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Sample records for nutrition affects healthy

  1. Nutrition research to affect food and a healthy lifespan12

    PubMed Central

    Ohlhorst, Sarah D.; Russell, Robert; Bier, Dennis; Klurfeld, David M.; Li, Zhaoping; Mein, Jonathan R.; Milner, John; Ross, A. Catharine; Stover, Patrick; Konopka, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Proper nutrition offers one of the most effective and least costly ways to decrease the burden of many diseases and their associated risk factors, including obesity. Nutrition research holds the key to increasing our understanding of the causes of obesity and its related comorbidities and thus holds promise to markedly influence global health and economies. After outreach to 75 thought leaders, the American Society for Nutrition (ASN) convened a Working Group to identify the nutrition research needs whose advancement will have the greatest projected impact on the future health and well-being of global populations. ASN’s Nutrition Research Needs focus on the following high priority areas: 1) variability in individual responses to diet and foods; 2) healthy growth, development, and reproduction; 3) health maintenance; 4) medical management; 5) nutrition-related behaviors; and 6) food supply/environment. ASN hopes the Nutrition Research Needs will prompt collaboration among scientists across all disciplines to advance this challenging research agenda given the high potential for translation and impact on public health. Furthermore, ASN hopes the findings from the Nutrition Research Needs will stimulate the development and adoption of new and innovative strategies that can be applied toward the prevention and treatment of nutrition-related diseases. The multidisciplinary nature of nutrition research requires stakeholders with differing areas of expertise to collaborate on multifaceted approaches to establish the evidence-based nutrition guidance and policies that will lead to better health for the global population. In addition to the identified research needs, ASN also identified 5 tools that are critical to the advancement of the Nutrition Research Needs: 1) omics, 2) bioinformatics, 3) databases, 4) biomarkers, and 5) cost-effectiveness analysis. PMID:24038264

  2. Nutrition research to affect food and a healthy life span.

    PubMed

    Ohlhorst, Sarah D; Russell, Robert; Bier, Dennis; Klurfeld, David M; Li, Zhaoping; Mein, Jonathan R; Milner, John; Ross, A Catharine; Stover, Patrick; Konopka, Emily

    2013-08-01

    Proper nutrition offers one of the most effective and least costly ways to decrease the burden of many diseases and their associated risk factors, including obesity. Nutrition research holds the key to increasing our understanding of the causes of obesity and its related comorbidities and thus holds promise to markedly influence global health and economies. After outreach to 75 thought leaders, the American Society for Nutrition (ASN) convened a Working Group to identify the nutrition research needs whose advancement will have the greatest projected impact on the future health and well-being of global populations. ASN's Nutrition Research Needs focus on the following high priority areas: 1) variability in individual responses to diet and foods; 2) healthy growth, development, and reproduction; 3) health maintenance; 4) medical management; 5) nutrition-related behaviors; and 6) food supply/environment. ASN hopes the Nutrition Research Needs will prompt collaboration among scientists across all disciplines to advance this challenging research agenda given the high potential for translation and impact on public health. Furthermore, ASN hopes the findings from the Nutrition Research Needs will stimulate the development and adoption of new and innovative strategies that can be applied toward the prevention and treatment of nutrition-related diseases. The multidisciplinary nature of nutrition research requires stakeholders with differing areas of expertise to collaborate on multifaceted approaches to establish the evidence-based nutrition guidance and policies that will lead to better health for the global population. In addition to the identified research needs, ASN also identified 5 tools that are critical to the advancement of the Nutrition Research Needs: 1) omics, 2) bioinformatics, 3) databases, 4) biomarkers, and 5) cost-effectiveness analysis.

  3. Does green mean healthy? Nutrition label color affects perceptions of healthfulness.

    PubMed

    Schuldt, Jonathon P

    2013-01-01

    The food industry has recently implemented numerous front-of-package nutrition labels to readily convey key aspects a food product's nutritional profile to consumers (e.g., calories and fat content). Although seemingly well-intentioned, such labels might lead consumers to perceive relatively poor nutrition foods in a healthier light. The present research explores whether one underresearched aspect of nutrition labels-namely, their color-might influence perceptions of a product's healthfulness. In Study 1, participants perceived a candy bar as healthier when it bore a green rather than a red calorie label, despite the fact that the labels conveyed the same calorie content. Study 2 examined the perceived healthfulness of a candy bar bearing a green versus white calorie label and assessed individual differences in the importance of healthy eating. Overall, results suggest that green labels increase perceived healthfulness, especially among consumers who place high importance on healthy eating. Discussion focuses on implications for health-related judgment and nutrition labeling.

  4. "Healthy," "diet," or "hedonic". How nutrition claims affect food-related perceptions and intake?

    PubMed

    Gravel, Karine; Doucet, Éric; Herman, C Peter; Pomerleau, Sonia; Bourlaud, Anne-Sophie; Provencher, Véronique

    2012-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nutrition claims on food perceptions and intake among adult men and women, during ad libitum snacks. In a three (healthy vs. diet vs. hedonic) by two (normal-weight vs. overweight/obese) by two (unrestrained vs. restrained eaters) factorial design, 164 men and 188 women were invited to taste and rate oatmeal-raisin cookies. Despite the fact that the cookies were the same in all conditions, they were perceived as being healthier in the "healthy" condition than in the "diet" and "hedonic" conditions. The caloric content was estimated as higher by participants in the "hedonic" than in the "healthy" condition, by women than by men, and by restrained than by unrestrained eaters. Although measured ad libitum cookie intake did not differ as a function of experimental condition, overweight restrained men ate more than did women from each BMI and restraint category. Conversely, overweight restrained women ate less than did men from each BMI and restraint category. In conclusion, our manipulations of healthiness and "fatteningness" of food were effective in changing perceptions, but were not in changing behavior. PMID:22963737

  5. Bellagio report on healthy agriculture, healthy nutrition, healthy people.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-02-05

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD's) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  6. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-03-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy 30 October-1 November, 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  7. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People

    PubMed Central

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.; Bourne, Peter G.; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October–2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security. PMID:23385371

  8. [Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People].

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-11-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD's) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  9. Nutritional Factors Affecting Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Lim, So Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Arang; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals are important factors affecting mental health and the development of psychiatric disorders. Majority of scientific evidence relating to mental health focuses on depression, cognitive function, and dementia, and limited evidence is available about other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As life span of human being is increasing, the more the prevalence of mental disorders is, the more attention rises. Lists of suggested nutritional components that may be beneficial for mental health are omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Saturated fat and simple sugar are considered detrimental to cognitive function. Evidence on the effect of cholesterol is conflicting; however, in general, blood cholesterol levels are negatively associated with the risk of depression. Collectively, the aims of this review are to introduce known nutritional factors for mental health, and to discuss recent issues of the nutritional impact on cognitive function and healthy brain aging. PMID:27482518

  10. Nutritional Factors Affecting Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Lim, So Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Arang; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Hyun Jin; Yang, Soo Jin

    2016-07-01

    Dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals are important factors affecting mental health and the development of psychiatric disorders. Majority of scientific evidence relating to mental health focuses on depression, cognitive function, and dementia, and limited evidence is available about other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As life span of human being is increasing, the more the prevalence of mental disorders is, the more attention rises. Lists of suggested nutritional components that may be beneficial for mental health are omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Saturated fat and simple sugar are considered detrimental to cognitive function. Evidence on the effect of cholesterol is conflicting; however, in general, blood cholesterol levels are negatively associated with the risk of depression. Collectively, the aims of this review are to introduce known nutritional factors for mental health, and to discuss recent issues of the nutritional impact on cognitive function and healthy brain aging. PMID:27482518

  11. Rx for a Healthy School Nutrition Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettger, Julie

    2009-01-01

    School nutrition directors face challenges on many fronts, from changing nutrition standards to addressing community interest in sustainability and local food sourcing. Programs are constantly changing to meet these new demands. How does a school business administrator know which changes will affect his/her school nutrition program positively? The…

  12. Nutrition and health claims on healthy and less-healthy packaged food products in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Al-Ani, Haya H; Devi, Anandita; Eyles, Helen; Swinburn, Boyd; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2016-09-01

    Nutrition and health claims are displayed to influence consumers' food choices. This study assessed the extent and nature of nutrition and health claims on the front-of-pack of 'healthy' and 'less-healthy' packaged foods in New Zealand. Foods from eight categories, for which consumption may affect the risk of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases, were selected from the 2014 Nutritrack database. The internationally standardised International Network for Food and Obesity/Non-Communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) taxonomy was used to classify claims on packages. The Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criterion (NPSC) was used to classify products as 'healthy' or 'less healthy'. In total, 7526 products were included, with 47 % (n 3557) classified as 'healthy'. More than one-third of products displayed at least one nutrition claim and 15 % featured at least one health claim on the front-of-pack. Claims were found on one-third of 'less-healthy' products; 26 % of those products displayed nutrition claims and 7 % featured health claims. About 45 % of 'healthy' products displayed nutrition claims and 23 % featured health claims. Out of 7058 individual claims, the majority (69 %) were found on 'healthy' products. Cereals displayed the greatest proportion of nutrition and health claims (1503 claims on 564 products), of which one-third were displayed on 'less-healthy' cereals. Such claims could be misleading consumers' perceptions of nutritional quality of foods. It needs to be explored how current regulations on nutrition and health claims in New Zealand could be further strengthened (e.g. using the NPSC for nutrition claims, including general health claims as per the INFORMAS taxonomy) to ensure consumers are protected and not misled. PMID:27503596

  13. Nutrition and health claims on healthy and less-healthy packaged food products in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Al-Ani, Haya H; Devi, Anandita; Eyles, Helen; Swinburn, Boyd; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2016-09-01

    Nutrition and health claims are displayed to influence consumers' food choices. This study assessed the extent and nature of nutrition and health claims on the front-of-pack of 'healthy' and 'less-healthy' packaged foods in New Zealand. Foods from eight categories, for which consumption may affect the risk of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases, were selected from the 2014 Nutritrack database. The internationally standardised International Network for Food and Obesity/Non-Communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) taxonomy was used to classify claims on packages. The Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criterion (NPSC) was used to classify products as 'healthy' or 'less healthy'. In total, 7526 products were included, with 47 % (n 3557) classified as 'healthy'. More than one-third of products displayed at least one nutrition claim and 15 % featured at least one health claim on the front-of-pack. Claims were found on one-third of 'less-healthy' products; 26 % of those products displayed nutrition claims and 7 % featured health claims. About 45 % of 'healthy' products displayed nutrition claims and 23 % featured health claims. Out of 7058 individual claims, the majority (69 %) were found on 'healthy' products. Cereals displayed the greatest proportion of nutrition and health claims (1503 claims on 564 products), of which one-third were displayed on 'less-healthy' cereals. Such claims could be misleading consumers' perceptions of nutritional quality of foods. It needs to be explored how current regulations on nutrition and health claims in New Zealand could be further strengthened (e.g. using the NPSC for nutrition claims, including general health claims as per the INFORMAS taxonomy) to ensure consumers are protected and not misled.

  14. Nutritional Cognitive Neuroscience: Innovations for Healthy Brain Aging

    PubMed Central

    Zamroziewicz, Marta K.; Barbey, Aron K.

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional cognitive neuroscience is an emerging interdisciplinary field of research that seeks to understand nutrition's impact on cognition and brain health across the life span. Research in this burgeoning field demonstrates that many aspects of nutrition—from entire diets to specific nutrients—affect brain structure and function, and therefore have profound implications for understanding the nature of healthy brain aging. The aim of this Focused Review is to examine recent advances in nutritional cognitive neuroscience, with an emphasis on methods that enable discovery of nutrient biomarkers that predict healthy brain aging. We propose an integrative framework that calls for the synthesis of research in nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, incorporating: (i) methods for the precise characterization of nutritional health based on the analysis of nutrient biomarker patterns (NBPs), along with (ii) modern indices of brain health derived from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By integrating cutting-edge techniques from nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, nutritional cognitive neuroscience will continue to advance our understanding of the beneficial effects of nutrition on the aging brain and establish effective nutritional interventions to promote healthy brain aging. PMID:27375409

  15. [Healthy nutrition and the prevention of cancer].

    PubMed

    Rodler, Imre; Zajkás, Gábor

    2003-03-01

    A number of risk factors of cancer diseases can be identified in the diet of the Hungarian population, and also one may infer the presence of these risk factors from statistics on food purchasing, the results of household budget surveys and those of earlier nutrition surveys. These risk factors are: overweight and obesity involving two thirds of the male and half of the female population, insufficient vegetable and fruit consumption, insufficient wholemeal cereal consumption, inadequate dietary fibre intake, high sugar intake, regular heavy drinking, as well as high fat, animal fat, cholesterol and salt intakes. The messages for decreasing the risks of cancer diseases--as presented herein--have been included in the recommendations for healthy nutrition aimed at eliminating the risk factors of diet-related diseases.

  16. The Healthy Communities Study Nutrition Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Wakimoto, Patricia; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Thompson, Frances E.; Loria, Catherine M.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Kao, Janice; Crawford, Patricia B.; Webb, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    Multifaceted community interventions directed at improving food environments are emerging, but their impact on dietary change and obesity prevalence has not been documented adequately. The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is seeking to identify characteristics and combinations of programs and policies that are associated with children’s diets and obesity-related outcomes in various types of communities across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used in 2013–2015 in the HCS to assess dietary intake, school nutrition environments, and other nutrition-related behaviors. The conceptual framework of the HCS is based on the socioecological model and behaviors shown in previous studies to be related to obesity in children-guided selection of domains. Nine domains were identified as essential measures of nutrition in the HCS: (1) intake of selected foods and beverages; (2) food patterns and behaviors; (3) social support; (4) home environment; (5) school environment; (6) community environment; (7) breastfeeding history; (8) household food insecurity; and (9) dieting behaviors and body image. Children’s dietary intake was assessed using a dietary screener and up to two automated 24-hour recalls. Dietary-related behaviors were assessed by a survey administered to the parent, child, or both, depending on child age. School nutrition measures were obtained from a combination of school staff surveys and researcher observations. Information from these measures is expected to contribute to a better understanding of “what is working” to improve the dietary behaviors that are likely to prevent obesity and improve health in children. PMID:26384936

  17. The nutritional selenium status of healthy Greeks.

    PubMed

    Bratakos, M S; Kanaki, H C; Vasiliou-Waite, A; Ioannou, P V

    1990-02-01

    The nutritional selenium status of apparently healthy Greeks has been assessed by measuring fluorimetrically the selenium content of whole blood, morning urine, hair and finger nails. The means and standard deviations were 165 +/- 33, 25 +/- 7 ng Se ml-1, 416 +/- 86, and 536 +/- 91 ng Se g-1, respectively. No significant difference was found between the selenium content of whole blood, hair and finger nails, but, for morning urine, there was a significant difference between males and females. The young and the elderly have less selenium in these biological materials than other Greeks. Whole blood selenium correlates significantly with morning urine, hair, and finger nail selenium, as does hair and nail selenium of male, female and male + female Greeks. The results are compared with those in the literature and possible explanations for the observations are presented. It is concluded that the selenium status of Greeks is satisfactory.

  18. Nutrition and healthy ageing: the key ingredients.

    PubMed

    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Mathers, John C; Franco, Oscar H

    2014-05-01

    Healthy longevity is a tangible possibility for many individuals and populations, with nutritional and other lifestyle factors playing a key role in modulating the likelihood of healthy ageing. Nevertheless, studies of effects of nutrients or single foods on ageing often show inconsistent results and ignore the overall framework of dietary habits. Therefore, the use of dietary patterns (e.g. a Mediterranean dietary pattern) and the specific dietary recommendations (e.g. dietary approaches to stop hypertension, Polymeal and the American Healthy Eating Index) are becoming more widespread in promoting lifelong health. A posteriori defined dietary patterns are described frequently in relation to age-related diseases but their generalisability is often a challenge since these are developed specifically for the population under study. Conversely, the dietary guidelines are often developed based on prevention of disease or nutrient deficiency, but often less attention is paid to how well these dietary guidelines promote health outcomes. In the present paper, we provide an overview of the state of the art of dietary patterns and dietary recommendations in relation to life expectancy and the risk of age-related disorders (with emphasis on cardiometabolic diseases and cognitive outcomes). According to both a posteriori and a priori dietary patterns, some key 'ingredients' can be identified that are associated consistently with longevity and better cardiometabolic and cognitive health. These include high intake of fruit, vegetables, fish, (whole) grains and legumes/pulses and potatoes, whereas dietary patterns rich in red meat and sugar-rich foods have been associated with an increased risk of mortality and cardiometabolic outcomes.

  19. Growing Healthy Kids: A School Enrichment Nutrition Education Program to Promote Healthy Behaviors for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vierregger, Alyssa; Hall, Johnna; Sehi, Natalie; Abbott, Mary; Wobig, Karen; Albrecht, Julie A.; Anderson-Knott, Mindy; Koszewski, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    The Growing Healthy Kids Program is a school-based nutrition education program that teaches students in Kindergarten through 2nd grade about healthy eating, physical activity, and how their body uses food. Pre- and post-knowledge data is collected from the students to measure changes in nutrition knowledge. In the first 2 years of the program,…

  20. Nutrition and the healthy heart with an exercise boost.

    PubMed

    Whayne, Thomas F; Maulik, Nilanjana

    2012-08-01

    In this era of potent medications and major cardiovascular (CV) procedures, the value of nutrition can be forgotten. A healthy diet is essential, regardless of CV risk. Caloric balance is inherent to a good diet. Despite patients who say they eat little, ideal weight can be maintained if calories are burned. Composition is another component of a healthy diet. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Mediterranean diets provide proof of CV benefit from their specific content. Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with poor diet and obesity. A healthy diet with good nutrition benefits the MS patient and associated conditions such as obesity and diabetes. Exercise, in conjunction with a healthy diet and good nutrition, helps maintain optimal weight and provides CV benefit such as decreased inflammation and increased vasodilatation. Whether vitamins or other nutritional supplements are important in a healthy diet is unproven. Nevertheless, the most promising data of added benefit to a healthy diet is with vitamin D. Some dietary supplements also have promise. Alcohol, in moderation, especially red wine, has nutritional and heart protective benefits. Antioxidants, endogenous or exogenous, have received increased interest and appear to play a favorable nutritional role. CV health starts with good nutrition. PMID:22812658

  1. Promotion of healthy nutrition of seafarers.

    PubMed

    Jezewska, Maria; Babicz-Zielińska, Ewa; Leszczyńska, Irena; Grubman, Marta

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition disorders arise from various interacting factors: cultural, environmental, genetic, physiological, and psychological. Excessive consumption of highly processed food, sugar, salt, alcohol, and saturated fats is a problem nowadays, and consumption of fish, vegetables, and fruit is insufficient. Overeating and an unbalanced diet are often accompanied by stress and a lack of physical activity. This is intensified by easy access to "comfort food", "fast food", and "junk food". The number of people suffering from overweight and obesity, so-called diseases of civilization, is increasing. Not only is being overweight a risk factor for the development many other metabolic diseases, but it also significantly worsens the quality of life. This also concerns people working at sea. Obesity is favoured by emotional eating disorders (EED), uncontrolled/compulsive eating - binge eating disorders (BED), and night eating disorders (NED). Most frequently, eating is a reaction to stress or boredom. It alleviates tension and improves the mood, also of seafarers.

  2. Food for a Healthy Mom and Baby. Nutrition. How to Have a Healthy Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Jill; And Others

    This package consists of two sets of bilingual instructional materials for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn prenatal care and nutrition skills. Included in the package are Vietnamese, Laotian, and English translations of an instructional booklet dealing with how to have a healthy pregnancy. The second item in the package is a set of…

  3. The Healthy Afterschool Activity and Nutrition Documentation Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Ajja, Rahma; Beets, Michael W.; Huberty, Jennifer; Kaczynski, Andrew T.; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Policies call on afterschool programs to improve the physical activity and nutrition habits of youth attending. No tool exists to assess the extent to which the afterschool program environment meets physical activity and nutrition policies. Purpose To describe the development of the Healthy Afterschool Activity and Nutrition Documentation (HAAND) instrument, which consists of two subscales: Healthy Afterschool Program Index for Physical Activity (HAPI-PA) and the HAPI-Nutrition (HAPI-N). Methods Thirty-nine afterschool programs took part in the HAAND evaluation during fall/spring 2010–2011. Inter-rater reliability data were collected at 20 afterschool programs during a single site visit via direct observation, personal interview and written document review. Validity of the HAPI-PA was established by comparing HAPI-PA scores to pedometer steps collected in a subsample of 934 children attending 25 of the afterschool programs. Validity of the HAPI-N scores was compared against the mean number of times/week that fruits/vegetables (FV) and whole grains were served in the program. Results Data were analyzed in June/July 2011. Inter-rater percent agreement was 85%–100% across all items. Increased pedometer steps were associated with the presence of a written policy related to physical activity, amount/quality of staff training, use of a physical activity curriculum, and offering activities that appeal to both genders. Higher servings of FV and whole grains per week were associated with the presence of a written policy regarding the nutritional quality of snacks. Conclusions The HAAND instrument is a reliable and valid measurement tool that can be used to assess the physical activity and nutritional environment of afterschool programs. PMID:22898119

  4. Recommendations for Healthy Nutrition in Female Endurance Runners: An Update.

    PubMed

    Deldicque, Louise; Francaux, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the basic principles of a healthy nutrition in female endurance runner enriched by the latest scientific recommendations. Female endurance runners are a specific population of athletes who need to take specifically care of daily nutrition due to the high load of training and the necessity to keep a rather low body mass. This paradoxical situation can create some nutritional imbalances and deficiencies. Female endurance athletes should pay attention to their total energy intake, which is often lower than their energy requirement. The minimal energy requirement has been set to 45 kcal/kg fat free mass/day plus the amount of energy needed for physical activity. The usual recommended amount of 1.2-1.4 g protein/kg/day has recently been questioned by new findings suggesting that 1.6 g/kg/day would be more appropriate for female athletes. Although a bit less sensitive to carbohydrate loading than their male counterparts, female athletes can benefit from this nutritional strategy before a race if the amount of carbohydrates reaches 8 g/kg/day and if their daily total energy intake is sufficient. A poor iron status is a common issue in female endurance runners but iron-enriched food as well as iron supplementation may help to counterbalance this poor status. Finally, they should also be aware that they may be at risk for low calcium and vitamin D levels. PMID:26075206

  5. Recommendations for Healthy Nutrition in Female Endurance Runners: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Deldicque, Louise; Francaux, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the basic principles of a healthy nutrition in female endurance runner enriched by the latest scientific recommendations. Female endurance runners are a specific population of athletes who need to take specifically care of daily nutrition due to the high load of training and the necessity to keep a rather low body mass. This paradoxical situation can create some nutritional imbalances and deficiencies. Female endurance athletes should pay attention to their total energy intake, which is often lower than their energy requirement. The minimal energy requirement has been set to 45 kcal/kg fat free mass/day plus the amount of energy needed for physical activity. The usual recommended amount of 1.2–1.4 g protein/kg/day has recently been questioned by new findings suggesting that 1.6 g/kg/day would be more appropriate for female athletes. Although a bit less sensitive to carbohydrate loading than their male counterparts, female athletes can benefit from this nutritional strategy before a race if the amount of carbohydrates reaches 8 g/kg/day and if their daily total energy intake is sufficient. A poor iron status is a common issue in female endurance runners but iron-enriched food as well as iron supplementation may help to counterbalance this poor status. Finally, they should also be aware that they may be at risk for low calcium and vitamin D levels. PMID:26075206

  6. Nutrition and the Malaysian Healthy Lifestyle Programme: challenges in implementation.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, T S; Siong, T E

    1998-12-01

    There are significant differences in the food consumption patterns of countries. In the lower income countries, most of the energy intake is derived from cereals and starchy roots. On the other hand, the intake of these carbohydrate foods is much lower in the economically developed countries and more of the energy is derived from added fats, alcohol, meat, dairy products and sweeteners. The contribution of energy from various food groups has changed markedly over the past three decades. With increasing national wealth there is a general tendency for the consumption of cereal foods to decline, whereas the consumption of added fats, alcohol, meat and dairy products has increased over the years. Similar changes have also been observed for Malaysia. These dietary alterations, as well as other lifestyle changes, have brought about a new nutrition scenario in many developing countries. These countries are now faced with the twin problems of malnutrition, that is, undernutrition among some segments of the population and diet-related chronic diseases in other groups; for example, obesity, hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes and various cancers. In Malaysia, deaths due to diseases of the circulatory system and neoplasms have been on the rise since the 1960s. The former has been the most important cause of death in the country for more than 15 years, with cancer ranking third for almost 10 years. Epidemiological data collected from different community groups showed increased prevalences of various risk factors amongst Malaysians. In view of the changed nutrition scenario in the country, intervention programmes have been reviewed accordingly. The Healthy Lifestyle (HLS) Programme was launched in 1991 as a comprehensive, long-term approach to combating the emerging diet-related chronic diseases. For six consecutive years one thematic campaign per year was carried out; namely, coronary heart disease (1991), sexually transmitted diseases (1992), food safety (1993

  7. Nutrition and the Malaysian Healthy Lifestyle Programme: challenges in implementation.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, T S; Siong, T E

    1998-12-01

    There are significant differences in the food consumption patterns of countries. In the lower income countries, most of the energy intake is derived from cereals and starchy roots. On the other hand, the intake of these carbohydrate foods is much lower in the economically developed countries and more of the energy is derived from added fats, alcohol, meat, dairy products and sweeteners. The contribution of energy from various food groups has changed markedly over the past three decades. With increasing national wealth there is a general tendency for the consumption of cereal foods to decline, whereas the consumption of added fats, alcohol, meat and dairy products has increased over the years. Similar changes have also been observed for Malaysia. These dietary alterations, as well as other lifestyle changes, have brought about a new nutrition scenario in many developing countries. These countries are now faced with the twin problems of malnutrition, that is, undernutrition among some segments of the population and diet-related chronic diseases in other groups; for example, obesity, hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes and various cancers. In Malaysia, deaths due to diseases of the circulatory system and neoplasms have been on the rise since the 1960s. The former has been the most important cause of death in the country for more than 15 years, with cancer ranking third for almost 10 years. Epidemiological data collected from different community groups showed increased prevalences of various risk factors amongst Malaysians. In view of the changed nutrition scenario in the country, intervention programmes have been reviewed accordingly. The Healthy Lifestyle (HLS) Programme was launched in 1991 as a comprehensive, long-term approach to combating the emerging diet-related chronic diseases. For six consecutive years one thematic campaign per year was carried out; namely, coronary heart disease (1991), sexually transmitted diseases (1992), food safety (1993

  8. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Procter, Sandra B; Campbell, Christina G

    2014-07-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that women of childbearing age should adopt a lifestyle optimizing health and reducing risk of birth defects, suboptimal fetal development, and chronic health problems in both mother and child. Components leading to a healthy pregnancy outcome include healthy prepregnancy weight, appropriate weight gain and physical activity during pregnancy, consumption of a wide variety of foods, appropriate vitamin and mineral supplementation, avoidance of alcohol and other harmful substances, and safe food handling. Pregnancy is a critical period during which maternal nutrition and lifestyle choices are major influences on mother and child health. Inadequate levels of key nutrients during crucial periods of fetal development may lead to reprogramming within fetal tissues, predisposing the infant to chronic conditions in later life. Improving the well-being of mothers, infants, and children is key to the health of the next generation. This position paper and the accompanying practice paper (www.eatright.org/members/practicepapers) on the same topic provide registered dietitian nutritionists and dietetic technicians, registered; other professional associations; government agencies; industry; and the public with the Academy's stance on factors determined to influence healthy pregnancy, as well as an overview of best practices in nutrition and healthy lifestyles during pregnancy.

