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Sample records for nutrient-controlled feeding study

  1. Acute effects of dietary glycemic index on antioxidant capacity in nutrient-controlled feeding study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance between antioxidant capacity and reactive oxygen species, may be an early event in a metabolic cascade elicited by a high glycemic index (GI) diet, ultimately increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We conducted a feeding study to evalua...

  2. Acute effects of dietary glycemic index on antioxidant capacity in a nutrient-controlled feeding study.

    PubMed

    Botero, Diego; Ebbeling, Cara B; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Creager, Mark A; Swain, Janis F; Feldman, Henry A; Ludwig, David S

    2009-09-01

    Oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance between antioxidant capacity and reactive oxygen species, may be an early event in a metabolic cascade elicited by a high glycemic index (GI) diet, ultimately increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We conducted a feeding study to evaluate the acute effects of low-GI compared with high-GI diets on oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The crossover study comprised two 10-day in-patient admissions to a clinical research center. For the admissions, 12 overweight or obese (BMI: 27-45 kg/m(2)) male subjects aged 18-35 years consumed low-GI or high-GI diets controlled for potentially confounding nutrients. On day 7, after an overnight fast and then during a 5-h postprandial period, we assessed total antioxidant capacity (total and perchloric acid (PCA) protein-precipitated plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay) and oxidative stress status (urinary F(2alpha)-isoprostanes (F(2)IP)). On day 10, we measured cardiovascular disease risk factors. Under fasting conditions, total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher during the low-GI vs. high-GI diet based on total ORAC (11,736 +/- 668 vs. 10,381 +/- 612 micromol Trolox equivalents/l, P = 0.002) and PCA-ORAC (1,276 +/- 96 vs. 1,210 +/- 96 micromol Trolox equivalents/l, P = 0.02). Area under the postprandial response curve also differed significantly between the two diets for total ORAC and PCA-ORAC. No diet effects were observed for the other variables. Enhancement in plasma total antioxidant capacity occurs within 1 week on a low-GI diet, before changes in other risk factors, raising the possibility that this phenomenon may mediate, at least in part, the previously reported effects of GI on health.

  3. Nutrient Control Seminars

    EPA Science Inventory

    These Nutrient Control Seminars will present an extensive state-of-the-technology review of the engineering design and operation of nitrogen and phosphorous control technologies and techniques applied at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). These seminars will present ...

  4. Nutrient Control Design Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nutrient Control Design Manual will present an extensive state-of-the-technology review of the engineering design and operation of nitrogen and phosphorous control technologies and techniques applied at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This manual will present ...

  5. Nutrient Control Seminars

    EPA Science Inventory

    These Nutrient Control Seminars will present an extensive state-of-the-technology review of the engineering design and operation of nitrogen and phosphorous control technologies and techniques applied at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). These seminars will present ...

  6. Nutrient Control Design Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nutrient Control Design Manual will present an extensive state-of-the-technology review of the engineering design and operation of nitrogen and phosphorous control technologies and techniques applied at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This manual will present ...

  7. Field Feeding: Behavioral Sciences Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    Beef 1 Steak 1 1 Casseroles 1 1 1 Potatoes 1 Vegetables 2 1 Salads 4 2 Beverages 2 1 2 3 Soda 1 Desserts 3 3 1 Bread 2 2 Fruit 7 5 1 3... Potatoes (French Fries) Vegetables Corn Greens Peas Salads Cole Slaw Green Fruit Beverages Juice Milk Desserts Ice Cream Pie Fruit ...removal from menus. 4. Fruit items were heavily requested in desert feeding. 5. Greater quantities of meat, beverage, fruit , and dessert were desired

  8. Determination of amprolium in feeds: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Davis, E J

    1979-05-01

    The official final action method, 42.028--42.032, for determining amprolium in feeds was modified by a change in the preparation of aluminum oxide for chromatography. A premix containing 0.5% amprolium was collaboratively studied by the modified and the official methods. Compared with the modified method, 87.7% of the drug was recovered from the premix by using the official method. The modification makes possible the assay of premixes as well as finished feeds. The official final action method has been modified to incorporate this change.

  9. Comparative Study of Microstrip Patch Antenna Feed Network (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-09

    patch antenna can achieve a gain of 9dB. Simply a patch can be seen as a pair of imaginary dipoles in parallel separated by the width of the patch. The...Comparative Study of Microstrip Patch Antenna Feed Network Behnam Jamali School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering The University of Adelaide...paper presents a comparative study of patch antenna feed structures. That includes microstrip line feed, inset feed, coaxial feed, aperture coupled

  10. Recent Studies on Feeding Problems in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkert, Valerie M.; Vaz, Petula C. M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews recent studies on behavioral interventions for children with autism and feeding problems. The applicability of interventions that have been tested with other populations of children with feeding problems is discussed, as well as directions for future research.

  11. A comparative study of cultural methods for the detection of Salmonella in feed and feed ingredients.

    PubMed

    Koyuncu, Sevinc; Haggblom, Per

    2009-02-03

    Animal feed as a source of infection to food producing animals is much debated. In order to increase our present knowledge about possible feed transmission it is important to know that the present isolation methods for Salmonella are reliable also for feed materials. In a comparative study the ability of the standard method used for isolation of Salmonella in feed in the Nordic countries, the NMKL71 method (Nordic Committee on Food Analysis) was compared to the Modified Semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis method (MSRV) and the international standard method (EN ISO 6579:2002). Five different feed materials were investigated, namely wheat grain, soybean meal, rape seed meal, palm kernel meal, pellets of pig feed and also scrapings from a feed mill elevator. Four different levels of the Salmonella serotypes S. Typhimurium, S. Cubana and S. Yoruba were added to each feed material, respectively. For all methods pre-enrichment in Buffered Peptone Water (BPW) were carried out followed by enrichments in the different selective media and finally plating on selective agar media. The results obtained with all three methods showed no differences in detection levels, with an accuracy and sensitivity of 65% and 56%, respectively. However, Müller-Kauffmann tetrathionate-novobiocin broth (MKTTn), performed less well due to many false-negative results on Brilliant Green agar (BGA) plates. Compared to other feed materials palm kernel meal showed a higher detection level with all serotypes and methods tested. The results of this study showed that the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the investigated cultural methods were equivalent. However, the detection levels for different feed and feed ingredients varied considerably.

  12. A comparative study of cultural methods for the detection of Salmonella in feed and feed ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Koyuncu, Sevinc; Haggblom, Per

    2009-01-01

    Background Animal feed as a source of infection to food producing animals is much debated. In order to increase our present knowledge about possible feed transmission it is important to know that the present isolation methods for Salmonella are reliable also for feed materials. In a comparative study the ability of the standard method used for isolation of Salmonella in feed in the Nordic countries, the NMKL71 method (Nordic Committee on Food Analysis) was compared to the Modified Semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis method (MSRV) and the international standard method (EN ISO 6579:2002). Five different feed materials were investigated, namely wheat grain, soybean meal, rape seed meal, palm kernel meal, pellets of pig feed and also scrapings from a feed mill elevator. Four different levels of the Salmonella serotypes S. Typhimurium, S. Cubana and S. Yoruba were added to each feed material, respectively. For all methods pre-enrichment in Buffered Peptone Water (BPW) were carried out followed by enrichments in the different selective media and finally plating on selective agar media. Results The results obtained with all three methods showed no differences in detection levels, with an accuracy and sensitivity of 65% and 56%, respectively. However, Müller-Kauffmann tetrathionate-novobiocin broth (MKTTn), performed less well due to many false-negative results on Brilliant Green agar (BGA) plates. Compared to other feed materials palm kernel meal showed a higher detection level with all serotypes and methods tested. Conclusion The results of this study showed that the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the investigated cultural methods were equivalent. However, the detection levels for different feed and feed ingredients varied considerably. PMID:19192298

  13. Study on mycoflora of poultry feed ingredients and finished feed in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghaemmaghami, Seyed Soheil; Modirsaneii, Mehrdad; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Unhygienic poultry feedstuffs can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effect on poultry production and public health. In the present study, mycobiota and colony-forming units per gram in ingredients and finish poultry feed was evaluated with special reference to potentially mycotoxigenic fungi. Materials and Methods: Eighty five samples of corn, soybean meal and poultry finished feed were collected from nine poultry feed factories located in three provinces i.e. Tehran, Alborz and Qom in Iran from October 2014 to January 2015. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar (AFPA) and dichloran rosebengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) and incubated at 28 °C for 7–10 days. Purified fungal colonies were identified by a combination of macro- and microscopic morphological criteria. For determining the rate of fungal contamination, samples were cultured on SDA and colony forming units (CFUs) were calculated. Results: A total of 384 fungal isolates belonging to 7 genera of filamentous fungi and yeasts were obtained from corn (124 isolates), soybean meal (92 isolates), and feed before (72 isolates), and after pelleting (96 isolates). The most prominent fungal isolate in corn, soybean meal and feed before pelleting (feed as mash form) was Fusarium but in feed after pelleting was Aspergillus. Among 5 Aspergillus species isolated, potentially aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates was predominant in corn (46.6%), soybean meal (72.7%) and poultry finished feed (75%). CFUs results indicated that 9/22 corn samples (40.9%), none of 22 soybean meal samples, 19/41 finished feed (46.3%) were contaminated higher than the standard limit. Conclusions: Our results indicated that corn, soybean meal and finished feed of poultry feed mill are contaminated with various fungal genera by different levels sometimes higher that the standard limits. Contamination with potentially mycotoxigenic fungi especially Aspergillus

  14. Adherence with early infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines in the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, Sinéad M; Murray, Deirdre M; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Kenny, Louise C; Irvine, Alan D; Kiely, Mairead

    2015-10-01

    To describe adherence with infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines. Prospective study of infant feeding and complementary feeding practices were collected as part of the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study. Cork, Ireland. Data are described for the 823 infants for whom a diary was completed. Breast-feeding was initiated in 81 % of infants, and 34 %, 14 % and 1 % of infants were exclusively breast-fed at hospital discharge, 2 and 6 months, respectively. Stage one infant formula decreased from 71 % at 2 months to 13 % at 12 months. The majority of infants (79 %) were introduced to solids between 17 and 26 weeks and 18 % were given solid foods before 17 weeks. Mothers of infants who commenced complementary feeding prior to 17 weeks were younger (29·8 v. 31·5 years; P<0·001) and more likely to smoke (18 v. 8 %; P=0·004). The first food was usually baby rice (69 %), infant breakfast cereals (14 %) or fruit/vegetables (14 %). Meals were generally home-made (49 %), cereal-based (35 %), manufactured (10 %), dairy (3 %) and dessert-based (3 %). The median gap between the first-second, second-third, third-fourth and fourth-fifth new foods was 4, 2, 2 and 2 d, respectively. We present the largest prospective cohort study to date on early infant feeding in Ireland. The rate of breast-feeding is low by international norms. Most mothers introduce complementary foods between 4 and 6 months with lengthy gaps between each new food/food product. There is a high prevalence of exposure to infant breakfast cereals, which are composite foods, among the first foods introduced.

  15. Subchronic lead feeding study in male rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, Duane M; Mielke, Howard W; Heneghan, James B

    2008-10-01

    This study was done to establish baseline information on the bioavailability of low levels of different species of lead by oral feeding in young rats and to compare this with lead-contaminated soils of similar dosage. These results can be used to help establish low-level risk assessments for lead exposure in children. Lead acetate was used in this study as a point of reference because it was considered to be 100% bioavailable. The required amounts of either lead acetate or lead nitrate were added to the control soil of 135 mg/kg lead to match the targeted test soil lead concentrations of 375, 750, 1500, and 3000 mg/kg lead. This lead-contaminated soil was mixed 5% (soil/diet) by weight with a semipurified lab chow diet, which resulted in final dietary lead concentrations of 6.75, 18.75, 37.5, 75, and 150 microg Pb/g diet. Results from this study indicated that (1) the dietary lead concentrations used did not result in any overt signs of lead toxicity (i.e., no significant effect on body weight gain, food consumption, or fecal output), (2) there were significant dose-dependent increases in fecal lead concentration and total fecal lead output, although there were no significant differences among study groups, (3) there was a time-dependent decrease in net whole-body lead uptake from a total group average of 65% at week 1 down to approximately 40% by week 5, and (4) there were no significant differences in terminal blood lead levels among study groups. Results from this study demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase in tissue lead concentrations (mug Pb per g tissue weight) for bone, kidney, and liver for all study groups. There were no significant differences between the lead acetate and the test soil study groups at any lead dosages; however, there was a significantly increased lead incorporation into the bones from the lead nitrate study group. In summary, these results demonstrate that rats metabolize and handle lead of relatively small particle size

  16. A study of microstrip array antennas with the feed network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Ely; Malamud, Gabi; Shtrikman, Shmuel; Treves, David

    1989-04-01

    The radiation and losses in microstrip antennas with a corporate feed network are studied. A surface current approach is applied in which the electrical currents in the feed lines are modeled as ideal transmission lines. The free-space radiation and the surface-wave excitation of typical segments in printed feed networks are studied. A four-element array antenna with its printed feed network is analyzed, and predicted radiation patterns, directivity, and gain are presented and compared with experimental results. The gain and directivity of large arrays of 16, 64, 256, and 1024 elements are calculated, and measurements in the frequency range of 10 to 35 GHz are reported.

  17. The effect of a self-efficacy-based educational programme on maternal breast feeding self-efficacy, breast feeding duration and exclusive breast feeding rates: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Man Yi; Ip, Wan Yim; Choi, Kai Chow

    2016-05-01

    breast feeding has a number of well-documented benefits. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate an effective approach to increase the breast feeding rate, duration and exclusive breast feeding rate, in which maternal breast feeding self-efficacy was determined as one of the major contributors. Although numerous breast feeding educational programmes have been developed to enhance maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy, results on the effectiveness of these programmes remain inconclusive. this study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a self-efficacy-based breast feeding educational programme (SEBEP) in enhancing breast feeding self-efficacy, breast feeding duration and exclusive breast feeding rates among mothers in Hong Kong. eligible pregnant women were randomized to attend a 2.5-hour breast feeding workshop at 28-38 weeks of gestation and receive 30-60minutes of telephone counselling at two weeks post partum, whereas both intervention and control groups received usual care. At two weeks postpartum, the Breast feeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF) and a self-developed post partum questionnaire were completed via telephone interviews. The breast feeding duration, pattern of breast feeding and exclusive breast feeding rates were recorded at two weeks, four weeks, eight weeks and six months post partum. results of analyses based on an intention-to-treat (ITT) assumption showed a significant difference (p<0.01) in the change in BSES-SF mean scores between the mothers who received SEBEP and those who did not receive SEBEP at two weeks post partum. The exclusive breast feeding rate was 11.4% for the intervention group and 5.6% for the control group at six months post partum. the findings of this study highlight the feasibility of a major trial to implement breast feeding education targeted at increasing breast feeding self-efficacy and exclusive breast feeding rates in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutrient control of phytoplankton photosynthesis in the western North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Trevor; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Harrison, William G.; Hoepffner, Nicolas; Goes, Joaquim

    1992-01-01

    Results from several years of oceanographic cruises are reported which show that the parameters of the photosynthesis-light curve of the flora of the North Sargasso Sea are remarkably constant in magnitude, except during the spring phytoplankton bloom when their magnitudes are noticeably higher. These results are interpreted as providing direct evidence for nutrient control of photosynthesis in the open ocean. The findings also reinforce the plausibility of using biogeochemical provinces to partition the ocean into manageable units for basin- or global-scale analysis. They show that seasonal changes in critical parameter should not be overlooked if robust carbon budgets are to be constructed, and illustrate the value of attacking the parameters that control the key fluxes, rather than the fluxes themselves, when investigating the ocean carbon cycle.

  19. Nutrient control of phytoplankton photosynthesis in the western North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Trevor; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Harrison, William G.; Hoepffner, Nicolas; Goes, Joaquim

    1992-01-01

    Results from several years of oceanographic cruises are reported which show that the parameters of the photosynthesis-light curve of the flora of the North Sargasso Sea are remarkably constant in magnitude, except during the spring phytoplankton bloom when their magnitudes are noticeably higher. These results are interpreted as providing direct evidence for nutrient control of photosynthesis in the open ocean. The findings also reinforce the plausibility of using biogeochemical provinces to partition the ocean into manageable units for basin- or global-scale analysis. They show that seasonal changes in critical parameter should not be overlooked if robust carbon budgets are to be constructed, and illustrate the value of attacking the parameters that control the key fluxes, rather than the fluxes themselves, when investigating the ocean carbon cycle.

  20. Mothers' experiences of feeding situations - an interview study.

    PubMed

    Bramhagen, Ann-Cathrine; Axelsson, Irene; Hallström, Inger

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe parents' experiences concerning feeding situations and their contact with the nurse at the Child Health Service (CHS). Some of the most important tasks for the nurse at the CHS are to monitor growth, detect feeding difficulties and give advice concerning food intake and feeding practices. Eighteen mothers differing in age, education, ethnicity and number of children and recruited from different CHS were interviewed. The narratives were transcribed verbatim and analysed by content analysis at manifest and latent levels. All mothers' described that food and feeding were essential parts of their lives requiring a great deal of time and involvement. Two major categories of mothers' attitudes in feeding situations were identified - a flexible attitude and a controlling attitude. Mothers with a flexible attitude were sensitive to the child's signals and responded to them in order to obtain good communication. Mothers who expressed a need for control established rules and routines regarding the feeding situations. Mothers with a controlling attitude expressed receiving inadequate support from the nurse at the CHS. This study shows that some mothers experience inadequate support from the nurse at the CHS. Knowledge about mothers' experiences of feeding situations and their different attitudes towards the child during feeding might improve the CHS nurses' knowledge and help them understand and more adequately support mothers who experience feeding difficulties.

  1. [Encouragement and protection of breast-feeding: conoscitive study].

    PubMed

    Di Labio, Luisa; Pane, Concettina; Cicolini, Giancarlo

    2011-01-01

    The factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding in a Naples health district were studied in October 2008 in the period between the first and second vaccinations (neonates aged between 60 and 120 days) . Questions regarded both the mother and the child and the answers were collected in a database and compared with other methods of nutrition or mixed methods. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate logistic regression. Results showed that only 38.5% of the mothers interviewed practiced breast-feeding alone while 20% did mixed feeding and 41.5% preferred artificial feeding. The variables negatively related to breast-feeding were: breast problems, older-aged mothers, Cesarean section, first experience of breast-feeding, lack of rooming-in and/or prenatal preparative courses. Positively associated variables were: higher level of education of the mother, higher level of information regarding the advantages of breast-feeding. The conclusions of this study confirm those of previous studies regarding the relationship between exclusive breast-feeding and biological and social factors.

  2. 'The midwives aren't allowed to tell you': perceived infant feeding policy restrictions in a formula feeding culture - the Feeding Your Baby Study.

    PubMed

    Lagan, Briege M; Symon, Andrew; Dalzell, Janet; Whitford, Heather

    2014-03-01

    to explore the expectations and experiences of postnatal mothers in relation to infant feeding, and to identify how care could be improved. this study used a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design. Data were collected through one to one in-depth semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Tayside area of Eastern Scotland. seven focus group interviews (n=38 participants) and 40 semi-structured one-to-one interviews with mothers with a range of infant feeding experiences i.e. exclusively breast fed; started breast feeding but changed to formula milk before 16 weeks; exclusively formula fed; or who concurrently breast and formula fed their infant. a principal theme of 'Mixed and missing messages' emerged, incorporating 'Conflicting advice', 'Information gaps' and 'Pressure to breast feed' with a secondary theme of 'Emotional costs'. Several problems were identified with how women were given information, how infant feeding discussions were held, and the type of support available after the infant is born. there was a strong perception that some midwives are not 'allowed' to discuss or provide information on formula feeding, and the women reported feeling pressurised to breast feed. Current interpretation of guidance from the UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative may be restricting antenatal discussions about infant feeding. The combination of this partial preparation antenatally and postnatal support that was often inconsistent seems to incur a counter-productive emotional cost. at strategic, policy and practice levels the infant feeding message needs to change to encourage a more woman-centred focus including discussions about the realities of all types of infant feeding. It is important that health providers continue to promote and support breast feeding; and that effective services are provided to women who wish to breast feed to help them to do so. However provision of information about all aspects of feeding is needed as well as support for women who do not

  3. Predictors of early introduction of complementary feeding: longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Li; Lee, Andy H; Binns, Colin W

    2015-01-01

    Early introduction of complementary foods prior to 6 months of age may shorten breast-feeding duration and expose the infant to increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The aims of this study were to document the ages of complementary food introduction and to identify the determinants associated with early introduction of complementary feeding in Sichuan Province. A prospective study on infant feeding practices was conducted during 2010-2011 in Jiangyou, China. A total of 695 mothers were recruited and interviewed at discharge. The follow-up interviews were carried out by telephone at 1, 3 and 6 months postpartum. Cox regression analysis was performed to determine factors related to early introduction of complementary feeding. The median age at start of complementary feeding was 4.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.4-4.6 months). Mothers who perceived that most of their friends breast-fed (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95%CI: 0.58-0.84) and those who returned to work when the infants were at least 6 months old were less likely to initiate complementary feeding early (adjusted HR, 0.73; 95%CI: 0.58-0.91), while infants who had been introduced to infant formula regularly before 6 months of age were at a higher risk of receiving complementary foods prematurely (adjusted HR, 1.81; 95%CI: 1.42-2.31). Introducing complementary feeding before 6 months postpartum was widely practiced in Jiangyou. The appropriate age at which to introduce complementary foods and its benefits need to be emphasized in the future breast-feeding education strategies in Sichuan. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. Breast feeding--a study of 8750 Malaysian infants.

    PubMed

    Pathmanathan, I

    1978-12-01

    Infant feeding patterns in Malaysia were assessed using data obtained by interviewing 5160 women who gave birth to 8755 babies in 3 urban areas and 6 rural areas from 1970-1974. The study was undertaken in an effort to determine appropriate strategies for promoting breast-feeding. 64.2% of the 8755 were breast-fed. Considerable variation in breast-feeding patterns was observed when the data was analyzed in reference to ethnic affiliation, residence, family income, and mother's educational level. While 88.9% of the Malay infants were breast-fed, only 69.7% of the Indian infants and 42.3% of the Chinese infants were breast-fed. 47.0% of the infants in urban areas were breast-fed compared to 77.5% in the rural areas. Women in higher income and educational groupings were less likely to breast-feed their children than women in lower income and educational groupings. In the urban areas, approximately 1/2 of the Malay women, 1/2 of the Indian women, and 2/3 of the Chinese women discontinued breast-feeding before their children were 3 months old. Chinese women who delivered in private hospitals were less likely to breast-feed their infants than those who delivered in government hospitals. Among rural Malay women, those who delivered in hospitals were less likely to breast-feed than those who delivered at home. The findings suggested that 1) hospital personnel, especially those who work in private hospitals, should take a more active role in promoting lactation; 2) health personnel and mothers need to be more adequately informed about the advantages of breast-feeding; 3) women in higher income and educational groups should be encouraged to breast-feed since they serve as role models for women in the lower income and educational groups; and 4) additional studies should be undertaken in order to identify those cultural attitudes which inhibit lactation among Chinese women. Tables showed 1) the number and % distribution of breast-feeding and 2) the % of infants breast-fed by

  5. Infant feeding practices in complex emergencies: a case study approach.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, M E; Burkle, F M; Olness, K

    2001-01-01

    The majority of deaths associated with complex emergencies are attributed to infants and children under the age of five years. Most of these deaths are related to preventable diseases such as malnutrition, diarrhea, and malaria. Infant feeding emergencies have emerged as a major factor in complex emergencies. This paper reviews the current information relative to infant feeding, and uses four case studies as educational tools for the management of infant feeding emergencies. Child mortality rates in refugee population have been linked directly to protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). Breast feeding has many advantages over all other forms of feeding for children up to the age of two years of age. These advantages are discussed in detail in this paper. In addition, the appropriate and inappropriate uses of breast-milk substitutes (BMS) are discussed. Breast feeding also may play a role in the spread of HIV infections from the mother to the infant. However, in the setting of complex emergencies in the developing world, the risk of an infant dying of malnutrition and infection when not breastfed is likely to be greater than is the risk of death due to HIV acquisition through breastfeeding. The physiology of lactation is reviewed with particular reference to the roles of prolactin, oxytocin, and the feedback inhibitor of lactation (FIL) hormone. No medications have been demonstrated to augment milk production that can be used in a practical sense in complex emergencies. Lastly, the principles promulgated by the WHO and UNHCR for the feeding of infants and children in emergencies and for milk powder distribution are summarized.

  6. A chronometric approach to the study of feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, S

    1980-01-01

    In many mammalian genera, the stimulus to feed is intimately associated with circadian rhythms. This stimulus arises from within the brain from biological time-keeping systems. Such a chronometric approach to feeding behavior follows from a consideration of the terrestrial mammal's space-time pattern within the ecological niche. The ecological niche is a division of time as well as space. The restriction of certain behaviors to certain times of day and the concomitant evolution of nocturnality or diurnality represent strong advantages for survival in the wild. Experimental data, primarily from studies on the rat, in support of the chronometric approach, include: the reinstatement of cyclic feeding patterns after food deprivation; the continuation of circadian pattern of wheel running and nocturnal drinking during food deprivation; consideration of the ontogeny of the feeding pattern; the phenomenon of anticipatory appetite--the experimental demonstration that time of day can act as a conditioned stimulus for feeding; the evaluation of rhythms in digestion, absorption and assimilatory biochemical processes; the realization that many of these rhythms are not simply a consequence of the presence of food in the gut; the realization that the brain exerts considerable control over the peripheral rhythmic nutritional processes via ANS and endocrinological systems; and the fact that within the brain the SCN and structures well known to be involved in nutritional regulation, such as the VMH, LHA and monoamine systems, may all be involved in the circadian pattern of feeding. Further, the function of these neurological structures may be understood better by consideration of data from temporal changes in feeding patterns.

  7. Breast feeding and the weekend effect: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimons, Emla; Vera-Hernández, Marcos

    2016-07-08

    To compare the incidence of breast feeding by day of week of birth. Retrospective database study using 16 508 records from the 2005 and 2010 Infant Feeding Surveys. England and Wales, UK. Mothers of a sample of births from among all registered births in the periods August-September 2005 and August-October 2010. Incidence of breast feeding after birth. Among babies of mothers who left full-time education aged 16 or under, the incidence of breast feeding was 6.7 percentage points lower (95% CI 1.4 to 12.1 percentage points) for those born on Saturdays than for those born on Mondays-Thursdays. No such differences by day of week of birth were observed among babies of mothers who left school aged 17 or over. Breastfeeding policy should take into account differences in breast feeding by day of week of birth, which are apparent among low-educated mothers. Further research is needed to ascertain the reason for this finding. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Breast feeding and the weekend effect: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimons, Emla; Vera-Hernández, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the incidence of breast feeding by day of week of birth. Design Retrospective database study using 16 508 records from the 2005 and 2010 Infant Feeding Surveys. Setting England and Wales, UK. Participants Mothers of a sample of births from among all registered births in the periods August–September 2005 and August–October 2010. Main outcome measure Incidence of breast feeding after birth. Results Among babies of mothers who left full-time education aged 16 or under, the incidence of breast feeding was 6.7 percentage points lower (95% CI 1.4 to 12.1 percentage points) for those born on Saturdays than for those born on Mondays–Thursdays. No such differences by day of week of birth were observed among babies of mothers who left school aged 17 or over. Conclusions Breastfeeding policy should take into account differences in breast feeding by day of week of birth, which are apparent among low-educated mothers. Further research is needed to ascertain the reason for this finding. PMID:27401354

  9. Breast feeding and child behaviour in the Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Sacker, Amanda; Kelly, Yvonne; Renfrew, Mary J; Quigley, Maria A

    2011-07-01

    To examine whether breast feeding is associated with behavioural development in children aged 5 years. The authors used data from a large, prospective, nationally representative UK cohort, the Millennium Cohort Study. 10 037 mother-child pairs from white ethnic background (9525 term and 512 preterm children) were included in the analyses. Duration of breast feeding (at all or exclusively) was ascertained from parental interview at study baseline, when the children were aged 9 months. Child behaviour was assessed using a parent-completed questionnaire, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The authors used logistic regression to investigate the associations of breastfeeding duration with abnormal parent-rated SDQ total and subscores at age 5 in term and preterm children separately. Abnormal SDQ scores were less common in term children (n=1129/9525, 12%) than pre-term (n=78/512, 15%) children. Term children breast fed for 4 months or longer (n=2741/9525, 29%) had lower odds of an abnormal total SDQ score (multivariable-adjusted OR compared with never breastfed children (n=3292/9525, 35%) 0.67, 95% CI: 0.54 to 0.83). This effect was similar for all the SDQ subscores. In preterm children, longer duration of breast feeding was generally associated with lower odds of abnormal SDQ total and subscores but the effect estimates were imprecise. The associations between exclusive breast feeding and abnormal SDQ scores were similar to those of any breast feeding and abnormal SDQ scores. The findings suggest that, at least in term children, longer duration of breast feeding is associated with fewer parent-rated behavioural problems in children aged 5 years.

  10. Parametric Design Studies on a Direct Liquid Feed Fuel Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H. A.; Narayanan, S. R.; Nakamura, B.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.

    1995-01-01

    Parametric design studies were carried out on a direct methanol liquid feed fuel cell employing 1 M MeOH fuel, air and oxygen as oxidant in a 2 inch x 2 inch cell employing polymeric electrolyte membranes. Measurements include voltage-current output parameters, methanol crossover rate, and impedance as a function of several design and operational variables. Design variables are described.

  11. Investigation into feed preparation for regulatory fish metabolism studies.

    PubMed

    Goeritz, Ina; Atorf, Cornelia; Whalley, Paul; Seymour, Paul; Klein, Michael; Schlechtriem, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Test diets used in fish metabolism studies for regulatory purposes must be homogenously fortified with the radiolabelled test substance and stable with respect to leaching. Standard fish food, as used in commercial fish farming, should also be used in fish metabolism studies. Therefore, suitable spiking and coating procedures are required to ensure the correct dosing of the fish during the experiment. Methods for the homogeneous, safe and efficient application of radiolabelled test items to the surface of commercial feeding pellets were developed. Leaching studies showed that test items of low lipophilicity applied to feeding pellets need to be stabilised, to reduce the risk of significant losses prior to ingestion by the fish. Coating of solvent-spiked pellets with calcium alginate was shown to reduce leaching losses of water-soluble test items significantly. Alternatively, commercial feeding pellets can be coated with alginate or vegetable oil fortified with a radiolabelled test item also leading to sufficiently stabilised test diets. Experimental conditions, such as the water temperature, may have a significant effect on the leaching behaviour of the test items. A detailed description of different spiking and coating procedures for the preparation of experimental diets suitable for fish metabolism studies is provided. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Membrane feeding of dengue patient's blood as a substitute for direct skin feeding in studying Aedes-dengue virus interaction.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheong-Huat; Wong, Pei-Sze Jeslyn; Li, Mei-Zhi Irene; Yang, Hui-Ting; Chong, Chee-Seng; Lee, Linda K; Yuan, Shi; Leo, Yee-Sin; Ng, Lee-Ching; Lye, David C

    2016-04-15

    Understanding the interaction between Aedes vectors and dengue viruses (DENV) has significant implications in determining the transmission dynamics of dengue. The absence of an animal model and ethical concerns regarding direct feeding of mosquitoes on patients has resulted in most infection studies using blood meals spiked with laboratory-cultured DENV. Data obtained from such studies may not reflect the natural human-mosquito transmission scenario. This study explored the potential of using membrane feeding of dengue patient's blood as a substitute for direct skin feeding. Four to six-day old female Ae. aegypti were provided the opportunity to feed via direct exposure to a patient's forearm for 15 min or via exposure to EDTA-treated blood from the same patient through an artificial membrane for 30 min. Mosquitoes from both feeding methods were incubated inside environmental chambers. Mosquitoes were sampled at day 13 post-feeding. Midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were dissected to determine DENV infection by RT-qPCR and viral titration, respectively. Feeding rates: Direct skin feeding assay (DSFA) consistently showed higher mosquito feeding rates (93.3-100%) when compared with the membrane feeding assay (MFA) (48-98.2%). Midgut infection: Pair-wise comparison between methods showed no significant difference in midgut infection rates between mosquitoes exposed via each method and a strong correlation was observed in midgut infection rates for both feeding methods (r = 0.89, P < 0.0001). Overall midgut viral titers (n = 20) obtained by both methods were comparable (P ≥ 0.06). Salivary gland infection: Pair-wise comparison between both methods revealed no significant difference in salivary gland infection rate. Strong correlation in salivary gland infection was observed between DSFA and MFA (r = 0.81, P < 0.0001). In general, mosquitoes fed directly on dengue patients and those on patients' blood (n = 11) had comparable virus

  13. Addressing the recovery of feeding rates in post-exposure feeding bioassays: Cyathura carinata as a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Pais-Costa, Antonia Juliana; Acevedo, Pelayo; Marques, João Carlos; Martinez-Haro, Mónica

    2015-02-15

    Post-exposure bioassays are used in environmental assessment as a cost-effective tool, but the effects of organism's recovery after exposure to pollutant has not yet been addressed in detail. The recoveries of post-exposure feeding rates after being exposed to two sublethal concentrations of cadmium during two different exposure periods (48 h and 96 h) were evaluated under laboratory conditions using the estuarine isopod Cyathura carinata. Results showed that feeding depression was a stable endpoint up to 24 h after cadmium exposure, which is useful for ecotoxicological bioassays. - Highlights: • We studied recovery of post-exposure feeding rates 48–96 h after cadmium exposure. • The assay is based on the isopod Cyathura carinata. • Post-exposure feeding inhibition is a stable sublethal endpoint.

  14. A comparative study of wire feeding and powder feeding in direct diode laser deposition for rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, Waheed Ul Haq; Pinkerton, Andrew J.; Li, Lin

    2005-07-01

    Metal powder feeding has been used widely in various rapid prototyping and tooling processes such as direct laser deposition (DLD) and layered engineered net shaping (LENS) to achieve near net shape accuracy. Although powder recycling has been practiced, the material usage efficiency has been very low (normally below 30%). This study compares the process characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of wire- and powder-feed DLD. A 1.5 kW diode laser is used to build multiple layer parts, which are compared and analysed in terms of surface finish, microstructure and deposition efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy are used for the material characterisation. The microstructure of samples from both the methods is similar, with some porosity found in powder-feed components, but the surface finish and material usage efficiency is better for wire-feed samples. The deposition angle is found to be critical in the case of wire feeding and the characteristics of different feed angles are explored. Possible reasons for the different characteristics of the two deposition techniques are discussed.

  15. An Australian study of midwives' breast-feeding knowledge.

    PubMed

    Cantrill, Ruth M; Creedy, Debra K; Cooke, Marie

    2003-12-01

    To investigate midwives' breast-feeding knowledge, assess associations between knowledge and role, and report on the validity and reliability of the Breast-feeding Knowledge Questionnaire for the Australian context. Postal questionnaire. National Australia. Midwives (n=3500) who are members of the Australian College of Midwives Inc (ACMI). A response rate of 31% (n=1105) was obtained. Respondents were knowledgeable of the benefits of breast feeding and common management issues. Key areas requiring attention included management of low milk supply, immunological value of human milk, and management of a breast abscess during breast feeding. Participants over the age of 30, possessing IBCLC qualifications; having personal breast-feeding experience of more than three months; and more clinical experience achieved higher knowledge scores. Role perceptions were positive with 90% of midwives reporting being confident and effective in meeting the needs of breast-feeding women in the early postnatal period. Midwives' role perception contributed 39% of the variance in general breast-feeding knowledge scores and was a significant predictor of participants' breast-feeding knowledge. The level of basic breast-feeding knowledge of Australian midwives was adequate but there are deficits in key areas. Knowledge variations by midwives may contribute to conflicting advice experienced by breast-feeding women. Further research is needed to investigate in-depth breast-feeding knowledge, breast-feeding promotion practices, and associations between knowledge and practice.

  16. Understanding adolescent mothers' feelings about breast-feeding. A study of perceived benefits and barriers.

    PubMed

    Radius, S M; Joffe, A

    1988-03-01

    This study was designed to assess the benefits and barriers accruing to breast-feeding as perceived by pregnant adolescents, and to establish whether these perceptions distinguished between adolescent mothers who chose to breast versus bottle feed. Surveys were completed by 254 young women attending prenatal clinics. Overall, 19.3% indicated their intent to breast-feed. When categorized by intended method of infant feeding (breast versus bottle), breast-feeding mothers cited more benefits and fewer barriers associated with that method of infant feeding. Overall, perceived benefits were more successful than perceived barriers in distinguishing between the groups of respondents. For those interested in promoting breast-feeding among adolescent mothers, our data support an emphasis on the diverse benefits of this method of infant feeding. Our results also suggest the usefulness of peer role models in correcting misinformation and encouraging breast-feeding among adolescent mothers.

  17. A preliminary study of breast-feeding and maternal symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Mezzacappa, E S; Guethlein, W; Vaz, N; Bagiella, E

    2000-01-01

    The association between breast-feeding status and maternal health is examined. A survey questionnaire was presented via the World Wide Web. Self-reports of 168 breast-feeding and 65 weaned mothers between 4 and 208 weeks postpartum were compared for physician visits, symptomatology, and Perceived Stress Scale scores in the last month. Breast-feeding was associated with fewer physician visits and symptoms and less perceived stress. Moreover, the longer a woman breast-fed before she weaned, the fewer the symptoms and less stress she reported. Breast-feeding is associated with better maternal health both during the breast-feeding period and after weaning. Further research on the effects on maternal health of breast-feeding is indicated. Future prospective longitudinal investigations should address the possible inhibition of lactation by stress and physiological mechanisms that may link breast-feeding and weaning with maternal health.

  18. Factors contributing to early breast-feeding cessation among Chinese mothers: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Marie; Dodgson, Joan E; Wu, Kendra M

    2014-10-01

    Although more than 85% of all new mothers in Hong Kong now initiate breast feeding, few exclusively breast feed and the overall duration is short. More than one-third stop breast feeding within the first month post partum. To explore the breast-feeding experiences of Hong Kong Chinese mothers who prematurely discontinue breast feeding and to identify contributing factors that might be remediated to help women breast feed longer. Qualitative exploratory study. In-depth, exploratory interviews were carried out with 24 new mothers who stopped breast feeding within one month after birth, and content analysis was used to analyse the data. Five core themes emerged from the data: unnatural expectations, left to figure it out, uncertainty, unfulfilling experiences, and guilt versus relief. Because breast feeding is 'natural' participants expected that it would come naturally and thus be easy. When breast feeding did not happen naturally, however, midwives were too busy to provide breast-feeding support and mothers were left to figure it out on their own. Participants also reported difficulty in gauging whether the infant was getting adequate nutrition from their breastmilk. Few participants had positive breast-feeding experiences; while the decision to stop breast feeding caused guilt for most participants, others expressed relief at stopping breast feeding. Greater postnatal breast-feeding support, both in the hospital and after the mother returns home, would likely increase the mother׳s confidence and enhance her mothering experience. Further antenatal and postnatal education on the realistic breast-feeding expectations and the amount of breastmilk required by babies is also important. More research is needed to test professional and peer support breast-feeding interventions to provide guidance to policy makers on the most effective breast-feeding support strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Turbidimetric microbiological determination of oxytetracycline hydrochloride in finished feeds and a feed premix: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Mueller-Brennecke, D L; Reed, S J; Waisner, D L

    1980-09-01

    New automated and manual turbidimetric microbiological assay methods for oxytetracycline (OTC) in finished feeds and a feed premix were submitted to 17 collaborating laboratories for comparison with the official AOAC method. Six finished feeds of 50 and 100 g/ton levels and one premix containing 20 g OTC/lb were sent to the collaborators. Results were received from 12 laboratories. Six laboratories provided results derived from the Autoturb System and 7 laboratories poerformed the turbidimetric analyses manually. All 12 laboratories assayed the samples by the AOAC cylinder-plate method. Ranges of recoveraies expressed as percent were 89.5-102.0, 91.2-97.0, and 91.4-96.0 for the AOAC, Autoturb turbidimetric, and manual turbidimetric methods, respectively. Average recoveries were 96.3, 93.4, and 93.6%, respectively. The mean relative standard deviation values were 5.7, 6.3, and 7.2, respectively. There was little significant difference between the turbidimetric methods and the AOAC method; however, the turbidimetric methods were faster.

  20. Breast-feeding intention, initiation and duration among Hong Kong Chinese women: a prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenru; Lau, Ying; Chow, Aloysius; Chan, Kin Sin

    2014-06-01

    to (1) estimate the breast-feeding intention, initiation and duration rate; (2) identify the reasons to initiate and wean breast feeding and (3) explore predictors of breast-feeding duration. a prospective longitudinal study antenatal clinics of five regional hospitals from four clusters in Hong Kong a population-based sample of 2098 women in the second trimester of pregnancy was recruited with a systematic sampling method. three different sets of self-administered questionnaires were used to measure the breast-feeding intention, initiation and duration, demographic, socio-economic, obstetric, complications of pregnancy and intrapartum variables at three time points. Reasons for initiating and weaning breast feeding, the formal and informal supportive resources of participants during breast feeding were collated at the third time points. the rates of artificial feeding and breast feeding were 41.1% and 58.9%, whereas breast-feeding intention and initiation rates were 85.3% and 67.0%, respectively. The breast-feeding duration rates were 11.1%, 10.3%, 10.7% and 26.7%, for the 'within <1 week', '1-3 weeks', '>3-6 weeks' and '>6 weeks' groups. The common reasons for initiating breast feeding were that breast feeding is beneficial for both the baby (89.8%) and mother (39.7%). Reasons for weaning breast feeding were insufficient breast milk (32.7%), tiredness and fatigue (39.7%) and return to work (29.6%). Partner, relatives and nurse midwives were important supportive resource during breast feeding. Ordinal logistic regression analysis identified five predictive factors of breast-feeding duration. Participants who were working part-time or were housewives (p=0.037), had monthly family income of feeding intention (p=0.001) and early breast feeding within the first hour (p<0.0001) were more likely to have longer breast feeding than their counterparts. mothers in Hong Kong do not meet the recommendation

  1. Studies on protein production by yeasts. IV. Incremental feeding modulus.

    PubMed

    El-Sawy, M; Mahmoud, S A; Abdel-Hafez, A M; Ramadan, E M

    1977-01-01

    S. cerevisiae Gr. 104 which seemed to be the most efficient strain in protein production, was used for investigating its optimum incremental feeding modulus that gives the highest economical yield. Therefore, different hourly rates of incremental feeding, ranging from 1.14 to 1.22, were used and the yeast yield for each rate was determined. Experiments were carried out in a laboratory fermentor vessel of 5 liter capacity, using molasses, ammonium sulphate, and potassium dihydrogen phosphate as feeding substances with optimum pH, temperature, and effective aeration. The optimum incremental feeding for this strain (which is the rate of molasses feeding corresponding to the exponential growth rate) was found to be 1.18. At this rate the best economical use of the substrate was obtained with the production of yield, close to the theoretically calculated yield.

  2. [Studies on effects of water temperature, stocking density and feeding cycle on growth and feeding in Hirudo nipponica].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu-Xi; Cheng, Bo-Xing; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Liu, Fei; Shi, Hong-Zhuan; Guo, Ling

    2017-07-01

    Effects of different water temperature, stocking density and feeding cycle on growth, feeding and survival of Hirudo nipponica have been studied, six temperature gradients were set: 18, 22, 26, 30, 34 and 38 ℃, five stocking density gradients were set: 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 leech/L, four feeding cycle gradients were set: 2, 5, 10 and 20 d, respectively. The results showed that there exists a significant regression relationship between water temperature and specific growth rate: y=-0.016 5x²+0.836 9x-6.847 5(R²=0.990 8)(P<0.05), a regression analysis indicated that specific growth rate reached the maximum (3.76) at 25.36 ℃. When water temperature was beyond 30 ℃, the survival rate significantly decreased as water temperature increased (P<0.05). The specific growth rate and survival rate decreased as stocking density increased. A linear relationship exists between the feeding cycle and the SGR: y=-0.094 1x+3.832 9(R²=0.992 7). From this study, it can be concluded that the optimal water temperature and stocking density for the growth of H. nipponica is 22-26 ℃ and 30-120 leech/L, respectively. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Effect of suboptimal breast-feeding on occurrence of autism: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M; Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Farsi, Omar A; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed A; Al-Khaduri, Maha M; Trivedi, Malav S; Deth, Richard C

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the association between suboptimal breast-feeding practices and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A case-control study was conducted in 102 ASD cases and 102 matched healthy controls. Based on adjusted odds ratios from logistic regression models, ASD was found to be associated with the late initiation of breast-feeding (odds ratio 1.48, 95% confidence interval 1.01-3.1), a non-intake of colostrum (odds ratio 1.7, 95% confidence interval 1.03-4.3), prelacteal feeding, and bottle-feeding. The risk of ASD was found to decrease in a dose-response fashion over increasing periods of exclusive breast-feeding (P for trend = 0.04) and continued breast-feeding (P for trend = 0.001). The study indicates that increased ASD risk is generally associated with suboptimal breast-feeding practices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating the role of point source discharges informs statewide nutrient control policy in Utah.

    PubMed

    Daigger, Glen T; Datta, Tania; Stensel, H David; Whitlock, Drury D; Mackey, John K

    2014-06-01

    An evaluation of costs, rate, and environmental impacts of upgrading publically owned treatment works (POTWs) in the State of Utah to four levels of nutrient control allowed a variety of nutrient control policies to be assessed. Upgrade costs and rate impacts indicated that costs would be within a defined range for many POTWs, especially with design capacities greater than 40,000 m3/day (-10 mgd). However, costs were significantly higher for some POTWs with lower design capacities, and nutrient upgrades to the most stringent levels would not be affordable for these communities, representing about 15 percent of the service population. The resulting equity issues can be addressed through hardship grants program and/or regulations based on a trading scheme. Analysis demonstrated that trading offers advantages, including cost efficiency and flexibility to accommodate further nutrient reductions and population growth, and greater ability to interface with urban and rural nonpoint nutrient control. Currently, the State of Utah is establishing technology-based nutrient limits that can be affordably implemented at all POTWs in phases. Additionally, a multi-faceted approach is being evaluated that will consider prioritized watershed-scale strategies, point and nonpoint sources of pollution, ecological and socioeconomic implications, and stakeholder participation in nutrient reduction programs.

  5. Case-control study on feed risk factors for BSE cases born after the feed ban in France.

    PubMed

    Jarrige, Nathalie; Ducrot, Christian; Cazeau, Géraldine; Morignat, Eric; La Bonnardière, Claude; Calavas, Didier

    2007-01-01

    In France, after the ban on meat and bone meal (MBM) in cattle feeding in June 1990, cases of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) have continued to be detected in bovines born after that ban (called BAB cases). A case-control study was therefore carried out to determine the way these cases were contaminated. A multivariate conditional model was built adjusting for the production type of the animals and taking into account the herd size. The results confirmed that feeding cattle with proprietary concentrates was at risk for BSE, with an adjusted odds ratio of 6.8 (2.5; 18.7) for the consumption of less or three different proprietary concentrates and 17.6 (5.7; 54.8) for more than three, when comparing with no consumption of proprietary concentrates, considering feeding of bovines before the age of two. The results suggest that cross-contaminations by MBM in bovine concentrates have occurred after 1990. To a lesser extent, on-farm cross-contaminations, i.e. consumption by cattle of feedstuffs initially dedicated to other animals and which could legally contain MBM, have probably also existed, since the presence on farms of poultry fed purchased feed involved an increased risk of BSE with an odds ratio of 1.8 (1.1; 3.0). The use of milk replacers, which often incorporates animal fats, was also at risk with an odds ratio of 1.8 (1.0; 3.1).

  6. Coke forming reaction kinetic study on petroleum based feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Shigley, J.K.; Fu, Ta-Wei

    1988-08-01

    The carbonization of hydrocarbons is a very complex process. The pyrolysis reactions are predominantly free radical in nature and can be summarized as a polymerization process. The phase transitions from a 199% isotropic phase to an anisotropic mesophase during the carbonization of many feeds is an important and much studied phenomena. This phenomena is capitalized on in industry to produce needle or graphite coke. The kinetics of pitch polymerization and coke formation have historically been studied by measuring the solubility of the heat treated material in various solvents. The concentration of free radicals in the carbonized samples have also been used to investigate the mechanistic and kinetic aspects of the process. A very extensive study was conducted by Greinke using GPC techniques to measure the changes in narrow molecular weight ranges and the overall molecular weight distribution of a pitch during carbonization. This study focuses on the use of product volatile matter as the measure of extent of carbonization of two different feedstocks. It is ideally suited for use in commercial coking operations as a control or quality parameter of green coke.

  7. Mothers' perceptions of the influences on their child feeding practices - A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Spence, Alison C; Hesketh, Kylie D; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-10-01

    Children's diets are important determinants of their health, but typically do not meet recommendations. Parents' feeding practices, such as pressure or restriction, are important influences on child diets, but reasons why parents use particular feeding practices, and malleability of such practices, are not well understood. This qualitative study aimed to explore mothers' perceptions of influences on their feeding practices, and assess whether an intervention promoting recommended feeding practices was perceived as influential. The Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program was a cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 542 families aiming to improve child diets. Following the trial, when children were two years old, 81 intervention arm mothers were invited to participate in qualitative interviews, and 26 accepted (32%). Thematic analysis of interview transcripts used a tabular thematic framework. Eight major themes were identified regarding perceived influences on child feeding practices. Broadly these encompassed: practical considerations, family setting, formal information sources, parents' own upbringing, learning from friends and family, learning from child and experiences, and parents' beliefs about food and feeding. Additionally, the Melbourne InFANT Program was perceived by most respondents as influential. In particular, many mothers reported being previously unaware of some recommended feeding practices, and that learning and adopting those practices made child feeding easier. These findings suggest that a variety of influences impact mothers' child feeding practices. Health practitioners should consider these factors in providing feeding advice to parents, and researchers should consider these factors in planning interventions.

  8. Pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain and breast-feeding: a cohort study in China.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xing-Yong; Huang, Kun; Yan, Shuang-Qin; Zuo, A-Zhu; Tao, Rui-Wen; Cao, Hui; Gu, Chun-Li; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) on initiation and duration of infant breast-feeding in a prospective birth cohort study. Breast-feeding information was collected at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum. The association of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with delayed lactogenesis II and termination of exclusive breast-feeding was assessed with logistic regression analysis. The risk of early termination of any breast-feeding during the first year postpartum was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models. Urban city in China. Women with infants from the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study (n 3196). The median duration of any breast-feeding in this cohort was 7·0 months. Pre-pregnancy obese women had higher risks of delayed lactogenesis II (risk ratio=1·89; 95 % CI 1·04, 3·43) and early termination of any breast-feeding (hazard ratio=1·38; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·75) adjusted for potential maternal and infant confounders, when compared with normal-weight women. No differences in breast-feeding initiation or duration of exclusive breast-feeding according to pre-pregnancy BMI were found. Moreover, GWG was not associated with any poor breast-feeding outcomes. The present study indicated that pre-pregnancy obesity increases the risks of delayed lactogenesis II and early termination of any breast-feeding in Chinese women.

  9. Rabbit care unit for intravenous feeding and metabolic studies.

    PubMed

    Haukipuro, K; Harju, E

    1986-01-01

    A simple rabbit care unit for peripheral intravenous feeding and metabolic studies was developed. The unit consists of six aluminum boxes with a common cover. Inverted T-shaped mobile supports hanging from the upper horizontal part of a frame hold the infusion lines. The side walls of the box prevent the rabbit from turning around, but other movements are possible. After initial training with 21 surgically treated animals, there was only one early anesthetic death among the subsequent 21 rabbits (4.8%). There was one late death (4.8%), and one animal was slightly, and two animals clearly, deteriorated. The ear vein cannula had to be changed in one-third of the animals not more than 3 days from the outset. Problems associated with the infusion systems or urinary bladder catheterization were minor. The results showed that it is practical to infuse rabbits via a peripheral intravenous route in a semi-restraining metabolic unit. The cases of late death and deterioration can be explained in part by the stress of experimental conditions with starvation and surgery, rather than by the effect of the metabolic unit alone. With previous experience in treating rabbits, we find the period required to learn this technique is short.

  10. SETI low-frequency feed design study for DSS 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, P. H.; Lee, P. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Sky Survey project requires operation from 1 to 10 GHz on the beam waveguide (BWG) antenna DSS 24. The BWG reflectors are undersized in the 1- to 3.02-GHz range, resulting in poor performance. Horn designs and a method for implementing 1- to 3.02-GHz operation on DSS 24 are presented. A combination of a horn and a shaped feed reflector placed above the main reflector is suggested. The horn and feed reflector could be hidden in the RF shadow of the subreflector and struts. Results from computer analysis of this design indicate that adequate performance could be achieved.

  11. Ecological study of effect of breast feeding on infant mortality in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Betrán, Ana P; de Onís, Mercedes; Lauer, Jeremy A; Villar, José

    2001-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of exclusive breast feeding and partial breast feeding on infant mortality from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections in Latin America. Design Attributable fraction analysis of national data on infant mortality and breast feeding. Setting Latin America and the Caribbean. Main outcome measures Mortality from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections and nationally representative breastfeeding rates. Results 55% of infant deaths from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections in Latin America are preventable by exclusive breast feeding among infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding throughout the remainder of infancy. Among infants aged 0-3 months, 66% of deaths from these causes are preventable by exclusive breast feeding; among infants aged 4-11 months, 32% of such deaths are preventable by partial breast feeding. 13.9% of infant deaths from all causes are preventable by these breastfeeding patterns. The annual number of preventable deaths is about 52 000 for the region. Conclusions Exclusive breast feeding of infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding throughout the remainder of infancy could substantially reduce infant mortality in Latin America. Interventions to promote breast feeding should target younger infants. What is already known on this topicInfant mortality is lower among breast fed than non-breast fed infantsThe reductions are greatest for deaths from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infectionsWhat this study addsExclusive breast feeding of infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding for the remainder of the first year would prevent about 52 000 infant deaths a year in Latin AmericaThis corresponds to 13.9% of infant deaths from all causesPromotion of breast feeding has an important role in increasing survival of infants PMID:11498485

  12. History of breast feeding and risk of incident endometriosis: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Eliassen, A Heather; Tamimi, Rulla M; Spiegelman, Donna; Michels, Karin B; Missmer, Stacey A

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between lifetime breast feeding, exclusive breast feeding, postpartum amenorrhea, and incidence of endometriosis among parous women. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Nurses’ Health Study II, 1989-2011. Participants 72 394women who reported having one or more pregnancies that lasted at least six months, 3296 of whom had laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis. For each pregnancy, women reported duration of total breast feeding, exclusive breast feeding, and postpartum amenorrhea. Main outcome measures Incident self reported laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis (96% concordance with medical record) in parous women. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for diagnosis of endometriosis. Results Duration of total and exclusive breast feeding was significantly associated with decreased risk of endometriosis. Among women who reported a lifetime total length of breast feeding of less than one month, there were 453 endometriosis cases/100 000 person years compared with 184 cases/100 000 person years in women who reported a lifetime total of ≥36 months of breast feeding. For every additional three months of total breast feeding per pregnancy, women experienced an 8% lower risk of endometriosis (hazard ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.90 to 0.94; P<0.001 for trend) and a 14% lower risk for every additional three months of exclusive breast feeding per pregnancy (0.86, 0.81 to 0.90; P<0.001 for trend). Women who breastfed for ≥36 months in total across their reproductive lifetime had a 40% reduced risk of endometriosis compared with women who never breast fed (0.60, 0.50 to 0.72). The protective association with breast feeding was strongest among women who gave birth within the past five years (P=0.04 for interaction). The association with total breast feeding and exclusive breast feeding on endometriosis was partially influenced

  13. A Pilot Study to Increase Chewing in Children with Feeding Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkert, Valerie M.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Vaz, Petula C. M.; Frese, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Children with feeding disorders often display chewing deficits. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research examining procedures to increase or teach chewing to children with feeding disorders. The few studies on this topic have utilized multicomponent treatments typically involving a shaping procedure. In addition, to our knowledge, studies on…

  14. A Pilot Study to Increase Chewing in Children with Feeding Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkert, Valerie M.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Vaz, Petula C. M.; Frese, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Children with feeding disorders often display chewing deficits. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research examining procedures to increase or teach chewing to children with feeding disorders. The few studies on this topic have utilized multicomponent treatments typically involving a shaping procedure. In addition, to our knowledge, studies on…

  15. A study to promote breast feeding in the Helsinki Metropolitan area in Finland.

    PubMed

    Hannula, Leena S; Kaunonen, Marja E; Puukka, Pauli J

    2014-06-01

    the aim of this study was to assess the impact of providing intensified support for breast feeding during the perinatal period. a quasi-experimental design with non-equivalent control group. three public maternity hospitals (two study, one control) in the Helsinki Metropolitan area in Finland. a convenience sample of 705 mothers (431 in the intervention group, 274 in the control group). in this study, families in the intervention group had access to intensified breast feeding support from midpregnancy, whereas those in the control group had access to normal care. Intensified support included lectures and workshops to health professionals, and families in the intervention group had access to more intensive support and counselling for breast feeding and a breast feeding outpatient clinic. Additionally, an internet-based intervention was only used in the intervention group, but not in the control group. Mothers in the control group received normal care from the midwifery and nursing professionals who were to continue their work normally. The data were analysed statistically. altogether 705 women participated in the study. In the intervention group (n=431), 76% of the women breast fed exclusively throughout the hospital stay, compared to 66% of the mothers in the control group (n=274). In multivariate analysis, the likelihood of exclusive breast feeding at the time of responding (at hospital discharge or after that at home) was increased by the mother not being treated for an underlying illness or medical problem during pregnancy, being in the intervention group, having normal vaginal childbirth, high breast feeding confidence, positive attitude towards breast feeding, good coping with breast feeding, and 24-hour presence of the infant's father in the ward. the low exclusive breast feeding rates of newborns could be increased by using intensified breast feeding support. Mothers' health problems during pregnancy can decrease exclusive breast feeding. Mothers with health

  16. Metabolomic study of plasma from female mink (Neovison vison) with low and high residual feed intake during restrictive and ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2012-12-01

    Metabolite profiling may elucidate changes in metabolic pathways under various physiological or nutritional conditions. In the present study two groups of female mink characterised as having a high (16 mink) or low (14 mink) residual feed intake were investigated during restrictive and ad libitum feeding. Blood samples were collected three times during the experimental period; during restrictive feeding, and four days and three weeks after the change to ad libitum feeding. Plasma samples were subjected to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry non-targeted metabolomics. Subjecting data to principal component analysis showed that there was no grouping of the data according to the residual feed intake. In contrast, data were clearly grouped according to feeding level. Identification of the metabolites responsible for this grouping showed that the plasma level of metabolites related to mobilisation of energy was high during restrictive feeding, e.g. betaine, carnitine, and creatine. During ad libitum feeding the plasma level of metabolites that can be characterised as biomarkers of meat intake (creatinine, carnosine, 1- and 3 methylhistidine) was high. The plasma level of lysophosphatidylcholine species was highest after four days of ad libitum feeding suggesting a short term imbalance in the transport or metabolism of these metabolites when changing the feeding level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Early Feeding Abilities in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Parental Report Study

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Erin M.; Hustad, Katherine C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The goals of this study were to 1) describe the feeding skills of young children with cerebral palsy (CP); and 2) elucidate the type and severity of feeding problems for children with and without oral-motor involvement. Method Parents of 37 children (16 females, 21 males) with CP, who ranged in age from 11-58 months (mean age = 41 months), completed questionnaires regarding their child's past and current feeding abilities. Children were also clinically evaluated to determine whether each had evidence of oral-motor involvement. Results Children with CP and oral-motor involvement had significantly more difficulty with self-feeding, increased frequency of coughing and choking, increased prevalence of swallowing evaluation and feeding therapy, and were introduced to solid food at a later age relative to children with CP who did not have oral-motor involvement. Both groups of children were similar in their history of tube feeding, bottle feeding, difficulty with solid foods, use of adaptive equipment, duration of mealtimes, and presence of choking, coughing, and gagging. Conclusions Children with and without oral-motor involvement initially presented with similar feeding difficulties. However, feeding problems appeared to resolve to a greater extent in children without oral-motor involvement. The difficulties identified early in life, for children with oral-motor involvement, appeared to persist with development. PMID:20046974

  18. Nutrient Control of Yeast Gametogenesis Is Mediated by TORC1, PKA and Energy Availability

    PubMed Central

    Weidberg, Hilla; Moretto, Fabien; Spedale, Gianpiero; Amon, Angelika; van Werven, Folkert J.

    2016-01-01

    Cell fate choices are tightly controlled by the interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic signals, and gene regulatory networks. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the decision to enter into gametogenesis or sporulation is dictated by mating type and nutrient availability. These signals regulate the expression of the master regulator of gametogenesis, IME1. Here we describe how nutrients control IME1 expression. We find that protein kinase A (PKA) and target of rapamycin complex I (TORC1) signalling mediate nutrient regulation of IME1 expression. Inhibiting both pathways is sufficient to induce IME1 expression and complete sporulation in nutrient-rich conditions. Our ability to induce sporulation under nutrient rich conditions allowed us to show that respiration and fermentation are interchangeable energy sources for IME1 transcription. Furthermore, we find that TORC1 can both promote and inhibit gametogenesis. Down-regulation of TORC1 is required to activate IME1. However, complete inactivation of TORC1 inhibits IME1 induction, indicating that an intermediate level of TORC1 signalling is required for entry into sporulation. Finally, we show that the transcriptional repressor Tup1 binds and represses the IME1 promoter when nutrients are ample, but is released from the IME1 promoter when both PKA and TORC1 are inhibited. Collectively our data demonstrate that nutrient control of entry into sporulation is mediated by a combination of energy availability, TORC1 and PKA activities that converge on the IME1 promoter. PMID:27272508

  19. Breast feeding practices and views among diabetic women: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Hora; Dickinson, Fiona M; Kalk, John; Payne, Karen

    2008-12-01

    to explore the pattern and experiences of breast-feeding practices among diabetic women. retrospective cohort study using maternal records and postal questionnaires in a Baby-Friendly hospital. diabetic mothers including women with gestational diabetes, and type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. from the total group of respondents, 81.9% intended to breast feed. The actual breast feeding rates were 81.9% at birth, 68.1% at 2 weeks and 28.7% at 6 months postpartum. Major themes that were identified from women's experiences included information and advice, support vs. pressure, classification and labelling, and expectations. more than two-thirds of the diabetic women intended to breast feed and actually did breast feed in this study. For both the total study population and the type 1 and 2 diabetics alone, more than half were still breast feeding at 2 weeks postpartum, and approximately one-third were still breast feeding at 6 months postpartum. structured support, provided for women through Baby-Friendly initiatives, was appreciated by the diabetic women in this study. The extent to which this support influenced the highly successful breast feeding practices in this group of women needs focused investigation. The need for a delicate balancing act between pressure and advice in order to prevent coercion was noted.

  20. Studies on an ultrasonic atomization feed direct methanol fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chaoqun; Liu, Linghao; Tang, Kai; Chen, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is promising as an energy conversion device for the replacement of conventional chemical cell in future, owing to its convenient fuel storage, high energy density and low working temperature. The development of DMFC technology is currently limited by catalyst poison and methanol crossover. To alleviate the methanol crossover, a novel fuel supply system based on ultrasonic atomization is proposed. Experimental investigations on this fuel supply system to evaluate methanol permeation rates, open circuit voltages (OCVs) and polarization curves under a series of conditions have been carried out and reported in this paper. In comparison with the traditional liquid feed DMFC system, it can be found that the methanol crossover under the ultrasonic atomization feed system was significantly reduced because the DMFC reaches a large stable OCV value. Moreover, the polarization performance does not vary significantly with the liquid feed style. Therefore, the cell fed by ultrasonic atomization can be operated with a high concentration methanol to improve the energy density of DMFC. Under the supply condition of relatively high concentration methanol such as 4M and 8M, the maximum power density fed by ultrasonic atomization is higher than liquid by 6.05% and 12.94% respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Feeding families and children--1776 to 1976. A bicentennial study.

    PubMed

    Lowenberg, M E; Lucas, B L

    1976-03-01

    The food heritage which Americans enjoy today owes its great diversity to the influences of many ethnic groups--the native Indians, Franciscan friars in California, Mexican-Americans, the British, the French, the Creoles, and later, northern Europeans and those of Mediterranean stock. Geography and climate in different parts of our large country and religious beliefs have also played a part in the development of our present-day, varied cuisine. In our colonial and pioneer days, most people raised their own food, but as our nation has become industrialized and urbanized, we find that now only 7 per cent of our population produces the food for our entire nation, and our consumers generally buy their food in stores. Even as late as the beginning of the twentieth century, infant feeding practices could be considered unscientific and primitive. Only in recent years have knowledge of metabolism and the rapid increase in nutritional science permitted progress in infant feeding. Problems of feeding families remain, nevertheless--different than in the early days of our nation--and their solution challenges American ingenuity.

  2. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Alison K; Pollack Golen, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants' intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers' pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type. Formula-feeding dyads (N = 25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers' pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants' cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01); no differences were seen for mothers who reported lower levels of pressuring feeding. This study highlights a simple, yet effective intervention for improving the bottle-feeding practices of mothers who have pressuring feeding styles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Safety Assessment of Food and Feed from GM Crops in Europe: Evaluating EFSA's Alternative Framework for the Rat 90-day Feeding Study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Bonnie; Du, Yingzhou; Mukerji, Pushkor; Roper, Jason M; Appenzeller, Laura M

    2017-07-12

    Regulatory-compliant rodent subchronic feeding studies are compulsory regardless of a hypothesis to test, according to recent EU legislation for the safety assessment of whole food/feed produced from genetically modified (GM) crops containing a single genetic transformation event (European Union Commission Implementing Regulation No. 503/2013). The Implementing Regulation refers to guidelines set forth by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for the design, conduct, and analysis of rodent subchronic feeding studies. The set of EFSA recommendations was rigorously applied to a 90-day feeding study in Sprague-Dawley rats. After study completion, the appropriateness and applicability of these recommendations were assessed using a battery of statistical analysis approaches including both retrospective and prospective statistical power analyses as well as variance-covariance decomposition. In the interest of animal welfare considerations, alternative experimental designs were investigated and evaluated in the context of informing the health risk assessment of food/feed from GM crops.

