L; Norman, Jane E; Walker, Brian R; Reynolds, Rebecca M

    2013-08-01

    FFQ are popular instruments for assessing dietary intakes in epidemiological studies but have not been validated for use in severely obese pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to compare nutrient intakes assessed by an FFQ with those obtained from a food diary among severely obese pregnant women. Comparison of an FFQ containing 170 food items and a food diary for 4 d (three weekdays and one weekend day); absolute agreement was assessed using the paired t test and relative agreement by Pearson/Spearman correlation, crossclassification into tertiles and weighted kappa values. Antenatal metabolic clinic for severely obese women. Thirty-one severely obese (BMI at booking ≥ 40.0 kg/m2) and thirty-two lean control (BMI520.0–24.9 kg/m2) pregnant women. The findings showed that nutrient intakes estimated by the FFQ were significantly higher than those from the food diary; average correlation was 0.32 in obese and 0.43 in lean women. A mean of 48.5% of obese and 47.3% of lean women were correctly classified, while 12.9% (obese) and 10.0% (lean) were grossly misclassified. Weighted k values ranged from 20.04 to 0.79 in obese women and from 0.16 to 0.78 in lean women. Overall, the relative agreement between the FFQ and food diary was lower in the obese group than in the lean group, but was comparable with earlier studies conducted in pregnant women. The validity assessments suggest that the FFQ is a useful tool for ranking severely obese pregnant women according to the levels of their dietary intake.

  19. Whole-grain consumption is associated with diet quality and nutrient intake in adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Zanovec, Michael; Cho, Susan

    2010-10-01

    The consumption of whole grains and its association with nutrient intake has not been assessed in a recent nationally representative population. To examine the association of consumption of whole grains, using the new whole-grain definition, with diet quality and nutrient intake in a recent, nationally representative sample of adults. Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Adults aged 19 to 50 years (n=7,039) and aged 51 years and older (n=6,237). Participants were divided into four whole-grain consumption groups: ≤0 to <0.6, ≥0.6 to <1.5, ≥1.5 to <3.0, and ≥3.0 servings (ounce equivalents)/day. Macro- and micronutrient intakes and diet quality, using the Healthy Eating Index, were determined for each group. Sample weights were applied. The percentages of adults in whole-grain consumption groups were calculated. The covariates used were energy, ethnicity, sex, and age. Least-square means were calculated. P for linear trend analysis was determined using whole-grain intake as a linear covariate. A P value of ≤0.05 was considered significant. Adults aged 19 to 50 and 51+ years consumed a mean of 0.63 and 0.77 servings of whole grains per day, respectively. For both age groups, diet quality and intake of energy, fiber, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were significantly higher in those consuming the most servings of whole grains. Intake of total sugars (19 to 50 year age group only), added sugars, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol was significantly lower in those consuming the most servings of whole grains. Intake of all micronutrients, except vitamin B-12 and sodium, was higher among individuals who consumed the most servings of whole grains. Overall consumption of whole grains in the US population was low using the recently updated whole-grain definition. Adults who consumed the most servings of whole grains had better diet quality and nutrient intakes

  20. The validity of a structured interactive 24-hour recall in estimating energy and nutrient intakes in 15-month-old rural Malawian children.

    PubMed

    Thakwalakwa, Chrissie M; Kuusipalo, Heli M; Maleta, Kenneth M; Phuka, John C; Ashorn, Per; Cheung, Yin Bun

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the nutritional intake values among 15-month-old rural Malawian children obtained by weighed food record (WFR) with those obtained by modified 24-hour recall (mod 24-HR), and to develop algorithm for adjusting mod 24-HR values so as to predict mean intake based on WFRs. The study participants were 169 15-month-old children who participated in a clinical trial. Food consumption on one day was observed and weighed (established criterion) by a research assistant to provide the estimates of energy and nutrient intakes. On the following day, another research assistant, blinded to the direct observation, conducted the structured interactive 24-hour recall (24-HR) interview (test method). Paired t-tests and scatter-plots were used to compare intake values of the two methods. The structured interactive 24-HR method tended to overestimate energy and nutrient intakes (each P < 0.001). The regression-through-the-origin method was used to develop adjustment algorithms. Results showed that multiplying the mean energy, protein, fat, iron, zinc and vitamin A intake estimates based on the test method by 0.86, 0.80, 0.68, 0.69, 0.72 and 0.76, respectively, provides an approximation of the mean values based on WFRs. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. [Nutrient intake: concepts and international recommendations (first part)].

    PubMed

    García Gabarra, A

    2006-01-01

    This revision on nutrient intakes pretends to analyse, compare and evaluate the various concepts and data used by different national and international bodies and authorities, reflecting their turn into legal norms and their evolution in recent years. At the same time it facilitates bibliographic references and Internet websites to those sources and it offers a glossary of used terms and their acronyms. Four geographical territories have been considered, being split in 2 parts. First part: European Union. Second part: Spain, United States of America/Canada and FAO/WHO. Due to the extensive text of this revision there has been necessary to divide it in 2 parts which are being published in consecutive numbers of the journal Nutrici6n Hospitalaria. CONCLUSIONS OF THE 1ST PART: At the European level there should be pointed out the long time interval existing between the publication of recommendations and their legislative implementation. One can observe the resistance of some Member States of the European Community to harmonize the recommendations and the legislation within the Community frame.

  2. Nutrient Intake During Diet-Induced Weight Loss and Exercise Interventions in a Randomized Trial in Older Overweight and Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, G D; Beavers, D P; Hamm, D; Mihalko, S L; Messier, S P

    2017-01-01

    Dietary restriction in obese older adults undergoing weight loss may exacerbate nutrient deficiencies common in this group; the nutritional health of older adults is a factor in their quality of life, disability, and mortality. This study examined the effect of an 18-month weight loss program based in social cognitive theory incorporating partial meal replacements, on nutrient intake in older overweight and obese adults. The following analysis is from the Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) trial, a single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Individuals were randomized into one of three 18-month interventions: exercise (E); intensive diet-induced weight loss (D); or intensive diet-induced weight loss plus exercise (D+E). The study setting was at a university research facility. Overweight and obese older adults (n=388; BMI=33.7±3.8 kg/m2; 65.8±6.1 years) were recruited. The D and D+E interventions (group mean goal of ≥10% loss by 18-months) utilized partial meal replacements (2 meal replacement shakes/day for 6-months). Exercise training for E and D+E was 3 days/week, 60 minutes/day. Three day food records were collected at baseline, 6-months, and 18-months and analyzed for total energy and macro- and micronutrient intake. Comparisons of dietary intake among treatment groups were performed at 6 and 18 months using mixed linear models. Weight loss at 18-months was 11.3±8.3% (D), 10.3±6.8% (D+E), and 1.2±4.2% (E). Meal replacements were used by more than 60% (6-months) and 50% (18-months) of D and D+E participants, compared to ≤15% for E. Both D and D+E consumed less energy and fat, and more carbohydrates and selected micronutrients than E during follow-up. More than 50% of all participants consumed less than the recommended intake of particular vitamins and minerals. The diet intervention improved intakes of several nutrients. However, inadequate intake of several vitamins and minerals of concern for older adults suggests they need further

  3. Dietary intake patterns and nutritional status of women of reproductive age in Nepal: findings from a health survey.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Shiva; Sayami, Jamuna Tamrakar; Thapa, Pukar; Sayami, Matina; Kandel, Bishnu Prasad; Banjara, Megha Raj

    2016-01-01

    Improper dietary intake pattern in women of reproductive age in Nepal has resulted in the deficiency of essential nutrients. Adequate nutritional status and proper dietary intake pattern of women improves maternal and child health. The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status and dietary intake pattern among the women and associated factors. Data collection at households and health check-up camps were conducted in selected Village Development Committees of nine districts in three ecological regions (Mountain, Hill and Terai) of Nepal from September 2011 to August 2012. Women of reproductive age (15 to 49 years) were the study subjects. At the household interview, structured questionnaires were used to obtain information on socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, dietary intake pattern, consumption of junk foods, animal rearing, agricultural products, possession of kitchen garden, pregnancy status and anemia. Dietary intake pattern was determined by information collected through the structured questionnaires comprising of food items-cereals, pulses/legumes, vegetables, meat, fruits and milk and milk products. Health check-up camps were conducted in the local health facilities where qualified doctors, nurses and laboratory technicians performed physical examination of the women, confirmed their pregnancy and conducted hematocrit tests. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS. Altogether 21,111 women were interviewed. More than a quarter of the women in Terai were malnourished as indicated by low body mass index (BMI < 18.5 Kg/m(2)). Among the dietary intake pattern, the majority of women consumed cereals at least once a day in all three ecological regions. The majority of women in Mountain consumed pulses/legumes thrice a week. In Terai, the majority of women consumed vegetables thrice a week. In all three ecological regions, the majority of women consumed meat and meat products and fruits once a week. About thirty

  4. The convergence of psychology and neurobiology in flavor-nutrient learning.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kevin P

    2018-03-01

    Flavor evaluation is influenced by learning from experience with foods. One main influence is flavor-nutrient learning (FNL), a Pavlovian process whereby a flavor acts as a conditioned stimulus (CS) that becomes associated with the postingestive effects of ingested nutrients (the US). As a result that flavor becomes preferred and intake typically increases. This learning powerfully influences food choice and meal patterning. This paper summarizes how research elucidating the physiological and neural substrates of FNL has progressed in parallel with work characterizing how FNL affects perception, motivation, and behavior. The picture that emerges from this work is of a robust system of appetition (a term coined by Sclafani in contrast to the better-understood satiation signals) whereby ingested nutrients sensed in the gut evoke positive motivational responses. Appetition signals act within a meal to promote continued intake in immediate response to gut feedback, and act in the longer term to steer preference towards sensory cues that predict nutritional consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Consumption of ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) among Malaysian children and association with socio-demographics and nutrient intakes – findings from the MyBreakfast study

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Norimah, A. Karim; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B.; Tan, Sue Yee; Appukutty, Mahenderan; Hopkins, Sinead; Thielecke, Frank; Ong, Moi Kim; Ning, Celia; Tee, E. Siong

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The association between different types of breakfast meals and nutrient intakes has been studied to a lesser extent. Objective: This study compared nutrient intakes at breakfast and throughout the day between Malaysian children who consumed ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) and those who did not. Methods: Anthropometric and dietary data for 1955 children aged 6–12 years from the MyBreakfast study were used in the analysis. Results: Overall, 18% of the children consumed RTEC at breakfast on at least one of the recall days. RTEC consumption was associated with younger age, urban areas, higher income and education level of parents. Among consumers, RTEC contributed 10% and 15% to daily intakes of calcium and iron respectively and ≥20% to daily intakes of vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin. RTEC consumers had significantly higher mean intakes of vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, iron and sugar but lower intakes of fat and sodium than non-RTEC consumers at breakfast and for the total day. Conclusion: Consumption of fortified RTEC at breakfast was associated with lower fat and sodium intakes and higher intakes of several micronutrients both at breakfast and for the total day. However, total sugar intakes appeared to be higher. PMID:28469545

  6. Food-group and nutrient-density intakes by Hispanic and Latino backgrounds in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos123

    PubMed Central

    Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Ginsberg, Mindy; Himes, John H; Liu, Kiang; Loria, Catherine M; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Rock, Cheryl L; Rodriguez, Brendaly; Gellman, Marc D; Van Horn, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hispanics are a heterogeneous group of individuals with a variation in dietary habits that is reflective of their cultural heritage and country of origin. It is important to identify differences in their dietary habits because it has been well established that nutrition contributes substantially to the burden of preventable diseases and early deaths in the United States. Objective: We estimated the distribution of usual intakes (of both food groups and nutrients) by Hispanic and Latino backgrounds by using National Cancer Institute methodology. Design: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos is a population-based cohort study that recruited participants who were 18–74 y of age from 4 US cities in 2008–2011 (Miami, Bronx, Chicago, and San Diego). Participants who provided at least one 24-h dietary recall and completed a food propensity questionnaire (n = 13,285) were included in the analyses. Results were adjusted for age, sex, field center, weekend, sequencing, and typical amount of intake. Results: Overall, Cubans (n = 2128) had higher intakes of total energy, macronutrients (including all subtypes of fat), and alcohol than those of other groups. Mexicans (n = 5371) had higher intakes of vitamin C, calcium, and fiber. Lowest intakes of total energy, macronutrients, folate, iron, and calcium were reported by Dominicans (n = 1217), whereas Puerto Ricans (n = 2176) had lowest intakes of vitamin C and fiber. Food-group servings reflected nutrient intakes, with Cubans having higher intakes of refined grains, vegetables, red meat, and fats and Dominicans having higher intakes of fruit and poultry, whereas Puerto Ricans had lowest intakes of fruit and vegetables. Central and South Americans (n = 1468 and 925, respectively) were characterized by being second in their reported intakes of fruit and poultry and the highest in fish intake in comparison with other groups. Conclusion: Variations in diet noted in this study, with additional analysis

  7. Dietary intakes by different markers of socioeconomic status: results of a New Zealand workforce survey.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Patricia; Scragg, Robert; Davis, Peter

    2006-08-18

    To compare dietary nutrient and food group intakes of men and women in a work force with various measures of socioeconomic status. Daily nutrient intakes were calculated from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire from participants in a cross-sectional health screening survey of a multiracial workforce carried out between May 1988 and April 1990. Participants comprised 5517 Maori, Pacific Island and Other workers (3997 men, 1520 women) aged 40 to 78 years. Socioeconomic measures included the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index (NZSEI), gross household income and level of education. In general, there were trends across socioeconomic status levels with lower NZSEI occupational classes, lower family income, and non-tertiary education groups having lower intakes of dietary fibre, calcium, and alcohol and higher intakes of dietary cholesterol. These were reflected by their lower intakes of fruit, vegetables, milk, cheese and wine, and higher intakes of eggs. However, associations were not consistent across all measures of socioeconomic status. Dietary intakes showed a generally more adverse pattern in the lower socioeconomic strata. NZSEI and education were associated with food group selections, whereas nutrient intakes were associated with income. More money available for food could improve nutrition. Public health programmes to improve nutrition need to be targeted at these groups and be coupled with personal support and structural changes that make "healthy choices the easy choices".