  9. Healthy Body/Healthy Spirit: a church-based nutrition and physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Resnicow, Ken; Jackson, Alice; Braithwaite, Ronald; DiIorio, Colleen; Blisset, Dhana; Rahotep, Simone; Periasamy, Santhi

    2002-10-01

    African-Americans (AAs) are significantly less likely to be physically active than other Americans, and, like all Americans, they consume fewer than the recommended five fruit and vegetable (F & V) servings per day. This study, titled Healthy Body/Healthy Spirit, has two primary aims: (1) to test the effectiveness of a culturally tailored self-help dietary (focusing on F & V intake) and physical activity (PA) intervention compared to standard health education materials, and (2) to test the effectiveness of using Motivational Interviewing (MI), delivered by telephone, to modify PA and dietary habits. The study is a randomized effectiveness trial with three experimental conditions. Group 1 (comparison) will receive standard (existing commercial) nutrition and PA intervention materials, Group 2 (TX1) will receive a culturally tailored self-help nutrition and PA intervention of similar intensity as Group 1, and Group 3 (TX2) will receive the same intervention as Group 2, plus four telephone counseling calls based on MI. Participants will be AA adults recruited through local black churches. Despite the extensive use of MI to modify addictive behaviors, this represents one of the first controlled field trials to employ MI to address diet and PA. Secondly, this is one of the first studies to test the effectiveness of a self-help diet and PA intervention tailored for an African-American church population.

  10. The challenges for molecular nutrition research 1: linking genotype to healthy nutrition.

    PubMed

    Williams, Christine M; Ordovas, Jose M; Lairon, Dennis; Hesketh, John; Lietz, Georg; Gibney, Mike; van Ommen, Ben

    2008-07-01

    Nutrition science finds itself at a major crossroad. On the one hand we can continue the current path, which has resulted in some substantial advances, but also many conflicting messages which impair the trust of the general population, especially those who are motivated to improve their health through diet. The other road is uncharted and is being built over the many exciting new developments in life sciences. This new era of nutrition recognizes the complex relation between the health of the individual, its genome, and the life-long dietary exposure, and has lead to the realisation that nutrition is essentially a gene-environment interaction science. This review on the relation between genotype, diet and health is the first of a series dealing with the major challenges in molecular nutrition, analyzing the foundations of nutrition research. With the unravelling of the human genome and the linking of its variability to a multitude of phenotypes from "healthy" to an enormously complex range of predispositions, the dietary modulation of these propensities has become an area of active research. Classical genetic approaches applied so far in medical genetics have steered away from incorporating dietary effects in their models and paradoxically, most genetic studies analyzing diet-associated phenotypes and diseases simply ignore diet. Yet, a modest but increasing number of studies are accounting for diet as a modulator of genetic associations. These range from observational cohorts to intervention studies with prospectively selected genotypes. New statistical and bioinformatics approaches are becoming available to aid in design and evaluation of these studies. This review discusses the various approaches used and provides concrete recommendations for future research. PMID:18850186

  11. The Healthy Communities Study Nutrition Assessments: Child Diet and the School Nutrition Environment.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Lorrene D; Wakimoto, Patricia; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Thompson, Frances E; Loria, Catherine M; Wilson, Dawn K; Kao, Janice; Crawford, Patricia B; Webb, Karen L

    2015-10-01

    Multifaceted community interventions directed at improving food environments are emerging, but their impact on dietary change and obesity prevalence has not been adequately documented. The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is seeking to identify characteristics and combinations of programs and policies that are associated with children's diets and obesity-related outcomes in various types of communities across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used in 2013-2015 in the HCS to assess dietary intake, school nutrition environments, and other nutrition-related behaviors. The conceptual framework of the HCS is based on the socioecological model and behaviors shown in previous studies to be related to obesity in children guided selection of domains. Nine domains were identified as essential measures of nutrition in the HCS: (1) intake of selected foods and beverages; (2) food patterns and behaviors; (3) social support; (4) home environment; (5) school environment; (6) community environment; (7) breastfeeding history; (8) household food insecurity; and (9) dieting behaviors and body image. Children's dietary intake was assessed using a dietary screener and up to two automated 24-hour recalls. Dietary-related behaviors were assessed by a survey administered to the parent, child, or both, depending on child age. School nutrition measures were obtained from a combination of school staff surveys and researcher observations. Information from these measures is expected to contribute to a better understanding of "what is working" to improve the dietary behaviors that are likely to prevent obesity and improve health in children. PMID:26384936

  12. [Healthy nutrition - prerequisite for life enjoyment and quality of life].

    PubMed

    Ritzel, G

    1978-12-01

    Bad nutritional habits can cause or enhance various, especially chronic, diseases. The right amount of calories, an adequate composition and the distribution of the meals over the day are the basis of good nutrition. A coordinating office could improve the information of our population, since many different professions must cooperate. Nutritions education must be improved. Industry, professional organisations, nutritionists, consumer organisations and specialists for communication must cooperate to solve the difficult problem of nutritional habits and to demonstrate that good nutrition can--as the gastrotonomy of the future--help to enjoy life. PMID:735436

  13. Anthropometric measures and nutritional status in a healthy elderly population

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-García, Sergio; García-Peña, Carmen; Duque-López, María Ximena; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cortés-Núñez, Alma Rosa; Reyes-Beaman, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Background Anthropometric evaluation is an essential feature of geriatric nutritional evaluation for determining malnutrition, being overweight, obesity, muscular mass loss, fat mass gain and adipose tissue redistribution. Anthropometric indicators are used to evaluate the prognosis of chronic and acute diseases, and to guide medical intervention in the elderly. We evaluated anthropometric measurements and nutritional status as they relate to age and gender in healthy elderly people. Methods The study analyzed data from the national survey "Health needs and health service use by older-than-60-year-old beneficiaries of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS)". The present study included only individuals who reported no chronic disease in the last 20 years and had no hospital admission in the two months prior to the survey. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), body circumference (arm, waist, hip and calf), waist to hip ratio (WHR), elbow amplitude and knee-heel length. Results Application of the inclusion criteria resulted in a study population elderly of 1,968, representing 12.2% of the original number in the national survey in urban areas beneficiaries of the IMSS. The study population comprised 870 women and 1,098 men, with a mean age of 68.6 years. The average weights were 62.7 kg for women and 70.3 kg for men (p < 0.05), and the mean heights were 1.52 m for women and 1.63 m for men (p < 0.05). Age related changes in anthropometric values were identified. BMI values indicated that 62.3% of the population was overweight, and 73.6% of women and 16.5% of men had high fat tissue distribution. Conclusion Our findings suggest that applying the BMI thresholds that identify being overweight in the general adult population may lead to an overestimation in the number of overweight elderly Similar problems appear to exist when assessing waist circumference and WHR values. Prospective studies are required to determine the

  14. Nutrition Knowledge Instrument for Assessing Healthy Lifestyle Choices of Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ann D.

    1990-01-01

    Research was undertaken to develop a reliable and valid instrument for assessing nutrition knowledge needed by junior high school students to make healthy life-style choices. Content validity was determined by a panel of experts. Construct validity was established by differences in scores among groups having different nutrition knowledge. (Author)

  15. Pilot-Testing CATCH Early Childhood: A Preschool-Based Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shreela; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Hedberg, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The literature on theoretically-based programs targeting healthy nutrition and physical activity in preschools is scarce. Purpose: To pilot test CATCH Early Childhood (CEC), a preschool-based nutrition and physical activity program among children ages three to five in Head Start. Methods: The study was conducted in two Head Start…

  16. The Healthy Core Metabolism: A New Paradigm for Primary Preventive Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Fardet, A; Rock, E

    2016-03-01

    Research in preventive nutrition aims at elucidating mechanism by which our diet helps us to remain in good health through optimal physiological functions. However, despite decades of accumulated data in human nutrition and regular subsequent nutritional recommendations, obesity and type 2 diabetes epidemics continue to progress worldwide each year leading to a regular decrease of the Healthy Life Years, notably in Western countries. Such a paradox may be explained by the Nutrition Transition, the extreme application of the reductionist paradigm in nutrition research, the lack of nutritional education and a too strong focus on curative nutrition in at risk/ill subjects. In this position paper, we hypothesized that researchers should focus more on healthy subjects, from birth until maturity. Rather than exploring what differentiates healthy and at risk/ill subjects, we propose to thoroughly study what characterizes a healthy state and its underlying metabolism. We define it as the Healthy Core Metabolism which remains stable whatever energy inputs (diets) and outputs (exercise), genetic background and external/internal stress, e.g., temporary illnesses. As a basis for Healthy Core Metabolism investigation, we observed that main physiological and ubiquitous functions of human organism, i.e., the neuro-vasculo-sarco-osteoporotic system, tend to follow a concave curve with common phases of growth, optimum, and decline. Finally, we hypothesized that true primary preventive nutrition should focus on the growth phase to reach the maximum capital of a given physiological function so that - whatever the further decline -, Healthy Life Years may approach or coincide with theoretical Life Expectancy.

  17. Travel Guide to Healthy School Meals: School Menu Planning to Meet Our Children's Nutritional Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    In 1994, Congress passed the Healthy Meals for Healthy Americans Act, requiring that Child Nutrition Programs comply with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and meet nutrient standards. In 1995, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) issued new regulations to define how the Dietary Guidelines would be applied to school meals, called the…

  18. Influence of nutritional knowledge on perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Giménez, Ana; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2008-11-01

    In order to assess the influence of nutritional knowledge on perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods, 104 consumers filled out a Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaire and answered a conjoint task. Participants had to evaluate 16 concepts consisting of combinations of carrier products (yogurt, milk desserts, pan bread and mayonnaise) and nutritional modifications (regular product, low-fat, enriched with antioxidants, and enriched with fibre). Three groups of consumers were identified with different level of nutritional knowledge. Highly significant differences were found in the healthiness evaluations of the clusters, which mainly depended on nutritional knowledge related to the links of diet and diseases. Highly significant differences in willingness to try functional foods were also found between the clusters. Whereas consumers with the lowest nutritional knowledge were not interested in consuming functional foods, the addition of fibre or antioxidants to healthy products increased the willingness of consumers with the highest level of nutritional knowledge to try the evaluated functional foods. These results suggested that lack of nutritional knowledge might limit the acceptance of functional foods and thus the use of health claims might be necessary to assure that consumers are aware of their health benefits.

  19. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutrition guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Beth N; Hayes, Dayle

    2014-08-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, maintain healthy weights, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical activity. Rapid increases in the prevalence of childhood obesity during the 1980s and 1990s focused attention on young children's overconsumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages and lack of physical activity. While recent data suggest a stabilization of obesity rates, several public health concerns remain. These include the most effective ways to promote healthy weights, the number of children living in food insecurity, the under-consumption of key nutrients, and the early development of diet-related risks for chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. This Position Paper reviews what children 2 to 11 years old in the United States are reportedly eating, explores trends in food and nutrient intakes, and examines the impact of federal nutrition programs on child nutrition. Current dietary recommendations and guidelines for physical activity are also discussed. The roles of parents and caregivers in influencing the development of life-long healthy eating behaviors are highlighted. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics works with other allied health and food industry professionals to translate dietary recommendations and guidelines into positive, practical health messages. Specific recommendations and sources of science-based nutrition messages to improve the nutritional well-being of children are provided for food and nutrition practitioners. PMID:25060139

  20. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutrition guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Beth N; Hayes, Dayle

    2014-08-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, maintain healthy weights, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical activity. Rapid increases in the prevalence of childhood obesity during the 1980s and 1990s focused attention on young children's overconsumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages and lack of physical activity. While recent data suggest a stabilization of obesity rates, several public health concerns remain. These include the most effective ways to promote healthy weights, the number of children living in food insecurity, the under-consumption of key nutrients, and the early development of diet-related risks for chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. This Position Paper reviews what children 2 to 11 years old in the United States are reportedly eating, explores trends in food and nutrient intakes, and examines the impact of federal nutrition programs on child nutrition. Current dietary recommendations and guidelines for physical activity are also discussed. The roles of parents and caregivers in influencing the development of life-long healthy eating behaviors are highlighted. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics works with other allied health and food industry professionals to translate dietary recommendations and guidelines into positive, practical health messages. Specific recommendations and sources of science-based nutrition messages to improve the nutritional well-being of children are provided for food and nutrition practitioners.

  1. Eat, Think, and Be Healthy! Creative Nutrition Activities for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeller, Paula Klevan; Jacobson, Michael F.

    This book provides an activity-oriented guide to a nutrition instruction program. The 56 activities, described and illustrated, are suitable for children from the third to the sixth grade. For each activity, a description is presented as well as the purpose of the activity, materials and resources needed, and the procedures to follow. Reproducible…

  2. Food, Fun, and Fitness: Nutrition Education for a Healthy Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Barbara A.; Stevenson, Marjorie L.

    1985-01-01

    Parents of children enrolled in a Head Start program and program staff were given training and information for changing health-related behaviors, such as improving eating habits, exercising, and involving the children in developing healthy behavior. (SK)

  3. Nutrition-dependent phenotypes affect sexual selection in a ladybird

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jiaqin; De Clercq, Patrick; Zhang, Yuhong; Wu, Hongsheng; Pan, Chang; Pang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors play a crucial role in influencing sexual selection in insects and the evolution of their mating systems. Although it has been reported that sexual selection in insects may change in response to varying environments, the reason for these changes remains poorly understood. Here, we focus on the mate selection process of a ladybird, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, when experiencing low- and high-nutrition diet regimes both in its larval and adult stages. We found that female ladybirds preferred to mate with males reared under high-nutrition diet regimes, regardless of the nutritional conditions they experienced during their own larval stages, indicating that mate choice of female C. montrouzieri is non-random and phenotype-dependent. Such mate choice may depend on visual cues (body or genitalia size) and/or chemical cues (pheromones). Further, females from high-nutrition larval diet regimes produced more eggs than those from low-nutrition larval diet regimes. In addition, diet regimes during adulthood also exerted strong effects on egg production. In summary, our study provides new insight into the mate choice of C. montrouzieri as affected by seasonal changes in resources, and suggests that food availability may be a driving force in mate choice. PMID:26269214

  4. Nutrition-dependent phenotypes affect sexual selection in a ladybird.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiaqin; De Clercq, Patrick; Zhang, Yuhong; Wu, Hongsheng; Pan, Chang; Pang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors play a crucial role in influencing sexual selection in insects and the evolution of their mating systems. Although it has been reported that sexual selection in insects may change in response to varying environments, the reason for these changes remains poorly understood. Here, we focus on the mate selection process of a ladybird, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, when experiencing low- and high-nutrition diet regimes both in its larval and adult stages. We found that female ladybirds preferred to mate with males reared under high-nutrition diet regimes, regardless of the nutritional conditions they experienced during their own larval stages, indicating that mate choice of female C. montrouzieri is non-random and phenotype-dependent. Such mate choice may depend on visual cues (body or genitalia size) and/or chemical cues (pheromones). Further, females from high-nutrition larval diet regimes produced more eggs than those from low-nutrition larval diet regimes. In addition, diet regimes during adulthood also exerted strong effects on egg production. In summary, our study provides new insight into the mate choice of C. montrouzieri as affected by seasonal changes in resources, and suggests that food availability may be a driving force in mate choice. PMID:26269214

  5. Nutrition-dependent phenotypes affect sexual selection in a ladybird.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiaqin; De Clercq, Patrick; Zhang, Yuhong; Wu, Hongsheng; Pan, Chang; Pang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors play a crucial role in influencing sexual selection in insects and the evolution of their mating systems. Although it has been reported that sexual selection in insects may change in response to varying environments, the reason for these changes remains poorly understood. Here, we focus on the mate selection process of a ladybird, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, when experiencing low- and high-nutrition diet regimes both in its larval and adult stages. We found that female ladybirds preferred to mate with males reared under high-nutrition diet regimes, regardless of the nutritional conditions they experienced during their own larval stages, indicating that mate choice of female C. montrouzieri is non-random and phenotype-dependent. Such mate choice may depend on visual cues (body or genitalia size) and/or chemical cues (pheromones). Further, females from high-nutrition larval diet regimes produced more eggs than those from low-nutrition larval diet regimes. In addition, diet regimes during adulthood also exerted strong effects on egg production. In summary, our study provides new insight into the mate choice of C. montrouzieri as affected by seasonal changes in resources, and suggests that food availability may be a driving force in mate choice.

  6. Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics abstract: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Lucia L; Campbell, Christina G

    2014-09-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that women of childbearing age should adopt a lifestyle optimizing health and reducing risk of birth defects, suboptimal fetal development, and chronic health problems in both mother and child.Components leading to healthy pregnancy outcome include healthy pre-pregnancy weight, appropriate weight gain and physical activity during pregnancy, consumption of a wide variety of foods, appropriate vitamin and mineral supplementation, avoidance of alcohol and other harmful substances, and safe food handling. Nutrition assessment needs to encompass changes in anthropometric,biochemical, and clinical indicators throughout pregnancy. Pregnant women should gain weight according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine Guidelines. Energy needs are no higher than the Estimated Energy Requirement for nonpregnant women until the second trimester; thereafter, the extra energy need per day is 340 kcal and 452 kcal in the second and third trimesters,respectively. Using the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, registered dietitian nutritionists and dietetics technicians, registered,can help pregnant women select a food plan based on age, physical activity, trimester, weight gain, and other considerations.Women are encouraged to participate in at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity spread throughout the week or 30 minutes of moderately intense exercise on most days of the week.When good food choices are made, food consumption to meet extra energy needs and the increased absorption and efficiency of nutrient utilization that occurs in pregnancy are generally adequate to meet most nutrient needs. However, vitamin and mineral supplementation may be important in vulnerable cases including food insecurity; alcohol, tobacco, or other substance dependency; anemia; strict vegetarian (vegan) diet; or poor eating habits. Multiple strategies are needed to support healthy lifestyles for all women, from preconception

  7. Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics abstract: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Lucia L; Campbell, Christina G

    2014-09-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that women of childbearing age should adopt a lifestyle optimizing health and reducing risk of birth defects, suboptimal fetal development, and chronic health problems in both mother and child.Components leading to healthy pregnancy outcome include healthy pre-pregnancy weight, appropriate weight gain and physical activity during pregnancy, consumption of a wide variety of foods, appropriate vitamin and mineral supplementation, avoidance of alcohol and other harmful substances, and safe food handling. Nutrition assessment needs to encompass changes in anthropometric,biochemical, and clinical indicators throughout pregnancy. Pregnant women should gain weight according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine Guidelines. Energy needs are no higher than the Estimated Energy Requirement for nonpregnant women until the second trimester; thereafter, the extra energy need per day is 340 kcal and 452 kcal in the second and third trimesters,respectively. Using the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, registered dietitian nutritionists and dietetics technicians, registered,can help pregnant women select a food plan based on age, physical activity, trimester, weight gain, and other considerations.Women are encouraged to participate in at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity spread throughout the week or 30 minutes of moderately intense exercise on most days of the week.When good food choices are made, food consumption to meet extra energy needs and the increased absorption and efficiency of nutrient utilization that occurs in pregnancy are generally adequate to meet most nutrient needs. However, vitamin and mineral supplementation may be important in vulnerable cases including food insecurity; alcohol, tobacco, or other substance dependency; anemia; strict vegetarian (vegan) diet; or poor eating habits. Multiple strategies are needed to support healthy lifestyles for all women, from preconception

  8. Depressive Symptoms Affect Working Memory in Healthy Older Adult Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Villanea, Monica; Liebmann, Edward; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio; Montenegro-Montenegro, Esteban; Johnson, David K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Low and middle income nations will experience an unprecedented growth of the elderly population and subsequent increase in age-related neurological disorders. Worldwide prevalence and incidence of all-types of neurological disorders with serious mental health complications will increase with life expectancy across the globe. One-in- ten individuals over 75 has at least moderate cognitive impairment. Prevalence of cognitive impairment doubles every 5 years thereafter. Latin America’s population of older adult’s 65 years and older is growing rapidly, yet little is known about cognitive aging among healthy older Latinos. Clinically significant depressive symptomatology is common among community-dwelling older adults and is associated with deficits across multiple cognitive domains, however much of the literature has not modeled the unique effects of depression distinct from negative and low positive affect. Our objective was to understand how mental health affects cognitive health in healthy aging Latinos. Methods The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relative effects of Negative Affect, Positive Affect and Geriatric Depression on Verbal Memory, Verbal Reasoning, Processing Speed, and Working Memory in healthy aging Latinos. Data was collected from a sample of healthy community dwelling older adults living in San Jose, Costa Rica. Modeling of latent variables attenuated error and improved measurement reliability of cognition, affect, and depression variables. Results Costa Ricans enjoy a notoriety for being much happier than US citizens and are renowned as one of the happiest nations in the world in global surveys. This was born out in these data. Costa Rican affective profiles differed substantively from US profiles. Levels of negative affect and depression were similar to US samples, but their levels of positive affect were much higher. Cognitive performance of these Costa Rican

  9. Cultivating healthy growth and nutrition through the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sathish; Blanton, Laura V; Frese, Steven A; Charbonneau, Mark; Mills, David A; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2015-03-26

    Microbiota assembly is perturbed in children with undernutrition, resulting in persistent microbiota immaturity that is not rescued by current nutritional interventions. Evidence is accumulating that this immaturity is causally related to the pathogenesis of undernutrition and its lingering sequelae. Preclinical models in which human gut communities are replicated in gnotobiotic mice have provided an opportunity to identify and predict the effects of different dietary ingredients on microbiota structure, expressed functions, and host biology. This capacity sets the stage for proof-of-concept tests designed to deliberately shape the developmental trajectory and configurations of microbiota in children representing different geographies, cultural traditions, and states of health. Developing these capabilities for microbial stewardship is timely given the global health burden of childhood undernutrition, the effects of changing eating practices brought about by globalization, and the realization that affordable nutritious foods need to be developed to enhance our capacity to cultivate healthier microbiota in populations at risk for poor nutrition. PMID:25815983

  10. Cultivating healthy growth and nutrition through the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sathish; Blanton, Laura V; Frese, Steven A; Charbonneau, Mark; Mills, David A; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2015-03-26

    Microbiota assembly is perturbed in children with undernutrition, resulting in persistent microbiota immaturity that is not rescued by current nutritional interventions. Evidence is accumulating that this immaturity is causally related to the pathogenesis of undernutrition and its lingering sequelae. Preclinical models in which human gut communities are replicated in gnotobiotic mice have provided an opportunity to identify and predict the effects of different dietary ingredients on microbiota structure, expressed functions, and host biology. This capacity sets the stage for proof-of-concept tests designed to deliberately shape the developmental trajectory and configurations of microbiota in children representing different geographies, cultural traditions, and states of health. Developing these capabilities for microbial stewardship is timely given the global health burden of childhood undernutrition, the effects of changing eating practices brought about by globalization, and the realization that affordable nutritious foods need to be developed to enhance our capacity to cultivate healthier microbiota in populations at risk for poor nutrition.

  11. Cultivating Healthy Growth and Nutrition through the Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Sathish; Blanton, Laura; Frese, Steven A.; Charbonneau, Mark; Mills, David A.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    Microbiota assembly is perturbed in children with undernutrition, resulting in persistent microbiota immaturity that is not rescued by current nutritional interventions. Evidence is accumulating that this immaturity is causally related to the pathogenesis of undernutrition and its lingering sequelae. Preclinical models in which human gut communities are replicated in gnotobiotic mice have provided an opportunity to identify and predict the effects of different dietary ingredients on microbiota structure, expressed functions, and host biology. This capacity sets the stage for proof-of-concept tests designed to deliberately shape the developmental trajectory and configurations of microbiota in children representing different geographies, cultural traditions, and states of health. Developing these capabilities for microbial stewardship is timely given the global health burden of childhood undernutrition, the effects of changing eating practices brought about by globalization, and the realization that affordable nutritious foods need to be developed to enhance our capacity to cultivate healthier microbiota in populations at risk for poor nutrition. PMID:25815983

  12. Healthy aging and age-adjusted nutrition and physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Mats; Ostgren, Carl Johan

    2013-10-01

    Expected life span is gradually increasing worldwide. Healthy dietary and exercise habits contribute to healthy ageing. Certain types of diet can prevent or reduce obesity, and may reduce the risk of diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease). Exercise also reduces the risk of diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, some cancers and some mental disturbances). A less sedentary life style seems at least as important as regular exercise. Exercise can probably be tailored to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and extent of bone loss. To ensure adherence, it is important to increase slowly the frequency, duration and intensity of exercise, and to find activities that suit the individual. More research is needed to find ideal modes and doses of exercise, and to increase long-term adherence. Dietary and exercise modification seem to be strong promoters of healthy ageing.

  13. Growing Healthy Bodies: Nutrition Education for Day Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viebrock, Margaret A.; Berry, Holly

    This booklet discusses the important role that day care providers can play in ensuring that children eat healthy snacks and meals and learn good eating habits. Section one of the booklet examines snack foods, discusses the difference between nutritious and less-nutritious snacks, and recommends snack foods appropriate for different age groups.…

  14. Associations among maternal nutrition and infant birth outcomes in a cohort of pregnant, primarily African American, rural, Southern women: Delta Healthy Sprouts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and aims: At no point during a woman’s life is good nutrition more important than during her reproductive years as her dietary choices affect not only her health but also that of her child. Delta Healthy Sprouts is a randomized, controlled, comparative trial testing the impact of two Ma...