  4. Validation study of a lateral-flow immunoassay for detection of ruminant by-product material in animal feeds and feed ingredients.

    PubMed

    Klein, Frank; Lupo, Tony; Pielack, Don; Mozola, Mark

    2005-01-01

    An immunoassay with a lateral flow format has been developed for the detection of ruminant by-product material in animal feeds and feed ingredients. The test is designed for the analysis of animal feeds destined for feeding to ruminants to ensure that they do not contain ruminant by-products in violation of the ruminant-to-ruminant feed ban established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1997. This feed ban was established as a firewall against exposure of ruminant livestock animals to the prion agents responsible for neurological diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie. The test is designed for field use, e.g., at a feed mill, and yields a qualitative (presence/absence) result in 15-20 min. The objective of the study was to validate the lateral-flow test for detection of ruminant by-product material in a variety of finished animal feeds and feed ingredients. Results indicate that the test is specific for ruminant material and can detect as little as 1% ruminant material in these commodities.

  5. Association analysis between feed efficiency studies and expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide genes in laying ducks.

    PubMed

    Zeng, T; Chen, L; Du, X; Lai, S J; Huang, S P; Liu, Y L; Lu, L Z

    2016-10-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is now considered a more reasonable metric to evaluate animal feed efficiency. In this study, the correlation between RFI and other feed efficiency traits was investigated and gene expression within the hypothalamus was determined in low RFI (LRFI) and high RFI (HRFI) ducks. Further, several hypothalamic neuropeptide genes were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The mean feed intake value was 160 g/day, whereas the egg mass laid (EML) and body weight were approximately 62.4 g/day and 1.46 kg respectively. Estimates for heritability of RFI, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake were 0.26, 0.18 and 0.23 respectively. RFI is phenotypically positively correlated with feed intake and FCR (P < 0.01). The expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and neuropeptide Y receptor Y5 (NPY5R) mRNA was higher in HRFI ducks compared with LRFI ducks (P < 0.05), whereas that of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) and cholecystokinin (CCK) was lower (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (luteinizing-releasing hormone) (GNRH1) and prolactin receptor (PRLR) was unchanged between LRFI and HRFI ducks. The results indicate that selection for LRFI could reduce feed intake without significant changes in EML, whereas selection on FCR will increase EML. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  6. Improved Hypoxia Modeling for Nutrient Control Decisions in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Pickering, Ken; Tzortziou, Maria; Maninio, Antonio; Policelli, Fritz; Stehr, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Modeling Framework is a suite of coupled models linking the deposition and transport of sediment and nutrients to subsequent bio-geo chemical processes and the resulting effect on concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the coastal waters of Louisiana and Texas. Here, we examine the potential benefits of using multiple NASA remote sensing data products within this Modeling Framework for increasing the accuracy of the models and their utility for nutrient control decisions in the Gulf of Mexico. Our approach is divided into three components: evaluation and improvement of (a) the precipitation input data (b) atmospheric constituent concentrations in EPA's air quality/deposition model and (c) the calculation of algal biomass, organic carbon and suspended solids within the water quality/eutrophication models of the framework.

  7. Maternal employment and breast-feeding initiation: findings from the Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Summer S; Griffiths, Lucy J; Dezateux, Carol; Law, Catherine

    2007-05-01

    Maternal employment rates have increased rapidly in recent years and little is known about how this influences whether women start breast feeding. We examined data from the Millennium Cohort Study to determine whether a mother's employment status (full-time, part-time, self-employed, on leave, not employed/student) and employment characteristics are related to breast-feeding initiation. This analysis comprised 14 830 white mothers from Britain and Ireland (6917 employed) with singleton babies, born from 2000 to 2002. Information was obtained on infant feeding history and mother's employment when the cohort child was 9 months old. We found that women employed full-time were less likely to initiate breast feeding than mothers who were not employed/students, after adjustment for confounding factors [adjusted rate ratio (aRR) = 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89, 0.96]; however, there were no differences in breast-feeding initiation between mothers employed part-time, self-employed, or on leave and mothers who were not employed/students. Among employed mothers, those who returned to work within 4 months postpartum were less likely to start breast feeding than women who returned at 5 or 6 months [aRR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92, 0.99], and women who returned within the first 6 weeks were much less likely to start breast feeding [aRR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.77, 0.94]. Mothers returning for financial reasons were also less likely to initiate breast feeding [aRR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.93, 0.99] than those who returned for other reasons. Policies to increase breast feeding should address how both the time and circumstances of a mother's return to employment postpartum influence whether she decides to start breast feeding.

  8. Predictors of breast-feeding in a developing country: results of a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Al-Sahab, Ban; Tamim, Hala; Mumtaz, Ghina; Khawaja, Marwan; Khogali, Mustafa; Afifi, Rima; Nassif, Yolla; Yunis, Khalid A

    2008-12-01

    Data on the prevalence and predictors of breast-feeding remain scarce in Lebanon. Moreover, no study has previously addressed the effect of the paediatrician's sex on breast-feeding. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of breast-feeding at 1 and 4 months of infant age while exploring the potential role of the sex of the paediatrician. Prospective cohort study. Predictors of breast-feeding significant at the bivariate level were tested at 1 and 4 months through two stepwise regression models. Infants were enrolled through the clinics and dispensaries of 117 paediatricians located in Beirut, Lebanon, and its suburbs. A total of 1,320 healthy newborn infants born between August 2001 and February 2002 were prospectively followed during the first year. Breast-feeding rates at 1 and 4 months were 56.3 % and 24.7 %, respectively. Early discharge, high parity and religion were significantly associated with higher breast-feeding rates at 1 and 4 months of age. Maternal age proved significant only at 1 month, while maternal working status and sex of the paediatrician were significant at 4 months. A novel finding of our study was the positive effect of female paediatricians on breast-feeding continuation until 4 months of age (OR = 1.49; 95 % CI 1.03, 2.15). Breast-feeding rates are low at 1 and 4 months of infant age in Beirut. Further research to investigate the interactions between female physicians and lactating mothers in maintaining breast-feeding in other populations is warranted. The results constitute the basis for designing interventions targeting policy makers, health professionals and mothers.

  9. Hypernatraemic dehydration and breast feeding: a population study

    PubMed Central

    Oddie, S; Richmond, S; Coulthard, M

    2001-01-01

    As part of a population based regional review of all neonatal readmissions, the incidence of dehydration with hypernatraemia in exclusively breast fed infants was estimated. All readmissions to hospital in the first month of life during 1998 from a population of 32 015 live births were reviewed. Eight of 907 readmissions met the case definition, giving an incidence of at least 2.5 per 10 000 live births. Serum sodium at readmission varied from 150to 175 mmol/l. One infant had convulsions. The sole explanation for hypernatraemia was unsuccessful breast feeding in all cases. The eight cases are compared with the 65 cases published in the literature since 1979. Presentation, incidence, risk factors, pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention are discussed.

 PMID:11567942

  10. Parental feeding behaviours and motivations: a qualitative study in mothers of UK pre-schoolers

    PubMed Central

    Carnell, S; Cooke, L; Cheng, R; Robbins, A; Wardle, J

    2011-01-01

    Parental feeding behaviours are considered major influences on children’s eating behaviour. However, many questionnaire studies of feeding neglect subtle distinctions between specific feeding strategies and practices in favour of eliciting general feeding goals, and do not take account of the context provided by parents’ motivations. These factors may be critical to understanding child outcomes and engaging parents in child obesity prevention. The present study obtained interview and diary data on specific feeding behaviours and underlying motivations from 22 mothers of predominantly healthy weight 3–5 y olds in the UK. Parents described a wide range of efforts to promote or restrict intake that were largely motivated by practical and health considerations and only rarely by concern about weight. There was also evidence for instrumental feeding, rules surrounding meal-time, child involvement, and parental flexibility in relation to feeding. Almost all parents described responding to children’s appetitive traits, consistent with growing evidence for genetically-influenced individual differences in children’s appetite. These findings suggest that in order to engage parents of currently healthy weight children, obesity prevention advice should aim to satisfy their primary motivations (practicality, health), and be framed as helping parents to respond sensitively and appropriately to different children’s characteristics. PMID:21884741

  11. Breast feeding and cardiovascular disease risk factors, incidence, and mortality: the Caerphilly study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Richard M; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Gunnell, David; Elwood, Peter; Yarnell, John W G; Davey Smith, George

    2005-02-01

    To investigate the association of having been breast fed with cardiovascular disease risk factors, incidence, and mortality. Prospective cohort study. Caerphilly, South Wales. All men aged 45-59 years living in and around the study area. Of 2818 eligible men, 2512 (89%) were seen. Altogether 1580 men (63%) obtained details of how they had been fed in infancy (ever breast fed or only bottle fed) from their mother or a close female relative. A subset of 1062 subjects reported on whether bottle fed or the duration of breast feeding if breast fed. Breast feeding was not associated with stature, blood pressure, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, or fibrinogen. In fully adjusted models (controlling for age, birth order, and social position in childhood and adulthood), breast feeding was associated with greater body mass index than bottle feeding (difference: 0.41 kg/m(2) (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.81). There was a positive association between breast feeding and coronary heart disease mortality (hazard ratio: 1.73; 1.17 to 2.55) and incidence (1.54; 1.17 to 2.04) (fully adjusted models). There was no evidence of a duration-response effect, which might be expected if an adverse effect of breast feeding was causal. These data provide little evidence of a protective influence of breast feeding on cardiovascular disease risk factors, incidence, or mortality. A possible adverse effect of breast feeding on coronary heart disease incidence was observed but may have a number of explanations, including selection and information bias. In view of these limitations, further long term studies with improved measures of infant feeding are required to confirm or refute these findings.

  12. Breast feeding initiation rate across Western countries: does religion matter? An ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Kramer, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast feeding initiation rates remain below 80% in some Western countries. Many individual-level determinants are known; however, less is known regarding cultural and societal determinants, such as religion, that could explain population-level variations. We examined the correlations of the proportions of Catholics and Protestants with the breast feeding initiation rates across and within Western countries. Methods Using publicly available data, we carried out an ecological study comparing the proportions of Catholics and Protestants with the rates of breast feeding initiation. We correlated data at the country level, and additionally explored within-country data in five Western countries: France (Departments), Ireland (counties), the UK (countries), Canada (provinces) and the USA (states). Our analyses accounted for human development index, gross domestic product and population density. Results We observed a negative correlation (r=−0.30) between the proportion of Catholics and the rate of breast feeding initiation in Western countries. This correlation was consistent when using within-country data in France (r=−0.27), Ireland (r=−0.23), the UK (r=−0.79) and Canada (r=−0.62). In the USA, the positive correlation (r=0.26) between a state's proportion of Catholics and its breast feeding initiation rate was confounded by race, education and socioeconomic status (SES). After controlling for education and SES, the state proportion of non-Hispanic white Catholics was negatively correlated (r=−0.29) with the rate of breast feeding initiation. Conclusions In this ecological study, we found consistent negative correlations between Catholicism and breast feeding initiation rates. Qualitative and quantitative studies at the individual level are needed to confirm and explain our findings. Our results suggest that women living in a country or region where Catholicism has historically dominated are less likely to initiate breast feeding, and that breast

  13. Breastfeeding, Bottle Feeding Practices and Malocclusion in the Primary Dentition: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hermont, Ana Paula; Martins, Carolina C.; Zina, Lívia G.; Auad, Sheyla M.; Paiva, Saul M.; Pordeus, Isabela A.

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breast feeding for at least six months. However, there is no scientific evidence of the benefits of breast feeding for oral health in children under primary dentition. This study aimed to search for scientific evidence regarding the following question: is bottle feeding associated with malocclusion in the primary dentition compared to children that are breastfed? An electronic search was performed in seven databases. The systematic review included 10 cohort studies. It was not possible to conduct meta-analysis; therefore a qualitative analysis was assessed. The majority of studies evaluated feeding habits by means of questionnaires and conducted a single examination. Three studies observed that bottle feeding was significantly associated with overjet and posterior crossbite. Studies reported several cut-off times for breastfeeding (varying from 1 month up to 3 years of age) and several types of malocclusion. Controlling for non-nutritive sucking habits was reported for only half of the studies and this may have led to biased results. The scientific evidence could not confirm a specific type of malocclusion associated with the feeding habits or an adequate time of breastfeeding to benefit the children against malocclusion. Further cohort studies are needed to confirm this evidence. PMID:25785498

  14. Breastfeeding, bottle feeding practices and malocclusion in the primary dentition: a systematic review of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Hermont, Ana Paula; Martins, Carolina C; Zina, Lívia G; Auad, Sheyla M; Paiva, Saul M; Pordeus, Isabela A

    2015-03-16

    The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breast feeding for at least six months. However, there is no scientific evidence of the benefits of breast feeding for oral health in children under primary dentition. This study aimed to search for scientific evidence regarding the following question: is bottle feeding associated with malocclusion in the primary dentition compared to children that are breastfed? An electronic search was performed in seven databases. The systematic review included 10 cohort studies. It was not possible to conduct meta-analysis; therefore a qualitative analysis was assessed. The majority of studies evaluated feeding habits by means of questionnaires and conducted a single examination. Three studies observed that bottle feeding was significantly associated with overjet and posterior crossbite. Studies reported several cut-off times for breastfeeding (varying from 1 month up to 3 years of age) and several types of malocclusion. Controlling for non-nutritive sucking habits was reported for only half of the studies and this may have led to biased results. The scientific evidence could not confirm a specific type of malocclusion associated with the feeding habits or an adequate time of breastfeeding to benefit the children against malocclusion. Further cohort studies are needed to confirm this evidence.

  15. Predicting the impact of feed spacer modification on biofouling by hydraulic characterization and biofouling studies in membrane fouling simulators.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, A; Lehmann, S; Bucs, Sz S; Fresquet, M; Fel, L; Prest, E I E C; Ogier, J; Schellenberg, C; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Kruithof, J C; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2017-03-01

    Feed spacers are an essential part of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane modules. Geometric modification of feed spacers is a potential option to reduce the impact of biofouling on the performance of membrane systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biofouling potential of two commercially available reference feed spacers and four modified feed spacers. The spacers were compared on hydraulic characterization and in biofouling studies with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs). The virgin feed spacer was characterized hydraulically by their resistance, measured in terms of feed channel pressure drop, performed by operating MFSs at varying feed water flow rates. Short-term (9 days) biofouling studies were carried out with nutrient dosage to the MFS feed water to accelerate the biofouling rate. Long-term (96 days) biofouling studies were done without nutrient dosage to the MFS feed water. Feed channel pressure drop was monitored and accumulation of active biomass was quantified by adenosine tri phosphate (ATP) determination. The six feed spacers were ranked on pressure drop (hydraulic characterization) and on biofouling impact (biofouling studies). Significantly different trends in hydraulic resistance and biofouling impact for the six feed spacers were observed. The same ranking for biofouling impact on the feed spacers was found for the (i) short-term biofouling study with nutrient dosage and the (ii) long-term biofouling study without nutrient dosage. The ranking for hydraulic resistance for six virgin feed spacers differed significantly from the ranking of the biofouling impact, indicating that hydraulic resistance of clean feed spacers does not predict the hydraulic resistance of biofouled feed spacers. Better geometric design of feed spacers can be a suitable approach to minimize impact of biofouling in spiral wound membrane systems.

  16. A Study of Breast Feeding Practices Among Families of Armed Forces Personnel in a Large Cantonment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pmp; Bhalwar, R

    2002-10-01

    A cross sectional epidemiological study design was undertaken on a randomly selected sample of 175 families of Armed Forces personnel staying in a large cantonment and having at least one child in the age group 3 to 24 months. The mean duration of lactational amenorrhoea was found to be 6.24 months (SD ± 3.25 months) and that of breast feeding was found to be 11.14 months (SD ± 6.37 month). The present study observed positive association between the duration of exclusive breast feeding and the duration of lactational amenorrhoea, as well as between the lack of practice of exclusive breast feeding and number of spells of upper respiratory tract infection and acute gastroenteritis. Based on the findings of the study, certain measures to promote the practice of exclusive breast feeding for the first 4-6 months of life have been suggested.

  17. Infant feeding practices and prevalence of obesity in eight European countries - the IDEFICS study.

    PubMed

    Hunsberger, Monica; Lanfer, Anne; Reeske, Anna; Veidebaum, Toomas; Russo, Paola; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos; Moreno, Luis A; Molnar, Dénes; De Henauw, Stefaan; Lissner, Lauren; Eiben, Gabriele

    2013-02-01

    To assess the association between exclusive breast-feeding and childhood overweight. Cross-sectional data are from the baseline survey of the longitudinal cohort study IDEFICS. Exclusive rather than partial breast-feeding is the focus of the study due to the theoretical relationship between exclusive breast-feeding and development of dietary self-regulation. Children's measured heights and weights were used to calculate weight status, while waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) and skinfold measures were examined as alternative indicators of adiposity and fat patterning. Examination centres in eight European countries (Italy, Estonia, Cyprus, Belgium, Sweden, Hungary, Germany and Spain). The analysis included 14 726 children aged 2-9 years for whom early feeding practices were reported by parents in standardized questionnaires. After controlling for education, income and other potential confounders, breast-feeding exclusively for 4-6 months was protective of overweight (including obesity) when compared with children never exclusively breast-fed (OR = 0·73; 95 % CI 0·63, 0·85) across all measures of overweight. Exclusively breast-feeding for 6 months offered slightly more protection than for 4 and 5 months combined (OR = 0·71; 95 % CI 0·58, 0·85). The associations could not be explained by socio-economic characteristics or maternal overweight. This multi-country investigation indicated that exclusive breast-feeding for 4-6 months may confer protection against overweight in addition to other known benefits. There was no demonstrated benefit of exclusive breast-feeding for more than 6 months or combination feeding for any duration across all measures of overweight examined.

  18. A serial qualitative interview study of infant feeding experiences: idealism meets realism.

    PubMed

    Hoddinott, Pat; Craig, Leone C A; Britten, Jane; McInnes, Rhona M

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the infant feeding experiences of women and their significant others from pregnancy until 6 months after birth to establish what would make a difference. Qualitative serial interview study. Two health boards in Scotland. 72 of 541 invited pregnant women volunteered. 220 interviews approximately every 4 weeks with 36 women, 26 partners, eight maternal mothers, one sister and two health professionals took place. The overarching theme was a clash between overt or covert infant feeding idealism and the reality experienced. This is manifest as pivotal points where families perceive that the only solution that will restore family well-being is to stop breast feeding or introduce solids. Immediate family well-being is the overriding goal rather than theoretical longer term health benefits. Feeding education is perceived as unrealistic, overly technical and rules based which can undermine women's confidence. Unanimously families would prefer the balance to shift away from antenatal theory towards more help immediately after birth and at 3-4 months when solids are being considered. Family-orientated interactive discussions are valued above breastfeeding-centred checklist style encounters. Adopting idealistic global policy goals like exclusive breast feeding until 6 months as individual goals for women is unhelpful. More achievable incremental goals are recommended. Using a proactive family-centred narrative approach to feeding care might enable pivotal points to be anticipated and resolved. More attention to the diverse values, meanings and emotions around infant feeding within families could help to reconcile health ideals with reality.

  19. A research study of sources of support for bottle feeding in new mothers.

    PubMed

    Cairney, Patricia; Barbour, Rosaline

    2007-06-01

    This paper asks if there is a difference in mothers' perceptions of the support they receive about bottle feeding from a range of professional and non-professional sources. The findings are put into the context of associated demographic characteristics. It forms part of a larger study, which was a longitudinal postal survey of 500 childbearing women across two health board regions in Scotland. Women were recruited at 34 weeks gestation by post. The results reported here are from further postal questionnaires at one and three months postnatally. Older women and those with higher education were more likely to initiate and maintain breast feeding, and less likely to introduce solid foods early. Younger women, who were mainly bottle feeding, were more likely to feel they had enough knowledge about feeding their infants than older women and were significantly more likely to feel that relatives were supportive about infant feeding. However, findings suggest that this confidence is largely dependent upon the support provided by relatives. Given the likelihood of misinformation and the potential for passing on inappropriate practices, this issue merits further examination. Health promotion strategies aimed at relatives of new mothers could, therefore, help to redress this and, thereby, promote more health advantages for the infants involved. However, there may be a large number of younger women who do not have knowledgeable support for infant feeding from relatives or friends and for whom access to health professionals for this information is restricted, possibly leading to poor infant-feeding decisions.

  20. Comparative study on gastrointestinal microbiota of eight fish species with different feeding habits.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Ni, J; Li, J; Wang, C; Li, X; Wu, S; Zhang, T; Yu, Y; Yan, Q

    2014-12-01

    To reveal the effects of fish genotype, feeding habits and serum physiological index on the composition of gastrointestinal microbiota, eight fish species with four different feeding habits were investigated. The V1 to V3 regions of 16S rRNA gene were analysed by high-throughput sequencing (454 platform) to compare the gut microbiota of different fish species. A total of 551 995 high-quality sequences with an average length of 463 bp were obtained from the 48 samples. No significant difference was observed among the detected sequences obtained from fishes with different feeding habits (One-way anova, F = 1·003, P = 0·400), but the number of OTUs among different feeding habits was significantly different (One-way anova, F = 7·564, P < 0·001). Additionally, significant correlations were detected between the fish genotype and microbial composition (partial Mantel test, all P values = 0·001) in the stomach, foregut and hindgut. Moreover, different core intestinal microbiota was also noticed in the eight fish species with different feeding habits. Feeding habits and genotype clearly affected the gastrointestinal microbiota of fish. Moreover, the evolutionary process shaped the serum physiological indexes of fish. This study provided much important information for developing commercial fish feeds. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Investigation of biosecurity risks associated with the feed delivery: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bottoms, Kate; Dewey, Cate; Richardson, Karen; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2015-05-01

    This study explored potential biosecurity issues related to the delivery of feed to commercial farms. A pilot study was conducted to collect information about the day-to-day feed delivery, including biosecurity concerns at the level of the feed truck, the driver, and the farm. In addition, a reusable rubber boot was tested in an effort to increase the proportion of farms at which truck drivers wore clean footwear, and to explore an alternative to the standard plastic disposable boots that may be unsafe in winter conditions. Most farms did well in terms of proper dead-stock management and keeping the farm lane and feed bin areas clean. The provision of reusable rubber boots significantly increased the proportion of deliveries in which the driver wore clean footwear.

  2. Investigation of biosecurity risks associated with the feed delivery: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bottoms, Kate; Dewey, Cate; Richardson, Karen; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2015-01-01

    This study explored potential biosecurity issues related to the delivery of feed to commercial farms. A pilot study was conducted to collect information about the day-to-day feed delivery, including biosecurity concerns at the level of the feed truck, the driver, and the farm. In addition, a reusable rubber boot was tested in an effort to increase the proportion of farms at which truck drivers wore clean footwear, and to explore an alternative to the standard plastic disposable boots that may be unsafe in winter conditions. Most farms did well in terms of proper dead-stock management and keeping the farm lane and feed bin areas clean. The provision of reusable rubber boots significantly increased the proportion of deliveries in which the driver wore clean footwear. PMID:25969585

  3. Extracellular norepinephrine in the medial hypothalamus increases during feeding in chicks: a microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, T; Utimura, D; Kato, H; Kubo, T; Sugahara, K

    2000-11-01

    Norepinephrinergic function in the medial hypothalamus is important for the regulation of feeding behavior in chicks as well as in rats. This study was conducted to clarify the variation of extracellular norepinephrine (NE) in the medial hypothalamus, including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN), during feeding behavior of layer-type chicks. To measure extracellular NE and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol (MHPG), a major metabolite of NE, we used microdialysis and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection. After the collection of baseline samples, food-deprived animals were allowed access to the food for 3 h. Extracellular NE significantly increased during the first hour of access to food, and then returned to baseline levels. MHPG also increased during the feeding, but its increase continued throughout the remainder of the experiment. This study suggests that the variation of NE in the medial hypothalamus may be involved in the control of feeding in layer-type chicks.

  4. A Cultural Understanding of Chinese Immigrant Mothers’ Feeding Practices: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Nan; Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Van Hook, Jennifer; Thompson, Darcy A.; Jones, Shelby S.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in parental feeding practices revealed across and within different ethnic/ cultural groups indicate that cultural examinations of feeding practices in understudied non-European-American populations require urgent attention. China ranks as the second largest source country for children in foreign-born U.S. households. Contrary to the stereotype of slender Asians, Chinese-American young children are at high risk for obesity but have not received sufficient attention from researchers and practitioners dealing with parental feeding practices and childhood obesity. The present study aimed to understand food-related parenting practices among Chinese immigrants in the U.S. using qualitative focus groups. Twenty-two mothers with preschool aged children participated in a discussion regarding parent-child food-related interactions and feeding practices. A thematic approach was adopted to analyze the focus group data following five stages of framework analysis. Thirteen key themes of feeding practices were identified, including 9 that are in existing feeding measures (pre-exiting practices) and 4 practices that have not been documented or emphasized in previous feeding measures (culturally-emphasized practices), including regulating healthy routines and food energy, spoon-feeding, using social comparison to pressure the child to eat, and making an effort to prepare/cook specific foods. Through the use of an emic approach and meaning-centered evidence, the complexities of parent-child interactions and unique nuances of parental feeding in this understudied population were revealed. Our findings can guide future development of culturally-appropriate measurement and inform intervention programs to promote the healthy development of Chinese-American children. PMID:25555536

  5. A cultural understanding of Chinese immigrant mothers' feeding practices. A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nan; Cheah, Charissa S L; Van Hook, Jennifer; Thompson, Darcy A; Jones, Shelby S

    2015-04-01

    Differences in parental feeding practices revealed across and within different ethnic/cultural groups indicate that cultural examinations of feeding practices in understudied non-European-American populations require urgent attention. China ranks as the second largest source country for children in foreign-born U.S. households. Contrary to the stereotype of slender Asians, Chinese-American young children are at high risk for obesity but have not received sufficient attention from researchers and practitioners dealing with parental feeding practices and childhood obesity. The present study aimed to understand food-related parenting practices among Chinese immigrants in the U.S. using qualitative focus groups. Twenty-two mothers with preschool aged children participated in a discussion regarding parent-child food-related interactions and feeding practices. A thematic approach was adopted to analyze the focus group data following five stages of framework analysis. Thirteen key themes of feeding practices were identified, including 9 that are in existing feeding measures (pre-exiting practices) and 4 practices that have not been documented or emphasized in previous feeding measures (culturally-emphasized practices), including regulating healthy routines and food energy, spoon-feeding, using social comparison to pressure the child to eat, and making an effort to prepare/cook specific foods. Through the use of an emic approach and meaning-centered evidence, the complexities of parent-child interactions and unique nuances of parental feeding in this understudied population were revealed. Our findings can guide future development of culturally-appropriate measurement and inform intervention programs to promote the healthy development of Chinese-American children.

  6. Collaborative study of a semiautomated method for the determination of crude protein in animal feeds.

    PubMed

    Noel, R J; Hambleton, L G

    1976-01-01

    A semiautomated method consisting of digestion of animal feeds in a block digestor and determination of ammonia by ammonia-salicylate reaction has been studied collaboratively, along with the official final action Kjeldahl method, sec. 7.016. Each collaborator analyzed 16 feed samples, tryptophan, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate NBS standard, and ammonium sulfate primary standard. Statistical analysis showed that the 2 methods agreed. The semiautomated method has been adopted as official first action.

  7. History of breast feeding and risk of incident endometriosis: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Farland, Leslie V; Eliassen, A Heather; Tamimi, Rulla M; Spiegelman, Donna; Michels, Karin B; Missmer, Stacey A

    2017-08-29

    Objective To investigate the association between lifetime breast feeding, exclusive breast feeding, postpartum amenorrhea, and incidence of endometriosis among parous women.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Nurses' Health Study II, 1989-2011.Participants 72 394women who reported having one or more pregnancies that lasted at least six months, 3296 of whom had laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis. For each pregnancy, women reported duration of total breast feeding, exclusive breast feeding, and postpartum amenorrhea. Main outcome measures Incident self reported laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis (96% concordance with medical record) in parous women. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for diagnosis of endometriosis.Results Duration of total and exclusive breast feeding was significantly associated with decreased risk of endometriosis. Among women who reported a lifetime total length of breast feeding of less than one month, there were 453 endometriosis cases/100 000 person years compared with 184 cases/100 000 person years in women who reported a lifetime total of ≥36 months of breast feeding. For every additional three months of total breast feeding per pregnancy, women experienced an 8% lower risk of endometriosis (hazard ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.90 to 0.94; P<0.001 for trend) and a 14% lower risk for every additional three months of exclusive breast feeding per pregnancy (0.86, 0.81 to 0.90; P<0.001 for trend). Women who breastfed for ≥36 months in total across their reproductive lifetime had a 40% reduced risk of endometriosis compared with women who never breast fed (0.60, 0.50 to 0.72). The protective association with breast feeding was strongest among women who gave birth within the past five years (P=0.04 for interaction). The association with total breast feeding and exclusive breast feeding on endometriosis was partially influenced by

  8. Oxytocin administered during labor and breast-feeding: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    García-Fortea, Pedro; González-Mesa, Ernesto; Blasco, Marta; Cazorla, Olga; Delgado-Ríos, M; González-Valenzuela, María J

    2014-10-01

    The relationship between labor physiology and the onset of lactation leads to assess the potential correlation between oxytocin administration during labor and duration of breast-feeding. This study was designed as a retrospective cohort study where patients given synthetic oxytocin during labor induction were considered as the exposed cohort, and patients not given oxytocin formed the non-exposed cohort. Four hundred of the 7465 children born at our maternity during 2006 were randomly selected. Information about breast-feeding was available for 316 of these children. Eventual confounding or adjustment factors were analyzed using stratified and multivariate analysis. Oxytocin was used for delivery of 189 (59.8%) newborns, multiplying the risk of bottle-feeding by 1.451 (95% CI 1.28-1.63). The best-fit regression model of oxytocin use effect on bottle-feeding included sex and gestational age of the newborn. The use of oxytocin also multiplies the risk of breast-feeding withdrawal at 3 months by 2.29 (95% CI 1.41-3.74). This effect is confounded by maternal age, being higher for mothers under 27 years. Oxytocin administration during labor had some impact on both onset and duration of breast-feeding, particularly in mothers under 27 years of age and newborns delivered at term. Clinical Study registered at U.S. NCT01951040.

  9. Breast-feeding perceptions, beliefs and experiences of Marshallese migrants: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Scott, Allison; Shreve, Marilou; Ayers, Britni; McElfish, Pearl Anna

    2016-11-01

    To determine perceptions, beliefs and experiences affecting breast-feeding in Marshallese mothers residing in Northwest Arkansas, USA. A qualitative, exploratory study using a brief survey and focus groups. Marshallese women, 18 years or older who had a child under 7 years of age, were included in the study. Community-based organization in Northwest Arkansas. The majority of mothers viewed breast milk as superior to formula, but had concerns about adequate milk supply and the nutritional value of their milk. The primary barriers to exclusive breast-feeding in the USA included public shaming (both verbal and non-verbal), perceived milk production and quality, and maternal employment. These barriers are not reported in the Marshall Islands and are encountered only after moving to the USA. Breast-feeding mothers rely heavily on familial support, especially the eldest female, who may not reside in the USA. The influence of institutions, including the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, is strong and may negatively affect breast-feeding. Despite the belief that breast milk is the healthiest option, breast-feeding among Marshallese mothers is challenged by numerous barriers they encounter as they assimilate to US cultural norms. The barriers and challenges, along with the strong desire to assimilate to US culture, impact Marshallese mothers' perceptions, beliefs and experiences with breast-feeding.

  10. The cleft seal for bottle-feeding--A report on case studies.

    PubMed

    Dawjee, S M; Du Plessis, F

    2006-08-01

    Clefting of the lip and palate is the most frequent craniofacial malformation that occurs in newborn babies. The greatest immediate challenge facing a neonate with a cleft is to take nourishment. In developing countries and particularly in rural areas, palatal obturators and other aids that can assist in feeding are not easily available or accessible. The aim of this study was to develop, evaluate and report on the cleft seal, a simple and inexpensive device that is used with a feeding bottle to promote nourishment of a neonate with a cleft palate. The cleft seal is made of either silicone or thermoform plastic and consists of a spoon-like projection attached to a circular washer. The latter fits snugly between the teat base and collar of the feeding bottle, while the spoon-like projection forms a canopy over the teat and separates the nasal cavity from the mouth during feeding. Closure of the cleft emulates the natural feeding process and favours normal orofacial development. Results from this study indicate that there is an increase in nutritional intake over a shorter feeding time when using the cleft seal. Parents also report an absence of nasal regurgitation. The greatest advantage of the cleft seal lies in its negligible cost and ease of use, which can enable distribution and application in remote neonatal centres, where nursing and parental care givers are often at a loss as to what to do when faced with a newborn with a cleft palate.

  11. Mealtime Energy Intake and Feeding Behaviour in Children Who Fail to Thrive: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Wright, Charlotte M.; Drewett, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The essential link between energy needs and energy intake is feeding behaviour, yet few studies have directly observed feeding behaviour in children who have failed to thrive. A cohort of 961 term infants was screened to identify children with first year weight gain below the 5th centile in order to examine their feeding behaviour and…

  12. Mealtime Energy Intake and Feeding Behaviour in Children Who Fail to Thrive: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Wright, Charlotte M.; Drewett, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The essential link between energy needs and energy intake is feeding behaviour, yet few studies have directly observed feeding behaviour in children who have failed to thrive. A cohort of 961 term infants was screened to identify children with first year weight gain below the 5th centile in order to examine their feeding behaviour and…

  13. Determinants of infant feeding choices by Zambian mothers: a mixed quantitative and qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Chisenga, Molly; Siame, Joshua; Baisley, Kathy; Kasonka, Lackson; Filteau, Suzanne

    2011-04-01

    Choosing an infant feeding mode is complex for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected African women. We documented infant feeding choices by 811 mothers of infants aged less than 18 months enrolled in the Chilenje Infant Growth, Nutrition and Infection Study of fortified complementary or replacement foods. We also conducted 20 interviews and 4 focus group discussions among women and nurses to explore the issues in depth. Practices of most HIV-infected women did not closely follow national or international guidelines: 26% never initiated breastfeeding, and 55% were not breastfeeding by 6 months post partum. Women of lower socio-economic status and those not meeting criteria for safe replacement feeding were more likely to initiate breastfeeding, to continue longer and to stop at 6 months when provided with free food within the trial. Most HIV-negative women and women of unknown HIV status continued breastfeeding into the infant's second year, indicating limited 'spillover' of infant feeding messages designed for HIV-infected women into the uninfected population. Qualitative work indicated that the main factors affecting HIV-infected women's infant feeding decisions were the cost of formula, the advice of health workers, influence of relatives, stigma and difficulties with using an exclusive feeding mode. Rapidly changing international recommendations confused both mothers and nurses. Many HIV-infected women chose replacement feeding without meeting criteria to do this safely. Women were influenced by health workers but, for several reasons, found it difficult to follow their advice. The recently revised international HIV and infant feeding recommendations may make the counselling process simpler for health workers and makes following their advice easier for HIV-infected women. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Duration of breast feeding and arterial distensibility in early adult life: population based study.

    PubMed

    Leeson, C P; Kattenhorn, M; Deanfield, J E; Lucas, A

    2001-03-17

    To test the hypothesis that duration of breast feeding is related to changes in vascular function relevant to the development of cardiovascular disease. Population based observational study. Cambridge. 331 adults (171 women, 160 men) aged between 20 and 28 years, born in Cambridge Maternity Hospital. Distensibility of brachial artery, type and duration of infant feeding, current lipid profile, and other cardiovascular risk factors. The longer the period of breast feeding the less distensible the artery wall in early adult life, with no sex differences (regression coefficient = -3.93 micrometer/month, 95% confidence interval -7.29 to -0.57, P=0.02). However, in those breast fed for less than four months, arterial distensibility was not significantly reduced compared with an exclusively formula fed group. The vascular changes observed were not explained by alterations in plasma cholesterol concentration in adult life. Breast feeding in infancy is related to reduced arterial function 20 years later. These data should not alter current recommendations in favour of breast feeding, which has several benefits for infant health. Further work is needed, however, to explore the optimal duration of breast feeding in relation to cardiovascular outcomes.

  15. Duration of breast feeding and arterial distensibility in early adult life: population based study

    PubMed Central

    Leeson, C P M; Kattenhorn, M; Deanfield, J E; Lucas, A

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that duration of breast feeding is related to changes in vascular function relevant to the development of cardiovascular disease. Design Population based observational study. Setting Cambridge. Participants 331 adults (171 women, 160 men) aged between 20 and 28 years, born in Cambridge Maternity Hospital. Main outcome measures Distensibility of brachial artery, type and duration of infant feeding, current lipid profile, and other cardiovascular risk factors. Results The longer the period of breast feeding the less distensible the artery wall in early adult life, with no sex differences (regression coefficient = −3.93 μm/month, 95% confidence interval −7.29 to −0.57, P=0.02). However, in those breast fed for less than four months, arterial distensibility was not significantly reduced compared with an exclusively formula fed group. The vascular changes observed were not explained by alterations in plasma cholesterol concentration in adult life. Conclusions Breast feeding in infancy is related to reduced arterial function 20 years later. These data should not alter current recommendations in favour of breast feeding, which has several benefits for infant health. Further work is needed, however, to explore the optimal duration of breast feeding in relation to cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:11250848

  16. Development of an infant feeding core outcome set for childhood obesity interventions: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Matvienko-Sikar, Karen; Byrne, Molly; Kelly, Colette; Toomey, Elaine; Hennessy, Marita; Devane, Declan; Heary, Caroline; Harrington, Janas; McGrath, Niamh; Queally, Michelle; Kearney, Patricia M

    2017-10-10

    Childhood obesity is a significant public health challenge that affects approximately one in five children worldwide. Infant feeding practices are implicated in the aetiology of childhood obesity. Infant feeding interventions for childhood obesity are increasingly popular but outcome reporting is inconsistent across trials. Lack of standardisation limits examination of intervention effects and mechanisms of change. The aim of the current project is to develop a core set of infant feeding outcomes for children ≤ 1 year old, to be evaluated in childhood obesity intervention trials. This project will use similar methodology to previous core outcome development research. An infant feeding core outcome set (COS) will be developed in four stages: (1) a systematic review of the literature, (2) discussion and clarification of outcomes in a meeting involving multiple stakeholder perspectives, (3) prioritisation of outcomes using the Delphi technique with an expert panel of stakeholders, and (4) achieving consensus on the COS using the nominal group technique (NGT) consensus meeting. An online Delphi survey will be conducted following the NGT meeting to prioritise outcomes identified in the systematic review. An NGT meeting will be conducted with groups of health professionals, non-clinician researchers, and parents of infants ≤ 1 year old, to achieve final consensus on the infant feeding COS. This study aims to develop a core outcome set of infant feeding outcomes for randomised infant feeding studies to prevent childhood obesity. This research will improve examination and syntheses of the outcomes of such studies to prevent and reduce childhood obesity.

  17. Methods appropriate for studying the relationship of breast-feeding to obesity.

    PubMed

    Adair, Linda S

    2009-02-01

    A vast literature examines the association of breast-feeding with body composition and risk of overweight and obesity in childhood and adulthood. Several recent systematic reviews, including one by the World Health Organization, concluded that there is a small protective effect of breast-feeding against overweight in later life. Nearly all studies covered by these reviews used observational study designs that limit causal inferences. Methodological strengths, weaknesses, and main results of the epidemiologic studies that have drawn conclusions about the relation between infant feeding and overweight in childhood and adulthood are briefly reviewed to provide a methodological perspective for the subsequent presentations in this symposium. The focus is on the role of recall and selection bias, appropriate representation of exposures, inadequate control for confounding, and the utility of alternative study designs that may circumvent some of the problems.

  18. Influence of feeding practices on dental caries. A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bahuguna, R; Younis Khan, S; Jain, A

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of feeding practices with dental caries in a group of respondents of 1-18 years of age of Lucknow city, India. A case-control study was carried out in the outpatient department of Paedodontics and Preventive Dental Clinic, Saraswati Dental College and Hospital, Lucknow (UP), India. A total sample of 800 subjects in the 1- 18 years age group was equally divided among cases (DMFT/deft>0) and controls (DMFT/deft = 0). Cases matched with controls for age, sex and religion. Clinical examination (DMFT /deft index) was performed in accordance with the WHO criteria for epidemiological studies. Respondents were interviewed in depth and retrospectively by means of a self- administered questionnaire. Prolonged breast feeding beyond 6 months, bottle feeding, nocturnal bottle feeding containing sweet drink and milk and higher frequency of consumption of sweets emerged as significant risk factors for dental caries. Based on the differences between the caries and non-caries age groups, an educational and preventive programme should be initiated addressing the associated risk factors of specific age groups accordingly. In our present study nocturnal bottle feeding emerged as the most significant risk factor for dental caries in the 1-6 years age group. Hence health professionals should recognise the benefits of breastfeeding up to six months of life and should educate mothers about the importance of implementing beneficial dental habits to ensure that a child reaches oral health.

  19. Impact of nutrient density of nocturnal enteral feeds on appetite: a prospective, randomised crossover study.

    PubMed

    Evans, S; Daly, A; MacDonald, A; Davies, P; Booth, I W

    2007-07-01

    To determine whether the energy density of isocaloric nocturnal enteral feeds (NEF) influences daily nutrient intake in children. In a 6 week, randomised, crossover trial, the impact on spontaneous nutrient intake of manipulating the energy density of two isocaloric overnight feeds (1.0 kcal/ml and 1.5 kcal/ml) was compared in a group of 32 children aged 1-10 years (or 8-25 kg body weight) on long term, overnight enteral feeding at home. Total daily oral energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate intake were assessed using 3 day food diaries. Anthropometric data were also recorded during the study. Spontaneous intakes of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate from food were 20-30% greater when receiving the lower nutrient density feed (1 kcal/ml). This was due to a gender effect; males consumed twice as much protein from food than females and had slightly higher (but not significant) energy and fat intakes when on the larger volume feed. All children increased in weight, height and mid-upper arm circumference in the 6 week period. Children appear to tolerate and grow equally well, irrespective of the nutrient density and volume of NEF taken. However, it appears that children will consume a more energy and nutrient dense oral diet when given their NEF as a higher volume/lower nutrient density feed. This is particularly so for boys, while for girls the volume of NEF or feed concentration appeared to have no impact on quantity of oral diet taken. However, further blinded studies with larger subject numbers would be useful to support these findings.

  20. Gravimetric determination of acid detergent fiber and lignin in feed: interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Möller, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of AOAC Official Method 973.18, a collaborative study was performed to determine fractions of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and lignin (ADL) in animal feed. The study used 6 animal feed and forage samples as blind duplicates and involved 22 participants from 7 countries. The samples analyzed covered a range from 3.5 to 70% ADF and from <1 to 20% ADL. Repeatability standard deviations ranged from 0.27 to 0.95% for ADF and from 0.08 to 0.59% for ADL. The reproducibility standard deviations ranged from 0.56 to 2.44% for ADF and from 0.52 to 2.09% for ADL. Analyzed samples comprised clover and grass silages, soy meal, cattle feed, wheat, and sawdust. The studied method has been published as the EN ISO 13906:2008 standard.

  1. A Case Study on Maximizing Aqua Feed Pellet Properties Using Response Surface Methodology and Genetic Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Tumuluru, Jaya

    2013-01-10

    Aims: The present case study is on maximizing the aqua feed properties using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm. Study Design: Effect of extrusion process variables like screw speed, L/D ratio, barrel temperature, and feed moisture content were analyzed to maximize the aqua feed properties like water stability, true density, and expansion ratio. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India. Methodology: A variable length single screw extruder was used in the study. The process variables selected were screw speed (rpm), length-to-diameter (L/D) ratio, barrel temperature (degrees C), and feed moisture content (%). The pelletized aqua feed was analyzed for physical properties like water stability (WS), true density (TD), and expansion ratio (ER). Extrusion experimental data was collected by based on central composite design. The experimental data was further analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm (GA) for maximizing feed properties. Results: Regression equations developed for the experimental data has adequately described the effect of process variables on the physical properties with coefficient of determination values (R2) of > 0.95. RSM analysis indicated WS, ER, and TD were maximized at L/D ratio of 12-13, screw speed of 60-80 rpm, feed moisture content of 30-40%, and barrel temperature of = 80 degrees C for ER and TD and > 90 degrees C for WS. Based on GA analysis, a maxium WS of 98.10% was predicted at a screw speed of 96.71 rpm, L/D radio of 13.67, barrel temperature of 96.26 degrees C, and feed moisture content of 33.55%. Maximum ER and TD of 0.99 and 1346.9 kg/m3 was also predicted at screw speed of 60.37 and 90.24 rpm, L/D ratio of 12.18 and 13.52, barrel temperature of 68.50 and 64.88 degrees C, and medium feed moisture content of 33.61 and 38.36%. Conclusion: The present data analysis indicated

  2. Addressing the recovery of feeding rates in post-exposure feeding bioassays: Cyathura carinata as a case study.

    PubMed

    Pais-Costa, Antonia Juliana; Acevedo, Pelayo; Marques, João Carlos; Martinez-Haro, Mónica

    2015-02-01

    Post-exposure bioassays are used in environmental assessment as a cost-effective tool, but the effects of organism's recovery after exposure to pollutant has not yet been addressed in detail. The recoveries of post-exposure feeding rates after being exposed to two sublethal concentrations of cadmium during two different exposure periods (48h and 96h) were evaluated under laboratory conditions using the estuarine isopod Cyathura carinata. Results showed that feeding depression was a stable endpoint up to 24h after cadmium exposure, which is useful for ecotoxicological bioassays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A serial qualitative interview study of infant feeding experiences: idealism meets realism

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Leone C A; Britten, Jane; McInnes, Rhona M

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the infant feeding experiences of women and their significant others from pregnancy until 6 months after birth to establish what would make a difference. Design Qualitative serial interview study. Setting Two health boards in Scotland. Participants 72 of 541 invited pregnant women volunteered. 220 interviews approximately every 4 weeks with 36 women, 26 partners, eight maternal mothers, one sister and two health professionals took place. Results The overarching theme was a clash between overt or covert infant feeding idealism and the reality experienced. This is manifest as pivotal points where families perceive that the only solution that will restore family well-being is to stop breast feeding or introduce solids. Immediate family well-being is the overriding goal rather than theoretical longer term health benefits. Feeding education is perceived as unrealistic, overly technical and rules based which can undermine women's confidence. Unanimously families would prefer the balance to shift away from antenatal theory towards more help immediately after birth and at 3–4 months when solids are being considered. Family-orientated interactive discussions are valued above breastfeeding-centred checklist style encounters. Conclusions Adopting idealistic global policy goals like exclusive breast feeding until 6 months as individual goals for women is unhelpful. More achievable incremental goals are recommended. Using a proactive family-centred narrative approach to feeding care might enable pivotal points to be anticipated and resolved. More attention to the diverse values, meanings and emotions around infant feeding within families could help to reconcile health ideals with reality. PMID:22422915

  4. African-American and Latina adolescent mothers' infant feeding decisions and breastfeeding practices: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Hannon, P R; Willis, S K; Bishop-Townsend, V; Martinez, I M; Scrimshaw, S C

    2000-06-01

    To explore minority teen mothers' perceptions of breastfeeding and the influences on infant feeding choices. A qualitative study using semistructured ethnographic interviews and focus groups involving 35 Latina and African-American girls in Chicago between the ages of 12 and 19 years who were primiparous and were currently pregnant or had delivered within the past 3 months. Adolescents identified three main influences on infant feeding decisions and practices: (a) their perceptions of the benefits of breastfeeding, (b) their perceptions of the problems with breastfeeding, and (c) influential people. In this study, teens reported no single influence which determined infant feeding choices. The decision to breastfeed was a dynamic process. Teens recognized that breastfeeding offered many benefits including facilitating maternal-child bonding and promoting the baby's health, but concern was raised regarding a potential for excessive attachment between teen mother and baby. Fear of pain, embarrassment with public exposure, and unease with the act of breastfeeding acted as barriers for teenagers who were considering breastfeeding. Teenagers discussed the breast pump as a strategy in dealing with these barriers. The adolescents' mothers continued to be an important influence. The ranges of perceptions and influences that minority adolescent mothers have identified as affecting their infant feeding choices, illustrated and explained in the teens' own words, are helpful to health care providers as they counsel teen mothers about infant feeding options.

  5. Rat and poultry feeding studies with soybean meal produced from imidazolinone-tolerant (CV127) soybeans.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoyun; de Brum, Paulo A R; Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Cui; Wang, Cuiyan; Lu, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; Contri, Daniela; Nakatani, Andreia; de Avila, Valdir S; Klein, Claudete H; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    The safety and nutritional properties of CV127 soybeans were evaluated in rat and broiler feeding studies. Some episodic differences were observed between rats fed CV127, Conquista, and the standard diet for the endpoints examined. None of these differences were considered treatment related, adverse, or biologically meaningful. In general, birds fed diets containing CV127, Conquista, or Monsoy 8001 showed no significant differences in growth and performance response variables. Chickens fed diets containing Coodetec 217 had lower body weight and weight gain for all developmental periods compared to CV127, but no significant differences were found in feed conversion for the two diets during any development period. The results of both feeding studies demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are as safe, wholesome, and nutritionally valuable as the other soybean meals tested, including those varieties for which histories of safe use have been established and well documented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Breast-feeding and weaning practices in the DONALD study: age and time trends.

    PubMed

    Foterek, Kristina; Hilbig, Annett; Alexy, Ute

    2014-03-01

    Besides influencing short- and long-term health status, infant feeding practices are known to have an effect on later food preferences. This study aimed to identify present trends in breast-feeding duration and weaning practices with special focus on preparation methods of complementary food (CF), that is, homemade and commercial CF. In total, 1419 three-day weighed diet records collected between 2004 and 2012 from 366 children of the German DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed study ages 6 to 24 months were analysed. Full (n = 339) and total breast-feeding duration (n = 344) was collected by questionnaire. To investigate age and time trends, logistic regression and polynomial mixed regression models were used. Infants born between 2008 and 2012 were 3.3-fold less likely to be fully breast-fed for ≥4 months than those born before 2004 (P < 0.0001). Overall, 59.3% commercial, 21.1% homemade, and 19.6% combined CF was consumed by the study sample. Subjects with high commercial CF consumption (percentage of commercial CF > median 62%) were significantly older (P < 0.0001), showed shorter full and total breast-feeding duration (P < 0.0001), and were more likely to have mothers with a lower educational status (P = 0.01). Both commercial and homemade CF showed opposing, nonlinear age trends. No time trends could be found. Decreasing duration of full breast-feeding should encourage health care providers to further promote longer breast-feeding duration. With the constantly high consumption of commercial CF at all ages, nutritional adequacy of both homemade and commercial CF needs to be investigated closer, as does their long-term influence on health and dietary habits, for example, fruit and vegetable intake.

  7. [Breast feeding and child care: a case study of 2 rural areas of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gil-Romo, S E; Rueda-Arróniz, F; Díez-Urdanivia-Coria, S

    1993-01-01

    The present research is included in the fields of public health, social sciences and gender studies. Its objective is to provide insight into the nursing behaviour of two groups of mothers, their domestic and extra-domestic child care arrangements and their attitudes towards breast-feeding. Thirty-five mothers were selected in Malinalco, Mexico, and 35 in the Sierra de Juárez, Oaxaca. Each mother had at least two children and one of them under three years of age. The study was exploratory in its initial phase, subsequently cross-sectional, comparative and prospective. It constitutes a foundation for longitudinal case studies. A pre-coded questionnaire, including the following issues, was administered: family composition; maternal schooling; maternal employment; nursing behaviour with the last child; child care and attitudes towards breast-feeding. The main information regarding 33 mothers in Malinalco and 31 in Oaxaca revealed that in both areas mothers decided how to feed their children during the first days; during the first month, 55 per cent of mothers in Malinalco breast-fed their child, while approximately 90 per cent did so in Oaxaca. The majority of women worked outside home and resorted to extra-domestic arrangements for child care. No relation was found between the feeding method chosen with the last child and maternal employment. About 90 per cent of women in both areas were "happy" to have been born females and breast-feeding was considered a "must". Seventy five per cent of mothers would not allow other women to breast feed their child, even though they were aware that maternal milk is the best.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Do maternal perceptions of child eating and feeding help to explain the disconnect between reported and observed feeding practices?: A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Bergmeier, Heidi J; Skouteris, Helen; Hetherington, Marion M; Rodgers, Rachel F; Campbell, Karen J; Cox, Rachael

    2017-02-08

    Research demonstrates a mismatch between reported and observed maternal feeding practices. This mismatch may be explained by maternal cognitions, attitudes, and motivations relating to dyadic parent-child feeding interactions. These complex constructs may not be apparent during observations nor evidenced in self-report questionnaire. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to gain a more nuanced and contextualized understanding of (a) maternal perceptions of children's food intake control; (b) how parent-child mealtime interactions influence maternal feeding practices; and (c) ways in which mothers may promote healthy child eating and weight outcomes. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 23 mothers (M = 38.4 ± 3.7 years of age) of preschool-aged children (M = 3.8 ± 0.6 years of age, 19 were normal weight, 14 were girls), who had previously completed child feeding questionnaire and participated in two home-based mealtime observations, 12 months apart. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and themes extracted to create the database. Four major themes emerged: (a) Maternal confidence in children's ability to regulate food intake is variable; (b) Implementing strategies for nurturing healthy relationships with food beyond the dining table; (c) Fostering positive mealtime interactions is valued above the content of what children eat; and (d) Situation-specific practices and inconsistencies. Findings indicate that maternal feeding practices are shaped by both parent and child influences, and child feeding is mostly guided by controlling the family food environment, rather than by directly pressuring or restricting their child's eating. Results also highlighted the need for research to consider both parent and child influences on child feeding.

  9. Effects of feeding calves genetically modified corn bt11: a clinico-biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Nobuaki; Murata, Hideo; Mikami, Osamu; Yoshioka, Miyako; Guruge, Keerthi S; Yamanaka, Noriko; Nakajima, Yasuyuki; Miyazaki, Shigeru

    2006-10-01

    Genetically modified corn Bt11 is insect-resistant and expresses Cry1Ab toxin, an insecticidal protein, in kernels. Although Bt11 corn is considered safe based on animal performance, there are no reports available on the clinico-biochemical effects of feeding it to cattle. In this study, we evaluated the effects of feeding Bt11 to calves, using blood and ruminal clinico-biochemical parameters. Our three-month-long feeding experiment demonstrated that calves (n=6), fed with a ration containing 43.3% of Bt11 corn kernels as dry matter, did not develop any discernible clinical, hematological, biochemical, or ruminal abnormalities as compared with control calves (n=6) fed non-Bt11 corn. The results suggest that the transgenic Bt11 has no negative clinico-biochemical effects on calves.

  10. Efficacy of semielevated side-lying positioning during bottle-feeding of very preterm infants: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinhee; Thoyre, Suzanne; Knafl, George J; Hodges, Eric A; Nix, William B

    2014-01-01

    Very preterm (VP, ≤30 wk gestational age) infants are at risk for impaired lung function, which significantly limits their ability to eat. A semielevated side-lying (ESL) position is a feeding strategy that may improve oral feeding by supporting breathing during feeding. The study evaluated the efficacy of the ESL position compared with the semielevated supine (ESU) position on physiological stability and feeding performance of bottle-fed VP infants. Using a within-subject crossover design, 6 VP infants were bottle-fed twice on 1 day, in both the ESL and ESU positions in a random order. Physiological stability (heart rate, oxygen saturation [SaO2], and respiratory characteristics) and feeding performance (percent intake, proficiency, efficiency, and duration of feeding) were measured before and/or during feeding. Very preterm infants fed in the ESL position demonstrated significantly less variation in heart rate, less severe and fewer decreases in heart rate, respiratory rate that was closer to the prefeeding state, shorter and more regular intervals between breaths, and briefer feeding-related apneic events. No significant differences for SaO2 or feeding performance were found. The findings indicate that the ESL position may support better regulation of breathing during feeding, thereby allowing VP infants to better maintain physiological stability throughout feeding.

  11. Collaborative study of an automated method for the determination of crude protein in animal feeds.

    PubMed

    Noel, R J

    1976-01-01

    An automated macro Kjeldahl instrument determines per cent protein at the rate of 20 samples/hr. The methodology involved is similar to the present official final action Kjeldahl method, sec. 7.016. The 2 methods were compared in a collaborative study. Sixteen animal feeds, 4 meats, tryptophan, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate NBS standard, and ammonium sulfate primary standard were analyzed by the participating laboratories. The data were agreement between the 2 methods. The automated method has been adopted as official first action for the determination of crude protein in feeds, plants, and cereal foods.

  12. Complementary feeding and the early origins of obesity risk: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Muniandy, Naleena Devi; Allotey, Pascale A; Soyiri, Ireneous N; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity worldwide calls for an intervention earlier in the life cycle. Studies show that nutrition during early infancy may contribute to later obesity. Hence, this study is designed to determine if the variation in complementary feeding practices poses a risk for the development of obesity later in life. A mixed methods approach will be used in conducting this study. Methods and analysis The target participants are infants born from January to June 2015 in the South East Asia Community Observatory (SEACO) platform. The SEACO is a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) that is established in the District of Segamat in the state of Johor, Malaysia. For the quantitative strand, the sociodemographic data, feeding practices, anthropometry measurement and total nutrient intake will be assessed. The assessment will occur around the time complementary feeding is expected to start (7 Months) and again at 12 months. A 24-hour diet recall and a 2-day food diary will be used to assess the food intake. For the qualitative strand, selected mothers will be interviewed to explore their infant feeding practices and factors that influence their practices and food choices in detail. Ethics and dissemination Ethical clearance for this study was sought through the Monash University Human Research and Ethics Committee (application number CF14/3850-2014002010). Subsequently, the findings of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conferences. PMID:27852704

  13. Body mass index, adiposity rebound and early feeding in a longitudinal cohort (Raine Study).

    PubMed

    Chivers, P; Hands, B; Parker, H; Bulsara, M; Beilin, L J; Kendall, G E; Oddy, W H

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the influence of type and duration of infant feeding on adiposity rebound and the tracking of body mass index (BMI) from birth to 14 years of age. A sample of 1330 individuals over eight follows-ups was drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Trajectories of BMI from birth to adolescence using linear mixed model analysis investigated the influence of age at which breastfeeding was stopped and the age at which other milk was introduced (binomial 4-month cutoff point). A subsample of linear mixed model-predicted BMI was used to determine BMI and age at nadir for early infant feeding groups. Chi-square analysis between early feeding and weight status (normal weight, overweight and obese) groups found a significant difference between thee age at which breastfeeding was stopped (P<0.001) and the age at which other milk was introduced (P=0.011), with a higher proportion of overweight and obese in the < or = 4-month group, even after controlling for maternal education. Using the linear mixed model, the BMI determined was higher over time for the group that was breastfed for < or = 4 months (P=0.015), with a significant interaction effect with the group in which other milk was introduced at < or = 4 months (P=0.011). Using predicted BMI from the linear mixed model, significant differences for nadirs of adiposity rebound between early feeding groups were found (P<0.005). Early infant feeding was important in the timing of, and BMI at, adiposity rebound. The relationship between infant feeding and BMI remained up to the age of 14 years. Although confounding factors cannot be excluded, these findings support the importance of exclusive breastfeeding for longer than 4 months as a protective behaviour against the development of adolescent obesity.

  14. Aboriginal women in rural Australia; a small study of infant feeding behaviour.

    PubMed

    Helps, Catherine; Barclay, Lesley

    2015-06-01

    Aboriginal women in rural areas have lower rates of breastfeeding than Australian averages. The reasons for this are poorly understood. Aboriginal people experience higher morbidity and increased rates of chronic disease throughout the life cycle. The protective effects of sustained breastfeeding could benefit rural Aboriginal communities. To explore the factors impacting upon infant feeding choices in a rural Aboriginal Community. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight Aboriginal rural dwelling first time mothers. These women received a continuity of midwife and Aboriginal Health Worker model of care. Interviews were also undertaken with five Aboriginal Health Workers and two Aboriginal community breastfeeding champions. The analysis was integrated with a conventional literature review and was further developed and illustrated with historical literature. Indigenist methodology guided the study design, analysis and the dissemination of results. Three key themes were identified. These were "I'm doing the best thing for..." which encompasses the motivations underpinning infant feeding decisions; "this is what I know..." which explores individual and community knowledge regarding infant feeding; and "a safe place to feed" identifying the barriers that negative societal messages pose for women as they make infant feeding decisions. It appears loss of family and community breastfeeding knowledge resulting from colonisation still influences the Aboriginal women of today. Aboriginal women value and trust knowledge which is passed to them from extended family members and women within their Community. Cultural, historical and socioeconomic factors all strongly influence the infant feeding decisions of individuals in this study. Efforts to normalise breastfeeding in the culture of rural dwelling Aboriginal women and their supporting community appear to be necessary and may promote breastfeeding more effectively than optimal professional care of individuals can

  15. Dietary Protein and Calcium Interact to Influence Calcium Retention: A Controlled Feeding Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To test the effect of dietary protein on Ca (Ca) retention at low and high Ca intakes. Methods: In a randomized, controlled feeding study with a 2x2 factorial crossover design, healthy post-menopausal women (n=27), consumed either ~675 or ~1510 mg Ca/d, with both low and high protein (pro...

  16. Dietary Adherence Monitoring Tool for Free-living, Controlled Feeding Studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To devise a dietary adherence monitoring tool for use in controlled human feeding trials involving free-living study participants. Methods: A scoring tool was devised to measure and track dietary adherence for an 8-wk randomized trial evaluating the effects of two different dietary patter...

  17. Gravimetric determination of amylase-treated neutral detergent fiber in feeds with refluxing in beakers or crucibles: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Mertens, David R

    2002-01-01

    As an important constituent of animal feeds, fiber represents the portion of feeds that is bulky and difficult to digest. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) method, developed over 30 years ago, is the method of choice for measuring total fiber in forages and other feeds. Several modifications that were made to improve its general applicability to all feeds and others developed in individual laboratories often resulted in variability among laboratories in measuring NDF. The amylase-treated NDF (aNDF) method, therefore, was developed as an accurate and precise method of measuring total insoluble fiber in feeds. A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of the aNDF method over the full range of animal feed materials. Twelve laboratories representing research, feed company, regulatory, and commercial feed testing laboratories analyzed 11 materials as blind duplicates. The materials represented feed matrixes, including animal products; high-protein, high-fat, and high-pectin feeds; oil seeds; grains; heated by-product feeds; and legume and grass hays and silages. Materials selected varied in chemical composition and contained 0-90% aNDF, 1-16% ash, 1-20% crude fat, 1-40% crude protein, and 0-50% starch. Correcting results for changes in blanks and reporting results as ash-free aNDF organic matter (aNDFom) improved the repeatability and reproducibility of results when aNDF was <25%. The within-laboratory repeatability standard deviation (Sr) for percentage aNDFom in feeds varied from 0.21 to 1.82 and among-laboratory reproducibility standard deviation (S(R)) varied from 0.37 to 2.24. The HORRAT was <2 for all materials except feed materials containing >10% fat. However, standard deviations of repeatability and reproducibility for feeds with >10% fat were similar to those of other materials. It is recommended that the aNDF method be accepted for Official First Action status.

  18. Authentication of organic feed by near-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Tres, A; van der Veer, G; Perez-Marin, M D; van Ruth, S M; Garrido-Varo, A

    2012-08-22

    Organic products tend to retail at a higher price than their conventional counterparts, which makes them susceptible to fraud. In this study we evaluate the application of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a rapid, cost-effective method to verify the organic identity of feed for laying hens. For this purpose a total of 36 organic and 60 conventional feed samples from The Netherlands were measured by NIRS. A binary classification model (organic vs conventional feed) was developed using partial least squares discriminant analysis. Models were developed using five different data preprocessing techniques, which were externally validated by a stratified random resampling strategy using 1000 realizations. Spectral regions related to the protein and fat content were among the most important ones for the classification model. The models based on data preprocessed using direct orthogonal signal correction (DOSC), standard normal variate (SNV), and first and second derivatives provided the most successful results in terms of median sensitivity (0.91 in external validation) and median specificity (1.00 for external validation of SNV models and 0.94 for DOSC and first and second derivative models). A previously developed model, which was based on fatty acid fingerprinting of the same set of feed samples, provided a higher sensitivity (1.00). This shows that the NIRS-based approach provides a rapid and low-cost screening tool, whereas the fatty acid fingerprinting model can be used for further confirmation of the organic identity of feed samples for laying hens. These methods provide additional assurance to the administrative controls currently conducted in the organic feed sector.