  8. Maternal influences on 5- to 7-year-old girls' intake of multivitamin-mineral supplements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoonna; Mitchell, Diane C; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Birch, Leann L

    2002-03-01

    To examine diet quality of girls who do or do not take multivitamin-mineral (MVM) supplements and to evaluate predictors of girls' MVM use, including maternal eating behaviors, MVM use, beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions about child feeding, eating, and health. Participants were 192 mother and daughter pairs. Daughters were categorized as MVM supplement users or nonusers based on whether girls were consistently given MVM supplements at 5 and 7 years. Girls' and mothers' nutrient and food group intakes, maternal child-feeding practices, and maternal eating behavior were compared between the groups. Mothers who used MVM supplements were more likely to give MVM supplements to daughters. Excluding nutrients from MVM supplements, MVM users and nonusers did not differ in vitamin and mineral intake, either for girls or mothers, and patterns of food group intake were similar for users and nonusers. Mothers of MVM users reported the following: higher levels of pressuring their daughters to eat healthier diets, more monitoring of daughters' food intake, more success in dieting for weight control, more positive evaluations of their success in eating healthy diets, and lower body mass indexes than mothers who did not give MVMs to daughters. Daughters' MVM supplement use was predicted by mothers' beliefs, attitudes, perceptions, and practices regarding mothers' own eating and child feeding practices, rather than by daughters' diet quality. For both MVM users and nonusers, daughters' food group servings were below recommendations, whereas vitamin and mineral intakes exceeded recommendations, a pattern indicative of girls' relatively high intakes of fortified foods. Mothers should be encouraged to foster healthier patterns of food intake in daughters, rather than providing MVM supplements.

  9. Vertical patterns and controls of soil nutrients in alpine grassland: Implications for nutrient uptake.

    PubMed

    Tian, Liming; Zhao, Lin; Wu, Xiaodong; Fang, Hongbing; Zhao, Yonghua; Yue, Guangyang; Liu, Guimin; Chen, Hao

    2017-12-31

    Vertical patterns and determinants of soil nutrients are critical to understand nutrient cycling in high-altitude ecosystems; however, they remain poorly understood in the alpine grassland due to lack of systematic field observations. In this study, we examined vertical distributions of soil nutrients and their influencing factors within the upper 1m of soil, using data of 68 soil profiles surveyed in the alpine grassland of the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) stocks decreased with depth in both alpine meadow (AM) and alpine steppe (AS), but remain constant along the soil profile in alpine swamp meadow (ASM). Total phosphorus, Ca 2+ , and Mg 2+ stocks slightly increased with depth in ASM. K + stock decreased with depth, while Na + stock increased slightly with depth among different vegetation types; however, SO 4 2- and Cl - stocks remained relatively uniform throughout different depth intervals in the alpine grassland. Except for SOC and TN, soil nutrient stocks in the top 20cm soils were significantly lower in ASM compared to those in AM and AS. Correlation analyses showed that SOC and TN stocks in the alpine grassland positively correlated with vegetation coverage, soil moisture, clay content, and silt content, while they negatively related to sand content and soil pH. However, base cation stocks revealed contrary relationships with those environmental variables compared to SOC and TN stocks. These correlations varied between vegetation types. In addition, no significant relationship was detected between topographic factors and soil nutrients. Our findings suggest that plant cycling and soil moisture primarily control vertical distributions of soil nutrients (e.g. K) in the alpine grassland and highlight that vegetation types in high-altitude permafrost regions significantly affect soil nutrients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Avocado consumption by adults is associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and some measures of adiposity: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2012

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avocados contain a beneficial lipid profile, including a high level of monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as dietary fiber, essential nutrients, and phytochemicals. However, little epidemiologic data exist on the effect that consumption of avocados has on overall nutrient intake, diet quality, adi...

  11. [Nutrient intakes: concepts and international recommendations (part two)].

    PubMed

    García Gabarra, A

    2006-01-01

    This revision on nutrient intakes pretends to analyse, compare and evaluate the various concepts and data used by different national and international bodies and authorities, reflecting their turn into to legal norms and their evolution in recent years. At the same time it facilitates bibliographic references and Internet websites to those sources and at the end it offers a glossary of terms and their acronyms. Four geographical territories have been considered, being split in 2 parts. First part: European Union. Second part: Spain, United States of America/Canada and FAO/WHO. Due to the extensive text of this revision there has been necessary to divide it in 2 parts which are being published in consecutive numbers of the journal Nutrición Hospitalaria. CONCLUSIONS OF THE 2ND (AND 1ST) PART: Important advances in food consumption surveys and as well as in the tables of food composition, have been published in Spain. At the international level the concepts used have been refined and broadened with an ever increasing breakdown by population groups, especially for those 51 and over, and pregnant and/or nursing women. However, there exist many disparities among the diverse authorities and organizations.

  12. The impact of eating frequency and time of intake on nutrient quality and body mass index: The INTERMAP Study, a population based study

    PubMed Central

    Aljuraiban, Ghadeer S.; Chan, Queenie; Griep, Linda M. Oude; Brown, Ian J.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Stamler, Jeremiah; Van Horn, Linda; Elliott, Paul; Frost, Gary S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic evidence is sparse on the effect of dietary behaviors and diet quality on body mass index (BMI) that may be important drivers of the obesity epidemic. Objective This study investigated the relationships of frequency of eating and time of intake to energy density, nutrient quality and BMI using data from the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP) including 2,696 men and women aged 40-59 from the United States and the United Kingdom. Design INTERMAP is a cross-sectional investigation with four 24-hour dietary recalls and BMI measurements conducted between 1996 and 1999. Consumption of solid foods was aggregated into eating occasion. Nutrient density is expressed using the Nutrient Rich Food (NRF 9.3) index. The ratio of evening/morning energy intake was calculated; mean values of four visits were used. Statistical analyses performed Characteristics across eating occasion categories are presented as adjusted mean with corresponding 95% confidence interval. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine associations of eating occasions, ratio of evening/morning energy intake, dietary energy density, and NRF 9.3 index with BMI. Results Compared to participants with < 4 eating occasions/24-hours, those with ≥ 6 eating occasions/24-hours had lower mean: BMI: 27.3 vs. 29.0 kg/m2; total energy intake: 2,129 vs. 2,472 kcal/24-hours; dietary energy density: 1.5 vs. 2.1 kcal/g; and higher NRF 9.3 index: 34.3 vs. 28.1. In multiple regression analyses, higher evening intake relative to morning intake was directly associated with BMI; however this did not influence the relationship between eating frequency and BMI. Conclusions Our results suggest that a larger number of small meals may be associated with improved diet quality and lower BMI. This may have implications for behavioral approaches to controlling the obesity epidemic. PMID:25620753

  13. Water intake and post-exercise cognitive performance: an observational study of long-distance walkers and runners.

    PubMed

    Benefer, Martin D; Corfe, Bernard M; Russell, Jean M; Short, Richard; Barker, Margo E

    2013-03-01

    The impact of diet on endurance performance and cognitive function has been extensively researched in controlled settings, but there are limited observational data in field situations. This study examines relationships between nutrient intake and cognitive function following endurance exercise amongst a group of 33 recreational runners and walkers. All participants (mean age of 43.2 years) took part in a long-distance walking event and completed diet diaries to estimate nutrient intake across three-time periods (previous day, breakfast and during the event). Anthropometric measurements were recorded. Cognitive tests, covering word recall, ruler drop and trail making tests (TMT) A and B were conducted pre- and post-exercise. Participants rated their exercise level on a validated scale. Nutrient intake data were summarised using principal components analysis to identify a nutrient intake pattern loaded towards water intake across all time periods. Regression analysis was used to ascertain relationships between water intake component scores and post-exercise cognitive function, controlling for anthropometric measures and exercise metrics (distance, duration and pace). Participants rated their exercise as 'hard-heavy' (score 14.4, ±3.2). Scores on the water intake factor were associated with significantly faster TMT A (p = 0.001) and TMT B (p = 0.005) completion times, and a tendency for improved short-term memory (p = 0.090). Water intake scores were not associated with simple reaction time (assessed via the ruler drop test). These data are congruent with experimental research demonstrating a benefit of hydration on cognitive function. Further field research to confirm this relationship, supported with precise measures of body weight, is needed.

  14. Nutrient Status Assessment in Individuals and Populations for Healthy Aging—Statement from an Expert Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Péter, Szabolcs; Saris, Wim H. M.; Mathers, John C.; Feskens, Edith; Schols, Annemie; Navis, Gerjan; Kuipers, Folkert; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient status for health has been illustrated, in particular for elderly and specific patient groups. The nutrient profile of individuals can be connected to phenotypes, like hypertension or obesity, as well as to socio-economic data. This approach provides information on the relationship between nutrition (nutrient intake and status) and health outcomes and, for instance, allows us to use the findings to communicate and advocate a healthy lifestyle. Nutrition is complex: a broader profile of nutrients should be considered rather than focusing solely on a single nutrient. Evaluating food patterns instead of intake of individual nutrients provides better insight into relationships between nutrition and health and disease. This approach would allow us to provide feedback to individuals about their status and ways to improve their nutritional habits. In addition, it would provide tools for scientists and health authorities to update and develop public health recommendations. PMID:26694458

  15. Dietary sodium restriction in the prophylaxis of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: effects on the intake of other nutrients.

    PubMed

    van Buul, B J; Steegers, E A; Jongsma, H W; Rijpkema, A L; Eskes, T K; Thomas, C M; Baadenhuysen, H; Hein, P R

    1995-07-01

    Dietary sodium restriction is used in the Netherlands in the prophylaxis of preeclampsia. To study the effects of long-term sodium restriction on the intake of other nutrients and the outcome of pregnancy, 68 healthy nulliparous pregnant women were randomly assigned to either a low-sodium diet (20 mmol/24 h) or an unrestricted diet. The diet was consumed between week 14 of gestation and delivery. The dietary intakes of energy, fat, protein, carbohydrate, sodium, potassium, and calcium were estimated with the dietary-history technique. A low-sodium diet reduced the intake of protein (by approximately 15 g/24 h), fat (by 20 g/24 h), and calcium (by 350 mg/24 h) and tended to decrease the energy intake (by approximately 0.7 MJ/24 h). The intakes of carbohydrate and potassium did not differ between the groups. The maternal weight gain was less in the low-sodium group (6.0 +/- 3.7 compared with 11.7 +/- 4.7 kg). Mean birth weight was not significantly different (3.2 +/- 0.5 compared with 3.4 +/- 0.5 kg).