  15. Healthy Children, Healthy Families: Parents Making a Difference! A Curriculum Integrating Key Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Parenting Practices to Help Prevent Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Megan; Hill, Tisa F.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Wolfe, Wendy S.; Dickin, Katherine L.

    2012-01-01

    A new dialogue-based curriculum combines nutrition, active play and parenting practices to help parents and caregivers gain skills that promote healthy habits for themselves and their families and to create healthy environments where children live, learn, and play. Graduates report significant improvements in behaviors that promote healthy weights…

  16. Nutrition Education Initiative: A School-Based Program to Promote Healthy Eating Practices of Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Bonnie; Ralston, Penny A.; Young-Clark, Iris; Cornille, Tom; Brown, Linda Lockett; Davis, Kimberly E.; Salley, Tihesha J.; Goehrig, Marianne Henderson; Mullins, Amy Piper; Gaskins, Dykibra J.

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of the Nutrition Education Initiative (NEI), a project to promote the adoption of healthy eating practices by middle school students in North Florida, included the development of the "NEI Resource Guide" and pilot study outcomes. Eight schools in North Florida participated in the pilot project. Food recall data from 331 and 768…

  17. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: total diet approach to healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Nitzke, Susan

    2013-02-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that the total diet or overall pattern of food eaten is the most important focus of healthy eating. All foods can fit within this pattern if consumed in moderation with appropriate portion size and combined with physical activity. The Academy strives to communicate healthy eating messages that emphasize a balance of food and beverages within energy needs, rather than any one food or meal. Public policies and dietary patterns that support the total diet approach include the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) Diet, MyPlate, Let's Move, Nutrition Facts labels, Healthy People 2020, and the Dietary Reference Intakes. In contrast to the total diet approach, classification of specific foods as good or bad is overly simplistic and can foster unhealthy eating behaviors. Alternative approaches are necessary in some situations. Eating practices are dynamic and influenced by many factors, including taste and food preferences, weight concerns, physiology, time and convenience, environment, abundance of foods, economics, media/marketing, perceived product safety, culture, and attitudes/beliefs. To increase the effectiveness of nutrition education in promoting sensible food choices, skilled food and nutrition practitioners utilize appropriate behavioral theory and evidence-based strategies. Focusing on variety, moderation, and proportionality in the context of a healthy lifestyle, rather than targeting specific nutrients or foods, can help reduce consumer confusion and prevent unnecessary reliance on supplements. Proactive, empowering, and practical messages that emphasize the total diet approach promote positive lifestyle changes.

  18. Teaching Healthy Eating to Elementary School Students: A Scoping Review of Nutrition Education Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta, Louisa R.; Dudley, Dean A.; Cotton, Wayne G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: School-based programs represent an ideal setting to enhance healthy eating, as most children attend school regularly and consume at least one meal and a number of snacks at school each day. However, current research reports that elementary school teachers often display low levels of nutritional knowledge, self-efficacy, and skills to…

  19. Does a Nutrition Education Programme Change the Knowledge and Practice of Healthy Diets among High School Adolescents in Chennai, India?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rani, M. Anitha; Shriraam, Vanishree; Zachariah, Rony; Harries, Anthony D.; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Tetali, Shailaja; Anchala, Raghupathy; Muthukumar, Diviya; Sathiyasekaran, B. W. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nutrition education is used as a way of promoting lifelong healthy eating practices among school adolescents. There is limited published information on the impact of nutrition education programmes in India. Objectives: To assess the knowledge and practices of high school students with respect to healthy diets before and after a…

  20. Nutrition: basis for healthy children and mothers in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Faruque, A S G; Ahmed, A M Shamsir; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Islam, M Munirul; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Roy, S K; Alam, Nurul; Kabir, Iqbal; Sack, David A

    2008-09-01

    Recent data from the World Health Organization showed that about 60% of all deaths, occurring among children aged less than five years (under-five children) in developing countries, could be attributed to malnutrition. It has been estimated that nearly 50.6 million under-five children are malnourished, and almost 90% of these children are from developing countries. Bangladesh is one of the countries with the highest rate of malnutrition. The recent baseline survey by the National Nutrition Programme (NNP) showed high rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting. However, data from the nutrition surveillance at the ICDDR,B hospital showed that the proportion of children with stunting, underweight, and wasting has actually reduced during 1984-2005. Inappropriate infant and young child-feeding practices (breastfeeding and complementary feeding) have been identified as a major cause of malnutrition. In Bangladesh, although the median duration of breastfeeding is about 30 months, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding until the first six months of life is low, and practice of appropriate complementary feeding is not satisfactory. Different surveys done by the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and Bangladesh Breastfeeding Foundation (BBF) showed a rate of exclusive breastfeeding to be around 32-52%, which have actually remained same or declined over time. The NNP baseline survey using a strict definition of exclusive breastfeeding showed a rate of exclusive breastfeeding (12.8%) until six months of age. Another study from the Abhoynagar field site of ICDDR,B reported the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding to be 15% only. Considerable efforts have been made to improve the rates of exclusive breastfeeding. Nationally, initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth, feeding colostrum, and exclusive breastfeeding have been promoted through the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) implemented and supported by BBF and

  1. The healthy options for nutrition environments in schools (Healthy ONES) group randomized trial: using implementation models to change nutrition policy and environments in low income schools

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Healthy Options for Nutrition Environments in Schools (Healthy ONES) study was an evidence-based public health (EBPH) randomized group trial that adapted the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s (IHI) rapid improvement process model to implement school nutrition policy and environmental change. Methods A low-income school district volunteered for participation in the study. All schools in the district agreed to participate (elementary = 6, middle school = 2) and were randomly assigned within school type to intervention (n = 4) and control (n =4) conditions following a baseline environmental audit year. Intervention goals were to 1) eliminate unhealthy foods and beverages on campus, 2) develop nutrition services as the main source on campus for healthful eating (HE), and 3) promote school staff modeling of HE. Schools were followed across a baseline year and two intervention years. Longitudinal assessment of height and weight was conducted with second, third, and sixth grade children. Behavioral observation of the nutrition environment was used to index the amount of outside foods and beverages on campuses. Observations were made monthly in each targeted school environment and findings were presented as items per child per week. Results From an eligible 827 second, third, and sixth grade students, baseline height and weight were collected for 444 second and third grade and 135 sixth grade students (51% reach). Data were available for 73% of these enrolled students at the end of three years. Intervention school outside food and beverage items per child per week decreased over time and control school outside food and beverage items increased over time. The effects were especially pronounced for unhealthy foods and beverage items. Changes in rates of obesity for intervention school (28% baseline, 27% year 1, 30% year 2) were similar to those seen for control school (22% baseline, 22% year 1, 25% year 2) children. Conclusions

  2. Oculomotor tasks affect differently postural control in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Ajrezo, Layla; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette

    2015-11-01

    Eye movements affect postural stability in children. The present study focuses on the effect of different types of eye movements on postural stability in healthy children. Both eye movements and postural stability have been recorded in 51 healthy children from 6.3 to 15.5 years old. Eye movements were recorded binocularly with a video oculography (MobilEBT(®)), and postural stability was measured while child was standing on a force platform (TechnoConcept(®)). Children performed three oculomotor tasks: saccades, pursuits and reading a text silently. We measured the number of saccades made in the three oculomotor tasks, the number of words read, and the surface area, the length and mean velocity of the center of pressure (CoP). According to previous studies, postural control improves with age until 10-12 years. Saccades toward a target as well as during a reading task reduce significantly the CoP displacement and its velocity, while during pursuit eye movements all children increase postural parameters (i.e., the surface area, the length and mean velocity of the CoP). These results suggest the presence of an interaction between the oculomotor control and the postural system. Visual attention to perform saccades (to stationary targets or to words) influences postural stability more than the frequency of saccade triggering does. PMID:26096315

  3. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.

    PubMed

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers.

  4. The challenges of molecular nutrition research 1- Linking genotype to healthy nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition science finds itself at a major crossroad. On one hand we can continue the current path that along several decades has resulted in substantial advances but surrounded by conflicting messages and unsubstantiated claims that have been crumbling the trust of the general population, always eag...

  5. Nutrition. Healthy Moms, Healthy Kids: A Series on Maternal and Child Health in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Adequate consumption of nutritious, wholesome foods is essential to the healthy development of young children. Unfortunately, many households throughout the U.S. and Colorado struggle to put sufficient food on the table. According to the United States Department of Agriculture, the percentage of American families who reported experiencing…

  6. Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

  7. "Community projects" in Modena (Italy): promote regular physical activity and healthy nutrition habits since childhood.

    PubMed

    Tripodi, Alberto; Severi, Sabrina; Midili, Simona; Corradini, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    Lack of exercise and unhealthy diets are two of the most important risk factors to develop overweight, obesity and other chronic diseases. The school plays a key role in the promotion of lifelong healthy habits in children and their families. Every intervention at school level will need to be matched by changes in the social and cultural context so that the benefits can be sustained and enhanced in the community. We promoted healthy nutrition and a regular physical activity in schools and in local communities, through multifaceted interventions, which involved more than 10,000 children and about 100,000 adults. PMID:21923298

  8. "Community projects" in Modena (Italy): promote regular physical activity and healthy nutrition habits since childhood.

    PubMed

    Tripodi, Alberto; Severi, Sabrina; Midili, Simona; Corradini, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    Lack of exercise and unhealthy diets are two of the most important risk factors to develop overweight, obesity and other chronic diseases. The school plays a key role in the promotion of lifelong healthy habits in children and their families. Every intervention at school level will need to be matched by changes in the social and cultural context so that the benefits can be sustained and enhanced in the community. We promoted healthy nutrition and a regular physical activity in schools and in local communities, through multifaceted interventions, which involved more than 10,000 children and about 100,000 adults.

  9. Nutritional composition of dry-cured ham and its role in a healthy diet.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Ventanas, J; Toldrá, F

    2010-04-01

    Dry-cured ham is a traditional product with a strong presence in markets in the Mediterranean area. It is very popular with European consumers and is of enormous economic importance for the meat industry in the Mediterranean area. Although the great palatability of ham largely outweighs other considerations, aspects relating to health and wellbeing are increasingly important factors in consumer decisions. The potential role of ham in a context of healthy nutrition has not been clearly elucidated, especially considering that origins and production methods of dry-cured hams can induce differences in composition. The object of this review was on the one hand to provide an analysis of the components of dry-cured ham and their role in a healthy diet, and on the other hand to suggest possible strategies for improving its nutritional composition.

  10. Mothers' efforts to promote healthy nutrition and physical activity for their preschool children.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Ann L; Reilly, Sandra M

    2011-10-01

    Children's lifestyles profoundly impact their health. This action research study explores how mothers manage to provide good nutrition and physical activity opportunities for their preschool children despite the challenges of daily living. Aware of these daily challenges, mothers are the best source of information about the usefulness of different strategies in providing healthy lifestyles for their children. In so doing, they display an ecological viewpoint that recognizes health as an individual and collective responsibility. PMID:21930026

  11. Rationale, design and methods of the HEALTHY study nutrition intervention component.

    PubMed

    Gillis, B; Mobley, C; Stadler, D D; Hartstein, J; Virus, A; Volpe, S L; El ghormli, L; Staten, M A; Bridgman, J; McCormick, S

    2009-08-01

    The HEALTHY study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter and middle school-based, multifaceted intervention designed to reduce risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. The study randomized 42 middle schools to intervention or control, and followed students from the sixth to the eighth grades. Here we describe the design of the HEALTHY nutrition intervention component that was developed to modify the total school food environment, defined to include the following: federal breakfast, lunch, after school snack and supper programs; a la carte venues, including snack bars and school stores; vending machines; fundraisers; and classroom parties and celebrations. Study staff implemented the intervention using core and toolbox strategies to achieve and maintain the following five intervention goals: (1) lower the average fat content of foods, (2) increase the availability and variety of fruits and vegetables, (3) limit the portion sizes and energy content of dessert and snack foods, (4) eliminate whole and 2% milk and all added sugar beverages, with the exception of low fat or nonfat flavored milk, and limit 100% fruit juice to breakfast in small portions and (5) increase the availability of higher fiber grain-based foods and legumes. Other nutrition intervention component elements were taste tests, cafeteria enhancements, cafeteria line messages and other messages about healthy eating, cafeteria learning laboratory (CLL) activities, twice-yearly training of food service staff, weekly meetings with food service managers, incentives for food service departments, and twice yearly local meetings and three national summits with district food service directors. Strengths of the intervention design were the integration of nutrition with the other HEALTHY intervention components (physical education, behavior change and communications), and the collaboration and rapport between the nutrition intervention study staff members and food service personnel at both school

  12. Promoting healthy dietary behaviour through personalised nutrition: technology push or technology pull?

    PubMed

    Stewart-Knox, Barbara; Rankin, Audrey; Kuznesof, Sharron; Poínhos, Rui; Vaz de Almeida, Maria Daniel; Fischer, Arnout; Frewer, Lynn J

    2015-05-01

    The notion of educating the public through generic healthy eating messages has pervaded dietary health promotion efforts over the years and continues to do so through various media, despite little evidence for any enduring impact upon eating behaviour. There is growing evidence, however, that tailored interventions such as those that could be delivered online can be effective in bringing about healthy dietary behaviour change. The present paper brings together evidence from qualitative and quantitative studies that have considered the public perspective of genomics, nutrigenomics and personalised nutrition, including those conducted as part of the EU-funded Food4Me project. Such studies have consistently indicated that although the public hold positive views about nutrigenomics and personalised nutrition, they have reservations about the service providers' ability to ensure the secure handling of health data. Technological innovation has driven the concept of personalised nutrition forward and now a further technological leap is required to ensure the privacy of online service delivery systems and to protect data gathered in the process of designing personalised nutrition therapies.

  13. A Statistical Analysis of a Traffic-Light Food Rating System to Promote Healthy Nutrition and Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Larrivee, Sandra; Greenway, Frank L.; Johnson, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Restaurant eating while optimizing nutrition and maintaining a healthy weight is challenging. Even when nutritional information is available, consumers often consider only calories. A quick and easy method to rate both caloric density and nutrition is an unmet need. A food rating system created to address that need is assessed in this study. Methods: The food rating system categorizes food items into 3 color-coded categories: most healthy (green), medium healthy (yellow), or least healthy (red) based on calorie density and general nutritional quality from national guidelines. Nutritional information was downloaded from 20 popular fast-food chains. Nutritional assessments and the 3 color coded categories were compared using the Wilcoxon and Median tests to demonstrate the significance of nutrition differences. Results: Green foods were significantly lower than yellow foods, which in turn were significantly lower than red foods, for calories and calories from fat, in addition to content of total fat, saturated fat and carbohydrates per 100 g serving weight (all P < .02). The green foods had significantly lower cholesterol than the yellow (P = .0006) and red (P < .0001) foods. Yellow foods had less sugar than red foods (P < .0001). Yellow foods were significantly higher in dietary fiber than red foods (P = .001). Conclusion: The food rating color-coded system identifies food items with superior nutrition, and lower caloric density. The smartphone app, incorporating the system, has the potential to improve nutrition; reduce the risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and stroke; and improve public health. PMID:26134833

  14. Boron nutrition affects the carbon metabolism of silver birch seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ruuhola, Teija; Keinänen, Markku; Keski-Saari, Sarita; Lehto, Tarja

    2011-11-01

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient whose deficiency is common both in agriculture and in silviculture. Boron deficiency impairs the growth of plants and affects many metabolic processes like carbohydrate metabolism. Boron deficiency and also excess B may decrease the sink demand by decreasing the growth and sugar transport which may lead to the accumulation of carbohydrates and down-regulation of photosynthesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of B nutrition on the soluble and storage carbohydrate concentrations of summer leaves and autumn buds in a deciduous tree species, Betula pendula Roth. In addition, we investigated the changes in the pools of condensed tannins between summer and autumn harvests. One-year-old birch seedlings were fertilized with a complete nutrient solution containing three different levels of B: 0, 30 and 100% of the standard level for complete nutrient solution. Half of the seedlings were harvested after summer period and another half when leaves abscised. The highest B fertilization level (B100) caused an accumulation of starch and a decrease in the concentrations of hexoses (glucose and fructose) in summer leaves, whereas in the B0 seedlings, hexoses (mainly glucose) accumulated and starch decreased. These changes in carbohydrate concentrations might be related to the changes in the sink demand since the autumn growth was the smallest for the B100 seedlings and largest for the B30 seedlings that did not accumulate carbohydrates. The autumn buds of B30 seedlings contained the lowest levels of glucose, glycerol, raffinose and total polyols, which was probably due to the dilution effect of the deposition of other substances like phenols. Condensed tannins accumulated in high amounts in the birch stems during the hardening of seedlings and the largest accumulation was detected in the B30 treatment. Our results suggest that B nutrition of birch seedlings affects the carbohydrate and phenol metabolism and may play an important

  15. HuSKY: a healthy nutrition score based on food intake of children and adolescents in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kleiser, Christina; Mensink, Gert B M; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria

    2009-08-01

    For many epidemiological questions an overall indicator of healthy nutrition can be useful. Based on the data from the FFQ of the German Health Interview and Examination Study for children and adolescents (KiGGS) we developed a healthy nutrition score based on a comparison with current recommendations for children and adolescents. We observed independent and statistically significant relationships between the nutrition score and age, sex, socio-economic status, immigration background, level of urbanisation and residence in former East v. former West Germany. Furthermore, the nutrition score was statistically significantly related to serum concentrations of homocysteine (inverse association) and folate (positive associations). The construction of a healthy nutrition score appears to be useful for several reasons. For instance, our score can be used to summarise an abundance of dietary information to a single measure, to get an overall impression of diets of individuals or groups, which can be useful to detect certain risk groups.

  16. Optokinetic Stimulation Affects Temporal Estimation in Healthy Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Caltagirone, Carlo; Oliveri, Massimiliano

    2007-01-01

    The representation of time and space are closely linked in the cognitive system. Optokinetic stimulation modulates spatial attention in healthy subjects and patients with spatial neglect. In order to evaluate whether optokinetic stimulation could influence time perception, a group of healthy subjects performed "time-comparison" tasks of sub- and…

  17. Healthy eating for life: rationale and development of an English as a second language (ESL) curriculum for promoting healthy nutrition.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Josefa L; Rivers, Susan E; Duncan, Lindsay R; Bertoli, Michelle; Domingo, Samantha; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Salovey, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Low health literacy contributes significantly to cancer health disparities disadvantaging minorities and the medically underserved. Immigrants to the United States constitute a particularly vulnerable subgroup of the medically underserved, and because many are non-native English speakers, they are pre-disposed to encounter language and literacy barriers across the cancer continuum. Healthy Eating for Life (HE4L) is an English as a second language (ESL) curriculum designed to teach English language and health literacy while promoting fruit and vegetable consumption for cancer prevention. This article describes the rationale, design, and content of HE4L. HE4L is a content-based adult ESL curriculum grounded in the health action process approach to behavior change. The curriculum package includes a soap opera-like storyline, an interactive student workbook, a teacher's manual, and audio files. HE4L is the first teacher-administered, multimedia nutrition-education curriculum designed to reduce cancer risk among beginning-level ESL students. HE4L is unique because it combines adult ESL principles, health education content, and behavioral theory. HE4L provides a case study of how evidence-based, health promotion practices can be implemented into real-life settings and serves as a timely, useful, and accessible nutrition-education resource for health educators.

  18. Dehydration affects brain structure and function in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kempton, Matthew J; Ettinger, Ulrich; Foster, Russell; Williams, Steven C R; Calvert, Gemma A; Hampshire, Adam; Zelaya, Fernando O; O'Gorman, Ruth L; McMorris, Terry; Owen, Adrian M; Smith, Marcus S

    2011-01-01

    It was recently observed that dehydration causes shrinkage of brain tissue and an associated increase in ventricular volume. Negative effects of dehydration on cognitive performance have been shown in some but not all studies, and it has also been reported that an increased perceived effort may be required following dehydration. However, the effects of dehydration on brain function are unknown. We investigated this question using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 10 healthy adolescents (mean age = 16.8, five females). Each subject completed a thermal exercise protocol and nonthermal exercise control condition in a cross-over repeated measures design. Subjects lost more weight via perspiration in the thermal exercise versus the control condition (P < 0.0001), and lateral ventricle enlargement correlated with the reduction in body mass (r = 0.77, P = 0.01). Dehydration following the thermal exercise protocol led to a significantly stronger increase in fronto-parietal blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response during an executive function task (Tower of London) than the control condition, whereas cerebral perfusion during rest was not affected. The increase in BOLD response after dehydration was not paralleled by a change in cognitive performance, suggesting an inefficient use of brain metabolic activity following dehydration. This pattern indicates that participants exerted a higher level of neuronal activity in order to achieve the same performance level. Given the limited availability of brain metabolic resources, these findings suggest that prolonged states of reduced water intake may adversely impact executive functions such as planning and visuo-spatial processing.

  19. Dehydration affects brain structure and function in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kempton, Matthew J; Ettinger, Ulrich; Foster, Russell; Williams, Steven C R; Calvert, Gemma A; Hampshire, Adam; Zelaya, Fernando O; O'Gorman, Ruth L; McMorris, Terry; Owen, Adrian M; Smith, Marcus S

    2011-01-01

    It was recently observed that dehydration causes shrinkage of brain tissue and an associated increase in ventricular volume. Negative effects of dehydration on cognitive performance have been shown in some but not all studies, and it has also been reported that an increased perceived effort may be required following dehydration. However, the effects of dehydration on brain function are unknown. We investigated this question using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 10 healthy adolescents (mean age = 16.8, five females). Each subject completed a thermal exercise protocol and nonthermal exercise control condition in a cross-over repeated measures design. Subjects lost more weight via perspiration in the thermal exercise versus the control condition (P < 0.0001), and lateral ventricle enlargement correlated with the reduction in body mass (r = 0.77, P = 0.01). Dehydration following the thermal exercise protocol led to a significantly stronger increase in fronto-parietal blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response during an executive function task (Tower of London) than the control condition, whereas cerebral perfusion during rest was not affected. The increase in BOLD response after dehydration was not paralleled by a change in cognitive performance, suggesting an inefficient use of brain metabolic activity following dehydration. This pattern indicates that participants exerted a higher level of neuronal activity in order to achieve the same performance level. Given the limited availability of brain metabolic resources, these findings suggest that prolonged states of reduced water intake may adversely impact executive functions such as planning and visuo-spatial processing. PMID:20336685

  20. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-01-01

    Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. PMID:21170334

  1. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: dietary fatty acids for healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Vannice, Gretchen; Rasmussen, Heather

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (the Academy) that dietary fat for the healthy adult population should provide 20% to 35% of energy, with an increased consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and limited intake of saturated and trans fats. The Academy recommends a food-based approach through a diet that includes regular consumption of fatty fish, nuts and seeds, lean meats and poultry, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes. These recommendations are made within the context of rapidly evolving science delineating the influence of dietary fat and specific fatty acids on human health. In addition to fat as a valuable and calorically dense macronutrient with a central role in supplying essential nutrition and supporting healthy body weight, evidence on individual fatty acids and fatty acid groups is emerging as a key factor in nutrition and health. Small variations in the structure of fatty acids within broader categories of fatty acids, such as polyunsaturated and saturated, appear to elicit different physiological functions. The Academy recognizes that scientific knowledge about the effects of dietary fats on human health is young and takes a prudent approach in recommending an increase in fatty acids that benefit health and a reduction in fatty acids shown to increase risk of disease. Registered dietitian nutritionists are uniquely positioned to translate fat and fatty acid research into practical and effective dietary recommendations.

  2. A systematic review of nutrition-based practices in prevention of hypertension among healthy youth.

    PubMed

    Kalyoncu, Zeynep Begüm; Pars, Hatice; Bora-Güneş, Nebahat; Karabulut, Erdem; Aslan, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the results of observational and interventional research/studies on nutrition-based practices in the prevention of hypertension among healthy youth. The MEDLINE/PubMed database was searched using the key words, "hypertension," "nutrition/diet," "prevention" and "youth." Inclusion criteria were: 1) sample with a majority of adolescents, defined as 10-24 years of age, or findings for adolescents reported separately from other age groups; 2) primary research reports; 3) studies with normotensive participants; and 4) studies that focused on preventing hypertension/lowering blood pressure through at least one nutritional practice. Results of the analysis indicated that increased consumption of unsaturated fats, fruits, vegetables and low-fat dietary products, decreased consumption of dietary sodium and beverages containing caffeine, and breastfeeding were found to have preventive effects against high blood pressure in later years of life. The effects of training given during youth to encourage a healthy lifestyle and behavior changes based on diet and physical activity were also noted.

  3. Nutrition label use mediates the positive relationship between nutrition knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating with dietary quality among university students in the UK.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Rachel; Papadaki, Angeliki

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether nutrition knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating are predictors of nutrition label use (NLU) and dietary quality in a diverse sample of university students in the UK. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 among 500 students (mean age 24.9 years; 75% females) in 37 UK universities. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, NLU and dietary quality were assessed using previously validated questionnaires. The majority of participants met dietary recommendations for fat, added sugar and fast food intake, and failed to meet recommendations for calcium, fibre, fruit and vegetable and dairy product intake, resulting in a median dietary quality score of 2.0 (score range = 0-8). Nutrition knowledge differed according to gender, age, body mass index (BMI), nationality and NLU. Attitudes towards healthy eating differed according to BMI and NLU and dietary quality differed according to gender. Nutrition knowledge and attitudes were significant predictors of NLU and dietary quality, with NLU mediating the latter relationship, whereas NLU, when controlled for knowledge and attitudes, negatively predicted dietary quality but did not have a significant independent relationship with diet. Future nutrition interventions to improve dietary quality in this sample of UK university students should focus on improving nutrition knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating.