  19. Development and evaluation of a Chinese-language newborn feeding hotline: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Patricia A; Livingstone, Verity H; Chang, Bruce; Klein, Michael C

    2009-01-01

    Background Preference for formula versus breast feeding among women of Chinese descent remains a concern in North America. The goal of this study was to develop an intervention targeting Chinese immigrant mothers to increase their rates of exclusive breastfeeding. Methods We convened a focus group of immigrant women of Chinese descent in Vancouver, British Columbia to explore preferences for method of infant feeding. We subsequently surveyed 250 women of Chinese descent to validate focus group findings. Using a participatory approach, our focus group participants reviewed survey findings and developed a priority list for attributes of a community-based intervention to support exclusive breastfeeding in the Chinese community. The authors and focus group participants worked as a team to plan, implement and evaluate a Chinese language newborn feeding information telephone service staffed by registered nurses fluent in Chinese languages. Results Participants in the focus group reported a strong preference for formula feeding. Telephone survey results revealed that while pregnant Chinese women understood the benefits of breastfeeding, only 20.8% planned to breastfeed exclusively. Only 15.6% were breastfeeding exclusively at two months postpartum. After implementation of the feeding hotline, 20% of new Chinese mothers in Vancouver indicated that they had used the hotline. Among these women, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 44.1%; OR 3.02, (95% CI 1.78–5.09) compared to women in our survey. Conclusion Initiation of a language-specific newborn feeding telephone hotline reached a previously underserved population and may have contributed to improved rates of exclusive breastfeeding. PMID:19178746

  20. A study of marketing and its effect on infant feeding practices.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, A

    2001-09-01

    A baby milk market was created in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and was conceived through the mutual attraction of the manufacturers and doctors. This has partly attributed to the change from breast to artificial feeding. This study was conducted to determine whether marketing had any effect on infant feeding practices. Fifty Malay mothers whose last child was aged less than five years were asked, by questionnaire and by interview, to identify whether several marketing methods influenced their decision on the selection of infant feeding practice. It was found that these mothers felt milk advertisements on television were attractive (72%), were influenced by others to buy a particular brand of formula (38.4%), were influenced by free milk samples to buy a particular brand of milk formula (65.2%) and were not influenced by their doctors on the chosen method of feeding (68%). More studies should be conducted on a bigger sample in other settings and targeting other methods of marketing to substantiate the above results. Further, similar studies among Chinese and Indian mothers are also required.

  1. Infant breast-feeding and childhood caries: a nine-year study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Liang; Levy, Steven M; Warren, John J; Broffitt, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study's purpose was to assess the association between infant breast-feeding and caries experience of primary second molars in a nine-year longitudinal cohort study. Study sample was 509 subjects recruited at birth. Information about breast-feeding duration and other factors was collected through parents' responses to periodic questionnaires. Primary teeth were examined for dental caries at five years old and nine years old by calibrated dentist examiners. Caries experience (yes/no) and number of decayed and/or filled surfaces (dfs) were determined for five- and nine-year-olds. For primary second molars at five years old, 18 percent of children who were breast-fed less than six months had caries (mean dfs=0.55) while only 9 percent of children who were breast-fed at least six months had caries (mean dfs=0.33). From five to nine years old, caries incidence was 32 percent and 31 percent, respectively, for children breast-fed less than six months and at least six months. In multivariable regression analyses, shorter breast-feeding duration was positively associated with caries experience of primary second molars at five years old (P=.005), both before and after controlling for other important factors. Shorter duration of breast-feeding is suggested to be associated with increased risk for early childhood caries, but its impact might diminish with age.

  2. Infant feeding practices among mildly wasted children: a retrospective study on Nias Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Inayati, Dyah Ayu; Scherbaum, Veronika; Purwestri, Ratna Chrismiari; Hormann, Elizabeth; Wirawan, Nia Novita; Suryantan, Julia; Hartono, Susan; Bloem, Maurice Alexander; Pangaribuan, Rosnani Verba; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Hoffmann, Volker; Bellows, Anne Camilla

    2012-03-21

    This study investigated the infant feeding practices of participating mothers who were recruited into a research project aimed at improving the nutritional status of mildly wasted children (< -1.0 to ≥ -1.5 Weight-for-Height Z-scores) aged ≥ 6 to < 60 months on Nias Island, Indonesia. Cross-sectional, questionnaire-based interview of mothers of the index children (n = 215) who were admitted to the community program for mildly wasted children in the study area. Four focus groups and twenty in-depth interviews were conducted to explore further information on infant feeding practices in the study area. Retrospective results indicated that 6% of the mothers never breastfed. Fifty two percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding within six hours of birth, but 17% discarded colostrum. Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age was practiced by 12%. Seventy-four percent of the mothers offered supplementary liquids besides breast milk within the first 7 days of life, and 14% of infants received these supplementary liquids from 7 days onwards until 6 months of age. Moreover, 79% of the infants were given complementary foods (solid, semi-solid, or soft foods) before 6 months of age. About 9% of the children were breastfed at least two years. Less than one in five of the mildly wasted children (19%) were breastfed on admission to the community program. Qualitative assessments found that inappropriate infant feeding practices were strongly influenced by traditional beliefs of the mothers and paternal grandmothers in the study areas. Generally, suboptimal infant feeding was widely practiced among mothers of mildly wasted children in the study area on Nias Island, Indonesia. To promote breastfeeding practices among mothers on Nias Island, appropriate nutrition training for community workers and health-nutrition officers is needed to improve relevant counseling skills. In addition, encouraging public nutrition education that promotes breastfeeding, taking into account social

  3. Association between breast feeding and growth: the Boyd-Orr cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, R; Smith, G; Mangtani, P; Frankel, S; Gunnell, D

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association of breast feeding with height and body mass index in childhood and adulthood. Design: Historical cohort study, based on long term follow up of the Carnegie (Boyd-Orr) survey of diet and health in pre-war Britain (1937–1939). Setting: Sixteen urban and rural districts in Britain. Subjects: A total of 4999 children from 1352 families were surveyed in 1937–1939. Information on infant feeding and childhood anthropometry was available for 2995 subjects. Main outcome measures: Mean differences in childhood and adult anthropometry between breast and bottle fed subjects. Results: Breast feeding was associated with the survey district, greater household income, and food expenditure, but not with number of children in the household, birth order, or social class. In childhood, breast fed subjects were significantly taller than bottle fed subjects after controlling for socioeconomic variables. The mean height difference among boys was 0.20 standard deviation (SD) (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07 to 0.32), and among girls it was 0.14 SD (95% CI 0.02 to 0.27). Leg length, but not trunk length, was the component of height associated with breast feeding. In males, breast feeding was associated with greater adult height (difference: 0.34 SD, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.55); of the two components of height, leg length (0.26 SD, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.50) was more strongly related to breast feeding than trunk length (0.16 SD, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.35). Height and leg length differences were in the same direction but smaller among adult females. There was no association between breast feeding and body mass index in childhood or adulthood. Conclusions: Compared with bottle fed infants, infants breast fed in the 1920s and 1930s were taller in childhood and adulthood. As stature is associated with health and life expectancy, the possible long term impact of infant feeding on adult mortality patterns merits further investigation. PMID:12390990

  4. Body image, maternal-fetal attachment, and choice of infant feeding method: a study in taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Chi; Wang, Shing-Yaw; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2004-09-01

    Many factors contribute to a pregnant woman's choice of infant feeding method, yet few studies have investigated which factors might be specific to pregnant women in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among factors of body image, maternal-fetal attachment, and the choices made by pregnant Taiwanese women about infant feeding method. One hundred and ninety-five pregnant women were recruited during their third trimester at five hospitals in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Participants completed three questionnaires, including a demographic data form, an attitude to body image scale, and a modified maternal-fetal attachment scale. The results of stepwise logistic regression indicated that the best subset for predicting the criterion variable of breastfeeding intention included higher level of education, primiparity, and a higher level of maternal-fetal attachment. Maternal-fetal attachment, education, and parity are predictive of intended infant feeding method by pregnant women who choose breastfeeding, thereby adding to existing knowledge of the factors involved in feeding method choices of Taiwanese women. Further research should incorporate maternal-fetal attachment into a supportive model of breastfeeding.

  5. Infant Breast-feeding and Childhood Caries: A Nine-year Study

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Liang; Levy, Steven M.; Warren, John J.; Broffitt, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study’s purpose was to assess the association between infant breast-feeding and caries experience of primary second molars in a nine-year longitudinal cohort study. Methods Study sample was 509 subjects recruited at birth. Information about breast-feeding duration and other factors was collected through parents’ responses to periodic questionnaires. Primary teeth were examined for dental caries at five years old and nine years old by calibrated dentist examiners. Caries experience (yes/no) and number of decayed and/or filled surfaces (dfs) were determined for five- and nine-year-olds. Results For primary second molars at five years old, 18 percent of children who were breast-fed less than six months had caries (mean dfs=0.55) while only 9 percent of children who were breast-fed at least six months had caries (mean dfs=0.33). From five to nine years old, caries incidence was 32 percent and 31 percent, respectively, for children breast-fed less than six months and at least six months. In multivariable regression analyses, shorter breast-feeding duration was positively associated with caries experience of primary second molars at five years old (P=.005), both before and after controlling for other important factors. Conclusions Shorter duration of breast-feeding is suggested to be associated with increased risk for early childhood caries, but its impact might diminish with age. PMID:25198001

  6. Longitudinal study of prolonged breast- or bottle-feeding on dental caries in Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Yonezu, Takuro; Ushida, Nagako; Yakushiji, Masashi

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the effects of prolonged breast- or bottle-feeding on dental caries in Japanese infants. This longitudinal study was conducted by means of a questionnaire and clinical examination of 592 children at 18 months, 2 years and 3 years of age. The children were divided into three groups: 1) children still being breast-fed at 18 months of age (n=42); 2) children still being bottle-fed at 18 months of age (n=45); and 3) children weaned off of breast- or bottle-feeding and with no nonnutritive-sucking habits at 18 months of age (n=205). Results showed that breast-feeding at 18 months of age produced many significant differences to the control children, including a higher prevalence of caries and higher number of dft. However, no significant differences were observed between bottle-fed and control children. In conclusion, our results suggest that prolonged breast-feeding at an early age before primary dentition has fully erupted is a risk factor for dental caries. Therefore, breast-fed children need to be monitored more closely, and aggressive methods of preventive care need to be instituted. It is also important to identify factors related to dental caries among breastfed children as soon as possible, and develop effective preventive programs.

  7. Rationale and Design of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) Study for Self-Regulation of Energy Intake in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Hummel, Jessica; Watowicz, Rosanna P.; Perez, Susana A.; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the Institute of Medicine Early Childhood Prevention Policies Report identified feeding dynamics as an important focus area for childhood obesity prevention and treatment. Feeding dynamics include two central components: (1) caregiver feeding practices (i.e., determining how, when, where, and what they feed their children) and (2) child eating behaviors (i.e., determining how much and what to eat from what food caregivers have provided). Although there has been great interest in overweight and obesity prevention and treatment in young children, they have not focused comprehensively on feeding dynamics. Interventions on feeding dynamics that reduce caregivers’ excessive controlling and restrictive feeding practices and encourage the development of children’s self-regulation of energy intake may hold promise for tackling childhood obesity especially in the young child but currently lack an evidence base. This manuscript describes the rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial designed to compare a group of mothers and their 3-to 5-year old children who received an intervention focused primarily on feeding dynamics called the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) with a Wait-list Control Group (WLC). The primary aim of the study will be to investigate the efficacy of the FDI for decreasing Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) and improving energy compensation (COMPX). The secondary aim will be to examine the effect of the FDI in comparison to the WLC on maternal self-reported feeding practices and child satiety responsiveness. PMID:25616192

  8. Rationale and design of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) study for self-regulation of energy intake in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Eneli, Ihuoma U; Tylka, Tracy L; Hummel, Jessica; Watowicz, Rosanna P; Perez, Susana A; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-03-01

    In 2011, the Institute of Medicine Early Childhood Prevention Policies Report identified feeding dynamics as an important focus area for childhood obesity prevention and treatment. Feeding dynamics includes two central components: (1) caregiver feeding practices (i.e., determining how, when, where, and what they feed their children) and (2) child eating behaviors (i.e., determining how much and what to eat from what food caregivers have provided). Although there has been great interest in overweight and obesity prevention and treatment in young children, they have not focused comprehensively on feeding dynamics. Interventions on feeding dynamics that reduce caregivers' excessive controlling and restrictive feeding practices and encourage the development of children's self-regulation of energy intake may hold promise for tackling childhood obesity especially in the young child but currently lack an evidence base. This manuscript describes the rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial designed to compare a group of mothers and their 3-to 5-year old children who received an intervention focused primarily on feeding dynamics called the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) with a Wait-list Control Group (WLC). The primary aim of the study will be to investigate the efficacy of the FDI for decreasing Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) and improving energy compensation (COMPX). The secondary aim will be to examine the effect of the FDI in comparison to the WLC on maternal self-reported feeding practices and child satiety responsiveness.

  9. Prevalence of breast-feeding in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study and health service-related correlates of cessation of full breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Häggkvist, Anna-Pia; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Helsing, Elisabet; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Haugen, Margaretha

    2010-12-01

    First, to describe the prevalence of both full and partial breast-feeding during the first 6 months; second, to study the associations between selected health service-related factors and cessation of full breast-feeding at three time intervals. Retrospective questionnaires, 6 months after birth. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). In total, 29 621 women. While 96·6 %, 94·0 %, 90·8 %, 86·9 %, 83·8 % and 80·0 % of the infants were breast-fed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 months, respectively, the corresponding proportions for full breast-feeding were 84·6 %, 79·1 %, 70·9 %, 44·0 %, 16·7 % and 2·1 %. An increased risk of cessation of full breast-feeding during the first month was associated with supplementation during the first week of life with water (relative risk (RR) 1·77; 95 % CI 1·52, 2·06), sugar water (RR 1·73; 95 % CI 1·49, 2·00) or formula (RR 5·99; 95 % CI 5·58, 6·42). An increased risk was also associated with Caesarean delivery (RR 1·08; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·16) and breast-feeding problems (RR 1·56; 95 % CI 1·45, 1·67). Between months 1 and 3, the risk of cessation of full breast-feeding remained elevated in the case of supplementation during the first week of life with water (RR 1·29; 95 % CI 1·14, 1·45), sugar water (RR 1·48; 95 % CI 1·34, 1·64) or formula (RR 1·18; 95 % CI 1·07, 1·29). The same applied to Caesarean delivery (RR 1·15; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·25). Supplementation during the first week, breast-feeding problems and Caesarean delivery are associated with early cessation of full breast-feeding. The results support a cautious approach to supplementation during the first week of life.

  10. Determination of oxytetracycline/oxytetracycline hydrochloride in animal feed, fish feed, and veterinary medicinal products by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Thiex, Nancy J; Larson, Richard

    2009-01-01

    A method for determining oxytetracycline (OTC) in animal feed, fish feed, and veterinary medicinal products at medicated use and contamination levels was collaboratively studied. The method is applicable to the analysis of animal feeds and mineral premixes containing levels > or =2 mg/kg, and fish feed containing levels > or =10 mg/kg. Oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC.HCI) is extracted from ground feed material in acid-methanol solution using mechanical agitation. After centrifugation for 5 min at 1230 x g, an aliquot of the extract is diluted with water andlor acid-methanol so that the concentration of OTC.HCI is approximately the same as that in the working standard, and the solutions contain at least 50% water. Injectable veterinary medicinal materials (also called animal remedy materials) are diluted with water andlor extractant to reach the target concentration. The extracts are filtered and analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection with excitation at 390 nm and emission at 512 nm. Twenty-eight test samples of medicated feeds, supplements, and drug premixes, including 4 test samples for trace-level analysis, were sent to 17 collaborators in Canada, The Netherlands, and the United States. Results were received from 11 laboratories. The RSDr values (within-laboratory repeatability) ranged from 1.26 to 9.21%; RSDR values (among-laboratory reproducibility) ranged from 2.14 to 12.9%, and HorRat values ranged from 0.54 to 3.02. It is recommended that this method be adopted AOAC Official First Action.

  11. Breast-feeding and cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in later life: evidence from epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Owen, Christopher G; Whincup, Peter H; Cook, Derek G

    2011-11-01

    This paper considers the body of observational evidence examining the association of being breast-fed to cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in later life, and whether any potentially advantageous findings are causal. Early cardiovascular consequences/correlates of breast-feeding, compared to being formula fed, include markedly higher levels of total blood cholesterol, lower levels of pre-prandial blood glucose and insulin and lower levels of adiposity. However, a key issue is whether these early differences at a period of rapid development programme/influence cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in later life. Evidence of long-term effects of early feeding, largely from observational studies, has shown that those breast-fed have lower levels of blood total cholesterol, lower risk of type-2 diabetes and marginally lower levels of adiposity and blood pressure in adult life. There is no strong evidence to suggest effects of early feeding on adult levels of blood glucose, blood insulin and CHD outcomes, although further data are needed. However, the influence of confounding factors, such as maternal body size, maternal smoking and socio-demographic factors, and exclusivity of early feeding on these potentially beneficial associations needs to be considered before inferring any causal effects. Moreover, fewer studies have examined whether duration of exclusive breast-feeding has a graded influence on these risk factors and outcomes; such data would help further in deciding upon causal associations. While strong observational evidence suggests nutritional programming of adult cholesterol levels, associations with other markers of cardiometabolic risk and their consequences in later life need to be confirmed in well-conducted observational and experimental studies.

  12. Infant Feeding Practices in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Jia Ying; Yip, Grace; Han, Wee Meng; Fok, Doris; Low, Yen-Ling; Lee, Yung Seng; Rebello, Salome A.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Godfrey, Keith M.; Chong, Yap-Seng; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-01-01

    The optimal introduction of complementary foods provides infants with nutritionally balanced diets and establishes healthy eating habits. The documentation of infant feeding practices in multi-ethnic Asian populations is limited. In a Singapore cohort study (GUSTO), 842 mother-infant dyads were interviewed regarding their feeding practices when the infants were aged 9 and 12 months. In the first year, 20.5% of infants were given dietary supplements, while 5.7% took probiotics and 15.7% homeopathic preparations. At age 9 months, 45.8% of infants had seasonings added to their foods, increasing to 56.3% at 12 months. At age 12 months, 32.7% of infants were given blended food, although 92.3% had begun some form of self-feeding. Additionally, 87.4% of infants were fed milk via a bottle, while a third of them had food items added into their bottles. At both time points, more than a third of infants were provided sweetened drinks via the bottle. Infants of Indian ethnicity were more likely to be given dietary supplements, have oil and seasonings added to their foods and consumed sweetened drinks from the bottle (p < 0.001). These findings provide a better understanding of variations in infant feeding practices, so that healthcare professionals can offer more targeted and culturally-appropriate advice. PMID:27187461

  13. Infant Feeding Practices in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study.

    PubMed

    Toh, Jia Ying; Yip, Grace; Han, Wee Meng; Fok, Doris; Low, Yen-Ling; Lee, Yung Seng; Rebello, Salome A; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-05-13

    The optimal introduction of complementary foods provides infants with nutritionally balanced diets and establishes healthy eating habits. The documentation of infant feeding practices in multi-ethnic Asian populations is limited. In a Singapore cohort study (GUSTO), 842 mother-infant dyads were interviewed regarding their feeding practices when the infants were aged 9 and 12 months. In the first year, 20.5% of infants were given dietary supplements, while 5.7% took probiotics and 15.7% homeopathic preparations. At age 9 months, 45.8% of infants had seasonings added to their foods, increasing to 56.3% at 12 months. At age 12 months, 32.7% of infants were given blended food, although 92.3% had begun some form of self-feeding. Additionally, 87.4% of infants were fed milk via a bottle, while a third of them had food items added into their bottles. At both time points, more than a third of infants were provided sweetened drinks via the bottle. Infants of Indian ethnicity were more likely to be given dietary supplements, have oil and seasonings added to their foods and consumed sweetened drinks from the bottle (p < 0.001). These findings provide a better understanding of variations in infant feeding practices, so that healthcare professionals can offer more targeted and culturally-appropriate advice.

  14. [Feeding strategies of mothers of malnourished and eutrophic children: a qualitative study through videotaped observations].

    PubMed

    Perosa, Gimol Benzaquen; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Silveira, Flávia Cristina Pereira

    2011-11-01

    The scope of this study was to identify and compare maternal feeding strategies and characteristics of the interaction between mothers of malnourished and eutrophic children. Eight pairs of mother/malnourished child and eight pairs of mother/eutrophic child (aged between 9 to 24 months) living in poor inner areas, were videotaped during meals, at home. Through analysis of the videos, the strategies were identified and episodes qualitatively analyzed, according to the peculiar characteristics of the interaction, especially maternal responsivity. There were no significant differences in strategies used by the mothers of both groups. The observations of the episodes have shown that feeding a child is a highly interactive process, dependent upon the abilities and characteristics of both partners. The success of feeding appears to be associated with contextual conditions, maternal responsivity and also to the appetite and flexibility of the child. It is suggested that, in projects geared to malnourished children, besides supplements and feeding orientation, special attention be given to maternal self esteem and in helping mothers to deal with children suffering from loss of appetite.

  15. Whole Genome Association Studies of Residual Feed Intake and Related Traits in the Pig

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jennifer M.; Garrick, Dorian J.; Dekkers, Jack C. M.; Rothschild, Max F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, is the difference between observed feed intake and the expected feed requirement predicted from growth and maintenance. Pigs with low RFI have reduced feed costs without compromising their growth. Identification of genes or genetic markers associated with RFI will be useful for marker-assisted selection at an early age of animals with improved feed efficiency. Methodology/Principal findings Whole genome association studies (WGAS) for RFI, average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), back fat (BF) and loin muscle area (LMA) were performed on 1,400 pigs from the divergently selected ISU-RFI lines, using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. Various statistical methods were applied to find SNPs and genomic regions associated with the traits, including a Bayesian approach using GenSel software, and frequentist approaches such as allele frequency differences between lines, single SNP and haplotype analyses using PLINK software. Single SNP and haplotype analyses showed no significant associations (except for LMA) after genomic control and FDR. Bayesian analyses found at least 2 associations for each trait at a false positive probability of 0.5. At generation 8, the RFI selection lines mainly differed in allele frequencies for SNPs near (<0.05 Mb) genes that regulate insulin release and leptin functions. The Bayesian approach identified associations of genomic regions containing insulin release genes (e.g., GLP1R, CDKAL, SGMS1) with RFI and ADFI, of regions with energy homeostasis (e.g., MC4R, PGM1, GPR81) and muscle growth related genes (e.g., TGFB1) with ADG, and of fat metabolism genes (e.g., ACOXL, AEBP1) with BF. Specifically, a very highly significantly associated QTL for LMA on SSC7 with skeletal myogenesis genes (e.g., KLHL31) was identified for subsequent fine mapping. Conclusions/significance Important genomic regions associated with RFI related traits were identified for future

  16. Whole Genome Association Studies of Residual Feed Intake and Related Traits in the Pig.

    PubMed

    Onteru, Suneel K; Gorbach, Danielle M; Young, Jennifer M; Garrick, Dorian J; Dekkers, Jack C M; Rothschild, Max F

    2013-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, is the difference between observed feed intake and the expected feed requirement predicted from growth and maintenance. Pigs with low RFI have reduced feed costs without compromising their growth. Identification of genes or genetic markers associated with RFI will be useful for marker-assisted selection at an early age of animals with improved feed efficiency. Whole genome association studies (WGAS) for RFI, average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), back fat (BF) and loin muscle area (LMA) were performed on 1,400 pigs from the divergently selected ISU-RFI lines, using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. Various statistical methods were applied to find SNPs and genomic regions associated with the traits, including a Bayesian approach using GenSel software, and frequentist approaches such as allele frequency differences between lines, single SNP and haplotype analyses using PLINK software. Single SNP and haplotype analyses showed no significant associations (except for LMA) after genomic control and FDR. Bayesian analyses found at least 2 associations for each trait at a false positive probability of 0.5. At generation 8, the RFI selection lines mainly differed in allele frequencies for SNPs near (<0.05 Mb) genes that regulate insulin release and leptin functions. The Bayesian approach identified associations of genomic regions containing insulin release genes (e.g., GLP1R, CDKAL, SGMS1) with RFI and ADFI, of regions with energy homeostasis (e.g., MC4R, PGM1, GPR81) and muscle growth related genes (e.g., TGFB1) with ADG, and of fat metabolism genes (e.g., ACOXL, AEBP1) with BF. Specifically, a very highly significantly associated QTL for LMA on SSC7 with skeletal myogenesis genes (e.g., KLHL31) was identified for subsequent fine mapping. Important genomic regions associated with RFI related traits were identified for future validation studies prior to their incorporation in marker

  17. Study protocol of a parent-focused child feeding and dietary intake intervention: the feeding healthy food to kids randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    to existing research examining child feeding practices and dietary intake of young children, by specifically focusing on the efficacy of an RCT that has the potential to be implemented at a population level. The correlation of the RCT outcomes with parents’ perceptions about child feeding practices and children’s dietary intake of their children in a subsequent qualitative study will further contribute to this emerging area of research. Trial registration Australian Clinical Trials Registration Number: ACTRN12609000356268 PMID:22839300

  18. Effect of By-product Feed-based Silage Feeding on the Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (a Field Study).

    PubMed

    Kim, Y I; Park, J M; Lee, Y H; Lee, M; Choi, D Y; Kwak, W S

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the performance, blood metabolite parameters, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The BF-based silage was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% cut ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial additive (on a wet basis), and ensiled for over 5 d. Fifteen steers were allocated to three diets during the growing and fattening periods (3.1 and 9.8 months, respectively): a control diet (concentrate mix and free access to rice straw), a 50% BF-based silage diet (control diet+50% of maximum BF-based silage intake), and a 100% BF-based silage diet (the same amount of concentrate mix and ad libitum BF-based silage). The BF-based silage was fed during the growing and fattening periods, and was replaced with larger particles of rice straw during the finishing period. After 19.6 months of the whole period all the steers were slaughtered. Compared with feeding rice straw, feeding BF-based silage tended (p = 0.10) to increase the average daily gain (27%) and feed efficiency (18%) of the growing steers, caused by increased voluntary feed intake. Feeding BF-based silage had little effect on serum constituents, electrolytes, enzymes, or the blood cell profiles of fattening steers, except for low serum Ca and high blood urea concentrations (p<0.05). Feeding BF-based silage did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, it improved good quality grade (1(+) and 1(++)) appearance rates (60% for the control group vs 100% for the BF-based silage-fed groups). In conclusion, cheap BF-based silage could be successfully used as a good quality roughage source for beef cattle.

  19. Brazilian Immigrant Mothers' Beliefs and Practices Related to Infant Feeding: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Wallington, Sherrie F; Greaney, Mary L; Hasselman, Maria Helena; Tavares Machado, Marcia Maria; Mezzavilla, Raquel S

    2017-08-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life and timely introduction of appropriate solid foods are important determinants of weight status in infancy and later life stages. Disparities in obesity rates among young children suggest that maternal feeding practices during the first 2 years of life may contribute to these disparities. Brazilians are a growing immigrant group in the United States, yet little research has focused on parental beliefs and behaviors affecting the health of Brazilian immigrant children in the United States. Research aim: This study aimed to explore beliefs and infant-feeding practices of Brazilian immigrant mothers in the United States. Focus group discussions were conducted with Brazilian immigrant mothers. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis and themes categorized using the socioecological model. Twenty-nine immigrant Brazilian mothers participated in the study. Analyses revealed that all participants breastfed their infants. The majority initiated breastfeeding soon after childbirth. However, most mothers did not exclusively breastfeed. They used formula and human milk concomitantly. Family and culture influenced mothers' infant-feeding beliefs and practices in early introduction of solid foods. As the number of children in the United States growing up in families of immigrant parents increases, understanding influences on Brazilian immigrant mothers' infant-feeding practices will be important to the development of effective interventions to promote healthy infant feeding and weight status among Brazilian children. Interventions designed for Brazilian immigrant families should incorporate an understanding of social context, family, and cultural factors to develop health promotion messages tailored to the needs of this ethnic group.

  20. Predictors of breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Gao, Ling-Ling; Ip, Wan-Yim; Sally Chan, Wai Chi

    2016-10-01

    to examine breast feeding self-efficacy and identify its predictors among mainland Chinese mothers in the early postpartum period. a cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire survey was conducted in a regional teaching hospital with childbirth rate over 3000 per year at Guangzhou, China from April 1 to July 14, 2014. a total of 571 Chinese mothers who were within 72-96hours post partum were recruited consecutively to the study. data were collected by the Chinese version of the Breastfeeding Self-efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF), the Network Support for Breastfeeding Scale (NSBS) and a socio-demographic data sheet. a total of 640 eligible women was approached and 571 mothers completed the study with the response rate of 89%. Mothers reported moderate level of breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period. The best-fit regression analysis revealed six variables that explained 43.9% of the variance in breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period. They were intention of breast feeding, support from husband, support from nurses/midwives, attending antenatal breast feeding classes, time from childbirth to initiate breast feeding and previous breast feeding experience. this study found six predictors of breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period. In order to increase maternal breast feeding self-efficacy level, a more women-centred approach is recommended. Mothers and fathers should be facilitated to attend antenatal classes on breast feeding. New mother' husband could be encouraged in supporting breast feeding. Nurses and midwives could encourage new mothers to initiate breast feeding as soon as possible. Further work to promote early mother-infant contact post birth, such as via skin to skin contact should also be facilitated where possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ethnic differences in the initiation and duration of breast feeding--results from the born in Bradford Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Santorelli, Gillian; Petherick, Emily; Waiblinger, Dagmar; Cabieses, Baltica; Fairley, Lesley

    2013-07-01

    Initiation of breast feeding and duration of any breast feeding are known to differ by ethnic group, but there are limited data on differences in exclusive breast feeding. This study aimed to determine if there are ethnic differences in the initiation and duration of any and exclusive breast feeding. Breast-feeding data were obtained from a subsample of 1365 women recruited to a multi-ethnic cohort study (Born in Bradford) between August 2008 and March 2009. Poisson regression was used to investigate the impact of socio-economic, life style and birth factors on ethnic differences in the prevalence of breast feeding. Compared with white British mothers, initiation of breast feeding was significantly higher in all ethnic groups and this persisted after adjustment for socio-economic, life style and birth factors [Pakistani: prevalence rate ratio (PRR) = 1.19 (95% confidence interval 1.10, 1.29); Other South Asian: PRR = 1.29 (1.18, 1.42); Other ethnicities: PRR = 1.33 (1.21, 1.46)]. There were no differences in exclusive breast feeding at 4 months [Pakistani: PRR = 0.77 (0.54, 1.09); Other South Asian: PRR = 1.55 (0.99, 2.43); Other ethnicities: PRR = 1.50 (0.88, 2.56)]. Any breast feeding at 4 months was significantly higher in mothers of all non-white British ethnicities [Pakistani: PRR = 1.27 (1.02, 1.58); Other South Asian: PRR = 1.99 (1.52, 2.62); Other ethnicities: 2.45 (1.86, 3.21)]. Whilst women of ethnic minority groups were significantly more likely to initiate breast feeding and continue any breast feeding for 4 months compared with white British women, the rates of exclusive breast feeding at 4 months were not significantly different once socio-economic, life style and birth factors were accounted for. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Infant feeding practices in a South African birth cohort-A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Budree, Shrish; Goddard, Elizabeth; Brittain, Kirsty; Cader, Shihaam; Myer, Landon; Zar, Heather J

    2016-10-02

    Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries. The choices of complementary foods, which are important in infant nutrition, are poorly described in this setting. We investigated infant feeding practices in a South African birth cohort, the Drakenstein Child Health Study. Longitudinal feeding data were collected from March 2012 to March 2015. Feeding practices at birth, 6-10 and 14 weeks and 6, 9, and 12 months, were investigated using food frequency questionnaires. Anthropometry was measured at birth and 12 months. The quality of the diet was analyzed using the World Health Organization infant and young child feeding indicators. Regression models were used to explore associations between feeding and growth outcomes at 1 year. Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months was low (13%), and 19% of infants were introduced to solid foods before 4 months. There was high daily consumption of processed meat (56%) and inappropriate foods such as fruit juice (82%), soft drinks (54%), and refined sugary foods (51%) at 1 year. Dietary diversity and consumption of iron rich foods were low at 6 months (5% and 3%, respectively) but higher by 12 months (75% and 78%). Longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a lower height-for-age z-score at 1 year. Several dietary deficits and a rising trend in the consumption of inappropriate nutritionally poor foods were identified. These findings raise concern about poor dietary practices and the impact on child and long-term health.

  3. Nutritional status and complementary feeding among HIV-exposed infants: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kamenju, Pili; Liu, Enju; Hertzmark, Ellen; Spiegelman, Donna; Kisenge, Rodrick; Kupka, Roland; Aboud, Said; Manji, Karim P; Duggan, Christopher; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2017-07-01

    Complementary feeding is crucial for improving child survival and promoting growth and development, particularly among HIV-exposed children who have higher risk of morbidity and mortality than their un-exposed peers. This prospective study employed an infant and child feeding index (ICFI) to measure complementary feeding and determine its association with nutritional status among 2092 HIV-exposed infants followed from 6 to 24 months of age in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The ICFI measured both quality and quantity of complementary feeding, including current breastfeeding status, food consistency, dietary diversity scores (DDS), food group frequency score, and meal frequency. The ICFI score ranged from 0 to 9; the median score was 6 (Inter-Quartile Range, IQR= 4-7). After adjusting for potential confounders, high ICFI scores were associated with reduced risk of stunting (high vs. low tertile hazard ratio, HR: 0.72; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.57, 0.91; P< 0.01) and underweight (high vs. low tertile HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.61, 1.02; P= 0.07). Low DDS were associated with higher risk of stunting (low vs. high tertile HR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.23, 2.07; P< 0.01) and underweight (low vs. high tertile HR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.96; P= 0.01). In this setting, high DDS and ICFI scores were protective of stunting and underweight. We recommend for nutrition programs in low-income countries to emphasize educating HIV-exposed children's caregivers on the importance of dietary diversity and optimal complementary feeding to improve nutritional status in this important subpopulation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. An improved approach to identify irradiated dog feed by electron paramagnetic resonance study and thermoluminescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar; Chawla, S. P.; Sharma, Arun

    2011-05-01

    In the present study, probably for the first time, a detailed analysis of the radiation induced radical species and thermoluminescence measurements of irradiated dog feed are reported. The EPR spectrum of non-irradiated ready-to-eat dog feed was characterized by singlet g=2.0047±0.0003. Irradiated samples exhibited a complex EPR spectrum. During high power (50.0 mW) EPR spectroscopy, a visible change in the shape of the EPR spectrum was observed and characterized by EPR spectrum simulation technique. An axially symmetric anisotropic signal with g║=2.0028 and g┴=1.9976 was identified. However, a negligible change in the matrix of irradiated edible dog chew was observed using EPR spectroscopy. Therefore, thermoluminescence study of the isolated minerals from dog chew was carried out. The composition of the poly-minerals was studied using SEM and EDX analysis and a complete verdict on identification of irradiation is proposed.

  5. A call-to-action from the feedM.E. Middle East study group

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zeer, Osama; Ozcagli, Tahsin G.; Uyar, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Up to 50% of hospitalized patients worldwide are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Guidelines recommend nutritional screening of all patients on hospital admission. Results from studies of hospitalized patients show that screening, with follow-up nutritional assessment and care when indicated, can improve patients’ clinical outcomes and reduce healthcare costs. Despite compelling evidence, attention to nutritional care remains suboptimal in clinical settings worldwide. The feedM.E. Global Study Group developed a simple, stepwise Nutrition Care Pathway to facilitate best-practice nutrition care. This pathway guides clinicians to screen patients’ nutritional status on hospital admission or at initiation of care; intervene promptly with nutrition care when needed; and supervene or follow-up routinely with adjustment and reinforcement of nutrition care plans. The feedM.E. Middle East Study Group seeks to extend this program to our region. We advise clinicians to adopt and adapt the Nutrition Care Pathway, bringing quality nutrition care to everyday practice. PMID:26219439

  6. Perceptions of caregivers about health and nutritional problems and feeding practices of infants: a qualitative study on exclusive breast-feeding in Kwale, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the significant positive effect of exclusive breast-feeding on child health, only 32% of children under 6 months old were exclusively breast-fed in Kenya in 2008. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions and feeding practices of caregivers of children under 6 months old with special attention to the caregivers’ indigenous knowledge, perceptions about the health and nutritional problems of their infants, and care-seeking behaviors that affect feeding practices. Methods The study was exploratory and used an inductive approach. In all, 32 key informants, including mothers, mothers-in-law, and traditional healers, were interviewed in-depth. The number of participants in free-listing of perceived health problems of babies, in ranking of the perceived severity of these health problems, and in free-listing of food and drink given to children under 6 months old were 29, 28, and 32, respectively. Additionally, 28 babies under 6 months old were observed at home with regard to feeding practices. Data obtained using these methods were triangulated to formulate an ethnomedical explanatory model for mothers who do not practice exclusive breast-feeding. Results The informants stated that various types of food, drink, and medicine were given to infants under 6 months old. Direct observation also confirmed that 2- to 3-month-old babies were given porridge, water, juice, herbal medicine, and over-the-counter medicine. Mothers’ perceptions of insufficient breast milk production and a lack of proper knowledge about the value of breast milk were identified in key informant interviews, free-listing, and ranking as important factors associating with the use of food and drink other than breast milk; in addition, perceived ill health of babies appears to be associated with suboptimal practice of exclusive breast-feeding. Caregivers used various folk and popular medicines from the drugstore, their own backyard or garden, and traditional healers so that the

  7. Perceptions of caregivers about health and nutritional problems and feeding practices of infants: a qualitative study on exclusive breast-feeding in Kwale, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Akiko; Karama, Mohamed; Tanaka, Junichi; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2013-05-30

    Despite the significant positive effect of exclusive breast-feeding on child health, only 32% of children under 6 months old were exclusively breast-fed in Kenya in 2008. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions and feeding practices of caregivers of children under 6 months old with special attention to the caregivers' indigenous knowledge, perceptions about the health and nutritional problems of their infants, and care-seeking behaviors that affect feeding practices. The study was exploratory and used an inductive approach. In all, 32 key informants, including mothers, mothers-in-law, and traditional healers, were interviewed in-depth. The number of participants in free-listing of perceived health problems of babies, in ranking of the perceived severity of these health problems, and in free-listing of food and drink given to children under 6 months old were 29, 28, and 32, respectively. Additionally, 28 babies under 6 months old were observed at home with regard to feeding practices. Data obtained using these methods were triangulated to formulate an ethnomedical explanatory model for mothers who do not practice exclusive breast-feeding. The informants stated that various types of food, drink, and medicine were given to infants under 6 months old. Direct observation also confirmed that 2- to 3-month-old babies were given porridge, water, juice, herbal medicine, and over-the-counter medicine. Mothers' perceptions of insufficient breast milk production and a lack of proper knowledge about the value of breast milk were identified in key informant interviews, free-listing, and ranking as important factors associating with the use of food and drink other than breast milk; in addition, perceived ill health of babies appears to be associated with suboptimal practice of exclusive breast-feeding. Caregivers used various folk and popular medicines from the drugstore, their own backyard or garden, and traditional healers so that the mother or child would not be

  8. Feasibility study of a synthesis procedure for array feeds to improve radiation performance of large distorted reflector antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutzman, W. L.; Takamizawa, K.; Werntz, P.; Lapean, J.; Barts, R.; Shen, B.

    1992-01-01

    Virginia Tech has several articles which support the NASA Langley effort in the area of large aperture radiometric antenna systems. This semi-annual report reports on the following activities: a feasibility study of a synthesis procedure for array feeds to improve radiation performance of large distorted reflector antennas and the design of array feeds for large reflector antennas.

  9. Maternal Eating Disorders and Infant Feeding Difficulties: Maternal and Child Mediators in a Longitudinal General Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micali, Nadia; Simonoff, Emily; Stahl, Daniel; Treasure, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Background: Maternal eating disorders (ED) have been shown to increase the risk of feeding difficulties in the offspring. Very few studies, however, have investigated whether the effect of a maternal ED on childhood feeding is a direct effect or whether it can be ascribed to other child or maternal factors. We aimed to determine the role of…

  10. Maternal Eating Disorders and Infant Feeding Difficulties: Maternal and Child Mediators in a Longitudinal General Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micali, Nadia; Simonoff, Emily; Stahl, Daniel; Treasure, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Background: Maternal eating disorders (ED) have been shown to increase the risk of feeding difficulties in the offspring. Very few studies, however, have investigated whether the effect of a maternal ED on childhood feeding is a direct effect or whether it can be ascribed to other child or maternal factors. We aimed to determine the role of…

  11. [Validation Study on a Method of Determination of Nosiheptide in Formula Feeds by HPLC-FL].

    PubMed

    Yamata, Toshiaki; Shimamura, Chisa; Asao, Miyuki; Aita, Norio; Chihara, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    A determination method of nosiheptide in formula feeds by HPLC-FL was developed and validated, including an inter-laboratory study. Formula feeds were extracted with acetone after adding acetic acid. Liquid chromatographic separation was performed using a ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18 column, with acetonitrile and water containing acetic acid as the mobile phase. Detection of NH was carried out with a fluorescence detector. Recovery tests and an inter-laboratory study were conducted using chicken and swine formula feeds fortified with nosiheptide at 0.5-27 mg-potency/kg. Mean recoveries in recovery tests ranged from 91.4 to 103%, and the repeatability in terms of relative standard deviation was within 7.8%. Mean recoveries of the inter-laboratory study ranged from 98.4 to 108%, the repeatability and reproducibility in terms of the relative standard deviations were within 8.1% and 13% respectively, and the HorRat values ranged from 0.21 to 0.75.

  12. 90-Day feeding and genotoxicity studies on a refined arachidonic acid-rich oil.

    PubMed

    Casterton, P L; Curry, L L; Lina, B A R; Wolterbeek, A P M; Kruger, C L

    2009-10-01

    The safety of a refined arachidonic acid-rich oil (RAO) was evaluated for reverse mutation, chromosome aberration and gene mutation, and in a 90-day Wistar rat feeding study with in utero exposure. The results of the genotoxicity assays were all negative. The in utero phase of the 90-day study involved dietary exposure to 0.5%, 1.5% and 5% RAO and two controls diets, a standard feed low-fat diet and a high-fat diet supplemented with 5% corn oil. This exposure covered four-weeks prior to mating, through mating, gestation and lactation until offspring (F(1)) weaning. A subsequent 90-day feeding study in the F(1) rats evaluated the same test and control diets. Statistically significant effects were seen for selected histopathology, clinical chemistry and organ weight endpoints; however, other than increased absolute and relative monocytes seen in both sexes of high-dose rats, the observations were not attributed to treatment for one or more reasons. Based on these findings, no adverse treatment-related effects for RAO were seen at up to 5% in the diet, equivalent to an overall average RAO intake of 3170 mg/kg bwt/day. These and similar findings for other refined ARA-rich oils establish a strong body of evidence for the safety of this RAO.

  13. Feeding methods, sleep arrangement, and infant sleep patterns: a Chinese population-based study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Na; Wang, Hui-Shan; Chang, Jen-Jen; Wang, Lin-Hong; Liu, Xi-Cheng; Jiang, Jing-Xiong; An, Lin

    2016-02-01

    Findings from prior research into the effect of feeding methods on infant sleep are inconsistent. The objectives of this study were to examine infants' sleep patterns by feeding methods and sleep arrangement from birth to eight months old. This longitudinal cohort study enrolled 524 pregnant women at 34-41 weeks of gestation and their infants after delivery in 2006 and followed up until eight months postpartum. The study subjects were recruited from nine women and children hospitals in nine cities in China (Beijing, Chongqing, Wuhan, Changsha, Nanning, Xiamen, Xi'an, Jinan, and Hailin). Participating infants were followed up weekly during the first month and monthly from the second to the eighth month after birth. Twenty-four hour sleep diaries recording infants' sleeping and feeding methods were administered based on caregiver's self-report. Multivariable mixed growth curve models were fitted to estimate the effects of feeding methods and sleep arrangement on infants' sleep patterns over time, controlling for maternal and paternal age, maternal and paternal education level, household income, supplementation of complementary food, and infant birth weight and length. Exclusively formula fed infants had the greatest sleep percentage/24 h, followed by exclusively breast milk fed infants and partially breast milk fed infants (P<0.01). Night waking followed a similar pattern. However, the differences in sleep percentage and night waking frequency between exclusively formula and exclusively breast milk fed infants weakened over time as infants developed. In addition, compared to infants with bed-sharing sleep arrangement, those with room sharing sleep arrangement had greater daytime and 24-hour infant sleep percentage, whereas those with sleeping alone sleep arrangement had greater nighttime sleep percentage. Our data based on caregiver's self-report suggested that partial breastfeeding and bed-sharing may be associated with less sleep in infants. Health care

  14. Infant milk feeding influences adult bone health: a prospective study from birth to 32 years.

    PubMed

    Pirilä, Satu; Taskinen, Mervi; Viljakainen, Heli; Kajosaari, Merja; Turanlahti, Maila; Saarinen-Pihkala, Ulla M; Mäkitie, Outi

    2011-04-27

    Peak bone mass, attained by early adulthood, is influenced by genetic and life-style factors. Early infant feeding and duration of breastfeeding in particular, associate with several health-related parameters in childhood. The aim of this study was to examine whether the effects of early infant feeding extend to peak bone mass and other bone health characteristics at adult age. A cohort of 158 adults (76 males) born in Helsinki, Finland, 1975, prospectively followed up from birth, underwent physical examination and bone densitometry to study bone area, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD) at 32 years of age. Life-style factors relevant for bone health were recorded. For data analysis the cohort was divided into three equal-size groups according to the total duration of breastfeeding (BF): Short (≤3 months), Intermediate and Prolonged (≥7 months) BF groups. In males short BF is associated with higher bone area, BMC, and BMD compared to longer BF. Males in the Short BF group had on average 4.7% higher whole body BMD than males in the Prolonged BF group. In multivariate analysis, after controlling for multiple confounding factors, the influence of BF duration on adult bone characteristics persisted in males. Differences between the three feeding groups were observed in lumbar spine bone area and BMC, and whole body BMD (MANCOVA; p = 0.025, p = 0.013, and p = 0.048, respectively), favoring the Short BF group. In women no differences were observed. In men, early infant milk feeding may have a significant impact on adult bone health. A potential explanation is that the calcium and phosphate contents were strikingly higher in formula milk and commercial cow milk/cow milk dilutions as opposed to human milk. Our novel finding merits further studies to determine means to ensure optimal bone mass development in infants with prolonged breastfeeding.

  15. The effect of maternal obesity on initiation and duration of breast-feeding in Greece: the GENESIS study.

    PubMed

    Manios, Yannis; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Kondaki, Katerina; Ioannou, Elina; Anastasiadou, Anastasia; Birbilis, Manolis

    2009-04-01

    The current paper aims to describe the characteristics of mothers failing to initiate breast-feeding, provide information on the factors contributing to longer duration of breast-feeding and identify the association of maternal obesity with both initiation and duration of breast-feeding in the Greek population. Data from the cross-sectional GENESIS (Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study In preSchoolers) study were used. Mothers were categorized by their pre-pregnancy BMI and their gestational weight gain according to guidelines from the Institute of Medicine. Preschool children aged 1-5 years in five counties in Greece. Preschoolers (n 2374) with full maternal anthropometric data before and during pregnancy and breast-feeding data. A higher percentage of mothers with increased pre-pregnancy BMI or high gestational weight gain failed to initiate breast-feeding compared with their normal-weight counterparts. Obese mothers were 2.86 times more likely to fail in initiating breast-feeding in a multiple logistic regression model. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that among women initiating breast-feeding, those who were either underweight before pregnancy or smoked at the third trimester of pregnancy breast-fed their children for about 1.5 weeks less than their normal-weight or non-smoking counterparts, respectively. Similarly, multiparous women breast-fed their children for about 7 weeks less than uniparous women. In women who initiated breast-feeding, no significant differences in breast-feeding duration were found between women of different gestational weight gains. Mothers with high pre-pregnancy BMI are less likely to initiate breast-feeding while high gestational weight gain has no effect on either the initiation or duration of breast-feeding in Greece.

  16. Determination of emamectin benzoate in medicated fish feed: a multisite study.

    PubMed

    Farer, Leslie J

    2005-01-01

    A new method was developed for the quantitation of emamectin benzoate in medicated fish feed at levels between 1 and 30 ppm. The new procedure, based on a previously reported assay, consists of a wet methanolic extraction of ground feed, followed by solid-phase extraction and injection onto a gradient liquid chromatographic system. A multisite study involving 3 laboratories (the developing laboratory and 2 independent laboratories) was performed to evaluate precision, recovery, linearity, and sensitivity. Mean recove;ries for triplicate analyses at 3 levels, performed by 2 analysts per laboratory, were between 89 and 97%, with coefficients of variation ranging from 1.6 to 8.6%. Coefficients of determination (r2) obtained from the plotted data were > or =0.993. The precision of the method, determined from 6 replicate preparations from the same batch of medicated feed assayed in 3 separate trials per laboratory, was between 0.6 and 5.8%. The quantitation limit was established at 0.5 ppm. Specificity and robustness studies were performed by the developing laboratory.

  17. Formula-feeding and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: is there an association? A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wayne, Carolyn; Hung, Jui-Hsia Cleo; Chan, Emily; Sedgwick, Isabella; Bass, Juan; Nasr, Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    The etiology of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to determine whether formula-feeding is associated with increased incidence. This case-control study included HPS cases and controls admitted between 1992 and 2012. Demographic data including feeding method were collected from patient charts and analyzed. We identified 882 HPS cases and 955 controls. The highest incidence of HPS presentation was in summer (P=0.0028). Infants with HPS were more likely to have been exclusively formula-fed, have a family history of HPS, and be male compared to infants in the control group (P<0.001); they were also more likely to live in rural areas, although not significantly so. After adjusting for family history, sex, place of residence, and season of presentation, exclusively formula-fed infants were 1.36 times more likely to develop HPS compared with exclusively breastfed infants (RR 1.36, 95% CI 1.18-1.57, P<0.005). Formula-feeding is associated with significantly increased risk of HPS. Further investigation may help to determine the components of formula that simulate hypertrophy of the pylorus muscle, or the components of breast milk that are protective, as well as other influencing factors. 3b. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Formula and breast feeding in infant food allergy: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Alice J; Koplin, Jennifer J; Lowe, Adrian J; Tang, Mimi Lk; Matheson, Melanie C; Robinson, Marnie; Peters, Rachel; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Allen, Katrina J

    2016-04-01

    To determine whether infant-feeding practices, including duration of exclusive breastfeeding and use of partially hydrolysed formula, modify the risk of developing infant food allergy. In an observational population-based study, 1 year olds were recruited from community immunisation clinics in Melbourne, Australia. Parent-reported data on infant-feeding practices and potential confounders were collected prior to infant skin prick testing for four food allergens. Sensitised infants attended hospital-based oral food challenges to establish food allergy status. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate associations between breastfeeding and formula-feeding and infant food allergy adjusting for possible confounding variables. A total of 5276 (74% response) infants participated. Of the 4537 for whom food allergy status was determined, 515 (11.3%) were food allergic (challenge-proven in the context of skin prick testing positive (≥2 mm)). After adjusting for confounding variables, there was no association between duration of exclusive breastfeeding and food allergy. Use of partially hydrolysed formula did not reduce the risk of food allergy compared with cow's milk formula in the general population (adjusted odds ratios 1.03 (confidence interval 0.67-1.50)). Duration of exclusive breastfeeding and use of partially hydrolysed formula were not associated with food allergy at 1 year of age in this large population-based study. These findings have implications for population-based infant-feeding guidelines and do not support the use of partially hydrolysed formula for food allergy prevention. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  19. Breast-feeding and atopic disease: a cohort study from childhood to middle age.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Melanie Claire; Erbas, Bircan; Balasuriya, Aindralal; Jenkins, Mark Andrew; Wharton, Cathryn Leisa; Tang, Mimi Lai-Kuan; Abramson, Michael John; Walters, Eugene Haydn; Hopper, John Llewelyn; Dharmage, Shyamali Chandrika

    2007-11-01

    The literature regarding the association between breast-feeding and atopic diseases has been contradictory. We have assessed the relationship between breast-feeding and atopic disorders in a cohort followed into middle age. The Tasmanian Asthma Study is a population-based prospective cohort study that has followed participants from the age of 7 to 44 years. Exclusive breast-feeding in the first 3 months of life was examined as a risk factor for atopic diseases by using multiple logistic regression and generalized estimating equation analyses. At age 7 years, exclusively breast-fed children with a maternal history of atopy had a marginally lesser risk of current asthma than those not exclusively breast-fed (odds ratio [OR], 0.8; 95% CI, 0.6-1.0). However, after age 7 years, the risk reversed, and exclusively breast-fed children had an increased risk of current asthma at 14 (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.02-2.07), 32 (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.06-3.3), and 44 (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.15-2.14) years. Exclusively breast-fed children also had a reduced risk of food allergy at age 7 years but an increased risk of food allergy (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5) and allergic rhinitis (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.3) at 44 years. Exclusively breast-fed babies with a maternal history of atopy were less likely to develop asthma before the age of 7 years, but more likely to develop asthma after the age of 7 years. The current recommendation to breast-feed high-risk infants for protection against early wheezing illness can be confirmed. However, the recommendation should be reconsidered for protection against allergic asthma and atopy in the longer term.

  20. Amblyomma maculatum Feeding Augments Rickettsia parkeri Infection in a Rhesus Macaque Model: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Banajee, Kaikhushroo H.; Embers, Monica E.; Langohr, Ingeborg M.; Doyle, Lara A.; Hasenkampf, Nicole R.; Macaluso, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia parkeri is an emerging eschar-causing human pathogen in the spotted fever group of Rickettsia and is transmitted by the Gulf coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum. Tick saliva has been shown to alter both the cellular and humoral components of the innate and adaptive immune systems. However, the effect of this immunomodulation on Rickettsia transmission and pathology in an immunocompetent vertebrate host has not been fully examined. We hypothesize that, by modifying the host immune response, tick feeding enhances infection and pathology of pathogenic spotted fever group Rickettsia sp. In order to assess this interaction in vivo, a pilot study was conducted using five rhesus macaques that were divided into three groups. One group was intradermally inoculated with low passage R. parkeri (Portsmouth strain) alone (n = 2) and another group was inoculated during infestation by adult, R. parkeri-free A. maculatum (n = 2). The final macaque was infested with ticks alone (tick feeding control group). Blood, lymph node and skin biopsies were collected at several time points post-inoculation/infestation to assess pathology and quantify rickettsial DNA. As opposed to the tick-only animal, all Rickettsia-inoculated macaques developed inflammatory leukograms, elevated C-reactive protein concentrations, and elevated TH1 (interferon-γ, interleukin-15) and acute phase inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6) post-inoculation, with greater neutrophilia and interleukin-6 concentrations in the tick plus R. parkeri group. While eschars formed at all R. parkeri inoculation sites, larger and slower healing eschars were observed in the tick feeding plus R. parkeri group. Furthermore, dissemination of R. parkeri to draining lymph nodes early in infection and increased persistence at the inoculation site were observed in the tick plus R. parkeri group. This study indicates that rhesus macaques can be used to model R. parkeri rickettsiosis, and suggests that immunomodulatory factors

  1. Feeding frequency in infancy and dental caries in childhood: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Rodrigues, Priscila Humbert; de Anastácio, Gislaine; Vítolo, Márcia Regina; Chaffee, Benjamin W

    2017-09-03

    Feeding patterns in infancy are plausible contributors to dental caries later in childhood, yet relatively few cohort studies have examined potential dietary risk factors at this age. This study aimed to investigate the associations between feeding frequency at age 12 months and caries prevalence at age 3 years. In this prospective birth cohort of 345 Brazilian children, all foods and drinks consumed at age 12 months, including bottle-use and breastfeeding, were recorded using two 24-hour infant dietary recalls with mothers. The prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) and severe ECC (S-ECC) at age 38 months were compared in groups defined according to 12-month feeding frequency, using regression models to adjust for sociodemographic characteristics and total carbohydrate intake. Independent of other variables, compared with children with infrequent bottle-use and breastfeeding at 12 months, at 38 months the ECC prevalence was 1.8-times higher in children breastfed more than three times/day (P = 0.001), 1.4-times higher in children bottle-fed more than three times/day (P = 0.07) and 1.5-times higher with combined high frequency of bottle and breastfeeding together (P = 0.04), but the association with consumption of other foods or drinks more than five times/day [risk ratio (RR) = 1.2; P = 0.10] was not statistically significant. Prevalence of S-ECC was significantly associated with frequent breastfeeding (RR = 2.4; P < 0.001) and with greater frequency of consumption of other foods or drinks (RR = 1.7, P = 0.001). High-frequency feeding in late infancy, including both bottle use and breastfeeding, were positively associated with dental caries in early childhood, suggesting possible early-life targets for caries prevention. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.

  2. Infant feeding practices among mildly wasted children: a retrospective study on Nias Island, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study investigated the infant feeding practices of participating mothers who were recruited into a research project aimed at improving the nutritional status of mildly wasted children (< -1.0 to ≥ -1.5 Weight-for-Height Z-scores) aged ≥ 6 to < 60 months on Nias Island, Indonesia. Methods Cross-sectional, questionnaire-based interview of mothers of the index children (n = 215) who were admitted to the community program for mildly wasted children in the study area. Four focus groups and twenty in-depth interviews were conducted to explore further information on infant feeding practices in the study area. Results Retrospective results indicated that 6% of the mothers never breastfed. Fifty two percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding within six hours of birth, but 17% discarded colostrum. Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age was practiced by 12%. Seventy-four percent of the mothers offered supplementary liquids besides breast milk within the first 7 days of life, and 14% of infants received these supplementary liquids from 7 days onwards until 6 months of age. Moreover, 79% of the infants were given complementary foods (solid, semi-solid, or soft foods) before 6 months of age. About 9% of the children were breastfed at least two years. Less than one in five of the mildly wasted children (19%) were breastfed on admission to the community program. Qualitative assessments found that inappropriate infant feeding practices were strongly influenced by traditional beliefs of the mothers and paternal grandmothers in the study areas. Conclusion Generally, suboptimal infant feeding was widely practiced among mothers of mildly wasted children in the study area on Nias Island, Indonesia. To promote breastfeeding practices among mothers on Nias Island, appropriate nutrition training for community workers and health-nutrition officers is needed to improve relevant counseling skills. In addition, encouraging public nutrition education that promotes

  3. Micro ecosystems from feed industry surfaces: a survival and biofilm study of Salmonella versus host resident flora strains

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The presence of Salmonella enterica serovars in feed ingredients, products and processing facilities is a well recognized problem worldwide. In Norwegian feed factories, strict control measures are implemented to avoid establishment and spreading of Salmonella throughout the processing chain. There is limited knowledge on the presence and survival of the resident microflora in feed production plants. Information on interactions between Salmonella and other bacteria in feed production plants and how they affect survival and biofilm formation of Salmonella is also limited. The aim of this study was to identify resident microbiota found in feed production environments, and to compare the survival of resident flora strains and Salmonella to stress factors typically found in feed processing environments. Moreover, the role of dominant resident flora strains in the biofilm development of Salmonella was determined. Results Surface microflora characterization from two feed productions plants, by means of 16 S rDNA sequencing, revealed a wide diversity of bacteria. Survival, disinfection and biofilm formation experiments were conducted on selected dominant resident flora strains and Salmonella. Results showed higher survival properties by resident flora isolates for desiccation, and disinfection compared to Salmonella isolates. Dual-species biofilms favored Salmonella growth compared to Salmonella in mono-species biofilms, with biovolume increases of 2.8-fold and 3.2-fold in the presence of Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas, respectively. Conclusions These results offer an overview of the microflora composition found in feed industry processing environments, their survival under relevant stresses and their potential effect on biofilm formation in the presence of Salmonella. Eliminating the establishment of resident flora isolates in feed industry surfaces is therefore of interest for impeding conditions for Salmonella colonization and growth on feed industry

  4. Dietary biomarker evaluation in a controlled feeding study in women from the Women's Health Initiative cohort.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Johanna W; Huang, Ying; Neuhouser, Marian L; Tinker, Lesley F; Song, Xiaoling; Schoeller, Dale A; Kim, Soyoung; Raftery, Daniel; Di, Chongzhi; Zheng, Cheng; Schwarz, Yvonne; Van Horn, Linda; Thomson, Cynthia A; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Beresford, Shirley Aa; Prentice, Ross L

    2017-02-01

    Controlled human feeding studies are necessary for robust nutritional biomarker development and validation. Previous feeding studies have typically evaluated single nutrients and tested relatively few diets. The objectives were 1) to simultaneously associate dietary intake with a range of potential nutritional biomarkers in postmenopausal women by using a controlled feeding study whereby each participant was provided a diet similar to her usual diet and 2) to evaluate serum concentrations of select nutrients as potential biomarkers with the use of established urinary recovery biomarkers of energy and protein as benchmarks for evaluation. Postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative (n = 153) were provided with a 2-wk controlled diet in which each individual's menu approximated her habitual food intake as estimated from her 4-d food record and adjusted for estimated energy requirements. Serum biomarkers, including carotenoids, tocopherols, folate, vitamin B-12, and phospholipid fatty acids, were collected at the beginning and end of the feeding period. Doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen biomarkers were used to derive estimates of energy and protein consumption, respectively. Linear regression of (ln-transformed) consumed nutrients on (ln-transformed) potential biomarkers and participant characteristics led to the following regression (R(2)) values for serum concentration biomarkers: folate, 0.49; vitamin B-12, 0.51; α-carotene, 0.53; β-carotene, 0.39; lutein + zeaxanthin, 0.46; lycopene, 0.32; and α-tocopherol, 0.47. R(2) values for percentage of energy from polyunsaturated fatty acids and urinary recovery biomarkers of energy and protein intakes were 0.27, 0.53, and 0.43, respectively. Phospholipid saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids and serum γ-tocopherol were weakly associated with intake (R(2) < 0.25). Serum concentration biomarkers of several vitamins and carotenoids performed similarly to established energy and protein

  5. Reduction of feed-contaminating mycotoxins by ultraviolet irradiation: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Murata, H; Mitsumatsu, M; Shimada, N

    2008-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) germicidal irradiation has been applied to the sterilization of agricultural products including stored grain for foodstuffs or animal feed. Although UV treatment is known to be effective for killing pathogenic moulds that contaminate the surface of grain, it remains unclear how and to what extent such irradiation is able to eliminate mycotoxins, the fungal metabolites that have adverse effects on human and animal health. We evaluated in vitro the effects of mild (intensity = 0.1 mW cm(-2) at 254 nm UV-C) and strong (24 mW cm(-2)) UV irradiation on two feed-contaminating mycotoxins, zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON). When exposed to mild irradiation, the levels of ZEN and DON (both 30 mg kg(-1) initially) were reduced as irradiation time increased, and became undetectable at 60 min. Strong UV irradiation also reduced the mycotoxin levels in the same time-dependent manner, but more rapidly. It was therefore confirmed in vitro that UV irradiation is effective at reducing the levels of ZEN and DON. The present study provides preliminary data for establishing a practical method of using UV irradiation to reduce mycotoxin contamination in grain intended for use in feed.

  6. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri,; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-11-30

    This report describes the development of the design of an advanced dry feed system that was carried out under Task 4.0 of Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0007902 with the US DOE, “Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the use of Low- Rank Coal.” The resulting design will be used for the advanced technology IGCC case with 90% carbon capture for sequestration to be developed under Task 5.0 of the same agreement. The scope of work covered coal preparation and feeding up through the gasifier injector. Subcomponents have been broken down into feed preparation (including grinding and drying), low pressure conveyance, pressurization, high pressure conveyance, and injection. Pressurization of the coal feed is done using Posimetric1 Feeders sized for the application. In addition, a secondary feed system is described for preparing and feeding slag additive and recycle fines to the gasifier injector. This report includes information on the basis for the design, requirements for down selection of the key technologies used, the down selection methodology and the final, down selected design for the Posimetric Feed System, or PFS.

  7. The impact of maternal employment on breast-feeding duration in the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Griffiths, Lucy Jane; Dezateux, Carol; Law, Catherine

    2007-09-01

    To examine the relationship of maternal employment characteristics, day care arrangements and the type of maternity leave pay to breast-feeding for at least 4 months. Cohort study. Babies aged 9 months in the Millennium Cohort Study, born between September 2000 and January 2002. A total of 6917 British/Irish white employed mothers with singleton babies. Mothers employed part-time or self-employed were more likely to breast-feed for at least 4 months than those employed full-time (adjusted rate ratio (aRR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30 (1.17-1.44) and 1.74 (1.46-2.07), respectively). The longer a mother delayed her return to work postpartum, the more likely she was to breast-feed for at least 4 months (P for trend < 0.001). Mothers were less likely to breast-feed for at least 4 months if they returned to work for financial reasons (aRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.80-0.93) or used informal day care arrangements rather than care by themselves or their partner (aRR 0.81, 95% CI 0.71-0.91). Mothers were more likely to breastfeed for at least 4 months if their employer offered family-friendly (aRR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.27) or flexible work arrangements (aRR 1.24, 95% CI 1.00-1.55), or they received Statutory Maternity Pay (SMP) plus additional pay during their maternity leave rather than SMP alone (aRR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.26). These findings were independent of confounding factors, such as socio-economic status and maternal education. Current policies may encourage mothers to enter or return to employment postpartum, but this may result in widening inequalities in breast-feeding and persistence of low rates. Policies should aim to increase financial support and incentives for employers to offer supportive work arrangements.