  16. A comparison of food and nutrient intake between instant noodle consumers and non-instant noodle consumers in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang

    2011-01-01

    Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The average age of the instant noodle consumers (INC) was 36.2 and that of the non-instant noodle consumers (non-INC) was 44.9; men consumed more instant noodles than women (P < 0.001). With the exception of cereals and grain products, legumes, seaweeds, eggs, and milk and dairy products, INC consumed significantly fewer potatoes and starches, sugars, seeds and nuts, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, seasonings, beverages, meats, fishes, and oils and fats compared with those in the non-INC group. The INC group showed significantly higher nutrient intake of energy, fat, sodium, thiamine, and riboflavin; however, the INC group showed a significantly lower intake of protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, and vitamin C compared with those in the non-INC group. This study revealed that consuming instant noodles may lead to excessive intake of energy, fats, and sodium but may also cause increased intake of thiamine and riboflavin. Therefore, nutritional education helping adults to choose a balanced meal while consuming instant noodles should be implemented. Additionally, instant noodle manufacturers should consider nutritional aspects when developing new products. PMID:22125682

  17. A comparison of food and nutrient intake between instant noodle consumers and non-instant noodle consumers in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang; Kim, Jeongseon

    2011-10-01

    Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The average age of the instant noodle consumers (INC) was 36.2 and that of the non-instant noodle consumers (non-INC) was 44.9; men consumed more instant noodles than women (P < 0.001). With the exception of cereals and grain products, legumes, seaweeds, eggs, and milk and dairy products, INC consumed significantly fewer potatoes and starches, sugars, seeds and nuts, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, seasonings, beverages, meats, fishes, and oils and fats compared with those in the non-INC group. The INC group showed significantly higher nutrient intake of energy, fat, sodium, thiamine, and riboflavin; however, the INC group showed a significantly lower intake of protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, and vitamin C compared with those in the non-INC group. This study revealed that consuming instant noodles may lead to excessive intake of energy, fats, and sodium but may also cause increased intake of thiamine and riboflavin. Therefore, nutritional education helping adults to choose a balanced meal while consuming instant noodles should be implemented. Additionally, instant noodle manufacturers should consider nutritional aspects when developing new products.

  18. Instant noodles made with fortified wheat flour to improve micronutrient intake in Asia: a review of simulation, nutrient retention and sensory studies.

    PubMed

    Bronder, Kayla L; Zimmerman, Sarah L; van den Wijngaart, Annoek; Codling, Karen; Johns, Kirsten Ag; Pachón, Helena

    2017-03-01

    Consumption of foods made with wheat flour, particularly instant noodles, is increasing in Asia. Given this trend, fortifying wheat flour with vitamins and minerals may improve micronutrient intake in the region. The objective of this review was to understand what is known about fortifying wheat flour used to make instant noodles. A literature review of seven databases was performed using the search terms "noodle" and ("Asian" or "instant"). Grey literature was requested through a food fortification listserv. Articles were title screened first for relevance and duplicity, with exclusion criteria applied during the second round of abstract-level screening. This review considered studies examining simulation, retention, sensory, bioavailability, efficacy, and effectiveness of instant noodles made with fortified wheat flour. Fourteen relevant documents were reviewed for simulation (n=1), retention (n=11), and sensory studies (n=3). The documents revealed that instant noodles produced from fortified wheat flour have potential to improve nutrient intakes, have high retention of most nutrients, and provoke no or minimal changes in sensory characteristics. The available literature indicates that using fortified wheat flour for instant noodle production results in retention of the added nutrients, except thiamin, with no significant sensory change to the final product. Given the rising consumption of instant noodles, production of this item with fortified wheat flour has potential to improve nutrient intakes in Asia. This review provides a resource for the design of a wheat flour fortification program in countries where a large proportion of wheat flour is consumed as instant noodles.

  19. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Rubingh, Carina M.; Lanting, Caren I.; Joosten, Koen F. M.

    2016-01-01

    The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10–48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diaries by caregivers at the day nursery and by parents at home on days that the children attended the daycare center. According to national and European reference values, the children had an adequate nutrient intake with exception of low intakes of total fat, n-3 fatty acids from fish and possibly iron. Intakes of energy and protein were substantially higher than recommended and part of the population exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for sodium, zinc and retinol. Consumption of fruit, fats, fish, and fluids was substantially less than recommended. The children used mostly (semi-)skimmed milk products and non-refined bread and cereals, as recommended. Two thirds of the consumed beverages, however, contained sugar and contributed substantially to energy intake. In young children, low intakes of n-3 fatty acids and iron are a potential matter of concern, as are the high intakes of energy, protein, sugared beverages, and milk, since these may increase the risk of becoming overweight. PMID:27428995

  20. Coffee and Tea Consumption and the Contribution of Their Added Ingredients to Total Energy and Nutrient Intakes in 10 European Countries: Benchmark Data from the Late 1990s.

    PubMed

    Landais, Edwige; Moskal, Aurélie; Mullee, Amy; Nicolas, Geneviève; Gunter, Marc J; Huybrechts, Inge; Overvad, Kim; Roswall, Nina; Affret, Aurélie; Fagherazzi, Guy; Mahamat-Saleh, Yahya; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; La Vecchia, Carlo; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Saieva, Calogero; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Sieri, Sabina; Braaten, Tonje; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Garcia, Jose Ramon; Jakszyn, Paula; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Brunkwall, Louise; Huseinovic, Ena; Nilsson, Lena; Wallström, Peter; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Aune, Dagfinn; Key, Tim; Lentjes, Marleen; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia; Freisling, Heinz

    2018-06-05

    Coffee and tea are among the most commonly consumed nonalcoholic beverages worldwide, but methodological differences in assessing intake often hamper comparisons across populations. We aimed to (i) describe coffee and tea intakes and (ii) assess their contribution to intakes of selected nutrients in adults across 10 European countries. Between 1995 and 2000, a standardized 24-h dietary recall was conducted among 36,018 men and women from 27 European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study centres. Adjusted arithmetic means of intakes were estimated in grams (=volume) per day by sex and centre. Means of intake across centres were compared by sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. In women, the mean daily intake of coffee ranged from 94 g/day (~0.6 cups) in Greece to 781 g/day (~4.4 cups) in Aarhus (Denmark), and tea from 14 g/day (~0.1 cups) in Navarra (Spain) to 788 g/day (~4.3 cups) in the UK general population. Similar geographical patterns for mean daily intakes of both coffee and tea were observed in men. Current smokers as compared with those who reported never smoking tended to drink on average up to 500 g/day more coffee and tea combined, but with substantial variation across centres. Other individuals' characteristics such as educational attainment or age were less predictive. In all centres, coffee and tea contributed to less than 10% of the energy intake. The greatest contribution to total sugar intakes was observed in Southern European centres (up to ~20%). Coffee and tea intake and their contribution to energy and sugar intake differed greatly among European adults. Variation in consumption was mostly driven by geographical region.

  1. Food prices and poverty negatively affect micronutrient intakes in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Iannotti, Lora L; Robles, Miguel; Pachón, Helena; Chiarella, Cristina

    2012-08-01

    Limited empirical evidence exists for how economic conditions affect micronutrient nutrition. We hypothesized that increasing poverty and rising food prices would reduce consumption of high-quality "luxury" foods, leading to an increased probability of inadequacy for several nutrients. The 2006 Guatemala National Living Conditions Survey was analyzed. First, energy and nutrient intakes and adequacy levels were calculated. Second, the income-nutrient relationships were investigated by assessing disparities in intakes, determining income-nutrient elasticities, and modeling nutrient intakes by reductions in income. Third, the food price-nutrient relationships were explored through determination of price-nutrient elasticities and modeling 2 price scenarios: an increase in food prices similar in magnitude to the food price crisis of 2007-2008 and a standardized 10% increase across all food groups. Disparities in nutrient intakes were greatest for vitamin B-12 (0.38 concentration index) and vitamin A (0.30 concentration index); these nutrients were highly and positively correlated with income (r = 0.22-0.54; P < 0.05). Although the baseline probability of inadequacy was highest for vitamin B-12 (83%), zinc showed the greatest increase in probability of inadequacy as income was reduced, followed by folate and vitamin A. With rising food prices, zinc intake was most acutely affected under both scenarios (P < 0.05) and folate intake in the poorest quintile (+7 percentage points) under the 10% scenario. Price-nutrient elasticities were highest for vitamin B-12 and the meat, poultry, and fish group (-0.503) and for folate and the legumes group (-0.343). The economic factors of food prices and income differentially influenced micronutrient intakes in Guatemala, notably zinc and folate intakes.

  2. The contribution of school meals and packed lunch to food consumption and nutrient intakes in UK primary school children from a low income population.

    PubMed

    Stevens, L; Nelson, M

    2011-06-01

    The Low Income Diet and Nutrition Survey described the food consumption and nutrient intake of UK children in low income households in 2003-2005. To describe food consumption and nutrient intake associated with school meals and packed lunches, based on a cross-sectional analysis of 680, 24-h dietary recalls from 311 school children aged 4-11 years. In children from low income households, pupils who took a packed lunch consumed more white bread, fats and oils, crisps and confectionery and fewer potatoes (cooked with or without fat) at lunchtime compared to other pupils. Many of these differences persisted when diet was assessed over the day. For younger pupils (4-7 years), packed lunches provided the least amount of folate, the highest amount of sodium, and the highest average percentage of food energy from fat and saturated fatty acids (SFA) compared to free school meals (FSMs). Over the whole day, in both younger (4-7 years) and older (8-11 years) children, there were no notable differences in energy or nutrient intake between those eating a packed lunch or a school meal. Older children's packed lunches contributed a significantly higher proportion of fat, SFA, calcium and sodium to the day's nutrient intake compared to a FSM. In children from low income households, packed lunches are less likely to contribute towards a 'healthier' diet compared to a school meal. The difference was more apparent in younger children. Key differences were the high consumption of sodium, SFA and non-milk extrinsic sugars by pupils who had packed lunches. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. Dietary pattern analysis: a comparison between matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary pattern analysis, based on the concept that foods eaten together are as important as a reductive methodology characterized by a single food or nutrient analysis, has emerged as an alternative approach to study the relation between nutrition and disease. The aim of the present study was to compare nutritional intake and the results of dietary pattern analysis in properly matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects. Methods Vegetarians (n = 69) were recruited via purposeful sampling and matched non-vegetarians (n = 69) with same age, gender, health and lifestyle characteristics were searched for via convenience sampling. Two dietary pattern analysis methods, the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) were calculated and analysed in function of the nutrient intake. Results Mean total energy intake was comparable between vegetarians and omnivorous subjects (p > 0.05). Macronutrient analysis revealed significant differences between the mean values for vegetarians and omnivorous subjects (absolute and relative protein and total fat intake were significantly lower in vegetarians, while carbohydrate and fibre intakes were significantly higher in vegetarians than in omnivorous subjects). The HEI and MDS were significantly higher for the vegetarians (HEI = 53.8.1 ± 11.2; MDS = 4.3 ± 1.3) compared to the omnivorous subjects (HEI = 46.4 ± 15.3; MDS = 3.8 ± 1.4). Conclusions Our results indicate a more nutrient dense pattern, closer to the current dietary recommendations for the vegetarians compared to the omnivorous subjects. Both indexing systems were able to discriminate between the vegetarians and the non-vegetarians with higher scores for the vegetarian subjects. PMID:23758767

  4. Cooked oatmeal consumption is associated with better diet quality, better nutrient intakes, and reduced risk for central adiposity and obesity in children 2-18 years: NHANES 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Fulgoni, Victor L; DiRienzo, Maureen A

    2015-01-01

    None of the studies of whole grains that have looked either at diet or weight/adiposity measures have focused exclusively on oatmeal. The objective of this study was to assess the association between oatmeal consumption and nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity of children aged 2-18. A nationally representative sample of children aged 2-18 (N=14,690) participating in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010 was used. Intake was determined from a single 24-h dietary recall. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010). Covariate-adjusted regression analyses, using appropriate sample weights, were used to determine differences between oatmeal consumers and non-consumers for demographics, nutrient intakes, diet quality, and weight/adiposity measures (p<0.01). Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios for weight measures and obesity (p<0.05). Compared to non-consumers, oatmeal consumers were more likely to be younger and less likely to be smokers. Consumers had higher intakes of dietary fiber, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, copper, and potassium, and significantly lower intakes of total, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and sodium. Oatmeal consumers had higher dietary quality scores attributable to higher intakes of whole grains and lower intakes of refined grains and empty calories. Children consuming oatmeal were at lower risk for having central adiposity and being obese. Consumption of oatmeal by children was associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and reduced risk for central adiposity and obesity and should be encouraged as part of an overall healthful diet.