  4. Effects of combined physical education and nutritional programs on schoolchildren’s healthy habits

    PubMed Central

    Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Iazzoni, Sara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Meucci, Marco; Migliaccio, Silvia; Guidetti, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background. A multidisciplinary approach seems to be effective in creating healthy habits in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three 5-month combined physical education (PE) and nutritional interventions on body composition, physical activity (PA) level, sedentary time and eating habits of schoolchildren. Methods. Anthropometric data, weekly PA level, sedentary time and eating habits of 230 healthy students were analysed using a repeated-measures ANOVA with Group (experimental group 1 vs experimental group 2 vs control group), Adiposity Status (under fat vs normal fat vs obese), and Time (pre vs post) as factors. Results. Body fat mass percentage increased after intervention (18.92 ± 8.61% vs 19.40 ± 8.51%) in all groups. The weekly PA level significantly increased after intervention in both experimental groups. Sedentary time significantly decreased after the intervention period (565.70 ± 252.93 vs 492.10 ± 230.97 min/week, p < 0.0001). Moreover, obese children were more sedentary than under fat and normal fat children. Children significantly changed the consumption of some specific foods after intervention. Discussion. This study revealed the effectiveness of a combined PE and nutritional intervention to improve children’s healthful dietary practices and to encourage an active lifestyle. However, it needs a further appropriate development to establish patterns of healthful dietary practices that encourage an active lifestyle with which to maintain healthy habits through life. PMID:27077004

  5. Effects of combined physical education and nutritional programs on schoolchildren's healthy habits.

    PubMed

    Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Iazzoni, Sara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Meucci, Marco; Migliaccio, Silvia; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Background. A multidisciplinary approach seems to be effective in creating healthy habits in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three 5-month combined physical education (PE) and nutritional interventions on body composition, physical activity (PA) level, sedentary time and eating habits of schoolchildren. Methods. Anthropometric data, weekly PA level, sedentary time and eating habits of 230 healthy students were analysed using a repeated-measures ANOVA with Group (experimental group 1 vs experimental group 2 vs control group), Adiposity Status (under fat vs normal fat vs obese), and Time (pre vs post) as factors. Results. Body fat mass percentage increased after intervention (18.92 ± 8.61% vs 19.40 ± 8.51%) in all groups. The weekly PA level significantly increased after intervention in both experimental groups. Sedentary time significantly decreased after the intervention period (565.70 ± 252.93 vs 492.10 ± 230.97 min/week, p < 0.0001). Moreover, obese children were more sedentary than under fat and normal fat children. Children significantly changed the consumption of some specific foods after intervention. Discussion. This study revealed the effectiveness of a combined PE and nutritional intervention to improve children's healthful dietary practices and to encourage an active lifestyle. However, it needs a further appropriate development to establish patterns of healthful dietary practices that encourage an active lifestyle with which to maintain healthy habits through life.

  6. Healthy Foods, Healthy Families: combining incentives and exposure interventions at urban farmers’ markets to improve nutrition among recipients of US federal food assistance

    PubMed Central

    Bowling, April B.; Moretti, Mikayla; Ringelheim, Kayla; Tran, Alvin; Davison, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Background: Healthy Foods, Healthy Families (HFHF) is a fruit and vegetable (F&V) exposure/incentive program implemented at farmers’ markets in low-income neighborhoods, targeting families receiving US federal food assistance. We examined program effects on participants’ diet and associations between attendance, demographics and dietary change. Methods: Exposure activities included F&V tastings and cooking demonstrations. Incentives included 40% F&V bonus for electronic benefit transfer (EBT) card users and $20 for use purchasing F&V at every third market visit. Self-report surveys measuring nutritional behaviors/literacy were administered to participants upon enrollment (n = 425, 46.2% Hispanic, 94.8%female). Participants were sampled for follow-up at markets during mid-season (n = 186) and at season end (n = 146). Attendance was tracked over 16 weeks. Results: Participants post-intervention reported significantly higher vegetable consumption(P = 0.005) and lower soda consumption (P = 0.005). Participants reporting largest F&V increases attended the market 6-8 times and received $40 in incentives. No change in food assistance spent on F&V (P = 0.94); 70% reported significant increases in family consumption of F&V,indicating subsidies increased overall F&V purchasing. Participants reported exposure activities and incentives similarly affected program attendance. Conclusion: Interventions combining exposure activities and modest financial incentives at farmers’ markets in low-income neighborhoods show strong potential to improve diet quality of families receiving federal food assistance. PMID:27123431

  7. Grazing management as it affects nutrition, animal production and economics of beef production.

    PubMed

    Parsons, S D; Allison, C D

    1991-03-01

    Until recently, the nutritional fate of the grazing animal has been largely ignored by both animal and range scientists despite the economic dependence of the extensive livestock industry on nutrition from grass. Of the three factors that can be manipulated to improve profit gross margin per animal, is one that is directly affected by nutrition and, hence, grazing management. The relationship between economics and grazing management may be summarized as: Gross margin = f(Animal Performance); Animal Performance = f(nutrition); Nutrition = f(grazing). Economical beef production must consider the needs of the animal and the forage plant at the same time. The health of the sward must be maintained while improving individual animal performance and simultaneously increasing stocking rate. Generally, plants that have been defoliated require a period of recovery before again being grazed. A sward is kept in a vigorous state by preventing repetitive defoliation at the one extreme, and avoiding excessive shading (mature growth) of photosynthetic material at the other. This state is best achieved where livestock grazing is controlled. For any individual paddock, periods of grazing are followed by periods that allow adequate physiologic recovery of the plants. A grazing regimen that keeps the plant in a healthy state is fortuitously also well suited to the nutritional requirements of the animal. Animals on overgrazed pastures are likely to suffer from inadequate feed intake because of deficiencies in feed quantity. Conversely, on over-rested pastures, intake deficiency results from paucity in feed quality. On most unmanaged ranges, overgrazed and over-rested plants are likely to be found side by side. By controlling duration of the rest period as well as duration of the grazing period through pasture subdivision, requirements of both the plant and the animal can be met. With artificially high economic demands placed on animal production, some form of supplementation is

  8. Nutrition and lifestyle in european adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luis A; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Ruiz, Jonatan R; González-Gross, Marcela; DeHenauw, Stefaan

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is a critical period, because major physical and psychologic changes occur during a very short period of time. Changes in dietary habits may induce different types of nutritional disorders and are likely to track into adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the key findings related to nutritional status in European adolescents participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. We performed a cross-sectional study in 3528 (1845 females) adolescents aged 12.5–17.5 y. Birth weight was negatively associated with abdominal fat mass in adolescents and serum leptin concentrations (in female adolescents), providing additional evidence for a programming effect of birth weight on energy homeostasis control. Breakfast consumption was associated with lower body fat content and healthier cardiovascular profile. Adolescents eat half of the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables and less than two-thirds of the recommended amount of milk and milk products but consume more meat and meat products, fats, and sweets than recommended. For beverage consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweetened milk, low-fat milk, and fruit juice provided the highest amount of energy. Although the intakes of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and salt were high, the intake of polyunsaturated FAs was low. Adolescents spent, on average, 9 h/d of their waking time (66–71% and 70–73% of the registered time in boys and girls, respectively) in sedentary activities. Factors associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior included the following: 1) age; 2) media availability in the bedroom; 3) sleeping time; 4) breakfast consumption; and 5) season. Sedentary time was also associated with cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral content. In European adolescents, deficient concentrations were identified for plasma folate (15%), vitamin D (15%), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (5%), β-carotene (25%), and vitamin E (5%). Scientists and public

  9. Nutrition and Lifestyle in European Adolescents: The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study123

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Luis A.; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; González-Gross, Marcela; DeHenauw, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period, because major physical and psychologic changes occur during a very short period of time. Changes in dietary habits may induce different types of nutritional disorders and are likely to track into adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the key findings related to nutritional status in European adolescents participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. We performed a cross-sectional study in 3528 (1845 females) adolescents aged 12.5–17.5 y. Birth weight was negatively associated with abdominal fat mass in adolescents and serum leptin concentrations (in female adolescents), providing additional evidence for a programming effect of birth weight on energy homeostasis control. Breakfast consumption was associated with lower body fat content and healthier cardiovascular profile. Adolescents eat half of the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables and less than two-thirds of the recommended amount of milk and milk products but consume more meat and meat products, fats, and sweets than recommended. For beverage consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweetened milk, low-fat milk, and fruit juice provided the highest amount of energy. Although the intakes of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and salt were high, the intake of polyunsaturated FAs was low. Adolescents spent, on average, 9 h/d of their waking time (66–71% and 70–73% of the registered time in boys and girls, respectively) in sedentary activities. Factors associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior included the following: 1) age; 2) media availability in the bedroom; 3) sleeping time; 4) breakfast consumption; and 5) season. Sedentary time was also associated with cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral content. In European adolescents, deficient concentrations were identified for plasma folate (15%), vitamin D (15%), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (5%), β-carotene (25%), and vitamin E (5%). Scientists and public

  10. Interactions between Artificial Gravity, the Affected Physiological Systems, and Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, Martina; Baecker, Nathalie; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Malnutrition, either by insufficient supply of some nutrients or by overfeeding, has a profound effect on the health of an organism. Therefore, optimal nutrition is a necessity in normal gravity on Earth, in microgravity, and when applying artificial gravity to the human system. Reduced physical activity, such as observed in microgravity or bed rest, has an effect on many physiological systems, such as the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune, and body fluids regulation systems. There is currently no countermeasure that is effective to counteract both the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning when applied for a short duration (see Chapter 1). Artificial gravity therefore seems the simplest physiological approach to keep these systems intact. The application of intermittent daily dose of artificial gravity by means of centrifugation has often been proposed as a potential countermeasure against the physiological deconditioning induced by spaceflight. However, neither the optimal gravity level, nor its optimal duration of exposure have been enough studied to recommend a validated, effective, and efficient artificial gravity application. As discussed in previous chapters, artificial gravity has a very high potential to counteract any changes caused by reduced physical activity. The nutrient supply, which ideally should match the actual needs, will interact with these changes and therefore has also to be taken into account. This chapter reviews the potential interactions between these nutrients (energy intake, vitamins, minerals) and the other physiological systems affected by artificial gravity generated by an on-board short-radius centrifuge.

  11. Nutrition label use partially mediates the relationship between attitude toward healthy eating and overall dietary quality among college students.

    PubMed

    Graham, Dan J; Laska, Melissa N

    2012-03-01

    Individuals who frequently read nutrition labels tend to both value healthy eating and engage in healthy dietary practices more than individuals who read labels infrequently. However, the relationship between label use, attitude toward healthy eating, and dietary quality remains unclear, particularly among young adults, about whom little is known with regard to nutrition label use. Our study investigated whether nutrition label use mediates the relationship between eating-related attitudes and dietary behaviors among young adult college students. Using cross-sectional online survey data collected in 2010 from a convenience sample in Minneapolis/St Paul, MN (598 attending a 2-year community college; 603 attending a public 4-year university; mean age 21.5 years; 53.4% nonwhite; 52.5% women), study findings indicate that students who reported frequently reading nutrition labels were more likely to have healthier dietary intakes (eg, less fast food and added sugar; more fiber, fruits, and vegetables) compared to those who read labels sometimes or rarely (P<0.001). Further, frequent nutrition label use was a significant partial mediator of the relationship between eating-related attitude (ie, feeling that it is important to prepare healthy meals) and dietary quality, indicating that label use may be one means by which individuals who value healthy eating translate their attitude into healthy eating behaviors. Even among those who did not believe it was important to prepare healthy meals, frequent nutrition label use was significantly associated with healthier dietary intake, suggesting that label use may operate independently of nutrition-related attitude in contributing to healthful diet. PMID:22896856

  12. [Nutrition in pregnancy - Practice recommendations of the Network "Healthy Start - Young Family Network"].

    PubMed

    Koletzko, B; Bauer, C-P; Bung, P; Cremer, M; Flothkötter, M; Hellmers, C; Kersting, M; Krawinkel, M; Przyrembel, H; Rasenack, R; Schäfer, T; Vetter, K; Wahn, U; Weißenborn, A; Wöckel, A

    2012-06-01

    Nutrition, physical activity and lifestyle in pregnancy influence maternal and child health. The "Healthy start - Young Family Network" supported by the German Government with the national action plan IN FORM developed recommendations on nutrition in pregnancy. Folic acid supplements (400 µg/day) should be started before pregnancy and continue for at least the first trimester. Iodine rich foods and salt and an iodine supplement (100-150 µg/day) are recommended. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids should be provided with ≥ 1 weekly portion of oily sea fish, or a DHA-supplement if regular fish consumption is avoided. Vitamin D supplementation is advisable unless there is regular exposure to sunlight. Iron supplements should be used based on medical history and blood testing. Vegetarian diets with nutritional supplements can provide adequate nutrition, but counselling is recommended. In contrast, a vegan diet is inadequate and requires additional micronutrient supplementation. For risk reduction of listeriosis and toxoplasmosis, raw animal foods, soft cheeses and packed fresh salads should be avoided; fresh fruit, vegetables and salad should be washed well and consumed promptly. Pregnant women should remain physically active and perform sports with moderate intensity. They should avoid alcohol, active and passive smoking. Up to 3 daily cups of coffee are considered harmless, but energy drinks should be avoided. Childhood allergy is not reduced by avoiding certain foods in pregnancy whereas oily sea fish is recommended. Health care professions should lead parents to health-promoting lifestyles. Subjects of part 1 of the article are practice recommendations on nutrition, on energy needs, micronutrient needs and body weight/weight gain in pregnancy.

  13. The impact of the Bellagio Report on healthy agriculture, healthy nutrition, healthy people: scientific and policy aspects and the International Network of Centers for Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P

    2014-01-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People was the result of a meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in the fall of 2012. The meeting was science based but policy oriented. The Bellagio Report concluded that: (1) sugar consumption, especially in the form of high-energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, particularly for children; (2) current diets in most populations, albeit with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids but too high in omega-6 fatty acid intake, and (3) not all calories are the same since calories from different sources (i.e. glucose or fructose or omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acids) have different metabolic and neurohormonal effects. This paper summarizes the scientific progress and policy actions that have occurred in these three areas. Genetic variation in populations and gene-nutrient interactions are fundamental concepts that need to be taken into consideration in growth and development and in the prevention and management of chronic noncommunicable diseases since there is enormous variation in both the frequency of genetic variants and dietary composition worldwide. Furthermore, this paper updates the Bellagio Report in terms of the scientific and policy aspects, both of which have expanded over the past 2 years, and describes the progress made in establishing an International Network of Centers for Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health.

  14. The impact of the Bellagio Report on healthy agriculture, healthy nutrition, healthy people: scientific and policy aspects and the International Network of Centers for Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P

    2014-01-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People was the result of a meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in the fall of 2012. The meeting was science based but policy oriented. The Bellagio Report concluded that: (1) sugar consumption, especially in the form of high-energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, particularly for children; (2) current diets in most populations, albeit with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids but too high in omega-6 fatty acid intake, and (3) not all calories are the same since calories from different sources (i.e. glucose or fructose or omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acids) have different metabolic and neurohormonal effects. This paper summarizes the scientific progress and policy actions that have occurred in these three areas. Genetic variation in populations and gene-nutrient interactions are fundamental concepts that need to be taken into consideration in growth and development and in the prevention and management of chronic noncommunicable diseases since there is enormous variation in both the frequency of genetic variants and dietary composition worldwide. Furthermore, this paper updates the Bellagio Report in terms of the scientific and policy aspects, both of which have expanded over the past 2 years, and describes the progress made in establishing an International Network of Centers for Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health. PMID:25766457

  15. Transgenerational healing: Educating children in genesis of healthy children, with focus on nutrition, emotion, and epigenetic effects on brain development.

    PubMed

    House, Simon H

    2014-07-01

    Although our continuing evolution can never achieve our perfection, we long for our children's birth and health to be near-perfect. Many children are born healthy, though fewer than is possible. Birthing and health rapidly improved generally due to modern housing, sanitation and medicine, as well as birth interventions. Arguably interventions have exceeded the optimal level, without enough regard for natural physical and intuitive resources. Conception, often too easy, receives too little personal preparation unless a couple has problems. Nurturing the health of sperm and ovum seems hard to focus on, yet is needed by both parents - and even by the four grandparents. What are the key factors? Positive: The fields of hormones/emotions and of nutrition/metabolism. Negative: stress, poor nutrition, toxins, diseases; much being due to poverty. Positive and negative both have structural and also epigenetic effects. Interventions, essential or inessential, are seldom without negative side effects. Health can best, and most economically, be generated at the beginning of life, through healthy conception, gestation and birth. Understanding prime needs improves initial health. It also informs therapy of any early-life problems. Healing is therefore more efficient when transgenerational, and much more powerful than individual healing. My vision of healing is safeguarding our evolution in progress. Children's choices - eating, exercise, emotional attitudes and relationships - are already profoundly affecting any children they may have, their mental and physical health. The most practical starting point seems to be educating boys as well as girls. Childhood is therefore the time to educate them in choices. The correction of often unnoticed problems- nutrient deficits, toxins, uro-genital disease - has enabled nearly nine out of ten couples to bear fully healthy babies, even following severe problems - infertility, miscarriages, stillbirths and malformations. Correcting problems

  16. Transgenerational healing: Educating children in genesis of healthy children, with focus on nutrition, emotion, and epigenetic effects on brain development.

    PubMed

    House, Simon H

    2014-07-01

    Although our continuing evolution can never achieve our perfection, we long for our children's birth and health to be near-perfect. Many children are born healthy, though fewer than is possible. Birthing and health rapidly improved generally due to modern housing, sanitation and medicine, as well as birth interventions. Arguably interventions have exceeded the optimal level, without enough regard for natural physical and intuitive resources. Conception, often too easy, receives too little personal preparation unless a couple has problems. Nurturing the health of sperm and ovum seems hard to focus on, yet is needed by both parents - and even by the four grandparents. What are the key factors? Positive: The fields of hormones/emotions and of nutrition/metabolism. Negative: stress, poor nutrition, toxins, diseases; much being due to poverty. Positive and negative both have structural and also epigenetic effects. Interventions, essential or inessential, are seldom without negative side effects. Health can best, and most economically, be generated at the beginning of life, through healthy conception, gestation and birth. Understanding prime needs improves initial health. It also informs therapy of any early-life problems. Healing is therefore more efficient when transgenerational, and much more powerful than individual healing. My vision of healing is safeguarding our evolution in progress. Children's choices - eating, exercise, emotional attitudes and relationships - are already profoundly affecting any children they may have, their mental and physical health. The most practical starting point seems to be educating boys as well as girls. Childhood is therefore the time to educate them in choices. The correction of often unnoticed problems- nutrient deficits, toxins, uro-genital disease - has enabled nearly nine out of ten couples to bear fully healthy babies, even following severe problems - infertility, miscarriages, stillbirths and malformations. Correcting problems

  17. Healthy lifestyle by nutrition in adolescence (HELENA). A new EU funded project.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Libersa, Christian; Mesana, Maria I; Béghin, Laurent; Iliescu, Catalina; Moreno Aznar, Luis A; Dallongeville, Jean; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    The key to health promotion and disease prevention in the 21st century is to establish an environment that supports positive health behaviour and healthy lifestyle from childhood. The HELENA project includes cross-sectional, crossover and pilot community intervention multi-centre studies, as an integrated approach to the above-mentioned problem. Dietary intake, nutrition knowledge and eating attitudes, food choices and preferences, body composition, biochemical, physical activity and fitness and genotype (to analyse gene-nutrient and gene-environment interactions) assessment will provide the full information about the nutritional and lifestyle status of the European adolescents. The requirements for health promoting foods will be also identified, and three sensory acceptable products for adolescents will be developed. Harmonization and standardisation of the assessments for both scientific and technological objectives should result in reliable and comparable data of a representative sample of European adolescents. This will contribute to understand why health-related messages are not being as effective as expected in the adolescent population. A realistic intervention strategy will be proposed in order to achieve the goals of understanding and effectively enhancing nutritional and lifestyle habits of adolescents in Europe.

  18. Achieving healthy body weight in teenagers: evidence-based practice guidelines for community nutrition interventions.

    PubMed

    Ayliffe, Brenna; Glanville, N Theresa

    2010-01-01

    An evidence-based review of research on obesity prevention and treatment in youth was conducted to identify successful elements of community nutrition interventions. Guidelines for dietetic practice appropriate to this age group were synthesized. Following a systematic review of English-language research papers published from 1996 to 2009, 63 interventions met inclusion criteria and were graded according to methodological quality, quantity, consistency, and reproducibility. They also were analyzed for common themes and used to develop guideline statements and a practice algorithm. A national panel of experts in community nutrition, public health, adolescent health, academia, and endocrinology assessed the guidelines and the practice algorithm for validity, acceptability, and applicability. Successful prevention strategies are comprehensive, address social and environmental influences, include nutrition education and physical activity, and use schools as a health promotion delivery venue. Computer- or technology-based and peer-modelling strategies are promising, developmentally appropriate approaches. Effective obesity treatment strategies utilize diet plans and behaviour modification techniques, and involve families in intensive, multidisciplinary interventions. Given the distinct needs of this age group, healthy body weight must be promoted through a comprehensive school-based approach. In summary, obesity prevention and treatment interventions should be comprehensive, multidisciplinary, and developmentally appropriate.

  19. Mediation of the Physical Activity and Healthy Nutrition Behaviors of Preschool Children by Maternal Cognition in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianglong; Sharma, Manoj; Liu, Lingli; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    (1) OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the role of social cognitive theory (SCT) of mothers in the physical activity and healthy nutrition behaviors of preschool children; (2) METHODS: We used a self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behaviors scale in Chinese based on a social cognitive theory scale in English with established validity and reliability in the USA. The current study adopted the proportional sampling method to survey mothers of preschool children in four areas-namely, Chongqing, Chengdu, Taiyuan, and Shijiazhuang-of China; (3) RESULTS: We included 1208 mothers (80.0% mothers of normal weight children, age 31.87 ± 4.19 years). Positive correlations were found between maternal social cognition and preschool children's physical activity (PA) behavior (p < 0.0001). However, an insignificant correlation is observed between preschool children's fruits and vegetables (FV) behavior, screen time (ST) behavior, and maternal social cognition; (4) CONCLUSIONS: This study provides some implications for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, increasing physical activity time, and reducing screen time in preschool children using SCT in China. Maternal social cognition is associated with preschool children's PA behavior, and the results suggest that maternal social cognition may not affect children FV and ST behaviors. Further research is necessary to test the mediation of maternal social cognition on preschool children's ST behavior and the correlations between maternal social cognition and children's ST behavior. PMID:27649215

  20. Mediation of the Physical Activity and Healthy Nutrition Behaviors of Preschool Children by Maternal Cognition in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianglong; Sharma, Manoj; Liu, Lingli; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Yong

    2016-09-13

    (1) OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the role of social cognitive theory (SCT) of mothers in the physical activity and healthy nutrition behaviors of preschool children; (2) METHODS: We used a self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behaviors scale in Chinese based on a social cognitive theory scale in English with established validity and reliability in the USA. The current study adopted the proportional sampling method to survey mothers of preschool children in four areas-namely, Chongqing, Chengdu, Taiyuan, and Shijiazhuang-of China; (3) RESULTS: We included 1208 mothers (80.0% mothers of normal weight children, age 31.87 ± 4.19 years). Positive correlations were found between maternal social cognition and preschool children's physical activity (PA) behavior (p < 0.0001). However, an insignificant correlation is observed between preschool children's fruits and vegetables (FV) behavior, screen time (ST) behavior, and maternal social cognition; (4) CONCLUSIONS: This study provides some implications for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, increasing physical activity time, and reducing screen time in preschool children using SCT in China. Maternal social cognition is associated with preschool children's PA behavior, and the results suggest that maternal social cognition may not affect children FV and ST behaviors. Further research is necessary to test the mediation of maternal social cognition on preschool children's ST behavior and the correlations between maternal social cognition and children's ST behavior.

  1. Mediation of the Physical Activity and Healthy Nutrition Behaviors of Preschool Children by Maternal Cognition in China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianglong; Sharma, Manoj; Liu, Lingli; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    (1) Objective: We aimed to explore the role of social cognitive theory (SCT) of mothers in the physical activity and healthy nutrition behaviors of preschool children; (2) Methods: We used a self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behaviors scale in Chinese based on a social cognitive theory scale in English with established validity and reliability in the USA. The current study adopted the proportional sampling method to survey mothers of preschool children in four areas—namely, Chongqing, Chengdu, Taiyuan, and Shijiazhuang—of China; (3) Results: We included 1208 mothers (80.0% mothers of normal weight children, age 31.87 ± 4.19 years). Positive correlations were found between maternal social cognition and preschool children’s physical activity (PA) behavior (p < 0.0001). However, an insignificant correlation is observed between preschool children’s fruits and vegetables (FV) behavior, screen time (ST) behavior, and maternal social cognition; (4) Conclusions: This study provides some implications for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, increasing physical activity time, and reducing screen time in preschool children using SCT in China. Maternal social cognition is associated with preschool children’s PA behavior, and the results suggest that maternal social cognition may not affect children FV and ST behaviors. Further research is necessary to test the mediation of maternal social cognition on preschool children’s ST behavior and the correlations between maternal social cognition and children’s ST behavior. PMID:27649215

  2. Addressing the public health burden caused by the nutrition transition through the Healthy Foods North nutrition and lifestyle intervention programme.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Gittelsohn, J; Rosol, R; Beck, L

    2010-10-01

    Dietary inadequacies, low levels of physical activity, excessive energy intake and high obesity prevalence have placed Inuit and Inuvialuit populations of the Canadian Arctic at increased risk of chronic disease. An evidence-based, community participatory process was used to develop Healthy Foods North (HFN), a culturally appropriate nutrition and physical activity intervention programme that aimed to reduce risk of chronic disease and improve dietary adequacy amongst Inuit/Inuvialuit in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. HFN was implemented over the course of 12 months in a series of seven phases between October 2008 and 2009 (Nunavut) and June 2008 and 2009 (Northwest Territories). Combining behaviour change and environmental strategies to increase both the availability of healthful food choices in local shops and opportunities for increasing physical activity, HFN promoted the consumption of traditional foods and nutrient-dense and/or low energy shop-bought foods, utilisation of preparation methods that do not add fat content, decreased consumption of high-energy shop-bought foods, and increased physical activity. Messages identified in the community workshops, such as the importance of family eating and sharing, were emphasised throughout the intervention. Intervention components were conducted by community staff and included working with shops to increase the stocking of healthy foods, point of purchase signage and promotion in shops and community settings, pedometer challenges in the workplace and use of community media (e.g. radio and cable television advertisements) to reinforce key messages. HFN represents an innovative multilevel approach to the reduction of chronic disease risk factors amongst Inuit and Inuvialuit, based on strong collaboration with local agencies, government and institutions. PMID:21158971

  3. Addressing the public health burden caused by the nutrition transition through the Healthy Foods North nutrition and lifestyle intervention programme.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Gittelsohn, J; Rosol, R; Beck, L

    2010-10-01

    Dietary inadequacies, low levels of physical activity, excessive energy intake and high obesity prevalence have placed Inuit and Inuvialuit populations of the Canadian Arctic at increased risk of chronic disease. An evidence-based, community participatory process was used to develop Healthy Foods North (HFN), a culturally appropriate nutrition and physical activity intervention programme that aimed to reduce risk of chronic disease and improve dietary adequacy amongst Inuit/Inuvialuit in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. HFN was implemented over the course of 12 months in a series of seven phases between October 2008 and 2009 (Nunavut) and June 2008 and 2009 (Northwest Territories). Combining behaviour change and environmental strategies to increase both the availability of healthful food choices in local shops and opportunities for increasing physical activity, HFN promoted the consumption of traditional foods and nutrient-dense and/or low energy shop-bought foods, utilisation of preparation methods that do not add fat content, decreased consumption of high-energy shop-bought foods, and increased physical activity. Messages identified in the community workshops, such as the importance of family eating and sharing, were emphasised throughout the intervention. Intervention components were conducted by community staff and included working with shops to increase the stocking of healthy foods, point of purchase signage and promotion in shops and community settings, pedometer challenges in the workplace and use of community media (e.g. radio and cable television advertisements) to reinforce key messages. HFN represents an innovative multilevel approach to the reduction of chronic disease risk factors amongst Inuit and Inuvialuit, based on strong collaboration with local agencies, government and institutions.