  8. Simulation of long term renewable energy feed-in for European power system studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev; Späth, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    Renewable energies already play a remarkable role in Europe as of today. It is expected that wind and solar amongst other renewables will contribute strongly to the future European energy generation. However, wind and solar generation facilities have due to the weather dependent nature of their resources highly fluctuating feed-in profiles. To overcome the mismatch between energy demand and generation it is important to study and understand the generation patterns and balancing potentials. The goal of the current work is to investigate how the feed-in time series from different renewable sources like on- and offshore wind, photovoltaic, solar thermal, wave, hydro, geothermal and biomass power and combination of them look like in an European power supply system . The work is part of the RESTORE 2050 project (BMU) that investigates the requirements for cross-country grid extensions, usage of storage technologies and capacities, the development of new balancing technologies and the conceptual design of the future energy market which is suitable for high generation percentages of solar and wind. High temporally and spatially resolved long term weather data from COSMO-EU, MERRA and Meteosat (MFG/MSG) satellite data has been used to simulate feed-in from several types of renewable energy sources on a 7 x 7 km grid covering Europe. For wind speeds MERRA reanalysis data has been statistically downscaled to account for orography. Generation was aggregated on the country level and production patterns and their variations in time of different resources were investigated for the years ranging from 2002 to 2012. In a first step the quality of the simulated feed in time series has been investigated by comparison to real observations of wind power and PV generation. Furthermore, some sensitivity studies with respect to underlying assumptions like spatial distribution of wind and PV capacities, the chosen hub-height and wind power curve have been done and will be presented. While

  9. WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study: protocol design and implementation.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Gail G; Hirschman, Jay D; Owens, Tameka A; McNutt, Suzanne W; Sallack, Linnea E

    2014-03-01

    The federal Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), which began in the 1970s, has undergone revisions in the past several years, including revision to contents of the supplemental food "packages" in 2009 based on recommendations provided by an Institute of Medicine (IOM) committee of The National Academies. In 2010, the IOM held a workshop to examine and recommend research priorities for the program. The overall purpose of the current (ie, second) WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study (ITFPS-2) is to conduct a nationally representative, longitudinal study of contemporary WIC infant and toddler feeding practices. This study will update earlier studies and collect information on variations in WIC program components. The study will also assess ways in which WIC may address obesity in early childhood and examine changes in feeding practices that may stem from the 2009 food package revisions. The sample is drawn from the universe of WIC sites nationally, excluding only those with an insufficient volume of eligible participants. Eligibility for the study includes the ability to be interviewed in English or Spanish. Approximately 8000 women and infants are being sampled, and ∼ 4000 are expected to participate. Eligible women are invited to participate during their WIC enrollment visit, and informed consent is sought. The design includes a core sample to be followed until the infant reaches age 2 y and a supplemental sample to be used in some cross-sectional analyses to ensure adequate representation of groups that might be underrepresented in the core sample. Participants will complete up to 11 interviews (core sample) or 4 interviews (supplemental sample) each except for the prenatal interview, which includes a quantitative 24-h recall of food intake for the infant. Eighty sites have been sampled across 26 states and 1 territory. Instruments have been developed and pretested in both English and Spanish, and interviewers

  10. Breast feeding and insulin levels in low birth weight neonates: a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mukesh; Zaheer; Jora, Rakesh; Kaul, Vijay; Gupta, Rajeev

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the influence of early infancy feeding practices on fasting insulin levels, as marker of insulin resistance, in low birthweight neonates. Eighty successive low birth weight (<2.5 kg) neonates <10 days of age born at >38 wk of gestation at this tertiary care centre, were successively invited for participation in the study; parents of 52 (65%) consented to participate. Group 1 children (n=26) were randomized to receive only breast feeding and Group 2 (n=26) received fortified breast feeding with a commercially available human milk fortifier. Routine anthropometry and evaluation of health status was performed. The babies were followed-up every 15 day up to three months. 4-hour fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured at baseline and at 3 month. Statistical analyses were performed using t-test and Mann-Whitney test. In excusively breast-fed Group 1 neonates vs Group 2 the mean birthweight was similar (1.99+/-0.23 vs 1.87+/-0.30 kg). There was no difference in body length, head circumference and chest circumference. Mean hemoglobin levels, fasting glucose (63.9+/-9.8 vs 64.3+/-8.0 mg/dl) and fasting insulin levels (1.44+/-1.19 vs 1.73+/-1.38 microU/ml), were also similar. At three month follow-up in Group 1 children receiving exclusive breast feeding, there was significantly lower weight as compared to Group 2 (3.40+/-0.3 vs 4.75+/-0.5 kg, p<0.01). This was associated with significantly lower fasting glucose (79.0+/-9.4 vs 85.6+/-8.4 mg/dl) and fasting insulin levels (6.95+/-4.27 vs 15.73+/-3.29 microU/ml) (p<0.001). The difference persisted even after adjustment for weight gain in Group 2 (weight adjusted insulin 11.26+/-3.3 microU/ml; p<0.001). Low birthweight neonates fed fortified breast milk had greater fasting insulin levels compared to those with exclusive breast feeding, at three month of age. The difference persisted after adjustment for excessive gain in fortified milk fed neonates and, suggests adverse glucometabolic programming.

  11. Association between feeding methods and sucking habits: a cross-sectional study of infants in their first 18 months of life.

    PubMed

    Yonezu, Takuro; Arano-Kojima, Taiko; Kumazawa, Kaido; Shintani, Seikou

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate infant feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding methods on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Japanese infants. A random sample of 353 mothers of infants of 18 months of age was interviewed at a public health facility in "K" city. The prevalence and duration of infant feeding patterns categorized as breast-feeding, partial breast-feeding, and bottle-feeding, were determined. The outcome investigated was the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits (pacifier use and finger sucking). The data were analyzed using the Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons to assess possible association between feeding method and non-nutritive sucking behavior. The infants were categorized into the following groups depending on feeding method: breast-feeding (27.2%), partial breast-feeding (32.0%), or bottle-feeding (40.8%). Among all infants, 13.9% used a pacifier, 18.4% sucked their fingers, and 0.3% had both habits at 18 months of age. Breast-feeding was negatively correlated with pacifier use and finger sucking. In contrast, bottle-feeding was strongly associated with pacifier use and finger sucking. These results suggest that breast-feeding provides benefits to infants, and that non-nutritive sucking habits may be avoided by promoting correct breast-feeding practices.

  12. Do whole-food animal feeding studies have any value in the safety assessment of GM crops?

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Ekmay, Ricardo

    2014-02-01

    The use of whole-food (grain meal contained in feed) animal-feeding studies to support the safety assessment of genetically modified crops has been contentious. This may be, in part, a consequence of poorly agreed upon study objectives. Whole-food animal-feeding studies have been postulated to be useful in detecting both expected and unexpected effects on the composition of genetically modified crops. While the justification of animal feeding studies to detect unexpected effects may be inadequately supported, there may be better justification to conduct such studies in specific cases to investigate the consequences of expected compositional effects including expression of transgenic proteins. Such studies may be justified when (1) safety cannot reasonably be predicted from other evidence, (2) reasonable hypothesis for adverse effects are postulated, (3) the compositional component in question cannot be isolated or enriched in an active form for inclusion in animal feeding studies, and (4) reasonable multiples of exposure can be accomplished relative to human diets. The study design for whole-food animal-feeding studies should be hypotheses-driven, and the types of data collected should be consistent with adverse effects that are known to occur from dietary components of biological origin. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. AC-DC electropenetrography: a new diagnostic technology for study of feeding behavior of piercing-sucking insects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studying feeding, plant damage, and transmission of plant pathogens by hemipteran insect pests is challenging. Hemipteran piercing-sucking mouthparts, the stylets, are probed into opaque plant tissues precluding direct observation. This challenge was overcome by the invention of electropenetrography...

  14. Exclusive breast feeding is the strongest predictor of infant survival in Northwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Gete, Yigzaw Kebede

    2015-05-01

    Despite the overall national success in reducing infant mortality rate in Ethiopia, infant mortality rate is still high in northwest Amhara region. This study is conducted in one of the high mortality areas with the aim of identifying risk factors that are associated with infant mortality in Northwest Amhara Region, Ethiopia. A prospective open cohort study involving 1752 infants (1472.4518 person years of follow-up) was undertaken from November 2009 to August 2011. Kaplan-Meier Survival analysis was used to estimate infant mortality rate. Risk factors associated with infant mortality were assessed using multivariate Poisson regression. The overall infant mortality rate was 88 per 1000 person-years (95% CI: 74.3, 104.9). After controlling other important predictors in multivariate Poisson regression, infants not exclusively breastfed [IRR = 7.86, 95% CI: (5.11, 12.10), )], breast milk initiated after 24 hours of birth [IRR = 4.84,95% CI: (2.94,7.99)], mothers not washing hands with soap after visiting toilet and before feeding child [IRR = 4.61, 95% CI: (2.24, 9.48)], being rural residents [IRR = 2.33, 95% CI: (1.12, 4.88)], infants born within 24 months for the previous birth [IRR = 2.79, 95%CI: (1.88, 4.15)], have increased the risk of infant mortality. In conclusion, exclusive breast feeding is the strongest predictor of infant survival in this predominantly rural setting where hygienic standards are poor. Supporting mothers to exclusively breast feeding which is cost effective, safe and feasible strategy, can help reduce infant mortality in the study setting.

  15. An integrated study of toxicant-induced inhibition of feeding and digestion activity in Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Coen, W.M. De; Janssen, C.R.; Persoone, G.

    1995-12-31

    Previous studies on D. magna exposed to xenobiotics have demonstrated that feeding inhibition can be used as a general indicator of toxic stress. In order to evaluate the consequences of the reduced food absorption on the energy balance of the organism, the effects of short-term exposure to sublethal toxicant concentrations of 8 chemicals on physiological (ingestion rate) and biochemical aspects (digestive enzyme activity) of the feeding process were investigated. The ingestion activity was assessed using a simple and sensitive method based on the use of fluorescent latex microbeads. The biochemical aspects of feeding were studied by analyzing the activity of 5 digestive enzymes, each responsible for the breakdown of one of the three major macromolecular constituents of the food (3 carbohydrases: amylase, cellulose and {beta}-galactosidase; trypsin and esterase). Using ingestion as an effect criterium, correlation analysis revealed a significant (p < 0.05) and positive (r{sup 2} = 0.89) correlation between the 1.5h EC50 value and the conventional acute toxicity endpoint (24hEC50). For 3 out of 5 enzymes studied a clear concentration-response relationship was observed. The 2h EC 10 value (inhibition) of {beta}-galactosidase activity and 2h EC5 value of trypsin and esterase activity showed a significant linear correlation (r{sup 2} respectively 0.98, 0.96 and 0.95) with the 24hEC50 value. The relationships between the physiological and biochemical effects will be discussed in the context of toxicant-induced homeostatic adjustments in the organism`s metabolism. Finally the potential use of both types of effect criteria as rapid screening tools in aquatic toxicity testing will be reviewed.

  16. Breast-feeding and growth in children until the age of 3 years: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Durmuş, Büşra; van Rossem, Lenie; Duijts, Liesbeth; Arends, Lidia R; Raat, Hein; Moll, Henriëtte A; Hofman, Albert; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2011-06-01

    Breast-feeding has been suggested to be associated with lower risks of obesity in older children and adults. We assessed whether the duration and exclusiveness of breast-feeding are associated with early postnatal growth rates and the risks of overweight and obesity in preschool children. The present study was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study from early fetal life onwards, among 5047 children and their mothers in The Netherlands. Compared with children who were breast-fed, those who were never breast-fed had a lower weight at birth (difference 134 (95 % CI - 190, - 77) g). No associations between breast-feeding duration and exclusivity with growth rates before the age of 3 months were observed. Shorter breast-feeding duration was associated with an increased gain in age- and sex-adjusted standard deviation scores for length, weight and BMI (P for trend < 0·05) between 3 and 6 months of age. Similar tendencies were observed for the associations of breast-feeding exclusivity with change in length, weight and BMI. Breast-feeding duration and exclusivity were not consistently associated with the risks of overweight and obesity at the ages of 1, 2 and 3 years. In conclusion, shorter breast-feeding duration and exclusivity during the first 6 months tended to be associated with increased growth rates for length, weight and BMI between the age of 3 and 6 months but not with the risks of overweight and obesity until the age of 3 years.

  17. Probiotic preparation reduces faecal water genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in chickens fed ochratoxin A contaminated feed (in vivo study).

    PubMed

    Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Nowak, Adriana; Smulikowska, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the faecal water of chickens fed ochratoxin A (OTA) contaminated feed with and without probiotic preparation. The study was performed on 20 healthy female Ross broiler chickens divided into 4 groups: control chickens - fed with non-supplemented feed; PP chickens - fed feed supplemented with the probiotic preparation; OTA chickens - fed feed contaminated with 1 mg per kg of OTA; OTA + PP chickens - fed feed contaminated with 1 mg per kg of OTA and supplemented with the probiotic preparation. Faecal water samples were collected on the 35(th) day of life of chickens from each group. Genotoxicity was measured using the comet assay, and cytotoxicity by means of MTT tests. Mean DNA damage, measured as the percentage of DNA in the tails of the comets, was 8.50 ± 1.10 for chickens fed OTA at 1 mg/kg and 6.41 ± 0.67 in the controls. The supplementation of feed with the probiotic preparation decreased the extent of DNA damage to 4.74 ± 0.78. In the control group of chickens the average cytotoxicity was 38.5 ± 0.5 (in MTT), while in the probiotic preparation group (PP group) it was 31.8 ± 0.7 (in MTT). After supplementation of the feed with the probiotic preparation, the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were decreased in a statistically significant manner.

  18. Implementation of enteral feeding protocol in an intensive care unit: Before-and-after study

    PubMed Central

    Padar, Martin; Uusvel, Gerli; Starkopf, Liis; Starkopf, Joel; Reintam Blaser, Annika

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the effects of implementing an enteral feeding protocol on the nutritional delivery and outcomes of intensive care patients. METHODS An uncontrolled, observational before-and-after study was performed in a tertiary mixed medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU). In 2013, a nurse-driven enteral feeding protocol was developed and implemented in the ICU. Nutrition and outcome-related data from patients who were treated in the study unit from 2011-2012 (the Before group) and 2014-2015 (the After group) were obtained from a local electronic database, the national Population Registry and the hospital’s Infection Control Service. Data from adult patients, readmissions excluded, who were treated for at least 7 d in the study unit were analysed. RESULTS In total, 231 patients were enrolled in the Before and 249 in the After group. The groups were comparable regarding demographics, patient profile, and severity of illness. Fewer patients were mechanically ventilated on admission in the After group (86.7% vs 93.1% in the Before group, P = 0.021). The prevalence of hospital-acquired infections, length of ICU stay and ICU, 30- and 60-d mortality did not differ between the groups. Patients in the After group had a lower 90-d (P = 0.026) and 120-d (P = 0.033) mortality. In the After group, enteral nutrition was prescribed less frequently (P = 0.039) on day 1 but significantly more frequently on all days from day 3. Implementation of the feeding protocol resulted in a higher cumulative amount of enterally (P = 0.049) and a lower cumulative amount of parenterally (P < 0.001) provided calories by day 7, with an overall reduction in caloric provision (P < 0.001). The prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms was comparable in both groups, as was the frequency of prokinetic use. Underfeeding (total calories < 80% of caloric needs, independent of route) was observed in 59.4% of the study days Before vs 76.9% After (P < 0.001). Inclusion in the Before group, previous

  19. The determinants of exclusive breast feeding in urban slums: a community based study.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ranjana; Mahajan, P C; Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2009-02-01

    The actual rate of Exclusive Breast Feeding (EBF) (up to the age of 6 months) is dismally low in urban slums of India. The reasons and determinants of this are debatable. The study was planned to understand the determinants of EBF in the infants in urban slums. A community-based cross sectional study was done in urban slums of Gwalior, India. The data were collected by interviewing the caregivers of 279 infants aged between 6 and 11 months from November 2005 to July 2006. Only 11 (3.8%) mothers knew that EBF should be done till six months and 22 (7.8%) actually practiced EBF. A total of 178 (63.8%) and 212 (76.0%) newborns were given pre- and post-lacteal feeds with 26.2% discarding colostrum. Only 22 (7.8%) practiced EBF. The early breastfeeding (BF) initiation, Ante Natal Clinic (ANC) visits, mothers' education and immunization visits were significantly associated with higher probability of EBF. There were a number of myths and misconceptions about BF in this urban slum population. The correct information about BF was more common amongst the women who had frequent contacts with health facilities due to any reason or during ANC or immunization visit. Similarly, it is the continuum of good health and feeding practices and the mothers who start early BF or get their child immunized regularly are more likely to EBF their children. Considering the widely prevalent myths and low rate of utilization of health services along with high potential benefits of EBF, every opportunity of mothers' interaction with the health facility should be utilized for promoting correct and EBF practices.

  20. Anthropometry and body composition of 18 year old men according to duration of breast feeding: birth cohort study from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Victora, Cesar G; Barros, Fernando; Lima, Rosângela C; Horta, Bernardo L; Wells, Jonathan

    2003-10-18

    To assess the association between duration of breast feeding and measures of adiposity in adolescence. Population based birth cohort study. Pelotas, a city of 320 000 inhabitants in a relatively developed area in southern Brazil. All newborn infants in the city's hospitals were enrolled in 1982; 78.8% (2250) of all male participants were located at age 18 years when enrolling in the national army. Weight, height, sitting height, subscapular and triceps skinfolds, and body composition (body fat, lean mass). Neither the duration of total breast feeding nor that of predominant breast feeding (breast milk plus non-nutritive fluids) showed consistent associations with anthropometric or body composition indices. After adjustment for confounding factors, the only significant associations were a greater than 50% reduction in obesity among participants breast fed for three to five months compared with all other breastfeeding categories (P = 0.007) and a linear decreasing trend in obesity with increasing duration of predominant breast feeding (P = 0.03). Similar significant effects were not observed for other measures of adiposity. Borderline direct associations also occurred between total duration of breast feeding and adult height (P = 0.06). The significant reduction in obesity among children breast fed for three to five months is difficult to interpret, as no a priori hypothesis existed regarding a protective effect of intermediate duration of breast feeding. The findings indicate that, in this population, breast feeding has no marked protective effect against adolescent adiposity.

  1. Anthropometry and body composition of 18 year old men according to duration of breast feeding: birth cohort study from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Victora, Cesar G; Barros, Fernando; Lima, Rosângela C; Horta, Bernardo L; Wells, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between duration of breast feeding and measures of adiposity in adolescence. Design Population based birth cohort study. Setting Pelotas, a city of 320 000 inhabitants in a relatively developed area in southern Brazil. Participants All newborn infants in the city's hospitals were enrolled in 1982; 78.8% (2250) of all male participants were located at age 18 years when enrolling in the national army. Main outcome measures Weight, height, sitting height, subscapular and triceps skinfolds, and body composition (body fat, lean mass). Results Neither the duration of total breast feeding nor that of predominant breast feeding (breast milk plus non-nutritive fluids) showed consistent associations with anthropometric or body composition indices. After adjustment for confounding factors, the only significant associations were a greater than 50% reduction in obesity among participants breast fed for three to five months compared with all other breastfeeding categories (P = 0.007) and a linear decreasing trend in obesity with increasing duration of predominant breast feeding (P = 0.03). Similar significant effects were not observed for other measures of adiposity. Borderline direct associations also occurred between total duration of breast feeding and adult height (P = 0.06). Conclusions The significant reduction in obesity among children breast fed for three to five months is difficult to interpret, as no a priori hypothesis existed regarding a protective effect of intermediate duration of breast feeding. The findings indicate that, in this population, breast feeding has no marked protective effect against adolescent adiposity. PMID:14563746

  2. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri, John; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Liber, Pawel; Lopez-Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the ability of advanced low rank coal gasification technology to cause a significant reduction in the COE for IGCC power plants with 90% carbon capture and sequestration compared with the COE for similarly configured IGCC plants using conventional low rank coal gasification technology. GE’s advanced low rank coal gasification technology uses the Posimetric Feed System, a new dry coal feed system based on GE’s proprietary Posimetric Feeder. In order to demonstrate the performance and economic benefits of the Posimetric Feeder in lowering the cost of low rank coal-fired IGCC power with carbon capture, two case studies were completed. In the Base Case, the gasifier was fed a dilute slurry of Montana Rosebud PRB coal using GE’s conventional slurry feed system. In the Advanced Technology Case, the slurry feed system was replaced with the Posimetric Feed system. The process configurations of both cases were kept the same, to the extent possible, in order to highlight the benefit of substituting the Posimetric Feed System for the slurry feed system.

  3. Knowledge and attitudes about infant feeding among nulliparous and parous women in Port Moresby: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Frank, D; Ripa, P; Vince, J D; Tefuarani, N

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the advantages of breastfeeding, the disadvantages of bottle feeding and the Papua New Guinean legislation to protect breastfeeding was determined in a comparative study of nulliparous and parous women attending the Antenatal Clinic of Port Moresby General Hospital. A high proportion (40%) of both groups had had experience of bottle feeding. Whilst the large majority (94%) of the women indicated that breastfeeding was the best way to feed babies, knowledge of the reasons for its superiority over bottle feeding and of the dangers of bottle feeding was poor in both groups. Knowledge of the legislation to protect breastfeeding was also poor and was the only area in which there was a significant difference between the groups, nulliparous women having poorer knowledge (p = 0.015). The level of education did not appear to be associated with knowledge about feeding. There is an urgent need to review the legislation, to find ways of enforcing it, and to improve the education of young people on issues of infant feeding.

  4. Breast-feeding and maternal risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Susanne; Jacobs, Simone; Kröger, Janine; Fritsche, Andreas; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Rubin, Diana; Boeing, Heiner; Schulze, Matthias B

    2014-07-01

    We aimed to examine the association between breast-feeding and maternal risk of type 2 diabetes and to investigate whether this association is mediated by anthropometric and biochemical factors. A case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study between 1994 and 2005 including 1,262 childbearing women (1,059 in a random sub-cohort and 203 incident cases) mainly aged between 35 and 64 years at baseline was applied. Self-reported lifetime duration of breast-feeding was assessed by questionnaire. Blood samples were used for biomarker measurement (HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, C-reactive protein, fetuin-A, γ-glutamyltransferase, adiponectin). A systematic literature search and meta-analysis was conducted of prospective cohort studies investigating breast-feeding and risk of type 2 diabetes. The HR for each additional 6 months of breast-feeding was 0.73 (95% CI 0.56, 0.94) in EPIC-Potsdam. Meta-analysis of three previous prospective studies and the current study revealed an inverse association between breast-feeding duration and risk of diabetes (pooled HR for lifetime breast-feeding duration of 6-11 months compared with no breast-feeding 0.89; 95% CI 0.82, 0.97). Adjustment for BMI and waist circumference attenuated the association (HR per six additional months in EPIC-Potsdam 0.80; 95% CI 0.61, 1.04). Further controlling for potentially mediating biomarkers largely explained this association (HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.68, 1.16). Longer duration of breast-feeding may be related to a lower risk of diabetes. This potentially protective effect seems to be reflected by a more favourable metabolic profile; however, the role of body weight as a mediator or confounder remains uncertain.

  5. Implementation of health education, based on ethnographic study, to increase the colostrum and decrease early solid food feeding.

    PubMed

    Wiryo, Hananto; Hakimi, M

    2005-02-01

    Traditionally, mothers provide banana to their neonates as well as discharge their colostrum prior to breastfeeding, increasing the risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Health education modules, based on ethnographic study, to discourage these detrimental practices were developed for use by community leaders. Two thousand six hundred and seventy neonates were followed from birth to 28 days. Overall, neonatal banana feeding decreased 18.3% and colostrum feeding increased 32.8%. Religious leaders, who had strong community influence, had the highest health module execution. Moreover, their influence on the community was important. Overall, the use of ethnographic study data to identify specific cues to action of individuals in a community, such as community religious leaders, is an effective and appropriate method for reducing the detrimental customs of both early solid-food feeding of banana and colostrum discharge prior to breast-feeding, positively affecting community perinatal morbidity and mortality.

  6. Attitudes to infant feeding decision-making--a mixed-methods study of Australian medical students and GP registrars.

    PubMed

    Brodribb, Wendy; Fallon, Tony; Jackson, Claire; Hegney, Desley

    2010-03-01

    Breastfeeding is an important public health issue. While medical practitioners can have a significant impact on breastfeeding initiation and duration, there are few studies investigating their views regarding women's infant feeding decisions. This mixed-methods study employed qualitative (focus groups and interviews) and quantitative (questionnaire) data collection techniques to investigate the attitudes and views of Australian medical students and GP registrars about infant feeding decision-making. Three approaches to infant feeding decisions were evident: 'the moral choice' (women were expected to breastfeed); 'the free choice' (doctors should not influence a woman's decision); and 'the equal choice' (the outcome of the decision was unimportant). Participants were uncertain about differences between artificial-feeding and breastfeeding outcomes, and there was some concern that advising a mother to breastfeed may lead to maternal feelings of guilt and failure. These findings, the first in an Australian setting, provide a foundation on which to base further educational interventions for medical practitioners.

  7. Qualitative study of decisions about infant feeding among women in east end of London

    PubMed Central

    Hoddinott, Pat; Pill, Roisin

    1999-01-01

    Objective To improve understanding of how first time mothers who belong to a socioeconomic group with particularly low rates of breast feeding decide whether or not to initiate breast feeding. Design Qualitative semistructured interviews early in pregnancy and 6-10 weeks after birth. Setting Women’s homes in east end of London. Subjects 21 white, low income women expecting their first baby were interviewed mostly at home, often with their partner or a relative. Two focus groups were conducted. Results Women who had regularly seen a relative or friend successfully breast feed and described this experience positively were more confident about and committed to breast feeding. They were also more likely to succeed. Exposure to breast feeding, however, could be either a positive or a negative influence on the decision to breast feed, depending on the context. Women who had seen breast feeding only by a stranger often described this as a negative influence, particularly if other people were present. All women knew that breast feeding has health benefits. Ownership of this knowledge, however, varied according to the woman’s experience of seeing breast feeding. Conclusions The decision to initiate breast feeding is influenced more by embodied knowledge gained from seeing breast feeding than by theoretical knowledge about its benefits. Breast feeding involves performing a practical skill, often with others present. The knowledge, confidence, and commitment necessary to breast feed may be more effectively gained through antenatal apprenticeship to a breastfeeding mother than from advice given in consultations or from books. Key messagesWomen who have seen successful breast feeding as part of their daily lives and perceive this as a positive experience are more likely to initiate breast feedingEmbodied knowledge gained through seeing breast feeding may be more influential than theoretical knowledge about the health benefits for women of lower social classListening to

  8. Initial studies of array feeds for the 70-meter antenna at 32 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, P. W.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a study to determine the feasibility of using array feed techniques to improve the performance of the 70 m antenna at 32 GHz are presented. Changing from 8.4 to 32 GHz has the potential of increasing the gain by 11.6 dB, but recent measurements indicate that additional losses of from 3 to 7 dB occur at 32 GHz, depending on the elevation angle. Array feeds were proposed to recover some of the losses by compensating for surface distortions that contribute to these losses. Results for both surface distortion compensation and pointing error correction are discussed. These initial studies, however, had one significant restriction: The mechanical finite element model was used to characterize the surface distortions, not the measured distortions from three angle holography data, which would be more representative of the actual antenna. Further work is required to provide for a more accurate estimate of performance that utilizes holography data and, in particular, one that evaluates the performance in the focal plane region of the antenna.

  9. ISOLATION STUDIES ON THE PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLAE IN CHICKEN ORGANS, EGGS AND FEED COMPONENTS.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Saraj-Uddin; Sajid, Mahum; Hashmi, Ramiz Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen and its prevalence in the chicken meat and eggs acts as a continuous threat to human population. The current studies covering a time period of three years, was carried out to report the isolation of salmonellae from the chicken tissues, eggs and feed ingredient. A total of 1747 random samples from twelve different sources and 56 locations in Islamabad and Northern Punjab area of Pakistan, were screened for isolation studies according to the already published established protocols. The analysis of 1747 random samples comprising of 1069 (61.19%) chicken organs and 678 (38.81%) allied sources including eggs and feed ingredients, showed that a total of 162 (9.27%) were positive for salmonellae. Isolation prevalence in various chicken organs and allied sources was 86 (8.04%) and 76 (11.20%) respectively. The maximum isolation prevalence was recorded in meat meal (19.35%), followed by fish meal (17.54%), hatchery fluff (14.63%), livers (13.17%), poultry litter (10.89%), and eggs (9.64%). The range of Salmonella isolated varied from 19.35% to 4.72% in various organs and allied sources. Our findings highlighted a potential public health hazard and emphasized the significance of continuous surveillance system in the country to understand the ever changing epidemiological pattern of Salmonella serovers. The endemic prevalence of various serovars can cause outbreaks of human salmonellosis due to the consumption of contaminated meat and eggs as has already been reported worldwide.

  10. Safety assessment of meat from transgenic cattle by 90-day feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Li, Chen-Xi; Feng, Xiao-Lian; Wang, Hui-Ling; Liu, Hai-Bo; Zhi, Yuan; Geng, Gui-Ying; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Hai-Bin

    2013-07-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of meat derived from human lactoferrin gene-modified cattle in male and female Wistar rats. Rats were fed 5% or 10% transgenic meat diet, 5% or 10% conventional meat diet, or AIN93G diet for 90 days. During the study, body weight and food consumption were weighed weekly and clinical observations were conducted daily. At the end of the study, urinary examination, hematology and blood biochemistry examination, macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed. There were no biologically significant differences in these factors between the rat groups fed transgenic meat diet and conventional meat diet. Therefore, the present 90-day rodent feeding study suggests that meat derived from the transgenic cattle is equivalent to meat from conventional cattle in use as dietary supplements.

  11. Study on evaluation of silage from pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruit residue as livestock feed.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Nisarani Kollurappa Shivakumar; Vallesha, Naglapura Chandrashekara; Awachat, Vaibhav Bhagvan; Anandan, Samireddypalli; Pal, Din Taran; Prasad, Cadaba Srinivasa

    2015-03-01

    Pineapple is a commercially important fruit crop grown in Asian and African countries. Pineapple fruit residue (PFR) accounts for more than 65% of the processed fruits, and its disposal is a major problem due to its high moisture and sugar content predisposing it to fungal growth and spoilage. Silage technique was adopted to address this problem, and the PFR silage was evaluated for its feeding value. It was observed that on 15th day, the pH of PFR silage was 4.2-4.3 and lactic acid content was 6-8% (DM basis). Combination of 4 parts leafy crown and 1 part peels/pomace was found very ideal to achieve moisture content of 65-70% and produced a good quality silage with minimum fungal count (<3-4 colony forming units) on 15th day of ensiling. Nutritive value in terms of energy and minerals was superior to maize green fodder. Feeding trial in two groups of sheep with 10 numbers in each group fed total mixed ration (TMR) comprising 62% PFR/maize silage and 48% concentrate mixture (DM basis) for 75-day period did not show any adverse effects on nutrient utilization (DM, CP, NDF, ADF), serum biochemical (total protein, creatinine, urea nitrogen, SGOT, SGPT), and mineral profile (Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn) and supported a daily growth rate of 140 g. The overall performance was similar to those sheep fed TMR with maize green fodder silage. Feeding PFR silage replacing hybrid napier green fodder in two groups of cows with eight in each group showed an improvement in average daily milk yield by 3.0 lit per cow and fat content by 0.6 U fed PFR silage-based TMR as compared to cows fed hybrid napier green fodder-based TMR. In both studies (sheep or cows), there was no evidence of metabolic or health-related disorders indicating that PFR silage was effectively utilized. Pineapple fruit residue that was hitherto wasted was successfully converted to silage and was found to be a valuable alternative to conventional green fodder. Ensiling of PFR not only improved the economics of feeding

  12. Breast feeding, parental allergy and asthma in children followed for 8 years. The PIAMA birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Scholtens, S; Wijga, A H; Brunekreef, B; Kerkhof, M; Hoekstra, M O; Gerritsen, J; Aalberse, R; de Jongste, J C; Smit, H A

    2009-07-01

    It is unclear how the association between breast feeding and asthma develops with age of the child and how this association over time is influenced by maternal or paternal allergy. These factors--the age of the child and maternal or paternal allergy--might partly explain the conflicting results observed in cross-sectional studies. The study population consisted of 3115 Dutch children born in 1996/1997 who participated in the PIAMA (Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy) birth cohort study. Data on breast feeding and asthma (based on wheeze, dyspnoea and prescription of inhaled steroids) were collected by yearly questionnaires. At 8 years, specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to airborne allergens and bronchial responsiveness were measured. Data were analysed by logistic regression and generalised estimating equations (GEEs), and stratified by maternal and paternal allergic status. 35% (n = 1081) of the children were breast fed for >16 weeks. At 8 years of age, 12.6% (n = 392) had asthma. Breast feeding (>16 weeks vs no breast feeding) was significantly associated with a lower asthma prevalence from 3 to 8 years of age, in children of both non-allergic and allergic mothers. The inverse association between breast feeding and sensitisation to airborne allergens at 8 years was non-significant. Breast feeding was not associated with bronchial hyper-responsiveness. No interaction between breast feeding and gender, maternal allergy or paternal allergy was observed in any of the associations. Breast feeding is associated with a lower asthma risk in children until 8 years of age without evidence of attenuation and regardless of the family history of allergy.

  13. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 2 Report on Exploration Feed-Forward Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer Ciancolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Engelund, Walter C.; Komar, D. R.; Queen, Eric M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Way, David W.; Zang, Thomas A.; Murch, Jeff G.; Krizan, Shawn A.; Olds, Aaron D.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Kinney, Daivd J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Covington, M. Alan; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.

    2011-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 t. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.

  14. Overview of the NASA Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Exploration Feed-Forward Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Zang, Thomas A.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; McGuire, M. Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Technology required to land large payloads (20 to 50 mt) on Mars remains elusive. In an effort to identify the most viable investment path, NASA and others have been studying various concepts. One such study, the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDLSA) Study [1] identified three potential options: the rigid aeroshell, the inflatable aeroshell and supersonic retropropulsion (SRP). In an effort to drive out additional levels of design detail, a smaller demonstrator, or exploration feed-forward (EFF), robotic mission was devised that utilized two of the three (inflatable aeroshell and SRP) high potential technologies in a configuration to demonstrate landing a two to four metric ton payload on Mars. This paper presents and overview of the maximum landed mass, inflatable aeroshell controllability and sensor suite capability assessments of the selected technologies and recommends specific technology areas for additional work.

  15. Infant feeding practices, dietary adequacy, and micronutrient status measures in the MAL-ED study.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Laura E; Bose, Anuradha; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Nesamvuni, Cebisa; de Moraes, Milena Lima; Turab, Ali; Patil, Crystal; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2014-11-01

    The overall goal of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study is to evaluate the roles of repeated enteric infection and poor dietary intakes on the development of malnutrition, poor cognitive development, and diminished immune response. The use of 8 distinct sites for data collection from Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, and South Asia allow for an examination of these relationships across different environmental contexts. Key to testing study hypotheses is the collection of appropriate data to characterize the dietary intakes and nutritional status of study children from birth through 24 months of age. The focus of the current article is on the collection of data to describe the nature and adequacy of infant feeding, energy and nutrient intakes, and the chosen indicators to capture micronutrient status in children over time.

  16. Infant Feeding Practices, Dietary Adequacy, and Micronutrient Status Measures in the MAL-ED Study

    PubMed Central

    Caulfield, Laura E.; Bose, Anuradha; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Nesamvuni, Cebisa; de Moraes, Milena Lima; Turab, Ali; Patil, Crystal; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2014-01-01

    The overall goal of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study is to evaluate the roles of repeated enteric infection and poor dietary intakes on the development of malnutrition, poor cognitive development, and diminished immune response. The use of 8 distinct sites for data collection from Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, and South Asia allow for an examination of these relationships across different environmental contexts. Key to testing study hypotheses is the collection of appropriate data to characterize the dietary intakes and nutritional status of study children from birth through 24 months of age. The focus of the current article is on the collection of data to describe the nature and adequacy of infant feeding, energy and nutrient intakes, and the chosen indicators to capture micronutrient status in children over time. PMID:25305294

  17. [Nasogastric tube feeding in bulimia. Controlled study with follow-up at 3 months].

    PubMed

    Rigaud, Daniel; Brayer, Véronique; Biton-Jélic, Violaine; Païs, Vanessa; Pennacchio, Hélène; Brun, Jean-Marcel

    2007-10-01

    Few effective treatments are available for severe forms of bulimia nervosa, which are accompanied by malnutrition, anxiety, and depressive mood. We previously showed in an open study that nasogastric tube feeding (TF) reduced binges and purging in patients with anorexia nervosa. This prospective randomized trial compared bulimia patients in two treatment groups: one group received TF at home, together with psychotherapy, nutritional counseling and a support group while the control group received only psychotherapy, nutritional counseling, and a support group. Patients in the first group underwent TF for 8 weeks (exclusively for 10 days and associated with meals thereafter). Assessment was based on clinical examination, laboratory results, and a variety of questionnaires (our in-house instrument for measuring binge and vomiting episodes, eating disorder inventory, Beck's depression inventory and the Hamilton rating scale for anxiety), all performed at the onset of treatment and at 8 days, 8 weeks (i.e., the end of TF), and 3 months after treatment began. Binges and vomiting disappeared faster and more frequently in TF patients than in the control group: 65% versus 29% (p<0.01). Three months later, these remained less frequent in the TF group than among controls (52% versus 33%, p=0.064). Nutritional status, depression, and anxiety improved more among the TF than control subjects (p<0.05). Tube feeding was effective in these patients with bulimia nervosa, reducing the number of binge and vomiting episodes and improving nutritional status and mood.

  18. Supervision of community peer counsellors for infant feeding in South Africa: an exploratory qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent years have seen a re-emergence of community health worker (CHW) interventions, especially in relation to HIV care, and in increasing coverage of child health interventions. Such programmes can be particularly appealing in the face of human resource shortages and fragmented health systems. However, do we know enough about how these interventions function in order to support the investment? While research based on strong quantitative study designs such as randomised controlled trials increasingly document their impact, there has been less empirical analysis of the internal mechanisms through which CHW interventions succeed or fail. Qualitative process evaluations can help fill this gap. Methods This qualitative paper reports on the experience of three CHW supervisors who were responsible for supporting infant feeding peer counsellors. The intervention took place in three diverse settings in South Africa. Each setting employed one CHW supervisor, each of whom was individually interviewed for this study. The study forms part of the process evaluation of a large-scale randomized controlled trial of infant feeding peer counselling support. Results Our findings highlight the complexities of supervising and supporting CHWs. In order to facilitate effective infant feeding peer counselling, supervisors in this study had to move beyond mere technical management of the intervention to broader people management. While their capacity to achieve this was based on their own prior experience, it was enhanced through being supported themselves. In turn, resource limitations and concerns over safety and being in a rural setting were raised as some of the challenges to supervision. Adding to the complexity was the issue of HIV. Supervisors not only had to support CHWs in their attempts to offer peer counselling to mothers who were potentially HIV positive, but they also had to deal with supporting HIV-positive peer counsellors. Conclusions This study highlights the

  19. A grounded theory study of Swedish women's experiences of inflammatory symptoms of the breast during breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Kvist, Linda J; Larsson, Bodil Wilde; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise

    2006-06-01

    to gain an understanding of the experiences of women who have had an episode of inflammatory symptoms of the breast during lactation. a grounded theory approach, inspired by Glaser and Strauss, was used in an interview study. the study was carried out at a midwife-led breast-feeding clinic in Sweden. the strategic sample consisted of 14 mothers, all of whom had had an episode of breast inflammation between 10 and 22 weeks before the interview. Nine were primiparous. Ages ranged between 24 and 38 years. the analysis resulted in the emergence of one core category and five conceptual categories. The core category was 'the will to breast feed', and the five conceptual categories were 'perspectives on breast feeding', 'personal strategies', 'enduring and adjustment', 'support' and 'causal frameworks'. The core category was reflected in all the other categories and was dependent on them. an episode of breast inflammation is a possible threat to the maintenance of breast feeding, but the will to breast feed may make it possible for mothers to withstand physical and emotional difficulties caused by the illness. Breast-feeding mothers may have chosen a goal for the length of time they wish to breast feed, and the attainment of this goal is prestige-filled. Midwives, throughout the chain of care, could improve the amount and type of information given about the demands and possible complications of breast feeding. The availability of immediate clinical expertise for these mothers is an important factor, and health-care planners should be aware of this.

  20. Thiopeptin, a New Feed-Additive Antibiotic: Biological Studies and Field Trials

    PubMed Central

    Mine, K.; Miyairi, N.; Takano, N.; Mori, S.; Watanabe, N.

    1972-01-01

    Thiopeptin is a new antibiotic, produced by Streptomyces tateyamensis and developed solely for animal use as a feed additive. The antibiotic content in animal tissue and feed was assayed in terms of the antimicrobial activity against Mycoplasma laidlawii A. This antibiotic was found to be relatively nontoxic in rats and mice. In chickens, this antibiotic is excreted into feces within 48 hr of administration and is not absorbed in tissue. It is well tolerated in both broilers and swine and is highly stable in animal feed. Thiopeptin-supplemented feed contributes to the improvement of weight gain, feed efficiency in chickens and swine, and the egg performance in layers. Thus, thiopeptin, when used as a feed additive, is quite suitable for supplementing animal nutrition. PMID:4680812

  1. Studies on Methanol Crossover in Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Pem Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells using various types of Nafion membranes as the solid polymer electrolyte have been studied. The rate of fuel crossover and electrical performance has been measured for cells with Nafion membranes of various thicknesses and equivalent weights. The crossover rate is found to decrease with increasing thickness and applied current. The dependence of crossover rate on current density can be understood in terms of a simple linear diffusion model which suggests that the crossover rate can be influenced by the electrode structure in addition to the membrane. The studies suggest that Nafion EW 1500 is a very promising alternate to Nafion EW 1100 for direct methanol fuel cells.

  2. Studies on Methanol Crossover in Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Pem Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells using various types of Nafion membranes as the solid polymer electrolyte have been studied. The rate of fuel crossover and electrical performance has been measured for cells with Nafion membranes of various thicknesses and equivalent weights. The crossover rate is found to decrease with increasing thickness and applied current. The dependence of crossover rate on current density can be understood in terms of a simple linear diffusion model which suggests that the crossover rate can be influenced by the electrode structure in addition to the membrane. The studies suggest that Nafion EW 1500 is a very promising alternate to Nafion EW 1100 for direct methanol fuel cells.

  3. Studies on feeding ecology of sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna) dwelling in Wadi Haneefah stream, Riyadh.

    PubMed

    Alkahem, Hmoud Fares; Al-Ghanim, A A; Ahmad, Zubair

    2007-01-15

    Feeding ecology of sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna), an introduced fish species, was studied. Food items recovered from the stomach of fishes exclusively indicated that it is a herbivorous fish. And according to data obtained there is not much difference in the type of food consumed by the fishes of different size groups. Frequency of occurrence of different food items in the diet of fishes of various sizes was high. The value of vacuity index also showed variation throughout the study period. The diet overlap index was high which shows the sharing of food items among the fishes of different size groups. The diet breadth index also showed variations among the fishes of various sizes and in different seasons.

  4. Recombinant Bile Salt-Stimulated Lipase in Preterm Infant Feeding: A Randomized Phase 3 Study

    PubMed Central

    Casper, Charlotte; Hascoet, Jean-Michel; Ertl, Tibor; Gadzinowski, Janusz S.; Carnielli, Virgilio; Rigo, Jacques; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Couce, María L.; Vågerö, Mårten; Palmgren, Ingrid; Timdahl, Kristina; Hernell, Olle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Feeding strategies are critical for healthy growth in preterm infants. Bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL), present in human milk, is important for fat digestion and absorption but is inactivated during pasteurization and absent in formula. This study evaluated if recombinant human BSSL (rhBSSL) improves growth in preterm infants when added to formula or pasteurized breast milk. Patients and Methods LAIF (Lipase Added to Infant Feeding) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study in infants born before 32 weeks of gestation. The primary efficacy variable was growth velocity (g/kg/day) during 4 weeks intervention. Follow-up visits were at 3 and 12 months. The study was performed at 54 centers in 10 European countries. Results In total 415 patients were randomized (rhBSSL n = 207, placebo n = 208), 410 patients were analyzed (rhBSSL n = 206, placebo n = 204) and 365 patients were followed until 12 months. Overall, there was no significantly improved growth velocity during rhBSSL treatment compared to placebo (16.77 vs. 16.56 g/kg/day, estimated difference 0.21 g/kg/day, 95% CI [-0.40; 0.83]), nor were secondary endpoints met. However, in a predefined subgroup, small for gestational age infants, there was a significant effect on growth in favor of rhBSSL during treatment. The incidence of adverse events was higher in the rhBSSL group during treatment. Conclusions Although this study did not meet its primary endpoint, except in a subgroup of infants small for gestational age, and there was an imbalance in short-term safety, these data provide insights in nutrition, growth and development in preterm infants. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01413581 PMID:27244221

  5. Changes in nutritional status in ICU patients receiving enteral tube feeding: a prospective descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunjung; Choi-Kwon, Smi

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the changes in nutritional status in Korean ICU patients receiving enteral feeding, and to understand the contribution of baseline nutritional status and energy intake to nutritional changes during the ICU stay. This was a prospective study of nutritional changes in 48 ICU patients receiving enteral feeding for 7 days. The Subjective Global Assessment scale was used upon admission. In addition, anthropometric measures (triceps skinfold thickness, mid-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, body mass index and percent ideal body weight) and biochemical measures (albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, haemoglobin and total lymphocyte count) were evaluated twice, upon admission and 7 days after admission. Seventy-five percent of ICU patients were severely malnourished at admission. Although the nutritional status worsened in both the patients with suspected malnourishment and the patients with severe malnutrition at admission, the nutritional status worsened significantly more in the patients with severe malnutrition than in the patients with suspected malnourishment. Moreover, a number of nutritional measures significantly decreased more in underfed patients than in adequately fed patients. The most significant predicting factor for underfeeding was under-prescription. The ICU patients in our study were severely malnourished at admission, and their nutritional status worsened during their ICU stay even though enteral nutritional support was provided. The changes in nutritional status during the ICU stay were related to the patients' baseline nutritional status and underfeeding during their ICU stay. This study highlights an urgent need to provide adequate nutritional support for ICU patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets developed for controlled feeding studies

    PubMed Central

    Racette, Susan B.; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Phillips, Katherine M.; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    Phytosterols reduce cholesterol absorption and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations, but the quantity and physiological significance of phytosterols in common diets are generally unknown because nutrient databases do not contain comprehensive phytosterol data. The primary aim of this study was to design prototype phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets for use in controlled feeding studies of the influence of phytosterols on health. A second aim was to quantify the phytosterol content of these prototype diets and three other diets consumed in the United States. This study was conducted from June, 2001 to September, 2008 and involved designing, preparing, and then analyzing five different diets: an experimental phytosterol-deficient ‘control’ diet, a relatively high-phytosterol diet based on the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, American Heart Association (AHA) diet, Atkins® lifetime maintenance plan, and a vegan diet. A single day of meals for each diet was homogenized and the resulting composites were analyzed for free, esterified, and glycosylated phytosterols by gas chromatography. Independent samples t tests were used to compare the diets’ total phytosterol content. The total phytosterol content of the experimental phytosterol-deficient diet was 64 mg/2000 kcal, with progressively larger quantities in Atkins®, AHA, vegan, and the high-phytosterol DASH diet (163, 340, 445 and 500 mg/2000 kcal, respectively). Glycosylated phytosterols, which are often excluded from phytosterol analyses, comprised 15.9 ± 5.9% (mean±SD) of total phytosterols. In summary, phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets that conform to recommended macronutrient guidelines and are palatable can now be used in controlled feeding studies. PMID:19942022

  7. Early life factors associated with the exclusivity and duration of breast feeding in an Irish birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Hazel Ann; O'B Hourihane, Jonathan; Kenny, Louise C; Kiely, Mairead; Murray, Deirdre M; Leahy-Warren, Patricia

    2015-09-01

    to investigate the influence of parental and infant characteristics on exclusive breast feeding from birth to six months of age and breast feeding rates at two, six and 12 months of age in Ireland. secondary data analysis from the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study (http://www.baselinestudy.net/). Infants were seen at birth and two, six, and 12 months of age. Maternal and paternal history, neonatal course and feeding data were collected at birth and using parental questionnaires at each time point. 1094 singleton infants of primiparous women recruited at 20 weeks' gestation who were breastfeeding on discharge from the maternity hospital. at discharge from the maternity hospital and at two months, neonatal intensive-care unit admission had the strongest influence on exclusive breast feeding status (adjusted OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.07-0.41 at discharge) and at two months (adjusted OR=0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.83). A shorter duration of breast feeding was significantly associated with younger maternal age, non-tertiary education, Irish nationality and neonatal intensive-care unit admission. There was a significant difference in the duration of any breast feeding between infants who were and were not admitted to the neonatal intensive-care unit, 28(10.50, 32) weeks versus 32(27, 40) weeks. Mothers whose maternity leave was between seven and 12 months (adjusted OR=2.76, 95% CI 1.51-5.05) breast fed for a longer duration compared to mothers who had less than six months of maternity leave. admission to the neonatal intensive care unit negatively influenced both exclusivity and duration of breast feeding. Length of maternity leave, and not employment status, was significantly associated with duration of breast feeding. additional support may be required to ensure continued breast feeding in infants admitted to the neonatal intensive-care unit. Length of maternity leave is a modifiable influence on breast feeding and offers the opportunity for intervention to improve our rates of breast

  8. Understanding the context for pet cat and dog feeding and exercising behaviour among pet owners in Ireland: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Downes, Martin J; Devitt, Catherine; Downes, Marie T; More, Simon J

    2017-01-01

    Pet cat and dog obesity contributes to increased risk of several diseases, including cancer and diabetes mellitus as well as a worsening of orthopaedic problems, and a reduction in survival rate. This study aims to develop a better understanding of cat and dog owners' self-reported beliefs and factors that influence owner behaviour around feeding and exercising their pet cat or dog, as there is a lack of in-depth understanding in this area. Seven focus group discussions, with 43 pet owners in total, were conducted. Pet owners often reported a perceived a low level of control over feeding; often undermined by other people feeding of their pet, their pets begging for food, and their pets attitude towards food. Treats were used in the absence of owner control over pet begging and emotional attachment, and to influence pet behaviour. The majority of participants had positive attitudes to pet exercise, which could be related to pet specific requirements, especially differences in cats and dogs. There were some negative experiences of stress associated with dog walking and fears over aggressive confrontations with other dogs. Feeding one's pet is influenced by beliefs about pet specific needs, pet food and pet health, pet owners' perceived control over feeding, and the implications for the pet owner. Pet exercise is influenced by beliefs about pet specific exercise needs, and the implications of exercising one's pet for the pet owner. Understanding owner behaviours on feeding and exercise allows for a more targeted approach to preventing and treating pet obesity.

  9. A field study on feed supplementation, body weight and selected blood parameters in local pigs in Laos.

    PubMed

    Chittavong, Malavanh; Lindberg, Jan Erik; Jansson, Anna

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate feed allowances, body weight (BW), haematocrit, haemoglobin, plasma ionised calcium (iCa), sodium, potassium, pH and glucose concentration and faecal K/Na ratio in local growing pigs, sows and piglets kept by small-holder farmers in Laos. Starting hypotheses were that (1) local pigs are under fed, (2) BW is higher in pigs receiving supplementary feed and (3) the blood profile of pigs subjected to very poor nutrition is outside the normal range. On 54 pig-keeping smallholdings in Borikhamxay province, Lao PDR, daily feed allowances were weighed and BW recorded for 27 lactating sows, 54 piglets and 27 growing pigs. Blood samples were collected from the vena jugularis in all pigs. Feed supplementation did not affect BW, but plasma iCa concentration was outside the normal range for all pigs. There was a tendency for lower faecal K/Na ratio in Na-supplemented sows. The results confirm that local pigs in small-scale production systems in Laos suffer from poor nutrition. The most important challenge for farmers appears to be provision of more feed, particularly feed with a high Ca content.

  10. Life cycle assessment of animal feeds prepared from liquid food residues: a case study of rice-washing water.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Akifumi; Ishida, Mitsuyoshi; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Yamashita, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Tatsugawa, Kenji; Ijiri, Satoru; Kawashima, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption of three methods used to produce animal feed from concentrated rice-washing water (CRW) and disposing of the rice-washing water through wastewater treatment. Four scenarios were compared using LCA: (i) producing concentrated liquid feed by centrifugation (CC) of CRW with wastewater treatment and discharge of the supernatant, (ii) producing concentrated liquid feed by heating evaporation (HC) of CRW, (iii) producing dehydrated feed by dehydration (DH) of CRW, and (iv) wastewater treatment and discharge of nonconcentrated rice-washing water (WT). The functional unit (FU) was defined as 1 metric ton of rice washed for cooking or processing. Our results suggested that the energy consumptions of CC, HC, DH, and WT were 108, 322, 739, and 242 MJ per FU, respectively, and the amounts of GHG emissions from CC, HC, DH, and WT were 6.4, 15.8, 45.5, and 22.5 kg of CO equivalents per FU, respectively. When the produced feed prepared from CRW was assumed to be transported 200 km to farms, CC and HC still emitted smaller GHGs than the other scenarios, and CC consumed the smallest amount of energy among the scenarios. The present study indicates that liquid feed production from CRW by centrifugation has a remarkably reduced environmental impact compared with the wastewater treatment and discharge of rice-washing water.

  11. Maternal mind-mindedness during infancy, general parenting sensitivity and observed child feeding behavior: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Claire; Blissett, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    Maternal mind-mindedness, or the tendency to view the child as a mental agent, has been shown to predict sensitive and responsive parenting behavior. As yet the role of mind-mindedness has not been explored in the context of feeding interactions. This study evaluates the relations between maternal mind-mindedness at 6 months of infant age and subsequently observed maternal sensitivity and feeding behaviors with children at age 1 year. Maternal mind-mindedness was greater in mothers who had breast-fed compared to formula-fed. Controlling for breast-feeding, mind-mindedness at 6 months was correlated with observations of more sensitive and positive feeding behaviors at 1 year of age. Mind-mindedness was also associated with greater general maternal sensitivity in play and this general parenting sensitivity mediated the effect of mind-mindedness on more sensitive and positive feeding behaviors. Interventions to promote maternal tendency to consider their child's mental states may encourage more adaptive parental feeding behaviors.

  12. Self-reported breast feeding practices and the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Abdullah; Hashem, Alaa AbouBakr; Hamadah, Reem E; Alhoulan, Asma; AlMakadma, Yosra A; Khan, Tehreem A; Al-Hamdani, Abdurahman K; Senok, Abiola

    2016-01-01

    Background The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a practice guideline for healthcare providers to promote breastfeeding and increase breastfeeding rates. Objective This study aimed to examine reported experiences and views on breastfeeding of women using prenatal and postnatal services, and opinions of staff, in the context of the BFHI programme in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting This prospective, longitudinal study was conducted from December 2013 to September 2015 at two healthcare facilities (BFHI and non-BFHI) in Riyadh Saudi Arabia. Methods Women 36–40 weeks gestation receiving antenatal care at the hospitals were enrolled. Questionnaires were administered prenatally, at 1, 3 and 6 months postnatal and to the administrator and maternity staff. Results We recruited 277 women with an estimated 80% response rate. 156 (BFHI=78/139, non-BFHI=78/138, 56%) participants completed all questionnaires. Most BFHI-hospital participants (77.9%, n=8 for this question) acknowledged seeing the breast feeding policy compared to 23.5% (n=23) at the non-BFHI-hospital (p<0.01). Breast feeding education and encouragement was higher at the BFHI-hospital (93.3%) compared to the non-BFHI-hospital (48.2%; p<0.01). At postpartum discharge, 51% (n=53) of mothers in the BFHI-hospital were breast feeding exclusively versus 29.6% (n=29) at the non-BFHI-hospital. Where formula feed was introduced, women in the BFHI-hospital more often practiced mixed feeding rather than exclusive formula feeding with some switching from mixed feeding to exclusive breast feeding between 3 and 6 months postpartum. Exclusive breast feeding rates declined in both hospitals at 3 and 6 months postpartum with lack of community services for lactation being a major reason. Although BFHI-hospital staff (n=9) were more conversant with BFHI principles, defects in adherence to the BFHI 10 Steps were identified. Conclusions This is the first study assessing the

  13. Self-reported breast feeding practices and the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mosher, Cynthia; Sarkar, Abdullah; Hashem, Alaa AbouBakr; Hamadah, Reem E; Alhoulan, Asma; AlMakadma, Yosra A; Khan, Tehreem A; Al-Hamdani, Abdurahman K; Senok, Abiola

    2016-12-16

    The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a practice guideline for healthcare providers to promote breastfeeding and increase breastfeeding rates. This study aimed to examine reported experiences and views on breastfeeding of women using prenatal and postnatal services, and opinions of staff, in the context of the BFHI programme in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Prospective cohort study. This prospective, longitudinal study was conducted from December 2013 to September 2015 at two healthcare facilities (BFHI and non-BFHI) in Riyadh Saudi Arabia. Women 36-40 weeks gestation receiving antenatal care at the hospitals were enrolled. Questionnaires were administered prenatally, at 1, 3 and 6 months postnatal and to the administrator and maternity staff. We recruited 277 women with an estimated 80% response rate. 156 (BFHI=78/139, non-BFHI=78/138, 56%) participants completed all questionnaires. Most BFHI-hospital participants (77.9%, n=8 for this question) acknowledged seeing the breast feeding policy compared to 23.5% (n=23) at the non-BFHI-hospital (p<0.01). Breast feeding education and encouragement was higher at the BFHI-hospital (93.3%) compared to the non-BFHI-hospital (48.2%; p<0.01). At postpartum discharge, 51% (n=53) of mothers in the BFHI-hospital were breast feeding exclusively versus 29.6% (n=29) at the non-BFHI-hospital. Where formula feed was introduced, women in the BFHI-hospital more often practiced mixed feeding rather than exclusive formula feeding with some switching from mixed feeding to exclusive breast feeding between 3 and 6 months postpartum. Exclusive breast feeding rates declined in both hospitals at 3 and 6 months postpartum with lack of community services for lactation being a major reason. Although BFHI-hospital staff (n=9) were more conversant with BFHI principles, defects in adherence to the BFHI 10 Steps were identified. This is the first study assessing the effectiveness of BFHI implementation in Saudi Arabia. Although women

  14. Complementary feeding practices among mothers in selected slums of Dhaka city: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Farzana; Ara, Ferdous; Hoque, Md Asirul; Alam, Md Safiul

    2014-03-01

    Improper complementary feeding (CF) practice is one of the main reasons for malnutrition among Bangladeshi children aged less than two years. In this context, using the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO), this study assessed the CF practices among mothers in four selected slums (Tejgoan, Rayerbazar, Beribadh, and Jafrabad) of Dhaka city. This descriptive study, conducted during January-June 2010, included 120 mother-child pairs from the selected slums. Samples were selected conveniently, and the sociodemographic profiles of mothers in the four slums were similar. The mean (standard deviation) age of the children was 14.68 +/- 5.55 months. A questionnaire, developed following the guidelines of WHO for CF practices, was used for collecting data. Twenty-seven (23%) mothers were exclusively breastfeeding (EBF) their children. Among non-EBF mothers, 15 (16%) started CF after the recommended time. At 6-8 months of age, 2 (40%) of the EBF and 12 (67%) of the non-EBF mothers gave complementary foods twice a day to their children. In both the groups--9-11 months of age--about 70% mothers gave complementary foods twice a day to their children. The frequency of CF was acceptable (3 times a day) in 13 (81%) of the EBF and 32 (56%) of the non-EBF children at 12-23 months of age. Complementary foods given by 24 (89%) of the EBF and 86 (93%) of the non-EBF mothers to their children were not adequate in energy contents. Two (7%) EBF and 16 (17%) non-EBF mothers did not wash their hands after defaecation. Three (11%) EBF and 24 (26%) non-EBF mothers did not properly clean their hands and utensils before feeding. Nine (33%) EBF mothers did not wash their children's hands. Fifty (54%) non-EBF mothers also did not do this. Feeding with psychosocial care practices was not perfect in either of the groups. The findings showed that, according to the WHO guidelines, the CF practices among mothers of children aged less than two years were very poor in the selected slums of

  15. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ...

  16. Feeding Practices and NEC

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, Manimaran

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a multifactorial disorder that primarily affects premature infants. Human milk as compared to formula reduces the incidence of NEC. Feeding practices such as minimal enteral nutrition (versus complete fasting) before progressive advancement of feeds, early introduction of feeds (before day 4 of life as compared to later), and a more rapid advancement of feeds (30–35 ml/kg/day as compared to 15–20 ml/kg/day) do not increase the incidence of NEC in preterm infants. There is no evidence supporting continuous over intermittent tube feedings in preterm infants. In a feed-intolerant preterm infant without any other clinical and radiological evidence of NEC, minimal enteral nutrition rather than complete suspension of enteral feeding may be an alternative. Human milk-based fortifier as compared to bovine-based fortifier may reduce the incidence of NEC but additional studies are required. PMID:23415260

  17. Decision-making on the use of diverse combinations of agricultural products and natural plants in pig feed: a case study of native pig smallholder in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Shinsuke

    2008-04-01

    We have identified the feed offered to native pigs in a case study of smallholder in northern Thailand. We examined the types and fresh weights of pig feed over two 10-day periods in household A, in September 2006 (rainy season) and in December 2006 and January 2007 (dry season). The study results are as follows. (1) They offered 18 types of feed in total during the rainy and dry seasons, of which seven types were common to the rainy and dry seasons, five types were offered during the rainy season only, and six types during the dry season only. (2) They offered agricultural products as 34% of feed (rainy season) and 61% of feed (dry season), and natural plants used exclusively for pig feed as 66% of feed (rainy season) and 39% of feed (dry season). (3) The feed combinations at each feeding time differed 80% of the time during both the rainy and dry seasons. These results show not only that they offered diverse combinations of agricultural products and natural plants as pig feed, but also that they changed feed kinds in both the rainy and dry seasons.

  18. Differentiation of bacterial feeding nematodes in soil ecological studies by means of arbitrarily primed PCR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Der Knaap, Esther; Rodriguez, Russell J.; Freckman, Diana W.

    1993-01-01

    Arbitrarily-primed polymerase chain reaction (ap-PCR) was used to differentiate closely related bacterial-feeding nematodes of the genera: Caenorhabditis, Acrobeloides, Cephalobus and Zeldia. Average percentage similarity of bands generated by ap-PCR with seven different primers between 14 isolates of Caenorhabditis elegans was ⪢ 90%, whereas between C. elegans, C. briggsae and C. remanei similarity was < 20%. Based on intra- and inter-specific similarity between Caenorhabditis isolates, analysis of Acrobeloides, Cephalobus and Zeldia isolates revealed either similar or different genotypes. Distinct genotypes were verified by morphological analyses. In addition, the genotypes obtained from single egg-derived nematode populations were also obtained from ap-PCR analysis of single worms. Due to the difficulty of identification of soil nematodes, the ap-PCR offers potential as a rapid and reliable technique to assess biodiversity. Ap-PCR will make it feasible, for the first time, to study the ecological interactions of unique nematode genotypes in soil habitats.

  19. A cohort study of infant feeding practices in city, suburban and rural areas in Zhejiang Province, PR China

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Liqian; Zhao, Yun; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H; Xie, Xing

    2008-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is the basis for appropriate nutrition for infants and is strongly supported by the Ministry of Health in China. However, there are differences in infant feeding practices in different areas of the country. The aim of this study was to compare the infant feeding practices and the prevalence of determinants of initiation and continuing to breastfeed until six months of age in city, suburb and rural areas in Zhejiang Province, PRC. Methods A longitudinal cohort study of infant feeding practices was undertaken in city, suburban and rural areas in 2004/2005. Mothers were recruited and interviewed before discharge from hospitals. A total of 1520 mothers were recruited into the study. Follow-up interviews were administered at 1, 3 and 6 months after birth to obtain details of infant feeding practices. Results 'Any breastfeeding' rates were high before discharge at all three locations, 96.5% in city, 96.8% in suburb and 97.4% in the rural area. The 'exclusive breastfeeding' rates in the city, suburban and rural areas before discharge were 38.0%, 63.4% and 61.0% respectively. By sixth months the 'any breastfeeding' rates had declined to 62.8%, 76.9% and 83.6% and the 'exclusive breastfeeding' rates had fallen to 0.2%, 0.5% and 7.2% in city, suburb and rural areas respectively. There were differences in feeding practices between the three locations, including the use of prelacteal feeds and the introduction of supplementary feeds. Conclusion Mothers who lived in the city were least likely to be 'exclusive breastfeeding' at discharge. At six months the city infants also had lower rates of 'any breastfeeding' and 'exclusive breastfeeding'. PMID:18315865

  20. Council tax valuation band predicts breast feeding and socio-economic status in the ALSPAC study population

    PubMed Central

    Beale, Norman; Kane, Gill; Gwynne, Mark; Peart, Carole; Taylor, Gordon; Herrick, David; Boyd, Andy

    2006-01-01

    Background Breast-feeding rates in the UK are known to vary by maternal socio-economic status but the latter function is imperfectly defined. We test if CTVB (Council Tax Valuation Band – a categorical assessment of UK property values and amenities governing local tax levies) of maternal address predicts, in a large UK regional sample of births, (a) breast-feeding (b) personal and socio-economic attributes of the mothers. Methods Retrospective study of a subset (n.1390 selected at random) of the ALSPAC sample (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children), a large, geographically defined cohort of mothers followed from early pregnancy to 8 weeks post-delivery. Outcome measures are attitudes to breast-feeding prior to delivery, breast-feeding intention and uptake, demographic and socio-economic attributes of the mothers, CTVB of maternal home address at the time of each birth. Logistic regression analysis, categorical tests. Results Study sample: 1360 women divided across the CTVBs – at least 155 in any band or band aggregation. CTVB predicted only one belief or attitude – that bottle-feeding was more convenient for the mother. However only 31% of 'CTVB A infants' are fully breast fed at 4 weeks of life whereas for 'CTVB E+ infants' the rate is 57%. CTVB is also strongly associated with maternal social class, home conditions, parental educational attainment, family income and smoking habit. Conclusion CTVB predicts breast-feeding rates and links them with social circumstances. CTVB could be used as the basis for accurate resource allocation for community paediatric services: UK breast-feeding rates are low and merit targeted promotion. PMID:16405729

  1. Copepod feeding study in the upper layer of the tropical South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Li-Chun; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Chen, Qing-Chao; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2009-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is the world’s largest marginal sea being notable for vertical mixing at various scales resulting in a sequence of chemical and biological dynamics in surface waters. We investigated the ingestion, gut content, evacuation and clearance rates of copepods collected from six stations (including a South East Asia Time Series station) along a transect line in the tropical of a SCS cruise during September 27, 1999 to October 2, 1999. The goal of the present study was to understand the feeding ecology of copepods in the upper water layers (0-5 m) of the northern SCS during autumn. We measured the gut pigment contents of 33 copepod species by the gut fluorescence method. The gut chlorophyll a values of most small size copepods (<1 mm) were lower than 1.00 ng Chl a individual-1. The highest gut pigment content was recorded in Scolecithrix danae (7.07 ng Chl a individual-1). The gut pigment contents of 33 copepod species (including 70 samples and 1,290 individuals) estimated is negatively correlated with seawater temperature (Pearson correlation r = -0.292, P = 0.014) and is positively correlated with the chlorophyll a concentration of ambient waters (Pearson correlation r = 0.243, P = 0.043). Mean gut pigment content, ingestion and clearance rates (from 80 samples and 1,468 individuals) show that larger copepods (>2 mm) had significantly higher values than medium sized copepods (1-2 mm) and smaller sized copepods. The present study shows that the performance of feeding on phytoplankton was variable in different sized copepod groups, suggesting that copepods obtained in the tropical area of the southeastern Taiwan Strait might be opportunistic feeders.