  5. Consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt among children aged 6-7 years: association with nutrient intake and overall diet quality.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; García, Esther López; Gorgojo, Lydia; Garcés, Carmen; Royo, Miguel Angel; Martín Moreno, José María; Benavente, Mercedes; Macías, Alfonso; De Oya, Manuel

    2003-03-01

    The present study tests the hypothesis that higher consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt is associated with higher intake of energy, saturated fats, sugars and worse overall diet quality among Spanish children. This is a cross-sectional study covering 1112 children aged 6.0-7.0 years in four Spanish cities. Nutrient and food intake were obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire, and overall diet quality calculated using the healthy-eating index (HEI) developed by Kennedy et al. (1995). Standardized methods were used to measure anthropometric variables. Associations of interest were summarized as the difference in nutrient and food consumption between the value of the fifth and the first quintile of consumption (dq) of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks or yogurt, adjusted for energy intake and BMI. Bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt supplied 15.5, 1.0 and 5.6 % energy intake respectively. Higher consumption of these three foods was associated with greater energy intake (P<0.001), but not with higher BMI. Consumption of bakery products was associated with the proportion of energy derived from intake of total carbohydrates (dq 4.5 %, P<0.001) and sugars (dq 2 %, P<0.001), but did not show association with the HEI. Consumption of sweetened soft drinks was associated with a lower consumption of milk (dq -88 ml, P<0.001) and Ca (dq -175 mg/d, P<0.001), and worse HEI (dq -2, P<0.01). Consumption of yogurt, while associated with higher energy intake from saturated fats (dq 1.77 %, P<0.001) and sugars (dq 2.02 %, P<0.001), showed no association with the HEI. Differences in the intake of nutrients and foods across quintiles of consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt were usually very small. We conclude that the impact of the consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt on the quality of the diet of Spanish children is only modest, although it may contribute to aggravating

  6. Nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Raatz, Susan K; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K; Crosby, Ross; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol; Le Grange, Daniel; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-05-15

    Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) dietary survey 2011-2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI) for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1-3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps.

  7. Interaction of body mass index and attempt to lose weight in a national sample of US adults: association with reported food and nutrient intake, and biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Kant, A K

    2003-02-01

    This study examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) and attempting to lose weight for reporting of: (1) macro- and micronutrient intake; (2) intake of low-nutrient-density foods; and (3) serum biomarkers of dietary exposure and cardiovascular disease risk. Dietary, anthropometric and biochemical data were from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), n=13 095. Multiple regression methods were used to examine the independent associations of BMI, trying to lose weight, or the interaction of BMI-trying to lose weight with reported intakes of energy, nutrients, percentage energy from low-nutrient-density foods (sweeteners, baked and dairy desserts, visible fats and salty snacks), and serum concentrations of vitamins, carotenoids and lipids. BMI was an independent positive predictor (P<0.05) of percentage of energy from fat, saturated fat, but a negative predictor of the ratio of reported energy intake to estimated expenditure for basal needs (EI/BEE), percentage of energy from carbohydrate and alcohol (men only), and serum concentrations of folate, vitamin C, vitamin E and most carotenoids in both men and women. Trying to lose weight was a negative predictor (P<0.05) of EI/BEE, intake of energy, and energy density, but not micronutrient intake. Higher mean serum ascorbate, vitamin E, lutein/zeaxanthin, and other carotenoids (men only) concentrations were associated with trying to lose weight (P<0.05) in both men and women. Few adverse BMI-trying to lose weight interaction effects were noted. There was little evidence of increased nutritional risk in those reportedly trying to lose weight irrespective of weight status.

  8. Nutrient density: addressing the challenge of obesity.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-10-30

    Obesity rates are increasing worldwide. Potential reasons include excessive consumption of sugary beverages and energy-dense foods instead of more nutrient-rich options. On a per kJ basis, energy-dense grains, added sugars and fats cost less, whereas lean meats, seafood, leafy greens and whole fruit generally cost more. Given that consumer food choices are often driven by price, the observed social inequities in diet quality and health can be explained, in part, by nutrition economics. Achieving a nutrient-rich diet at an affordable cost has become progressively more difficult within the constraints of global food supply. However, given the necessary metrics and educational tools, it may be possible to eat better for less. New metrics of nutrient density help consumers identify foods, processed and unprocessed, that are nutrient-rich, affordable and appealing. Affordability metrics, created by adding food prices to food composition data, permit calculations of both kJ and nutrients per penny, allowing for new studies on the economic drivers of food choice. Merging dietary intake data with local or national food prices permits the estimation of individual-level diet costs. New metrics of nutrient balance can help identify those food patterns that provide optimal nutritional value. Behavioural factors, including cooking at home, have been associated with nutrition resilience, defined as healthier diets at lower cost. Studies of the energy and nutrient costs of the global food supply and diverse food patterns will permit a better understanding of the socioeconomic determinants of health. Dietary advice ought to be accompanied by economic feasibility studies.

  9. Maternal diet quality and nutrient intake in the gestational period: results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts comparative impact trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A woman’s diet while pregnant can play an important role in her reproductive health as well as the health of her unborn child. Diet quality and nutrient intake amongst pregnant women residing in the rural Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of the United States is strikingly inadequate. The Delta H...

  10. Breakfast Dietary Patterns among Mexican Children Are Related to Total-Day Diet Quality.

    PubMed

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Hopkins, Sinead; Eldridge, Alison L; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-03-01

    Background: Mexico has experienced shifts in food availability and consumption patterns over the past few decades from traditional diets to those containing more high-energy density foods, resulting in the development of unhealthful dietary patterns among children and adults. However, to our knowledge it is not known whether breakfast consumption patterns contribute to the overall daily diet of Mexican children. Objective: We examined total-day diet among breakfast consumers compared with breakfast skippers, identified and investigated breakfast dietary patterns in relation to energy and nutrient intakes at breakfast and across the day, and examined these patterns in relation to sociodemographic characteristics. Methods: With the use of nationally representative dietary data (one 24-h recall) from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey, 3760 children aged 4-13 y were categorized into mutually exclusive breakfast patterns with the use of cluster analysis. The association between breakfast patterns and breakfast skippers with dietary intake at breakfast and for the total day was investigated with the use of multivariate linear regression. Results: Most children (83%) consumed breakfast. Six breakfast dietary patterns were identified (milk and sweetened breads, tortillas and beans, sweetened beverages, sandwiches and quesadillas, eggs, and cereal and milk) and reflected both traditional and more Westernized dietary patterns. Sugar-sweetened beverages were consumed across all patterns. Compared with all breakfast dietary patterns, breakfast skippers had the lowest intake of several nutrients of public health concern. Nutrients to limit that were high at breakfast tended to be high for the total day and vice versa for nutrients to encourage. Conclusions: There was not a single pattern that complied perfectly with the Mexican School Breakfast Guidelines, but changes such as increasing dietary fiber by encouraging more whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and

  11. Assessing the nutrient intake of a low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diet: a hypothetical case study design

    PubMed Central

    Zinn, Caryn; Rush, Amy; Johnson, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Objective The low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diet is becoming increasingly employed in clinical dietetic practice as a means to manage many health-related conditions. Yet, it continues to remain contentious in nutrition circles due to a belief that the diet is devoid of nutrients and concern around its saturated fat content. This work aimed to assess the micronutrient intake of the LCHF diet under two conditions of saturated fat thresholds. Design In this descriptive study, two LCHF meal plans were designed for two hypothetical cases representing the average Australian male and female weight-stable adult. National documented heights, a body mass index of 22.5 to establish weight and a 1.6 activity factor were used to estimate total energy intake using the Schofield equation. Carbohydrate was limited to <130 g, protein was set at 15%–25% of total energy and fat supplied the remaining calories. One version of the diet aligned with the national saturated fat guideline threshold of <10% of total energy and the other included saturated fat ad libitum. Primary outcomes The primary outcomes included all micronutrients, which were assessed using FoodWorks dietary analysis software against national Australian/New Zealand nutrient reference value (NRV) thresholds. Results All of the meal plans exceeded the minimum NRV thresholds, apart from iron in the female meal plans, which achieved 86%–98% of the threshold. Saturated fat intake was logistically unable to be reduced below the 10% threshold for the male plan but exceeded the threshold by 2 g (0.6%). Conclusion Despite macronutrient proportions not aligning with current national dietary guidelines, a well-planned LCHF meal plan can be considered micronutrient replete. This is an important finding for health professionals, consumers and critics of LCHF nutrition, as it dispels the myth that these diets are suboptimal in their micronutrient supply. As with any diet, for optimal nutrient achievement, meals need to

  12. Contrary seasonal changes of rates of nutrient uptake, organ mass, and voluntary food intake in red deer (Cervus elaphus)

    PubMed Central

    Beiglböck, Christoph; Burmester, Marion; Guschlbauer, Maria; Lengauer, Astrid; Schröder, Bernd; Wilkens, Mirja; Breves, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Northern ungulates acclimatize to winter conditions with restricted food supply and unfavorable weather conditions by reducing energy expenditure and voluntary food intake. We investigated in a study on red deer whether rates of peptide and glucose transport in the small intestines are also reduced during winter as part of the thrifty phenotype of winter-acclimatized animals, or whether transport rates are increased during winter in order to exploit poor forage more efficiently. Our results support the latter hypothesis. We found in a feeding experiment that total energy intake was considerably lower during winter despite ad libitum feeding. Together with reduced food intake, mass of visceral organs was significantly lower and body fat reserves were used as metabolic fuel in addition to food. However, efficacy of nutrient absorption seemed to be increased simultaneously. Extraction of crude protein from forage was higher in winter animals, at any level of crude protein intake, as indicated by the lower concentration of crude protein in feces. In line with these in vivo results, Ussing chamber experiments revealed greater electrogenic responses to both peptides and glucose in the small intestines of winter-acclimatized animals, and peptide uptake into jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles was increased. We conclude that reduced appetite of red deer during winter avoids energy expenditure for unproductive search of scarcely available food and further renders the energetically costly maintenance of a large gut and visceral organs unnecessary. Nevertheless, extraction of nutrients from forage is more efficient in the winter to attenuate an inevitably negative energy balance. PMID:26017492

  13. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic and environmental tobacco smoke, nutrient intake, and oxidative stress in Japanese preschool children.

    PubMed

    Mori, Takuya; Yoshinaga, Jun; Suzuki, Kei; Mizoi, Miho; Adachi, Shu-Ichi; Tao, Hiroaki; Nakazato, Tetsuya; Li, Yun-Shan; Kawai, Kazuaki; Kasai, Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    The association between oxidative stress and exposure to environmental chemicals was assessed in a group of Japanese preschool children. The concentrations of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), inorganic arsenic (iAs) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and cotinine in spot urine samples, collected from 134 children (3-6 yrs) from a kindergarten in Kanagawa, Japan, were measured as biomarkers of oxidative stress or exposure to environmental chemicals. For 76 subjects of the 134, intakes of anti-oxidant nutrients (vitamins A, C, and E, manganese, copper, zinc and selenium (Se)) were estimated from a food consumption survey carried out 2-4 weeks after urine sampling and by urine analysis (Se). The median (min-max) creatinine-corrected concentrations of urinary biomarkers were 4.45 (1.98-12.3), 0.127 (0.04-2.41), 4.78 (1.18-12.7), and 0.62 (<0.6-19.0) μg/g cre for 8-OHdG, 1-OHP, iAs+MMA, and cotinine, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was carried out using 8-OHdG concentration as a dependent variable and urinary biomarkers of exposure and Se intake, intakes of vitamins and biological attributes of the subjects as independent variables. To explain 8-OHdG concentrations, intake of vitamin A and age were significant variables with negative coefficients, while 1-OHP concentration had a positive coefficient. These results indicated that oxidative stress of children is affected by chemical exposure at environmental levels, by nutrient intake and by physiological factors in a complex manner. On the other hand, unstable statistical results due to sub-grouping of subject, based on the availability of food consumption data, were found: the present results should further be validated by future studies with suitable research design. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Targeted metabolomics profiles are strongly correlated with nutritional patterns in women.