  4. Online CME Series Can Nutrition Simultaneously Affect Cancer and Aging? | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Aging is considered by some scientists to be a normal physiological process, while others believe it is a disease. Increased cancer risk in the elderly raises the question regarding the common pathways for cancer and aging. Undeniably, nutrition plays an important role in both cases and this webinar will explore whether nutrition can simultaneously affect cancer and aging. |

  5. Feeling bad and looking worse: negative affect is associated with reduced perceptions of face-healthiness.

    PubMed

    Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Hoeksma, Marco; Thomas, Anna; El-Deredy, Wael

    2014-01-01

    Some people perceive themselves to look more, or less attractive than they are in reality. We investigated the role of emotions in enhancement and derogation effects; specifically, whether the propensity to experience positive and negative emotions affects how healthy we perceive our own face to look and how we judge ourselves against others. A psychophysical method was used to measure healthiness of self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Participants who self-reported high positive (N = 20) or negative affectivity (N = 20) judged themselves against healthy (red-tinged) and unhealthy looking (green-tinged) versions of their own and stranger's faces. An adaptive staircase procedure was used to measure perceptual thresholds. Participants high in positive affectivity were un-biased in their face health judgement. Participants high in negative affectivity on the other hand, judged themselves as equivalent to less healthy looking versions of their own face and a stranger's face. Affective traits modulated self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Face health judgement was also related to physical symptom perception and self-esteem; high physical symptom reports were associated a less healthy self-image and high self-reported (but not implicit) self-esteem was associated with more favourable social comparisons of healthiness. Subject to further validation, our novel face health judgement task could have utility as a perceptual measure of well-being. We are currently investigating whether face health judgement is sensitive to laboratory manipulations of mood. PMID:25259802

  6. Plane of nutrition affects plasma ghrelin concentrations in neonatal calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Investigating different planes of nutrition on appetite-related hormones could provide knowledge into the role of these hormones on growth performance in neonatal calves. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of feeding rates on ghrelin in plasma from preruminant calves....

  7. Domestic cooking methods affect the nutritional quality of red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Zheng, Yonghua; Yang, Zhenfeng; Cao, Shifeng; Shao, Xingfeng; Wang, Hongfei

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of domestic cooking methods, including steaming, microwave heating, boiling and stir-frying on the nutritional quality of red cabbage. Compared with fresh-cut red cabbage, all cooking methods were found to cause significant reduction in anthocyanin and total glucosinolates contents. Moreover, steaming resulted in significantly greater retention of vitamin C and DPPH radical-scavenging activity, while stir-frying and boiling, two popular Chinese cooking methods, led to significant losses of total phenolic, vitamin C, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, and total soluble sugar as well as reducing sugars. Normally, red cabbage consumed fresh in salads could maintain the highest nutrition. However, considering the habits of Asian cuisine, it is recommended to use less water and less cooking time, such as steaming based on our present results, so as to retain the optimum benefits of the health-promoting compounds.

  8. Morphopathological aspects of healthy nails and nails affected by onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Zaikovska, Olga; Pilmane, Mara; Kisis, Janis

    2014-09-01

    Patients of onychomycosis are common in the dermatology practice. Contemporary morphology creates opportunities to study the functional units of the nail when such infections occur from morphopathological point of view. There were 22 nails biopsies from onychomycosis patients taken for the research of morphopathological changes in the thickened nail plate affected by onychomycosis. Samples of cadaverous' nails were used as a control material. The material was stained with haematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical methods. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling reaction and periodic acid-Schiff reaction were also performed. We found patchy hypertrophy in the granulose layer of the epidermis, with focal acanthosis. In the horn layer, we identified nests of parakeratosis of various sizes, with incorporations of homogenous and eosinophil masses. We found high levels of interleukin 6 and interleukin 10 positive cells in the nail bed and in the bloodstream. Interleukin 1, however, was not a part of any of the functional units of any of the nails. Significant amount of fibres containing human beta defensin-2 were found in the bed and plate of the nail. Therefore one can conclude that as regards the nails affected by onychomycosis, the most effective morphopathogenical processes include cytokine and defensin excretion occurrence in the nail bed.

  9. Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) is Rather a Reliable and Valid Instrument to Assess Nutritional Status in Iranian Healthy Adults and Elderly with a Chronic Disease.

    PubMed

    Ghazi, Ladan; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Abbasi Fard, Salman; Sadeghi, Motahhareh; Shahidi, Gholam Ali; Lökk, Johan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) to assess nutritional status of Iranian population and to compare its psychometric properties between patients suffering from a chronic disease, healthy elderly and younger adults. As a group of elderly with a chronic disease, 143 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and as the control group, 467 healthy persons were enrolled. The Persian-translated version of MNA was filled-up through interviews together with anthropometric measurements. Cronbach's α coefficient of entire MNA was 0.66 and 0.70 in healthy individuals and PD patients, respectively. The total MNA score could significantly discriminate the ones with BMI ≥ 24kg/m(2) in both groups. In general, MNA was a valid and reliable tool for nutritional assessment. We acknowledge study limitations including lack of serum measurements and a selection bias towards mild-to-moderate PD. MNA is a more reliable tool in older healthy individuals and rather younger elderly with PD.

  10. Differences in fat and sodium intake across hypertension subgroups in the Mississippi Communities for Healthy Living (MCHL) Nutrition Intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to examine differences between self-reported intakes of sodium, trans-fat, and total fat among hypertension (HTN) subgroups of participants in Mississippi Communities for Healthy Living nutrition education intervention. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequenc...

  11. Mild dehydration affects mood in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Ganio, Matthew S; Casa, Douglas J; Lee, Elaine C; McDermott, Brendon P; Klau, Jennifer F; Jimenez, Liliana; Le Bellego, Laurent; Chevillotte, Emmanuel; Lieberman, Harris R

    2012-02-01

    Limited information is available regarding the effects of mild dehydration on cognitive function. Therefore, mild dehydration was produced by intermittent moderate exercise without hyperthermia and its effects on cognitive function of women were investigated. Twenty-five females (age 23.0 ± 0.6 y) participated in three 8-h, placebo-controlled experiments involving a different hydration state each day: exercise-induced dehydration with no diuretic (DN), exercise-induced dehydration plus diuretic (DD; furosemide, 40 mg), and euhydration (EU). Cognitive performance, mood, and symptoms of dehydration were assessed during each experiment, 3 times at rest and during each of 3 exercise sessions. The DN and DD trials in which a volunteer attained a ≥1% level of dehydration were pooled and compared to that volunteer's equivalent EU trials. Mean dehydration achieved during these DN and DD trials was -1.36 ± 0.16% of body mass. Significant adverse effects of dehydration were present at rest and during exercise for vigor-activity, fatigue-inertia, and total mood disturbance scores of the Profile of Mood States and for task difficulty, concentration, and headache as assessed by questionnaire. Most aspects of cognitive performance were not affected by dehydration. Serum osmolality, a marker of hydration, was greater in the mean of the dehydrated trials in which a ≥1% level of dehydration was achieved (P = 0.006) compared to EU. In conclusion, degraded mood, increased perception of task difficulty, lower concentration, and headache symptoms resulted from 1.36% dehydration in females. Increased emphasis on optimal hydration is warranted, especially during and after moderate exercise.

  12. Paleolithic nutrition improves plasma lipid concentrations of hypercholesterolemic adults to a greater extent than traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Robert L; Brooks, Judith T; Carbone, John W

    2015-06-01

    Recent research suggests that traditional grain-based heart-healthy diet recommendations, which replace dietary saturated fat with carbohydrate and reduce total fat intake, may result in unfavorable plasma lipid ratios, with reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and an elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triacylglycerols (TG). The current study tested the hypothesis that a grain-free Paleolithic diet would induce weight loss and improve plasma total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and TG concentrations in nondiabetic adults with hyperlipidemia to a greater extent than a grain-based heart-healthy diet, based on the recommendations of the American Heart Association. Twenty volunteers (10 male and 10 female) aged 40 to 62 years were selected based on diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia. Volunteers were not taking any cholesterol-lowering medications and adhered to a traditional heart-healthy diet for 4 months, followed by a Paleolithic diet for 4 months. Regression analysis was used to determine whether change in body weight contributed to observed changes in plasma lipid concentrations. Differences in dietary intakes and plasma lipid measures were assessed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Four months of Paleolithic nutrition significantly lowered (P < .001) mean total cholesterol, LDL, and TG and increased (P < .001) HDL, independent of changes in body weight, relative to both baseline and the traditional heart-healthy diet. Paleolithic nutrition offers promising potential for nutritional management of hyperlipidemia in adults whose lipid profiles have not improved after following more traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations. PMID:26003334

  13. Feeling Bad and Looking Worse: Negative Affect Is Associated with Reduced Perceptions of Face-Healthiness

    PubMed Central

    Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Zandstra, Elizabeth H.; Hoeksma, Marco; Thomas, Anna; El-Deredy, Wael

    2014-01-01

    Some people perceive themselves to look more, or less attractive than they are in reality. We investigated the role of emotions in enhancement and derogation effects; specifically, whether the propensity to experience positive and negative emotions affects how healthy we perceive our own face to look and how we judge ourselves against others. A psychophysical method was used to measure healthiness of self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Participants who self-reported high positive (N = 20) or negative affectivity (N = 20) judged themselves against healthy (red-tinged) and unhealthy looking (green-tinged) versions of their own and stranger’s faces. An adaptive staircase procedure was used to measure perceptual thresholds. Participants high in positive affectivity were un-biased in their face health judgement. Participants high in negative affectivity on the other hand, judged themselves as equivalent to less healthy looking versions of their own face and a stranger’s face. Affective traits modulated self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Face health judgement was also related to physical symptom perception and self-esteem; high physical symptom reports were associated a less healthy self-image and high self-reported (but not implicit) self-esteem was associated with more favourable social comparisons of healthiness. Subject to further validation, our novel face health judgement task could have utility as a perceptual measure of well-being. We are currently investigating whether face health judgement is sensitive to laboratory manipulations of mood. PMID:25259802

  14. Psychosocial, behavioural, pedagogical, and nutritional proposals about how to encourage eating a healthy breakfast

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Even if more and more evidences have highlighted the importance of breakfast in the growth and development of children, from 10 to 30% of US and European children and adolescents regularly skip breakfast. Thus, there is still a lot to be done before breakfast becomes a daily habit. The aim of this paper is to try and understand how it is possible to overcome the real or imaginary difficulties associated with skipping breakfast by psychosocial, behavioural, pedagogical and nutritional proposals. Discussion Schools are the best context where perform healthy interventions because it is here that children learn about the importance of good health at an age when the school still plays a major role in their education. Some school interventions, based on solid theories as the Self Determination Theory and the Behaviour Analysis, have been implemented in the last years to promote health behaviour such as intake of fruit and vegetables and physical activities. Cognitive behaviour therapy is the most closely monitored type of treatment/cure for obesity in randomised controlled trials. Moreover some associations such as the National Association of Food Science Specialists have drawn an own method to encourage food education at school and promote the importance of prevention. These projects could be used as starting point to perform interventions focus on breakfast. Summary Increase the consumption of breakfast between children is very important. Efforts should be done to drawn new school projects based on scientific-evidences. PMID:25125024

  15. A School Based Intervention for Combating Food Insecurity and Promoting Healthy Nutrition in a Developed Country Undergoing Economic Crisis: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalma, A.; Veloudaki, A.; Petralias, A.; Mitraka, K.; Zota, D.; Kastorini, C.-M.; Yannakoulia, M.; Linos, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Aiming at reducing the rates of food insecurity and promoting healthy diet for children and adolescents, we designed and implemented the Program on Food Aid and Promotion of Healthy Nutrition-DIATROFI, a school-based intervention program including the daily provision of a free healthy mid-day meal in disadvantaged areas across…

  16. From inflammaging to healthy aging by dietary lifestyle choices: is epigenetics the key to personalized nutrition?

    PubMed

    Szarc vel Szic, Katarzyna; Declerck, Ken; Vidaković, Melita; Vanden Berghe, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The progressively older population in developed countries is reflected in an increase in the number of people suffering from age-related chronic inflammatory diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, heart and lung diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, arthritis, and dementia. The heterogeneity in biological aging, chronological age, and aging-associated disorders in humans have been ascribed to different genetic and environmental factors (i.e., diet, pollution, stress) that are closely linked to socioeconomic factors. The common denominator of these factors is the inflammatory response. Chronic low-grade systemic inflammation during physiological aging and immunosenescence are intertwined in the pathogenesis of premature aging also defined as 'inflammaging.' The latter has been associated with frailty, morbidity, and mortality in elderly subjects. However, it is unknown to what extent inflammaging or longevity is controlled by epigenetic events in early life. Today, human diet is believed to have a major influence on both the development and prevention of age-related diseases. Most plant-derived dietary phytochemicals and macro- and micronutrients modulate oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling and regulate metabolic pathways and bioenergetics that can be translated into stable epigenetic patterns of gene expression. Therefore, diet interventions designed for healthy aging have become a hot topic in nutritional epigenomic research. Increasing evidence has revealed that complex interactions between food components and histone modifications, DNA methylation, non-coding RNA expression, and chromatin remodeling factors influence the inflammaging phenotype and as such may protect or predispose an individual to many age-related diseases. Remarkably, humans present a broad range of responses to similar dietary challenges due to both genetic and epigenetic modulations of the expression of target proteins and key genes involved in the metabolism and distribution of the

  17. From inflammaging to healthy aging by dietary lifestyle choices: is epigenetics the key to personalized nutrition?

    PubMed

    Szarc vel Szic, Katarzyna; Declerck, Ken; Vidaković, Melita; Vanden Berghe, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The progressively older population in developed countries is reflected in an increase in the number of people suffering from age-related chronic inflammatory diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, heart and lung diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, arthritis, and dementia. The heterogeneity in biological aging, chronological age, and aging-associated disorders in humans have been ascribed to different genetic and environmental factors (i.e., diet, pollution, stress) that are closely linked to socioeconomic factors. The common denominator of these factors is the inflammatory response. Chronic low-grade systemic inflammation during physiological aging and immunosenescence are intertwined in the pathogenesis of premature aging also defined as 'inflammaging.' The latter has been associated with frailty, morbidity, and mortality in elderly subjects. However, it is unknown to what extent inflammaging or longevity is controlled by epigenetic events in early life. Today, human diet is believed to have a major influence on both the development and prevention of age-related diseases. Most plant-derived dietary phytochemicals and macro- and micronutrients modulate oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling and regulate metabolic pathways and bioenergetics that can be translated into stable epigenetic patterns of gene expression. Therefore, diet interventions designed for healthy aging have become a hot topic in nutritional epigenomic research. Increasing evidence has revealed that complex interactions between food components and histone modifications, DNA methylation, non-coding RNA expression, and chromatin remodeling factors influence the inflammaging phenotype and as such may protect or predispose an individual to many age-related diseases. Remarkably, humans present a broad range of responses to similar dietary challenges due to both genetic and epigenetic modulations of the expression of target proteins and key genes involved in the metabolism and distribution of the

  18. Interactions between Artificial Gravity, Affected Physiological Systems, and Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, Martina; Baecker, Natalie; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott M.

    2007-01-01

    Malnutrition, either by insufficient supply of some nutrients or by overfeeding has a profound effect on the health of an organism. Therefore, optimal nutrition is mandatory on Earth (1 g), in microgravity and also when applying artificial gravity to the human system. Immobilization like in microgravity or bed rest also has a profound effect on different physiological systems, like body fluid regulation, the cardiovascular, the musculoskeletal, the immunological system and others. Up to now there is no countermeasure available which is effective to counteract cardiovascular deconditioning (rf. Chapter 5) together with maintenance of the musculoskeletal system in a rather short period of time. Gravity seems therefore to be one of the main stimuli to keep these systems and application of certain duration of artificial gravity per day by centrifugation has often been proposed as a very potential countermeasure against the weakening of the physiological systems. Up to now, neither optimal intensity nor optimal length of application of artificial gravity has been studied sufficiently to recommend a certain, effective and efficient protocol. However, as shown in chapter 5 on cardiovascular system, in chapter 6 on the neuromuscular system and chapter 7 (bone and connective system) artificial gravity has a very high potential to counteract any degradation caused by immobilization. But, nutrient supply -which ideally should match the actual needs- will interact with these changes and therefore has also to be taken into account. It is well known that astronauts beside the Skylab missions- were and are still not optimally nourished during their stay in space (Bourland et al. 2000;Heer et al. 1995;Heer et al. 2000b;Smith et al. 1997;Smith & Lane 1999;Smith et al. 2001;Smith et al. 2005). It has also been described anecdotally that astronauts have lower appetites. One possible explanation could be altered taste and smell sensations during space flight, although in some early

  19. American Cancer Society guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention: Reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Byers, Tim; Nestle, Marion; McTiernan, Anne; Doyle, Colleen; Currie-Williams, Alexis; Gansler, Ted; Thun, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The American Cancer Society (ACS) has set aggressive challenge goals for the nation to decrease cancer incidence and mortality--and to improve the quality of life of cancer survivors--by the year 2015. To address these critical goals, the ACS publishes the Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines to serve as a foundation for its communication, policy, and community strategies and ultimately, to affect dietary and physical activity patterns among Americans. These guidelines, published every five years, are developed by a national panel of experts in cancer research, prevention, epidemiology, public health, and policy, and as such, they represent the most current scientific evidence related to dietary and activity patterns and cancer risk. The American Cancer Society guidelines include recommendations for individual choices regarding diet and physical activity patterns, but those choices occur within a community context that either facilitates or interferes with healthy behaviors. Therefore, this committee presents one key recommendation for community action to accompany the four recommendations for individual choices for nutrition and physical activity to reduce cancer risk. This recommendation for community action underscores just how important community measures are to the support of healthy behaviors by means of increasing access to healthful food choices and opportunities to be physically active. The ACS guidelines are consistent with guidelines from the American Heart Association for the prevention of coronary heart disease as well as for general health promotion, as defined by the Department of Health and Human Services' 2000 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  20. How do socio-economic status, perceived economic barriers and nutritional benefits affect quality of dietary intake among US adults?

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Socio-economic factors may affect diet quality, perhaps differentially across gender and ethnicity. The mechanism of this association is still largely unknown. Objectives We examined the independent effects of socio-economic status (SES), perceived barrier of food price (PBFP), and perceived benefit of diet quality (PBDQ) on diet quality indicators and indices (DQIj,k), across gender and ethnicity. Additionally, we estimated the mediation proportion of the effect of SES on DQIj,k through PBFP and PBDQ. Methods Data from two cross-sectional surveys, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) and Diet and Health Knowledge Survey (DHKS) 1994–96 were used. Our sample consisted of 4,356 US adults aged 20–65 years. With principal components analysis, SES (an index) was measured using household income per capita and education, and PBDQ was measured using an 11-item scale. PBFP was defined as the ratio of importance of food price score relative to nutrition. DQIj,k were assessed by a set of indicators and two indices including the Healthy Eating Index. Results The associations between SES, PBFP, PBDQ, and DQIj,k varied significantly across gender and ethnic groups. PBFP acted as a mediator in the association between SES and selected DQIj indicators, namely energy, fat intake, sodium, and simple sugar consumption (mediation proportion>10%), but not PBDQ. Conclusions SES, PBFP and PBDQ all affect dietary intake, and vary by ethnicity and gender. Positive effect of SES on DQIj,k may be mediated by PBFP but not PBDQ which is an independent protective factor. Nutrition education is important to promote healthy eating. PMID:17342164

  1. Healthy Choices for Kids: Nutrition Education Program Based on the 1990 U.S. Dietary Guidelines. Chapter One: Eat a Wide Variety of Foods. Levels 1-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Marianne; Walsh, Joan

    "Healthy Choices for Kids" is a nutrition education program based on the 1990 U.S. Dietary Guidelines. This kit, the first of a series, provides elementary school teachers with tools to teach students about good nutrition. This set has five levels (Grades 1-5), bound separately. Each level has its own unit complete with teacher materials,…

  2. CACNA1C risk variant affects facial emotion recognition in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Nieratschker, Vanessa; Brückmann, Christof; Plewnia, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Recognition and correct interpretation of facial emotion is essential for social interaction and communication. Previous studies have shown that impairments in this cognitive domain are common features of several psychiatric disorders. Recent association studies identified CACNA1C as one of the most promising genetic risk factors for psychiatric disorders and previous evidence suggests that the most replicated risk variant in CACNA1C (rs1006737) is affecting emotion recognition and processing. However, studies investigating the influence of rs1006737 on this intermediate phenotype in healthy subjects at the behavioral level are largely missing to date. Here, we applied the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test, a facial emotion recognition paradigm in a cohort of 92 healthy individuals to address this question. Whereas accuracy was not affected by genotype, CACNA1C rs1006737 risk-allele carries (AA/AG) showed significantly slower mean response times compared to individuals homozygous for the G-allele, indicating that healthy risk-allele carriers require more information to correctly identify a facial emotion. Our study is the first to provide evidence for an impairing behavioral effect of the CACNA1C risk variant rs1006737 on facial emotion recognition in healthy individuals and adds to the growing number of studies pointing towards CACNA1C as affecting intermediate phenotypes of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26611642

  3. Mississippi Communities for Healthy Living: Results of a 6-month nutrition education comparative effectiveness trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region suffers from high prevalence of chronic health conditions with nutritional etiologies, including obesity, high cholesterol, hypertension, and diabetes. Responding to the need for effective nutrition interventions in the LMD, a 2-arm, 6-month, n...

  4. Development of the Mississippi communities for healthy living nutrition education toolkit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of our study was to develop a nutrition education toolkit for communities in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) with content that is current, evidence-based, culturally relevant, and user friendly. The Mississippi Communities for Fealthy Living (MCHL), an evidenced-based nutrition educa...

  5. Public Policy to Promote Healthy Nutrition in Schools: Views of Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Mat; Signal, Louise; Thomson, George

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to identify policy options to support nutrition promotion in New Zealand primary schools. In achieving this aim, the study sought to identify framing by policymakers regarding child diet and obesity; views on the role of schools in nutrition promotion; policy options and degree of support for these options. Issue…

  6. [Nutritional deficiencies affecting children of the Third World. The example of Ethiopia (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Vahlquist, B

    1977-10-01

    For the large non-privileged population groups in developing countries and diet shows many deficiencies, often with major disturbances of health as a consequence. This is particularly true for the children. The monotony and the bulkiness of the traditional diet, the often sparse number of meals as well as periodic deteriorations of the food situation ("hungry season") all contributes to make the nutritional situation precarious. The vicious circle between PEM and infections contribute in a major way to the high mortality rate among preschool children in developing countries. In this paper a review is given of different nutritional deficiency diseases affecting children in the Third World. The practical illustrations derive mainly from Ethiopia. During the period between 1962-1975 there has been lively cooperation in the field of nutritional research between Ethiopia and Sweden.

  7. Do Aging and Tactile Noise Stimulation Affect Responses to Support Surface Translations in Healthy Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate neuromuscular responses to support surface perturbations are crucial to prevent falls, but aging-related anatomical and physiological changes affect the appropriateness and efficiency of such responses. Low-level noise application to sensory receptors has shown to be effective for postural improvement in a variety of different balance tasks, but it is unknown whether this intervention may have value for improvement of corrective postural responses. Ten healthy younger and ten healthy older adults were exposed to sudden backward translations of the support surface. Low-level noise (mechanical vibration) to the foot soles was added during random trials and temporal (response latency) and spatial characteristics (maximum center-of-pressure excursion and anterior-posterior path length) of postural responses were assessed. Mixed-model ANOVA was applied for analysis of postural response differences based on age and vibration condition. Age affected postural response characteristics, but older adults were well able to maintain balance when exposed to a postural perturbation. Low-level noise application did not affect any postural outcomes. Healthy aging affects some specific measures of postural stability, and in high-functioning older individuals, a low-level noise intervention may not be valuable. More research is needed to investigate if recurring fallers and neuropathy patients could benefit from the intervention in postural perturbation tasks. PMID:27195007

  8. [The role of the Consultative and Diagnostic Centre "Healthy Nutrition" in the diagnosis and nutritional prevention of non-communicable diseases].