  2. Breast-feeding difficulties experienced by women taking part in a qualitative interview study of postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, Judy; Blake, Fiona; Garcia, Jo

    2004-09-01

    to explore how women experience breast-feeding difficulties. This theme emerged unexpectedly during a study of women's experiences of screening with the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) and subsequent care from primary health-care professionals. qualitative in-depth interview study. postnatal women of 22 general practices within Oxford City Primary Care Group area. 39 postnatal women from a purposeful sample were interviewed at an average of 15 months postnatal. They were chosen from different general practices and with a range of emotional difficulties after birth, judged using EPDS results at eight weeks and eight months postnatal, and whether they received 'listening visits' from health visitors. a qualitative thematic analysis was used, including searches for anticipated and emergent themes. Fifteen women had breast-feeding difficulties. Five themes emerged which explore the difficulties. Firstly, commitment to breast feeding and high expectations of success; secondly, unexpected difficulties; thirdly, seeking professional support for difficulties; fourthly, finding a way to cope; and fifthly, guilt. in this study breast-feeding difficulties were common, caused emotional distress and interactions with professionals could be difficult. Current breast-feeding policy, such as the 'Baby Friendly Initiative', may be a contributing factor. This needs to be explored in a further study.

  3. Infant feeding practices among HIV exposed infants using summary index in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Combining various aspects of child feeding into an age-specific summary index provides a first answer to the question of how best to deal with recommended feeding practices in the context of HIV pandemic. The objective of this study is to assess feeding practices of HIV exposed infants using summary index and its association with nutritional status in Southern Ethiopia. Methods Facility based cross-sectional study design with cluster random sampling technique was conducted in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Bivariate and multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to assess the association between summary index (infant and child feeding index) (CS-ICFI) and nutritional status. Results The mean (±standard deviation (SD)) cross-sectional infant and child feeding index (CS-ICFI) score of infants was 9.09 (±2.59), [95% CI: 8.69-9.49]). Thirty seven percent (36.6%) of HIV exposed infants fell in the high CS-ICFI category while 31.4% of them were found in poor feeding index tertile. About forty two percent (41.6%) of urban infants were found in the high index tertile but only 24% of the rural infants were found in high index tertile. Forty six percent (46%) of the rural infants were found in low (poor) feeding index category. The CS-ICFI has a statistically significant association with weight for age z score (WAZ) (ß = 0.168, p = 0.027) and length for age z score (LAZ) (ß = 0.183 p = 0.036). However CS-ICFI was not significantly associated with weight for height z score (WLZ) (p = 0.386). Conclusion Majority of HIV exposed infants had no optimum complementary feeding practices according to cross-sectional infant and child feeding index. CS-ICFI was statistically associated especially with chronic indicators of nutritional status (LAZ and WAZ). More rural infants were found in poor index tertile than urban infants. This may suggest that rural infants need more attention than urban infants while designing and implementing

  4. A preliminary study of the behavioral effects of feeding enrichment on African elephants.

    PubMed

    Stoinski, T.S.; Daniel, E.; Maple, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    Although commonly practiced with many species, feeding enrichment in elephants is understudied. The behavioral effects of feeding enrichment were tested in three African elephants by substituting an equal dry weight of browse for hay in an ABA design. The results showed a significant increase in feeding and significant decreases in drinking and inactivity when the browse was present. Additionally, changes in feeding, inactivity, and time spent in contact were observed outside the time the browse was actually presented, although the relationship of these changes to the experimental methodology is unknown. A significant increase in visibility to zoo visitors during the browse conditions demonstrates that browse is an effective, naturalistic method for increasing visibility as well as species-typical behaviors. Managers of captive elephants should consult with a nutritionist to address issues of energetics, nutritional content, and secondary compounds when using browse as feeding enrichment. Zoo Biol 19:485-493, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Council tax valuation band predicts breast feeding and socio-economic status in the ALSPAC study population.

    PubMed

    Beale, Norman; Kane, Gill; Gwynne, Mark; Peart, Carole; Taylor, Gordon; Herrick, David; Boyd, Andy

    2006-01-11

    Breast-feeding rates in the UK are known to vary by maternal socio-economic status but the latter function is imperfectly defined. We test if CTVB (Council Tax Valuation Band - a categorical assessment of UK property values and amenities governing local tax levies) of maternal address predicts, in a large UK regional sample of births, (a) breast-feeding (b) personal and socio-economic attributes of the mothers. Retrospective study of a subset (n.1390 selected at random) of the ALSPAC sample (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children), a large, geographically defined cohort of mothers followed from early pregnancy to 8 weeks post-delivery. Outcome measures are attitudes to breast-feeding prior to delivery, breast-feeding intention and uptake, demographic and socio-economic attributes of the mothers, CTVB of maternal home address at the time of each birth. Logistic regression analysis, categorical tests. 1360 women divided across the CTVBs--at least 155 in any band or band aggregation. CTVB predicted only one belief or attitude--that bottle-feeding was more convenient for the mother. However only 31% of 'CTVB A infants' are fully breast fed at 4 weeks of life whereas for 'CTVB E+ infants' the rate is 57%. CTVB is also strongly associated with maternal social class, home conditions, parental educational attainment, family income and smoking habit. CTVB predicts breast-feeding rates and links them with social circumstances. CTVB could be used as the basis for accurate resource allocation for community paediatric services: UK breast-feeding rates are low and merit targeted promotion.

  6. Maternal feeding self-efficacy and fruit and vegetable intakes in infants. Results from the SAIDI study.

    PubMed

    Koh, Gloria A; Scott, Jane A; Woodman, Richard J; Kim, Susan W; Daniels, Lynne A; Magarey, Anthea M

    2014-10-01

    Adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) is a characteristic of a healthy diet but remains a challenge in nutrition interventions. This cross-sectional study explored the multi-directional relationships between maternal feeding self-efficacy, parenting confidence, child feeding behaviour, exposure to new food and FV intake in a cohort of 277 infants. Mothers with healthy infants weighing ≥2500 g and ≥37 weeks gestation were recruited post-natally from 11 South Australian hospitals. Socio-demographic data were collected at recruitment. At 6 months postnatal, infants were weighed and measured, and mothers completed a questionnaire exploring their perceptions of child feeding behaviour and child exposure to new foods. The questionnaire also included the Short Temperament Scale for Infants, Kessler 10 to measure maternal psychological distress and 5 items measuring maternal feeding self-efficacy. The number of occasions and variety of FV (number of subgroups within food groups) consumed by infants were estimated from a 24-hour dietary recall and 2 days food record. Structural equation modelling was performed using Mplus version 6.11. Median (IQR) variety scores were 2 (1-3) for fruit and 3 (2-5) for vegetable intake. The most popular FV consumed were apple (n = 108, 45.0%) and pumpkin (n = 143, 56.3%). None of the variables studied predicted the variety of child fruit intake. Parenting confidence, exposure to new foods and child feeding behaviour were indirectly related to child vegetable intake through maternal feeding self-efficacy while total number of children negatively predicted child vegetable variety (p < 0.05). This highlights the need for addressing antecedents of maternal feeding self-efficacy and the family eating environment as key strategies towards development of healthy eating in children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nutrient controls on new production in the Bodega Bay, California, coastal upwelling plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugdale, R. C.; Wilkerson, F. P.; Hogue, V. E.; Marchi, A.

    2006-12-01

    A theoretical framework for the time-dependent processes leading to the high rates of new production in eastern boundary upwelling systems has been assembled from a series of past upwelling studies. As part of the CoOP WEST (Wind Events and Shelf Transport) study, new production in the Bodega Bay upwelling area and it's control by ambient nitrate and ammonium concentrations and the advective wind regime are described. Data and analyses are focused primarily on the WEST 2001 cruise (May-June 2001) when the two legs differed greatly in wind regimes but not nutrient concentrations. Elevated concentrations of ammonium in upwelled water with high nitrate were observed in both legs. Nitrate uptake by phytoplankton as a function of nitrate concentration was linear rather than Michaelis-Menten-like, modulated by inhibitory levels of ammonium, yielding coefficients that enable the specific nitrate uptake element of new production to be estimated from nutrient concentrations. The range of specific nitrate uptake rates for the two legs of WEST 2001 were similar, essentially a physiological response to nutrient conditions. However, the low "realization" of new production i.e. incorporation of biomass as particulate nitrogen that occurred in this system compared to the theoretical maximum possible was determined by the strong advective and turbulent conditions that dominated the second leg of the WEST 2001 study. These data are compared with other upwelling areas using a physiological shift-up model [Dugdale, R.C., Wilkerson, F.P., Morel, A. 1990. Realization of new production in coastal upwelling areas: a means to compare relative performance. Limnology and Oceanography 35, 822-829].

  8. The relation between child feeding problems as measured by parental report and mealtime behavior observation: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Marijn; Bruinsma, Eke; Hauser, M Paulina

    2016-04-01

    Because feeding problems have clear negative consequences for both child and caretakers, early diagnosis and intervention are important. Parent-report questionnaires can contribute to early identification, because they are efficient and typically offer a 'holistic' perspective of the child's eating in different contexts. In this pilot study, we aim to explore the concurrent validity of a short screening instrument (the SEP, which is the Dutch MCH-FS) in one of its target populations (a group of premature children) by comparing the total score with the observed behavior of the child and caretaker during a regular home meal. 28 toddlers (aged 9-18 months) and their caretakers participated in the study. Video-observations of the meals were coded for categories of eating behavior and parent-child interaction. The results show that the total SEP-score correlates with food refusal, feeding efficiency, and self-feeding, but not with negative affect and parental instructions. This confirms that the SEP has a certain degree of concurrent validity in the sense that its total score is associated with specific 'benchmark' feeding behaviors: food refusal, feeding efficiency and autonomy. Future studies with larger samples are needed to generalize the findings from this pilot to a broader context.

  9. A 90-Day Feeding Study in Rats to Assess the Safety of Genetically Engineered Pork

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Gao-jun; Jiang, Sheng-Wang; Qian, Li-Li; Cai, Chun-Bo; Wang, Qing-qing; Ma, De-Zun; Li, Biao; Xie, Shan-shan; Cui, Wen-Tao; Li, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Our laboratory recently produced genetically engineered (GE) Meishan pigs containing a ZFN-edited myostatin loss-of-function mutant. These GE pigs develop and grow as normal as wild type pigs but produce pork with greater lean yield and lower fat mass. To assess any potential subchronic toxicity risks of this GE pork, a 90-day feeding study was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were randomly divided into five groups, and fed for 90 days with basic diet and basic diets formulated with low dose and high dose pork prepared from wild type pigs and GE pigs, respectively. Animal behaviors and clinical signs were monitored twice daily, and body weight and food consumption were measured and recorded weekly. At days 45 and 90, blood tests (lipid panel, electrolytes, parameters related to liver and kidney functions, and complete blood counts) were performed. Additionally, gross pathology and histopathological analyses were performed for major organs in each group. Data analysis shows that there were no significant differences in growth rate, food consumption, and blood test parameters between rat groups fed with GE pork and wild type pork. Although differences in some liver function parameters (such as aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase) and white blood cell counts (such as lymphocyte percentage and monocyte percentage) were observed between rats fed with high dose GE pork and basic diet, all test results in rats fed with GE pork are in the normal range. Additionally, there are no apparent lesions noted in all organs isolated from rats in all five feeding groups on days 45 and 90. Overall, our results clearly indicate that food consumption of GE pork produced by ZFN-edited myostatin loss-of-function mutant pigs did not have any long-term adverse effects on the health status in rats. PMID:27812153

  10. A 90-Day Feeding Study in Rats to Assess the Safety of Genetically Engineered Pork.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gao-Jun; Jiang, Sheng-Wang; Qian, Li-Li; Cai, Chun-Bo; Wang, Qing-Qing; Ma, De-Zun; Li, Biao; Xie, Shan-Shan; Cui, Wen-Tao; Li, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Our laboratory recently produced genetically engineered (GE) Meishan pigs containing a ZFN-edited myostatin loss-of-function mutant. These GE pigs develop and grow as normal as wild type pigs but produce pork with greater lean yield and lower fat mass. To assess any potential subchronic toxicity risks of this GE pork, a 90-day feeding study was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were randomly divided into five groups, and fed for 90 days with basic diet and basic diets formulated with low dose and high dose pork prepared from wild type pigs and GE pigs, respectively. Animal behaviors and clinical signs were monitored twice daily, and body weight and food consumption were measured and recorded weekly. At days 45 and 90, blood tests (lipid panel, electrolytes, parameters related to liver and kidney functions, and complete blood counts) were performed. Additionally, gross pathology and histopathological analyses were performed for major organs in each group. Data analysis shows that there were no significant differences in growth rate, food consumption, and blood test parameters between rat groups fed with GE pork and wild type pork. Although differences in some liver function parameters (such as aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase) and white blood cell counts (such as lymphocyte percentage and monocyte percentage) were observed between rats fed with high dose GE pork and basic diet, all test results in rats fed with GE pork are in the normal range. Additionally, there are no apparent lesions noted in all organs isolated from rats in all five feeding groups on days 45 and 90. Overall, our results clearly indicate that food consumption of GE pork produced by ZFN-edited myostatin loss-of-function mutant pigs did not have any long-term adverse effects on the health status in rats.

  11. Further studies of bulk and orosensory decrement in producing satiation of feeding in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Horn, C C; Geizhals, C R; Kupfermann, I

    2001-11-09

    Prior evidence has suggested that meal satiation in the marine mollusk Aplysia is associated with stretch of the crop. The current data, however, suggest that under some conditions, bulk in the crop can be dissociated from the propensity to feed. The crop was hyper-distended 6 h after a satiating meal of rehydrated seaweed; that is, the crop took in water and therefore contained a greater volume than it had contained immediately after satiation. Animals presented with food 6 h after an initial satiating meal consumed a new meal despite the fact that their crop was distended beyond the level at which they had previously terminated feeding. This unexpected result led to additional experiments designed to study possible orosensory decrement during presentation of food. Orosensory input was assessed by recording from the metacerebral cell (MCC) in free-moving animals. The MCC receives excitatory input in response to chemosensory stimulation of the lips, and exhibited a slow decrement during the course of a meal or during repeated lip stimulation without ingestion. Lesions of the cerebro-buccal connectives abolished the long-term MCC response decrement to lip stimulation. This result suggests that the MCC long-term response decrement to lip stimulation is a product of buccal-ganglion feedback and may not reflect sensory decrement of chemosensory pathways. Therefore, satiation may not produce a change in lip sensitivity to chemosensory input. Our data suggest that one important factor that determines satiation is a stretch stimulus of the posterior esophagus/anterior crop. This stretch stimulus may subside over several hours as the crop contents are redistributed or as receptors slowly adapt.

  12. Bee pollen product supplementation to horses in training seems to improve feed intake: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Turner, K K; Nielsen, B D; O'Connor, C I; Burton, J L

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of supplementation of Dynamic Trio 50/50, a bee pollen-based product, to improve physical fitness, blood leukocyte profiles, and nutritional variables in exercised horses. Ten Arabian horses underwent a standardised exercise test (SET), then were pair-matched by sex and fitness and randomly assigned to BP (receiving 118 g of Dynamic Trio 50/50 daily) or CO (receiving 73 g of a placebo) for a period of 42 days. A total collection was conducted from days 18 to 21 on six geldings to determine nutrient retention and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) digestibility. Horses were exercise conditioned and completed another SET on day 42. V160 and V200 were calculated from SET heart rates (HR). Lactate, glucose, haematocrit (HT) and haemoglobin (HB) concentrations were determined from SET blood samples. Total leukocyte count, and circulating numbers of various leukocytes and IgG, IgM and IgA concentrations were determined in rest and recovery blood samples from both SETs. Geldings on BP (n = 3) ate more feed than CO. BP had less phosphorus excretion, and tended to retain more nitrogen. BP tended to digest more NDF and ADF while having lower NDF digestibility and tending to have lower ADF digestibility. No treatment differences existed for V160 and V200, HR, lactate, HT and HB. There was a trend for lymphocyte counts to be lower in BP than CO on day 42. Dynamic Trio 50/50 supplementation may have a positive effect on performance by helping horses in training meet their potentially increased nutrient demands by increasing feed intake and thus nutrient retention.

  13. Nutrient control of gene expression in Drosophila: microarray analysis of starvation and sugar-dependent response

    PubMed Central

    Zinke, Ingo; Schütz, Christina S.; Katzenberger, Jörg D.; Bauer, Matthias; Pankratz, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    We have identified genes regulated by starvation and sugar signals in Drosophila larvae using whole-genome microarrays. Based on expression profiles in the two nutrient conditions, they were organized into different categories that reflect distinct physiological pathways mediating sugar and fat metabolism, and cell growth. In the category of genes regulated in sugar-fed, but not in starved, animals, there is an upregulation of genes encoding key enzymes of the fat biosynthesis pathway and a downregulation of genes encoding lipases. The highest and earliest activated gene upon sugar ingestion is sugarbabe, a zinc finger protein that is induced in the gut and the fat body. Identification of potential targets using microarrays suggests that sugarbabe functions to repress genes involved in dietary fat breakdown and absorption. The current analysis provides a basis for studying the genetic mechanisms underlying nutrient signalling. PMID:12426388

  14. Toxicologic studies of emissions from coal gasification process. I. Subchronic feeding studies.

    PubMed

    Kostial, K; Kello, D; Blanusa, M; Maljković, T; Rabar, I; Bunarević, A; Stara, J F

    1980-09-01

    The increasing use of new sources of energy may result in additional contamination of the human environment with inorganic and organic pollutants which are not yet adequately investigated with regard to their potential impact on human health. However, some evidence exists that several trace inorganic and organic contaminants found in coal processing residues may constitute potential health problems. Therefore, the comparative biological hazards of solid wastes and effluents from a Lurgi coal gasification plant were initially evaluated using acute and chronic feeding experiments in male and female rats. In the subchronic experiment, six-week old animals were fed diets wih various levels of ash (slag) additive (0.5%, 1%, and 5%) for period of 16 weeks. Following exposure, blood samples were taken and 22-hour urine samples were collected. Livers and kidneys, and testicles in males, were taken for trace element analysis or histologic examination. The urinary values, erythrocyte and leucocyte count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and concentration of trace elements in exposed animals were determined. The addition of ash (slag) to the diet in concentrations much higher than expected in conditions of environmental contamination had no measurable health effects. Although these initial results obtained in relatively short-term experiments cannot be directly extrapolated to human health effects, particularly not for carcinogenic assessment, there is an indication that exposure to solid wastes from the coal gasification plant may not be toxic.

  15. A Phg2-Adrm1 Pathway Participates in the Nutrient-controlled Developmental Response in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Cherix, Nathalie; Froquet, Romain; Charette, Steve J.; Blanc, Cédric; Letourneur, François

    2006-01-01

    Dictyostelium amoebae grow as single cells but upon starvation they initiate multicellular development. Phg2 was characterized previously as a kinase controlling cellular adhesion and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Here we report that Phg2 also plays a role during the transition between growth and multicellular development, as evidenced by the fact that phg2 mutant cells can initiate development even in the presence of nutrients. Even at low cell density and in rich medium, phg2 mutant cells express discoidin, one of the earliest predevelopmental markers. Complementation studies indicate that, in addition to the kinase domain, the core region of Phg2 is involved in the initiation of development. In this region, a small domain contiguous with a previously described ras-binding domain was found to interact with the Dictyostelium ortholog of the mammalian adhesion-regulating molecule (ADRM1). In addition, adrm1 knockout cells also exhibit abnormal initiation of development. These results suggest that a Phg2-Adrm1 signaling pathway is involved in the control of the transition from growth to differentiation in Dictyostelium. Phg2 thus plays a dual role in the control of cellular adhesion and initiation of development. PMID:16987957

  16. Quercetin Feeding in Newborn Dairy Calves Cannot Compensate Colostrum Deprivation: Study on Metabolic, Antioxidative and Inflammatory Traits

    PubMed Central

    Gruse, Jeannine; Kanitz, Ellen; Weitzel, Joachim M.; Tuchscherer, Armin; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Jawor, Paulina; Wolffram, Siegfried; Hammon, Harald M.

    2016-01-01

    Immaturity of the neonatal immune system is causative for high morbidity in calves and colostrum intake is crucial for acquiring passive immunity. Pathogenesis is promoted by reactive oxygen species accumulating at birth if counter-regulation is inadequate. The flavonol quercetin exerts antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that may enhance neonatal health. The aim of this work was to study effects of quercetin feeding on metabolic, antioxidative and inflammatory parameters in neonatal calves to investigate whether quercetin could compensate for insufficient colostrum supply. Twenty-eight newborn calves were assigned to two dietary groups fed colostrum or milk-based formula on day 1 and 2 and milk replacer thereafter. From day 2 onwards, 7 calves per diet group were additionally fed quercetin aglycone (50 mg/(kg body weight × day)). Blood samples were taken repeatedly to measure plasma concentrations of flavonols, glucose, lactate, total protein, albumin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, immunoglobulins, fibrinogen, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A. Trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity, ferric reducing ability of plasma, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and F2-isoprostanes were analyzed to evaluate plasma antioxidative status. Expression of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase mRNA were measured in liver tissue on day 8. Plasma flavonol concentrations were detectable only after quercetin-feeding without differences between colostrum and formula feeding. Plasma glucose, lactate, total protein, immunoglobulins, triglycerides, cholesterol, trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity and thiobarbituric acid reactive species were higher after colostrum feeding. Body temperature, fecal fluidity and plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin were higher in

  17. Quercetin Feeding in Newborn Dairy Calves Cannot Compensate Colostrum Deprivation: Study on Metabolic, Antioxidative and Inflammatory Traits.

    PubMed

    Gruse, Jeannine; Kanitz, Ellen; Weitzel, Joachim M; Tuchscherer, Armin; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Jawor, Paulina; Wolffram, Siegfried; Hammon, Harald M

    2016-01-01

    Immaturity of the neonatal immune system is causative for high morbidity in calves and colostrum intake is crucial for acquiring passive immunity. Pathogenesis is promoted by reactive oxygen species accumulating at birth if counter-regulation is inadequate. The flavonol quercetin exerts antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that may enhance neonatal health. The aim of this work was to study effects of quercetin feeding on metabolic, antioxidative and inflammatory parameters in neonatal calves to investigate whether quercetin could compensate for insufficient colostrum supply. Twenty-eight newborn calves were assigned to two dietary groups fed colostrum or milk-based formula on day 1 and 2 and milk replacer thereafter. From day 2 onwards, 7 calves per diet group were additionally fed quercetin aglycone (50 mg/(kg body weight × day)). Blood samples were taken repeatedly to measure plasma concentrations of flavonols, glucose, lactate, total protein, albumin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, immunoglobulins, fibrinogen, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A. Trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity, ferric reducing ability of plasma, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and F2-isoprostanes were analyzed to evaluate plasma antioxidative status. Expression of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase mRNA were measured in liver tissue on day 8. Plasma flavonol concentrations were detectable only after quercetin-feeding without differences between colostrum and formula feeding. Plasma glucose, lactate, total protein, immunoglobulins, triglycerides, cholesterol, trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity and thiobarbituric acid reactive species were higher after colostrum feeding. Body temperature, fecal fluidity and plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin were higher in

  18. Infant feeding practices and risk of dental caries in Japan: the Osaka Maternal And Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Keiko; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the association between infant feeding practices and the development of early childhood caries (ECC). Subjects were 315 children. Information about the variables under study and potential confounding factors were obtained by questionnaire during pregnancy and when the children were two to nine, 16 to 24, 29 to 39, and 41 to 49 months old. Outcome data were collected at 41 to 50 months old. Children were classified as having ECC if one or more primary teeth had decayed or been filled. Compared with breast-feeding for six months or fewer, breast-feeding for 18 months or longer tended to be positively associated with a risk of ECC, and a U-shaped relationship was observed. Use of a bottle to drink sweetened liquids other than milk and the introduction of solid foods at six months old or later were positively associated with a risk of ECC. There was no significant association between bottle-feeding while falling asleep at night and the risk of ECC. Prolonged breast-feeding, bottle use for sweetened liquids other than milk, and the introduction of solid foods at six months old or later might be risk factors for the development of dental caries.

  19. Prevalence, Outcomes, and Management of Enteral Tube Feeding Intolerance: A Retrospective Cohort Study in a Tertiary Center.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kailun; McIlroy, Kerry; Plank, Lindsay D; Petrov, Max S; Windsor, John A

    2017-08-01

    Enteral tube feeding (ETF) is the most common form of artificial feeding in hospitalized patients, and the development of intolerance (ETFI) is the most common complication. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of ETFI, the clinical consequences, and the current management approach to ETFI in hospitalized adult patients. Adult patients receiving ETF were identified from a prospective database in the Nutrition Services at Auckland City Hospital. Further information was obtained by the review of clinical records for a 12-month period, up to December 2014. The prevalence of ETFI was 33% among 754 patients. ETFI more frequently occurred in the intensive care unit ( P < .05). Patients with ETFI were less likely to reach their feeding goal rate ( P < .01). Multivariate analysis showed that younger age, certain specialties, and acute mesenteric ischemia were independent predictors of ETFI ( P < .05). The management of ETFI was highly variable. Medication was the most common treatment, while changes in the feeding protocol such as reducing infusion rate and stopping and changing the route of ETF were also frequently attempted. ETFI is a frequent problem in adult hospitalized patients receiving ETF, and it is associated with poor clinical outcomes such as inadequate nutrition and complications of feeding. While the pathophysiology is poorly understood, there also appears to be no standard evidence-based treatment. Studies investigating the mechanisms and optimized management are therefore indicated.

  20. Reliability and Validity of the Japanese Version of the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Nanishi, Keiko; Jimba, Masamine

    2014-08-01

    The 17-item Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) has shown good reliability and validity to measure attitudes toward infant feeding in various countries. It is also known to be associated with breastfeeding intention and exclusivity. However, the IIFAS has not been psychometrically tested among Japanese women. This study aimed to develop the Japanese version of the IIFAS (IIFAS-J) and assess its reliability and validity. This longitudinal study was conducted with 781 women at 4 hospitals in Japan. The translated IIFAS was administered to participants during their third trimester. Infant feeding status was self-reported at 4 and 12 weeks postpartum using follow-up questionnaires. The predictive validity was determined by examining the association between the IIFAS-J score during pregnancy and infant feeding status at 4 and 12 weeks postpartum. One item was removed after a principal components analysis. Therefore, the IIFAS-J consisted of 16 items. Cronbach's alpha of the IIFAS-J was 0.66. A higher IIFAS-J score during the third trimester was associated with a higher postdischarge exclusive breastfeeding rate at 4 weeks postpartum (B = 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.10). The 16-item Japanese version of the IIFAS is a reliable and valid scale for measuring maternal infant-feeding attitudes during pregnancy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Model studies on the detectability of genetically modified feeds in milk.

    PubMed

    Poms, R E; Hochsteiner, W; Luger, K; Glössl, J; Foissy, H

    2003-02-01

    Detecting the use of genetically modified feeds in milk has become important, because the voluntary labeling of milk and dairy products as "GMO free" or as "organically grown" prohibits the employment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The aim of this work was to investigate whether a DNA transfer from foodstuffs like soya and maize was analytically detectable in cow's milk after digestion and transportation via the bloodstream of dairy cows and, thus, whether milk could report for the employment of transgene feeds. Blood, milk, urine, and feces of dairy cows were examined, and foreign DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction by specifically amplifying a 226-bp fragment of the maize invertase gene and a 118-bp fragment of the soya lectin gene. An intravenous application of purified plant DNA showed a fast elimination of marker DNA in blood or its reduction below the detection limit. With feeding experiments, it could be demonstrated that a specific DNA transfer from feeds into milk was not detectable. Therefore, foreign DNA in milk cannot serve as an indicator for the employment of transgene feeds unless milk is directly contaminated with feed components or airborne feed particles.

  2. Interactions between soil texture, water, and nutrients control patterns of biocrusts abundance and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Kristina; Bowker, Matthew; Reed, Sasha; Howell, Armin

    2017-04-01

    Heterogeneity in the abiotic environment structures biotic communities by controlling niche space and parameters. This has been widely observed and demonstrated in vascular plant and other aboveground communities. While soil organisms are presumably also strongly influenced by the physical and chemical dimensions of the edaphic environment, there are fewer studies linking the development, structure, productivity or function of surface soil communities to specific edaphic gradients. Here, we use biological soil crusts (biocrusts) as a model system to determine mechanisms regulating community structure of soil organisms. We chose soil texture to serve as an edaphic gradient because of soil texture's influence over biocrust distribution on a landscape level. We experimentally manipulated texture in constructed soil, and simultaneously manipulated two main outcomes of texture, water and nutrient availability, to determine the mechanism underlying texture's influence on biocrust abundance and structure. We grew biocrust communities from a field-sourced inoculum on four different soil textures, sieved from the same parent soil material, manipulating watering levels and nutrient additions across soil textures in a full-factorial design over a 5-month period of time. We measured abundance and structure of biocrusts over time, and measured two metrics of function, N2 fixation rates and soil stabilization, at the conclusion of the experiment. Our results showed finer soil textures resulted in faster biocrust community development and dominance by mosses, whereas coarser textures grew more slowly and had biocrust communities dominated by cyanobacteria and lichen. Additionally, coarser textured soils contained cyanobacterial filaments significantly deeper into the soil profile than fine textured soils. N2-fixation values increased with increasing moss cover and decreased with increasing cyanobacterial cover, however, the rate of change depended on soil texture and water amount

  3. Magnetic Resonance-Guided Nasogastric Feeding Tube Placement for Neonates: A Preclinical Study.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Barret; Ireland, Christopher; Kraus, Steven; Racadio, John; Hilvert, Nicole; Dunn, Richard; Dumoulin, Charles

    2016-08-08

    Establishing postnatal nutrition delivery is challenging in neonates with immature sucking and swallowing ability. Enteral feeding is the gold standard for such patients, but their small size and fragility present challenges in nasogastric (NG) feeding tube placement. Feeding tubes are typically placed with x-ray guidance, which provides minimal soft tissue contrast and exposes the baby to ionizing radiation. This research investigates magnetic resonance (MR) guidance of NG feeding tube placement in neonates to provide improved soft tissue visualization without ionizing radiation. A novel feeding tube incorporating 3 solenoid coils for real-time tracking and guidance in the MR environment was developed. The feeding tube was placed 5 times in a rabbit with conventional x-ray guidance to assess mechanical stability and function. After x-ray procedures, the rabbit was transferred to a neonatal MR system, and the tube was placed 5 more times. In procedures guided by x-ray and MR, the feeding tube provided sufficient mechanical strength and functionality to access the esophagus and stomach of the rabbit. MR imaging provided significantly improved soft tissue contrast versus x-ray, which aided in proper tube guidance. Moreover, MR guidance allowed for real-time placement of the tube without the use of ionizing radiation. The feasibility and benefits offered by an MR-guided approach to NG feeding tube placement were demonstrated. The ability to acquire high-quality MR images of soft tissue without ionizing radiation and a contrast agent, coupled with accurate 3-dimensional device tracking, promises to have a powerful impact on future neonatal feeding tube placements. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  4. Psychosocial Care in Complementary Feeding of Children: A Comparative Study of the Urban and Rural Communities of Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunba, Beatrice Olubukola

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents…

  5. Correlation between subsequent lengths of postpartum amenorrhoea in a prospective study of breast-feeding women in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ford, K

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between subsequent lengths of lactational amenorrhoea for individual women in a prospective study of breast-feeding women in Bangladesh was studied. The data indicate that previous length of amenorrhoea has significant predictive value for the subsequent length of amenorrhoea. Information on previous experience with lactational amenorrhoea should be therefore incorporated into guidelines for the introduction of family planning during lactation.

  6. Psychosocial Care in Complementary Feeding of Children: A Comparative Study of the Urban and Rural Communities of Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunba, Beatrice Olubukola

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents…

  7. Estimating the feeding rate of the bedbug Cimex lectularius in an infested room: an inexpensive method and a case study.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, K; Isaac, D; Naylor, R

    2010-03-01

    The common bedbug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), is a globally re-emerging pest that is playing an increasing role in legal disputes and compensation claims as a result of its unpleasant feeding activity. However, there is little information about the feeding frequency of bedbugs outside controlled laboratory cultures. Here, we present a simple method of estimating the average time since the last bloodmeal of individual female bedbugs in a single sampling event, applicable to a single bedbug harbourage or an entire room. Using the temperature-dependent rate of decrease in the abdomen size of the bedbug after a bloodmeal, we found that, in a highly infested room kept at a constant temperature of 26 degrees C, females fed every 2.5 days on average. Our method corrects for variations in body size across different populations and determines the shrinkage that occurs when individuals are preserved in ethanol. This method should, therefore, be widely applicable. It is cheap, rapid and, if coupled with information on the total number of bedbugs present in a room, allows for the estimation of the minimum number of times persons lodging in a room have been bitten by bedbugs. This method can also be used to calculate the feeding rate of other blood-sucking insects on their hosts. The sex ratio in the infestation was female-biased. Finally, our case study suggests that individual female bedbugs within a harbourage do not seem to feed at a regular rate, but tend to synchronize feeding patterns.

  8. Behavioral and Psychophysiological Responsiveness During Child Feeding in Mothers with Histories of Eating Disorders: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R.; Hodges, Eric A.; Propper, Cathi; Postage, Pamela L.; Zipkin, Elana C.; Bentley, Margaret E.; Ward, Dianne S.; Hamer, Robert M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this pilot project was to describe maternal responsiveness during child feeding in mothers with eating disorder histories through the combined use of observational, self-report, and physiologic methods. For this non-randomized cohort pilot study, 25 mothers with histories of eating disorders and 25 mothers with no history of an eating disorder with children ages 6–36 months were selected such that the groups were similar based on child age group (within 6 months) and child sex. Maternal behavioral responsiveness to child cues was assessed by video-recording and behavioral coding of both a free-play and feeding episode. Physiologic engagement was assessed through measurement of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during free-play and feeding episodes. No differences were detected in observed behavioral responsiveness during feeding or free-play in mothers with eating disorder histories compared with controls. Mothers with eating disorder histories did report more parenting stress, increased anxiety, and exhibited a blunted physiologic stress response (less RSA reactivity) during both feeding and free-play interactions with their children. These results support future larger-scale investigations of RSA reactivity in mothers with eating disorders. PMID:24511180

  9. Behavioral and Psychophysiological Responsiveness During Child Feeding in Mothers with Histories of Eating Disorders: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R; Hodges, Eric A; Propper, Cathi; Postage, Pamela L; Zipkin, Elana C; Bentley, Margaret E; Ward, Dianne S; Hamer, Robert M; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this pilot project was to describe maternal responsiveness during child feeding in mothers with eating disorder histories through the combined use of observational, self-report, and physiologic methods. For this non-randomized cohort pilot study, 25 mothers with histories of eating disorders and 25 mothers with no history of an eating disorder with children ages 6-36 months were selected such that the groups were similar based on child age group (within 6 months) and child sex. Maternal behavioral responsiveness to child cues was assessed by video-recording and behavioral coding of both a free-play and feeding episode. Physiologic engagement was assessed through measurement of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during free-play and feeding episodes. No differences were detected in observed behavioral responsiveness during feeding or free-play in mothers with eating disorder histories compared with controls. Mothers with eating disorder histories did report more parenting stress, increased anxiety, and exhibited a blunted physiologic stress response (less RSA reactivity) during both feeding and free-play interactions with their children. These results support future larger-scale investigations of RSA reactivity in mothers with eating disorders.

  10. Pilot study on the efficacy of paromomycin as a histomonostatic feed additive in turkey poults experimentally infected with Histomonas meleagridis.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Hafez M; Hauck, Rüdiger; Gad, Wael; De Gussem, Koen; Lotfi, Abdulrahman

    2010-02-01

    Paromomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic with activity against protozoa. Currently, paromomycin is registered for food producing animal species. In a pilot study we evaluated the efficacy of different doses of paromomycin in the feed against Histomonas meleagridis in experimentally challenged turkey poults. Groups consisting of 30 birds each were given feed with 100, 200 and 400 ppm paromomycin, respectively, starting on day 1 through to day 42. One group of 30 birds was left untreated. On day 21 all birds were infected intracloacally with H. meleagridis. Additionally, 10 birds were kept as a non-infected and non-treated control group. Before the challenge there was no significant difference between untreated and treated groups with regards to feed consumption and feed conversion rate. After the challenge, mortality was 80% in the infected nontreated birds. In the treated groups the mortality rate was 73.3%, 43.3% and 20%, respectively. No histomonal DNA was found in caeca and livers of the surviving birds. In addition, higher doses of paromomycin (200 and 400 ppm) led to reduced counts of Clostridium perfringens in the droppings. In conclusion, a prophylactic application of paromomycin as a feed additive was effective against the challenge with H. meleagridis under experimental conditions.

  11. Nutrient Control Design Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this EPA design manual is to provide updated, state‐of‐the‐technology design guidance on nitrogen and phosphorus control at municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs). Similar to previous EPA manuals, this manual contains extensive information on the principles ...

  12. Nutrient Control Design Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this EPA design manual is to provide updated, state‐of‐the‐technology design guidance on nitrogen and phosphorus control at municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs). Similar to previous EPA manuals, this manual contains extensive information on the principles ...

  13. 3D numerical study of a feed jet in a rotating flow-field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, D. J.; Zeng, S.

    2016-09-01

    A contribution of a feed drive in the total counter-current flow in a gas centrifuge for isotope separation is an important problem in optimization of its separation performance. A 3D model is used to simulate flow structures of a feed jet in a rotating flow-field. By using a CFD code, the details of a feed jet are obtained under the axial feed jet boundary condition. It is demonstrated that because of the vacuum regime in the region near the axis of rotation, the results of numerical simulation of a CFD code bring errors. The 3D DSMC simulation is a feasible method to overcome this problem in the future.

  14. Enteral feeding and its impact on family mealtime routines for caregivers of children with cerebral palsy: A mixed method study.

    PubMed

    Russell, Marion; Jewell, Vanessa; Poskey, Gail A; Russell, Asa

    2017-08-29

    Enteral feedings are part of the daily mealtime experience for many caregivers of children with cerebral palsy. The scope of occupational therapy practice incorporates multiple aspects of the enteral feeding process. Yet, the research in this area is very limited. The purpose of this study was to provide practitioners with better understanding of the impact enteral feedings of children with cerebral palsy have on family mealtime routines. Using a complimentary mixed method approach, data were obtained through an online survey containing the Satisfaction Questionnaire with Gastrostomy Feeding (SAGA-8) and supplementary questions, and qualitative semi-structured phone interviews. Participants were caregivers of children with cerebral palsy who receive their primary nutrition through a gastrostomy tube. This study's cohort consisted of n = 36, SAGA-8, and n = 6 in-depth interviews. The mean age of children of was 9.4 (6.94 SD) with a mean age of 3.4 (5.35 SD) when enteral feeding was introduced. While families' overall situations positively changed after the gastronomy tube placement, environmental barriers and length of feeding time continued to present a challenge to mealtime routines. The mixed methods data analysis revealed that successful adjustment to having a child with a gastronomy tube and problem solving are closely linked and a consistent part of mealtime experience. Findings highlighted the necessity of comprehensive support from health professionals in achieving positive mealtime experience. Themes in this study indicated that caregivers would benefit from a professional with knowledge in the development and integration of rituals and routines to support positive outcomes. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  15. How are babies fed? A pilot study exploring primary school children's perceptions of infant feeding.

    PubMed

    Angell, Catherine; Alexander, Jo; Hunt, Jane A

    2011-12-01

      Breastfeeding is the optimal feeding method for human infants. In the United Kingdom some women do not initiate breastfeeding, and many commence formula milk feeding after a brief period of breastfeeding. Infant feeding perceptions may develop early in life, and this research aimed to explore infant feeding awareness among primary school children as a first step toward informing appropriate health education interventions.   Fifty-six children aged 5/6, 7/8, and 10/11 years were recruited from three schools in southern England. Children were shown a series of drawings, and were read a story about a hungry newborn baby. A creative method, "draw, write and tell," was developed for this research. Children were asked to finish the story, showing how they thought the baby might be fed. They were given the opportunity to verbally interpret their work. A constant comparison method was used to analyze the data.   Children were aware of formula milk, breastfeeding, and solid foods. Formula milk feeding was referred to more frequently than breastfeeding. Some children combined feeding methods. Children appeared to have gained their awareness in various settings.   Children have a range of perceptions around infant feeding. They appear receptive to new ideas on the subject while of primary school age. An opportunity for education in primary schools arises to present breastfeeding to children as a normal way to feed a baby, but it is vital that education is evidence based and any interventions are evaluated. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The external Q factor of a dual-feed coupling for superconducting radio frequency cavities: theoretical and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Dai, J; Belomestnykh, S; Ben-Zvi, I; Xu, Wencan

    2013-11-01

    We propose a theoretical model based on network analysis to study the external quality factor (Q factor) of dual-feed coupling for superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. Specifically, we apply our model to the dual-feed 704 MHz half-cell SRF gun for Brookhaven National Laboratory's prototype Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). The calculations show that the external Q factor of this dual-feed system is adjustable from 10(4) to 10(9) provided that the adjustment range of a phase shifter covers 0°-360°. With a period of 360°, the external Q factor of the coupling system changes periodically with the phase difference between the two coupling arms. When the RF phase of both coupling arms is adjusted simultaneously in the same direction, the external Q factor of the system also changes periodically, but with a period of 180°.

  17. Occupation-based family-centered therapy approach for young children with feeding problems in South Korea; a case study.

    PubMed

    An, Sun-Joung L

    2014-03-01

    Documenting the effectiveness of an occupation-based family-centered therapy approach, when providing therapy for a young child with feeding problems, is needed in a culture such as Korea, which has a strong medical model of service. A case study was conducted involving a 16-month-old boy with feeding problems. An occupation-based family-centered therapy approach was carried out for 10 weeks. The results indicated that this approach addressed the physical components of the child's feeding problems and also the parent-child bonding, which together improved the overall family dynamics. Although these results may stimulate clinicians to consider an alternative approach to a medical model, further research with a larger sample is needed to provide sufficient evidence for therapists to shift to a new service delivery model. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Recruiting underrepresented groups into the Carbohydrates and Related Biomarkers (CARB) cancer prevention feeding study

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Ondelacy, Stephanie; Schwarz, Yvonne; Duggan, Catherine; Lampe, Johanna; Neuhouser, Marian L.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a randomized, controlled feeding study, which aimed to recruit 88 participants (including 22 Hispanics and 22 African Americans), we examined strategies for recruiting individuals from underrepresented groups into research trials. Study eligibility criteria included participants who 1) were 18–45 years old; 2) had a body mass index (BMI) >18 < 24.9 or BMI > 28.0 <40.0; 3); had no preexisting health conditions; 4) were non-smoking; 5) had normal fasting blood glucose level (< 100 mg/dL); and 6) spoke English. Participants were recruited using two overarching methods: media-based strategies (flyers and posters, email announcements, announcements in local and campus newspapers, and the Internet) and in-person strategies (presentations in university classes and community events). Participants were enrolled March 2006–March 2009. We present the numbers of individuals requesting study information, completing pre-enrollment screening questionnaires, and enrolling in the study. A total of 1036 individuals requested study information, and 396 completed a pre-enrollment screening questionnaire; 90 enrolled in the study (22 Hispanics and 18 African Americans). Among enrolled participants, in-person recruitment strategies were reported by 39% of African Americans, 73% of Hispanics, and 30% of non-Hispanic Whites (P <0.001). In-person recruitment strategies were successful among Hispanics. Mass media recruitment strategies were successful among non-Hispanic Whites but enlisted relatively few Hispanic participants. Both strategies recruited nearly equal percentages of African Americans. These data suggest that different strategies are needed to effectively recruit racial/ethnic population subgroups into intervention studies. PMID:22504222

  19. Recruiting underrepresented groups into the Carbohydrates and Related Biomarkers (CARB) cancer prevention feeding study.

    PubMed

    Coronado, Gloria D; Ondelacy, Stephanie; Schwarz, Yvonne; Duggan, Catherine; Lampe, Johanna W; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2012-07-01

    Using data from a randomized, controlled feeding study, which aimed to recruit 88 participants (including 22 Hispanics and 22 African Americans), we examined strategies for recruiting individuals from underrepresented groups into research trials. Study eligibility criteria included participants who 1) were 18-45 years old; 2) had a body mass index (BMI) >18<24.9 or BMI>28.0 <40.0; 3); had no preexisting health conditions; 4) were non-smoking; 5) had normal fasting blood glucose level (<100 mg/dL); and 6) spoke English. Participants were recruited using two overarching methods: media-based strategies (flyers and posters, email announcements, announcements in local and campus newspapers, and the Internet) and in-person strategies (presentations in university classes and community events). Participants were enrolled March 2006-March 2009. We present the numbers of individuals requesting study information, completing pre-enrollment screening questionnaires, and enrolling in the study. A total of 1036 individuals requested study information, and 396 completed a pre-enrollment screening questionnaire; 90 enrolled in the study (22 Hispanics and 18 African Americans). Among enrolled participants, in-person recruitment strategies were reported by 39% of African Americans, 73% of Hispanics, and 30% of non-Hispanic Whites (P<0.001). In-person recruitment strategies were successful among Hispanics. Mass media recruitment strategies were successful among non-Hispanic Whites but enlisted relatively few Hispanic participants. Both strategies recruited nearly equal percentages of African Americans. These data suggest that different strategies are needed to effectively recruit racial/ethnic population subgroups into intervention studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Type of milk feeding in infancy and health behaviours in adult life: findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Siân; Ntani, Georgia; Simmonds, Shirley; Syddall, Holly; Dennison, Elaine; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Barker, David; Cooper, Cyrus

    2013-03-28

    A number of studies suggest that breast-feeding has beneficial effects on an individual's cardiovascular risk factors in adulthood, although the mechanisms involved are unknown. One possible explanation is that adults who were breastfed differ in their health behaviours. In a historical cohort, adult health behaviours were examined in relation to type of milk feeding in infancy. From 1931 to 1939, records were kept on all infants born in Hertfordshire, UK. Their type of milk feeding was summarised as breastfed only, breast and bottle-fed, or bottle-fed only. Information about adult health behaviours was collected from 3217 of these men and women when they were aged 59-73 years. Diet was assessed using an administered FFQ; the key dietary pattern was a 'prudent' pattern that described compliance with 'healthy' eating recommendations. Of the study population, 60 % of the men and women were breastfed, 31 % were breast and bottle-fed, and 9 % were bottle-fed. Type of milk feeding did not differ according to social class at birth, and was not related to social class attained in adult life. There were no differences in smoking status, alcohol intake or reported physical activity according to type of milk feeding, but there were differences in the participants' dietary patterns. In a multivariate model that included sex and infant weight gain, there were independent associations between type of feeding and prudent diet scores in adult life (P= 0.009), such that higher scores were associated with having been breastfed. These data support experimental findings which suggest that early dietary exposures can have lifelong influences on food choice.

  1. Time-restricted feeding and risk of metabolic disease: a review of human and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Jeff; Hoddy, Kristin K; Jambazian, Pera; Varady, Krista A

    2014-05-01

    Time-restricted feeding (TRF), a key component of intermittent fasting regimens, has gained considerable attention in recent years. TRF allows ad libitum energy intake within controlled time frames, generally a 3-12 hour range each day. The impact of various TRF regimens on indicators of metabolic disease risk has yet to be investigated. Accordingly, the objective of this review was to summarize the current literature on the effects of TRF on body weight and markers of metabolic disease risk (i.e., lipid, glucoregulatory, and inflammatory factors) in animals and humans. Results from animal studies show TRF to be associated with reductions in body weight, total cholesterol, and concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, insulin, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor-α as well as with improvements in insulin sensitivity. Human data support the findings of animal studies and demonstrate decreased body weight (though not consistently), lower concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. These preliminary findings show promise for the use of TRF in modulating a variety of metabolic disease risk factors.

  2. A STUDY TO EVALUATE THE LEVELS OF DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN DAIRY FEEDS IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with USDA and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has undertaken a program to study the presence of dioxin-like compounds in animal feeds. Two phases of this program have been completed, and this paper reports on t...

  3. A STUDY TO EVALUATE THE LEVELS OF DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN DAIRY FEEDS IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with USDA and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has undertaken a program to study the presence of dioxin-like compounds in animal feeds. Two phases of this program have been completed, and this paper reports on t...

  4. Feasibility study of a synthesis procedure for array feeds to improve radiation performance of large distorted reflector antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutzman, W. L.; Takamizawa, K.; Werntz, P.; Lapean, J.; Barts, R.; Shen, B.

    1991-01-01

    Virginia Tech is involved in a number of activities with NASA Langley related to large aperture radiometric antenna systems. These efforts are summarized and the focus of this report is on the feasibility study of a synthesis procedure for array feeds to improve radiation performance of large distorted reflector antennas; however, some results for all activities are reported.

  5. Association of breast feeding with early childhood dental caries: Japanese population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Yamakawa, Michiyo; Inoue, Sachiko; Saito, Keiko; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the association between breastfeeding duration during the first half year of life and the risk of early childhood caries from the age of 30 to 66 months in Japan. Design Observational study of a longitudinal survey. Setting A secondary data analysis of the Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Babies in the 21st Century. Participants 43 383 infants at the age of 6 months. Outcome measures Early childhood caries—defined as a child's visit to a dentist for treatment of dental caries during the past 12 months—was ascertained from the caregiver from the age of 30 months in the survey. We estimated the risk of dental caries each year according to duration of breast feeding using logistic regression analyses. We controlled for a set of biological factors (birth weight, sex, parity and maternal age at delivery) and socioeconomic factors (maternal educational attainment and smoking status, marital status at delivery, family income and region of birth and residence). Results We found that infants who had been breast fed for at least 6 or 7 months, both exclusively and partially, were at elevated risk of dental caries at the age of 30 months compared with those who had been exclusively formula fed. Adjusted ORs were 1.78 (95% CI, (1.45 to 2.17)) for the exclusively breastfed group and 1.39 (1.14 to 1.70) for the partially breastfed group. However, the associations became attenuated through the follow-up period and were no longer statistically significant beyond the age of 42 months for the partially breastfed group and beyond the age of 54 months for the exclusively breastfed group. Conclusions We found an association between breast feeding for at least 6 or 7 months and elevated risk of dental caries at age 30 months. However, the association became attenuated as children grew older. PMID:25795694

  6. Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study: the types of foods fed to Hispanic infants and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Julie A; Ziegler, Paula; Briefel, Ronette; Novak, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of breastfeeding and formula feeding, the age of introduction to specific foods, and the types of foods and beverages consumed by Hispanic infants and toddlers compared with similarly aged non-Hispanic infants and toddlers living in the United States. Descriptive and comparative analysis of dietary recall data and responses to specific interview questions, which were collected in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study. Breastfeeding status, timing of introduction of complementary foods, percentage consuming foods from specific food groups, and the most frequently consumed fruits and vegetables by Hispanic and non-Hispanic children by age group (4-5 months, 6-11 months, 12-24 months). A national random sample of 371 Hispanic and 2,637 non-Hispanic infants and toddlers between the ages of 4 and 24 months. To test for differences between Hispanic and non-Hispanic children in the percentage who consumed a particular food item, we calculated percentages and standard errors in SUDAAN and 95% and 99% confidence intervals. The most frequently consumed fruits and vegetables were determined by tallying the percentage of infants and toddlers who consumed each specific fruit or vegetable on a given day. Although there were some similarities, the early flavor and food experiences of Hispanic infants were different from similarly aged non-Hispanic infants in several ways. Hispanic infants younger than 1 year of age were more likely to have ever been breastfed and those who were 4 to 5 months were more likely than non-Hispanics to be eating pureed baby foods on a daily basis. Although less likely to be eating non-infant cereals and baby food vegetables, 6- to 11-month-old Hispanics were more likely to be eating fresh fruits, fruit-flavored drinks, baby cookies, and foods such as soups, rice, and beans that are common in many Hispanic cultures. When fruits were introduced into the Hispanic child's diet, they were most commonly consumed fresh. This

  7. Association of breast feeding with early childhood dental caries: Japanese population-based study.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tsuguhiko; Yorifuji, Takashi; Yamakawa, Michiyo; Inoue, Sachiko; Saito, Keiko; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-03-20

    We investigated the association between breastfeeding duration during the first half year of life and the risk of early childhood caries from the age of 30 to 66 months in Japan. Observational study of a longitudinal survey. A secondary data analysis of the Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Babies in the 21st Century. 43,383 infants at the age of 6 months. Early childhood caries--defined as a child's visit to a dentist for treatment of dental caries during the past 12 months--was ascertained from the caregiver from the age of 30 months in the survey. We estimated the risk of dental caries each year according to duration of breast feeding using logistic regression analyses. We controlled for a set of biological factors (birth weight, sex, parity and maternal age at delivery) and socioeconomic factors (maternal educational attainment and smoking status, marital status at delivery, family income and region of birth and residence). We found that infants who had been breast fed for at least 6 or 7 months, both exclusively and partially, were at elevated risk of dental caries at the age of 30 months compared with those who had been exclusively formula fed. Adjusted ORs were 1.78 (95% CI, (1.45 to 2.17)) for the exclusively breastfed group and 1.39 (1.14 to 1.70) for the partially breastfed group. However, the associations became attenuated through the follow-up period and were no longer statistically significant beyond the age of 42 months for the partially breastfed group and beyond the age of 54 months for the exclusively breastfed group. We found an association between breast feeding for at least 6 or 7 months and elevated risk of dental caries at age 30 months. However, the association became attenuated as children grew older. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Pentachlorophenol (CAS NO. 87-86-5) in F344/N Rats (Feed Studies).

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    Pentachlorophenol has been used as an herbicide, algicide, defoliant, wood preservative, germicide, fungicide, and molluscicide. Pentachlorophenol was nominated by the National Cancer Institute for carcinogenicity testing based on its widespread use as a wood preservative, potential for entering the environment (pentachlorophenol residues have been found worldwide in soil, water, and air samples; in food products; and in human and animal tissues and body fluids), and likelihood of bioaccumulation in the environment (pentachlorophenol is persistent in soil, having a half-life of up to 5 years). Technical Report No. 349 contains the results of the 2-year studies of pentachlorophenol performed by the NTP with B6C3F1 mice. Male and female F344/N rats were exposed to pentachlorophenol (approximately 99% pure) in feed for 28 days or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in vitro in Salmonella typhimurium and cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in vivo in rat and mouse bone marrow cells. 28-DAY STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female F344/N rats were given 0, 200, 400, 800, 1,600, or 3,200 ppm pentachlorophenol, equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 20, 40, 75, 150, or 270 mg pentachlorophenol/kg body weight to males and females in feed for 28 days. With the exception of one male and two females exposed to 3,200 ppm, all rats survived until the end of the study. The final mean body weights and body weight gains of male rats exposed to 1,600 or 3,200 ppm and female rats exposed to 400, 800, 1,600, or 3,200 ppm were significantly less than those of the controls; rats exposed to 3,200 ppm lost weight during the study. Feed consumption by 3,200 ppm males was less than that by the control group throughout the study. The absolute and relative liver weights of 400, 800, and 1,600 ppm males and all exposed groups of females were significantly greater than those of the controls. Compared to the control groups, the incidences of minimal to mild

  9. A qualitative study exploring perceived barriers to infant feeding and caregiving among adolescent girls and young women in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Kristy M; Mukta, Umme S; Jalal, Chowdhury S B; Sellen, Daniel W

    2015-08-11

    Infant feeding and caregiving by adolescent girls and young women in rural Bangladesh remains relatively understudied despite high potential vulnerability of younger mothers and their children due to poverty and high rates of early marriage and childbearing. This key knowledge gap may hamper the effectiveness of maternal, infant and child health interventions not specifically tailored to teenage mothers. This study aimed to narrow this gap by documenting key barriers to optimal infant and young child feeding and caregiving perceived by adolescent girls and young women in rural Bangladesh. Focus group discussions and in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 70 adolescent girls and young women participating in a community-based adolescent empowerment program in two rural regions of northwestern Bangladesh. Participants were stratified into three groups: unmarried, married without child, and married with child(ren). Thematic analysis was performed to elucidate dominant ideas regarding challenges with child feeding and caregiving across participant strata. Participants in all three strata and in both geographical regions attributed actual and anticipated caregiving difficulties to five major contextual factors: early marriage, maternal time allocation conflicts, rural life, short birth intervals, and poverty. Indications are that many girls and young women anticipate difficulties in feeding and caring for their future children from an early age, and often prior to motherhood. Participants articulated both perceived need and unmet demand for additional education in infant and young child feeding, childcare, and family planning techniques. Provision during adolescence of appropriate education, services and financial aid to support best practices for infant feeding and childcare could significantly improve maternal self-efficacy, mental health, nutrition security and young childcare, nutrition and health in rural Bangladesh. Lessons learned can be applied

  10. Exploring Maternal Perceptions of Infant Sleep and Feeding Method Among Mothers in the United Kingdom: A Qualitative Focus Group Study.

    PubMed

    Rudzik, Alanna E F; Ball, Helen L

    2016-01-01

    In a context with strong rhetorical support for breastfeeding in the health system, yet extremely low rates of breastfeeding after hospital discharge, U.K. women's decisions about infant feeding reflect the reality of competing priorities in their lives, including obtaining adequate sleep. Popular wisdom in the U.K. tightly links breastfeeding and inadequate night-time sleep. Mothers are advised by peers and family to introduce formula or solid foods to infants to promote longer sleep. The first objective of this study was to investigate women's understandings of the nature of infant sleep and their perceptions of links between infant feeding method and sleep. The second was to explore how these perceptions influence infant feeding and sleep practices. Underpinning our work is the understanding that infant care choices result from trade-offs by which mothers strive to balance infant- and self-care. We conducted seven focus groups with mothers of infants in two regions of the U.K. Verbatim transcripts were thematically coded and emergent themes were identified. We found clearly diverging narratives between breastfeeding and formula-feeding mothers. Breastfeeding mothers viewed the fragmentary nature of infant sleep as natural, while mothers who were formula feeding felt this was a problem to be fixed. The strategies used to promote infant and maternal sleep in each group were aligned with their underlying perception of how infant sleep works. Maternal perceptions of the nature of infant sleep and its relation to infant feeding method impact infant care practices in the first year of life.

  11. [A comparative study on feeding intensity of two rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus strains].

    PubMed

    Ge, Yali; Xi, Yilong; Chen, Fang

    2005-10-01

    The study on the feeding intensity and its relationships with food concentration, food quality and cultural duration of Guangzhou and Wuhu Brachionus calyciflorus strains showed that the filtration and ingestion rates of the rotifers decreased with their increasing cultural duration. Within 20 hours, there was a curvilinear relationship between the filtration rate of both the two strains and food concentration, but a linear relationship between the ingestion rate and food concentration. The filtration rate of Guangzhou and Wuhu strains was 0.0029 +/- 0.0001 ml x ind. (-1) x h(-1) and 0.0039 +/- 0.0008 ml ind. (-1) x h(-1), respectively, when fed on Chlorella pyrenoidosa, which were higher than fed on the other two types of food. The ingestion rate of Guangzhou strain fed on Chlorella pyrenoidosa (0.3992 x 10(4) +/- 0.00850 x 10(4) cell ind. (-1) x h(-1)) was higher than that fed on Scenedesmus obliquus (0.1670 x 10(4) +/- 0.0370 x 10(4) cell x ind.(-1) x h(-1)), but each of them was similar with that on mixed algae. The ingestion rate of Wuhu strain was not significantly affected by food type. The filtration and ingestion rates between the two strains differed with food concentration, food type and culture duration.

  12. Hospital discharge bags and breastfeeding at 6 months: data from the infant feeding practices study II.

    PubMed

    Sadacharan, Radha; Grossman, Xena; Matlak, Stephanie; Merewood, Anne

    2014-02-01

    Distribution of industry-sponsored formula sample packs to new mothers undermines breastfeeding. Using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II), we aimed to determine whether receipt of 4 different types of bags was associated with exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life. We extracted data from IFPS II questionnaires. Type of discharge bag received was categorized as "formula bag," "coupon bag," "breastfeeding supplies bag," or "no bag". We examined exclusive breastfeeding status at 10 weeks (post hoc) and at 6 months using univariate descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression models, controlling for sociodemographic and attitudinal variables. Overall, 1868 (81.4%) of women received formula bags, 96 (4.2%) received coupon bags, 46 (2.0%) received breastfeeding supplies bags, and 284 (12.4%) received no bag. By 10 weeks, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bags or no bag were significantly more likely to be exclusively breastfeeding than formula bag recipients. In the adjusted model, compared to formula bag/coupon bag recipients, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bag/no bag were significantly more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.36). The vast majority of new mothers received formula sample packs at discharge, and this was associated with reduced exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months. Bags containing breastfeeding supplies or no bag at all were positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months.

  13. Study on the use of drugs in patients with enteral feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Heineck, Isabela; Bueno, Denise; Heydrich, Joana

    2009-04-01

    To describe the use of drugs in patients using Enteral Feeding Tubes (EFT) at a University Hospital in southern Brazil. A total of 315 medical charts of patients that had used EFT were analyzed. Variables of interest were: days the tube was used, number and frequency of drugs administered by the tube, pharmaceutical dosage forms and the number of tube exchanges per patients. The mean of age of the patients was 59 years (SD = 21) and 59% were male. A mean number of drugs prescribed per patient with tube administration were five. Almost all patients (95%) used some drugs in solid pharmaceutical preparations, mostly tablets (72%). About 158 different drugs were prescribed; for 23% of these, the prescription of liquid dosage forms was possible. The chance of changing the enteral tube was greater for patients that used more than five drugs enterally (OR = 4.8, 95% CI 2.8-8.2) and that had more than 13 drug administrations per day (OR = 5.3, 95% CI 3.1-9.3). This study provides evidence that patients using more drugs enterally have a greater chance of having their enteral tube exchanged. Furthermore, it suggests a lack of knowledge of the health team with regard to the appropriateness of pharmaceutical preparations for this administration.

  14. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: a cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life.

    PubMed

    Moimaz, Suzely A S; Zina, Lívia G; Saliba, Nemre A; Saliba, Orlando

    2008-09-01

    In addition to providing nutrition and immunological protection, breast-feeding has positive effects on the development of the infant's oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to assess breast-feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding practices and maternal sociodemographic variables on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Brazilian infants. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Southern Brazil. A random sample of 100 mothers of infants up to 12 months of age was interviewed during the National Vaccination Campaign Day. The prevalence and median duration of breast-feeding were assessed. Breast-feeding practice, the exposure factor, was categorized as exclusive breast-feeding, predominant breast-feeding, complementary breast-feeding, or weaning. Maternal sociodemographic variables included age, race, marital status, educational level, profession, and family income. The outcome investigated was the prevalence of sucking habits (pacifier use and thumb sucking). We used two-sample tests, the chi-square test and FISHER'S EXACT TEST for statistical analyses of the data. The study revealed that 75% of infants were being breast-fed. Pacifier use and thumb sucking were common in 55%. Bottle-feeding was prevalent in 74% of infants. Breast-feeding was negatively correlated with pacifier use and thumb sucking (OR=0.11; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.4). Bottle-feeding was strongly associated with weaning (p=0.0003). Among the sociodemographic variables, only marital status showed a statistical association with sucking habits (p=0.04). These findings suggest that breast-feeding can prevent the occurrence of sucking habits. Although we could not evaluate causality assessment, malocclusion prevention seems to be yet one more reason for promoting breast-feeding practices.

  15. Study on Intelligent Multi-concentrates Feeding System for Dairy Cow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yinfa; Wang, Ranran; Song, Zhanhua; Yan, Shitao; Li, Fa-De

    To implement precision feeding for dairy cow, an intelligent multi-concentrates feeding system was developed. The system consists of two parts, one is precision ingredients control subsystem, the other is multi-concentrates discharge subsystem. The former controls the latter with 4 stepper motors. The precision ingredients control subsystem was designed based on Samsung S3C2440 ARM9 microprocessor and WinCE5.0 embedded operating system. The feeding system identifies the dairy cow with passive transponder using RFID (Radio frequency identification) reader. According to the differences of based diet intake and individual dairy cow milk yield, the system can automatically and quantificationally discharge 4 kinds of different concentrates on the basis of the cow identification ID. The intelligent multi-concentrates feeding system for dairy cow has been designed and implemented. According to the experiment results, the concentrate feeding error is less than 5%, the cow inditification delay time is less than 0.5s and the cow inditification error rate is less than 0.01%.

  16. Blenderized Tube Feeding Use in Adult Home Enteral Nutrition Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Ryan T; Edakkanambeth Varayil, Jithinraj; Epp, Lisa M; Pattinson, Adele K; Lammert, Lisa M; Lintz, Jennifer E; Mundi, Manpreet S

    2015-12-01

    Use of long-term enteral nutrition (EN) has increased dramatically in the United States. It has been the authors' experience that most home EN (HEN) patients use blenderized tube feeding (BTF) in addition to commercial EN. There are limited resources available for patients interested in BTF, and studies evaluating safety and effectiveness are limited. The authors conducted a prospective cross-sectional study (n = 54). age >18 years, follow-up in HEN clinic, prescribed commercial EN. Participants were provided the survey at HEN follow-up appointments after receiving HEN for at least 3 weeks. Median age (range) was 60.5 (22-87) years with 42.6% females (n = 23). BTF was used by 55.5% of patients (n = 30). Most (57%; n = 31) received HEN for >6 months. BTF use was a median of 4 (1-7) days per week. Most common reasons for using BTF were as follows: it is more natural (43%), like eating what their family does (33%), and tolerate BTF better (30%). In patients who use BTF, 80% reported maintaining goal body weight. BTF resulted in significantly less reported nausea, vomiting, bloating, diarrhea, and constipation compared with commercial EN. This is the first study to evaluate BTF use in an adult HEN population. More than 50% of our patients used and approximately 80% expressed a desire to use BTF if provided with adequate information. With new connection tube changes coming in the near future, adequate adapters for BTF need to be developed. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  17. Role of intestinal mucosal integrity in HIV transmission to infants through breast-feeding: the BAN study.