    PubMed

    Menni, Cristina; Zhai, Guangju; Macgregor, Alexander; Prehn, Cornelia; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Suhre, Karsten; Adamski, Jerzy; Cassidy, Aedin; Illig, Thomas; Spector, Tim D; Valdes, Ana M

    2013-04-01

    Nutrition plays an important role in human metabolism and health. Metabolomics is a promising tool for clinical, genetic and nutritional studies. A key question is to what extent metabolomic profiles reflect nutritional patterns in an epidemiological setting. We assessed the relationship between metabolomic profiles and nutritional intake in women from a large cross-sectional community study. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were applied to 1,003 women from the TwinsUK cohort with targeted metabolomic analyses of serum samples using the Biocrates Absolute-IDQ™ Kit p150 (163 metabolites). We analyzed seven nutritional parameters: coffee intake, garlic intake and nutritional scores derived from the FFQs summarizing fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol intake, meat intake, hypo-caloric dieting and a "traditional English" diet. We studied the correlation between metabolite levels and dietary intake patterns in the larger population and identified for each trait between 14 and 20 independent monozygotic twins pairs discordant for nutritional intake and replicated results in this set. Results from both analyses were then meta-analyzed. For the metabolites associated with nutritional patterns, we calculated heritability using structural equation modelling. 42 metabolite nutrient intake associations were statistically significant in the discovery samples (Bonferroni P  < 4 × 10 -5 ) and 11 metabolite nutrient intake associations remained significant after validation. We found the strongest associations for fruit and vegetables intake and a glycerophospholipid (Phosphatidylcholine diacyl C38:6, P  = 1.39 × 10 -9 ) and a sphingolipid (Sphingomyeline C26:1, P  = 6.95 × 10 -13 ). We also found significant associations for coffee (confirming a previous association with C10 reported in an independent study), garlic intake and hypo-caloric dieting. Using the twin study design we find that two thirds the metabolites associated with nutritional patterns have a

  15. Impact of a Modified Version of Baby-Led Weaning on Infant Food and Nutrient Intakes: The BLISS Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Williams Erickson, Liz; Taylor, Rachael W; Haszard, Jillian J; Fleming, Elizabeth A; Daniels, Lisa; Morison, Brittany J; Leong, Claudia; Fangupo, Louise J; Wheeler, Benjamin J; Taylor, Barry J; Te Morenga, Lisa; McLean, Rachael M; Heath, Anne-Louise M

    2018-06-07

    Despite growing international interest in Baby-Led Weaning (BLW), we know almost nothing about food and nutrient intake in infants following baby-led approaches to infant feeding. The aim of this paper was to determine the impact of modified BLW (i.e., Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS; BLISS) on food and nutrient intake at 7⁻24 months of age. Two hundred and six women recruited in late pregnancy were randomized to Control ( n = 101) or BLISS ( n = 105) groups. All participants received standard well-child care. BLISS participants also received lactation consultant support to six months, and educational sessions about BLISS (5.5, 7, and 9 months). Three-day weighed diet records were collected for the infants (7, 12, and 24 months). Compared to the Control group, BLISS infants consumed more sodium (percent difference, 95% CI: 35%, 19% to 54%) and fat (6%, 1% to 11%) at 7 months, and less saturated fat (-7%, -14% to -0.4%) at 12 months. No differences were apparent at 24 months of age but the majority of infants from both groups had excessive intakes of sodium (68% of children) and added sugars (75% of children). Overall, BLISS appears to result in a diet that is as nutritionally adequate as traditional spoon-feeding, and may address some concerns about the nutritional adequacy of unmodified BLW. However, BLISS and Control infants both had high intakes of sodium and added sugars by 24 months that are concerning.

  16. The relationship of feeding patterns and obesity in dogs.

    PubMed

    Heuberger, R; Wakshlag, J

    2011-02-01

    The rates of dog obesity are increasing and a greater understanding of feeding patterns is required to combat the problem. This study examined relationships between dietary patterns and caloric intake, and nutrient content of foods fed as it relates to obesity in dogs in the United States. Sixty-one owners and their dogs were enrolled, and lifestyle surveys, food frequencies, and 3-day food records were collected. Significant differences in overall kcal intake per kilogram of body weight were found (p< 0.04). Crude fibre in dog food was positively associated with protein and negatively associated with fat regardless of the dog's weight (p< 0.001). Lean dogs received significantly more crude fibre in relation to overweight dogs regardless of the number of treats they received (p< 0.01), and their diets had greater micronutrient densities (p< 0.03) suggesting that high fibre influences body condition. Additionally, owners who ate nutrient-rich, calorie-poor diets had normal weight dogs, and owners that fed more table scraps had overweight dogs. Regardless of body condition, 59% of dogs received table scraps, which constituted 21% of daily caloric intake. The nutrient density of scraps fed was variable and did not meet National Research Council's recommendations for micronutrient adequacy. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. [Investigation on nutritional intakes for hospitalized children with blood disease].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zi-Liang; Wu, Yun-Tang; Sun, Zhong; Zhu, Xiao-Fan; Li, Rui; Li, Hong-Qiang; Qi, Yu-Mei; Song, Ji-Chang; Han, Zhong-Chao

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the diet and nutritional status of hospitalized children with blood disease in order to provide nutritional guidelines. The patients' daily dietary intakes, including breakfast, lunch, dinner and additional meals, were recorded in detail for seven consecutive days. The intake amount of various nutrients was calculated using the dietary database. The majority of children with blood disease showed inadequate intakes of calories [mean 1825.81 kCal/d, 73.62% of the recommended intake (RNI)] and protein (mean 67.68 g/d, 81.34% of RNI). Intakes of vitamin E and riboflavin were adequate, but intakes of vitamin A, thiamine and vitamin C (66.67%, 77.78% and 69.89% of RNI, respectively) were inadequate. Iron and selenium intakes were adequate, but calcium and zinc intakes (41.11% and 56.21% of RNI, respectively) were grossly inadequate. Hospitalized children with blood disease had decreased dietary intakes of calories, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, calcium and zinc. The dietary pattern and nutritional intake need to be improved.

  18. Effect of flavored milk vs plain milk on total milk intake and nutrient provision in children.

    PubMed

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Concerns surrounding added sugars and their effects on health have created a need to review the literature to assess consumption of flavored milk, consumer preferences for flavored milk, behavior related to the intake of flavored milk, and the effect of flavored milk on the diet and health of children. A review of the literature was performed using the following keywords: milk, flavored, flavoured, sweetened, and chocolate. The search was limited to articles published in English, studies conducted in children, and studies reporting on prevalence of consumption, trends in consumption, preferences for flavored milk, intakes of milk and nutrients, and health outcomes. Fifty-three studies were included. Flavored milk receives the highest palatability rating among children. Children drink more flavored milk than plain milk and, when flavored milk is not available, children drink less plain milk and, consequently, less milk overall. Consumers of flavored milk have a higher total milk intake. Micronutrient intake among consumers of flavored milk is similar to that among consumers of plain milk, while intakes of energy and sugars vary, owing to differences in reporting across studies. There is no association between flavored milk intake and weight status among normal-weight children, and some contradictory effects of flavored milk intake have been observed in subgroups of overweight children. Flavored milk is a palatable beverage choice that helps children to meet calcium targets. Further research to test the effect of flavored milk consumption among overweight children is warranted. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Consumption of grapefruit is associated with higher nutrient intakes and diet quality among adults, and more favorable anthropometrics in women, NHANES 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Mary M; Barraj, Leila M; Rampersaud, Gail C

    2014-01-01

    Dietary guidance recommends consumption of a nutrient-dense diet containing a variety of fruits. The purpose of this study was to estimate usual nutrient intakes and adequacy of nutrient intakes among adult grapefruit consumers and non-consumers, and to examine associations between grapefruit consumption and select health parameters. The analysis was conducted with data collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2008. Respondents reporting consumption of any amount of grapefruit or 100% grapefruit juice at least once during the 2 days of dietary recall were classified as grapefruit consumers. Among adults aged 19+ years with 2 days of dietary recall (n=12,789), 2.5% of males and 2.7% of females reported consumption of 100% grapefruit juice or fresh, canned, or frozen grapefruit during the recalls. Grapefruit consumers were less likely to have usual intakes of vitamin C (males: 0% vs. 47%; females: 0% vs. 43%; P<0.001) and magnesium (P<0.05) below the estimated average requirement (EAR) compared to non-consumers, and they were more likely to meet adequate intake levels for dietary fiber (P<0.05). Potassium and β-carotene intakes were significantly higher among grapefruit consumers (P<0.001). Diet quality as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) was higher in grapefruit consumers (males: 66.2 [95% CI: 61.0-71.5] vs. 55.4 [95% CI: 54.4-56.4]; females: 71.4 [95% CI: 65.1-77.6] vs. 61.2 [95% CI: 59.8-62.6]). Among women, grapefruit consumption was associated with lower body weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP), and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P<0.05), However, risk of being overweight/obese was not associated with grapefruit consumption. Consumption of grapefruit was associated with higher intakes of vitamin C, magnesium, potassium, dietary fiber, and improved diet quality. Grapefruit may provide a healthful option for adults striving to

  20. Changes in Intakes of Total and Added Sugar and their Contribution to Energy Intake in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ock K.; Chung, Chin E.; Wang, Ying; Padgitt, Andrea; Song, Won O.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1–18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases. PMID:22254059

  1. Changes in intakes of total and added sugar and their contribution to energy intake in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Chun, Ock K; Chung, Chin E; Wang, Ying; Padgitt, Andrea; Song, Won O

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1-18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases.

  2. Breakfast and Breakfast Cereal Choice and Its Impact on Nutrient and Sugar Intakes and Anthropometric Measures among a Nationally Representative Sample of Australian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; McConnell, Andrew; Tuck, Kate; Petocz, Peter

    2017-01-01

    There is limited evidence in Australia that compares the nutritional impact of a breakfast cereal breakfast to a non-cereal breakfast, and includes the type of cereal. This study investigated the impact of breakfast choice and the total sugar content of breakfast cereal on nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures among Australian children and adolescents. Data from 2 to 18-year-old in the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used (n = 2821). Participants were classified as breakfast cereal consumers (minimally pre-sweetened (MPS) or pre-sweetened (PS)), non-cereal breakfast consumers, or breakfast skippers. Foods consumed for breakfast, foods added to the cereal bowl, and the impact of breakfast choice on daily nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures were determined. Although only 9% of children skipped breakfast, 61% of skippers were aged 14–18 years. Among breakfast consumers, 49% had breakfast cereal, and 62% of these exclusively consumed MPS cereal. Breakfast skippers had a higher saturated fat intake than breakfast cereal consumers, and lower intakes of dietary fibre and most micronutrients (p < 0.001). Compared with non-cereal breakfast consumers, breakfast cereal consumers had similar added and free sugars intakes, lower sodium, and higher total sugars, carbohydrate, dietary fibre, and almost all other micronutrients (p < 0.001). The only difference in nutrient intakes between MPS and PS cereal consumers was higher folate among PS consumers. No associations between anthropometric measures and breakfast or breakfast cereal choice were found. The highest prevalence of breakfast skipping was among 14–18-year old. Breakfast cereal consumers had higher intakes of dietary fibre and most micronutrients compared with non-cereal breakfast consumers and skippers, and almost no differences were found between MPS and PS cereal consumers. PMID:28934111

  3. The potential contribution of yellow cassava to dietary nutrient adequacy of primary-school children in Eastern Kenya; the use of linear programming.

    PubMed

    Talsma, Elise F; Borgonjen-van den Berg, Karin J; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Mayer, Eva V; Verhoef, Hans; Demir, Ayşe Y; Ferguson, Elaine L; Kok, Frans J; Brouwer, Inge D

    2018-02-01

    Introduction of biofortified cassava as school lunch can increase vitamin A intake, but may increase risk of other deficiencies due to poor nutrient profile of cassava. We assessed the potential effect of introducing a yellow cassava-based school lunch combined with additional food-based recommendations (FBR) on vitamin A and overall nutrient adequacy using Optifood (linear programming tool). Cross-sectional study to assess dietary intakes (24 h recall) and derive model parameters (list of foods consumed, median serving sizes, food and food (sub)group frequency distributions, food cost). Three scenarios were modelled, namely daily diet including: (i) no school lunch; (ii) standard 5d school lunch with maize/beans; and (iii) 5d school lunch with yellow cassava. Each scenario and scenario 3 with additional FBR were assessed on overall nutrient adequacy using recommended nutrient intakes (RNI). Eastern Kenya. Primary-school children (n 150) aged 7-9 years. Best food pattern of yellow cassava-based lunch scenario achieved 100 % RNI for six nutrients compared with no lunch (three nutrients) or standard lunch (five nutrients) scenario. FBR with yellow cassava and including small dried fish improved nutrient adequacy, but could not ensure adequate intake of fat (52 % of average requirement), riboflavin (50 % RNI), folate (59 % RNI) and vitamin A (49 % RNI). Introduction of yellow cassava-based school lunch complemented with FBR potentially improved vitamin A adequacy, but alternative interventions are needed to ensure dietary adequacy. Optifood is useful to assess potential contribution of a biofortified crop to nutrient adequacy and to develop additional FBR to address remaining nutrient gaps.

  4. Evidence for self-organization in determining spatial patterns of stream nutrients, despite primacy of the geomorphic template

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaoli; Grimm, Nancy B.