    PubMed

    Pogozheva, A V; Sorokina, E Yu; Baturin, A K; Peskova, E V; Makurina, O N; Levin, L G; Soto, S Kh; Aristarkhova, T A; Korosteleva, M M; Denisova, N N; Solntseva, T N; Aleshina, I V; Toboleva, M A; Redzyuk, L A; Polyakova, A V

    2014-01-01

    In a consultative and diagnostic center "Healthy Nutrition" of Institute of Nutrition the nutritional status of 3500 patients (mean age 48.4 ± 0.3 years) liv- ing in the Moscow region, using a system Nutritest IP-3, including genomic analysis has been examined. In the analysis of dietary intake by an average review, increased energy intake due to excess intake of the total (44.2% energy) and saturated fat (13.6%) has been shown. 30.0% of patients were overweight and 34.1% were obese. Osteopenia was detected in 31.0% of men and 25.0% women, osteoporosis--20.9% and 30.3%, respectively. Analysis of the results of biochemical studies revealed increased cholesterol in 68.7% of patients, LDL cholesterol--at 63.9%, triglycerides-- at 22.5%, glucose--at 29.4%. The frequency of the occurrence of risk alleles of genes associated with the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus was: 47.8%--for the polymorphism rs9939609 (FTO gene), 8.3%--for polymorphism rs4994 (gene ADRB3), 60.2%--for the polymorphism rs659366 (gene UCP2), 36.6%--for the rs5219 polymorphism in the gene of ATP-dependent potassium channel. PMID:25929022

  9. Factors affecting poor nutritional status after small bowel resection in patients with Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ki Ung; Yu, Chang Sik; Lim, Seok-Byung; Park, In Ja; Yoon, Yong Sik; Kim, Chan Wook; Lee, Jong Lyul; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Ye, Byong Duk; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2016-07-01

    In Crohn disease, bowel-preserving surgery is necessary to prevent short bowel syndrome due to repeated operations. This study aimed to determine the remnant small bowel length cut-off and to evaluate the clinical factors related to nutritional status after small bowel resection in Crohn disease.We included 394 patients (69.3% male) who underwent small bowel resection for Crohn disease between 1991 and 2012. Patients who were classified as underweight (body mass index < 17.5) or at high risk of nutrition-related problems (modified nutritional risk index < 83.5) were regarded as having a poor nutritional status. Preliminary remnant small bowel length cut-offs were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves. Variables associated with poor nutritional status were assessed retrospectively using Student t tests, chi-squared tests, Fisher exact tests, and logistic regression analyses.The mean follow-up period was 52.9 months and the mean patient ages at the time of the last bowel surgery and last follow-up were 31.2 and 35.7 years, respectively. The mean remnant small bowel length was 331.8 cm. Forty-three patients (10.9%) underwent ileostomy, 309 (78.4%) underwent combined small bowel and colon resection, 111 (28.2%) had currently active disease, and 105 (26.6%) underwent at least 2 operations for recurrent disease. The mean body mass index and modified nutritional risk index were 20.6 and 100.8, respectively. The independent factors affecting underweight status were remnant small bowel length ≤240 cm (odds ratio: 4.84, P < 0.001), ileostomy (odds ratio: 4.70, P < 0.001), and currently active disease (odds ratio: 4.16, P < 0.001). The independent factors affecting high nutritional risk were remnant small bowel length ≤230 cm (odds ratio: 2.84, P = 0.012), presence of ileostomy (odds ratio: 3.36, P = 0.025), and currently active disease (odds ratio: 4.90, P < 0.001).Currently active disease, ileostomy, and remnant small

  10. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your diet. These include brightly colored and dark fruits and vegetables. Balance the food you eat ... can also order your free copy of Nutrition Matters and visit our Ask about Nutrition forum. << Back ...

  11. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    Nutrition Health Education During the 2 years preceding the study: • The percentage of states that provided funding for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health ...

  12. Construction of web-based nutrition education contents and searching engine for usage of healthy menu of children.

    PubMed

    Hong, Soon-Myung; Lee, Tae-Kyong; Chung, Hea-Jung; Park, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Eun-Ju; Nam, Hye-Seon; Jung, Soon-Im; Cho, Jee-Ye; Lee, Jin-Hee; Kim, Gon; Kim, Min-Chan

    2008-01-01

    A diet habit, which is developed in childhood, lasts for a life time. In this sense, nutrition education and early exposure to healthy menus in childhood is important. Children these days have easy access to the internet. Thus, a web-based nutrition education program for children is an effective tool for nutrition education of children. This site provides the material of the nutrition education for children with characters which are personified nutrients. The 151 menus are stored in the site together with video script of the cooking process. The menus are classified by the criteria based on age, menu type and the ethnic origin of the menu. The site provides a search function. There are three kinds of search conditions which are key words, menu type and "between" expression of nutrients such as calorie and other nutrients. The site is developed with the operating system Windows 2003 Server, the web server ZEUS 5, development language JSP, and database management system Oracle 10 g.

  13. Effectiveness of offering healthy labelled meals in improving the nutritional quality of lunch meals eaten in a worksite canteen.

    PubMed

    Lassen, A D; Beck, A; Leedo, E; Andersen, E W; Christensen, T; Mejborn, H; Thorsen, A V; Tetens, I

    2014-04-01

    Healthier meal selections at restaurants and canteens are often limited and not actively promoted. In this Danish study the effectiveness of a healthy labelling certification program in improving dietary intake and influencing edible plate waste was evaluated in a quasi-experimental study design. Employees from an intervention worksite canteen and a matched control canteen were included in the study at baseline (February 2012), after completing the certification process (end-point) and six month from end-point (follow-up) (total n=270). In order to estimate nutrient composition of the consumed lunch meals and plate waste a validated digital photographic method was used combining estimation of food intake with food nutrient composition data. Food satisfaction was rated by participants using a questionnaire. Several significant positive nutritional effects were observed at the intervention canteen including a mean decrease in energy density in the consumed meals from 561kJ/100g at baseline to 368 and 407kJ/100g at end-point and follow-up, respectively (P<0.001). No significant changes were seen with regard to food satisfaction and plate waste. In the control canteen no positive nutritional effects were observed. The results of the study highlight the potential of using healthy labelling certification programs as a possible driver for increasing both the availability and awareness of healthy meal choices, thereby improving dietary intake when eating out. PMID:24373732

  14. American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for cancer prevention: reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Kushi, Lawrence H; Byers, Tim; Doyle, Colleen; Bandera, Elisa V; McCullough, Marji; McTiernan, Anne; Gansler, Ted; Andrews, Kimberly S; Thun, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    The American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines to serve as a foundation for its communication, policy, and community strategies and ultimately, to affect dietary and physical activity patterns among Americans. These Guidelines, published every 5 years, are developed by a national panel of experts in cancer research, prevention, epidemiology, public health, and policy, and as such, they represent the most current scientific evidence related to dietary and activity patterns and cancer risk. The ACS Guidelines include recommendations for individual choices regarding diet and physical activity patterns, but those choices occur within a community context that either facilitates or interferes with healthy behaviors. Community efforts are essential to create a social environment that promotes healthy food choices and physical activity. Therefore, this committee presents one key recommendation for community action to accompany the four recommendations for individual choices to reduce cancer risk. This recommendation for community action recognizes that a supportive social environment is indispensable if individuals at all levels of society are to have genuine opportunities to choose healthy behaviors. The ACS Guidelines are consistent with guidelines from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association for the prevention of coronary heart disease and diabetes, as well as for general health promotion, as defined by the Department of Health and Human Services' 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  15. How nutritional status, diet and dietary supplements can affect autism. A review.

    PubMed

    Kawicka, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bozena

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with symptoms arising that are apparent throughout the patient's lifespan. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterised by impaired social and communication interactions as well as restricted, repetitive interests and behaviour. Currently in Poland, about 50 000 people suffer from autism, of which 1/5 are children. Epidemiological studies show that the incidence of autism is increasing, which may be due to the diagnostic category of ASD having been developed. Of vital importance in the treatment of autism, is early diagnosis which is conducive to more rapidly improving the quality of patients' health. It is believed that both genetic and environmental factors may affect the development of the disease. Moreover, expert opinion emphasises the importance of making an adequate diagnosis when the first symptoms of autism start appearing which can be both psychological, gastro-intestinal and metabolic ones. Conventional treatment is based on the combination of behavioural and dietary therapy together with pharmacotherapy. For example, adapting an appropriate diet could help alleviate the disease severity, as well as the psychological and gastrointestinal symptoms. Much scientific research has indicated that pathogenesis of autism may have a beginning already in foetal life. During pregnancy, specialists should take special heed of metabolic disorders, which can increase the risk ofASD in children. One of the dietician's tasks are to properly assess the nutritional status of mothers before and during pregnancy, thereby allowing changes in nutrition to be made wherever necessary in order that metabolic indicators be improved. Thus an important part of autism therapy is the improving patient's nutritional status to prevent the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms. Adopting diets and tailored to individual disease symptoms, is linked to the nutritional requirements and food preferences of the patient. Specialists also emphasise that

  16. To See or Not to See: Do Front of Pack Nutrition Labels Affect Attention to Overall Nutrition Information?

    PubMed Central

    Bix, Laura; Sundar, Raghav Prashant; Bello, Nora M.; Peltier, Chad; Weatherspoon, Lorraine J.; Becker, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Front of pack (FOP) nutrition labels are concise labels located on the front of food packages that provide truncated nutrition information. These labels are rapidly gaining prominence worldwide, presumably because they attract attention and their simplified formats enable rapid comparisons of nutritional value. Methods Eye tracking was conducted as US consumers interacted with actual packages with and without FOP labels to (1) assess if the presence of an FOP label increases attention to nutrition information when viewers are not specifically tasked with nutrition-related goals; and (2) study the effect of FOP presence on consumer use of more comprehensive, traditional nutrition information presented in the Nutritional Facts Panel (NFP), a mandatory label for most packaged foods in the US. Results Our results indicate that colored FOP labels enhanced the probability that any nutrition information was attended, and resulted in faster detection and longer viewing of nutrition information. However, for cereal packages, these benefits were at the expense of attention to the more comprehensive NFP. Our results are consistent with a potential short cut effect of FOP labels, such that if an FOP was present, participants spent less time attending the more comprehensive NFP. For crackers, FOP labels increased time spent attending to nutrition information, but we found no evidence that their presence reduced the time spent on the nutrition information in the NFP. Conclusions The finding that FOP labels increased attention to overall nutrition information by people who did not have an explicit nutritional goal suggests that these labels may have an advantage in conveying nutrition information to a wide segment of the population. However, for some food types this benefit may come with a short-cut effect; that is, decreased attention to more comprehensive nutrition information. These results have implications for policy and warrant further research into the

  17. Implication of Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity on Lung Function in Healthy Elderly: Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji Hyun; Kong, Mi Hee; Kim, Hyeon Ju

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a positive association between obesity and decreased lung function. However, the effect of muscle and fat has not been fully assessed, especially in a healthy elderly population. In this study, we evaluated the impact of low muscle mass (LMM) and LMM with obesity on pulmonary impairment in healthy elderly subjects. Our study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. Men and women aged 65 yr or older were included. Muscle mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. LMM was defined as two standard deviations below the sex-specific mean for young healthy adults. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2). The prevalence of LMM in individuals aged over 65 was 11.9%. LMM and pulmonary function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second) were independently associated after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and frequency of exercise. LMM with obesity was also related to a decrease in pulmonary function. This study revealed that LMM is an independent risk factor of decreased pulmonary function in healthy Korean men and women over 65 yr of age. PMID:26539015

  18. How well do preschoolers identify healthy foods? Development and preliminary validation of the Dietary Interview Assessing Nutritional Awareness (DIANA).

    PubMed

    Graziano, Paulo A

    2015-09-01

    The current study aimed to develop and initially validate a brief Dietary Interview Assessing Nutritional Awareness (DIANA) that mapped onto the Stop-Light Diet System. Participants for this study included 69 preschool children (83% boys; mean age = 5.13 years; 86% Latino) recruited from two summer programs. Children were presented with 24 pictures and were asked to name the food and indicate how healthy they felt each food was by pointing to a smiley face (very healthy = Green/Go food), neutral face (somewhat healthy = Yellow/Slow food), or a sad face (not healthy at all = Red/Whoa foods). Psychometric properties of the DIANA were assessed via a baseline assessment while children were re-administered the DIANA within 4-6 weeks to ascertain the test-retest reliability. Discriminant validity was also assessed in an exploratory fashion with a small subsample (n = 11) of children who participated in a healthy-lifestyle intervention program (HIP). Results indicated that the internal consistency of the DIANA for both the expressive knowledge and the health classification scales was acceptable (α = .83 and .82, respectively) along with the test-retest reliability (ICC = .86 and .81, respectively). Lastly, children who participated in HIP experienced greater gains in their ability to classify food based on the Stop-Light System and greater expressive knowledge of Green/Go foods compared to children who did not participate in the intervention suggesting adequate construct validity. These findings highlight the feasibility and utility of the DIANA in assessing young children's knowledge of foods and their relative healthiness as well as its potential sensitivity to intervention effects.

  19. Heart Healthy Knowledge, Food Patterns, Fatness, and Cardiac Risk Factors in Children Receiving Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kerry J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Elementary students (n=900) received a nutrition education program focusing on cognitive and behavioral aspects of cardiovascular health. Assessments of their health knowledge and behavior were conducted at baseline and at five follow-up periods. Children increased their knowledge and improved food patterns, but among the cardiac risk factors,…

  20. Effectiveness of the Mississippi communities for healthy living (MCHL) nutrition intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of our study was to determine the effectiveness of two nutrition interventions targeting women's social/civic organizations in the Lower Mississippi Delta. Diffusion of Innovation theory and the RE-AIM structured framework for program development and evaluation guided the 6-month MCHL ...

  1. Psychosocial changes in the Mississippi communities for healthy living (MCHL) nutrition intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the psychosocial changes reported by participants in a nutrition education intervention in the Lower Mississippi Delta. The psychosocial constructs such as decisional balance (DB), self-efficacy (SE), and social support (SS) are correlated with fruit and ve...

  2. The common and distinct neural bases of affect labeling and reappraisal in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Burklund, Lisa J.; Creswell, J. David; Irwin, Michael R.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Emotion regulation is commonly characterized as involving conscious and intentional attempts to change felt emotions, such as, for example, through reappraisal whereby one intentionally decreases the intensity of one's emotional response to a particular stimulus or situation by reinterpreting it in a less threatening way. However, there is growing evidence and appreciation that some types of emotion regulation are unintentional or incidental, meaning that affective modulation is a consequence but not an explicit goal. For example, affect labeling involves simply verbally labeling the emotional content of an external stimulus or one's own affective responses without an intentional goal of altering emotional responses, yet has been associated with reduced affective responses at the neural and experiential levels. Although both intentional and incidental emotional regulation strategies have been associated with diminished limbic responses and self-reported distress, little previous research has directly compared their underlying neural mechanisms. In this study, we examined the extent to which incidental and intentional emotion regulation, namely, affect labeling and reappraisal, produced common and divergent neural and self-report responses to aversive images relative to an observe-only control condition in a sample of healthy older adults (N = 39). Affect labeling and reappraisal produced common activations in several prefrontal regulatory regions, with affect labeling producing stronger responses in direct comparisons. Affect labeling and reappraisal were also associated with similar decreases in amygdala activity. Finally, affect labeling and reappraisal were associated with correlated reductions in self-reported distress. Together these results point to common neurocognitive mechanisms involved in affect labeling and reappraisal, supporting the idea that intentional and incidental emotion regulation may utilize overlapping neural processes. PMID:24715880

  3. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    Food provides the energy and nutrients you need to be healthy. Nutrients include proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water. Healthy eating is not hard. The key is to Eat a variety of foods, including vegetables, fruits, and whole- ...

  4. Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Durnin, J V

    1976-07-01

    Nutrition appeared somewhat late on the scene in the I.B.P. projects in the U.K., but eventually it occupied an integral part of many of the H.A. (human adaptability) investigations. The nutritional data obtained in the studies of isolated and nearisolated communities in Tristan da Cunha and in New Guinea provided information of wide nutritional significance. There were also detailed and extensive studies in Israel which, similarly to those in New Guinea, attempted to relate nutritional factors to enviroment, working conditions, and physical fitness. Some extraordinarily low energy intakes found in Ethiopians have induced much speculation on the extent which man can adequately adapt to restricted food supplies. Interesting nutritional observations, of general importance, have also arisen from results obtained on such disparate groups as Glasgow adolescents, Tanzanian and Sudanese students, children in Malawi and vegans in the U.K.

  5. An (un)healthy poster: When environmental cues affect consumers' food choices at vending machines.

    PubMed

    Stöckli, Sabrina; Stämpfli, Aline E; Messner, Claude; Brunner, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Environmental cues can affect food decisions. There is growing evidence that environmental cues influence how much one consumes. This article demonstrates that environmental cues can similarly impact the healthiness of consumers' food choices. Two field studies examined this effect with consumers of vending machine foods who were exposed to different posters. In field study 1, consumers with a health-evoking nature poster compared to a pleasure-evoking fun fair poster or no poster in their visual sight were more likely to opt for healthy snacks. Consumers were also more likely to buy healthy snacks when primed by an activity poster than when exposed to the fun fair poster. In field study 2, this consumer pattern recurred with a poster of skinny Giacometti sculptures. Overall, the results extend the mainly laboratory-based evidence by demonstrating the health-relevant impact of environmental cues on food decisions in the field. Results are discussed in light of priming literature emphasizing the relevance of preexisting associations, mental concepts and goals.

  6. Bacterial communities associated with healthy and Acropora white syndrome-affected corals from American Samoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Bryan; Aeby, Greta S.; Work, Thierry M.; Bourne, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Acropora white syndrome (AWS) is characterized by rapid tissue loss revealing the white underlying skeleton and affects corals worldwide; however, reports of causal agents are conflicting. Samples were collected from healthy and diseased corals and seawater around American Samoa and bacteria associated with AWS characterized using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, from coral mucus and tissue slurries, respectively. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from coral tissue were dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria, and Jaccard's distances calculated between the clone libraries showed that those from diseased corals were more similar to each other than to those from healthy corals. 16S rRNA genes from 78 culturable coral mucus isolates also revealed a distinct partitioning of bacterial genera into healthy and diseased corals. Isolates identified as Vibrionaceae were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing, revealing that whilst several Vibrio spp. were found to be associated with AWS lesions, a recently described species, Vibrio owensii, was prevalent amongst cultured Vibrio isolates. Unaffected tissues from corals with AWS had a different microbiota than normal Acropora as found by others. Determining whether a microbial shift occurs prior to disease outbreaks will be a useful avenue of pursuit and could be helpful in detecting prodromal signs of coral disease prior to manifestation of lesions.

  7. An (un)healthy poster: When environmental cues affect consumers' food choices at vending machines.

    PubMed

    Stöckli, Sabrina; Stämpfli, Aline E; Messner, Claude; Brunner, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Environmental cues can affect food decisions. There is growing evidence that environmental cues influence how much one consumes. This article demonstrates that environmental cues can similarly impact the healthiness of consumers' food choices. Two field studies examined this effect with consumers of vending machine foods who were exposed to different posters. In field study 1, consumers with a health-evoking nature poster compared to a pleasure-evoking fun fair poster or no poster in their visual sight were more likely to opt for healthy snacks. Consumers were also more likely to buy healthy snacks when primed by an activity poster than when exposed to the fun fair poster. In field study 2, this consumer pattern recurred with a poster of skinny Giacometti sculptures. Overall, the results extend the mainly laboratory-based evidence by demonstrating the health-relevant impact of environmental cues on food decisions in the field. Results are discussed in light of priming literature emphasizing the relevance of preexisting associations, mental concepts and goals. PMID:26431685

  8. [TO THE ROLE OF NUTRITION IN THE HEALTHY LIFESTYLE OF YOUNG PEOPLS].

    PubMed

    Tarynska, O; Marushko, Y

    2015-01-01

    We have studied 159 young peoples. The age of young peoples at the time of the survey was 15-18 years. It has been shown that the young peopls nutrition was not optimal. Most of them have asthenic and intoxication types of complaints and exhibit acute chronic diseases. Microelemental profiles of medical students reveal significant deficiency of essential elements and accumulation of toxic elements.

  9. American Cancer Society Guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention: reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Kushi, Lawrence H; Doyle, Colleen; McCullough, Marji; Rock, Cheryl L; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Bandera, Elisa V; Gapstur, Susan; Patel, Alpa V; Andrews, Kimberly; Gansler, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines to serve as a foundation for its communication, policy, and community strategies and, ultimately, to affect dietary and physical activity patterns among Americans. These Guidelines, published approximately every 5 years, are developed by a national panel of experts in cancer research, prevention, epidemiology, public health, and policy, and they reflect the most current scientific evidence related to dietary and activity patterns and cancer risk. The ACS Guidelines focus on recommendations for individual choices regarding diet and physical activity patterns, but those choices occur within a community context that either facilitates or creates barriers to healthy behaviors. Therefore, this committee presents recommendations for community action to accompany the 4 recommendations for individual choices to reduce cancer risk. These recommendations for community action recognize that a supportive social and physical environment is indispensable if individuals at all levels of society are to have genuine opportunities to choose healthy behaviors. The ACS Guidelines are consistent with guidelines from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association for the prevention of coronary heart disease and diabetes, as well as for general health promotion, as defined by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans.

  10. FGF receptor antagonism does not affect adipose tissue development in nutritionally induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Scroyen, Ilse; Vranckx, Christine; Lijnen, Henri Roger

    2014-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-FGF receptor (FGFR) system plays a role in angiogenesis and maintenance of vascular integrity, but its potential role in adipose tissue related angiogenesis and development is still unknown. Administration of SSR, a low molecular weight inhibitor of multiple FGFRs, did not significantly affect body weight nor weight of subcutaneous or gonadal (GON) fat, as compared with pair-fed control mice. Adipocyte hypertrophy and reduced adipocyte density were only observed in GON adipose tissues of treated mice. Adipose tissue angiogenesis was not affected by SSR treatment, as normalized blood vessel density was comparable in adipose tissues of both groups. Blocking the FGF-FGFR system in vivo does not markedly affect adipose tissue development in mice with nutritionally induced obesity.

  11. 78 FR 13443 - Child Nutrition Programs: Nondiscretionary Amendments Related to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... States that any elementary, middle, or high school in which at least 50 percent of the enrolled children... Related to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, 76 FR 35301, on June 17, 2011, to clarify that... Standards in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs, 77 FR 4088, published on January...

  12. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY nutrition intervention to modify the total school food environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The process evaluation of HEALTHY, a large multi-center trial to decrease type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle school children, monitored the implementation of the intervention to ascertain the extent that components were delivered and received as intended. The purpose of this article is to report the...

  13. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... you would like to see a registered dietitian nutritionist for nutritional guidance when you have lung cancer. ... seek out the expertise of a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) who works with lung cancer patients. This ...

  14. Nutrition and Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITIONNutrition and Diet ▶ Diet for the Non-transfused ... booklet ▶ 3 Simple Suggestions for a Healthy Diet Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  15. Arsenicosis and its relationship with nutritional status in two arsenic affected areas of West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samal, Alok Chandra; Kar, Sandeep; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Santra, Subhas Chandra

    2013-11-01

    Incidence of chronic arsenicosis in the lower Gangetic plain has led to intensive research on arsenic (As) contamination in groundwater and potential health crisis associated with exposure to groundwater As. Arsenic toxicity of local inhabitants and their nutritional status were investigated in two As affected villages (Nonaghata and Doulatpur) of West Bengal, India. Population-based case study on randomly selected subjects was used to assess chronic As exposure through medical evaluation and individual health survey. Groundwater As concentrations were found as high as 870 μg/L and 1752 μg/L in Nonaghata and Doulatpur respectively at a depth 50-100 ft. In Nonaghata, 26.7% of people (among 385 surveyed) showed dermatological manifestation and As skin lesions were dominant in age group of 15-30 and 30-45 years old. In both the age groups, cases of melanosis were higher (22.5% and 31.5%) compared to keratosis (15.4% and 12.5%). In Doulatpur 27.4% of people (among 440 surveyed) was found with dermatological manifestations and As skin lesions were dominant in age group of 15-30 and 30-45 years old. Cases of melanosis are higher (27.2% and 31.4%) compared to keratosis (10.8% and 30.7%) in these two age groups. Assessment on calories intake (mainly carbohydrate and protein) by local inhabitants showed that 67.5% and 66.8% people of these two villages belongs to poor nutrition. Assessment of odds ratios (OR) suggested that the stronger associations were with low nutrition which may increase susceptibility to arsenical skin lesions. Thus it is a matter of concern that nutritional status may be an important factor causing prevalence of As toxicity among local inhabitants.

  16. [Health education as a tool for implementing the government policy in the field of healthy nutrition].

    PubMed

    Polesskiĭ, V A; Krasil'shchikov, M I

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses the issues of improving health education in different age, sex and professional groups of the population on the basis of developing an up-to-date media advocacy information and educational system at the federal, regional and municipal (local) level, which provides opportunities for healthy lifestyle building, including in terms of the influences on such an important behavioral factor for maintaining and promoting health as balanced diet.

  17. The nutritional content of prey affects the foraging of a generalist arthropod predator.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jason M; Sebastian, Peter; Wilder, Shawn M; Rypstra, Ann L

    2012-01-01

    While foraging theory predicts that predatory responses should be determined by the energy content and size of prey, it is becoming increasingly clear that carnivores regulate their intake of specific nutrients. We tested the hypothesis that prey nutrient composition and predator nutritional history affects foraging intensity, consumption, and prey selection by the wolf spider, Pardosa milvina. By altering the rearing environment for fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, we produced high quality flies containing more nitrogen and protein and less lipid than low quality fruit flies. In one experiment, we quantified the proportion of flies taken and consumption across a range of densities of either high or low quality flies and, in a second experiment, we determined the prey capture and consumption of spiders that had been maintained on contrasting diets prior to testing. In both cases, the proportion of prey captured declined with increasing prey density, which characterizes the Type II functional response that is typical of wolf spiders. Spiders with similar nutritional histories killed similar numbers of each prey type but consumed more of the low quality prey. Spiders provided high quality prey in the weeks prior to testing killed more prey than those on the low quality diet but there was no effect of prior diet on consumption. In the third experiment, spiders were maintained on contrasting diets for three weeks and then allowed to select from a mixture of high and low quality prey. Interestingly, feeding history affected prey preferences: spiders that had been on a low quality diet showed no preference but those on the high quality diet selected high quality flies from the mixture. Our results suggest that, even when prey size and species identity are controlled, the nutritional experience of the predator as well as the specific content of the prey shapes predator-prey interactions. PMID:23145130

  18. The nutritional content of prey affects the foraging of a generalist arthropod predator.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jason M; Sebastian, Peter; Wilder, Shawn M; Rypstra, Ann L

    2012-01-01

    While foraging theory predicts that predatory responses should be determined by the energy content and size of prey, it is becoming increasingly clear that carnivores regulate their intake of specific nutrients. We tested the hypothesis that prey nutrient composition and predator nutritional history affects foraging intensity, consumption, and prey selection by the wolf spider, Pardosa milvina. By altering the rearing environment for fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, we produced high quality flies containing more nitrogen and protein and less lipid than low quality fruit flies. In one experiment, we quantified the proportion of flies taken and consumption across a range of densities of either high or low quality flies and, in a second experiment, we determined the prey capture and consumption of spiders that had been maintained on contrasting diets prior to testing. In both cases, the proportion of prey captured declined with increasing prey density, which characterizes the Type II functional response that is typical of wolf spiders. Spiders with similar nutritional histories killed similar numbers of each prey type but consumed more of the low quality prey. Spiders provided high quality prey in the weeks prior to testing killed more prey than those on the low quality diet but there was no effect of prior diet on consumption. In the third experiment, spiders were maintained on contrasting diets for three weeks and then allowed to select from a mixture of high and low quality prey. Interestingly, feeding history affected prey preferences: spiders that had been on a low quality diet showed no preference but those on the high quality diet selected high quality flies from the mixture. Our results suggest that, even when prey size and species identity are controlled, the nutritional experience of the predator as well as the specific content of the prey shapes predator-prey interactions.