    PubMed

    Kourtis, Athena P; Ibegbu, Chris C; Wiener, Jeffrey; King, Caroline C; Tegha, Gerald; Kamwendo, Deborah; Kumwenda, Jacob; Kaur, Surinder P; Flax, Valerie; Ellington, Sascha; Kacheche, Zebrone; Kayira, Dumbani; Chasela, Charles; van der Horst, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J

    2013-08-15

    Increased intestinal permeability may be one of the mechanisms of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to infants through breast-feeding. Intestinal permeability correlates with microbial translocation, which can be measured through quantification of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We evaluated levels of plasma LPS (by the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay) and immune activation markers in serial specimens from infants exposed to but uninfected with HIV and infants infected with HIV from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) study. Plasma LPS levels increased after infants in the BAN study were weaned from the breast, at 24 weeks of age. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was associated with higher plasma LPS levels (P = .004). Infants with HIV infection had higher LPS levels, compared with uninfected infants (P = .004). Higher preinfection plasma LPS levels were a significant predictor of infant HIV infection through breast-feeding (hazard ratio = 1.60 for every unit increase in plasma LPS level; P = .01) and of lower infant length-for-age z scores (P = .02). These findings suggest that disruption in intestinal integrity is a mechanism of HIV transmission to infants through breast-feeding. Weaning from breast milk and use of antibiotic prophylaxis was associated with increased levels of microbial translocation, which could facilitate HIV entry through the intestine. Complementary approaches to enhance intestinal mucosal integrity in the infant may further reduce breast-feeding transmission of HIV.

  18. Role of Intestinal Mucosal Integrity in HIV Transmission to Infants Through Breast-feeding: The BAN Study

    PubMed Central

    Kourtis, Athena P.; Ibegbu, Chris C.; Wiener, Jeffrey; King, Caroline C.; Tegha, Gerald; Kamwendo, Deborah; Kumwenda, Jacob; Kaur, Surinder P.; Flax, Valerie; Ellington, Sascha; Kacheche, Zebrone; Kayira, Dumbani; Chasela, Charles; van der Horst, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Increased intestinal permeability may be one of the mechanisms of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to infants through breast-feeding. Intestinal permeability correlates with microbial translocation, which can be measured through quantification of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods. We evaluated levels of plasma LPS (by the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay) and immune activation markers in serial specimens from infants exposed to but uninfected with HIV and infants infected with HIV from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) study. Results. Plasma LPS levels increased after infants in the BAN study were weaned from the breast, at 24 weeks of age. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was associated with higher plasma LPS levels (P = .004). Infants with HIV infection had higher LPS levels, compared with uninfected infants (P = .004). Higher preinfection plasma LPS levels were a significant predictor of infant HIV infection through breast-feeding (hazard ratio = 1.60 for every unit increase in plasma LPS level; P = .01) and of lower infant length-for-age z scores (P = .02). Conclusions. These findings suggest that disruption in intestinal integrity is a mechanism of HIV transmission to infants through breast-feeding. Weaning from breast milk and use of antibiotic prophylaxis was associated with increased levels of microbial translocation, which could facilitate HIV entry through the intestine. Complementary approaches to enhance intestinal mucosal integrity in the infant may further reduce breast-feeding transmission of HIV. PMID:23687226

  19. Comparison study of two procedures for the determination of emamectin benzoate in medicated fish feed.

    PubMed

    Farer, Leslie J; Hayes, John M

    2005-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the determination of emamectin benzoate in fish feed. The method uses a wet extraction, cleanup by solid-phase extraction, and quantitation and separation by liquid chromatography (LC). In this paper, we compare the performance of this method with that of a previously reported LC assay for the determination of emamectin benzoate in fish feed. Although similar to the previous method, the new procedure uses a different sample pretreatment, wet extraction, and quantitation method. The performance of the new method was compared with that of the previously reported method by analyses of 22 medicated feed samples from various commercial sources. A comparison of the results presented here reveals slightly lower assay values obtained with the new method. Although a paired sample t-test indicates the difference in results is significant, this difference is within the method precision of either procedure.

  20. Phase Equilibrium Studies of Savannah River Tanks and Feed Streams for the Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.F.

    2001-06-19

    A chemical equilibrium model is developed and used to evaluate supersaturation of tanks and proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The model uses Pitzer's model for activity coefficients and is validated by comparison with a variety of thermodynamic data. The model assesses the supersaturation of 13 tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), indicating that small amounts of gibbsite and or aluminosilicate may form. The model is also used to evaluate proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility for 13 years of operation. Results indicate that dilutions using 3-4 M NaOH (about 0.3-0.4 L caustic per kg feed solution) should avoid precipitation and reduce the Na{sup +} ion concentration to 5.6 M.

  1. Studies on the energy content of pigeon feeds I. Determination of digestibility and metabolizable energy content.

    PubMed

    Hullar, I; Meleg, I; Fekete, S; Romvari, R

    1999-12-01

    The digestibility coefficient and metabolizable energy (ME) content of the most important pigeon feeds (corn, wheat, barley, red and white millet, sorghum, canary seed, peas, lentils, sunflower, and hemp) were determined. The experiment was carried out using 10 adult male homing pigeons. All feeds were fed alone, in a whole-grain form, ad libitum. Drinking water and grit were offered to the birds on a continuous basis. Each feedstuff was fed to five pigeons in 1-wk cycles. There was no significant difference between the values determined in pigeons and those reported in the literature for chickens among the digestibilities of the CP of the various feeds. For pigeons, the digestibility of carbohydrates (N-free extracts, NFE) was lower (e.g., 62.37 vs 83.00% for barley and 63.45 vs 77.00% for peas), whereas the ether extract (EE) was higher (e.g., 75.58 vs 61.00% for barley and 82.59 vs 80.00% for peas) in pigeons compared with chickens. As a result, the AMEn values determined in pigeons did not differ significantly from those reported for chickens but tended to be slightly higher. For feeds of high-oil content, that difference may be somewhat larger. The correlation between the CP, EE, crude fiber (CF), and NFE contents of the feeds and the ME values determined in this experiment were calculated by multivariate linear regression. It was concluded that it was more accurate to determine and tabulate the ME contents of other potential pigeon feeds directly by experimental methods rather than using an equation.

  2. Breast feeding and allergic diseases in infants-a prospective birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kull, I; Wickman, M; Lilja, G; Nordvall, S L; Pershagen, G

    2002-12-01

    To investigate the effect of breast feeding on allergic disease in infants up to 2 years of age. A birth cohort of 4089 infants was followed prospectively in Stockholm, Sweden. Information about various exposures was obtained by parental questionnaires when the infants were 2 months old, and about allergic symptoms and feeding at 1 and 2 years of age. Duration of exclusive and partial breast feeding was assessed separately. Symptom related definitions of various allergic diseases were used. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in a multiple logistic regression model. Adjustments were made for potential confounders. Children exclusively breast fed during four months or more exhibited less asthma (7.7% v 12%, OR(adj) = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.8), less atopic dermatitis (24% v 27%, OR(adj) = 0.8, 95% CI 0.7 to 1.0), and less suspected allergic rhinitis (6.5% v 9%, OR(adj) = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.0) by 2 years of age. There was a significant risk reduction for asthma related to partial breast feeding during six months or more (OR(adj) = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9). Three or more of five possible allergic disorders-asthma, suspected allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, food allergy related symptoms, and suspected allergic respiratory symptoms after exposure to pets or pollen-were found in 6.5% of the children. Exclusive breast feeding prevented children from having multiple allergic disease (OR(adj) = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9) during the first two years of life. Exclusive breast feeding seems to have a preventive effect on the early development of allergic disease-that is, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and suspected allergic rhinitis, up to 2 years of age. This protective effect was also evident for multiple allergic disease.

  3. Studies on the feeding of cupric sulfate pentahydrate and cupric citrate to broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I

    1996-09-01

    Male commercial broiler strain chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with cupric sulfate pentahydrate or cupric citrate in seven experiments (six in floor pens, one in wire-floored batteries). In Experiment 1, feeding 125 or 250 mg/kg copper increased growth (4.9%) and decreased feed conversion ratios (3.4%), total plasma cholesterol (40.2%), and breast muscle cholesterol (37.0%). Feeding 375 mg/kg copper was without further beneficial effect. In Experiment 2, withdrawing growth promoting supplements of copper from the feed for the last 7 d caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in breast muscle cholesterol at 42 d of age: 57.2, 48.0, and 43.2 mg/100 g meat for birds supplemented for 0, 35, or 42 d, respectively. Feeding 10 vs 260 mg/kg copper caused only small increases in tissue copper levels: 0.36 vs 0.41 mg/kg for breast meat, and 0.48 vs 0.60 mg/kg for thigh meat, respectively. Litter copper accumulations in these experiments were similar to those of earlier reports. Breast muscle cholesterol was reduced by feeding 125 mg/kg supplemental copper from cupric citrate (27.84 mg/100 g) or 125 mg supplemental copper from cupric sulfate pentahydrate (25.32 mg/100 g) compared to broilers fed the control diet (43.92 mg/100 g). Cupric citrate was efficacious for growth promotion at lower copper levels than cupric sulfate pentahydrate, resulting in reduced litter copper.

  4. Duration of breast feeding and risk of developmental delay in Taiwanese children: a nationwide birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Wan-Chun; Liao, Hua-Fang; Chang, Pei-Jen; Chen, Pau-Chung; Chen, Yi Chun

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between duration of breast feeding and four developmental domains: gross motor, fine motor, language, and personal/social skills. This study included 14,621 infants from birth to 18 months of age. In the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study, four developmental screening items adapted from the Denver Development Screening Test were most appropriate for children aged 15 to 18 months. The proportion of young children who had mastered specific milestones increased consistently with longer duration of breast feeding. The adjusted odds ratios of the risk of developmental delay for the longest duration of breast feeding vs. never breast-fed were 0.69 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57, 0.83] for gross motor, 0.64 [95% CI 0.53, 0.77] for fine motor, 0.74 [95% CI 0.60, 0.91] for language, and 0.76 [95% CI 0.64, 0.90] for personal/social skills. Regardless of when the mothers returned to work, duration of breast feeding was found to have an inverse association with developmental delay in young children. The protection against developmental delays remained significant for those children who were breast-fed for more than 6 months. Children who were breast-fed for longer than 6 months had a lower risk of developmental delay than those who were never breast-fed. These data support the hypothesis that duration of breast feeding is positively related to young children's neurodevelopment. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. [A 104-week feeding study of genetically modified soybeans in F344 rats].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yoshimitsu; Tada, Yukie; Fukumori, Nobutaka; Tayama, Kuniaki; Ando, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Kubo, Yoshikazu; Nagasawa, Akemichi; Yano, Norio; Yuzawa, Katsuhiro; Ogata, Akio

    2008-08-01

    A chronic feeding study to evaluate the safety of genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (GM soybeans) was conducted using F344 DuCrj rats. The rats were fed diet containing GM soybeans or Non-GM soybeans at the concentration of 30% in basal diet. Non-GM soybeans were a closely related strain to the GM soybeans. These two diets were adjusted to an identical nutrient level. In this study, the influence of GM soybeans in rats was compared with that of the Non-GM soybeans, and furthermore, to assess the effect of soybeans themselves, the groups of rats fed GM and Non-GM soybeans were compared with a group fed commercial diet (CE-2). General conditions were observed daily and body weight and food consumption were recorded. At the termination (104 weeks), animals were subjected to hematology, serum biochemistry, and pathological examinations. There were several differences in animal growth, food intake, organ weights and histological findings between the rats fed the GM and/or Non-GM soybeans and the rats fed CE-2. However, body weight and food intake were similar for the rats fed the GM and Non-GM soybeans. Gross necropsy findings, hematological and serum biochemical parameters, and organ weights showed no meaningful difference between rats fed the GM and Non-GM soybeans. In pathological observation, there was neither an increase in incidence nor any specific type of nonneoplastic or neoplastic lesions in the GM soybeans group in each sex. These results indicate that long-term intake of GM soybeans at the level of 30% in diet has no apparent adverse effect in rats.

  6. Factors influencing mothers' decisions on whether to provide seafood during early years' feeding: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Carstairs, Sharon A; Craig, Leone C A; Marais, Debbi; Kiezebrink, Kirsty

    2017-01-01

    The first year of a child's life is a key period of transition from an exclusive milk diet to solid foods to meet growing nutritional demands. An increased requirement for nutrients includes the introduction of protein-rich solid foods, such as seafood, which additionally provides valuable omega-3 fatty acids. However, consumption of seafood is low in the British child population. The aim of this study was to identify maternal perceptions of the factors that can influence the decision on whether to provide seafood during early years' feeding using a multi-method qualitative study design. A total of 26 discussions posted by mothers on parenting websites; Mumknowsbest, Mumsnet and Netmums, accessed July 2013, together with discussions from six focus groups (February-July 2014) in the North East of Scotland were included for thematic qualitative analysis. Discussions on the inclusion of seafood during the early years were centred across four interrelating themes; - food-related attributes, mother-centred aspects, family-centred aspects, and external information sources. Concerns regarding safety and mothers' limited knowledge and skills on seafood were apparent from discussions; however, the practicalities of providing a cost effective family meal were also issues raised by mothers. An understanding of the numerous and sometimes contradictory influences on mothers' decisions to include seafood during early years' period could be used to develop strategies to help increase regular seafood consumption. In particular, ensuring formal information and guidance clearly addresses the safety concerns of mothers and the development of practical education schemes to encourage and teach cooking skills should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Breast feeding in infancy and arterial endothelial function later in life. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    PubMed

    Järvisalo, M J; Hutri-Kähönen, N; Juonala, M; Mikkilä, V; Räsänen, L; Lehtimäki, T; Viikari, J; Raitakari, O T

    2009-05-01

    Breast feeding in infancy may be associated with reduced cardiovascular morbidity in adulthood. We examined the association between breast feeding in infancy and arterial function and structure in adulthood in a population-based cohort of Finnish adults. Noninvasive ultrasound was used to measure brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and carotid artery compliance (CAC) in 1667 young adults participating in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study with data on early nutrition. Maximal FMD was higher in breast-fed men compared to formula-fed men (7.2+/-4.0 vs 5.9+/-3.4%, P=0.029) while no differences were seen between breast-fed and formula-fed women (8.9+/-4.5 vs 8.8+/-5.0%, P=0.84). In men, the multivariable correlates of FMD included the group variable for breast feeding (P=0.014), birth weight (P=0.043), waist circumference (P<0.001) and baseline brachial artery diameter (P<0.001). In women, the multivariable correlates of FMD were birth weight (P=0.02), waist circumference (P<0.001) and brachial artery baseline diameter (P<0.001). Breast feeding was not significantly associated with IMT or CAC in multivariable models. Adult men who have been breast fed have better brachial endothelial function compared to men who have been formula fed.

  8. Feeding behavior and dietary intake of male children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kamila; Faccioli, Larissa Slongo; Baronio, Diego; Gottfried, Carmem; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Riesgo, Rudimar

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with restrictive or repetitive behaviors and difficulties with verbal and interpersonal communication, in which some problems involving nutrition may be present. This study aims to evaluate dietary intake and identify feeding behavioral problems in male children and adolescents with ASD when compared to matched controls, as well as parents or caregivers' feelings about strategies for dealing with eating problems. A 3-day food record was performed and nutrient intake was compared to the Dietary Reference Intake according to age. To evaluate children feeding behavior and parents or caregivers' feelings, the Behavior Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFA) was used. ASD patients consumed in average more calories than controls (though with a high patient's frequency above and below calorie range references), had a limited food repertoire, high prevalence of children with inadequate calcium, sodium, iron vitamin B5, folate, and vitamin C intake. BPFA scores were also higher in the ASD group when compared to controls for all frequencies (child behavior, parents and total). These findings lead us to endorse the importance of evaluating feeding problems in the clinical routine, considering also the singular features of the patients.

  9. Voluntary feed intake and leptin sensitivity in ad libitum fed obese ponies following a period of restricted feeding: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Van Weyenberg, S; Buyse, J; Kalmar, I D; Swennen, Q; Janssens, G P J

    2013-08-01

    The relation between plasma leptin and daily ad libitum roughage intake was evaluated during a 14-day period in eight obese Shetland ponies. When the feeding strategy was changed from maintenance feeding to ad libitum feeding, feed intake increased the first day, decreased the second day and increased again during the following days to reach a constant level after 8 days. Plasma leptin concentration increased during the first 2 days, but remained constant afterwards. Although the same pattern was found in all ponies, the magnitude of the increase in leptin on day 1 and the resulting decrease in feed intake on day 2 differed between ponies. A lower anorectic effect was seen in ponies with higher initial leptin concentration, suggesting the presence of different degrees in leptin sensitivity in obese ponies. High leptin production in a attempt to compensate for the decrease in leptin sensitivity might explain large variations in plasma leptin among obese ponies with similar body condition score. Further research is necessary to clarify whether the reduced leptin sensitivity precedes obesity in equines or vice versa. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Do breast-feeding and other reproductive factors influence future risk of rheumatoid arthritis? Results from the Nurses' Health Study.

    PubMed

    Karlson, Elizabeth W; Mandl, Lisa A; Hankinson, Susan E; Grodstein, Francine

    2004-11-01

    To explore the contribution of female hormonal factors occurring prior to the onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), such as age at menarche, parity, age at first birth, breast-feeding, use of oral contraceptives (OCs), irregular menstrual cycles, and postmenopausal hormone (PMH) use, to the subsequent development of RA in a large female cohort. We studied female reproductive and hormonal risk factors for RA in a cohort of 121,700 women enrolled in the longitudinal Nurses' Health Study. The diagnosis of incident RA (between 1976 and 2002) in 674 women was confirmed by a connective tissue disease screening questionnaire and blinded medical record review for American College of Rheumatology criteria. Sixty percent of the patients with RA were rheumatoid factor positive. The relationship between potential risk factors, including age, age at menarche, parity, age at first birth, total lifetime history of breast-feeding, use of OCs, and irregular menstrual cycles and the multivariate-adjusted risk of RA was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Using a multivariate model that adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking, parity, and other hormonal factors, we observed a strong trend for decreasing risk of RA with increasing duration of breast-feeding (P for trend = 0.001). For women who breast-fed (compared with parous women who did not breast-feed), the risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were as follows: breast-feeding for < or =3 total months, RR 1.0 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.8-1.2); for 4-11 total months, RR 0.9 (95% CI 0.7-1.1); for 12-23 total months, RR 0.8 (95% CI 0.6-1.0); and for > or =24 total months, RR 0.5 (95% CI 0.3-0.8). Very irregular menstrual cycles were associated with an increased risk of RA (RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-2.0). Age at menarche < or =10 years was associated with an increased risk of seropositive RA (RR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4) but not significantly associated with risk of RA. Parity, total number of children

  11. Feeding styles, parenting styles and snacking behaviour in children attending primary schools in multiethnic neighbourhoods: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; van de Gaar, Vivian M; Jansen, Wilma; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; van Grieken, Amy; Raat, Hein

    2017-07-13

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding styles and parenting styles are associated with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour and whether the associations differ according to children's ethnic background. Cross-sectional data from the population-based 'Water Campaign' study were used. Parents (n=644) of primary school children (6-13 years) completed a questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics, feeding style dimensions ('control over eating', 'emotional feeding', 'encouragement to eat' and 'instrumental feeding'), parenting style dimensions ('involvement' and 'strictness') and children's unhealthy snacking behaviour. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine whether feeding styles and parenting styles were associated with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour. Overall, children whose parents had a higher extent of 'control over eating' had a lower odds of eating unhealthy snacks more than once per day (OR, 0.57; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.76). Further stratified analysis showed that 'control over eating' was associated with less unhealthy snacking behaviour only in children with a Dutch (OR, 0.37; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.68) or a Moroccan/Turkish (OR, 0.44; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.77) ethnic background. 'Encouragement to eat' was associated with a lower odds of eating unhealthy snacks every day in children with a Dutch ethnic background only (OR, 0.48; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.90). 'Instrumental feeding' was associated with a higher odds of eating unhealthy snacks more than once a day in children with a Moroccan/Turkish ethnic background only (OR, 1.43; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.04). Our results suggest that 'control over eating' may be associated with less unhealthy snack consumption in children. The associations of feeding styles and parenting styles with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour differed between children with different ethnic backgrounds. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  12. A feasibility study incorporating a pilot randomised controlled trial of oral feeding plus pre-treatment gastrostomy tube versus oral feeding plus as-needed nasogastric tube feeding in patients undergoing chemoradiation for head and neck cancer (TUBE trial): study protocol.

    PubMed

    Paleri, Vinidh; Wood, Joshua; Patterson, Joanne; Stocken, Deborah D; Cole, Mike; Vale, Luke; Franks, Jeremy; Guerrero-Urbano, Teresa; Donnelly, Rachael; Barclay, Stewart; Rapley, Tim; Rousseau, Nikki

    2016-01-01

    There are 7000 new cases of head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNSCC) treated by the NHS each year. Stage III and IV HNSCC can be treated non-surgically by radio therapy (RT) or chemoradiation therapy (CRT). CRT can affect eating and drinking through a range of side effects with 90 % of patients undergoing this treatment requiring nutritional support via gastrostomy (G) or nasogastric (NG) tube feeding. Long-term dysphagia following CRT is a primary concern for patients. The effect of enteral feeding routes on swallowing function is not well understood, and the two feeding methods have, to date, not been compared to assess which leads to a better patient outcome. The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing these two options with particular emphasis on patient willingness to be randomised and clinician willingness to approach eligible patients. This is a mixed methods multicentre study to establish the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial comparing oral feeding plus pre-treatment gastrostomy versus oral feeding plus as required nasogastric tube feeding in patients with HNSCC. A total of 60 participants will be randomised to the two arms of the study (1:1 ratio). The primary outcome of feasibility is a composite of recruitment (willingness to randomise and be randomised) and retention. A qualitative process evaluation investigating patient, family and friends and staff experiences of trial participation will also be conducted alongside an economic modelling exercise to synthesise available evidence and provide estimates of cost-effectiveness and value of information. Participants will be assessed at baseline (pre-randomisation), during CRT weekly, 3 months and 6 months. Clinicians are in equipoise over the enteral feeding options for patients being treated with CRT. Swallowing outcomes have been identified as a top priority for patients following treatment and this trial would inform

  13. Morphophysiological study of digestive system litter-feeding termite Cornitermes cumulans (Kollar, 1832).

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Géssica; Dos Santos, Vânia Cristina; de Figueiredo Gontijo, Nelder; Constantino, Reginaldo; de Oliveira Paiva E Silva, Gabriela; Bahia, Ana Cristina; Gomes, Fabio Mendonça; de Alcantara Machado, Ednildo

    2017-06-01

    Termites are the major decomposers of lignocellulosic biomass on Earth and are commonly considered as biological reactor models for lignocellulose degradation. Despite their biotechnological potential, few studies have focused on the morphophysiological aspects of the termite digestive system. We therefore analyze the morphology, ultrastructure and gut luminal pH of the digestive system in workers of the litter-feeding termite Cornitermes cumulans (Blattodea: Termitidae). Their digestive system is composed of salivary glands and an alimentary canal with a pH ranging from neutral to alkaline. The salivary glands have an acinar structure and present cells with secretory characteristics. The alimentary canal is differentiated into the foregut, midgut, mixed segment and hindgut, which comprises the ileum (p1), enteric valve (p2), paunch (p3), colon (p4) and rectum (p5) segments. The foregut has a well-developed chewing system. The midgut possesses a tubular peritrophic membrane and two cell types: digestive cells with secretory and absorptive features and several regenerative cells in mitosis, both cell types being organized into regenerative crypts. The mixed segment exhibits cells rich in glycogen granules. Hindgut p1, p4 and p5 segments have flattened cells with a few apical invaginations related to mitochondria and a thick cuticular lining. Conversely, the hindgut p3 segment contains large cuboid cells with extensive apical invaginations associated with numerous mitochondria. These new insights into the morphophysiology of the digestive system of C. cumulans reveal that it mobilizes lignocellulose components as a nutritional source by means of a highly compartmentalized organization with specialized segments and complex microenvironments.

  14. An interactive parents' guide for feeding preschool-aged children: pilot studies for improvement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are few motivational materials to help families with limited resources develop optimal, practical feeding strategies for young children to reduce dietary risk for poor diet and weight status. Formative evaluation strategies consisting of both qualitative and quantitative data helped to refine ...

  15. Study on feed forward neural network convex optimization for LiFePO4 battery parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuepeng; Zhao, Dongmei

    2017-08-01

    Based on the modern facility agriculture automatic walking equipment LiFePO4 Battery, the parameter identification of LiFePO4 Battery is analyzed. An improved method for the process model of li battery is proposed, and the on-line estimation algorithm is presented. The parameters of the battery are identified using feed forward network neural convex optimization algorithm.

  16. Establishment of an Artificial Tick Feeding System to Study Theileria lestoquardi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tajeri, Shahin; Razmi, Gholamreza; Haghparast, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of good experimental models for Theileria sp. infection is important for theileriosis research. Routinely, infection of ticks is accomplished by feeding on parasite-infected animals (sheep, cows and horses), which raises practical and ethical problems, driving the search for alternative methods of tick infection. Artificial tick feeding systems are based mainly on rearing ticks on host-derived or hand-made artificial membranes. We developed a modified feeding assay for infecting nymphal stages of Hyalomma anatolicum ticks with Theileria lestoquardi, a highly pathogenic parasite of sheep. We compared two different membranes: an artificial silicone membrane and a natural alternative using mouse skin. We observed high attachment rates with mouse skin, whereas in vitro feeding of H. anatolicum nymphs on silicone membranes was unsuccessful. We could infect H. anatolicum nymphs with T. lestoquardi and the emerging adult ticks transmitted infective parasites to sheep. In contrast, similar infections with Rhipicephalus bursa, a representative tick with short mouth-parts that was proposed as a vector for T. lestoquardi, appeared not to be a competent vector tick species. This is the first report of an experimentally controlled infection of H. anatolicum with T. lestoquardi and opens avenues to explore tick-parasite dynamics in detail. PMID:28036364

  17. Establishment of an Artificial Tick Feeding System to Study Theileria lestoquardi Infection.

    PubMed

    Tajeri, Shahin; Razmi, Gholamreza; Haghparast, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of good experimental models for Theileria sp. infection is important for theileriosis research. Routinely, infection of ticks is accomplished by feeding on parasite-infected animals (sheep, cows and horses), which raises practical and ethical problems, driving the search for alternative methods of tick infection. Artificial tick feeding systems are based mainly on rearing ticks on host-derived or hand-made artificial membranes. We developed a modified feeding assay for infecting nymphal stages of Hyalomma anatolicum ticks with Theileria lestoquardi, a highly pathogenic parasite of sheep. We compared two different membranes: an artificial silicone membrane and a natural alternative using mouse skin. We observed high attachment rates with mouse skin, whereas in vitro feeding of H. anatolicum nymphs on silicone membranes was unsuccessful. We could infect H. anatolicum nymphs with T. lestoquardi and the emerging adult ticks transmitted infective parasites to sheep. In contrast, similar infections with Rhipicephalus bursa, a representative tick with short mouth-parts that was proposed as a vector for T. lestoquardi, appeared not to be a competent vector tick species. This is the first report of an experimentally controlled infection of H. anatolicum with T. lestoquardi and opens avenues to explore tick-parasite dynamics in detail.

  18. Intimate partner violence and infant feeding practices in India: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zureick-Brown, Sarah; Lavilla, Kayla; Yount, Kathryn M

    2015-10-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is widespread; yet research is thin and equivocal regarding its potential adverse effects on infant feeding practices. With a national sample of 3552 mothers and infants aged 180 days or younger from the 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey for India, we used logistic regression to estimate the unadjusted and adjusted associations of maternal reported lifetime exposure to any IPV and to physical or sexual IPV with feeding practices at birth and in the prior 24 h. Compared with their unexposed counterparts, mothers exposed to any IPV and to any physical or sexual IPV had higher adjusted odds of giving their infant liquids [aOR 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.66; aOR 1.37, 95% CI 1.08-1.75, respectively], and thus lower adjusted odds of exclusively breastfeeding their infant in the prior 24 h (aOR 0.78, 95% CI 0.62-0.98; aOR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.95). Mothers exposed to physical or sexual IPV also had higher adjusted odds of feeding their infant solids in the prior 24 h (aOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.01-2.23). Exposure to IPV was not significantly associated with breastfeeding immediately after birth or with bottle feeding in the prior 24 h. Perinatal screening for IPV, and addressing IPV and feeding practices in exposed mothers, may improve maternal health and infant nutrition in similar settings. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Studies on the feeding of cupric sulfate pentahydrate, cupric citrate, and copper oxychloride to broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ewing, H P; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Menten, J F

    1998-03-01

    Male commercial broiler strain chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with cupric sulfate pentahydrate, copper oxychloride, or cupric citrate in two experiments conducted in floor pens. In Experiment 1, feeding copper at 125 mg/kg diet for 42 d significantly increased broiler growth; and the response from cupric citrate was significantly better than either cupric sulfate or copper oxychloride. In Experiment 2, the inclusion of copper from cupric citrate was reduced to 63 mg/kg and the length of the experiment was increased to 56 d. Cupric sulfate pentahydrate and copper oxychloride treatments increased weight gain by 4.9% and cupric citrate increased weight gain by 9.1%. The feed conversion ratios (grams of feed:grams of gain of live birds) in the birds fed copper were not significantly different from those fed the basal diet (P > 0.05) unless corrections were made for the weights of the dead birds; the adjusted feed conversion ratios (grams of feed:grams of gain of live birds + grams of gain of mortalities) for the copper-treated birds in Experiments 1 and 2 were 5.2 and 7.6% lower, respectively, than the ratios of birds fed the basal diets. Plasma copper levels increased in supplemented chicks by 35% in Experiment 1 and 24% in Experiment 2. Liver copper levels in both experiments were increased by 26% with copper supplementation. Mortality was not affected by dietary treatment in either experiment (P > 0.05).

  20. Text messaging data collection for monitoring an infant feeding intervention program in rural China: feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Wang, Wei; van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Chen, Li; Car, Josip; Rudan, Igor; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wu, Qiong; Du, Xiaozhen; Scherpbier, Robert W

    2013-12-04

    An effective data collection method is crucial for high quality monitoring of health interventions. The traditional face-to-face data collection method is labor intensive, expensive, and time consuming. With the rapid increase of mobile phone subscribers, text messaging has the potential to be used for evaluation of population health interventions in rural China. The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using text messaging as a data collection tool to monitor an infant feeding intervention program. Participants were caregivers of children aged 0 to 23 months in rural China who participated in an infant feeding health education program. We used the test-retest method. First, we collected data with a text messaging survey and then with a face-to-face survey for 2 periods of 3 days. We compared the response rate, data agreement, costs, and participants' acceptability of the two methods. Also, we interviewed participants to explore their reasons for not responding to the text messages and the reasons for disagreement in the two methods. In addition, we evaluated the most appropriate time during the day for sending text messages. We included 258 participants; 99 (38.4%) participated in the text messaging survey and 177 (68.6%) in the face-to-face survey. Compared with the face-to-face survey, the text messaging survey had much lower response rates to at least one question (38.4% vs 68.6%) and to all 7 questions (27.9% vs 67.4%) with moderate data agreement (most kappa values between .5 and .75, the intraclass correlation coefficients between .53 to .72). Participants who took part in both surveys gave the same acceptability rating for both methods (median 4.0 for both on a 5-point scale, 1=disliked very much and 5=liked very much). The costs per questionnaire for the text messaging method were much lower than the costs for the face-to-face method: ¥19.7 (US $3.13) versus ¥33.9 (US $5.39) for all questionnaires, and ¥27.1 (US $4.31) versus ¥34

  1. Text Messaging Data Collection for Monitoring an Infant Feeding Intervention Program in Rural China: Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Chen, Li; Car, Josip; Rudan, Igor; Wu, Qiong; Du, Xiaozhen; Scherpbier, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Background An effective data collection method is crucial for high quality monitoring of health interventions. The traditional face-to-face data collection method is labor intensive, expensive, and time consuming. With the rapid increase of mobile phone subscribers, text messaging has the potential to be used for evaluation of population health interventions in rural China. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using text messaging as a data collection tool to monitor an infant feeding intervention program. Methods Participants were caregivers of children aged 0 to 23 months in rural China who participated in an infant feeding health education program. We used the test-retest method. First, we collected data with a text messaging survey and then with a face-to-face survey for 2 periods of 3 days. We compared the response rate, data agreement, costs, and participants’ acceptability of the two methods. Also, we interviewed participants to explore their reasons for not responding to the text messages and the reasons for disagreement in the two methods. In addition, we evaluated the most appropriate time during the day for sending text messages. Results We included 258 participants; 99 (38.4%) participated in the text messaging survey and 177 (68.6%) in the face-to-face survey. Compared with the face-to-face survey, the text messaging survey had much lower response rates to at least one question (38.4% vs 68.6%) and to all 7 questions (27.9% vs 67.4%) with moderate data agreement (most kappa values between .5 and .75, the intraclass correlation coefficients between .53 to .72). Participants who took part in both surveys gave the same acceptability rating for both methods (median 4.0 for both on a 5-point scale, 1=disliked very much and 5=liked very much). The costs per questionnaire for the text messaging method were much lower than the costs for the face-to-face method: ¥19.7 (US $3.13) versus ¥33.9 (US $5.39) for all

  2. Type of milk feeding in infancy and health behaviours in adult life: findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Siân; Ntani, Georgia; Simmonds, Shirley; Syddall, Holly; Dennison, Elaine; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Barker, David; Cooper, Cyrus

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies suggest that breastfeeding has beneficial effects on adult cardiovascular risk factors in adulthood, although the mechanisms involved are unknown. One possible explanation is that adults who were breastfed differ in their health behaviours. In a historical cohort, adult health behaviours were examined in relation to type of milk feeding in infancy. From 1931-1939, records were kept on all infants born in Hertfordshire, UK. Their type of milk feeding was summarised as breastfed only, breast & bottle-fed, or bottle-fed only. Information about adult health behaviours was collected from 3217 of these men and women when they were aged 59-73 years. Diet was assessed by administered food frequency questionnaire; the key dietary pattern was a ‘prudent’ pattern, that described compliance with ‘healthy’ eating recommendations. 60% of the men and women were breastfed, 31% were breast & bottle-fed, 9% were bottle-fed. Type of milk feeding did not differ according to social class at birth, and was not related to social class attained in adult life. There were no differences in smoking status, alcohol intake or reported physical activity according to type of milk feeding, but there were differences in the participants’ dietary patterns. In a multivariate model that included gender and infant weight gain, there were independent associations between type of feeding and prudent diet scores in adult life (P=0.009), such that higher scores were associated with being breast fed. These data support experimental findings that suggest that early dietary exposures can have lifelong influences on food choice. PMID:23021469

  3. Non-nutritive sucking evaluation in preterm newborns and the start of oral feeding: a multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Neiva, Flávia C. B.; Leone, Cléa R.; Leone, Claudio; Siqueira, Lisiane L.; Uema, Kátia Akiko; Evangelista, Daiana; Delgado, Susana; Rocha, Adriana; Buhler, Karina Bernardis

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The assessment of early sucking by preterm infants provides information on the ability of these infants to efficiently and safely receive nutrients via an oral route (oral feeding). To analyze the application and reliability of an instrument in assessing non-nutritive sucking that indicates a capacity for oral feeding in the routine care of different neonatal units. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective cohort study was conducted in seven neonatal units. A non-nutritive sucking assessment with a formulary validated by Neiva et al (2008) (variables evaluated: rooting reaction; easy initiation of sucking; labial sealing; tongue central groove; peristaltic tongue movements; jaw raising and lowering movements; labial, tongue and jaw coordination; sucking strength; sucking rhythm; bites; excessive jaw excursion; stress signals) was applied to 199 pre-term newborns, who had a chronological age ≥ 2 days and were clinically stable. These infants were divided into two groups based on their corrected gestational age at the first assessment, as follows: Group I-infants with a gestational age ≤ 33 weeks and Group II-infants with a gestational age between 34 and 36 6/7 weeks. RESULTS: The mean gestational age was 31.66±2 weeks, and the mean birth weight was 1494 ± 373 g. The mean scores on the non-nutritive sucking assessment were 46 ± 25 in Group I and 49 ± 24 in Group II. The beginning of oral feeding was successful in 43 (67.2%) infants in Group I and 64 (81%) infants in Group II (p = 0.089). CONCLUSION: The method identified preterm infants who were able to feed orally based on 33 points in the non-nutritive sucking assessment and a corrected gestational age of 32 weeks or more. The corrected gestational age was the most important factor in predicting the success of oral feeding. PMID:24964303

  4. Infantile Anorexia and Co-parenting: A Pilot Study on Mother-Father-Child Triadic Interactions during Feeding and Play.

    PubMed

    Lucarelli, Loredana; Ammaniti, Massimo; Porreca, Alessio; Simonelli, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Infantile Anorexia (IA), defined by the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood Revised (DC: 0-3R, Zero To Three, 2005), occurs when the child (a) refuses to eat adequate amounts of food for at least 1 month, and shows growth deficiency, (b) does not communicate hunger and lacks interest in food, and (c) the child's food refusal does not follow a traumatic event and is not due to an underlying medical illness. IA usually emerges during the transition to self-feeding, when the child issues of autonomy are played out daily in the feeding situation. Studies evidence that the feeding interactions between children with IA and their mothers are characterized by low reciprocity, greater interactional conflict and negative affects (Chatoor et al., 2000; Ammaniti et al., 2010, 2012). Moreover, these studies pointed out that maternal depression and eating disorders are frequently associated with IA (Cooper et al., 2004; Ammaniti et al., 2010; Lucarelli et al., 2013). To date, research has focused almost exclusively on the mother-child dyad, while fathers' involvement, co-parental and family interactions are poorly studied. The current study is a pilot research that investigated mother-father-child triadic interactions, during feeding and play, in families with children diagnosed with IA, in comparison to families with normally developing children. Until now, at the study participated N = 10 families (five with a child with IA diagnosis and five with lack of child's IA diagnosis, matched for child's age and gender). The parents-child triadic interactions were assessed in feeding and play contexts using the Lausanne Trilogue Play (Fivaz-Depeursinge and Corboz-Warnery, 1999), adapted to observe father-mother-infant primary triangle in the feeding context, compared to the play context (Lucarelli et al., 2012). Families of the IA-group showed difficulties in expressing and sharing pleasure and positive affects, and in

  5. Infantile Anorexia and Co-parenting: A Pilot Study on Mother–Father–Child Triadic Interactions during Feeding and Play

    PubMed Central

    Lucarelli, Loredana; Ammaniti, Massimo; Porreca, Alessio; Simonelli, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Infantile Anorexia (IA), defined by the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood Revised (DC: 0-3R, Zero To Three, 2005), occurs when the child (a) refuses to eat adequate amounts of food for at least 1 month, and shows growth deficiency, (b) does not communicate hunger and lacks interest in food, and (c) the child’s food refusal does not follow a traumatic event and is not due to an underlying medical illness. IA usually emerges during the transition to self-feeding, when the child issues of autonomy are played out daily in the feeding situation. Studies evidence that the feeding interactions between children with IA and their mothers are characterized by low reciprocity, greater interactional conflict and negative affects (Chatoor et al., 2000; Ammaniti et al., 2010, 2012). Moreover, these studies pointed out that maternal depression and eating disorders are frequently associated with IA (Cooper et al., 2004; Ammaniti et al., 2010; Lucarelli et al., 2013). To date, research has focused almost exclusively on the mother–child dyad, while fathers’ involvement, co-parental and family interactions are poorly studied. The current study is a pilot research that investigated mother–father–child triadic interactions, during feeding and play, in families with children diagnosed with IA, in comparison to families with normally developing children. Until now, at the study participated N = 10 families (five with a child with IA diagnosis and five with lack of child’s IA diagnosis, matched for child’s age and gender). The parents–child triadic interactions were assessed in feeding and play contexts using the Lausanne Trilogue Play (Fivaz-Depeursinge and Corboz-Warnery, 1999), adapted to observe father-mother-infant primary triangle in the feeding context, compared to the play context (Lucarelli et al., 2012). Families of the IA-group showed difficulties in expressing and sharing pleasure and positive

  6. Enteral feedings.

    PubMed

    Chernoff, R

    1980-01-01

    The benefits, equipment used, commercially available sources, and the indications and techniques for administration of enteral nutrients are reviewed. In many malabsorption states, enteral feeding is preferable and parenteral nutrients are seldom indicated. Transitional enteral nutrient support usually is indicated after parenteral nutrient therapy. Enteral tube-feeding formulas should be matched to the patient's needs; formulas using blenderized natural foods or intact isolated nutrients are appropriate for patients with intact gastrointestinal tracts. Patients should be monitored for glucosuria and hyperglycemia, bloating, nausea, dehydration, and renal, hepatic and hematologic status. Formula dilution, and a reduced flow rate or use of continuous-drip feeding, will reduce the incidence of osmotic diarrhea. The effectiveness, low cost and low potential for serious complications make enteral feeding preferable to parenteral nutrient therapy for many patients.

  7. Associations of breast-feeding patterns and introduction of solid foods with childhood bone mass: The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    van den Hooven, Edith H; Gharsalli, Mounira; Heppe, Denise H M; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2016-03-28

    Breast-feeding has been associated with later bone health, but results from previous studies are inconsistent. We examined the associations of breast-feeding patterns and timing of introduction of solids with bone mass at the age of 6 years in a prospective cohort study among 4919 children. We collected information about duration and exclusiveness of breast-feeding and timing of introduction of any solids with postnatal questionnaires. A total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was performed at 6 years of age, and bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), area-adjusted BMC (aBMC) and bone area (BA) were analysed. Compared with children who were ever breast-fed, those never breast-fed had lower BMD (-4·62 mg/cm2; 95 % CI -8·28, -0·97), BMC (-8·08 g; 95 % CI -12·45, -3·71) and BA (-7·03 cm2; 95 % CI -12·55, -1·52) at 6 years of age. Among all breast-fed children, those who were breast-fed non-exclusively in the first 4 months had higher BMD (2·91 mg/cm2; 95 % CI 0·41, 5·41) and aBMC (3·97 g; 95 % CI 1·30, 6·64) and lower BA (-4·45 cm2; 95 % CI -8·28, -0·61) compared with children breast-fed exclusively for at least 4 months. Compared with introduction of solids between 4 and 5 months, introduction <4 months was associated with higher BMD and aBMC, whereas introduction between 5 and 6 months was associated with lower aBMC and higher BA. Additional adjustment for infant vitamin D supplementation did not change the results. In conclusion, results from the present study suggest that ever breast-feeding compared with never breast-feeding is associated with higher bone mass in 6-year-old children, but exclusive breast-feeding for 4 months or longer was not positively associated with bone outcomes.

  8. Breast-feeding in relation to weight retention up to 36 months postpartum in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study: modification by socio-economic status?

    PubMed

    Brandhagen, Martin; Lissner, Lauren; Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Häggkvist, Anna-Pia; Haugen, Margaretha; Winkvist, Anna

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the association between full breast-feeding up to 6 months as well as partial breast-feeding after 6 months and maternal weight retention at 6, 18 and 36 months after delivery in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Cohort study. Information on exposure and outcome was collected by questionnaire. Norway. Women at 6 months (n 49 676), 18 months (n 27 187) and 36 months (n 17 343) postpartum. Longer duration of full breast-feeding as well as partial breast-feeding was significantly related to lower weight retention at 6 months. At 18 months full breast-feeding (0-6 months) and partial breast-feeding for 12-18 months were significantly related to lower weight retention. At 36 months only full breast-feeding (0-6 months) was significantly related to lower weight retention. For each additional month of full breast-feeding, maternal weight was lowered by 0·50 kg/month at 6 months, 0·10 kg/month at 18 months and 0·14 kg/month at 36 months (adjusted for pre-pregnant BMI, pregnancy weight gain, age and parity). Partial breast-feeding resulted in 0·25 kg/month lower maternal weight at 6 months. Interactions were found between household income and full breast-feeding in relation to weight retention at 6, 18 and 36 months, indicating most benefit among women with low income. The present study supports the hypothesis that full breast-feeding contributes to lower postpartum weight retention and shows that the effect is maintained for as long as 3 years postpartum.

  9. Preverbal Infants Anticipate that Food Will Be Brought to the Mouth: An Eye Tracking Study of Manual Feeding and Flying Spoons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochukhova, Olga; Gredeback, Gustaf

    2010-01-01

    This study relies on eye tracking technology to investigate how humans perceive others' feeding actions. Results demonstrate that 6-month-olds (n = 54) anticipate that food is brought to the mouth when observing an adult feeding herself with a spoon. Still, they fail to anticipate self-propelled (SP) spoons that move toward the mouth and manual…

  10. Preverbal Infants Anticipate that Food Will Be Brought to the Mouth: An Eye Tracking Study of Manual Feeding and Flying Spoons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochukhova, Olga; Gredeback, Gustaf

    2010-01-01

    This study relies on eye tracking technology to investigate how humans perceive others' feeding actions. Results demonstrate that 6-month-olds (n = 54) anticipate that food is brought to the mouth when observing an adult feeding herself with a spoon. Still, they fail to anticipate self-propelled (SP) spoons that move toward the mouth and manual…

  11. QTLs associated with dry matter intake, metabolic mid-test weight, growth and feed efficiency have little overlap across 4 beef cattle studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The identification of genetic markers associated with complex traits that are expensive to record such as feed intake or feed efficiency would allow these traits to be included in selection programs. To identify large-effect QTL, we performed a series of genome-wide association studies a...

  12. Locomotion and feeding postures of spider and howling monkeys: field study and evolutionary interpretation.

    PubMed

    Cant, J G

    1986-01-01

    Field observations demonstrate clear differences in locomotion and feeding postures between spider monkeys (Ateles) and howling monkeys (Alouatta). When feeding, Ateles employs sitting postures approximately half the time, and a variety of suspensory postures using the tail the other half. Ateles moves quadrupedally during 52% of locomotion, by tail-arm suspension 25%, and various mixed support-suspensory modes the remainder. Tail-arm suspension is practiced more rapidly on thinner supports, and on more negatively inclined supports than is quadrupedal movement. Howlers do not locomote by tail-arm suspension: movement is almost entirely quadrupedal and is slower than that of spider monkeys. The positional behavior of spider monkeys fits closely recent views of major adaptive changes in hominoid evolution emphasizing brachiation and speed during travel. Howler locomotion and also tissue composition appear related to diet and digestive mechanisms.

  13. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast-feed more than one baby? Here's help breast-feeding twins or other multiples, from getting positioned and ensuring an adequate milk supply to combining breast-feeding and formula-feeding. By Mayo Clinic Staff If ...

  14. Significant others, situations and infant feeding behaviour change processes: a serial qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding until six months followed by the introduction of solids and continued breastfeeding is recommended by the World Health Organisation. The dominant approach to achieving this has been to educate and support women to start and continue breastfeeding rather than understanding behaviour change processes from a broader perspective. Method Serial qualitative interviews examined the influences of significant others on women’s feeding behaviour. Thirty-six women and 37 nominated significant others participated in 220 interviews, conducted approximately four weekly from late pregnancy to six months after birth. Responses to summative structured questions at the end of each interview asking about significant influences on feeding decisions were compared and contrasted with formative semi-structured data within and between cases. Analysis focused on pivotal points where behaviour changed from exclusive breastfeeding to introducing formula, stopping breastfeeding or introducing solids. This enabled us to identify processes that decelerate or accelerate behaviour change and understand resolution processes afterwards. Results The dominant goal motivating behaviour change was family wellbeing, rather than exclusive breastfeeding. Rather than one type of significant other emerging as the key influence, there was a complex interplay between the self-baby dyad, significant others, situations and personal or vicarious feeding history. Following behaviour change women turned to those most likely to confirm or resolve their decisions and maintain their confidence as mothers. Conclusions Applying ecological models of behaviour would enable health service organisation, practice, policy and research to focus on enhancing family efficacy and wellbeing, improving family-centred communication and increasing opportunities for health professionals to be a constructive influence around pivotal points when feeding behaviour changes. A paradigm shift is

  15. First longitudinal study of seal-feeding killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Norwegian coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, Eve; Vongraven, Dag; Bisther, Anna; Karoliussen, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Killer whales (Orcinus orca) have been documented preying on either fish or marine mammals in several regions, suggesting that this odontocete species has the ability to specialize on different types of prey. Off Norway, killer whales have been shown to rely on the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) as a main prey resource. Infrequent observations have revealed seals as an additional component of their diet, yet the extent of predation on marine mammals has remained largely unknown. Here, we present the findings of 29 years of photographic and observational data on seal-feeding killer whale groups identified in Norwegian coastal waters. Four groups have been observed preying and feeding on seals over several years, taking both harbor (Phoca vitulina) and grey (Halichoerus grypus) seals. These stable groups are shown to adopt small group sizes, were typically observed in near-shore areas and were not encountered on herring wintering grounds. Behavioral and social traits adopted by these groups are similar to those of pinniped-feeding killer whales from other regions. The potential ecological reasons and the extent of such prey specializations are discussed.

  16. First longitudinal study of seal-feeding killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Norwegian coastal waters

    PubMed Central

    Bisther, Anna; Karoliussen, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Killer whales (Orcinus orca) have been documented preying on either fish or marine mammals in several regions, suggesting that this odontocete species has the ability to specialize on different types of prey. Off Norway, killer whales have been shown to rely on the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) as a main prey resource. Infrequent observations have revealed seals as an additional component of their diet, yet the extent of predation on marine mammals has remained largely unknown. Here, we present the findings of 29 years of photographic and observational data on seal-feeding killer whale groups identified in Norwegian coastal waters. Four groups have been observed preying and feeding on seals over several years, taking both harbor (Phoca vitulina) and grey (Halichoerus grypus) seals. These stable groups are shown to adopt small group sizes, were typically observed in near-shore areas and were not encountered on herring wintering grounds. Behavioral and social traits adopted by these groups are similar to those of pinniped-feeding killer whales from other regions. The potential ecological reasons and the extent of such prey specializations are discussed. PMID:28666015

  17. Determination of starch, including maltooligosaccharides, in animal feeds: comparison of methods and a method recommended for AOAC collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mary B

    2009-01-01

    Starch is a nutritionally important carbohydrate in feeds that is increasingly measured and used for formulation of animal diets. Discontinued production of the enzyme Rhozyme-S required for AOAC Method 920.40 invalidated this method for starch in animal feeds. The objective of this study was to compare methods for the determination of starch as potential candidates as a replacement method and for an AOAC collaborative study. Many starch methods are available, but they vary in accuracy, replicability, and ease of use. After assays were evaluated that differed in gelatinization method, number of reagents, and sample handling, and after assays with known methodological defects were excluded, 3 enzymatic-colorimetric assays were selected for comparison. The assays all used 2-stage, heat-stable, a-amylase and amyloglucosidase hydrolyses, but they differed in the gelatinization solution (heating in water, 3-(N-morpholino) propanesulfonic acid buffer, or acetate buffer). The measured values included both starch and maltooligosaccharides. The acetate buffer-only method was performed in sealable vessels with dilution by weight; it gave greater starch values (2-6 percentage units of sample dry matter) in the analysis of feed/food substrates than did the other methods. This method is a viable candidate for a collaborative study.

  18. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (<2.5 cm) offered at a ratio of 7:3 as a mixture (MIX), or as separate components (COM). Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration

  19. Roles of intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles in feeding: electromyographic study in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kayalioglu, Mustafa; Shcherbatyy, Volodymyr; Seifi, Amir; Liu, Zi-Jun

    2007-08-01

    The performance of tongue muscles in various feeding behaviours is not well defined. This study was undertaken to examine the role of the intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles during natural drinking, food ingestion and chewing. Ten 12-week-old Yucatan miniature pigs (5 in each gender) were used. Under anesthesia, fine-wire electrodes were inserted into three intrinsic (verticalis and transversus [V/T]; superior and inferior longitudinalis [SL and IL]) and two extrinsic (genioglossus [GG] and styloglossus [SG]) tongue muscles and two jaw muscles (masseter [MA] and anterior digastricus [DI]). Electromyogram (EMG) and jaw movement were recorded and synchronized when pigs were drinking water, ingesting and chewing food freely. Chewing frequency (CF), onset of activation, burst duration and integrated activity (IEMG) were assessed quantitatively, and EMG activities during drinking and ingestion were examined qualitatively. Results indicate that during chewing, the V/T and GG had one phase of activity starting at early jaw opening, and the V/T activity lasted through late of jaw closing. The SL, IL and SG had double phases with the first starting at jaw opening and the second at late jaw closing phases. The three intrinsic tongue muscles and the SG were active during 35-48% of the chewing cycle. IEMG values of the SL, IL and SG of both sides were significantly greater compared to the other muscles (p<0.05-0.01). Both the SL and the IL showed significantly higher activities in the contralateral than ipsilateral sides (p<0.05). The timing sequences of both extrinsic and intrinsic muscles were similar between ingestion and chewing, but amplitudes of the GG and IL were greatly enhanced and those of the MA and SL were reduced during ingestion. The simultaneous activation of the MA, GG and V/T were seen during drinking, along with major activity in the GG and V/T. These results suggested that the majority of activity in the intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles occurred

  20. Prospective study of breast-feeding in relation to wheeze, atopy, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).

    PubMed

    Elliott, Leslie; Henderson, John; Northstone, Kate; Chiu, Grace Y; Dunson, David; London, Stephanie J

    2008-07-01

    Breast-feeding clearly protects against early wheezing, but recent data suggest that it might increase later risk of atopic disease and asthma. We sought to examine the relationship between breast-feeding and later asthma and allergy outcomes by using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large birth cohort in the United Kingdom. We used adjusted logistic regression models to evaluate the association between breast-feeding and atopy at age 7 years, bronchial responsiveness to methacholine at age 8 years, and wheeze at ages 3 and 7 1/2 years. Bayesian methods were used to assess the possibility of bias caused by an influence of early wheezing on the duration of breast-feeding, as well as selection bias. Breast-feeding was protective for wheeze in the first 3 years of life (odds ratio [OR] of 0.80 [95% CI, 0.70-0.90] for > or = 6 months relative to never) but not wheeze (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.79-1.22), atopy (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.92-1.35), or bronchial hyperresponsiveness (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.82-1.40) at ages 7 to 8 years. Bayesian models adjusting for the longer duration of breast-feeding among children with wheezing in early infancy produced virtually identical results. We did not find consistent evidence for either a deleterious effect or a protective effect of breast-feeding on later risk of allergic disease in a large prospective birth cohort of children with objective outcome measures and extensive data on potential confounders and effect modifiers. Neither reverse causation nor loss to follow-up appears to have materially biased our results.

  1. Expectant fathers' and mothers' perceptions of breastfeeding and formula feeding: a focus group study in three US cities.

    PubMed

    Avery, Alexis B; Magnus, Jeanette H

    2011-05-01

    The objective of the current study was to better understand how pregnant women and male partners conceptualize infant feeding and support for breastfeeding. Information was collected through 18 focus group interviews in 3 major US cities. There were 121 focus group participants of varying professions and income levels. Half were African American and half were Caucasian. Pregnant women and male partners had favorable attitudes toward breastfeeding, but did not articulate specific benefits to mothers or infants. Men expressed empathy for their partners' pregnancies and deferred to their partners' feeding decisions. Both groups disapproved of breastfeeding in public. Women voiced concerns about father-infant bonding more than men did. Both groups emphasized fathers' support of the infant, but not of the mother. Educators and practitioners may wish to consider expectant couples' perceptions of breastfeeding in public, knowledge of breastfeeding laws, and expectations of father-mother and father-infant relationships in their approach to breastfeeding promotion among expectant couples.

  2. Residual feed intake studies in Angus-sired cattle reveal a potential role for hypothalamic gene expression in regulating feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Perkins, S D; Key, C N; Garrett, C F; Foradori, C D; Bratcher, C L; Kriese-Anderson, L A; Brandebourg, T D

    2014-02-01

    Mechanisms underlying variation in residual feed intake (RFI), a heritable feed efficiency measure, are poorly understood while the relationship between RFI and meat quality is uncertain. To address these issues, 2 divergent cohorts consisting of High (HRFI) and Low (LRFI) RFI individuals were created by assessing RFI in 48 Angus-sired steers during a 70 d feeding trial to identify steers with divergent RFI. The association of RFI with indices of meat quality and expression of genes within hypothalamic and adipose tissue was then determined in LRFI and HRFI steers. While on test, feed intake was recorded daily with BW and hip heights recorded at 14 d intervals. Ultrasound measurements of rib eye area (REA) and backfat (BF) were recorded initially and before harvest. Carcass and growth data were analyzed using a mixed model with RFI level (LRFI, HRFI) as the independent variable. The least-square means (lsmeans) for RFI were -1.25 and 1.51 for the LRFI and HRFI cohorts (P < .0001). Dry matter intake was higher for the HRFI individuals versus the LRFI steers (P < .0001) while on test BW gain was not different between the 2 groups (P < 0.73). There were no differences detected in marbling score (P < 0.93), BF (P < 0.61), REA (P < 0.15), yield grade (P < 0.85) or objective Hunter color measures between LRFI and HRFI steers indicating that there was no relationship between RFI and meat quality. Neuropeptide-Y (NPY), relaxin-3 (RLN3), melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), and GnRH mRNA expression was 64%, 59%, 58%, 86% lower (P < 0.05), respectively, while gonadotropin inhibiting hormone (GnIH) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expression was 198% and 350% higher (P < 0.01) in the arcuate nucleus of LRFI steers. Expression of agouti-related protein (AGRP), relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1), and melanocortin 3 receptor mRNA was similar between LRFI and HRFI animals. Pituitary expression of FSHβ (P < 0.03) and LHβ (P < 0.01) was correlated to

  3. [A study on feeding ecology and migration patterns of Dosidicus gigas off Peru using stable isotope analysis].

    PubMed

    Gong, Yi; Chen, Xin-jun; Li, Yun-kai; Han, Meng-jie

    2015-09-01

    As a pelagic cephalopod and one of the main target species of Chinese distant water fishery, jumbo squids (Dosidicus gigas) play a major role in the marine ecosystems of the eastern Pacific. Understanding the feeding ecology and migration patterns of jumbo squids is of importance for better utilizing the resources. The isotopic signatures of gladius, have been proved to be a powerful tool to reveal high resolution and ontogenic variations in individual foraging strategies of squids; which is an archival tissue with no elemental turnover after formation. In this study, the growth equation of gladius proostracum was established based on the age information determined by statolith. Gladius was cut successionally by the growth curve of gladius proostracum, the stable isotopic values of the gladius profiles were determined, and the feeding ecology and migration patterns of jumbo squids during its growth process were investigated. Results showed that the jumbo squids began to migrate after 180 days of postnatal, and their trophic levels tended to decrease throughout the life span. These results demonstrated the feasibility of using continuous sampling hard tissue to study the feeding ecology and habitat transfer of jumbo squids.

  4. Preliminary study of acceleration based sensor to record nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) feeding behavior at water surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subakti, Aji; Khotimah, Zarah F.; Darozat, Fajar M.

    2017-01-01

    In this preliminary study, the acceleration based sensor was developed to monitor the activity of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) feeding behavior at the water surface. This study was conducted for three weeks in a fish pond with 40 m2 in size, stocked with 850 fingerlings of Nile tilapia strain Nirwana-2 (average biomass of 13 g, fed four times a day at 8 am, 12 pm, 4 pm, and 8 pm). The acceleration sensor system was installed floating in the pond and was designed in a way so that the xz plane of the sensor will be parallel with water surface, while the y-axis will be pointing downward. By sensing the acceleration caused by the surface wave, the activities of fish near surface water could be monitored. The result showed that there were three distinctive patterns could be observed which was related to the feeding activity of fish. Generally, it can be concluded that this acceleration based sensor system can be integrated with automatic feeder machine, in particular by analyzing the recorded patter, it is possible to monitor when the fish stop eating, and so the right amount of feed could be given to the fish.

  5. Does Child Temperament Modify the Overweight Risk Associated with Parent Feeding Behaviors and Child Eating Behaviors?: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Allan D.; Trofholz, Amanda; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Berge, Jerica M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Child temperament is a measure of an individual's behavioral tendencies. The primary objective of this study was to examine whether child temperament modified the overweight risk associated with parent feeding behaviors and child eating behaviors. Methods A sample of predominantly African American, Midwest families (N=120) recruited from four metropolitan primary care clinics participated in this cross-sectional, mixed methods study. Parents reported on feeding practices, child eating behaviors, and child temperament. Results Difficult temperament was not statistically related to parent feeding practices or child eating behaviors (p>0.05). Tests of interaction indicated that the risk of child overweight differed by difficult temperament and easy temperament for two child eating behaviors (emotional eating and food fussiness, p<0.05). For example, the effect of food fussiness decreased the risk of overweight for difficult temperament children but increased overweight risk for easy temperament children. Further, the effect of emotional eating increased the risk of overweight for difficult temperament children but decreased overweight risk for easy temperament children. Conclusions Tailoring parent-level interventions to child temperament or promoting environments that trigger less reactive individual responses may be effective in lowering risk of child overweight. PMID:26916725

  6. Does child temperament modify the overweight risk associated with parent feeding behaviors and child eating behaviors?: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Tate, Allan D; Trofholz, Amanda; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Berge, Jerica M

    2016-06-01

    Child temperament is a measure of an individual's behavioral tendencies. The primary objective of this study was to examine whether child temperament modified the overweight risk associated with parent feeding behaviors and child eating behaviors. A sample of predominantly African American, Midwest families (N = 120) recruited from four metropolitan primary care clinics participated in this cross-sectional, mixed methods study. Parents reported on feeding practices, child eating behaviors, and child temperament. Difficult temperament was not statistically related to parent feeding practices or child eating behaviors (p > 0.05). Tests of interaction indicated that the risk of child overweight differed by difficult temperament and easy temperament for two child eating behaviors (emotional eating and food fussiness, p < 0.05). For example, the effect of food fussiness decreased the risk of overweight for difficult temperament children but increased overweight risk for easy temperament children. Further, the effect of emotional eating increased the risk of overweight for difficult temperament children but decreased overweight risk for easy temperament children. Tailoring parent-level interventions to child temperament or promoting environments that trigger less reactive individual responses may be effective in lowering risk of child overweight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Feeding regulation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pool, Allan-Hermann; Scott, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Neuromodulators play a key role in adjusting animal behavior based on environmental cues and internal needs. Here, we review the regulation of Drosophila feeding behavior to illustrate how neuromodulators achieve behavioral plasticity. Recent studies have made rapid progress in determining molecular and cellular mechanisms that translate the metabolic needs of the fly into changes in neuroendocrine and neuromodulatory states. These neuromodulators in turn promote or inhibit discrete feeding behavioral subprograms. This review highlights the links between physiological needs, neuromodulatory states, and feeding decisions. PMID:24937262

  8. Feeding rate as valuable information in primate feeding ecology.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Naofumi

    2009-04-01

    In this review I outline studies on wild non-human primates using information on feeding rate, which is defined as the food intake per minute on a dry-weight basis; further, I summarize the significance of feeding rate in primate feeding ecology. The optimal foraging theory has addressed three aspects of animal feeding: (1) optimal food patch choice, (2) optimal time allocation to different patches, and (3) optimal food choice. In order to gain a better understanding of these three aspects, the feeding rate itself or its relevance indices (e.g., rates of calorie and protein intake) could be appropriate measures to assess the quality of food and food patches. Moreover, the feeding rate plays an essential role in estimation of total food intake, because it varies greatly for different food items and the feeding time is not a precise measure. The feeding rate could also vary across individuals who simultaneously feed on the same food items in the same food patch. Body size-dependent and rank-dependent differences in the feeding rate sometimes cause individuals to take strategic behavioral options. In the closing remarks, I discuss the usefulness of even limited data on feeding rate obtained under adverse observational conditions in understanding primate feeding ecology.

  9. Feeding practices and early childhood caries: a cross-sectional study of preschool children in kanpur district, India.

    PubMed

    Prakasha Shrutha, Santhebachalli; Vinit, Grandim Balarama Gupta; Giri, Kolli Yada; Alam, Sarwar

    2013-01-01

    Background. Early childhood caries (ECC) is a public health problem due to its impact on children's health, development, and wellbeing. The objective of this study was to assess the caries experience in 3-5-year-old children and to evaluate the relationship with their mothers' practices regarding feeding and oral hygiene habits in Kanpur. Method. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 2000 (974 boys and 1026 girls) children aged 3-5 years from a random sample of preschools in Kanpur district, India. Dental caries experience was recorded using WHO criteria. A pretested questionnaire with 9 questions was used for collecting information regarding mothers' practices regarding feeding and oral hygiene practices. Chi-square test (χ (2)) and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results. The prevalence of ECC was 48% with mean dmft of 2.03 ± 2.99. Boys (57%) were affected more than girls (43%) which was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Caries prevalence was high and statistically significant (P < 0.05) among those who were breast fed for longer duration, during nighttime, those falling asleep with bottle, and those fed with additional sugar in milk. Conclusion. Determining the role of feeding practices on early childhood caries can help in the development of appropriate oral health promotion strategies.