    2017-01-01

    Nutrients in freshwater ecosystems are highly variable in space and time. Nevertheless, the variety of processes contributing to nutrient patchiness, and the wide range of spatial and temporal scales at which these processes operate, obfuscate how this spatial heterogeneity is generated. Here, we describe the spatial structure of stream nutrient concentration, quantify the relative importance of the physical template and biological processes, and detect and evaluate the role of self-organization in driving such patterns. We examined nutrient spatial patterns in Sycamore Creek, an intermittent desert stream in Arizona that experienced an ecosystem regime shift [from a gravel/algae-dominated to a vascular plant-dominated (hereafter, “wetland”) system] in 2000 when cattle grazing ceased. We conducted high-resolution nutrient surveys in surface water along a 10-km stream reach over four visits spanning 18 y (1995–2013) that represent different successional stages and prewetland stage vs. postwetland state. As expected, groundwater upwelling had a major influence on nutrient spatial patterns. However, self-organization realized by the mechanism of spatial feedbacks also was significant and intensified over ecosystem succession, as a resource (nitrogen) became increasingly limiting. By late succession, the effects of internal spatial feedbacks and groundwater upwelling were approximately equal in magnitude. Wetland establishment influenced nutrient spatial patterns only indirectly, by modifying the extent of surface water/groundwater exchange. This study illustrates that multiple mechanisms interact in a dynamic way to create spatial heterogeneity in riverine ecosystems, and provides a means to detect spatial self-organization against physical template heterogeneity as a dominant driver of spatial patterns. PMID:28559326

  5. Evidence for self-organization in determining spatial patterns of stream nutrients, despite primacy of the geomorphic template.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoli; Ruhí, Albert; Grimm, Nancy B

    2017-06-13

    Nutrients in freshwater ecosystems are highly variable in space and time. Nevertheless, the variety of processes contributing to nutrient patchiness, and the wide range of spatial and temporal scales at which these processes operate, obfuscate how this spatial heterogeneity is generated. Here, we describe the spatial structure of stream nutrient concentration, quantify the relative importance of the physical template and biological processes, and detect and evaluate the role of self-organization in driving such patterns. We examined nutrient spatial patterns in Sycamore Creek, an intermittent desert stream in Arizona that experienced an ecosystem regime shift [from a gravel/algae-dominated to a vascular plant-dominated (hereafter, "wetland") system] in 2000 when cattle grazing ceased. We conducted high-resolution nutrient surveys in surface water along a 10-km stream reach over four visits spanning 18 y (1995-2013) that represent different successional stages and prewetland stage vs. postwetland state. As expected, groundwater upwelling had a major influence on nutrient spatial patterns. However, self-organization realized by the mechanism of spatial feedbacks also was significant and intensified over ecosystem succession, as a resource (nitrogen) became increasingly limiting. By late succession, the effects of internal spatial feedbacks and groundwater upwelling were approximately equal in magnitude. Wetland establishment influenced nutrient spatial patterns only indirectly, by modifying the extent of surface water/groundwater exchange. This study illustrates that multiple mechanisms interact in a dynamic way to create spatial heterogeneity in riverine ecosystems, and provides a means to detect spatial self-organization against physical template heterogeneity as a dominant driver of spatial patterns.

  6. The Influence of Seasonal Frugivory on Nutrient and Energy Intake in Wild Western Gorillas

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Shelly; Mundry, Roger; Ortmann, Sylvia; Cipolletta, Chloé; Boitani, Luigi; Robbins, Martha M.

    2015-01-01

    The daily energy requirements of animals are determined by a combination of physical and physiological factors, but food availability may challenge the capacity to meet nutritional needs. Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) are an interesting model for investigating this topic because they are folivore-frugivores that adjust their diet and activities to seasonal variation in fruit availability. Observations of one habituated group of western gorillas in Bai-Hokou, Central African Republic (December 2004-December 2005) were used to examine seasonal variation in diet quality and nutritional intake. We tested if during the high fruit season the food consumed by western gorillas was higher in quality (higher in energy, sugar, fat but lower in fibre and antifeedants) than during the low fruit season. Food consumed during the high fruit season was higher in digestible energy, but not any other macronutrients. Second, we investigated whether the gorillas increased their daily intake of carbohydrates, metabolizable energy (KCal/g OM), or other nutrients during the high fruit season. Intake of dry matter, fibers, fat, protein and the majority of minerals and phenols decreased with increased frugivory and there was some indication of seasonal variation in intake of energy (KCal/g OM), tannins, protein/fiber ratio, and iron. Intake of non-structural carbohydrates and sugars was not influenced by fruit availability. Gorillas are probably able to extract large quantities of energy via fermentation since they rely on proteinaceous leaves during the low fruit season. Macronutrients and micronutrients, but not digestible energy, may be limited for them during times of low fruit availability because they are hind-gut fermenters. We discuss the advantages of seasonal frugivores having large dietary breath and flexibility, significant characteristics to consider in the conservation strategies of endangered species. PMID:26154509

  7. Dietary intakes of European, Māori, Pacific and Asian adults living in Auckland: the Diabetes, Heart and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Patricia A; Scragg, Robert R K; Schaaf, David; Dyall, Lorna; Black, Peter N; Jackson, Rod

    2008-10-01

    To compare dietary intakes of European, Māori, Pacific, and Asian men and women living in Auckland. Daily nutrient intakes were calculated from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire from participants in a cross-sectional health screening study carried out between 2002 and 2003. Participants were 4,007 Māori, Pacific, Asian and European people (1,915 men, 2,092 women) aged 35 to 74 years. Compared with Europeans, Māori and Pacific men had higher total energy intakes per day, while Asians had lower intakes. A similar pattern was observed for carbohydrate and fat consumption. While protein and cholesterol consumption tended to be lower in Europeans than the other three ethnic groups, alcohol consumption and calcium intakes were highest among Europeans. Many of the differences between ethnic groups were attenuated when nutrient consumption was expressed as their percentage contribution to total energy intake suggesting that total food consumption was the major determinant of ethnic differences in nutrient intakes. There were substantial differences in dietary habits, food selections and cooking practices between European, Māori, Pacific and Asian participants. However, the observed differences were in the area of serving sizes and frequency of consumption of certain foods than to major differences in the range of foods and nutrients consumed or the percentage contribution of carbohydrate, fat or protein to total energy intake. The development of strategies to reduce serving sizes and the frequency of consumption of certain foods will be required to help address the major nutrition-related health problems in New Zealand.

  8. Intra-Household Allocation of Nutrients in an Opening China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Chen, Xiaohong; Lei, Lei

    2018-04-09

    This paper uses China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data to analyze the effect of foreign direct investment (FDI) on nutrient intakes across various family roles to identify the different family roles' heterogeneous nutrition intake responses to economic openness. The empirical evidence shows that FDI enhances labor forces' calorie intake significantly, especially for rural households. The government should continue facilitating more FDI inflows, especially FDI in secondary industries for rural populations. However, the larger the family, the smaller the effect of FDI on nutrient intake for some family roles. The elderly and children may be weaker responders on nutrient intake than other family members in an open economy. This implies the existence of intra-household redistribution and that the level of effectiveness will decrease with family size. The results suggest that family members in rural areas can benefit more in terms of nutrient intake. Our empirical evidence also indicates that female family members' calorie intake from the FDI effect is higher than that of male family members (except for the granddaughter/grandson). Preferential policies should be provided for the FDI, flowing to rural areas and female dominant industries.

  9. Intra-Household Allocation of Nutrients in an Opening China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Li; Chen, Xiaohong; Lei, Lei

    2018-01-01

    This paper uses China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data to analyze the effect of foreign direct investment (FDI) on nutrient intakes across various family roles to identify the different family roles’ heterogeneous nutrition intake responses to economic openness. The empirical evidence shows that FDI enhances labor forces’ calorie intake significantly, especially for rural households. The government should continue facilitating more FDI inflows, especially FDI in secondary industries for rural populations. However, the larger the family, the smaller the effect of FDI on nutrient intake for some family roles. The elderly and children may be weaker responders on nutrient intake than other family members in an open economy. This implies the existence of intra-household redistribution and that the level of effectiveness will decrease with family size. The results suggest that family members in rural areas can benefit more in terms of nutrient intake. Our empirical evidence also indicates that female family members’ calorie intake from the FDI effect is higher than that of male family members (except for the granddaughter/grandson). Preferential policies should be provided for the FDI, flowing to rural areas and female dominant industries. PMID:29642513

  10. Global-scale patterns of nutrient density and partitioning in forests in relation to climate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kerong; Song, Conghe; Zhang, Yulong; Dang, Haishan; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Quanfa

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of nutrient storage and partitioning in forests is imperative for ecosystem models and ecological theory. Whether the nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, and Mg) stored in forest biomass and their partitioning patterns vary systematically across climatic gradients remains unknown. Here, we explored the global-scale patterns of nutrient density and partitioning using a newly compiled dataset including 372 forest stands. We found that temperature and precipitation were key factors driving the nutrients stored in living biomass of forests at global scale. The N, K, and Mg stored in living biomass tended to be greater in increasingly warm climates. The mean biomass N density was 577.0, 530.4, 513.2, and 336.7 kg/ha for tropical, subtropical, temperate, and boreal forests, respectively. Around 76% of the variation in biomass N density could be accounted by the empirical model combining biomass density, phylogeny (i.e., angiosperm, gymnosperm), and the interaction of mean annual temperature and precipitation. Climate, stand age, and biomass density significantly affected nutrients partitioning at forest community level. The fractional distribution of nutrients to roots decreased significantly with temperature, suggesting that forests in cold climates allocate greater nutrients to roots. Gymnosperm forests tended to allocate more nutrients to leaves as compared with angiosperm forests, whereas the angiosperm forests distributed more nutrients in stems. The nutrient-based Root:Shoot ratios (R:S), averaged 0.30 for R:S N , 0.36 for R:S P , 0.32 for R:S K , 0.27 for R:S Ca , and 0.35 for R:S Mg , respectively. The scaling exponents of the relationships describing root nutrients as a function of shoot nutrients were more than 1.0, suggesting that as nutrient allocated to shoot increases, nutrient allocated to roots increases faster than linearly with nutrient in shoot. Soil type significantly affected the total N, P, K, Ca, and Mg stored in living biomass of forests, and the

  11. Corrective responses in human food intake identified from an analysis of 7-d food-intake records2

    PubMed Central

    Bray, George A; Flatt, Jean-Pierre; Volaufova, Julia; DeLany, James P; Champagne, Catherine M

    2009-01-01

    Background We tested the hypothesis that ad libitum food intake shows corrective responses over periods of 1–5 d. Design This was a prospective study of food intake in women. Methods Two methods, a weighed food intake and a measured food intake, were used to determine daily nutrient intake during 2 wk in 20 women. Energy expenditure with the use of doubly labeled water was done contemporaneously with the weighed food-intake record. The daily deviations in macronutrient and energy intake from the average 7-d values were compared with the deviations observed 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 d later to estimate the corrective responses. Results Both methods of recording food intake gave similar patterns of macronutrient and total energy intakes and for deviations from average intakes. The intraindividual CVs for energy intake ranged from ±12% to ±47% with an average of ±25%. Reported energy intake was 85.5–95.0% of total energy expenditure determined by doubly labeled water. Significant corrective responses were observed in food intakes with a 3- to 4-d lag that disappeared when data were randomized within each subject. Conclusions Human beings show corrective responses to deviations from average energy and macronutrient intakes with a lag time of 3–4 d, but not 1–2 d. This suggests that short-term studies may fail to recognize important signals of food-intake regulation that operate over several days. These corrective responses probably play a crucial role in bringing about weight stability. PMID:19064509

  12. Children and adolescents' choices of foods and beverages high in added sugars are associated with intakes of key nutrients and food groups.

    PubMed

    Frary, Carol D; Johnson, Rachel K; Wang, Min Qi

    2004-01-01

    To determine associations between intakes of the primary food and beverage sources of added sugars and intakes of key nutrients and food pyramid groups among U.S. children aged 6-17 years. The 1994-96 and 1998 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) were used to examine the diets of U.S. children aged 6-17 years, who provided 2 full days of dietary data. The nationally representative sample (n = 3038) included children age 6-11 (n = 1913) and adolescents age 12-17 (n = 1125). Food codes for sweetened foods and beverages were selected from the USDA Food Coding Scheme and categorized into five food and beverage categories. The Statistical Analysis System software program was used to recode and format the data for statistical analysis and the Survey Data Analysis System was used to apply sample weights and generate statistical procedures. The consumption of sweetened dairy products was positively associated with calcium intakes for children and adolescents. Consumption of presweetened cereals increased the likelihood of the children and adolescents meeting recommendations for the essential shortfall micronutrients calcium, folate, and iron, whereas the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, sugars and sweets, and sweetened grains decreased the likelihood of meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for these nutrients. Only children who were nonconsumers of sugar-sweetened beverages had a mean calcium intake that met the adequate intakes (AI). Consumption of sweetened dairy products and presweetened cereals was positively associated with the number of dairy servings consumed per day for both age groups. On average, consumption of sweetened dairy foods and beverages and presweetened cereals had a positive impact on children and adolescents' diet quality, whereas sugar-sweetened beverages, sugars and sweets, and sweetened grains had a negative impact on their diet quality.