  19. Inhibitory Control in anxious and healthy adolescents is modulated by incentive and incidental affective stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, Michael G.; Mandell, Darcy; Mueller, Sven C.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2009-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are characterized by elevated, sustained responses to threat, that manifest as threat attention biases. Recent evidence also suggests exaggerated responses to incentives. How these characteristics influence cognitive control is under debate and is the focus of the present study. Methods Twenty-five healthy adolescents and 25 adolescents meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder were compared on a task of response inhibition. Inhibitory control was assayed with an antisaccade task that included both incentive (monetary reward) and incidental emotion (facial expression) cues presented prior to the execution of inhibitory behavior. Results Inhibitory control was enhanced following exposure to threat cues (fear faces) only in adolescent patients, and following exposure to positive cues (happy faces) only in healthy adolescents. Results also revealed a robust performance improvement associated with monetary incentives. This incentive effect did not differ by group. No interaction between incentives and emotional cues was detected. Conclusions These findings suggest that biased processing of threat in anxious adolescents affects inhibitory control, perhaps by raising arousal prior to behavioral performance. The absence of normalization of performance in anxious adolescents following exposure to positive emotional cues is a novel finding and will require additional exploration. Future studies will need to more specifically examine how perturbations in positive emotion processes contribute to the symptomatology and the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. PMID:19573033

  20. Proteome Analysis of Human Sebaceous Follicle Infundibula Extracted from Healthy and Acne-Affected Skin

    PubMed Central

    Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Lomholt, Hans B.; Scavenius, Carsten; Enghild, Jan J.; Brüggemann, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a very common disease of the pilosebaceous unit of the human skin. The pathological processes of acne are not fully understood. To gain further insight sebaceous follicular casts were extracted from 18 healthy and 20 acne-affected individuals by cyanoacrylate-gel biopsies and further processed for mass spectrometry analysis, aiming at a proteomic analysis of the sebaceous follicular casts. Human as well as bacterial proteins were identified. Human proteins enriched in acne and normal samples were detected, respectively. Normal follicular casts are enriched in proteins such as prohibitins and peroxiredoxins which are involved in the protection from various stresses, including reactive oxygen species. By contrast, follicular casts extracted from acne-affected skin contained proteins involved in inflammation, wound healing and tissue remodeling. Among the most distinguishing proteins were myeloperoxidase, lactotransferrin, neutrophil elastase inhibitor and surprisingly, vimentin. The most significant biological process among all acne-enriched proteins was ‘response to a bacterium’. Identified bacterial proteins were exclusively from Propionibacterium acnes. The most abundant P. acnes proteins were surface-exposed dermatan sulphate adhesins, CAMP factors, and a so far uncharacterized lipase in follicular casts extracted from normal as well as acne-affected skin. This is a first proteomic study that identified human proteins together with proteins of the skin microbiota in sebaceous follicular casts. PMID:25238151

  1. Position of the American Dietetic Association: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Lucia Lynn; Allen, Lindsay

    2002-10-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that women of childbearing potential should maintain good nutritional status through a lifestyle that optimizes maternal health and reduces the risk of birth defects, suboptimal fetal growth and development, and chronic health problems in their children. The key components of a health-promoting lifestyle during pregnancy include appropriate weight gain; consumption of a variety of foods in accordance with the Food Guide Pyramid; appropriate and timely vitamin and mineral supplementation; avoidance of alcohol, tobacco, and other harmful substances; and safe food-handling. Prenatal weight gain within the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended ranges is associated with better pregnancy outcomes. The total energy needs during pregnancy range between 2,500 to 2,700 kcal a day for most women, but prepregnancy body mass index, rate of weight gain, maternal age, and physiological appetite must be considered in tailoring this recommendation to the individual. The consumption of more food to meet energy needs and the increased absorption and efficiency of nutrient utilization that occurs in pregnancy are generally adequate to meet the needs for most nutrients. However, vitamin and mineral supplementation is appropriate for some nutrients and situations. This statement also includes recommendations pertaining to use of alcohol, tobacco, caffeine, street drugs, and other substances during pregnancy; food safety; and management of common complaints during pregnancy and specific health problems. In particular for medical nutrition therapy, pregnant women with inappropriate weight gain, hyperemesis, poor dietary patterns, phenylketonuria (PKU), certain chronic health problems, or a history of substance abuse should be referred to a qualified dietetics professional. PMID:12396171

  2. Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies and Practices in Family Child Care Homes in Oregon: Baseline Findings from the Healthy Home Child Care Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Katherine B.; Rice, Kelly R.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2012-01-01

    Baseline findings from the Healthy Home Child Care Project include data from Family Child Care Providers (FCCPs) in Oregon (n=53) who completed assessments of nutrition and physical activity policies and practices and BMI data for children in the care of FCCPs (n=205). Results show that a significant percentage of FCCPs failed to meet child care…

  3. Effect of Nutrition Changes on Foods Selected by Students in a Middle School-Based Diabetes Prevention Intervention Program: The HEALTHY Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobley, Connie C.; Stadler, Diane D.; Staten, Myrlene A.; El Ghormli, Laure; Gillis, Bonnie; Hartstein, Jill; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Virus, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Background: The HEALTHY primary prevention trial developed an integrated multicomponent intervention program to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle schools. The nutrition component aimed to improve the quality of foods and beverages served to students. Changes in the School Breakfast Program (SBP), National School Lunch Program…

  4. Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Susan

    An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

  5. Mood regulation in seasonal affective disorder patients and healthy controls studied in forced desynchrony.

    PubMed

    Koorengevel, Kathelijne M; Beersma, Domien G M; den Boer, Johan A; van den Hoofdakker, Rutger H

    2003-01-25

    In healthy subjects, both the duration of wakefulness and the circadian pacemaker have been demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of mood. Some features of affective disorders suggest that these two factors also play a role in the dysregulation of mood. In particular, disturbances of the circadian pacemaker have been proposed to be a pathogenetic factor in Seasonal Affective Disorder, winter type (SAD). This report presents a test of this proposition. To this end seven SAD patients and matched controls were subjected to a 120-h forced desynchrony protocol, in which they were exposed to six 20-h days. This protocol enables us to discriminate the extent to which the course of mood is determined by the imposed 20-h sleep-wake cycle from the influence of the circadian pacemaker on that course. Patients participated during a depressive episode, after recovery upon light therapy and in summer. Controls were studied in winter and in summer. Between SAD patients and controls no significant differences were observed in the period length nor in the timing of the endogenous circadian temperature minimum. In both groups, sleep-wake cycle- and pacemaker-related components were observed in the variations of mood, which were not significantly different between conditions.

  6. Personality, social support and affective states during simulated microgravity in healthy women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Michel

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the time-course of stress and recovery states and their relations to social support and personality traits in healthy women during a long-term head-down tilt bed rest. Personality, social support and affective states were assessed in 16 women exposed to simulated microgravity for a 60-day duration involving three stages: a 20-day baseline control period (BDC), a 60-day head-down tilt bed rest (HDT) and a 20-day post-HDT ambulatory recovery period (R+). Participants were divided into two groups: an exercise (Exe, n = 8) and a control group (Ctl, n = 8). All the participants experienced significantly more stress during the HDT period. But exercise did not improve the impaired effects of simulated microgravity. The Exe group perceived more stress and less recovery than the Ctl group during the HDT period. Among the five major personality factors, only Neuroticism was related to both social and affective variables. Neuroticism was positively associated with stress and negatively associated with recovery and social support (S-SSQ). Practical implications in psychological countermeasures for better dealing with the key human factor in spaceflights are discussed.

  7. Healthy Eating for Life English as a second language curriculum: primary outcomes from a nutrition education intervention targeting cancer risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Lindsay R; Martinez, Josefa L; Rivers, Susan E; Latimer, Amy E; Bertoli, Michelle C; Domingo, Samantha; Salovey, Peter

    2013-07-01

    We conducted a pre-post feasibility trial of Healthy Eating for Life, a theory-based, multimedia English as a second language curriculum that integrates content about healthy nutrition into an English language learning program to decrease cancer health disparities. Teachers in 20 English as a second language classrooms delivered Healthy Eating for Life to 286 adult English as a second language students over one semester. Postintervention data are available for 227 students. The results indicated that Healthy Eating for Life is effective for increasing fruit and vegetable intake as well as knowledge, action planning, and coping planning related to healthy eating. Participants also achieved higher reading scores compared to the state average.

  8. Healthy Eating for Life English as a second language curriculum: Primary outcomes from a nutrition education intervention targeting cancer risk reduction

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Lindsay R; Martinez, Josefa L; Rivers, Susan E; Latimer, Amy E; Bertoli, Michelle C; Domingo, Samantha; Salovey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a pre–post feasibility trial of Healthy Eating for Life, a theory-based, multimedia English as a second language curriculum that integrates content about healthy nutrition into an English language learning program to decrease cancer health disparities. Teachers in 20 English as a second language classrooms delivered Healthy Eating for Life to 286 adult English as a second language students over one semester. Postintervention data are available for 227 students. The results indicated that Healthy Eating for Life is effective for increasing fruit and vegetable intake as well as knowledge, action planning, and coping planning related to healthy eating. Participants also achieved higher reading scores compared to the state average. PMID:23027782

  9. Healthy Eating for Life English as a second language curriculum: primary outcomes from a nutrition education intervention targeting cancer risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Lindsay R; Martinez, Josefa L; Rivers, Susan E; Latimer, Amy E; Bertoli, Michelle C; Domingo, Samantha; Salovey, Peter

    2013-07-01

    We conducted a pre-post feasibility trial of Healthy Eating for Life, a theory-based, multimedia English as a second language curriculum that integrates content about healthy nutrition into an English language learning program to decrease cancer health disparities. Teachers in 20 English as a second language classrooms delivered Healthy Eating for Life to 286 adult English as a second language students over one semester. Postintervention data are available for 227 students. The results indicated that Healthy Eating for Life is effective for increasing fruit and vegetable intake as well as knowledge, action planning, and coping planning related to healthy eating. Participants also achieved higher reading scores compared to the state average. PMID:23027782

  10. Using focus groups to identify factors affecting healthy weight maintenance in college men.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jennifer R; White, Adrienne A; Greaney, Mary L

    2009-06-01

    Healthful eating and physical activity are important for healthy weight maintenance. The hypothesis for this study was that college-aged men would perceive factors affecting eating and physical activity as both contributing to and inhibiting healthy weight maintenance. The overall objective was to explore how men view weight maintenance in the context of these aspects. Subjects (n = 47, mean age = 20.3 +/- 1.7 years) completed an online survey, including the 51-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, and participated in 1 of 6 focus groups. Three face-to-face and 3 online synchronous groups were conducted using a 15-question discussion guide to identify weight maintenance issues around eating, physical activity, and body perceptions. Weight satisfaction decreased with increase in both dietary restraint and disinhibition. Number of attempts to lose weight was positively associated with BMI (r [44] = .465, P = .01) and dietary restraint (r [44] = .515, P = .01). Findings from both focus group formats were similar. Motivators (sports performance/fitness, self-esteem, attractiveness, long-term health) were similar for eating healthfully and being physically active; however, more motivators to be physically active than to eat healthfully emerged. Enablers for eating healthfully included liking the taste, availability of healthful foods, using food rules to guide intake, having a habit of healthful eating, and internal drive/will. Barriers to healthful eating included fat in dairy foods, fruit and vegetable taste, and quick spoilage. Barriers to being physically active included lack of time/time management, obligations, being lazy, and girlfriends. Results may be used to inform future obesity prevention interventions.

  11. Pomegranate juice does not affect the disposition of simvastatin in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Jin; Yeo, Chang-Woo; Shim, Eon-Jeong; Kim, Hyunmi; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Shin, Jae-Gook; Shon, Ji-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Previous in vitro and in vivo investigations reported controversial results for the inhibitory potential of pomegranate on Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity. This study evaluated the effect of pomegranate juice on the disposition of simvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate, and simvastatin acid, its active metabolite, compared with grapefruit juice in healthy subjects. A single oral pharmacokinetic study of 40 mg simvastatin was conducted as a three-way crossover (control, pomegranate, and grapefruit juices) in 12 healthy male subjects. The subjects took pomegranate or grapefruit juice three times per day for 3 days (900 mL/day) and on the third day, the pharmacokinetic study was executed. Blood samples were collected to 24 h post-dose and the pharmacokinetic parameters of simvastatin and simvastatin acid were compared among the study periods. In the period of grapefruit juice, the mean C max and AUCinf of simvastatin [the geometric mean ratio (90 % CI) 15.6 (11.6-21.0) and 9.1 (6.0-13.7)] were increased significantly when compared with the control period, whereas they were not significantly different in the period of pomegranate juice [C max and AUCinf 1.20 (0.89-1.62) and 1.29 (0.85-1.94)]. The mean C max and AUCinf of simvastatin acid were increased significantly after intake of grapefruit juice, but not pomegranate juice. These results suggest that pomegranate juice affects little on the disposition of simvastatin in humans. Pomegranate juice does not seem to have a clinically relevant inhibitory potential on CYP3A4 activity.

  12. Using focus groups to identify factors affecting healthy weight maintenance in college men.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jennifer R; White, Adrienne A; Greaney, Mary L

    2009-06-01

    Healthful eating and physical activity are important for healthy weight maintenance. The hypothesis for this study was that college-aged men would perceive factors affecting eating and physical activity as both contributing to and inhibiting healthy weight maintenance. The overall objective was to explore how men view weight maintenance in the context of these aspects. Subjects (n = 47, mean age = 20.3 +/- 1.7 years) completed an online survey, including the 51-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, and participated in 1 of 6 focus groups. Three face-to-face and 3 online synchronous groups were conducted using a 15-question discussion guide to identify weight maintenance issues around eating, physical activity, and body perceptions. Weight satisfaction decreased with increase in both dietary restraint and disinhibition. Number of attempts to lose weight was positively associated with BMI (r [44] = .465, P = .01) and dietary restraint (r [44] = .515, P = .01). Findings from both focus group formats were similar. Motivators (sports performance/fitness, self-esteem, attractiveness, long-term health) were similar for eating healthfully and being physically active; however, more motivators to be physically active than to eat healthfully emerged. Enablers for eating healthfully included liking the taste, availability of healthful foods, using food rules to guide intake, having a habit of healthful eating, and internal drive/will. Barriers to healthful eating included fat in dairy foods, fruit and vegetable taste, and quick spoilage. Barriers to being physically active included lack of time/time management, obligations, being lazy, and girlfriends. Results may be used to inform future obesity prevention interventions. PMID:19628102

  13. Schoolchildren, maternal nutrition and generating healthy brains: the importance of lifecycle education for fertility, health and peace.

    PubMed

    House, Simon H

    2009-01-01

    In order to generate healthy brains, the earlier in life that children develop a healthy lifestyle the better. At home and at school, with a good diet and physical activity, children need to experience and to understand the value of healthy metabolism. Continuous education is needed in lifecycle health, with awareness that the most vulnerable phase relates to reproduction. This is the way that most people can become parents of healthy children. Nutrient deficits, toxins, or uro-genital disease, often unnoticed, affect quality of sperm or ovum, and subsequent development. Early errors can have the most pronounced effect. Gene-switches are being set early in life. Any early flaw can be magnified by growth. Moreover children's habits become set and young couples are too busy to learn and adapt. Many are liable to unintended pregnancy. Adoption of a healthy lifestyle at a young age is the most reliable route to producing healthy babies. The mother's state throughout pregnancy, emotions/hormones included, naturally continues to powerfully affect her child's development, therefore future physical and mental health, behaviour and ability. There has recently been a serious increase in babies conceived by schoolchildren, as well as a shift by working women towards childbearing in their late thirties or more. A return towards childbearing in the twenties and early thirties can reduce risks for the child. The mother needs to build her appropriate body-stores--vitamins and minerals, proteins, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and other essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)--to ensure optimal development of her child. Replenishment of reserves is important for maternal health and before bearing another child. A restorative time of three years is desirable. Governments and school teachers need to guide and encourage parents in this health education and practice, and to use their authority to achieve it in schools. Empowerment with knowledge is the

  14. Medical nutrition therapy for hypercholesterolemia positively affects patient satisfaction and quality of life outcomes.

    PubMed

    Delahanty, Linda M; Hayden, Doug; Ammerman, Alice; Nathan, David M

    2002-01-01

    Following a heart-healthy diet to lower cholesterol levels is often assumed to be difficult, to be burdensome, and to have a negative impact on quality of life (QOL). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of medical nutrition therapy (MNT) versus usual care (UC) for hypercholesterolemia on patient satisfaction and QOL. Ninety ambulatory care patients (60 men and 30 women), age 28 to 66, were randomly assigned to receive either MNT from dietitians using a National Cholesterol Education Program-based protocol or UC from their physicians. Patients who received MNT reported no difference in QOL related to the taste or enjoyment of food compared with UC patients. However, the MNT group reported initial improvements in QOL related to the convenience and cost of following a low-fat diet when compared with the UC group. The MNT group also reported significant and lasting improvements in perceived QOL related to self-care compared with the UC group. MNT patients were more satisfied with the interaction at visits, knowledge and ability to manage their cholesterol, eating habits, appearance, time spent exercising, and life in general. Moreover, MNT patients did not report any negative impact related to following a low-fat diet in regard to feeling restricted by diet; interference with lifestyle activities; or difficulty planning, purchasing, or preparing meals or eating away from home. Contrary to popular belief there is no apparent reduction but rather an improvement in some measures of QOL and patient satisfaction with MNT for hypercholesterolemia.

  15. Healthy Meals for Healthy Americans Act of 1994 (Commodity Letter of Credit--CLOC). Hearing on H.R. 8, before the Subcommittee on Department Operations and Nutrition of the Committee on Agriculture. House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    These hearings transcripts present discussions on amendments offered by the Committee on Education and Labor to H.R. 8, the Healthy Meals for Healthy Americans Act of 1994, which will reauthorize and improve the national school lunch program and the child nutrition programs under the National School Lunch (NSL) Act and the Child Nutrition Act of…

  16. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Standards of professional performance for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (Competent, Proficient, and Expert) in Sustainable, Resilient, and Healthy Food and Water Systems.

    PubMed

    Tagtow, Angie; Robien, Kim; Bergquist, Erin; Bruening, Meg; Dierks, Lisa; Hartman, Barbara E; Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Steinitz, Tamara; Tahsin, Bettina; Underwood, Teri; Wilkins, Jennifer

    2014-03-01

    Sustainability is the ability of a system to be maintained over the long term. Resilience is the ability of a system to withstand disturbances and continue to function in a sustainable manner. Issues of sustainability and resilience apply to all aspects of nutrition and dietetics practice, can be practiced at both the program and systems level, and are broader than any one specific practice setting or individual intervention. Given an increasing need to apply principles of sustainability and resilience to nutrition and dietetics practice, as well as growing interest among the public and by Registered Dietitian Nutritionists of health issues related to food and water systems, the Hunger and Environmental Nutrition Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has developed the Standards of Professional Performance as a tool for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists working in sustainable, resilient, and healthy food and water systems to assess their current skill levels and to identify areas for further professional development in this emerging practice area. This Standards of Professional Performance document covers six standards of professional performance: quality in practice, competence and accountability, provision of services, application of research, communication and application of knowledge, and utilization and management of resources. Within each standard, specific indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate how sustainable, resilient, and healthy food and water systems principles can be applied to practice. The indicators describe three skill levels (competent, proficient, and expert) for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists working in sustainable, resilient, and healthy food and water systems.

  17. Nutrition Information at the Point of Selection in High Schools Does Not Affect Purchases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainville, Alice Jo; Choi, Kyunghee; Ragg, Mark; King, Amber; Carr, Deborah H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Nutrition information can be an important component of local wellness policies. There are very few studies regarding nutrition information at the point of selection (POS) in high schools. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of posting entree nutrition information at the POS in high schools nationwide.…

  18. How Medical Students' Behaviors and Attitudes affect the Impact of a Brief Curriculum on Nutrition Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlair, Sheira; Hanley, Kathleen; Gillespie, Colleen; Disney, Lindsey; Kalet, Adina; Darby, Pamella C.; Frank, Erica; Spencer, Elsa; Harris, Jeff; Jay, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a nutrition curriculum and explore the influence of medical students' own nutrition practices on its impact. Methods: An anonymous survey was given to first-year medical students attending a required course immediately prior to and 2 weeks after a 2-hour interactive nutrition curriculum intervention in a large private urban…

  19. Entrance Qualifications Affect the Performance of Nutrition Students at University: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu-Apenten, Richard; Xu, Wen Li

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of admissions qualifications on the subsequent academic performances of BSc nutrition students at a UK university. Entrance qualifications for three groups (Grp01, Grp02, Grp03) reading for a BSc(Hons) degree in, Dietetics, Food & Nutrition or Human Nutrition (n = 105) were determined from their UCAS (Universities…

  20. Bioavailability and nutritional effects of carotenoids from organically and conventionally produced carrots in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Stracke, Berenike A; Rüfer, Corinna E; Bub, Achim; Briviba, Karlis; Seifert, Stephanie; Kunz, Clemens; Watzl, Bernhard

    2009-06-01

    It has been hypothesised that organically grown vegetables are healthier than conventionally produced ones due to a higher content of phytochemicals. However, few data from controlled human studies exist. The aim of the present study was to compare the carotenoid content and antioxidant capacity of organically and conventionally produced carrots under defined conditions. Furthermore, a human intervention study was conducted to compare bioavailability, plasma antioxidant capacity, endogenous DNA strand breaks and immune parameters in healthy men ingesting carrots from different agricultural systems. Thirty-six volunteers consumed either organically or conventionally produced blanched carrots (200 g/d; 2 weeks) or no carrots in a double-blind, randomised intervention study. No statistically significant differences were observed in the total carotenoid contents (121 (sd 7) microg/g organic v. 116 (sd 13) microg/g conventional) and the antioxidant capacities (0.43 (sd 0.08) mumol Trolox equivalents/g organic v. 0.32 (sd 0.07) mumol Trolox equivalents/g conventional) of the carrots administered to the volunteers. Intake of organically or conventionally produced carrots significantly increased (P < 0.001) plasma alpha- and beta-carotene concentrations in both intervention groups without differences in plasma carotenoid concentrations. Consumption of carrots did not lead to significant changes in the plasma antioxidant status, endogenous DNA strand breaks and parameters of the immune system in all groups. Therefore, these results indicate that the agricultural system has neither an effect on the carotenoid content, the antioxidant capacity of carrots, nor on the bioavailability of carotenoids and on antioxidant, antigenotoxic and immunological effects as assessed in a human intervention study.

  1. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... mean, you can eat junk food sometimes, but eating it all the time is not acceptable." — Ashley, Ohio "My favorite healthy foods are California Rolls, plus I LOVE yogurt and fruit together. Girls who want to eat healthier should drink water before each meal and should ...

  2. Sourdough fermentation or addition of organic acids or corresponding salts to bread improves nutritional properties of starch in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Liljeberg, H G; Lönner, C H; Björck, I M

    1995-06-01

    Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to barley bread containing organic acids or corresponding salts were evaluated in healthy human subjects. The satiety score and the rate and extent of in vitro starch digestion were also studied. Lactic acid was generated by use of a homofermentative starter culture or added to the dough. In addition, products were baked with Ca-lactate, or with Na-propionate at two different concentrations. Consumption of the product baked with a high concentration of Na-propionate significantly lowered the postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses, and significantly prolonged the duration of satiety compared with all other breads. When subjects consumed the breads baked with sourdough, lactic acid and Na-propionate, their glucose and insulin responses were reduced compared with the wholemeal bread alone. The rate of in vitro amylolysis was reduced only by ingestion of the breads containing lactic acid, suggesting that the beneficial impact of Na-propionate on metabolic responses and satiety was related to effects other than a reduced rate of starch hydrolysis. All bread products had a similar concentration of in vitro resistant starch of 1.3-2.1 g/100 g (starch basis). It is concluded that sourdough baking and other fermentation processes may improve the nutritional features of starch. The results also demonstrate that certain salts of organic acids may have metabolic effects.

  3. Oral nutritional supplements containing (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the nutritional status of patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer during multimodality treatment.

    PubMed

    van der Meij, Barbara S; Langius, Jacqueline A E; Smit, Egbert F; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; von Blomberg, B Mary E; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Paul, Marinus A; van Leeuwen, Paul A M

    2010-10-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), (n-3) fatty acids from fish oil, have immune-modulating effects and may improve nutritional status in cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of an oral nutritional supplement containing (n-3) fatty acids on nutritional status and inflammatory markers in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) undergoing multimodality treatment. In a double-blind experiment, 40 patients with stage III NSCLC were randomly assigned to receive 2 cans/d of a protein- and energy-dense oral nutritional supplement containing (n-3) fatty acids (2.0 g EPA + 0.9 g DHA/d) or an isocaloric control supplement. EPA in plasma phospholipids, energy intake, resting energy expenditure (REE), body weight, fat free mass (FFM), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), and inflammatory markers were assessed. Effects of intervention were analyzed by generalized estimating equations and expressed as regression coefficients (B). The intervention group (I) had a better weight maintenance than the control (C) group after 2 and 4 wk (B = 1.3 and 1.7 kg, respectively; P < 0.05), a better FFM maintenance after 3 and 5 wk (B = 1.5 and 1.9 kg, respectively; P < 0.05), a reduced REE (B = -16.7% of predicted; P = 0.01) after 3 wk, and a trend for a greater MUAC (B = 9.1; P = 0.06) and lower interleukin-6 production (B = -27.9; P = 0.08) after 5 wk. After 4 wk, the I group had a higher energy and protein intake than the C group (B = 2456 kJ/24 h, P = 0.03 and B = 25.0 g, P = 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, a protein- and energy-dense oral nutritional supplement containing (n-3) fatty acids beneficially affects nutritional status during multimodality treatment in patients with NSCLC.