  10. Barriers to Infant and Child-feeding Practices: A Qualitative Study of Primary Caregivers in Rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nankumbi, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to explore the barriers to the use of appropriate infant and young child-feeding practices by primary caregivers living in a rural Ugandan district. A community-based qualitative design and focus group discussions were used for collecting data from primary caregivers of children aged 0 to 24 month(s). On an average, each of the four focus group discussions had 11 participants. The focus group discussions were conducted using a structured interview guide and were tape-recorded. The recorded data were later transcribed and analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis techniques. All the participants were females, and the majority had low levels of education and at least one child in the age-group of 0-24 month(s) in their household. The findings show that the main barriers to the use of appropriate infant and young child-feeding practices fall under four themes: caregiver's knowledge about breastfeeding, caregiver's knowledge about complimentary feeding, influence of culture custodians on the caregivers, and patterns and burden of other responsibilities the caregivers have in the household. The four categories of barriers imply that there are various missed opportunities to implement hospital and community-based interventions to improve infant and young child-feeding practices, which is one way of preventing malnutrition. Therefore, in rural areas of Uganda, the major factors responsible for the high prevalence of malnutrition among infants and children are still those related to knowledge, culture, and social status of the primary caregivers. PMID:25995727

  11. Lessons from the feeding infants and toddlers study in North America: what children eat, and implications for obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Jose M; Deming, Denise; Dattilo, Anne; Reidy, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    The latest exhaustive survey of dietary patterns in infants from the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) in North America documents and quantifies current trends in infant feeding. These include higher than generally recommended energy, protein, and saturated fat intakes. The majority of infants are bottle fed at some point in their first year of life, and their weaning diet often includes low intakes of fruits and vegetables, with high starchy, rather than green or yellow, vegetables. Early introduction of solids, use of cow's milk prior to 1 year of age, and high juice intake in the first 2 years - all less desirable diet practices - are improving, but are still prevalent. More preschoolers are likely to get sweets or sweetened beverages than a serving of fruit or a vegetable on a given day. These food intake patterns mimic the adult American diet and are associated with an increased risk of obesity in childhood and later life. But more importantly, these patterns appear to be set as early as 18 months of age, and by 20 months of age, they mimic the adult diet. Despite increase in total energy intake, and greater variety of foods, the basic characteristics of macronutrient intake distribution and food group contribution of energy to the diet before 2 years of age remain remarkably stable and similar to the family table. Obesity prevention needs to include specific targets in terms of breastfeeding and adequate formula feeding, as well as appropriate introduction of weaning foods with goals of changing the inadequate patterns documented in the FITS. These interventions will also require addressing parent and caregiver behaviors, including attending to hunger satiety cues (responsive feeding), and shaping early food preferences. This needs to be done starting at birth, in the first months of life. Early intervention offers a unique and potentially efficacious opportunity to shape the future dietary patterns of the next generation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger

  12. A preliminary study in Wistar rats with enniatin A contaminated feed.

    PubMed

    Manyes, Lara; Escrivá, Laura; Serrano, Ana Belén; Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Tolosa, Josefa; Meca, Giuseppe; Font, Guillermina

    2014-03-01

    A 28-day repeated dose preliminary assay, using enniatin A naturally contaminated feed through microbial fermentation by a Fusarium tricinctum strain, was carried out employing 2-month-old female Wistar rats as in vivo experimental model. In order to simulate a physiological test of a toxic compound naturally produced by fungi, five treated animals were fed during 28 days with fermented feed. As control group, five rats were fed with standard feed. At the 28th day, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis and the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys were removed from each rat for enniatin A detection and quantitation. Digesta were collected from stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. Enniatin A present in organs and in biological fluids was analyzed by liquid chromatography-diode array detector (LC-DAD) and confirmed by LC-mass spectrometry linear ion trap (MS-LIT); also several serum biochemical parameters and a histological analysis of the duodenal tract were performed. No adverse effects were found in any treated rat at the enniatin A concentration (20.91 mg/kg bw/day) tested during the 28-day experiment. Enniatin A quantitation in biological fluids ranged from 1.50 to 9.00 mg/kg, whereas in the gastrointestinal organs the enniatin A concentration ranged from 2.50 to 23.00 mg/kg. The high enniatin A concentration found in jejunum liquid and tissue points to them as an absorption area. Finally, two enniatin A degradation products were identified in duodenum, jejunum and colon content, probably produced by gut microflora.

  13. Military Nutrition (Research Study Group 8 on Nutritional Aspects of Military Feeding)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-12

    adults , rhanges in body weight are primarily caused by addition or loss of adipose tissue, due to imbalance between energy intake and energy output... body fat standards. The U.S.A. Army Weight Control Program (132,133) and the Canadian Forces (134) define overweight / obesity by means of cut-off points...Field Feeding System 467-488 8.4.2.3 Effects of ’A’ Ration Meals on Body Weight During Sustained Field Operations 489-490 8.4.2.4 Nutrient Intakes

  14. Clearing obstructed feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Stegall, K L; Trogdon, S

    1989-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating the ability of six solutions to dissolve clotted enteral feeding, which can cause feeding tube occlusion. The following clotted enteral feeding products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure Plus with added protein (Promod 20 g/liter), Osmolite, Enrich, and Pulmocare. Clot dissolution was then tested by adding Adolf's Meat Tenderizer, Viokase, Sprite, Pepsi, Coke, or Mountain Dew. Distilled water served as control. Dissolution score for each mixture was assessed blindly. Best dissolution was observed with Viokase in pH 7.9 solution (p less than 0.01). Similar results were obtained when feeding tube patency was restored in eight in vitro occluded feeding tubes (Dobbhoff, French size 8) by using first Pepsi (two/eight successful) and then Viokase in pH 7.9 (six/six successful). We also report our experience in the first 10 patients with occluded feeding tubes using this Viokase solution injected through a Drum catheter into the feeding tube. In seven patients, this method proved to be successful, and the reasons for failure in three patients include a knotted tube, impacted tablet powder, and a formula clot fo 24 hr duration and 45 cm in length.

  15. Kinetic study of ferronickel slag grinding at variation of ball filling and ratio of feed to grinding balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanwani, Edy; Ikhwanto, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of ball filling and ratio of feed to grinding balls on the kinetic of grinding of ferronickel slag in a laboratory scale ball mill. The experiments were started by crushing the ferronickel slag samples using a roll crusher to produce -3 mesh (-6.7 mm) product. This product, after sampling and sample dividing processes, was then used as feed for grinding process. The grinding was performed with variations of ball filling and ratio of feed to grinding balls for 150 minutes. At every certain time interval, particle size analysis was carried out on the grinding product. The results of the experiments were also used to develop linear regression model of the effect of grinding variables on the P80 of the product. Based on this study, it was shown that P80 values of the grinding products declined sharply until 70 minutes of grinding time due to the dominant mechanism of impact breakage and then decreased slowly after 70 minutes until 150 minutes of grinding time due to dominant mechanism of attrition breakage. Kinetics study of the grinding process on variations of grinding ball filling showed that the optimum rate of formation of fine particles for 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% mill volume was achieved at a particle size of 400 µm in which the best initial rate of formation occurred at 50% volume of mill. At the variations of ratio of feed to grinding balls it was shown that the optimum rate of grinding for the ratio of 1:10, 1: 8 and 1: 6 was achieved at a particle size of 400 µm and for the ratio of 1: 4 was at 841 µm in which the best initial rate of formation occurred at a 1:10 ratio. In this study, it was also produced two regression models that can predict the P80 value of the grinding product as a function of the variables of grinding time, ball filling and the ratio of the feed to grinding balls.

  16. Association between breast feeding and asthma in 6 year old children: findings of a prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Oddy, W H; Holt, P G; Sly, P D; Read, A W; Landau, L I; Stanley, F J; Kendall, G E; Burton, P R

    1999-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between the duration of exclusive breast feeding and the development of asthma related outcomes in children at age 6 years. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Western Australia. Subjects 2187 children ascertained through antenatal clinics at the major tertiary obstetric hospital in Perth and followed to age 6 years. Main outcome measures Unconditional logistic regression to model the association between duration of exclusive breast feeding and outcomes related to asthma or atopy at 6 years of age, allowing for several important confounders: sex, gestational age, smoking in the household, and early childcare. Results After adjustment for confounders, the introduction of milk other than breast milk before 4 months of age was a significant risk factor for all asthma and atopy related outcomes in children aged 6 years: asthma diagnosed by a doctor (odds ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.52); wheeze three or more times since 1 year of age (1.41, 1.14 to 1.76); wheeze in the past year (1.31, 1.05 to 1.64); sleep disturbance due to wheeze within the past year (1.42, 1.07 to 1.89); age when doctor diagnosed asthma (hazard ratio 1.22, 1.03 to 1.43); age at first wheeze (1.36, 1.17 to 1.59); and positive skin prick test reaction to at least one common aeroallergen (1.30, 1.04 to 1.61). Conclusion A significant reduction in the risk of childhood asthma at age 6 years occurs if exclusive breast feeding is continued for at least the 4 months after birth. These findings are important for our understanding of the cause of childhood asthma and suggest that public health interventions to optimise breast feeding may help to reduce the community burden of childhood asthma and its associated traits. Key messagesAsthma is the leading cause of admission to hospital in Australian children and its prevalence is increasingWhether breast feeding protects against asthma or atopy, or both, is controversialAsthma is a complex disease

  17. Early determinants of childhood overweight and adiposity in a birth cohort study: role of breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, K E; Bergmann, R L; Von Kries, R; Böhm, O; Richter, R; Dudenhausen, J W; Wahn, U

    2003-02-01

    The prevalence of adiposity in childhood is increasing. Is breast-feeding protective as suggested by cross-sectional studies? In a longitudinal birth cohort study, we tested whether breast-feeding for more than 2 months has preventive effects against overweight and adiposity at 6 y. Of 1314 children representing the catchment areas of six delivery units, 918 could be followed up to the age of 6 y. Height, weight, and skin-fold thickness were measured at regular visits. As the criteria of overweight, obesity, and adiposity in the children, the 90th and the 97th percentiles of BMI and skin-fold values were used. Parents with a BMI at or above the 90th percentile, which was 27 kg/m(2) or more, were considered overweight. Infants bottle-fed from birth or breast-fed for less than 3 months were classified as 'bottle-fed' (BO), and those breast-fed for 3 months and more as 'breast-fed' (BR). Univariate comparisons and logistic regression analysis were performed applying SAS 6.12. The final logistic model consisted of the 480 cases for whom complete data for all variables were available. The potential effect of loss to follow-up was analysed by the Cochran-Mantel-Haenzel test: the outcomes were not significantly influenced by loss to follow-up. At birth BMIs were nearly identical in both groups. By 3 months, BO had significantly higher BMIs and thicker skin folds than BR. From 6 months on, compared to BR, a consistently higher proportion of BO children exceeded the 90th and the 97th percentile of BMI and skin-fold thickness reference values. From the age of 4 y to 5 and 6 y, in BO the prevalence of obesity nearly doubled and tripled, respectively. With only minor changes of obesity prevalence in BR, the difference of BMI and skin-fold thickness between groups became statistically significant. Logistic regression analysis revealed that overweight of the mother, maternal smoking during pregnancy, bottle feeding, and low social status remained important risk factors for

  18. Study of cholesterol and vitamin E levels in broiler meat from different feeding regimens by TOF-SIMS.

    PubMed

    Marzec, Magdalena E; Wojtysiak, Dorota; Połtowicz, Katarzyna; Nowak, Joanna; Pedrys, Roman

    2016-06-10

    The quality of chicken meat, which is one of the most widely consumed meats in the world, has been the subject of research and studies for many years. There are several ways to improve the quality of this type of meat, including changing the concentrations of individual molecular components. Such important components of meat are inter alia, cholesterol, vitamin E, and some fatty acids such as ω-3 and ω-6. Manipulation of ingredient levels may be achieved by enriching chicken feed with elements of different types such as vegetable oils, garlic, or selenium. Thus far, various biochemical and biophysical methods have been used to study quality of different meat types, especially broiler meat. Here, the authors demonstrate the use of high-resolution time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) mass spectrometry to assess how variations in animal nutrition affect concentrations of specific lipids in the meat, such as cholesterol and vitamin E. In the presented experiment, there were four different dietary treatments. Feed for animals in the first group was supplemented with soy oil in 50%, the second group's feed was supplemented with linseed oil in 50%, a combination of these two oils in the proportion of 44%:56% was used for the third group, and in the reference group, animals were fed with beef tallow. From each group, four individuals were selected for further analysis. Positive and negative ion mass spectra were generated from the pectoralis superficialis muscle tissue of the left carcass side of each one animal. Using TOF-SIMS with a bismuth cluster ion source (Bi3 (+)), and based on characteristic peaks for cholesterol in the positive mode and vitamin E in the negative mode, the authors have illustrated the relationship of these lipids levels to the various feeding regimens. Simultaneously, the authors characterized the varying dependences on the concentrations of measured lipids in fat and muscle fibers. The cholesterol concentration in muscle

  19. A study on feeding hazelnut kernel oil meal as a protein source for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Erener, Guray; Burak Ak, F; Ocak, Nuh

    2009-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of substituting different levels of hazelnut kernel oil meal (HKM) for soybean meal (SBM) in diets for broiler. A total of 450 one-day-old female Ross 308 broiler chicks were allocated randomly to three treatment groups of 150 birds each in a randomized design. Each treatment group consisted of five replicates each of 30 chicks. All diets (in mash form) were formulated to meet nutrient concentrations recommended for broilers. The experiment lasted for six weeks. In the experiment, an SBM control (SBM) diet was compared to two HKM diets, replacing 50 (50HKM) and 100% (HKM) of SBM protein, respectively. Body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of broilers were adversely affected (P < 0.05) by the HKM diets at 42 days of age. Broilers fed 50HKM and HKM had growth performances similar (P > 0.05). The carcass yield and abdominal fat pads of birds fed diets with SBM were higher (P < 0.05) than those of chicks fed the 50HKM and HKM diets. The edible inner organ weight of chicks fed diets with HKM was the heaviest (P < 0.05). It is concluded that SBM cannot be replaced even up to 50% with HKM in commercial broiler diet.

  20. [Cross-sectional study on the current situation of breast feeding in western China rural areas].

    PubMed

    Ye, Jian-li; Cui, Ying; Pan, Xiao-ping

    2007-05-01

    To know the situation of breastfeeding of infants in western China rural areas. Probability proportional to size sampling was used in 45 projects counties 10 provinces in western China, and then totally 13 433 children who were under 3 years old were selected to investigate their feeding situation and health situation by questionnaire. SPSS software was used to carry on the statistical analysis. The proportion of adding starch, egg, milk, bean, meat, vegetable and water was 75.3%, 58.4%, 39.0%, 26.4%, 42.7%, 52.0% and 93.4% respectively. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding of infant less than four months and six months was 16.0% and 2.5% respectively. The proportion of not adding starch, egg, milk, bean, meat, vegetable and water of infants who were one year old was 5.2%, 15.0%, 30.3%, 11.2%, 9.1%, 4.8% and 0.6% respectively. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding in western rural areas was still low and complementary feeding was still unreasonable.

  1. Effects of feeding Ascochyta-infected and normal lentils to rats (short-term study).

    PubMed Central

    Tarwid, J N; Morrall, R A; Mills, J H

    1985-01-01

    Weanling, female, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing either rat chow with no lentils, 80% normal lentils or 80% diseased lentils heavily infected with the fungus Ascochyta lentis. Body weight, feed consumption and clinical appearance were monitored over 90 days and blood samples were collected at the termination of the experiment. Weight gain and feed consumption were similar in the control group and the group fed diseased lentils. Weight gain was slightly depressed in the group fed normal lentils. These effects were attributed to the lentils being a poorer source of protein than the wheat, barley and soybean meal used in the control diet, but the protein content of the diseased lentils was higher than the normal lentils. Total white blood cell counts and lymphocyte counts were significantly depressed (P = 0.05) in the group fed the diseased lentil diet. Significant differences (P = 0.05) were found among groups in the ratios of liver, kidney and spleen weights to body weight. Images Fig. 1. PMID:4075241

  2. Range Finding 14-Day and 90-Day Subchronic Feeding Studies with N,N-Dipropylcyclohexanecarboxamide in Rats. Phase 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    clinical chemistry values. Significant increases occurred in male rat liver organ-to-body weight ratios in all three dose levels at the 45 and 90 day necropsies during the 90-day feeding study. A no effect dose was not achieved during this study. Additional testing would be required to confirm a no effect dose level. It is concluded that a toxic hazard may exist from a prolonged significant oral exposure to N,N-Dopropylcyclohexanecarboxamide. It is recommended that further evaluation of this compound as a candidate insect repellent be discontinued due to the deleterious

  3. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  4. Breast Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  5. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  6. Infant feeding and health-related quality of life in healthy Chinese infants: results from a prospective, observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hays, Nicholas P; Mao, Meng; Zhang, Lan; Ge, John; Northington, Robert; Yao, Manjiang; Volger, Sheri

    2016-08-08

    Infant feeding regimens, including breastfeeding, formula-feeding, or a combination of the two, may influence infant health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, few studies have examined this association. This prospective cohort study assessed HRQOL in relation to three parent-selected feeding regimens: exclusively breastfed (n = 136), exclusively study formula-fed (n = 140), and mixed-fed with study formula and breast milk (n = 151). Healthy Chinese infants were enrolled at their first normally scheduled well infant clinic visit at age 42 days (study day 1). Parents independently chose their infants' feeding regimens prior to recruitment into the study, with infants in the formula and mixed-fed groups already consuming an infant formula enriched with α-lactalbumin and increased sn-2 palmitate and oligofructose. The Infant and Toddler Quality of Life Questionnaire, which includes six infant-focused and three parent-focused concepts, was used to assess HRQOL at day 1 and at a follow-up visit 48 days later. Scores for each concept ranged from 0 to 100. Parent quality of life (assessed using the Mental Component Summary score of the SF-12v2 Health Survey) was included in the ANCOVA model to adjust for its potential effect on parent's perception of infant HRQOL. HRQOL concept scores were high in all three study groups at both visits (mean scores 71-95). Day 1 HRQOL scores were not significantly different between groups. At day 48, 5 of 9 HRQOL scores were not significantly different between groups. However, scores for Temperament and Moods, General Health Perceptions and Parent Impact-Time were slightly but statistically significantly lower in the formula-fed group (mean scores 75-86; all p ≤ 0.01) compared to the breastfed (78-90) and mixed-fed (77-91) groups. Day 48 Parent Impact-Emotional scores were also significantly lower by a small margin (4 points; p = 0.003) in the formula-fed group compared with the breastfed group. HRQOL was

  7. Role of Social Support in Improving Infant Feeding Practices in Western Kenya: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Mukuria, Altrena G; Martin, Stephanie L; Egondi, Thaddeus; Bingham, Allison; Thuita, Faith M

    2016-01-01

    into account the interaction effects of intervention area and increasing social support over time, we found a significant association in the grandmother intervention area on dietary diversity (OR, 1.19; CI, 1.01 to 1.40; P=.04). No significant effects were found on minimum acceptable diet. Conclusion: Engaging fathers and grandmothers of infants to improve their knowledge of optimal infant feeding practices and to encourage provision of social support to mothers could help improve some feeding practices. Future studies should engage all key household influencers in a family-centered approach to practice and support infant feeding recommendations. PMID:27016544

  8. Electromagnetic guided bedside or endoscopic placement of nasoenteral feeding tubes in surgical patients (CORE trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gerritsen, Arja; de Rooij, Thijs; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G; Busch, Olivier R; Bergman, Jacques J; Ubbink, Dirk T; van Duijvendijk, Peter; Erkelens, G Willemien; Molenaar, I Quintus; Monkelbaan, Jan F; Rosman, Camiel; Tan, Adriaan C; Kruyt, Philip M; Bac, Dirk Jan; Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M; Besselink, Marc G

    2015-03-26

    Gastroparesis is common in surgical patients and frequently leads to the need for enteral tube feeding. Nasoenteral feeding tubes are usually placed endoscopically by gastroenterologists, but this procedure is relatively cumbersome for patients and labor-intensive for hospital staff. Electromagnetic (EM) guided bedside placement of nasoenteral feeding tubes by nurses may reduce patient discomfort, workload and costs, but randomized studies are lacking, especially in surgical patients. We hypothesize that EM guided bedside placement of nasoenteral feeding tubes is at least as effective as endoscopic placement in surgical patients, at lower costs. The CORE trial is an investigator-initiated, parallel-group, pragmatic, multicenter randomized controlled non-inferiority trial. A total of 154 patients admitted to gastrointestinal surgical wards in five hospitals, requiring nasoenteral feeding, will be randomly allocated to undergo EM guided or endoscopic nasoenteral feeding tube placement. Primary outcome is reinsertion of the feeding tube, defined as the insertion of an endoscope or tube in the nose/mouth and esophagus for (re)placement of the feeding tube (e.g. after failed initial placement or dislodgement or blockage of the tube). Secondary outcomes include patient-reported outcomes, costs and tube (placement) related complications. The CORE trial is designed to generate evidence on the effectiveness of EM guided placement of nasoenteral feeding tubes in surgical patients and the impact on costs as compared to endoscopic placement. The trial potentially offers a strong argument for wider implementation of this technique as method of choice for placement of nasoenteral feeding tubes. Dutch Trial Register: NTR4420 , date registered 5-feb-2014.

  9. Effects of almond and pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition in a randomised cross-over human feeding study.

    PubMed

    Ukhanova, Maria; Wang, Xiaoyu; Baer, David J; Novotny, Janet A; Fredborg, Marlene; Mai, Volker

    2014-06-28

    The modification of microbiota composition to a 'beneficial' one is a promising approach for improving intestinal as well as overall health. Natural fibres and phytochemicals that reach the proximal colon, such as those present in various nuts, provide substrates for the maintenance of healthy and diverse microbiota. The effects of increased consumption of specific nuts, which are rich in fibre as well as various phytonutrients, on human gut microbiota composition have not been investigated to date. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of almond and pistachio consumption on human gut microbiota composition. We characterised microbiota in faecal samples collected from volunteers in two separate randomised, controlled, cross-over feeding studies (n 18 for the almond feeding study and n 16 for the pistachio feeding study) with 0, 1·5 or 3 servings/d of the respective nuts for 18 d. Gut microbiota composition was analysed using a 16S rRNA-based approach for bacteria and an internal transcribed spacer region sequencing approach for fungi. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 528 028 sequence reads, retained after removing low-quality and short-length reads, revealed various operational taxonomic units that appeared to be affected by nut consumption. The effect of pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition was much stronger than that of almond consumption and included an increase in the number of potentially beneficial butyrate-producing bacteria. Although the numbers of bifidobacteria were not affected by the consumption of either nut, pistachio consumption appeared to decrease the number of lactic acid bacteria (P< 0·05). Increasing the consumption of almonds or pistachios appears to be an effective means of modifying gut microbiota composition.

  10. TANK 21 AND TANK 24 BLEND AND FEED STUDY: BLENDING TIMES, SETTLING TIMES, AND TRANSFERS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

    2012-05-31

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 {micro}m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion (<1200 mg/l). (4) Experimental tests with sludge batch 6 simulant and field turbidity data from a recent Tank 21 mixing evolution suggest the solid

  11. Toxicology and carcinogenesis study of styrene-acrylonitrile trimer in F344/N rats (perinatal and postnatal feed studies).

    PubMed

    2012-07-01

    Styrene-acrylonitrile trimer (SAN Trimer) is a mixture of isomers formed by the condensation of two moles of acrylonitrile and one mole of styrene and has a molecular weight of 210. The mixture is composed of two structural forms: 4-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-a-methyl-1-naphthaleneacetonitrile (THNA, CAS No. 57964-39-3) and 4-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenepropionitrile (THNP, CAS No. 57964-40-6). The THNA form consists of four stereoisomers. [Structure:see text]. The THNP form consists of two stereoisomers. [Structure:see text]. SAN Trimer is a by-product of the production of acrylonitrile styrene plastics and is created in specific manufacturing processes for polymers of acrylonitrile and styrene. In June 1998, due to community concerns about the toxicity of SAN Trimer, it was nominated to the NTP for carcinogenicity testing by a member of Congress. Male and female F344/N rats were exposed to SAN Trimer in feed in perinatal and postnatal studies for 7 weeks, 18 weeks, or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, and in rat reticulocytes, leukocytes, liver cells, and brain cells. In vivo comet and micronucleus assays were performed in the juvenile rats. 7-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were fed diets containing 0, 250, 500, 1,000, 2,000, or 4,000 ppm SAN Trimer (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 50, 90, 175, 270, or 410 mg SAN Trimer/kg body weight to males and 45, 90, 185, 295, or 430 mg/kg to females) for 2 weeks postweaning; the dams of these rats were fed the same concentrations of SAN Trimer from gestation day 7 until the pups were weaned. One 4,000 ppm male rat died 3 days after weaning; all other rats that started the postweaning phase survived to the end of the study. Mean body weights of 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 ppm males and 2,000 and 4,000 ppm females were significantly less than those of the controls; weaning mean body weights were reduced in 4

  12. Depressive symptoms and perceptions of child difficulty are associated with less responsive feeding behaviors in an observational study of low-income mothers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maternal depressive symptoms and perceptions of child difficulty are associated with negative effects on general development and cognitive functioning in children. The study examined associations between maternal depressive symptoms, perceptions of child difficulty, and maternal feeding behaviors in...

  13. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J; Rooke, John A; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body weight was measured. Ultrasound fat depth was measured at the end of 56 days. Average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI) were calculated. After the 56-day test period, animals were transported in groups of six/week to respiration chamber facilities. Blood samples were taken before and 0, 3, 6, and 9 h after transport. Plasma cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), glucose, and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined to assess physiological stress response. Subsequently, CH4 emissions were measured over a 3-day period in individual respiration chambers. CS (1.7 ± 0.09) and FS (1.6 ± 0.60 m/s) were repeatable (0.63 and 0.51, respectively) and correlated (r = 0.36, P < 0.001). Plasma cortisol, CK, and FFA concentrations increased after transport (P = 0.038, P = 0.006, and P < 0.001, respectively). Temperament (CS) and CK concentration were correlated (r = 0.29; P = 0.015). The extreme group analysis reveals that excitable animals (FS; P = 0.032) and higher stress response (cortisol, P = 0.007; FFA, P = 0.007; and CK, P = 0.003) were associated with lower DMI. ADG was lower in more temperamental animals (CS, P = 0.097, and FS, P = 0.030). Fat depth was greater in steers showing calmer CS (P = 0.026) and lower plasma CK (P = 0.058). Temperament did not show any relationship with RFI or CH4 emissions. However, steers with higher cortisol showed improved feed efficiency (lower

  14. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J.; Rooke, John A.; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body weight was measured. Ultrasound fat depth was measured at the end of 56 days. Average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI) were calculated. After the 56-day test period, animals were transported in groups of six/week to respiration chamber facilities. Blood samples were taken before and 0, 3, 6, and 9 h after transport. Plasma cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), glucose, and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined to assess physiological stress response. Subsequently, CH4 emissions were measured over a 3-day period in individual respiration chambers. CS (1.7 ± 0.09) and FS (1.6 ± 0.60 m/s) were repeatable (0.63 and 0.51, respectively) and correlated (r = 0.36, P < 0.001). Plasma cortisol, CK, and FFA concentrations increased after transport (P = 0.038, P = 0.006, and P < 0.001, respectively). Temperament (CS) and CK concentration were correlated (r = 0.29; P = 0.015). The extreme group analysis reveals that excitable animals (FS; P = 0.032) and higher stress response (cortisol, P = 0.007; FFA, P = 0.007; and CK, P = 0.003) were associated with lower DMI. ADG was lower in more temperamental animals (CS, P = 0.097, and FS, P = 0.030). Fat depth was greater in steers showing calmer CS (P = 0.026) and lower plasma CK (P = 0.058). Temperament did not show any relationship with RFI or CH4 emissions. However, steers with higher cortisol showed improved feed efficiency (lower

  15. Experimental Study on Coal Feeding Property of 600MW CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. P.; Tian, L. N.; Du, Q.; Yang, H. P.; Wang, X. H.; Zhou, K.; Zhang, S. H.

    In the CFB boiler technology, improving the steam parameters can lead to the improvement of power plant efficiency. However, during the process of large scale, there exist some key problems, such as uniformity of coal feeding, it is a major factor which showed great influence on the boiler efficiency, temperature distribution, etc. In the paper, based on the structure of commercial 600MW CFB boiler unit and similarity principle, the experiment-rig was set-up; using hot trace particle injection and thermocouple temperature collection system, the three-dimensional diffusing property of hot trace particle was analyzed by measuring the temperature distribution at different positions under different operating conditions of variant bed material height and fluidized air velocity.

  16. Case study of active array feed compensation with sidelobe control for reflector surface distortion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, R. J.; Zaman, A. J. M.; Bobinsky, E. A.; Cherrette, A. R.; Lee, S. W.

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of electromagnetically compensating for reflector surface distortions has been investigated. The performance characteristics (gain, sidelobe levels, etc.) of large communication antenna systems degrade as the reflector surface distorts mainly due to thermal effects from a varying solar flux. The techniques described in this report can be used to maintain the design performance characteristics independently of thermal effects on the reflector surface. With the advent of monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC), a greater flexibility in array-fed reflector system design can be achieved. MMIC arrays provide independent control of amplitude and phase for each of many radiating elements of the feed array. It is assumed that the surface characteristics (x,y,z, its first and second derivatives) under distorted conditions are known.

  17. Intravenous feeding in a gastroenterological unit: a prospective study of infective complications.

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Tuck, J; Lennard-Jones, J E; Lowes, J A; Danso, K T; Shaw, E J

    1979-01-01

    We have assessed the bacteriological safety of a system of intravenous feeding by culturing catheters on removal, swabs taken from the catheter's skin entry sites, and samples of infusion fluid. Among 38 treatment periods using 51 catheters over 1551 patient days, septicaemia due to Staphylococcus aureus was observed in one treatment period and bacteraemias due to Staphylococcus albus and Diphtheroid species in two others. The Staph. aureus and the diphtheroids probably gained access via the skin entry site along the outside of the catheter. The origin of the Staph. albus was uncertain. Parenteral nutrition over extended periods can be a safe procedure if aseptic precautions are taken. The importance of the catheter's skin entry site as a source of contaiminating organisms is emphasised. PMID:112124

  18. An interactive parents' guide for feeding preschool-aged children: pilot studies for improvement.

    PubMed

    Reznar, Melissa M; Carlson, John S; Hughes, Sheryl O; Pavangadkar, Amol S; Scott, Marci K; Hoerr, Sharon L

    2014-05-01

    There are few motivational materials to help families with limited resources develop optimal, practical feeding strategies for young children to reduce dietary risk for poor diet and weight status. Formative evaluation strategies consisting of both qualitative and quantitative data helped to refine the parent feeding guide Eat Healthy, Your Children are Watching, A Parent's Guide to Raising a Healthy Eater. An interdisciplinary planning team developed a five-topic, multimedia, interactive guide addressing the strategies most associated with improved diet quality and weight status of children aged 3 to 5 years. Research staff conducted iterative phases of field testing, reformatting, in-depth interviews, and materials testing with Head Start or Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education caregivers (N=38) of children aged 3 to 5 years during 2011 and 2012. Convergence of feedback from caregivers' interviews and each booklet's attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction subscale scores were used to determine and affirm areas for improvement. Lower than desired attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction scores (optimal score=5) in 2011 and too much text resulted in revisions and reformatting that improved scores from 3.8 to 4.9 in 2012. The revision of materials to reflect less text, additional white space, checklists of mealtime behaviors, and learning activities for preschool-aged children resulted in dramatically improved materials and greater acceptance by parents, as shown by both quantitative and qualitative evaluations. Formative evaluation procedures involving the use of data-based decision making allowed for the development of intervention materials that met the unique needs of the population served. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Early childhood feeding practices and dental caries in preschool children: a multi-centre birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dental caries (decay) is an international public health challenge, especially amongst young children. Early Childhood Caries is a rapidly progressing disease leading to severe pain, anxiety, sepsis and sleep loss, and is a major health problem particularly for disadvantaged populations. There is currently a lack of research exploring the interactions between risk and protective factors in the development of early childhood caries, in particular the effects of infant feeding practises. Methods/Design This is an observational cohort study and involves the recruitment of a birth cohort from disadvantaged communities in South Western Sydney. Mothers will be invited to join the study soon after the birth of their child at the time of the first home visit by Child and Family Health Nurses. Data on feeding practices and dental health behaviours will be gathered utilizing a telephone interview at 4, 8 and 12 months, and thereafter at 6 monthly intervals until the child is aged 5 years. Information collected will include a) initiation and duration of breastfeeding, b) introduction of solid food, c) intake of cariogenic and non-cariogenic foods, d) fluoride exposure, and e) oral hygiene practices. Children will have a dental and anthropometric examination at 2 and 5 years of age and the main outcome measures will be oral health quality of life, caries prevalence and caries incidence. Discussion This study will provide evidence of the association of early childhood feeding practices and the oral health of preschool children. In addition, information will be collected on breastfeeding practices and the oral health concerns of mothers living in disadvantaged areas in South Western Sydney. PMID:21223601

  20. A longitudinal study of feed contamination by European starling excreta in Ohio dairy farms (2007-2008).

    PubMed

    Medhanie, G A; Pearl, D L; McEwen, S A; Guerin, M T; Jardine, C M; Schrock, J; LeJeune, J T

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to understand the temporal pattern of contamination of cattle feed by starling excrement on dairy farms and to evaluate the temporal pattern in recovering Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella in relation to the absolute mass of excrement recovered. A longitudinal study was conducted on 15 dairy farms in Ohio from July 2007 to October 2008. One open-topped tray filled with bird feed was placed near a cattle feeding site; bird excrement from the tray was weighed monthly for 12 consecutive months. Linear regression models with a random intercept for farm were computed to examine the association between the absolute weight of excrement recovered each month or the farm-specific standard score for weight of excrement, and month or season. Exact logistic regression was used to determine whether an association between recovering E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella was present and the amount of excrement recovered and season. A spatial scan statistic was used to test for evidence of space-time clustering of excrement, based on the standard score for the weight of the excrement, among our study farms. A total of 5 of 179 excrement samples (2.79%) were positive for E. coli O157:H7 and 2 (1.12%) were positive for Salmonella. A significantly higher level of contamination with excrement was observed during the winter. The odds of recovering a pathogen increased with the amount of excrement recovered and decreased if the excrement was collected in the winter. A spatio-temporal cluster of contamination with excrement was detected. These findings provide basic information for future quantitative microbial risk assessments concerning the role of starlings in spreading enteric pathogens on dairy farms. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Early childhood feeding practices and dental caries in preschool children: a multi-centre birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Arora, Amit; Scott, Jane A; Bhole, Sameer; Do, Loc; Schwarz, Eli; Blinkhorn, Anthony S

    2011-01-12

    Dental caries (decay) is an international public health challenge, especially amongst young children. Early Childhood Caries is a rapidly progressing disease leading to severe pain, anxiety, sepsis and sleep loss, and is a major health problem particularly for disadvantaged populations. There is currently a lack of research exploring the interactions between risk and protective factors in the development of early childhood caries, in particular the effects of infant feeding practises. This is an observational cohort study and involves the recruitment of a birth cohort from disadvantaged communities in South Western Sydney. Mothers will be invited to join the study soon after the birth of their child at the time of the first home visit by Child and Family Health Nurses. Data on feeding practices and dental health behaviours will be gathered utilizing a telephone interview at 4, 8 and 12 months, and thereafter at 6 monthly intervals until the child is aged 5 years. Information collected will include a) initiation and duration of breastfeeding, b) introduction of solid food, c) intake of cariogenic and non-cariogenic foods, d) fluoride exposure, and e) oral hygiene practices. Children will have a dental and anthropometric examination at 2 and 5 years of age and the main outcome measures will be oral health quality of life, caries prevalence and caries incidence. This study will provide evidence of the association of early childhood feeding practices and the oral health of preschool children. In addition, information will be collected on breastfeeding practices and the oral health concerns of mothers living in disadvantaged areas in South Western Sydney.

  2. Nutritional content of modular feeds: how accurate is feed production?

    PubMed

    Evans, Sharon; Daly, Anne; Ashmore, Catherine; Gokmen-Ozel, Hulya; Dileva, Rosemary; Dumbleton, Belinda; Chahal, Satnam; Macdonald, Anita

    2013-03-01

    This prospective, observational study examined the accuracy of modular feed preparation for children with complex medical conditions requiring specialist feeds. Participants who regularly prepare special feeds at home were observed preparing two feeds with equivalent nutrient composition: a 2-ingredient (2-IF) and 6-ingredient feed (6-IF) under research-conditions, and 8 weeks later under home-conditions. The same feeds (2-IF and 6-IF) prepared by a trained feed-maker served as controls. Biochemical analysis of nutrient content was performed as an objective measure of feed preparation accuracy. 52 participants were studied: one patient and 51 caregivers. Biochemical nutrient analysis was inaccurate for both feeds including control-feeds but was better for the 2-IF. Both feeds were lower in fat than the expected calculation but more so in the 6-IF than the 2-IF (median: 34% vs 84% of calculated research-condition values and 66% vs 90% home-conditions; p<0.0001). Conversely zinc was higher in the 6-IF than the 2-IF (median: 127% vs 87% research-conditions and 130% vs 89% home-conditions; p<0.0001). Preparation errors included: incorrect use of equipment, poor recipe adherence and ingredient measurement mistakes. Even in control-feeds there was equipment inaccuracy, poor ingredient emulsification and ingredient residue left in mixing/measuring containers. Fewer errors occurred with powdered than liquid ingredients. Many errors associated with special feed production are difficult to control. Carers of children with complex medical conditions require improved preparation equipment and techniques and the development of premeasured or combined ingredient preparations to maximise feed accuracy and minimise clinical risk.

  3. A pilot study to assess tolerability of early enteral nutrition via esophagostomy tube feeding in dogs with severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, C S; James, F E; Steiner, J M; Suchodolski, J S; Robertson, I D; Hosgood, G

    2011-01-01

    The putative role of the gut in amplification of systemic inflammation in acute pancreatitis is gaining credence, and intraluminal nutrition has been shown to decrease inflammation in experimental models of pancreatitis. Prepyloric feeding often is used in people with acute pancreatitis, but has not been evaluated in dogs. Early intervention with enteral nutrition (EN) delivered proximal to the pylorus will be well tolerated in dogs with acute pancreatitis and provide justification for further larger trials. Ten dogs with severe acute pancreatitis in an open-label, prospective pilot study. Dogs were treated with plasma transfusion and standard care, and then consecutively assigned to receive either EN via esophagostomy tube feeding or parenteral nutrition (PN). Outcome was used to determine optimal study size for future studies, and complications were compared between the 2 groups. A significantly greater number of vomiting or regurgitating episodes occurred in dogs receiving PN. The dogs receiving EN did not demonstrate any noticeable postprandial pain. There were more catheter-related complications in the PN group. There was no difference in outcome between the 2 treatments, and 43 dogs for each treatment would be required in future studies to determine a difference in outcome. Early EN delivered proximal to the pylorus is well tolerated in dogs with severe pancreatitis and resulted in fewer complications than PN. Prospective trials in a larger cohort are justified to fully establish the potential benefit of early EN, preferably compared with minimal enteral nutrition. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Equivalence testing using existing reference data: An example with genetically modified and conventional crops in animal feeding studies.

    PubMed

    van der Voet, Hilko; Goedhart, Paul W; Schmidt, Kerstin

    2017-09-25

    An equivalence testing method is described to assess the safety of regulated products using relevant data obtained in historical studies with assumedly safe reference products. The method is illustrated using data from a series of animal feeding studies with genetically modified and reference maize varieties. Several criteria for quantifying equivalence are discussed, and study-corrected distribution-wise equivalence is selected as being appropriate for the example case study. An equivalence test is proposed based on a high probability of declaring equivalence in a simplified situation, where there is no between-group variation, where the historical and current studies have the same residual variance, and where the current study is assumed to have a sample size as set by a regulator. The method makes use of generalized fiducial inference methods to integrate uncertainties from both the historical and the current data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Early Feeding Practices and Weight Status at One Year of Age: A Comparison of Hispanic Immigrant Mother-Infant Dyads with Participants of the Infant Feeding Practices Study II.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Kathleen F; Brito, Albert V; Kitsantas, Panagiota; Kermer, Deborah Ann

    2016-10-01

    Hispanic preschoolers have higher rates of BMI ≥85th percentile than any other racial/ethnic group. To identify underpinnings of this disparity, we compared early feeding practices and subsequent weight status for a sample of infants of low-income, Hispanic immigrant mothers with participants from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II). Proyecto de Bebés Hispanos Saludables (PBHS) collected medical record data for mother-infant dyads (n = 550) from a large pediatric clinic for low-income families and merged it with IFPS II data (n = 1502) to compare early feeding practices and late infancy weight status. Mode of milk delivery for PBHS mothers was less likely to be exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months (9.0% vs. 27.5%), but more likely to be both breast and bottle feeding (43.5% vs. 26.3%) compared to IFPS II mothers. No difference was found in age for solid food introduction. Weight for age of PBHS infants was more likely to be ≥85th percentile at 12 months than IFPS II infants (39.1% vs. 25.4%). Both PBHS and IFPS II infants were more likely to be ≥85th percentile at 1 year if mode of milk delivery was bottle only at 6 months compared to those who were breastfed only, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Differences in PBHS and IFPS II feeding practices and weight status suggest additional studies of modifiable, early life risk factors are needed to inform clinical and public health interventions that reduce childhood obesity for this growing sector of the US population.

  6. Breast-feeding and the risk of bronchial asthma in childhood: a systematic review with meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Gdalevich, M; Mimouni, D; Mimouni, M

    2001-08-01

    The protective effect of breast-feeding on the development of childhood asthma remains a matter of controversy. We conducted a systematic review of prospective studies that evaluated the association between exclusive breast-feeding during the first 3 months after birth and asthma. We searched the 1966-1999 MEDLINE database and reviewed reference lists of relevant articles to identify 12 prospective studies that met pre-stated inclusion criteria. Methodological aspects of the studies, duration and exclusivity of breast-feeding, and outcomes were assessed. Effect estimates were abstracted by the investigators, using a standardized approach. The summary odds ratio (OR) for the protective effect of breast-feeding was 0.70 (95% CI 0.60 to 0.81). The effect estimate was greater in studies of children with a family history of atopy (OR = 0.52) than in studies of a combined population (OR = 0.73). Exclusive breast-feeding during the first months after birth is associated with lower asthma rates during childhood. The effect, caused by immunomodulatory qualities of breast milk, avoidance of allergens, or a combination of these and other factors, strengthens the advantage of breast-feeding, especially if a family history of atopy is present.

  7. A qualitative study of the aspirations and challenges of low-income mothers in feeding their preschool-aged children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity among preschool-aged children has increased, especially among those in low-income households. Two promising behavioral targets for preventing obesity include limiting children’s portion sizes and their intake of foods high in solid fats and/or added sugars, but these approaches have not been studied in low-income preschoolers in the home setting. The purpose of this study was to understand the contextual factors that might influence how low-income mothers felt about addressing these behavioral targets and mothers’ aspirations in feeding their children. Methods We recruited 32 English-speaking women in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania who were eligible for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and who were the biologic mothers of children 36 to 66 months of age. Each mother participated in 1 of 7 focus groups and completed a brief socio-demographic questionnaire. Focus group questions centered on eating occasions, foods and drinks consumed in the home, and portion sizes. Each focus group lasted 90 minutes and was digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three authors independently identified key themes and supporting quotations. Themes were condensed and modified through discussion among all authors. Results Thirty-one mothers identified themselves as black, 15 had a high school education or less, and 22 lived with another adult. Six themes emerged, with three about aspirations mothers held in feeding their children and three about challenges to achieving these aspirations. Mothers’ aspirations were to: 1) prevent hyperactivity and tooth decay by limiting children’s sugar intake, 2) use feeding to teach their children life lessons about limit setting and structure, and 3) be responsive to children during mealtimes to guide decisions about portions. Especially around setting limits with sweets and snacks, mothers faced the challenges of: 1) being nagged by children’s food requests, 2) being undermined by other

  8. A qualitative study of the aspirations and challenges of low-income mothers in feeding their preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Herman, Allison N; Malhotra, Khushi; Wright, Gretchen; Fisher, Jennifer O; Whitaker, Robert C

    2012-11-16

    The prevalence of obesity among preschool-aged children has increased, especially among those in low-income households. Two promising behavioral targets for preventing obesity include limiting children's portion sizes and their intake of foods high in solid fats and/or added sugars, but these approaches have not been studied in low-income preschoolers in the home setting. The purpose of this study was to understand the contextual factors that might influence how low-income mothers felt about addressing these behavioral targets and mothers' aspirations in feeding their children. We recruited 32 English-speaking women in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania who were eligible for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and who were the biologic mothers of children 36 to 66 months of age. Each mother participated in 1 of 7 focus groups and completed a brief socio-demographic questionnaire. Focus group questions centered on eating occasions, foods and drinks consumed in the home, and portion sizes. Each focus group lasted 90 minutes and was digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three authors independently identified key themes and supporting quotations. Themes were condensed and modified through discussion among all authors. Thirty-one mothers identified themselves as black, 15 had a high school education or less, and 22 lived with another adult. Six themes emerged, with three about aspirations mothers held in feeding their children and three about challenges to achieving these aspirations. Mothers' aspirations were to: 1) prevent hyperactivity and tooth decay by limiting children's sugar intake, 2) use feeding to teach their children life lessons about limit setting and structure, and 3) be responsive to children during mealtimes to guide decisions about portions. Especially around setting limits with sweets and snacks, mothers faced the challenges of: 1) being nagged by children's food requests, 2) being undermined by other adults in the family, and 3) having bad

  9. Breast-feeding support in Ireland: a qualitative study of health-care professionals' and women's views.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Barbara; Kearney, John M

    2015-08-01

    To examine women's experience of professional support for breast-feeding and health-care professionals' experience of providing support. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews among women with experience of breast-feeding and health-care professionals with infant feeding roles. Interviews with women were designed to explore their experience of support for breast-feeding antenatally, in hospital and postnatally. Interviews with health-care professionals were designed to explore their views on their role and experience in providing breast-feeding support. Interview transcripts were analysed using content analysis and aspects of Grounded Theory. Overarching themes and categories within the two sets were identified. Urban and suburban areas of North Dublin, Ireland. Twenty-two women all of whom had experience of breast-feeding and fifty-eight health-care professionals. Two overarching themes emerged and in each of these a number of categories were developed: theme 1, facilitators to breast-feeding support, within which being facilitated to breast-feed, having the right person at the right time, being discerning and breast-feeding support groups were discussed; and theme 2, barriers to breast-feeding support, within which time, conflicting information, medicalisation of breast-feeding and the role of health-care professionals in providing support for breast-feeding were discussed. Breast-feeding is being placed within a medical model of care in Ireland which is dependent on health-care professionals. There is a need for training around breast-feeding for all health-care professionals; however, they are limited in their support due to external barriers such as lack of time. Alternative support such as peer support workers should be provided.

  10. Exclusive and any breast-feeding rates of Pacific infants in Auckland: data from the Pacific Islands Families First Two Years of Life Study.

    PubMed

    Schluter, Philip J; Carter, Sarnia; Percival, Teuila

    2006-09-01

    To present current breast-feeding rates for Pacific infants resident in New Zealand. Reasons for the introduction of complementary liquid foods were also explored. A longitudinal study using hospital discharge summary records and maternal home interviews undertaken at 6 weeks, 12 and 24 months postpartum. Turnbull's non-parametric survival analysis was used to model exclusive breast-feeding rates. Auckland, New Zealand. The cohort comprised 1376 infants at 6 weeks, 1223 infants at 12 months and 1142 infants at 24 months. Exclusive breast-feeding rates at hospital discharge, 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months postpartum were 84% (95% confidence interval (CI): 80-88%), 49% (95% CI: 43-55%), 37% (95% CI: 32-42%) and 9% (95% CI: 7-11%), respectively. Significant ethnic difference existed, with Samoan mothers having higher exclusive breast-feeding rates than Tongan mothers (P = 0.002). The percentage of infants receiving any breast milk at hospital discharge, 6 weeks, 12 and 24 months was 96% (95% CI: 94-97%), 95% (95% CI: 94-96%), 31% (95% CI: 28-34%) and 15% (95% CI: 13-17%), respectively. Again ethnic differences emerged. Common reasons cited for discontinuation of exclusive breast-feeding included uncertainty of breast milk supply (56%), problems with breasts (30%) and difficulties breast-feeding in work or educational environments (26%). However, 691 (50%) mothers sought no advice about their breast-feeding concerns within the first six weeks of life. Exclusive breast-feeding rates for Pacific infants are ethnically heterogeneous, have declined since the 1990s and fall short of the World Health Organization recommendations. The principal reasons cited for exclusive breast-feeding discontinuation echo those reported over a decade ago.

  11. Exploring the infant feeding practices of immigrant women in the North West of England: a case study of asylum seekers and refugees in Liverpool and Manchester.

    PubMed

    Hufton, Emily; Raven, Joanna

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the infant feeding experiences of refugees residing in the UK. To enable successful health promotion for this population, such experiences must be understood. The study aimed to gain an understanding of infant feeding practices among a group of UK-based refugee mothers. Objectives were to explore mothers' perceptions and influences of infant feeding practices, to explore challenges faced by mothers in feeding their infants and to identify concerns and experiences of health care professionals with regard to caring for them. Fifteen semi-structured interviews and two focus group discussions with refugee mothers and five semi-structured interviews with health care providers were conducted in 2012. A framework approach was used to identify main themes. Overall mothers were dissatisfied with their infant feeding outcomes. A preference to exclusively breastfeed was often not achieved. Most resorted to using formula feed, perceiving that this was primarily due to a lack of support. Mothers who were positive to human immunodeficiency virus followed the UK guidelines of exclusively formula feeding for 6 months, but struggled with guilt of not being able to breastfeed. All mothers unable to exclusively breastfeed experienced a sense of loss. Lack of wider support services coupled with complex lifestyles appeared to create challenges in providing infant feeding support. The results highlight a need for an intensified response to facilitate these mothers to maintain their preferred infant feeding choices, or when required, to support them in the adoption of a new method. Using experienced refugee mothers to guide newer mothers, and integrating health and social care, would be positive starting points.

  12. Determination of dietary starch in animal feeds and pet food by an enzymatic-colorimetric method: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Starch, glycogen, maltooligosaccharides, and other α-1,4- and α-1,6-linked glucose carbohydrates, exclusive of resistant starch, are collectively termed "dietary starch". This nutritionally important fraction is increasingly measured for use in diet formulation for animals as it can have positive or negative effects on animal performance and health by affecting energy supply, glycemic index, and formation of fermentation products by gut microbes. AOAC Method 920.40 that was used for measuring dietary starch in animal feeds was invalidated due to discontinued production of a required enzyme. As a replacement, an enzymatic-colorimetric starch assay developed in 1997 that had advantages in ease of sample handling and accuracy compared to other methods was considered. The assay was further modified to improve utilization of laboratory resources and reduce time required for the assay. The assay is quasi-empirical: glucose is the analyte detected, but its release is determined by run conditions and specification of enzymes. The modified assay was tested in an AOAC collaborative study to evaluate its accuracy and reliability for determination of dietary starch in animal feedstuffs and pet foods. In the assay, samples are incubated in screw cap tubes with thermostable α-amylase in pH 5.0 sodium acetate buffer for 1 h at 100°C with periodic mixing to gelatinize and partially hydrolyze α-glucan. Amyloglucosidase is added, and the reaction mixture is incubated at 50°C for 2 h and mixed once. After subsequent addition of water, mixing, clarification, and dilution as needed, free + enzymatically released glucose are measured. Values from a separate determination of free glucose are subtracted to give values for enzymatically released glucose. Dietary starch equals enzymatically released glucose multiplied by 162/180 (or 0.9) divided by the weight of the as received sample. Fifteen laboratories that represented feed company, regulatory, research, and commercial feed

  13. Infant feeding practices at routine PMTCT sites, South Africa: results of a prospective observational study amongst HIV exposed and unexposed infants - birth to 9 months

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We sought to investigate infant feeding practices amongst HIV-positive and -negative mothers (0-9 months postpartum) and describe the association between infant feeding practices and HIV-free survival. Methods Infant feeding data from a prospective observational cohort study conducted at three (of 18) purposively-selected routine South African PMTCT sites, 2002-2003, were analysed. Infant feeding data (previous 4 days) were gathered during home visits at 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36 weeks postpartum. Four feeding groups were of interest, namely exclusive breastfeeding, mixed breastfeeding, exclusive formula feeding and mixed formula feeding. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to investigate associations between feeding practices (0-12 weeks) and infant HIV-free survival. Results Six hundred and sixty five HIV-positive and 218 HIV-negative women were recruited antenatally and followed-up until 36 weeks postpartum. Amongst mothers who breastfed between 3 weeks and 6 months postpartum, significantly more HIV-positive mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding compared with HIV-negative: at 3 weeks 130 (42%) versus 33 (17%) (p < 0.01); this dropped to 17 (11%) versus 1 (0.7%) by four months postpartum. Amongst mothers practicing mixed breastfeeding between 3 weeks and 6 months postpartum, significantly more HIV-negative mothers used commercially available breast milk substitutes (p < 0.02) and use of these peaked between 9 and 12 weeks. The probability of postnatal HIV or death was lowest amongst infants living in the best resourced site who avoided breastfeeding, and highest amongst infants living in the rural site who stopped breastfeeding early (mean and standard deviations: 10.7% ± 3% versus 46% ± 11%). Conclusions Although feeding practices were poor amongst HIV-positive and -negative mothers, HIV-positive mothers undertake safer infant feeding practices, possibly due to counseling provided through the routine PMTCT programme. The

  14. Associations between maternal depressive symptoms and child feeding practices in a cross-sectional study of low-income mothers and their young children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal depression may influence feeding practices important in determining child eating behaviors and weight. However, the association between maternal depressive symptoms and feeding practices has been inconsistent, and most prior studies used self-report questionnaires alone to characterize feeding. The purpose of this study was to identify feeding practices associated with maternal depressive symptoms using multiple methodologies, and to test the hypothesis that maternal depressive symptoms are associated with less responsive feeding practices. Methods In this cross-sectional, observational study, participants (n = 295) included low-income mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children. Maternal feeding practices were assessed via interviewer-administered questionnaires, semi-structured narrative interviews, and videotaped observations in home and laboratory settings. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Regression analyses examined associations between elevated depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥16) and measures of maternal feeding practices, adjusting for: child sex, food fussiness, number of older siblings; and maternal age, body mass index (BMI), education, race/ethnicity, single parent status, perceived child weight, and concern about child weight. Results Thirty-one percent of mothers reported depressive symptoms above the screening cutoff. Mothers with elevated depressive symptoms reported more pressuring of children to eat (β = 0.29; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.03, 0.54) and more overall demandingness (β = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.29), and expressed lower authority in child feeding during semi-structured narrative interview (Odds Ratio (OR) for low authority: 2.82; 95% CI: 1.55, 5.12). In homes of mothers with elevated depressive symptoms, the television was more likely audible during meals (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.48) and mothers were less likely to eat with

  15. Associations between maternal depressive symptoms and child feeding practices in a cross-sectional study of low-income mothers and their young children.

    PubMed

    Goulding, Alison N; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Miller, Alison L; Peterson, Karen E; Chen, Yu-Pu; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2014-06-16

    Maternal depression may influence feeding practices important in determining child eating behaviors and weight. However, the association between maternal depressive symptoms and feeding practices has been inconsistent, and most prior studies used self-report questionnaires alone to characterize feeding. The purpose of this study was to identify feeding practices associated with maternal depressive symptoms using multiple methodologies, and to test the hypothesis that maternal depressive symptoms are associated with less responsive feeding practices. In this cross-sectional, observational study, participants (n = 295) included low-income mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children. Maternal feeding practices were assessed via interviewer-administered questionnaires, semi-structured narrative interviews, and videotaped observations in home and laboratory settings. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Regression analyses examined associations between elevated depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥16) and measures of maternal feeding practices, adjusting for: child sex, food fussiness, number of older siblings; and maternal age, body mass index (BMI), education, race/ethnicity, single parent status, perceived child weight, and concern about child weight. Thirty-one percent of mothers reported depressive symptoms above the screening cutoff. Mothers with elevated depressive symptoms reported more pressuring of children to eat (β = 0.29; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.03, 0.54) and more overall demandingness (β = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.29), and expressed lower authority in child feeding during semi-structured narrative interview (Odds Ratio (OR) for low authority: 2.82; 95% CI: 1.55, 5.12). In homes of mothers with elevated depressive symptoms, the television was more likely audible during meals (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.48) and mothers were less likely to eat with children (OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0

  16. What factors explain pregnant women’s feeding intentions in Bradford, England: A multi-methods, multi-ethnic study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Using a multi-methods approach we aimed to explore the relative prediction of demographic, socioeconomic and modifiable predictors from the Theory of Planned behaviour (TPB) in explaining feeding intentions amongst a multi-ethnic sample. Methods 476 women completed a questionnaire at 28 weeks gestation. They were grouped into breastfeeding (N = 258), mixed-feeding (N = 50), bottle-feeding (N = 88) intenders, or a no clear intention (N = 88). Multinomial adjusted regressions explored the influence of modifiable TPB factors, along with ethnicity and socioeconomic status in predicting group membership. Free-text responses allowed women to elaborate on reasons behind their intention. Results TPB factors were significant predictors of feeding intention. Women with high intention to breastfeed were less likely to report high attitudes in any other feeding alternative. Bottle-feeding intenders reported poorer self-efficacy regarding breastfeeding compared to breastfeeding intenders (prevalence rate ratio, PRR = 0.10). Mixed and bottle-feeding intenders reported greater self-efficacy for mixed-feeding (PRR = 1.80, 5.50 respectively). Descriptive norms for mixed (PRR = 13.77) and bottle-feeding (PRR = 10.68) were predictive of mixed-feeding intention. Reasons for breastfeeding intentions related to health considerations, whilst bottle-feeding reasons related to convenience. Mixed-feeding intenders reported both breast and bottle-related factors. Conclusions Understanding modifiable predictors related to feeding intentions like TPB factors can help professionals target appropriate interventions to encourage breastfeeding. PMID:24472414

  17. Timely initiation of complementary feeding and associated factors among children aged 6 to 12 months in Northern Ethiopia: an institution-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first six months of life is critical for the wellbeing of the child. In the mean while, timely initiation and starting nutritionally-adequate, safe, age-appropriate complementary feeding at six months is recommended for the better health and development of infants. According to the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2011, timely initiation of complementary feeding in Ethiopia at the 6th month was only 51%. The purpose of this study is to determine the magnitude of timely initiation of complementary feeding and associated factors in Mekelle town, Northern Ethiopia. Methods An institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 422 mothers of infants aged from six months to one year selected from six public health facilities. Sample size proportional to the patient flow rate of each institution was allocated and systematic random sampling method was used to get the study participant. An exit interview using structured questionnaire was conducted about their experience on complementary feeding and related experience. The questionnaire was pretested among 21 mothers. Data were entered with EPI info version 3.5.1 and cleaning and analysis was done by using SPSS version 16. Frequencies distribution, binary and multiple logistic regressions were done. OR and 95% confidence interval was computed. Result The prevalence of timely initiation of complementary feeding at sixth month was 62.8% (265/422, 95% C.I: 58.1, 67.31%). Educational level, occupation of mother, parity, having ANC follow up, and birth preparedness were found to be independent predictor of timely initiation of complementary feeding. Conclusions Almost two-third of mothers initiated complementary feeding at six month of child’ age as recommended. This was relatively higher prevalence than most developing countries. However, significant proportion of mothers still did not initiate complementary feeding timely. Mothers who are illiterate

  18. Study parameters influencing NOAEL and LOAEL in toxicity feeding studies for pesticides: exposure duration versus dose decrement, dose spacing, group size and chemical class.

    PubMed

    Zarn, Jürg A; Engeli, Barbara E; Schlatter, Josef R

    2011-11-01

    The effect of exposure duration on no observed adverse effect levels (NOAEL) and lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAEL) in rodent pesticide feeding studies was evaluated. Ratios of NOAEL (and LOAEL), expressed as pesticide concentrations in feed, were calculated from subacute to subchronic, subchronic to chronic and subacute to chronic studies. There was no statistical significant effect of exposure duration on ratio distributions. Whereas geometric means of ratios were in a narrow range of 1.1-2.5, the geometric standard deviations and 95th percentiles increased with dose spacing of the involved studies. With the exception of carbamates, the chemical class of pesticides had no influence on the ratio distributions. However, the number of animals in the shorter-term study of ratio couples being ≤ 1 was statistically significantly higher than in ratio couples being >1. Ratios ≤ 1 may be partly explained by the dose decrement over time observed in feeding studies applying the test substances in constant concentrations. The dose decrement possibly converts initially toxic doses to less toxic doses beyond the subacute phase. Ratios >1 seem to be caused predominantly by differences in study design parameters. In dietary risk assessment, the acceptable daily intake (ADI) is compared to pesticide intake estimates based on mean food consumption (i.e. the so called theoretical maximum daily intake, TMDI) being orders of magnitude lower than actual food consumption on eating occasions for certain food commodities. As subacute, subchronic and chronic NOAEL (and LOAEL), expressed as pesticide concentration in feed did not differ statistically significantly, the TMDI as benchmark for the ADI may underestimate the significance of the toxicity of subacute exposure.

  19. Preverbal infants anticipate that food will be brought to the mouth: an eye tracking study of manual feeding and flying spoons.

    PubMed

    Kochukhova, Olga; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2010-01-01

    This study relies on eye tracking technology to investigate how humans perceive others' feeding actions. Results demonstrate that 6-month-olds (n = 54) anticipate that food is brought to the mouth when observing an adult feeding herself with a spoon. Still, they fail to anticipate self-propelled (SP) spoons that move toward the mouth and manual combing actions directed toward the head. Ten-month-olds (n = 54) and adults (n = 32) anticipate SP spoons; however, only adults anticipate combing actions. These results suggest that goal anticipation during observation of feeding actions develops earlier and is less dependent on directly perceived actions than goal anticipation during observation of other manual actions. These results are discussed in relation to experience and a possible phylogenetic influence on perception and understanding of feeding. © 2010 The Authors. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. Continuous manufacturing of tablets with PROMIS-line - Introduction and case studies from continuous feeding, blending and tableting.

    PubMed

    Simonaho, Simo-Pekka; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Ervasti, Tuomas; Toiviainen, Maunu; Korhonen, Ossi

    2016-07-30

    Drug manufacturing technology is in the midst of modernization and continuous manufacturing of drug products is especially the focus of great interest. The adoption of new manufacturing approaches requires extensive cooperation between industry, regulatory bodies, academics and equipment manufacturers. In this paper we introduce PROMIS-line which is a continuous tableting line built at the University of Eastern Finland, School of Pharmacy, PROMIS-centre. PROMIS-line is modular and tablets can be produced via dry granulation or direct compression. In three case studies, continuous feeding, blending and tablet performance is studied to illustrate some basic features of PROMIS-line. In conclusion, the PROMIS-line is an excellent tool for studying the fundamentals of continuous manufacturing of tablets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A 90-day subchronic feeding study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Huan; He, Xiaoyun; Zou, Shiying; Zhang, Teng; Luo, Yunbo; Huang, Kunlun; Zhu, Zhen; Xu, Wentao

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic rice line (mfb-MH86) expressing a synthetic cry1Ab gene can be protected against feeding damage from Lepidopteran insects, including Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. Rice flour from mfb-MH86 and its near-isogenic control MH86 was separately formulated into rodent diets at concentrations of 17.5, 35 and 70 % (w/w) for a 90-day feeding test with rats, and all of the diets were nutritionally balanced. In this study, the responses of rats fed diets containing mfb-MH86 were compared to those of rats fed flour from MH86. Overall health, body weight and food consumption were comparable between groups fed diets containing mfb-MH86 and MH86. Blood samples were collected prior to sacrifice and a few significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in haematological and biochemical parameters between rats fed genetically modified (GM) and non-GM diets. However, the values of these parameters were within the normal ranges of values for rats of this age and sex, thus not considered treatment related. In addition, upon sacrifice a large number of organs were weighed, macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with only minor changes to report. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that no toxic effect was observed in the conditions of the experiment, based on the different parameters assessed. GM rice mfb-MH86 is as safe and nutritious as non-GM rice.

  2. A subchronic feeding study of dicamba-tolerant soybean with the dmo gene in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyun; He, Xiaoyun; Zou, Shiyin; Xu, Wentao; Jia, Xin; Zhao, Bo; Zhao, Changhui; Huang, Kunlun; Liang, Zhihong

    2016-06-01

    The dicamba-tolerant soybean MON87708 expresses the dicamba mono-oxygenase (DMO) enzyme that is encoded by the dmo gene. In order to evaluate the safety of this soybean, a 90-day subchronic feeding toxicity study (13 weeks) was conducted on Sprague-Dawley rats. A total of 140 rats were divided into 7 groups (10/sex/group), including a standard commercial diet control group. The genetically modified (GM) soybean MON87708 and the near isogenic non-GM soybean A3525 were respectively processed to unhulled, full-fat, and heat-treated powder, then mixed into the diet at levels of 7.5%, 15%, and 30% (wt/wt) with the main nutrients of the various diets balanced and then fed to 6 groups. The remaining group of rats fed with a commercial rat diet served as blank control. Some isolated parameters indicated statistically significant differences in body weight, feed consumption/utilization, hematology, serum biochemistry, and relative organ weights. These differences were not consistent across gender or test-diet dose, which were attributed to incidental and biological variability. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the transgenic soybean MON87708 containing DMO was as safe as non-transgenic isogenic counterpart with historical safe use.