  13. Nutrient Patterns and Their Association with Socio-Demographic, Lifestyle Factors and Obesity Risk in Rural South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pisa, Pedro T.; Pedro, Titilola M.; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.; Pettifor, John M.; Norris, Shane A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and describe the diversity of nutrient patterns and how they associate with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors including body mass index in rural black South African adolescents. Nutrient patterns were identified from quantified food frequency questionnaires (QFFQ) in 388 rural South African adolescents between the ages of 11–15 years from the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System (AHDSS). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to 25 nutrients derived from QFFQs. Multiple linear regression and partial R2 models were fitted and computed respectively for each of the retained principal component (PC) scores on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics including body mass index (BMI) for age Z scores. Four nutrient patterns explaining 79% of the total variance were identified: PCI (26%) was characterized by animal derived nutrients; PC2 (21%) by vitamins, fibre and vegetable oil nutrients; PC3 (19%) by both animal and plant derived nutrients (mixed diet driven nutrients); and PC4 (13%) by starch and folate. A positive and significant association was observed with BMI for age Z scores per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in PC1 (0.13 (0.02; 0.24); p = 0.02) and PC4 (0.10 (−0.01; 0.21); p = 0.05) scores only. We confirmed variability in nutrient patterns that were significantly associated with various lifestyle factors including obesity. PMID:25984738

  14. Nutrient Intake, Physical Activity, and CVD Risk Factors in Children

    PubMed Central

    Day, R. Sue; Fulton, Janet E.; Dai, Shifan; Mihalopoulos, Nicole L.; Barradas, Danielle T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Associations among dietary intake, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are inconsistent among male and female youth, possibly from lack of adjustment for pubertal status. The purpose of this report is to describe the associations of CVD risk factors among youth, adjusted for sexual maturation. Methods Data analyzed in 2007 from a sumsample of 556 children aged 8, 11, and 14 years in Project HeartBeat!, 1991–1993, provide cross-sectional patterns of CVD risk factors by age and gender, adjusting for sexual maturation, within dietary fat and physical activity categories. Results Girls consuming moderate- to high-fat diets were significantly less physically active than those consuming low-fat diets. Boys and girls consuming high-fat diets had higher saturated fat and cholesterol intakes than children in low-fat categories. Boys had no significant differences in physical activity, blood pressure, waist circumference, or plasma cholesterol levels across fat categories. Girls’ plasma cholesterol levels showed no significant differences across fat categories. Dietary intake did not differ across moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) categories within gender. There were no differences in BMI by fat or MVPA categories for either gender. Girls’ waist circumference differed significantly by fat category, and systolic blood pressure differed significantly across fat and MVPA categories. Boys’ fifth-phase diastolic blood pressure was significantly different across MVPA categories. Conclusions Girls consuming atherogenic diets were significantly less physically active than those with low fat intakes, whereas boys consuming high-fat diets did not show differences in physical activity measures. With the prevalence of overweight rising among youth, the impact of atherogenic diets and sedentary lifestyles on CVD risk factors is of concern to public health professionals. PMID:19524152

  15. Fat intake in children with autism spectrum disorder in the Mediterranean region (Valencia, Spain).

    PubMed

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Suárez-Varela, María Morales

    2016-11-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been found to have alterations in dietary fat intake and fat quality. The fat intakes of the foods consumed by children with and without ASD were compared, and the deficiency and excess of these nutrients were examined. In a matched case-control study, 3-day food diaries were completed by 105 children with ASD and 495 typically developing (TD) 6- to 9-year-old children in Valencia (Spain). We used the probabilistic approach and estimated average requirement cut-point to evaluate the risk of inadequate nutrients intakes. These were compared between groups and with Spanish recommendations using linear and logistic regression, respectively. Groups did not differ significantly in age, total dietary intake, Healthy Eating Index, or food variety score. Children with ASD had lower saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) intakes, but their total PUFAs and (PUFAs + monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)/SFAs, PUFAs/SFAs intakes and ω-6/ω-3 ratios were higher than TD children. The total fat and cholesterol intakes of both groups were slightly above Spanish recommendations. Both groups had low ω-6 intakes, very low ω-3 intakes, and high ω-6/ω-3 ratios. Further research is required to clarify associations between ASD symptomatology, fat-eating patterns and health status.

  16. Changes in nutrient intake and dietary quality among participants with type 2 diabetes following a low-fat vegan diet or a conventional diabetes diet for 22 weeks.

    PubMed

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Barnard, Neal D; Cohen, Joshua; Jenkins, David J A; Gloede, Lise; Green, Amber A

    2008-10-01

    Although vegan diets improve diabetes management, little is known about the nutrient profiles or diet quality of individuals with type 2 diabetes who adopt a vegan diet. To assess the changes in nutrient intake and dietary quality among participants following a low-fat vegan diet or the 2003 American Diabetes Association dietary recommendations. A 22-week randomized, controlled clinical trial examining changes in nutrient intake and diet quality. Participants with type 2 diabetes (n=99) in a free-living setting. Participants were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan diet or a 2003 American Diabetes Association recommended diet. Nutrient intake and Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) scores were collected at baseline and 22 weeks. Between-group t tests were calculated for changes between groups and paired comparison t tests were calculated for changes within-group. Pearson's correlation assessed relationship of AHEI score to hemoglobin A1c and body weight changes. Both groups reported significant decreases in energy, protein, fat, cholesterol, vitamin D, selenium, and sodium intakes. The vegan group also significantly reduced reported intakes of vitamin B-12 and calcium, and significantly increased carbohydrate, fiber, total vitamin A activity, beta carotene, vitamins K and C, folate, magnesium, and potassium. The American Diabetes Association recommended diet group also reported significant decreases in carbohydrate and iron, but reported no significant increases. The vegan group significantly improved its AHEI score (P<0.0001), while the American Diabetes Association recommended diet group did not (P=0.7218). The difference in AHEI score at 22 weeks between groups was significant (P<0.0001). With both groups combined, AHEI score was negatively correlated with both changes in hemoglobin A1c value (r=-0.24, P=0.016) and weight (r=-0.27, P=0.007). Vegan diets increase intakes of carbohydrate, fiber, and several micronutrients, in contrast with the American Diabetes

  17. Does the condition of the mouth and teeth affect the ability to eat certain foods, nutrient and dietary intake and nutritional status amongst older people?

    PubMed

    Sheiham, A; Steele, J

    2001-06-01

    To assess how the dental status of older people affected their stated ability to eat common foods, their nutrient intake and some nutrition-related blood analytes. Cross-sectional survey part of nation-wide British National Diet and Nutrition Survey: people aged 65 years and older. Data from a questionnaire were linked to clinical data and data from four-day weighed dietary records. Two separate representative samples: a free-living and an institutional sample. Seven-hundred-and-fifty-three free-living and 196 institution subjects had a dental exam and interview. About one in five dentate (with natural teeth) free-living people had difficulty eating raw carrots, apples, well-done steak or nuts. Foods such as nuts, apples and raw carrots could not be eaten easily by over half edentate (without natural teeth but with dentures) people in institutions. In free-living, intakes of most nutrients and fruit and vegetables were significantly lower in edentate than dentate. Perceived chewing ability increased with increasing number of teeth. Daily intake of non-starch polysaccharides, protein, calcium, non-haem iron, niacin, vitamin C and intrinsic and milk sugars were significantly lower in edentate. Plasma ascorbate and retinol were significantly lower in the edentate than dentate. Plasma ascorbate was significantly related to the number of teeth and posterior contacting pairs of teeth. The presence, number and distribution of natural teeth are related to the ability to eat certain foods, affecting nutrient intakes and two biochemical measures of nutritional status.

  18. Effects of blend of canola oil and palm oil on nutrient intake and digestibility, growth performance, rumen fermentation and fatty acids in goats.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Samsudin, Anjas Asmara; Alimon, Abd Rasak; Karim, Roselina; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Sabow, Azad Behnan

    2016-09-01

    The study examined the effects of blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil (BCPO) on nutrient intake and digestibility, growth performance, rumen fermentation and fatty acids (FA) in goats. Twenty-four Boer bucks were randomly assigned to diets containing 0, 4 and 8% BCPO on a dry matter basis, fed for 100 days and slaughtered. Diet did not affect feed efficiency, growth performance, intake and digestibility of all nutrients except ether extract. Intakes and digestibilities of ether extract, unsaturated fatty acids (FA) and total FA were higher (P < 0.05) while digestibility of C18:0 was lower (P < 0.05) in oil-fed goats than the control goats. Total volatile FA, acetate, butyrate, acetate/propionate ratio and methane decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing BCPO but propionate, NH3 -N and rumen pH did not differ between diets. Ruminal concentration of C18:0, n-3 FA and total FA increased (P < 0.05) while C12:0, C14:0, C15:0 and n-6 FA decreased with increasing BCPO. Analysis of the FA composition of Triceps brachii muscle showed that concentrations of C16:0, C14:0 and C18:2n-6 were lower (P < 0.05) while C18:1n-9, C18:3n-3 and C20:5n-3 were higher in oil-fed goats compared with control goats. Dietary BCPO altered muscle lipids without having detrimental effects on nutrient intake and digestibility and growth performance in goats. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Energy and nutrient consumption in Mexican women 12-49 years of age: analysis of the National Nutrition Survey 1999.

    PubMed

    Barquera, Simón; Rivera, Juan A; Espinosa-Montero, Juan; Safdie, Margarita; Campirano, Fabricio; Monterrubio, Eric A

    2003-01-01

    To describe the reported energy and nutrient intake and adequacies in Mexican women. A 24-hour dietary recall was used to obtain nutrient intake in a representative sub-sample of 2,630 women from 12 to 49 years of age from the National Nutrition Survey 1999. Nutrient adequacies were estimated using the Dietary Reference Intakes and stratified according to region, area (urban or rural), socioeconomic status and obesity status (non-obese: BMI < 30 kg/m2, obese: > or = 30 kg/m2). Differences were analyzed using linear regression for complex surveys of log-transformed intake and adequacy, adjusting for multiple comparisons with the Bonferroni test. The median national energy intake was 1,471 kcal. The Risk of Inadequacy (RI) (prevalence of adequacy < 50%) was: vitamin A: 38.3%, vitamin C: 45.5%, and folate: 34.3%. Carbohydrates, folate, iron and calcium intake was significantly higher in rural than in urban areas. The RI was higher in women of the lowest socioeconomic status tertile for all nutrients with the exception of carbohydrates and calcium. Macro-nutrient adequacies were significantly higher in non-obese women. Differences within the country among regions, rural and urban areas, and socioeconomic status tertile reflect an increasing availability of inexpensive calorie-dense foods in marginal groups. However, total energy, cholesterol, saturated and total fat were consumed in greater quantities by women from the higher socioeconomic status tertile and from urban areas. These patterns could be a contributing factor to the rise of obesity and other non-communicable nutrition-related chronic diseases in Mexico. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.

  20. Effects of Intragastric Administration of Tryptophan on the Blood Glucose Response to a Nutrient Drink and Energy Intake, in Lean and Obese Men.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Sina S; Fitzgerald, Penelope C E; Giesbertz, Pieter; Steinert, Robert E; Horowitz, Michael; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2018-04-08

    Tryptophan stimulates plasma cholecystokinin and pyloric pressures, both of which slow gastric emptying. Gastric emptying regulates postprandial blood glucose. Tryptophan has been reported to decrease energy intake. We investigated the effects of intragastric tryptophan on the glycaemic response to, and gastric emptying of, a mixed-nutrient drink, and subsequent energy intake. Lean and obese participants ( n = 16 each) received intragastric infusions of 1.5 g ("Trp-1.5g") or 3.0 g ("Trp-3.0g") tryptophan, or control, and 15 min later consumed a mixed-nutrient drink (56 g carbohydrates). Gastric emptying ( 13 C-acetate breath-test), blood glucose, plasma C-peptide, glucagon, cholecystokinin and tryptophan concentrations were measured ( t = 0-60 min). Energy intake was assessed between t = 60-90 min. In lean individuals, Trp-3.0g, but not Trp-1.5g, slowed gastric emptying, reduced C-peptide AUC and increased glucagon AUC (all P < 0.05), but did not significantly decrease the blood glucose response to the drink, stimulate cholecystokinin or reduce mean energy intake, compared with control. In obese individuals, Trp-3.0g, but not Trp-1.5g, tended to slow gastric emptying ( P = 0.091), did not affect C-peptide AUC , increased glucagon AUC ( P < 0.001) and lowered blood glucose at t = 30 min ( P < 0.05), and did not affect cholecystokinin or mean energy intake. In obese individuals, intragastrically administered tryptophan may reduce postprandial blood glucose by slowing gastric emptying; the lack of effect on mean energy intake requires further investigation.

  1. Effects of Intragastric Administration of Tryptophan on the Blood Glucose Response to a Nutrient Drink and Energy Intake, in Lean and Obese Men

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Sina S.; Fitzgerald, Penelope C. E.; Giesbertz, Pieter; Steinert, Robert E.; Horowitz, Michael; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Tryptophan stimulates plasma cholecystokinin and pyloric pressures, both of which slow gastric emptying. Gastric emptying regulates postprandial blood glucose. Tryptophan has been reported to decrease energy intake. We investigated the effects of intragastric tryptophan on the glycaemic response to, and gastric emptying of, a mixed-nutrient drink, and subsequent energy intake. Lean and obese participants (n = 16 each) received intragastric infusions of 1.5 g (“Trp-1.5g”) or 3.0 g (“Trp-3.0g”) tryptophan, or control, and 15 min later consumed a mixed-nutrient drink (56 g carbohydrates). Gastric emptying (13C-acetate breath-test), blood glucose, plasma C-peptide, glucagon, cholecystokinin and tryptophan concentrations were measured (t = 0–60 min). Energy intake was assessed between t = 60–90 min. In lean individuals, Trp-3.0g, but not Trp-1.5g, slowed gastric emptying, reduced C-peptideAUC and increased glucagonAUC (all P < 0.05), but did not significantly decrease the blood glucose response to the drink, stimulate cholecystokinin or reduce mean energy intake, compared with control. In obese individuals, Trp-3.0g, but not Trp-1.5g, tended to slow gastric emptying (P = 0.091), did not affect C-peptideAUC, increased glucagonAUC (P < 0.001) and lowered blood glucose at t = 30 min (P < 0.05), and did not affect cholecystokinin or mean energy intake. In obese individuals, intragastrically administered tryptophan may reduce postprandial blood glucose by slowing gastric emptying; the lack of effect on mean energy intake requires further investigation. PMID:29642492

  2. The complex interplay between macronutrient intake, cuticular hydrocarbon expression and mating success in male decorated crickets.

    PubMed

    Rapkin, J; Jensen, K; House, C M; Sakaluk, S K; Sakaluk, J K; Hunt, J

    2017-04-01

    The condition dependence of male sexual traits plays a central role in sexual selection theory. Relatively little, however, is known about the condition dependence of chemical signals used in mate choice and their subsequent effects on male mating success. Furthermore, few studies have isolated the specific nutrients responsible for condition-dependent variation in male sexual traits. Here, we used nutritional geometry to determine the effect of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on male cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) expression and mating success in male decorated crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus). We show that both traits are maximized at a moderate-to-high intake of nutrients in a P:C ratio of 1 : 1.5. We also show that female precopulatory mate choice exerts a complex pattern of linear and quadratic sexual selection on this condition-dependent variation in male CHC expression. Structural equation modelling revealed that although the effect of nutrient intake on mating success is mediated through condition-dependent CHC expression, it is not exclusively so, suggesting that other traits must also play an important role. Collectively, our results suggest that the complex interplay between nutrient intake, CHC expression and mating success plays an important role in the operation of sexual selection in G. sigillatus. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Ethnic disparities among food sources of energy and nutrients of public health concern and nutrients to limit in adults in the United States: NHANES 2003-2006.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2014-01-01

    Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US non-Hispanic whites (NHW), non-Hispanic blacks (NHB), and Mexican American (MA) adults is needed to help with public health efforts in implementing culturally sensitive and feasible dietary recommendations. The objective of this study was to determine the food sources of energy and nutrients to limit [saturated fatty acids (SFA), added sugars, and sodium] and nutrients of public health concern (dietary fiber, vitamin D, calcium, and potassium) by NHW, NHB, and MA adults. This was a cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of NWH (n=4,811), NHB (2,062), and MA (n=1,950) adults 19+ years. The 2003-2006 NHANES 24-h recall (Day 1) dietary intake data were analyzed. An updated USDA Dietary Source Nutrient Database was developed using current food composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from food sources were sample-weighted. Percentages of total dietary intake contributed from food sources were ranked. Multiple differences in intake among ethnic groups were seen for energy and all nutrients examined. For example, energy intake was higher in MA as compared to NHB; SFA, added sugars, and sodium intakes were higher in NHW than NHB; dietary fiber was highest in MA and lowest in NHB; vitamin D was highest in NHW; calcium was lowest in NHB; and potassium was higher in NHW as compared to NHB. Food sources of these nutrients also varied. Identification of intake of nutrients to limit and of public health concern can help health professionals implement appropriate dietary recommendations and plan interventions that are ethnically appropriate.

  4. Energy intake and dietary patterns in childhood and throughout adulthood and mammographic density: results from a British prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Gita D; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; McNaughton, Sarah A; Stephen, Alison; Kuh, Diana

    2011-02-01

    To examine the role of energy intake and dietary patterns in childhood and throughout adulthood on subsequent mammographic density. Prospective data were available from a cohort of 1161 British women followed up since their birth in 1946. Dietary intakes at age 4 years were determined by 24-hour recalls and during adulthood, average food consumed at ages 36 and 43 years by 5-day food records. Dietary patterns were determined by factor analysis. Associations between energy intake, dietary patterns, and percent breast density were investigated using regression analysis. During adulthood, energy intake was positively associated with percent breast density (adjusted regression coefficient [per SD) (95% CI): 0.12 (0.01, 0.23)]. The effect of the high fat and sugar dietary pattern remained similar when adjusted for total energy intake [0.06 (-0.01, 0.13)]. There was no evidence of an associations for the patterns low fat, high fiber pattern 0.03 (-0.04, 0.11); the alcohol and fish -0.02 (-0.13, 0.17); meat, potatoes, and vegetables -0.03 (-0.10, 0.04). No association was found for dietary pattern at age 4 and percent breast density. This study supports the hypothesis that overall energy intake during middle life is a determinant of subsequent mammographic breast density measured 15 years later.

  5. Energy and nutrient intake of patients with mild-to-moderate chronic renal failure compared with healthy children: an Italian multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Rätsch, I M; Catassi, C; Verrina, E; Gusmano, R; Appiani, A; Bettinelli, A; Picca, S; Rizzoni, G; Fabian-Bach, C; Wingen, A M

    1992-09-01

    Nutritional counselling is important in the management of children with chronic renal failure (CRF). In 1988, a controlled European multicentre study was started to evaluate the effects of a low-protein diet on the progression of CRF in children. To assess the energy, macro- and micronutrient intake, 4-day weighed dietary records were obtained from 50 children with low to moderate CRF (creatinine clearance 65 to 15 ml/min per 1.73 m2) and from 93 healthy children. The mean energy intake was 90%-93% of the recommended dietary allowance for Italian children in controls and 76%-88% in CRF patients. The mean protein intake was 2.1-3.1 g/kg per day in controls and 1.6-2.7 g/kg per day in CRF patients. Overall, the energy intake was 10% and the protein intake 33% lower in CRF patients than in healthy children. Children with CRF consumed less cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus than healthy children. The lower spontaneous intake of energy, protein and other nutrients should be taken into account when planning the nutrition of children with CRF.

  6. A vegetarian dietary pattern as a nutrient-dense approach to weight management: an analysis of the national health and nutrition examination survey 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Bonnie; Larson, Brian T; Fulgoni, Victor L; Rainville, Alice J; Liepa, George U

    2011-06-01

    Population-based studies have shown that vegetarians have lower body mass index than nonvegetarians, suggesting that vegetarian diet plans may be an approach for weight management. However, a perception exists that vegetarian diets are deficient in certain nutrients. To compare dietary quality of vegetarians, nonvegetarians, and dieters, and to test the hypothesis that a vegetarian diet would not compromise nutrient intake when used to manage body weight. Cross-sectional analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2004) dietary and anthropometric data. Diet quality was determined using United States Department of Agriculture's Healthy Eating Index 2005. Participants included adults aged 19 years and older, excluding pregnant and lactating women (N = 13,292). Lacto-ovo vegetarian diets were portrayed by intakes of participants who did not eat meat, poultry, or fish on the day of the survey (n = 851). Weight-loss diets were portrayed by intakes of participants who consumed 500 kcal less than their estimated energy requirements (n = 4,635). Mean nutrient intakes and body mass indexes were adjusted for energy, sex, and ethnicity. Using analysis of variance, all vegetarians were compared to all nonvegetarians, dieting vegetarians to dieting nonvegetarians, and nondieting vegetarians to nondieting nonvegetarians. Mean intakes of fiber, vitamins A, C, and E, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, calcium, magnesium, and iron were higher for all vegetarians than for all nonvegetarians. Although vegetarian intakes of vitamin E, vitamin A, and magnesium exceeded that of nonvegetarians (8.3 ± 0.3 vs 7.0 ± 0.1 mg; 718 ± 28 vs 603 ± 10 μg; 322 ± 5 vs 281 ± 2 mg), both groups had intakes that were less than desired. The Healthy Eating Index score did not differ for all vegetarians compared to all nonvegetarians (50.5 ± 0.88 vs 50.1 ± 0.33, P = 0.6). These findings suggest that vegetarian diets are nutrient dense, consistent with dietary guidelines, and

  7. An application of partial least squares for identifying dietary patterns in bone health.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tiffany C; Aucott, Lorna S; Duthie, Garry G; Macdonald, Helen M

    2017-12-01

    In a large cohort of older women, a mechanism-driven statistical technique for assessing dietary patterns that considers a potential nutrient pathway found two dietary patterns associated with lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density. A "healthy" dietary pattern was observed to be beneficial for bone mineral density. Dietary patterns represent a broader, more realistic representation of how foods are consumed, compared to individual food or nutrient analyses. Partial least-squares (PLS) is a data-reduction technique for identifying dietary patterns that maximizes correlation between foods and nutrients hypothesized to be on the path to disease, is more hypothesis-driven than previous methods, and has not been applied to the study of dietary patterns in relation to bone health. Women from the Aberdeen Prospective Osteoporosis Screening Study (2007-2011, n = 2129, age = 66 years (2.2)) provided dietary intake using a food frequency questionnaire; 37 food groups were created. We applied PLS to the 37 food groups and 9 chosen response variables (calcium, potassium, vitamin C, vitamin D, protein, alcohol, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc) to identify dietary patterns associated with bone mineral density (BMD) cross-sectionally. Multivariable regression was used to assess the relationship between the retained dietary patterns and BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, adjusting for age, body mass index, physical activity level, smoking, and national deprivation category. Five dietary patterns were identified, explaining 25% of the variation in food groups and 77% in the response variables. Two dietary patterns were positively associated with lumbar spine (per unit increase in factor 2: 0.012 g/cm 2 [95% CI: 0.006, 0.01]; factor 4: 0.007 g/cm 2 [95% CI: 0.00001, 0.01]) and femoral neck (factor 2: 0.006 g/cm 2 [95% CI: 0.002, 0.01]; factor 4: 0.008 g/cm 2 [95% CI: 0.003, 0.01)]) BMD. Dietary pattern 2 was characterized by high intakes of milk

  8. Validity of the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM) for estimating energy and nutrient intake in near real-time

    PubMed Central

    Martin, C. K.; Correa, J. B.; Han, H.; Allen, H. R.; Rood, J.; Champagne, C. M.; Gunturk, B. K.; Bray, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Two studies are reported; a pilot study to demonstrate feasibility followed by a larger validity study. Study 1’s objective was to test the effect of two ecological momentary assessment (EMA) approaches that varied in intensity on the validity/accuracy of estimating energy intake with the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM) over six days in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, Smartphones are used to capture images of food selection and plate waste and to send the images to a server for food intake estimation. Consistent with EMA, prompts are sent to the Smartphones reminding participants to capture food images. During Study 1, energy intake estimated with the RFPM and the gold standard, doubly labeled water (DLW), were compared. Participants were assigned to receive Standard EMA Prompts (n=24) or Customized Prompts (n=16) (the latter received more reminders delivered at personalized meal times). The RFPM differed significantly from DLW at estimating energy intake when Standard (mean±SD = −895±770 kcal/day, p<.0001), but not Customized Prompts (−270±748 kcal/day, p=.22) were used. Error (energy intake from the RFPM minus that from DLW) was significantly smaller with Customized vs. Standard Prompts. The objectives of Study 2 included testing the RFPM’s ability to accurately estimate energy intake in free-living adults (N=50) over six days, and energy and nutrient intake in laboratory-based meals. The RFPM did not differ significantly from DLW at estimating free-living energy intake (−152±694 kcal/day, p=0.16). During laboratory-based meals, estimating energy and macronutrient intake with the RFPM did not differ significantly compared to directly weighed intake. PMID:22134199

  9. High calorie, low nutrient food/beverage intake and video gaming in children as potential signals for addictive behavior.

    PubMed

    Pentz, Mary Ann; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Chou, Chih Ping; Riggs, Nathaniel R

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction specificity. Male gender, free/reduced lunch, low perceived safety and low inhibitory control independently predicted both gaming and HCLN intake. Ethnicity and low stress predicted HCLN. The findings raise questions about whether living in some impoverished neighborhoods may contribute to social isolation charact