  3. A Preference Based Measure of Complementary Feeding Quality: Application to the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Mittinty, Murthy N.; Golley, Rebecca K.; Smithers, Lisa G.; Brazionis, Laima; Lynch, John W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development of the Complementary Feeding Utility Index (CFUI), a composite index aimed to measure adherence to infant feeding guidelines. Through an axiomatic characterization this paper shows the advantages in using the CFUI are the following: it avoids the use of arbitrary cut-offs, and by converting observed diet preferences into utilities, summing the score is meaningful. In addition, as the CFUI is designed to be scored continuously, it allows the transition from intake of beneficial foods (in low quantities) and intake of detrimental foods (in high quantities) to be more subtle. The paper first describes the rationale being the development of the CFUI and then elaborates on the methodology used to develop the CFUI, including the process of selecting the components. The methodology is applied to data collected from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children to show the advantages of the CFUI over traditional diet index approaches. Unlike traditional approaches, the distribution of the CFUI does not peak towards mean value but distributes evenly towards the tails of the distribution. PMID:24155886

  4. Poor Infant Feeding Practices and High Prevalence of Malnutrition in Urban Slum Child Care Centres in Nairobi: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Mwase, Ivan; Mutoro, Antonina; Owino, Victor; Garcia, Ada L; Wright, Charlotte M

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the style and quality of feeding and care provided in child day-care centres in slum areas. This study purposively sampled five day-care centres in Nairobi, Kenya, where anthropometric measurements were collected among 33 children aged 6-24 months. Mealtime interactions were further observed in 11 children from four centres, using a standardized data collection sheet. We recorded the child actions, such as mood, interest in food, distraction level, as well as caregiver actions, such as encouragement to eat, level of distraction and presence of neutral actions. Of the 33 children assessed, with a mean age of 15.9 ± 4.9 months, 14 (42%) were female. Undernutrition was found in 13 (39%) children with at least one Z score <-2 or oedema (2): height for age <-2 (11), weight for age <-2 (11), body mass index for age <-2 (4). Rates of undernutrition were highest (9 of 13; 69%) in children aged 18-24 months. Hand-washing before the meal was lacking in all centres. Caregivers were often distracted and rarely encouraged children to feed, with most children eating less than half of their served meal. Poor hygiene coupled with non-responsive care practices observed in the centres is a threat to child health, growth and development. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Poor Infant Feeding Practices and High Prevalence of Malnutrition in Urban Slum Child Care Centres in Nairobi: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Mutoro, Antonina; Owino, Victor; Garcia, Ada L.; Wright, Charlotte M.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the style and quality of feeding and care provided in child day-care centres in slum areas. This study purposively sampled five day-care centres in Nairobi, Kenya, where anthropometric measurements were collected among 33 children aged 6–24 months. Mealtime interactions were further observed in 11 children from four centres, using a standardized data collection sheet. We recorded the child actions, such as mood, interest in food, distraction level, as well as caregiver actions, such as encouragement to eat, level of distraction and presence of neutral actions. Of the 33 children assessed, with a mean age of 15.9 ± 4.9 months, 14 (42%) were female. Undernutrition was found in 13 (39%) children with at least one Z score <−2 or oedema (2): height for age <−2 (11), weight for age <−2 (11), body mass index for age <−2 (4). Rates of undernutrition were highest (9 of 13; 69%) in children aged 18–24 months. Hand-washing before the meal was lacking in all centres. Caregivers were often distracted and rarely encouraged children to feed, with most children eating less than half of their served meal. Poor hygiene coupled with non-responsive care practices observed in the centres is a threat to child health, growth and development. PMID:26507408

  6. Studies of acoustic-electric feed-throughs for power transmission through structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Doty, Benjamin; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Aldrich, Jack; Chang, Zensheu

    2006-01-01

    There are numerous engineering design problems where the use of wires to transfer power and communicate data thru the walls of a structure is prohibitive or significantly difficult that it may require a complex design. Using physical feedthroughs in such systems may make them susceptible to leakage of chemicals or gasses, loss of pressure or vacuum, as well as difficulties in providing adequate thermal or electrical insulation. Moreover, feeding wires thru a wall of a structure reduces the strength of the structure and makes the structure prone to cracking due to fatigue that can result from cyclic loading and stress concentrations. One area that has already been identified to require a wireless alternative to electrical feedthroughs is the container of the Mars Sample Return Mission, which will need wireless sensors to sense a pressure leak and to avoid potential contamination. The idea of using elastic or acoustic waves to transfer power was suggested recently by [Y. Hu, et al., July 2003]. This system allows for the avoidance of cabling or wiring. The technology is applicable to the transfer of power for actuation, sensing and other tasks inside any sealed container or vacuum/pressure vessel. An alternative approach to the modeling presented previously [Sherrit et a., 2005] used network analysis to solve the same problem in a clear and expandable manner. Experimental tests on three different designs of these devices were performed. The three designs used different methods of coupling the piezoelectric element to the wall. In the first test the piezoelectric material was bolted using a backing structure. In the second test the piezoelectric was clamped after the application of grease and finally the piezoelectric element was attached using a conductive epoxy. The mechanical clamp with grease produced the highest measured efficiency of 53% however this design was the least practical from a fabrication viewpoint. The power transfer efficiency of conductive epoxy

  7. Studies of acoustic-electric feed-throughs for power transmission through structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Doty, Benjamin; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Aldrich, Jack; Chang, Zensheu

    2006-01-01

    There are numerous engineering design problems where the use of wires to transfer power and communicate data thru the walls of a structure is prohibitive or significantly difficult that it may require a complex design. Using physical feedthroughs in such systems may make them susceptible to leakage of chemicals or gasses, loss of pressure or vacuum, as well as difficulties in providing adequate thermal or electrical insulation. Moreover, feeding wires thru a wall of a structure reduces the strength of the structure and makes the structure prone to cracking due to fatigue that can result from cyclic loading and stress concentrations. One area that has already been identified to require a wireless alternative to electrical feedthroughs is the container of the Mars Sample Return Mission, which will need wireless sensors to sense a pressure leak and to avoid potential contamination. The idea of using elastic or acoustic waves to transfer power was suggested recently by [Y. Hu, et al., July 2003]. This system allows for the avoidance of cabling or wiring. The technology is applicable to the transfer of power for actuation, sensing and other tasks inside any sealed container or vacuum/pressure vessel. An alternative approach to the modeling presented previously [Sherrit et a., 2005] used network analysis to solve the same problem in a clear and expandable manner. Experimental tests on three different designs of these devices were performed. The three designs used different methods of coupling the piezoelectric element to the wall. In the first test the piezoelectric material was bolted using a backing structure. In the second test the piezoelectric was clamped after the application of grease and finally the piezoelectric element was attached using a conductive epoxy. The mechanical clamp with grease produced the highest measured efficiency of 53% however this design was the least practical from a fabrication viewpoint. The power transfer efficiency of conductive epoxy

  8. Serum β-Glucuronidase Activity in Response to Fruit and Vegetable Supplementation: A Controlled Feeding Study

    PubMed Central

    Maruti, Sonia S.; Chang, Jyh-Lurn; Prunty, JoAnn; Bigler, Jeannette; Schwarz, Yvonne; Li, Shuying S.; Li, Lin; King, Irena B.; Potter, John D.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Fruit and vegetable intake may lower the risk of some cancers. One hypothesized, but understudied, chemopreventive mechanism is that plant food constituents inhibit β-glucuronidase, an acid hydrolase that deconjugates glucuronides. Methods We conducted a cross-over feeding trial in 63 healthy women and men aged 20−40 years, to examine the effect of diet on serum β-glucuronidase activity. Participants were randomized to 2 two-week experimental diets with an intervening washout period: a diet high in selected citrus fruit, crucifers, and soy (F&V) and a diet devoid of fruits, vegetables, and soy (basal). Serum β-glucuronidase activity was measured during the pre-intervention, F&V, and basal periods. Linear mixed models were used to obtain effect estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results We observed statistically significantly higher β-glucuronidase activity during the F&V than the basal diet (ratio, F&V versus basal diet, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.05−1.13; P <0.01). These results were probably due to decreased β-glucuronidase activity during the basal diet (ratio, basal period versus pre-intervention, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87−0.98; P=0.01), rather than increased enzyme activity during the F&V diet (ratio, F&V period versus pre-intervention, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.96−1.06; P=0.64). The diet-enzyme activity relation did not differ by sex (P interaction=0.30), but there was a suggestion of a short-term diet effect at 8 days versus 15 days (P interaction=0.06). Conclusion This intervention of selected fruits and vegetables did not lower β-glucuronidase activity. Further investigation is needed regarding what other foods and phytochemicals may influence β-glucuronidase activity and effect modifiers of this relation PMID:18628435

  9. Mothers' restrictive eating and food neophobia and fathers' dietary quality are associated with breast-feeding duration and introduction of solid foods: the STEPS study.

    PubMed

    Vaarno, Jenni; Niinikoski, Harri; Kaljonen, Anne; Aromaa, Minna; Lagström, Hanna

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between parental eating behaviours and dietary patterns and feeding practices of infants and young children. Data on infant-feeding practices were collected from each infant's birth via parentally self-administered follow-up diaries. Three questionnaires, the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, the Food Neophobia Scale and the Index of Diet Quality, were administered when the children were aged 4 and 13 months. South-western Finland. Families participating in the STEPS longitudinal cohort study (n 1797). Mean duration of exclusive breast-feeding was 2.4 months and total duration of breast-feeding averaged 8.1 months. The first solid food was introduced into children's diets at the age of 3.9 months, on average. Mothers with highly restrictive eating were more likely to introduce solid foods sooner than mothers who ranked lower in these behaviours (3.8 months v. 4.0 months, P = 0.012). Neophobic mothers breast-fed exclusively (2.0 v. 2.6 months, P = 0.038) and in total (7.2 v. 8.5 months, P = 0.039) for shorter times than average mothers, even after adjusting for various demographic characteristics. Fathers' diet quality was associated with total breast-feeding duration and with introduction of complementary foods in unadjusted analyses and with total breast-feeding duration also after adjusting for confounding factors. Mothers' and fathers' eating patterns and practices are associated with the feeding practices of infants and young children. Health promotion interventions seeking to improve parents' eating patterns might lead to more favourable feeding practices for infants and young children.

  10. Does broodstock nutritional history affect the response of progeny to different first-feeding diets? A whole-body transcriptomic study of rainbow trout alevins.

    PubMed

    Lazzarotto, Viviana; Corraze, Geneviève; Larroquet, Laurence; Mazurais, David; Médale, Françoise

    2016-06-01

    The whole-body transcriptome of trout alevins was characterised to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of rainbow trout broodstock females a diet free of fishmeal and fish oil on the metabolic capacities of progeny. Effects were studied before first feeding and after 3 weeks of feeding diets containing different proportions of marine and plant ingredients. Feeding alevins plant-based diets resulted in lower fish body weight, irrespective of maternal nutritional history. No differences in whole-body lipids were found between treatments, and the tissue fatty acid profile strongly reflected that of the respective broodstock or first-feeding diets. We showed that the maternal diet history did not significantly affect expressions of any genes before the first feeding. Interestingly, we found an effect of maternal nutritional history on gene expression in alevins after 3 weeks of feeding. The major differences in the transcriptome of alevins from plant-based diet-fed females compared with those from commercial-fed females were as follows: (i) down-regulation of genes involved in muscle growth/contraction and (ii) up-regulation of genes involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism related to the delay in growth/development observed with plant-based diets. Our findings also showed an effect of the first-feeding diets, irrespective of maternal nutritional history. Specifically, the introduction of plant ingredients resulted in the up-regulation of genes involved in amino acid/protein and cholesterol metabolism and in differences in the expressions of genes related to carbohydrate metabolism. Information gained through this study opens up avenues for further reduction of marine ingredients in trout diets, including the whole rearing cycle.

  11. The effect of breast-feeding duration on bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yazici, Selma; Korkmaz, Ugur; Erkan, Melih; Korkmaz, Nurdan; Erdem Baki, Ali; Alçelik, Aytekin; Onder, Elif; Ataoğlu, Safinaz

    2011-06-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of breast-feeding time on bone mineral density (BMD) later in life. The current study was based on a retrospective analysis of 586 postmenopausal women with a mean age of 60.8 years, who were screened for osteoporosis by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).They were classified into 4 groups with respect to the duration of their breast-feeding as never (group 1), 1-24 months (group 2), 25-60 months (group 3), or > 60 months (group 4). Bone mineral density results for the femur neck and lumbar spine were classified into 3 groups according to WHO criteria as normal (T score > -1.0 SD), osteopenia (T score -1.0 to -2.5 SD), and osteoporosis (T score < -2.5 SD). Patients with osteopenia or osteoporosis (T score < -1.0 SD) were considered as having low bone mass (LBM). We found a correlation between duration of lactation and femur BMD or spine BMD in the study population (r = 0.116, p < 0.005; r = -0.151, p = 0.001, respectively). Significant differences were found between femur BMD and spine BMD of groups in one-way ANOVA analysis (p = 0.025, p = 0.005, respectively). Additionally, when compared with the other three groups, group 4 was older and had longer duration of menopause (p < 0.01). In logistic regression analysis, age and body mass index were found as independent risk factors of LBM [odds ratio: 1.084 (95% CI 1.031-1.141); odds ratio: 0.896 (95% CI 0.859-0.935)], while duration of lactation was not found as an independent predictor of LBM. In this study, we have found that changes of bone metabolism during lactation had no effect on postmenopausal BMD measured by DXA. Consequently, it can be suggested that long breast-feeding duration is not a risk factor for low bone mass later in life.

  12. The effect of breast-feeding duration on bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, Selma; Korkmaz, Ugur; Erkan, Melih; Korkmaz, Nurdan; Erdem Baki, Ali; Alçelik, Aytekin; Önder, Elif; Ataoğlu, Safinaz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In the present study, we investigated the effects of breast-feeding time on bone mineral density (BMD) later in life. Material and methods The current study was based on a retrospective analysis of 586 postmenopausal women with a mean age of 60.8 years, who were screened for osteoporosis by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).They were classified into 4 groups with respect to the duration of their breast-feeding as never (group 1), 1-24 months (group 2), 25-60 months (group 3), or > 60 months (group 4). Bone mineral density results for the femur neck and lumbar spine were classified into 3 groups according to WHO criteria as normal (T score > –1.0 SD), osteopenia (T score –1.0 to –2.5 SD), and osteoporosis (T score < –2.5 SD). Patients with osteopenia or osteoporosis (T score < –1.0 SD) were considered as having low bone mass (LBM). Results We found a correlation between duration of lactation and femur BMD or spine BMD in the study population (r = 0.116, p < 0.005; r = –0.151, p = 0.001, respectively). Significant differences were found between femur BMD and spine BMD of groups in one-way ANOVA analysis (p = 0.025, p = 0.005, respectively). Additionally, when compared with the other three groups, group 4 was older and had longer duration of menopause (p < 0.01). In logistic regression analysis, age and body mass index were found as independent risk factors of LBM [odds ratio: 1.084 (95% CI 1.031-1.141); odds ratio: 0.896 (95% CI 0.859-0.935)], while duration of lactation was not found as an independent predictor of LBM. Conclusions In this study, we have found that changes of bone metabolism during lactation had no effect on postmenopausal BMD measured by DXA. Consequently, it can be suggested that long breast-feeding duration is not a risk factor for low bone mass later in life. PMID:22295033

  13. PCB {number_sign}126 and {number_sign}153 feeding study with common tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Bosveld, A.T.C.; Nieboer, R.; Bont, A. de; Mennen, J.; Seinen, W.; Berg, M. van den; Brouwer, A.

    1995-12-31

    Eggs of common terns from a relatively contaminated and a reference site in the Netherlands were collected and artificially incubated. After hatching the chicks were divided among different groups, receiving diets with PCB 126 concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 33 ng/g fish, either with or without co-administration of PCB 153 at 1,000 times higher levels. Despite the high dose levels, no PCB related effects on body weight gain and morphometry (tarsus, tibia, femur, wing, bill, crane) were found in the chicks after three week of feeding. However, significant effects on bursa and thyroid weights, and thyroid hormone concentrations were found. In addition, dose related effects on EROD, PROD, and testosterone metabolism were observed. Results from this study in combination with previously conducted studies measuring the effects of PCBs in hatchlings, suggest that the stage of embryonal development is more sensitive to morphometric effects of PCBs than the stage of postnatal development.

  14. Studies on feeding peanut meal as a protein source for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Costa, E F; Miller, B R; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Ewing, H P

    2001-03-01

    Four experiments were conducted to compare the performance of broilers fed soybean meal (SBM) versus peanut meal (PNM) as protein sources. Ross x Ross 208 broiler chickens were placed in battery brooders (Experiments 1 to 3, four replicates of 8 chicks per treatment) and floor pens (Experiment 4, four replicates of 34 chicks per treatment). In Experiment 1, addition of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% Thr to a corn-PNM-based diet increased 0 to 18 d BW gain (BWG; 0.374c vs. 0.495b vs. 0.508b vs. 0.508b kg, respectively) and decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR; 2.09c vs. 1.63b vs. vs. 1.54b vs. 1.54b g/g, respectively) compared to the corn-SBM-based control diet (BWG = 0.593a and FCR = 1.36a). In Experiment 2, diets were formulated with the same amino acid minimums, and as the percentage of PNM increased in the diets (0, 10, 20, and 32%), BWG decreased (0.560a vs. 0.532a vs. 0.521a vs. 0.458b kg, respectively) and FCR increased (1.72b vs. 1.71b vs. 1.79bc vs. 1.86c g/g, respectively). In Experiment 3, addition of Thr to a corn-PNM-based diet increased BWG (-Thr = 0.284c vs. +Thr = 0.397b kg) and decreased FCR (-Thr = 1.60b vs. +Thr = 1.54b g/g). The BWG and FCR were best for the corn-SBM-based control diet (0.499a kg and 1.38a g/g, respectively). In Experiment 4, during the growing period (18 to 42 d), significant interactions occurred between protein source (PNM vs. SBM) and protein level (16 and 20% vs. 24%) for BW and FCR but not for carcass, breast, or leg quarter yield or fat pad weights (P < 0.05) at 42 d of age. Technical (not economic) performance of birds fed PNM was similar to SBM at the highest protein levels fed. PNM could be used as a protein source for broilers under appropriate economic conditions.

  15. Implementing drinking water feed additive strategies in post-weaning piglets, antibiotic reduction and performance impacts: case study.

    PubMed

    Mesonero Escuredo, Juan Antonio; van der Horst, Yvonne; Carr, John; Maes, Dominiek

    2016-01-01

    Piglets at weaning suffer many stressors such as sudden change of feed, change in group composition and the end of lactogenic immunity. These stressors may cause poor growth performance. There is a need for alternatives to support piglets during the weaning period. Organic acids are known to have a positive effect on performance through reducing the pH and their antimicrobial action. The purpose was to study the effect of the inclusion of a free and buffered organic acid blend in drinking water on performance of weaned pigs. Four-hundred and twenty pigs in a conventional herd were allocated after weaning to one of three treatments and monitored during 4 weeks: group (1) Full medication, group (2) organic acid blend + full medication, group (3) organic acid blend + reduced medication. Average daily gain, feed intake and water consumption was recorded at group level. During the overall study period live weight and average daily gain of the piglets was significantly higher (P <0.001) for treatment (3) compared to (1) and (2) (Table 1). Live weight was significantly higher for treatment (3) compared to (1) from week 2 of the study (Fig. 1). No significant differences were found for average daily feed intake. FCR for treatment (3) improved by 1.0 compared to treatment (1) in week 1 (P <0.05), while in week 2 and 3 no significant differences were found (Table 2). Overall, FCR was with 0.3 difference significantly lower (P = 0.001) for treatment (3) than for (1) and (2) (Table 1). Pigs receiving organic acids in drinking water had significantly (P <0.05) higher water consumption than group (1) in weeks 3 and 4 (Table 2). The use of a blend of free and buffered organic acids together with a reduced medication program improves growth performance during the first month after weaning compared to a control with full medication and a combination between organic acids and full medication. This implies that organic acids could be used as a valid alternative for antibiotic

  16. Short communication: Iodine concentrations in serum, milk, and tears after feeding Ascophyllum nodosum to dairy cows-A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sorge, U S; Henriksen, M; Bastan, A; Cremers, N; Olsen, K; Crooker, B A

    2016-10-01

    Kelp (Ascophyllum nodosum) is rich in iodine and often fed by organic dairy producers as a mineral supplement to support animal health. A commonly held belief is that kelp supplementation decreases susceptibility to infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis due to increased iodine concentrations in tears. Whereas serum and milk iodine concentrations are positively correlated and modulated by oral iodine supplementation, nothing is known about the iodine concentration of tears. Therefore, the 3 objectives of this pilot study were to determine (1) the iodine content of tears, milk, and serum of cows after being fed kelp for 30d; (2) the trace mineral and thyroid status of cows before (d 0) and after being fed kelp for 30d; and (3) the in vitro growth rate of bacteria in tears (Moraxella bovis) or milk (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus uberis) collected from cows fed no kelp (d 0) or kelp (d 30). Cows (n=3/treatment) were individually fed 56g of kelp per day (n=3/treatment) or not (n=3/no treatment) for 30 d. Daily feed intake of the TMR was recorded and weekly TMR, kelp, milk, blood and tear samples were collected and analyzed for iodine. The feed samples were pooled and further analyzed for other minerals. On d 0 and 30, liver biopsies and blood samples were collected and analyzed for mineral content and thyroid hormone concentrations, respectively. An inhibition test used milk and tear-soaked plates from kelp-fed cows (d 0 and 30) as well as 1 and 7.5% iodine as positive and distilled water as negative control. As expected, serum iodine concentrations were positively correlated with milk and tear iodine concentrations. Whereas the iodine concentrations in serum increased significantly in the kelp-fed cows during the 30-d study, milk and tear iodine concentrations increased only numerically in these cows compared with the control group. Liver mineral profiles were comparable between groups and generally did not change over the course of the study

  17. Infant feeding patterns in families with a diabetes history – observations from The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Sandra; Vehik, Kendra; Uusitalo, Ulla; McLeod, Wendy; Aronsson, Carin Andrén; Frank, Nicole; Gesualdo, Patricia; Yang, Jimin; Norris, Jill M; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between diabetes family history and infant feeding patterns. Design Data on breast-feeding duration and age at first introduction of cow’s milk and gluten-containing cereals were collected in 3-month intervals during the first 24 months of life. Setting Data from the multicentre TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young) study, including centres in the USA, Sweden, Finland and Germany. Subjects A total of 7026 children, including children with a mother with type 1 diabetes (T1D; n 292), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM; n 404) or without diabetes but with a father and/or sibling with T1D (n 464) and children without diabetes family history (n 5866). Results While exclusive breast-feeding ended earlier and cow’s milk was introduced earlier in offspring of mothers with T1D and GDM, offspring of non-diabetic mothers but a father and/or sibling with T1D were exclusively breast-fed longer and introduced to cow’s milk later compared with infants without diabetes family history. The association between maternal diabetes and shorter exclusive breast-feeding duration was attenuated after adjusting for clinical variables (delivery mode, gestational age, Apgar score and birth weight). Country-specific analyses revealed differences in these associations, with Sweden showing the strongest and Finland showing no association between maternal diabetes and breast-feeding duration. Conclusions Family history of diabetes is associated with infant feeding patterns; however, the associations clearly differ by country, indicating that cultural differences are important determinants of infant feeding behaviour. These findings need to be considered when developing strategies to improve feeding patterns in infants with a diabetes family history. PMID:24477208

  18. Infant feeding patterns in families with a diabetes history - observations from The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Sandra; Vehik, Kendra; Uusitalo, Ulla; McLeod, Wendy; Aronsson, Carin Andrén; Frank, Nicole; Gesualdo, Patricia; Yang, Jimin; Norris, Jill M; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2014-12-01

    To assess the association between diabetes family history and infant feeding patterns. Data on breast-feeding duration and age at first introduction of cow's milk and gluten-containing cereals were collected in 3-month intervals during the first 24 months of life. Data from the multicentre TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young) study, including centres in the USA, Sweden, Finland and Germany. A total of 7026 children, including children with a mother with type 1 diabetes (T1D; n 292), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM; n 404) or without diabetes but with a father and/or sibling with T1D (n 464) and children without diabetes family history (n 5866). While exclusive breast-feeding ended earlier and cow's milk was introduced earlier in offspring of mothers with T1D and GDM, offspring of non-diabetic mothers but a father and/or sibling with T1D were exclusively breast-fed longer and introduced to cow's milk later compared with infants without diabetes family history. The association between maternal diabetes and shorter exclusive breast-feeding duration was attenuated after adjusting for clinical variables (delivery mode, gestational age, Apgar score and birth weight). Country-specific analyses revealed differences in these associations, with Sweden showing the strongest and Finland showing no association between maternal diabetes and breast-feeding duration. Family history of diabetes is associated with infant feeding patterns; however, the associations clearly differ by country, indicating that cultural differences are important determinants of infant feeding behaviour. These findings need to be considered when developing strategies to improve feeding patterns in infants with a diabetes family history.

  19. Feeding practices in early life and later intake of fruit and vegetables among Japanese toddlers: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Hirota, Yoshio

    2016-03-01

    A growing body of evidence from Western countries shows that infant feeding practices are associated with later childhood dietary habits, but little is known about these relationships in non-Western countries with different food cultures. We examined the association of breast-feeding duration and age at introduction of solid foods with later intake of fruit and vegetables among Japanese toddlers. Information on breast-feeding duration, age at introduction of solid foods and child's intake frequency of fruit and vegetables were collected with a self-administered questionnaire at 16-24 months postpartum. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios of low intake (<1 time/d) of fruit or vegetables for each infant feeding practice. Japan. Japanese mother-child pairs (n 763) from a prospective birth cohort study. Neither breast-feeding duration nor age at introduction of solid foods was associated with fruit intake at 16-24 months of age. Breast-feeding duration, but not age at introduction of solid foods, was associated with later intake of vegetables. When breast-feeding duration was categorized into two groups with the cut-off at 6 months, children who were breast-fed for ≥6 months had a significantly decreased risk of low intake of vegetables (OR=0·53; 95% CI 0·34, 0·84) than those breast-fed for <6 months. This association was independent of potential confounders including maternal education and maternal vegetable intake (OR=0·59; 95% CI 0·36, 0·97). This finding suggests that ≥6 months of breast-feeding may prevent low intake of vegetables in early childhood among Japanese toddlers.

  20. New analysis of a rat feeding study with a genetically modified maize reveals signs of hepatorenal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Cellier, Dominique; de Vendomois, Joël Spiroux

    2007-05-01

    Health risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) cultivated for food or feed is under debate throughout the world, and very little data have been published on mid- or long-term toxicological studies with mammals. One of these studies performed under the responsibility of Monsanto Company with a transgenic corn MON863 has been subjected to questions from regulatory reviewers in Europe, where it was finally approved in 2005. This necessitated a new assessment of kidney pathological findings, and the results remained controversial. An Appeal Court action in Germany (Münster) allowed public access in June 2005 to all the crude data from this 90-day rat-feeding study. We independently re-analyzed these data. Appropriate statistics were added, such as a multivariate analysis of the growth curves, and for biochemical parameters comparisons between GMO-treated rats and the controls fed with an equivalent normal diet, and separately with six reference diets with different compositions. We observed that after the consumption of MON863, rats showed slight but dose-related significant variations in growth for both sexes, resulting in 3.3% decrease in weight for males and 3.7% increase for females. Chemistry measurements reveal signs of hepatorenal toxicity, marked also by differential sensitivities in males and females. Triglycerides increased by 24-40% in females (either at week 14, dose 11% or at week 5, dose 33%, respectively); urine phosphorus and sodium excretions diminished in males by 31-35% (week 14, dose 33%) for the most important results significantly linked to the treatment in comparison to seven diets tested. Longer experiments are essential in order to indicate the real nature and extent of the possible pathology; with the present data it cannot be concluded that GM corn MON863 is a safe product.

  1. Association between home birth and breast feeding outcomes: a cross-sectional study in 28 125 mother–infant pairs from Ireland and the UK

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Clare; Taut, Cristina; Zigman, Tamara; Gallagher, Louise; Campbell, Harry; Zgaga, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between breast feeding outcomes and place of birth (home vs hospital birth). Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Setting Ireland and UK. Participants 10 604 mother–infant pairs from the Growing Up in Ireland study (GUI, 2008–2009) and 17 521 pairs from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (UKMCS, 2001–2002) at low risk of delivery complications were included in the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures Breast feeding initiation, exclusivity and duration. Results Home birth was found to be significantly associated with breast feeding at all examined time points, including at birth, 8 weeks, 6 months and breast feeding exclusively at 6 months. In GUI, adjusted OR was 1.90 (95% CI 1.19 to 3.02), 1.78 (1.18 to 2.69), 1.85 (1.23 to 2.77) and 2.77 (1.78 to 4.33), respectively, and in UKMCS it was 2.49 (1.84 to 3.44), 2.49 (1.92 to 3.26), 2.90 (2.25 to 3.73) and 2.24 (1.14 to 4.03). Conclusions Home birth was strongly associated with improved breast feeding outcomes in low-risk deliveries. While the association between home birth and breast feeding is unlikely to be directly causal, further research is needed to determine which factor(s) drive the observed differences, to facilitate development of perinatal care that supports breast feeding. PMID:27503858

  2. Association between home birth and breast feeding outcomes: a cross-sectional study in 28 125 mother-infant pairs from Ireland and the UK.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Clare; Taut, Cristina; Zigman, Tamara; Gallagher, Louise; Campbell, Harry; Zgaga, Lina

    2016-08-08

    To examine the association between breast feeding outcomes and place of birth (home vs hospital birth). Population-based cross-sectional study. Ireland and UK. 10 604 mother-infant pairs from the Growing Up in Ireland study (GUI, 2008-2009) and 17 521 pairs from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (UKMCS, 2001-2002) at low risk of delivery complications were included in the study. Breast feeding initiation, exclusivity and duration. Home birth was found to be significantly associated with breast feeding at all examined time points, including at birth, 8 weeks, 6 months and breast feeding exclusively at 6 months. In GUI, adjusted OR was 1.90 (95% CI 1.19 to 3.02), 1.78 (1.18 to 2.69), 1.85 (1.23 to 2.77) and 2.77 (1.78 to 4.33), respectively, and in UKMCS it was 2.49 (1.84 to 3.44), 2.49 (1.92 to 3.26), 2.90 (2.25 to 3.73) and 2.24 (1.14 to 4.03). Home birth was strongly associated with improved breast feeding outcomes in low-risk deliveries. While the association between home birth and breast feeding is unlikely to be directly causal, further research is needed to determine which factor(s) drive the observed differences, to facilitate development of perinatal care that supports breast feeding. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. A comparative study on vaccination pain in the methods of massage therapy and mothers’ breast feeding during injection of infants referring to Navabsafavi Health Care Center in Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Esfahani, Mitra Savabi; Sheykhi, Sanaz; Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Jodakee, Mohamadreza; Boroumandfar, Khadijeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vaccination is one of the most common painful procedures in infants. The irreversible consequences due to pain experiences in infants are enormous. Breast feeding and massage therapy methods are the non-drug methods of pain relief. Therefore, this research aimed to compare the vaccination-related pain in infants who underwent massage therapy or breast feeding during injection. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial. Ninety-six infants were allocated randomly and systematically to three groups (breast feeding, massage, and control groups). The study population comprised all infants, accompanied by their mothers, referring to one of the health centers in Isfahan for vaccination of hepatitis B and DPT at 6 months of age and for MMR at 12 months of age. Data gathering was done using questionnaire and checklist [neonatal infant pain scale (NIPS)]. Data analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistical methods with SPSS software. Results: Findings of the study showed that the three groups had no statistically significant difference in terms of demographic characteristics (P > 0/05). The mean pain scores in the breast feeding group, massage therapy, and control group were 3.4, 3.9, and 4.8, respectively (P < 0.05). Then the least significant difference (LSD) post hoc test was performed. Differences between the groups, i.e. massage therapy and breast feeding (P = 0.041), breast feeding group and control (P < 0.001), and massage therapy and control groups (P = 0.002) were statistically significant. Conclusion: Considering the results of the study, it seems that breast feeding during vaccination has more analgesic effect than massage therapy. Therefore, it is suggested as a noninvasive, safe, and accessible method without any side effects for reducing vaccination-related pain. PMID:24554949

  4. Detection of ruminant meat and bone meals in animal feed by real-time polymerase chain reaction: result of an interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Prado, Marta; Berben, Gilbert; Fumière, Olivier; van Duijn, Gert; Mensinga-Kruize, Jonne; Reaney, Scott; Boix, Ana; von Holst, Christoph

    2007-09-05

    The commercialization of animal feeds infected by prions proved to be the main cause of transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Therefore, feed bans were enforced, initially for ruminant feeds, and later for all feeds for farmed animals. The development and validation of analytical methods for the species-specific detection of animal proteins in animal feed has been indicated in the TSE (Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies) Roadmap (European Commission. The TSE (Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy) roadmap. URL: http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/food/biosafety/bse/roadmap_en.pdf, 2005) as the main condition for lifting the extended feed ban. Methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) seem to be a promising solution for this aim. The main objective of this study was to determine the applicability of four different real-time PCR methods, developed by three National expert laboratories from the European Union (EU), for the detection and identification of cattle or ruminant species in typical compound feeds, fortified with meat and bone meals (MBM) from different animal species at different concentration levels. The MBM samples utilized in this study have been treated using the sterilization condition mandatory within the European Union (steam pressure sterilization at 133 degrees C, 3 bar, and 20 min), which is an additional challenge to the PCR methods evaluated in this study. The results indicate that the three labs applying their PCR methods were able to detect 0.1% of cattle MBM, either alone or in mixtures with different materials such as fishmeal, which demonstrates the improvement made by this technique, especially when compared with results from former interlaboratory studies.

  5. Feeding practices of young children aged 12-23 months in different socio-economic settings: a study from an urban area of Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Santika, Otte; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Ariawan, Iwan

    2016-07-01

    Poor feeding practices among young children lead to malnutrition, and the poor are at a greater risk than the better off groups. Child-feeding practices in various socio-economic strata, especially in urban settings, have not yet been well studied in Indonesia. This study aims to explore the feeding practices of 12-23 months old children from different socio-economic status (SES) groups. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included low (n 207), medium-high (n 205), medium-low (n 208) and high SES households (n 194) in forty-three villages within thirty-three sub-districts of Bandung city. Two non-consecutive 24 h recall and eight core indicators of child-feeding practices were assessed through interviews. The results showed that children from the high SES group were more likely to be exclusively breast-fed and to continue breast-feeding up to 1 year of age, met minimum dietary diversity and minimum acceptable diet, and also consumed Fe-rich or Fe-fortified foods. In contrast, children from low SES consumed more energy-rich food (grain) but fewer foods from the other food groups. Consumption of major nutrients differed across the SES groups. Inadequate nutrition was higher among children from the lower SES groups. Fortified foods were consumed by a larger proportion of children from the high SES group and contributed considerably to their overall nutrient intake. This study shows that young children's feeding practices were not adequate, most notably among the low SES households. However, after adjusting with potential confounders, there was not enough evidence to conclude SES as a risk factor for feeding practice.

  6. A descriptive study of nasogastric tube feeding among geriatric inpatients in Malaysia: utilization, complications, and caregiver opinions.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Nordiana; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Chin, Ai-Vyrn; Poi, Philip J H; Tan, Maw Pin

    2015-01-01

    The strong emphasis on feeding in Asian cultures may influence decisions for nasogastric (NG) tube feeding in geriatric inpatients. We evaluated the utility, complications, and opinions of caregivers toward NG tube feeding in an acute geriatric ward in a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur. Consecutive patients aged 65 years and older receiving NG tube feeding were included. Sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory indices were recorded. Opinion on NG tube feeding were evaluated through face-to-face interviews with caregivers, recruited through convenience sampling. Of 432 patients admitted, 96 (22%), age ± standard deviation = 80.8 ± 7.4 years, received NG tube feeding. The complication and mortality rates were 69% and 38%, respectively. Diabetes (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 3.34 [1.07, 10.44], aspiration pneumonia (8.15 [2.43, 27.24]), impaired consciousness (3.13 [1.05, 9.36]), and albumin ≤26 g/dl (4.43 [1.46, 13.44]) were independent predictors of mortality. Other relatives were more likely than spouses (23.5 [3.59, 154.2]) and caregivers with tertiary education more likely than those with no formal education ( 18 [1.23, 262.7]) to agree to NG feeding. Sixty-four percent of caregivers felt NG tube feeding was appropriate at the end of life, mostly due to the fear of starvation. NG tube feeding is widely used in our setting, despite high complication and mortality rates, with likely influences from cultural emphasis on feeding.

  7. Infant feeding and vision

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over the past several years, a number of randomized controlled trials have compared the effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–supplemented and non-supplemented formulas on visual function in both preterm and term infants. Some studies have shown b...

  8. Breast-feeding and maternal cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Mezzacappa, E S; Kelsey, R M; Myers, M M; Katkin, E S

    2001-11-01

    Two studies examined the effects of breast-feeding on maternal cardiovascular function. In the first experiment, groups of breast-feeding and bottle-feeding women were compared on preejection period (PEP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) recorded for 1-min periods before and during standard laboratory stressors. Compared with bottle-feeders, breast-feeders had higher CO throughout the session, and greater decreases in CO and increases in TPR during cold pressor. In the second experiment, HR and blood pressure (BP) were compared before and after one breast-feeding and one bottle-feeding session in a within-subjects design. Both feeding methods increased BP but decreased HR, and systolic BP was higher for the breast-feeding than the bottle-feeding condition. Both studies support the notion that breast-feeding alters maternal cardiovascular function, possibly through the actions of oxytocin.

  9. Parent-Reported Feeding and Feeding Problems in a Sample of Dutch Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moor, Jan; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the feeding behaviors and problems with feeding in toddlers. In the present questionnaire study, data were collected on the feeding behaviors and feeding problems in a relatively large (n = 422) sample of Dutch healthy toddlers (i.e. 18-36 months old) who lived at home with their parents. Results show that three meals a day…

  10. Breast-feeding duration for the prevention of excess body weight of mother-child pairs concurrently: a 2-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mastroeni, Marco Fabio; Mastroeni, Silmara Salete de Barros Silva; Czarnobay, Sandra Ana; Ekwaru, John Paul; Loehr, Sarah A; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-10-01

    To examine the association between breast-feeding duration and the risk of excess body weight (children >85th percentile, mothers BMI≥25·0 kg/m2) concurrently in mother-child pairs two years after delivery. Prospective cohort study in Joinville, Brazil. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the independent relationship between breast-feeding duration and risk of excess body weight. Brazilian public maternity hospital. Three hundred and five mother-child pairs. At 2-year follow-up, 23·6 % of mother-child pairs had excess body weight. Children breast-fed for <2 months were more likely to have excess body weight than children breast-fed for ≥6 months (OR=2·4; 95 % CI 1·1, 5·1). Breast-feeding for <2 months was also associated with a greater likelihood of maternal excess body weight compared with those who breast-fed for ≥6 months (OR=2·9; 95 % CI 1·1, 8·1). There was a progressive increase in the likelihood of mother-child pairs having excess body weight as breast-feeding duration decreased. In addition to breast-feeding duration, other independent determinants of excess body weight were pre-pregnancy weight, gestational weight gain and number of pregnancies in mothers, and birth weight in children. Breast-feeding for a longer duration has a parallel protective effect on the risk of excess body weight in mother-child pairs two years after birth. Since members of the same family could be influenced by the same risk factors, continued promotion and support of breast-feeding may help to attenuate the rising prevalence of overweight in mother-child pairs.

  11. The role of infant feeding practices in the explanation for ethnic differences in infant growth: the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study.

    PubMed

    de Hoog, Marieke L A; van Eijsden, Manon; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud J B J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2011-11-01

    Rapid early growth in infants may influence overweight and CVD in later life. Both rapid growth and these disease outcomes disproportionately affect some ethnic minorities. We determined ethnic differences in growth rate (Δ standard deviation scores, ΔSDS) during the first 6 months of life and assessed the explanatory role of infant feeding. Data were derived from a multiethnic cohort for the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study (The Netherlands). Growth data (weight and length) of 2998 term-born singleton infants with no fetal growth restriction were available for five ethnic populations: Dutch (n 1619), African descent (n 174), Turkish (n 167), Moroccan (n 232) and other non-Dutch (n 806). ΔSDS for weight, length and weight-for-length between 4 weeks and 6 months were defined using internal references. Infant feeding pattern (breast-feeding duration, introduction of formula feeding and complementary feeding) in relation to ethnic differences in growth rate was examined by multivariate linear regression. Results showed that the growth rate was higher in almost all ethnic minorities, with β between 0·07 and 0·41 for ΔSDS weight and between 0·12 and 0·42 for ΔSDS length, compared with ethnic Dutch infants. ΔSDS weight-for-length was similar across groups, except for Moroccan infants (β 0·25, P < 0·05) after correction for confounders. In general, exclusive breast-feeding for 4 months was associated with slower growth for all three growth measures. Feeding factors explained, to a small degree, the higher weight and length gain in African descent infants, but not the higher ΔSDS weight-for-length in the Moroccan population. More research is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the high infant growth rate in Turkish and Moroccan infants.

  12. Understanding infant feeding beliefs, practices and preferred nutrition education and health provider approaches: an exploratory study with Somali mothers in the USA.

    PubMed

    Steinman, Lesley; Doescher, Mark; Keppel, Gina A; Pak-Gorstein, Suzinne; Graham, Elinor; Haq, Aliya; Johnson, Donna B; Spicer, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore Somali mothers' beliefs and practices around infant feeding and education, towards developing a culturally informed infant nutrition curriculum for health providers. Four focus groups were conducted to explore: (1) beliefs about infant feeding, hunger and ideal weight; (2) feeding practices; (3) nutrition education approaches; and (4) provider/mother interactions. Thirty-seven Somali mother participants identified the following themes within these topics: (1) strategies for assessing hunger, satiety and when to feed; shared beliefs that plump babies are healthy, leading to worry about infant weight; (2) context of breast milk adequacy, difficulties breastfeeding and environmental and cultural barriers to breastfeeding, leading to nearly universal early supplementation with formula; (3) preferred education approaches include provider visits with interpreters, Somali language educational materials and advice from older, experienced family members; and (4) desired health provider skills include: listening, explaining, empathy, addressing specific concerns, repeating important information, offering preventive advice and sufficient visit time. This study presents knowledge about Somali beliefs and practices that can directly guide discussions with these families. Given that these infants appear on a trajectory towards obesity, influencing infant feeding practices in the Somali community is a good upstream approach to preventing obesity. These findings will underpin a new infant nutrition curriculum for health providers.

  13. Understanding infant feeding beliefs, practices and preferred nutrition education and health provider approaches: an exploratory study with Somali mothers in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Steinman, Lesley; Doescher, Mark; Keppel, Gina A.; Pak-Gorstein, Suzinne; Graham, Elinor; Haq, Aliya; Johnson, Donna B.; Spicer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore Somali mothers’ beliefs and practices around infant feeding and education, towards developing a culturally informed infant nutrition curriculum for health providers. Four focus groups were conducted to explore: (1) beliefs about infant feeding, hunger and ideal weight; (2) feeding practices; (3) nutrition education approaches; and (4) provider/mother interactions. Thirty-seven Somali mother participants identified the following themes within these topics: (1) strategies for assessing hunger, satiety and when to feed; shared beliefs that plump babies are healthy, leading to worry about infant weight; (2) context of breast milk adequacy, difficulties breastfeeding and environmental and cultural barriers to breastfeeding, leading to nearly universal early supplementation with formula; (3) preferred education approaches include provider visits with interpreters, Somali language educational materials and advice from older, experienced family members; and (4) desired health provider skills include: listening, explaining, empathy, addressing specific concerns, repeating important information, offering preventive advice and sufficient visit time. This study presents knowledge about Somali beliefs and practices that can directly guide discussions with these families. Given that these infants appear on a trajectory towards obesity, influencing infant feeding practices in the Somali community is a good upstream approach to preventing obesity. These findings will underpin a new infant nutrition curriculum for health providers. PMID:20055931

  14. A qualitative study to understand positive and negative child feeding behaviors of immigrant Asian Indian mothers in the US.

    PubMed

    Momin, Shabnam R; Chung, Kimberly R; Olson, Beth H

    2014-09-01

    To understand current practice of child feeding behaviors, and underlying factors influencing these practices in Asian Indian mothers, qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 immigrant Asian Indian mothers of children ages 5-10 years. Using the theory of planned behavior as a guiding framework, child feeding behaviors employed, beliefs about the outcomes of feeding behaviors, perceived ease or difficultly in practicing feeding behaviors, and social norms were explored during the interviews. Thematic analysis was conducted using coding and display matrices. Mothers were motivated by nutrition outcomes when practicing positive and negative controlling feeding behaviors. Outcomes related to preservation of Indian culture and values also influenced feeding behaviors. Pressuring to eat was often practiced despite the perception of ineffectiveness. Use of food rewards was found, and use of TV to control children's food intake despite the clear understanding of undesirable nutrition outcomes was a unique finding. Asian Indian mothers need effective child feeding strategies that are culturally appropriate. Integrating cultural beliefs in nutrition education could help support existing motivation and behavior modification.

  15. The Study of Association between Mother Weight Efficacy Life-style with Feeding Practices, Food Groups Intake and Body Mass Index in Children Aged 3-6 Years.

    PubMed

    Gholamalizadeh, Maryam; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan; Paknahad, Zamzam; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Doaei, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition in childhood has a significant role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother's life-style has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child, child's diet and body mass index (BMI). This study paper aimed to investigate the association between mother's weight efficacy life-style (WEL) with feeding practices and diet in children aged 3-6 years. In this cross-sectional study, which was carried out in 18 Primary Schools of Rasht (Iran) in 2012, 165 mothers with children aged 3-6 years were participated. Mothers reported their own and their child's demographics. Aspects of mother's WEL and mother's control practices were assessed using WEL questionnaire and Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire respectively. Height and weight of mothers participated in the study were measured. Child's dietary intake was measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The role of mother's weight efficacy in predicting child's feeding practices and child's diet was assessed using the linear regression. Statistical significance for all P values was set at 0.003. The results were showed that mother's weight efficacy was related to child feeding practices and child's dietary intake. The mothers with similar WEL applied similar methods in child nutrition. Mothers with better weight efficacy used more encourage balance and variety (β = 1.860), environmental control (β = 0.437), child involvement (β = 0.203) and less emotion regulation using foods (β = -0.213) and their children eat fewer snacks (β = -0.318) (PV= 0.003). The result of this study showed that maternal life-style was associated with feeding practices and child's intake. There was no significant relation between the maternal self-efficacy and child BMI.

  16. [Comparative study of nitrogen savings during enteral and parenteral feeding (Trive 1000)].

    PubMed

    Wilkening, M; Farcy, M; Bauland, S; Fourre, M; Bazireau, F; Denkhadra, A

    1975-12-01

    Through a study of Nitrogen balances, the authors compare the effectiveness of a proteinic intake carried out per os or by intravenous route. The study involved 22 different carcinoma carriers and lasted for 9 days during which the Nitrogen intake was effected either by the digestive tract or by intravenous route supplemented by a sufficient caloric ration. In the latter case, the aminoacid intake was supplied by Trive 1000 combined with glucides and lipids which were then quantitatively deducted from the enteral intake. A study of the results showed that the assimilation of the Nitrogen injected intravenously was very similar to the one obtained by enteral route.

  17. How to feed environmental studies with soil information to address SDG 'Zero hunger'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendriks, Chantal; Stoorvogel, Jetse; Claessens, Lieven

    2017-04-01

    As pledged by UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2, there should be zero hunger, food security, improved food nutrition and sustainable agriculture by 2030. Environmental studies are essential to reach SDG 2. Soils play a crucial role, especially in addressing 'Zero hunger'. This study aims to discuss the connection between the supply and demand of soil data for environmental studies and how this connection can be improved illustrating different methods. As many studies are resource constrained, the options to collect new soil data are limited. Therefore, it is essential to use existing soil information, auxiliary data and collected field data efficiently. Existing soil data are criticised in literature as i) being dominantly qualitative, ii) being often outdated, iii) being not spatially exhaustive, iv) being only available at general scales, v) being inconsistent, and vi) lacking quality assessments. Additional field data can help to overcome some of these problems. Outdated maps can, for example, be improved by collecting additional soil data in areas where changes in soil properties are expected. Existing soil data can also provide insight in the expected soil variability and, as such, these data can be used for the design of sampling schemes. Existing soil data are also crucial input for studies on digital soil mapping because they give information on parent material and the relative age of soils. Digital soil mapping is commonly applied as an efficient method to quantitatively predict the spatial variation of soil properties. However, the efficiency of digital soil mapping may increase if we look at functional soil properties (e.g. nutrient availability, available water capacity) for the soil profile that vary in a two-dimensional space rather than at basic soil properties of individual soil layers (e.g. texture, organic matter content, nitrogen content) that vary in a three-dimensional space. Digital soil mapping techniques are based on statistical

  18. [Breast-feeding training programme as intervention approach at the hospital level: results of evaluation of the first phase of the STELLA study].

    PubMed

    Meyer, N; Spegel, H; Hendrowarsito, L; Schwegler, U; Fromme, H; Bolte, G

    2012-01-01

    The health-promoting short- and long-term effects of breast-feeding are supported by a vast scientific literature. The Bavarian prospective cohort study 2005/2006 showed regional variations of breast-feeding rates. Furthermore, improvement in counselling mothers, particularly with regard to prevention and handling of breast-feeding problems, has a great potential for health promotion. The objective of this study is to promote breast-feeding in maternity clinics by improving the surrounding conditions. A clinic-based and community-related intervention trial was carried out in Lower Bavaria as a model region with below average breast-feeding rates. (1) INTERVENTION: an advanced training of maternity ward professionals of 10 hospitals and after-care midwives was performed from May until December 2008. The training programme was based on the WHO/UNICEF criteria of the "Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding" to deepen the breast-feeding knowledge and to improve the breast-feeding management. (2) EVALUATION: A singular assessment of the advanced training programme was undertaken concerning an increase of knowledge and the practicability in clinical everyday life by participants; improvements of the maternity wards were assessed via structural interviews with maternity ward staff before and after intervention. Approximately 85% (n=378) of the staff of the 10 maternity clinics attended the training course. The survey after the training programme (response rate 83%) indicated that more than 80% of the participants stated to have learned something new and to be able to use the knowledge acquired for their own practice. Results of the clinic interviews showed a transfer of training contents into clinical work routines. Improvements at interview date were shown best for bonding (all 10 maternity clinics), for additional feeding (8 maternity clinics) as well as for 24-h rooming-in and mother counselling (7 maternal clinics each). Training of maternity ward professionals

  19. Duration of breast-feeding and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, R.; Gao, Y.-T.; Yang, G.; Li, H. L.; Elasy, T.; Zheng, W.

    2007-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to examine the association between lifetime breast-feeding and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a large population-based cohort study of middle-aged women. Methods This was a prospective study of 62,095 middle-aged parous women in Shanghai, China, who had no prior history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer or cardiovascular disease at study recruitment. Breast-feeding history, dietary intake, physical activity and anthropometric measurements were assessed by in-person interviews. The Cox regression model was employed to evaluate the association between breast-feeding and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results After 4.6 years of follow-up, 1,561 women were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Women who had breastfed their children tended to have a lower risk of diabetes mellitus than those who had never breastfed [relative risk (RR) = 0.88; 95% CI, 0.76–1.02; p = 0.08]. Increasing duration of breast-feeding was associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The fully adjusted RRs for lifetime breast-feeding duration were 1.00, 0.88, 0.89, 0.88, 0.75 and 0.68 (p trend = 0.01) for 0, >0 to 0.99, >0.99 to 1.99, >1.99 to 2.99, >2.99 to 3.99 and ≥4 years in analyses adjusted for age, daily energy intake, BMI, WHR, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, occupation, income level, education level, number of live births and presence of hypertension at baseline. Conclusions/interpretation Breast-feeding may protect parous women from developing type 2 diabetes mellitus later in life. PMID:18040660

  20. Breast-feeding duration and infant atopic manifestations, by maternal allergic status, in the first 2 years of life (KOALA study).

    PubMed

    Snijders, Bianca E P; Thijs, Carel; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Stelma, Foekje F; Mommers, Monique; Kummeling, Ischa; Penders, John; van Ree, Ronald; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the potential effect of modification by maternal allergic status on the relationship between breast-feeding duration and infant atopic manifestations in the first 2 years of life. Data from 2705 infants of the KOALA Birth Cohort Study (The Netherlands) were analyzed. The data were collected by repeated questionnaires at 34 weeks of gestation and 3, 7, 12, and 24 months postpartum. Total and specific immunoglobulin E measurements were performed on venous blood samples collected during home visits at age 2 years. Relationships were analyzed using logistic regression analyses. Longer duration of breast-feeding was associated with a lower risk for eczema in infants of mothers without allergy or asthma (P(trend) = .01) and slightly lower risk in those of mothers with allergy but no asthma (P(trend) = .14). There was no such association for asthmatic mothers (P(trend) = .87). Longer breast-feeding duration decreased the risk of recurrent wheeze independent of maternal allergy (P(trend) = .02) or asthma status (P(trend) = .06). Our findings show that the relationship between breast-feeding and infant eczema in the first 2 years of life is modified by maternal allergic status. The protective effect of breast-feeding on recurrent wheeze may be associated with protection against respiratory infections.

  1. Flat mite mouthparts and feeding: Raoiella a case study (Tetranychoidea: Tenuipalpidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM) allows an almost perfect preservation of specimens and offers an extraordinarily detailed glimpse of micromorphology and behaviour. The use of LTSEM to study mouthpart morphology in the mite family Tenuipalpidae, in particular the genus Raoiella,...

  2. Case Studies on the Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) on Ground Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a series of case studies involving commercial swine, poultry, dairy, and beef CAFO operations where ground water contamination by nitrate and ammonia has occurred to ascertain whether other stressors in CAFO wastes are also being transported through the vado...

  3. Retracting Inconclusive Research: Lessons from the Séralini GM Maize Feeding Study.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2015-08-01

    In September 2012, Gilles-Eric Séralini and seven coauthors published an article in Food and Chemical Toxicology claiming that rats fed Roundup©-resistant genetically modified maize alone, genetically modified maize with Roundup©, or Roundup© for 2 years had a higher percentage of tumors and kidney and liver damage than normal controls. Shortly after this study was published, numerous scientists and several scientific organizations criticized the research as methodologically and ethically flawed. In January 2014, the journal retracted the article without the authors' consent on the grounds that the research was inconclusive. In June 2014, Environmental Sciences Europe published a slightly modified version of the retracted paper. The publication, retraction and subsequent republication of the Séralini study raise important scientific and ethical issues for journal editors. Decisions to retract an article should be made on the basis of well-established policies. Articles should be retracted only for serious errors that undermine the reliability of the data or results, or for serious ethical lapses, such as research misconduct or mistreatment of animal or human subjects. Inconclusiveness, by itself, is not a sufficient reason for retracting an article, though a flawed study design might be. Retracted articles that are submitted for republication should undergo scientific review to ensure that they meet appropriate standards. Republished articles should be linked to the original, retracted publication. Journals that are reviewing studies with significant scientific and social implications should take special care to ensure that peer review is rigorous and fair.

  4. A Poor Job Market and a Steady Currency Feed "Overseas-Study Fever" in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvistendahl, Mara

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese news media have a name for the craze that has gripped students here in the past few years: "overseas-study fever." And despite the worsening global financial crisis and a slowing domestic economy, it shows little sign of letting up. Recruiters say a high household savings rate, a difficult job market, and a steady currency,…

  5. Case Studies on the Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) on Ground Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a series of case studies involving commercial swine, poultry, dairy, and beef CAFO operations where ground water contamination by nitrate and ammonia has occurred to ascertain whether other stressors in CAFO wastes are also being transported through the vado...

  6. A Poor Job Market and a Steady Currency Feed "Overseas-Study Fever" in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvistendahl, Mara

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese news media have a name for the craze that has gripped students here in the past few years: "overseas-study fever." And despite the worsening global financial crisis and a slowing domestic economy, it shows little sign of letting up. Recruiters say a high household savings rate, a difficult job market, and a steady currency,…

  7. Breast-feeding and childhood-onset type 1 diabetes: a pooled analysis of individual participant data from 43 observational studies.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Chris R; Stene, Lars C; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Rosenbauer, Joachim; Cinek, Ondrej; Svensson, Jannet; Perez-Bravo, Francisco; Memon, Anjum; Gimeno, Suely G; Wadsworth, Emma J K; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Goldacre, Michael J; Radon, Katja; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Parslow, Roger C; Chetwynd, Amanda; Karavanaki, Kyriaki; Brigis, Girts; Pozzilli, Paolo; Urbonaite, Brone; Schober, Edith; Devoti, Gabriele; Sipetic, Sandra; Joner, Geir; Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin; de Beaufort, Carine E; Harrild, Kirsten; Benson, Victoria; Savilahti, Erkki; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Salem, Mona; Rabiei, Samira; Patterson, Chris C

    2012-11-01

    To investigate if there is a reduced risk of type 1 diabetes in children breastfed or exclusively breastfed by performing a pooled analysis with adjustment for recognized confounders. Relevant studies were identified from literature searches using MEDLINE, Web of Science, and EMBASE. Authors of relevant studies were asked to provide individual participant data or conduct prespecified analyses. Meta-analysis techniques were used to combine odds ratios (ORs) and investigate heterogeneity between studies. Data were available from 43 studies including 9,874 patients with type 1 diabetes. Overall, there was a reduction in the risk of diabetes after exclusive breast-feeding for >2 weeks (20 studies; OR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.64-0.88), the association after exclusive breast-feeding for >3 months was weaker (30 studies; OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.75-1.00), and no association was observed after (nonexclusive) breast-feeding for >2 weeks (28 studies; OR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.81-1.07) or >3 months (29 studies; OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-1.00). These associations were all subject to marked heterogeneity (I(2) = 58, 76, 54, and 68%, respectively). In studies with lower risk of bias, the reduced risk after exclusive breast-feeding for >2 weeks remained (12 studies; OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.75-0.99), and heterogeneity was reduced (I(2) = 0%). Adjustments for potential confounders altered these estimates very little. The pooled analysis suggests weak protective associations between exclusive breast-feeding and type 1 diabetes risk. However, these findings are difficult to interpret because of the marked variation in effect and possible biases (particularly recall bias) inherent in the included studies.

  8. Maternal attitudes and behaviors regarding feeding practices in elementary-school age Latino children: A pilot qualitative study on the impact of the cultural role of mothers in the U.S.-Mexican border region of San Diego, California

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Kyung; Blanco, Estela; Boutelle, Kerri

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the attitudes and behaviors of Latino mothers around feeding their children. Using qualitative methods, we conducted 4 focus groups in Spanish with 41 Latino mothers of elementary school-age children in San Diego County (CA). Latino mothers’ mean age was 41 years; 90% were foreign-born; 74% had a high school education or less. We explored cultural viewpoints around feeding and cooking and feeding strategies used. Focus groups were analyzed based on a priori and emergent themes. Two themes around feeding emerged, including: 1) feeding attitudes central to the maternal responsibility of having well-fed children; and 2) feeding behaviors that centered on cooking methods, supportive behaviors and reinforcement strategies for “eating well”. These findings increase our understanding of the Latino maternal role to feed children and may help to inform more culturally appropriate research to effectively address nutritional issues and obesity prevention in Latino children. PMID:24315129

  9. Maternal Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Feeding Practices in Elementary School-Aged Latino Children: A Pilot Qualitative Study on the Impact of the Cultural Role of Mothers in the US-Mexican Border Region of San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Rhee, Kyung; Blanco, Estela; Boutelle, Kerri

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to explore the attitudes and behaviors of Latino mothers around feeding their children. Using qualitative methods, we conducted four focus groups in Spanish with 41 Latino mothers of elementary school-age children in San Diego County, CA. Latino mothers' mean age was 41 years; 90% were foreign-born; and 74% had a high school education or less. We explored cultural viewpoints around feeding and cooking and feeding strategies used. Focus groups were analyzed based on a priori and emergent themes. The following themes around feeding emerged: feeding attitudes central to the maternal responsibility of having well-fed children and feeding behaviors that centered on cooking methods, supportive behaviors, and reinforcement strategies for "eating well." These findings increase our understanding of the Latino maternal role to feed children and can help to inform more culturally appropriate research to effectively address nutritional issues and obesity prevention in Latino children.

  10. Study of common database feeding with results coming from different analytical methods in the framework of illicit drugs chemical profiling.

    PubMed

    Broséus, Julian; Debrus, Benjamin; Delémont, Olivier; Rudaz, Serge; Esseiva, Pierre

    2013-07-10

    Analytical results harmonisation is investigated in this study to provide an alternative to the restrictive approach of analytical methods harmonisation which is recommended nowadays for making possible the exchange of information and then for supporting the fight against illicit drugs trafficking. Indeed, the main goal of this study is to demonstrate that a common database can be fed by a range of different analytical methods, whatever the differences in levels of analytical parameters between these latter ones. For this purpose, a methodology making possible the estimation and even the optimisation of results similarity coming from different analytical methods was then developed. In particular, the possibility to introduce chemical profiles obtained with Fast GC-FID in a GC-MS database is studied in this paper. By the use of the methodology, the similarity of results coming from different analytical methods can be objectively assessed and the utility in practice of database sharing by these methods can be evaluated, depending on profiling purposes (evidential vs. operational perspective tool). This methodology can be regarded as a relevant approach for database feeding by different analytical methods and puts in doubt the necessity to analyse all illicit drugs seizures in one single laboratory or to implement analytical methods harmonisation in each participating laboratory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Perceptions of flatulence from bean consumption among adults in 3 feeding studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many consumers avoid eating beans because they believe legume consumption will cause excessive intestinal gas or flatulence. An increasing body of research and the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans supports the benefits of a plant-based diet, and legumes specifically, in the reduction of chronic disease risks. The purpose of the current research was to investigate the perception of increased flatulence and gastrointestinal discomfort among participants who consumed a ½ cup of beans daily for 8 or 12 weeks. Methods Participants in three studies to test the effects of beans on heart disease biomarkers completed the same weekly questionnaire to assess gastrointestinal discomfort issues such as increased flatulence, stool changes, and bloating. Studies 1 and 2 were randomized crossover trials. Participants consumed ½ cup of pinto beans, black-eyed peas, and canned carrots as control (n = 17) in Study 1 for three randomized 8-week phases. For Study 2, participants ate ½ cup baked beans or canned carrots as control (n = 29) for two randomized 8-week phases. Study 3 was a parallel arm trial with 40 subjects receiving ½ cup pinto beans and 40 consuming a control soup for 12 weeks. Changes in the frequency of perceived flatulence, stool characteristics, and bloating were the primary outcome measures. Chi-square distributions were examined for the presence or absence of symptoms and demographic characteristics to determine differences by gender, age, body mass index (BMI), and bean type. Results Less than 50% reported increased flatulence from eating pinto or baked beans during the first week of each trial, but only 19% had a flatulence increase with black-eyed peas. A small percentage (3-11%) reported increased flatulence across the three studies even on control diets without flatulence-producing components. Conclusions People's concerns about excessive flatulence from eating beans may be exaggerated. Public health nutritionists should address the

  12. Perceptions of flatulence from bean consumption among adults in 3 feeding studies.

    PubMed

    Winham, Donna M; Hutchins, Andrea M

    2011-11-21

    Many consumers avoid eating beans because they believe legume consumption will cause excessive intestinal gas or flatulence. An increasing body of research and the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans supports the benefits of a plant-based diet, and legumes specifically, in the reduction of chronic disease risks. The purpose of the current research was to investigate the perception of increased flatulence and gastrointestinal discomfort among participants who consumed a ½ cup of beans daily for 8 or 12 weeks. Participants in three studies to test the effects of beans on heart disease biomarkers completed the same weekly questionnaire to assess gastrointestinal discomfort issues such as increased flatulence, stool changes, and bloating. Studies 1 and 2 were randomized crossover trials. Participants consumed ½ cup of pinto beans, black-eyed peas, and canned carrots as control (n = 17) in Study 1 for three randomized 8-week phases. For Study 2, participants ate ½ cup baked beans or canned carrots as control (n = 29) for two randomized 8-week phases. Study 3 was a parallel arm trial with 40 subjects receiving ½ cup pinto beans and 40 consuming a control soup for 12 weeks. Changes in the frequency of perceived flatulence, stool characteristics, and bloating were the primary outcome measures. Chi-square distributions were examined for the presence or absence of symptoms and demographic characteristics to determine differences by gender, age, body mass index (BMI), and bean type. Less than 50% reported increased flatulence from eating pinto or baked beans during the first week of each trial, but only 19% had a flatulence increase with black-eyed peas. A small percentage (3-11%) reported increased flatulence across the three studies even on control diets without flatulence-producing components. People's concerns about excessive flatulence from eating beans may be exaggerated. Public health nutritionists should address the potential for gastrointestinal discomfort when

  13. Factors influencing the sustainability of volunteer peer support for breast-feeding mothers within a hospital environment: An exploratory qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Hopper, Heather; Skirton, Heather

    2016-01-01

    the objectives of this study were to explore breast feeding peer supporters' motivation to volunteer within a hospital environment, to describe their experiences of volunteering within a hospital environment, to examine the relationships between peer supporters and ward staff, and to identify factors contributing to the future sustainability of the service. a qualitative study; peer supporters and clinical ward staff were interviewed using a semi-structured schedule and data were analysed using Thematic Analysis with an inductive approach. six peer supporters and ten ward staff, whose role included giving breast feeding support, working on a maternity ward in one consultant-led unit in England that had been hosting breast feeding peer support volunteers for the previous three years. three main themes were identified: 1. What peer supporters brought to the maternity ward; this included providing breast-feeding mothers with confidence, reassurance and empowerment, and spending 'unhurried time' with mothers; 2. What motivated the peer supporters; this included an interest in midwifery as a future career and a desire to help people; 3. Factors contributing to the sustainability of the service; these included an existing rolling training programme, however recruitment processes were causing long delays and some aspects of operational management needed improvement. individuals with a passion for breast feeding were willing to volunteer as peer supporters and their experience of the activity was positive. Organisational processes did not always provide peer supporters with a positive experience of the organisation and these needed to be improved as they contributed to the future sustainability of the service. the study indicates that a sustainable hospital-based volunteer service for breast feeding peer support requires a rolling training programme for peer supporters, efficient recruitment processes and effective operational management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  14. Changes in the prevalence of breast feeding in preterm infants discharged from neonatal units: a register study over 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Flacking, Renée; Hellström-Westas, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Objective There are indications that the prevalence of exclusively breastfed preterm infants is decreasing in Sweden. The objective was to investigate