  4. Scaling up nutrition in fragile and conflict-affected states: the pivotal role of governance.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sebastian A J; Perez-Ferrer, Carolina; Griffiths, Andrew; Brunner, Eric

    2015-02-01

    Acute and chronic undernutrition undermine conditions for health, stability and socioeconomic development across the developing world. Although fragile and conflict-affected states have some of the highest rates of undernutrition globally, their response to the multilateral 'Scaling Up Nutrition' (SUN) initiative in its first two-year period was ambivalent. The purpose of this research was to investigate factors affecting fragile and conflict-affected states' engagement with SUN, and to examine what differentiated those fragile states that joined SUN in its first phase from those that did not. Drawing on global databases (Unicef, World Bank, UNDP), and qualitative country case studies (Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sierra Leone, Pakistan and Yemen) we used bivariate logistic regressions and principal component analysis to assess social, economic and political factors across 41 fragile states looking for systematic differences between those that had signed up to SUN before March 2013 (n = 16), and those that had not (n = 25). While prevalence of malnutrition, health system functioning and level of citizen empowerment had little or no impact on a fragile state's likelihood of joining SUN, the quality of governance (QOG) strongly predicted accession. SUN-signatory fragile states scored systematically better on the World Bank's Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) and the Worldwide Governance Indicators 'effectiveness of government' indices. We conclude that strengthening governance in fragile states may enhance their engagement with initiatives such as SUN, but also (recognising the potential for endogeneity), that the way aid is structured and delivered in fragile states may be an underlying determinant of whether and how governance in such contexts improves. The research demonstrates that more nuanced analysis of conditions within and among countries classed as 'fragile and conflict-affected' is both possible and necessary if aid

  5. Process evaluation methods, implementation fidelity results and relationship to physical activity and healthy eating in the Faith, Activity, and Nutrition (FAN) study.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Ruth P; Wilcox, Sara; Baruth, Meghan; Dowda, Marsha

    2014-04-01

    Faith, Activity and Nutrition (FAN), a community-based participatory research project in African American churches, aimed to increase congregant physical activity and healthy eating. The Health-Promoting Church framework, developed collaboratively with faith-based partners, guided the intervention and a comprehensive process evaluation. The Health-Promoting Church components related to healthy eating and physical activity were getting the message out, opportunities, pastor support, and organizational policy. There was no evidence for sequential mediation for any of the healthy eating components. These results illustrate the complexity of systems change within organizational settings and the importance of conducting process evaluation. The FAN intervention resulted in increased implementation for all physical activity and most healthy eating components. Mediation analyses revealed no direct association between implementation and increased physical activity; rather, sequential mediation analysis showed that implementation of physical activity messages was associated with improved self-efficacy at the church level, which was associated with increased physical activity.

  6. Nutritional and exercise interventions variably affect estrogen receptor expression in the adipose tissue of male rats.

    PubMed

    Metz, Lore; Gerbaix, Maude; Masgrau, Aurélie; Guillet, Christelle; Walrand, Stéphane; Boisseau, Nathalie; Boirie, Yves; Courteix, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Energy-dense food consumption and lack of physical activity are implicated in the development of the current obesity epidemic. The role of estrogen in adiposity and fuel partitioning is mediated mainly though the estrogen receptor α (ERα) isoform. We hypothesized that nutritional adaptation and exercise training, either individually or combined, could impact ERα expression in adipose tissue relative to glucose tolerance. Seventy-two Wistar rats were submitted to a high-fat, high-sucrose (HF-HS) diet for 16weeks. The first phase of our study was to investigate the effect of an HF-HS diet on whole-body glucose tolerance, as well as on body composition and ERα expression in different adipose tissues. Second, we investigated the effect of switching to a well-balanced diet, with or without exercise training for 8 weeks, on those same parameters. After the first part of this study, HF-HS-fed rats were fatter (8%) than control rats. Despite a decrease in glucose tolerance, ERα expression in adipose tissues was not significantly altered by an HF-HS diet. The return to a well-balanced diet significantly increased ERα expression in perirenal and epididymal adipose tissue, but there was no effect of diet or exercise training on whole-body glucose tolerance. The present findings suggest that diet is a powerful modulator of ERα expression in adipose tissue, as nutritional modulation after an HF-HS diet strongly affects ERα expression, particularly in perirenal and epididymal adipose tissue. However, ERα expression in adipose tissue does not appear to be associated with whole-body glucose tolerance. PMID:26923515

  7. SNA Releases Back to School Nutrition Trends Report: Results Show What Schools Are Doing to Increase Healthy Options for Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article talks about the School Nutrition Association's 2008 Back to School Nutrition Trends Report that was released on August 19. According to the report, the trend towards more healthful school meal choices continues this fall with district nutrition programs emphasizing whole grains, fruits, and vegetables while cutting back on trans fats,…

  8. Nutrition during mid to late gestation affects growth, adipose tissue deposition, and tenderness in cross-bred beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient restriction of the dam during gestation can have detrimental effects on the progeny. Adipocyte differentiation occurs during mid to late gestation, and therefore nutrition during this time is expected to affect adipose tissue development and resulting carcass composition of steers. Thus, th...

  9. Flosequinan does not affect systemic and regional vascular responses to simulated orthostatic stress in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Duranteau, J; Pussard, E; Edouard, A; Samii, K; Berdeaux, A; Giudicelli, J F

    1992-01-01

    1. The effects of a single oral dose (100 mg) of flosequinan on systemic and regional (forearm, splanchnic and renal) vascular responses to simulated orthostatic stress (lower body negative pressure, LBNP) were investigated in nine healthy male volunteers, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. 2. Forty-five minutes after its administration and before LBNP, flosequinan induced a significant decrease in total peripheral and in forearm vascular resistances without any concomitant change in arterial pressure, in heart rate and in the investigated biological parameters (plasma catecholamines, arginine vasopressin and renin activity). 3. After flosequinan and placebo, LBNP induced similar decreases in central venous pressure at all levels of LBNP (-10, -20 and -40 mm Hg) and in pulse pressure at LBNP -40 mm Hg. LBNP-induced increase in forearm vascular resistance was significantly more marked after flosequinan than after placebo at all levels of LBNP, and this was also true for splanchnic vascular resistance but at LBNP -40 mm Hg only. However, inasmuch as the basal values of these two parameters before LBNP were lower after flosequinan than after placebo, their final values after LBNP -40 mm Hg were similar. Finally, LBNP-induced changes in renal vascular resistance, glomerular filtration rate and filtration fraction as well as in plasma catecholamines, arginine vasopressin and renin activity were similar after flosequinan and placebo at all levels of LBNP. 4. Flosequinan affected neither reflex control of heart rate (phenylephrine test) nor non-specific vasoconstrictor responses (cold pressor test). (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1389945

  10. Effect of Nutrition Changes on Foods Selected by Students in a Middle School-based Diabetes Prevention Intervention Program; the HEALTHY Experience

    PubMed Central

    Mobley, Connie C.; Stadler, Diane D.; Staten, Myrlene A; ghormli, Laure El; Gillis, Bonnie; Hartstein, Jill; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Virus, Amy

    2011-01-01

    BACKGOUND The HEALTHY primary prevention trial developed an integrated multi-component intervention program to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle schools. The nutrition component aimed to improve the quality of foods and beverages served to students. Changes in the School Breakfast Program (SBP), National School Lunch Program (NSLP), and a la carte venues are compared to the experience of control schools. METHODS The intervention was implemented in 21 middle schools from winter 2007 through spring 2009 (following a cohort of students from sixth through eighth grades); 21 schools acted as observed controls. The nutrition component targeted school food service environmental change. Data identifying foods and nutrients served (selected by students for consumption) were collected over a 20-day period at baseline and end of study. Analysis compared end of study values for intervention versus control schools. RESULTS Intervention schools more successfully limited dessert and snack food portion size in NSLP and a la carte and lowered fat content of foods served. Servings of high fiber grain-based foods and/or legumes were improved in SBP but not NSLP. Intervention and control schools eliminated >1% fat milk and sugar added beverages in SBP, but intervention schools were more successful in NSLP and a la carte. CONCLUSION The HEALTHY program demonstrated significant changes in the nutritional quality of foods and beverages served in the SBP, NSLP, and a la carte venues, as part of an effort to decrease childhood obesity and support beneficial effects in some secondary HEALTHY study outcomes. PMID:22239133

  11. Advice on healthy eating for older people.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Karen

    As part of its Food and Health Action Plan, the Department of Health is working with the food industry, and with other stakeholders, to establish a coherent national plan to help people in England improve their diets. Maintaining a healthy diet is important for all age groups, but healthy older people have particular needs. Karen Fisher describes the specific nutritional issues affecting healthy older people and suggests advice that nurses can offer people during opportunistic consultations in primary care.

  12. Healthy store programs and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), but not the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), are associated with corner store healthfulness.

    PubMed

    DeWeese, Robin S; Todd, Michael; Karpyn, Allison; Yedidia, Michael J; Kennedy, Michelle; Bruening, Meg; Wharton, Christopher M; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2016-12-01

    In response to lack of access to healthy foods, many low-income communities are instituting local healthy corner store programs. Some stores also participate in the United States Department of Agriculture's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). This study used two assessment tools to compare the healthfulness of offerings at stores participating in local healthy store programs (upgraded stores), WIC, and/or SNAP to that of similar non-participating stores. Based on store audits conducted in 315 New Jersey corner stores in 2014, we calculated healthy food availability scores using subsections of the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Corner Stores (NEMS-CS-Availability) and a short-form corner store audit tool (SCAT). We used multivariable regression to examine associations between program participation and scores on both instruments. Adjusting for store and block group characteristics, stores participating in a local healthy store program had significantly higher SCAT scores than did non-participating stores (upgraded: M = 3.18, 95% CI 2.65-3.71; non-upgraded: M = 2.52, 95% CI 2.32-2.73); scores on the NEMS-CS-Availability did not differ (upgraded: M = 12.8, 95% CI 11.6-14.1; non-upgraded: M = 12.5, 95% CI 12.0-13.0). WIC-participating stores had significantly higher scores compared to non-participating stores on both tools. Stores participating in SNAP only (and not in WIC) scored significantly lower on both instruments compared to non-SNAP stores. WIC-participating and non-SNAP corner stores had higher healthfulness scores on both assessment tools. Upgraded stores had higher healthfulness scores compared to non-upgraded stores on the SCAT.

  13. Healthy Lifestyle and Risk of Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Fiona; Biessy, Carine; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Rinaldi, Sabina; Chajès, Veronique; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; May, Anne; Peeters, Petra H.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Ericson, Ulrika; Wirfält, Elisabet; Travis, Ruth C.; Romieu, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It has been estimated that at least a third of the most common cancers are related to lifestyle and as such are preventable. Key modifiable lifestyle factors have been individually associated with cancer risk; however, less is known about the combined effects of these factors. This study generated a healthy lifestyle index score (HLIS) to investigate the joint effect of modifiable factors on the risk of overall cancers, alcohol-related cancers, tobacco-related cancers, obesity-related cancers, and reproductive-related cancers. The study included 391,608 men and women from the multinational European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The HLIS was constructed from 5 factors assessed at baseline (diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and anthropometry) by assigning scores of 0 to 4 to categories of each factor, for which higher values indicate healthier behaviors. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox proportional regression and population attributable fractions (PAFs) estimated from the adjusted models. There was a 5% lower risk (adjusted HR 0.952, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.946, 0.958) of all cancers per point score of the index for men and 4% (adjusted HR 0.961, 95% CI: 0.956, 0.966) for women. The fourth versus the second category of the HLIS was associated with a 28% and 24% lower risk for men and women respectively across all cancers, 41% and 33% for alcohol-related, 49% and 46% for tobacco-related, 41% and 26% for obesity-related, and 21% for female reproductive cancers. Findings suggest simple behavior modifications could have a sizeable impact on cancer prevention, especially for men. PMID:27100409

  14. Healthy Lifestyle and Risk of Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Fiona; Biessy, Carine; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Rinaldi, Sabina; Chajès, Veronique; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; May, Anne; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Ericson, Ulrika; Wirfält, Elisabet; Travis, Ruth C; Romieu, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    It has been estimated that at least a third of the most common cancers are related to lifestyle and as such are preventable. Key modifiable lifestyle factors have been individually associated with cancer risk; however, less is known about the combined effects of these factors. This study generated a healthy lifestyle index score (HLIS) to investigate the joint effect of modifiable factors on the risk of overall cancers, alcohol-related cancers, tobacco-related cancers, obesity-related cancers, and reproductive-related cancers. The study included 391,608 men and women from the multinational European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The HLIS was constructed from 5 factors assessed at baseline (diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and anthropometry) by assigning scores of 0 to 4 to categories of each factor, for which higher values indicate healthier behaviors. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox proportional regression and population attributable fractions (PAFs) estimated from the adjusted models. There was a 5% lower risk (adjusted HR 0.952, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.946, 0.958) of all cancers per point score of the index for men and 4% (adjusted HR 0.961, 95% CI: 0.956, 0.966) for women. The fourth versus the second category of the HLIS was associated with a 28% and 24% lower risk for men and women respectively across all cancers, 41% and 33% for alcohol-related, 49% and 46% for tobacco-related, 41% and 26% for obesity-related, and 21% for female reproductive cancers. Findings suggest simple behavior modifications could have a sizeable impact on cancer prevention, especially for men.

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness and dietary intake in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-García, M; Ortega, F B; Huybrechts, I; Ruiz, J R; González-Gross, M; Ottevaere, C; Sjöström, M; Dìaz, L E; Ciarapica, D; Molnar, D; Gottrand, F; Plada, M; Manios, Y; Moreno, L A; De Henauw, S; Kersting, M; Castillo, M J

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and dietary intake in European adolescents. The study comprised 1492 adolescents (770 females) from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. CRF was assessed by the 20 m shuttle run test. Adolescents were grouped into low and high CRF levels according to the FITNESSGRAM Standards. Dietary intake was self-registered by the adolescents using a computer-based tool for 24 h dietary recalls (HELENA-Dietary Assessment Tool) on two non-consecutive days. Weight and height were measured, and BMI was calculated. Higher CRF was associated with higher total energy intake in boys (P = 0·003). No association was found between CRF and macronutrient intake (as percentage of energy), yet some positive associations were found with daily intake of bread/cereals in boys and dairy products in both boys and girls (all P < 0·003), regardless of centre, age and BMI. CRF was inversely related to sweetened beverage consumption in girls. These findings were overall consistent when CRF was analysed according to the FITNESSGRAM categories (high/low CRF). A high CRF was not related to compliance with dietary recommendations, except for sweetened beverages in girls (P = 0·002). In conclusion, a high CRF is associated with a higher intake of dairy products and bread/cereals, and a lower consumption of sweetened beverages, regardless of centre, age and BMI. The present findings contribute to the understanding of the relationships between dietary factors and physiological health indicators such as CRF.

  16. Cardiac troponin I in healthy newborn goat kids and in goat kids with cardiac nutritional muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd; El-Sayed, Mehana

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to establish serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations in healthy newborn goat kids and in those with cardiac nutritional muscular dystrophy (NMD). Thirty-five single full-term newborn goat kids (20 males and 15 females; age: 6.1 ± 3.5 h; weight 3.4 ± 0.68 kg), together with their respective mothers (Group 1; G1) were enrolled consecutively. Thirty-one goat kids (age: 9.5 ± 4.3 days) with NMD, together with 20 control goat kids (age: 7.8 ± 4.3 days) were also included in this study (Group 2; G2). Blood samples were collected from G1 within 12 h of birth and from G2 on admission. Serum samples were collected and analysed for cTnI. In G1, the mean serum concentration of cTnI in goat kids was 0.290 ± 0.37 ng/mL, with no statistically significant difference between male and female kids (P = 0.61). The mean cTnI concentration in the does was 0.017 ± 0.04, ng/mL. Serum values of cTnI in the goat kids and in their respective mothers differed significantly (P = 0.0001). In G2, the mean cTnI concentration was 0.02 ± 0.05 ng/mL in the control and 11.18 ± 20.07 ng/mL in the diseased goat kids, with a statistically significant difference between diseased and control goat kids (P = 0.017). Serum concentrations of cTnI are higher in goat kids than in their respective mothers. In conclusion, the cTnI assay appears to be a sensitive and specific marker for myocardial injury in goat kids.

  17. Vitamin D status among adolescents in Europe: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.

    PubMed

    González-Gross, Marcela; Valtueña, Jara; Breidenassel, Christina; Moreno, Luis A; Ferrari, Marika; Kersting, Matilde; De Henauw, Stefaan; Gottrand, Frederic; Azzini, Elena; Widhalm, Kurt; Kafatos, Anthony; Manios, Yannis; Stehle, Peter

    2012-03-01

    An adequate vitamin D status is essential during childhood and adolescence, for its important role in cell growth, skeletal structure and development. It also reduces the risk of conditions such as CVD, osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, infections and autoimmune disease. As comparable data on the European level are lacking, assessment of vitamin D concentrations was included in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study. Fasting blood samples were obtained from a subsample of 1006 adolescents (470 males; 46·8 %) with an age range of 12·5-17·5 years, selected in the ten HELENA cities in the nine European countries participating in this cross-sectional study, and analysed for 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) by ELISA using EDTA plasma. As specific reference values for adolescents are missing, percentile distribution were computed by age and sex. Median 25(OH)D levels for the whole population were 57·1 nmol/l (5th percentile 24·3 nmol/l, 95th percentile 99·05 nmol/l). Vitamin D status was classified into four groups according to international guidelines (sufficiency/optimal levels ≥ 75 nmol/l; insufficiency 50-75 nmol/l; deficiency 27·5-49·99 nmol/l and severe deficiency < 27·5 nmol/l). About 80 % of the sample had suboptimal levels (39 % had insufficient, 27 % deficient and 15 % severely deficient levels). Vitamin D concentrations increased with age (P < 0·01) and tended to decrease according to BMI. Geographical differences were also identified. Our study results indicate that vitamin D deficiency is a highly prevalent condition in European adolescents and should be a matter of concern for public health authorities.

  18. Healthy Lifestyle and Risk of Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Fiona; Biessy, Carine; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Rinaldi, Sabina; Chajès, Veronique; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; May, Anne; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Ericson, Ulrika; Wirfält, Elisabet; Travis, Ruth C; Romieu, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    It has been estimated that at least a third of the most common cancers are related to lifestyle and as such are preventable. Key modifiable lifestyle factors have been individually associated with cancer risk; however, less is known about the combined effects of these factors. This study generated a healthy lifestyle index score (HLIS) to investigate the joint effect of modifiable factors on the risk of overall cancers, alcohol-related cancers, tobacco-related cancers, obesity-related cancers, and reproductive-related cancers. The study included 391,608 men and women from the multinational European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The HLIS was constructed from 5 factors assessed at baseline (diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and anthropometry) by assigning scores of 0 to 4 to categories of each factor, for which higher values indicate healthier behaviors. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox proportional regression and population attributable fractions (PAFs) estimated from the adjusted models. There was a 5% lower risk (adjusted HR 0.952, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.946, 0.958) of all cancers per point score of the index for men and 4% (adjusted HR 0.961, 95% CI: 0.956, 0.966) for women. The fourth versus the second category of the HLIS was associated with a 28% and 24% lower risk for men and women respectively across all cancers, 41% and 33% for alcohol-related, 49% and 46% for tobacco-related, 41% and 26% for obesity-related, and 21% for female reproductive cancers. Findings suggest simple behavior modifications could have a sizeable impact on cancer prevention, especially for men. PMID:27100409

  19. Maternal nutrition affects reproductive output and sex allocation in a lizard with environmental sex determination

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Daniel A; Lovern, Matthew B; Shine, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Life-history traits such as offspring size, number and sex ratio are affected by maternal feeding rates in many kinds of animals, but the consequences of variation in maternal diet quality (rather than quantity) are poorly understood. We manipulated dietary quality of reproducing female lizards (Amphibolurus muricatus; Agamidae), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination, to examine strategies of reproductive allocation. Females maintained on a poor-quality diet produced fewer clutches but massively (twofold) larger eggs with lower concentrations of yolk testosterone than did conspecific females given a high-quality diet. Although all eggs were incubated at the same temperature, and yolk steroid hormone levels were not correlated with offspring sex, the nutrient-deprived females produced highly male-biased sex ratios among their offspring. These responses to maternal nutrition generate a link between sex and offspring size, in a direction likely to enhance maternal fitness if large body size enhances reproductive success more in sons than in daughters (as seems plausible, given the mating system of this species). Overall, our results show that sex determination in these animals is more complex, and responsive to a wider range of environmental cues, than that suggested by the classification of ‘environmental sex determination’. PMID:17251109

  20. Low vapour pressure deficit affects nitrogen nutrition and foliar metabolites in silver birch.

    PubMed

    Lihavainen, Jenna; Ahonen, Viivi; Keski-Saari, Sarita; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Oksanen, Elina; Keinänen, Markku

    2016-07-01

    Air humidity indicated as vapour pressure deficit (VPD) is directly related to transpiration and stomatal function of plants. We studied the effects of VPD and nitrogen (N) supply on leaf metabolites, plant growth, and mineral nutrition with young micropropagated silver birches (Betula pendula Roth.) in a growth chamber experiment. Plants that were grown under low VPD for 26 d had higher biomass, larger stem diameter, more leaves, fewer fallen leaves, and larger total leaf area than plants that were grown under high VPD. Initially, low VPD increased height growth rate and stomatal conductance; however, the effect was transient and the differences between low and high VPD plants became smaller with time. Metabolic adjustment to low VPD reflected N deficiency. The concentrations of N, iron, chlorophyll, amino acids, and soluble carbohydrates were lower and the levels of starch, quercetin glycosides, and raffinose were higher in the leaves that had developed under low VPD compared with high VPD. Additional N supply did not fully overcome the negative effect of low VPD on nutrient status but it diminished the effects of low VPD on leaf metabolism. Thus, with high N supply, the glutamine to glutamate ratio and starch production under low VPD became comparable with the levels under high VPD. The present study demonstrates that low VPD affects carbon and nutrient homeostasis and modifies N allocation of plants. PMID:27259554

  1. Low vapour pressure deficit affects nitrogen nutrition and foliar metabolites in silver birch.

    PubMed

    Lihavainen, Jenna; Ahonen, Viivi; Keski-Saari, Sarita; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Oksanen, Elina; Keinänen, Markku

    2016-07-01

    Air humidity indicated as vapour pressure deficit (VPD) is directly related to transpiration and stomatal function of plants. We studied the effects of VPD and nitrogen (N) supply on leaf metabolites, plant growth, and mineral nutrition with young micropropagated silver birches (Betula pendula Roth.) in a growth chamber experiment. Plants that were grown under low VPD for 26 d had higher biomass, larger stem diameter, more leaves, fewer fallen leaves, and larger total leaf area than plants that were grown under high VPD. Initially, low VPD increased height growth rate and stomatal conductance; however, the effect was transient and the differences between low and high VPD plants became smaller with time. Metabolic adjustment to low VPD reflected N deficiency. The concentrations of N, iron, chlorophyll, amino acids, and soluble carbohydrates were lower and the levels of starch, quercetin glycosides, and raffinose were higher in the leaves that had developed under low VPD compared with high VPD. Additional N supply did not fully overcome the negative effect of low VPD on nutrient status but it diminished the effects of low VPD on leaf metabolism. Thus, with high N supply, the glutamine to glutamate ratio and starch production under low VPD became comparable with the levels under high VPD. The present study demonstrates that low VPD affects carbon and nutrient homeostasis and modifies N allocation of plants.

  2. Thermal acclimation and nutritional history affect the oxidation of different classes of exogenous nutrients in Siberian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus.

    PubMed

    McCue, Marshall D; Voigt, Christian C; Jefimow, Małgorzata; Wojciechowski, Michał S

    2014-11-01

    During acclimatization to winter, changes in morphology and physiology combined with changes in diet may affect how animals use the nutrients they ingest. To study (a) how thermal acclimation and (b) nutritional history affect the rates at which Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) oxidize different classes of dietary nutrients, we conducted two trials in which we fed hamsters one of three (13) C-labeled compounds, that is, glucose, leucine, or palmitic acid. We predicted that under acute cold stress (3 hr at 2°C) hamsters previously acclimated to cold temperatures (10°C) for 3 weeks would have higher resting metabolic rate (RMR) and would oxidize a greater proportion of dietary fatty acids than animals acclimated to 21°C. We also investigated how chronic nutritional stress affects how hamsters use dietary nutrients. To examine this, hamsters were fed four different diets (control, low protein, low lipid, and low-glycemic index) for 2 weeks. During cold challenges, hamsters previously acclimated to cold exhibited higher thermal conductance and RMR, and also oxidized more exogenous palmitic acid during the postprandial phase than animals acclimated to 21°C. In the nutritional stress trial, hamsters fed the low protein diet oxidized more exogenous glucose, but not more exogenous palmitic acid than the control group. The use of (13) C-labeled metabolic tracers combined with breath testing demonstrated that both thermal and nutritional history results in significant changes in the extent to which animals oxidize dietary nutrients during the postprandial period.

  3. An indirect means of assessing potential nutritional effects of dietary olestra in healthy subgroups of the general population.

    PubMed

    Middleton, S J; Dwyer, J; Peters, J C

    1997-08-01

    The potential for olestra to affect the absorption of dietary components was measured in 18- to 44-y-old humans and the weanling pig. Results from the studies were assessed to determine if they were relevant to subgroups of the population not included in the studies. Hypothetrically, two factors that might cause the study results not to be relevant to certain subgroups are dietary pattern and metabolic need. A dietary pattern resulting in olestra-to-nutrient intake ratios greater than those tested in the studies might produce effects greater than those measured. Metabolic needs (i.e., nutrient requirements) among subgroups greater than those of the study population might mean that any effects on nutrient absorption seen in the studies would be larger among subgroups. If olestra-to-nutrient ratios and nutrient requirements of a subgroup were less than those covered in the studies, then the effects of olestra on the nutritional status of the subgroup should be no different than the effects measured in the studies. Subgroups with high olestra-to-nutrient intake ratios were identified by calculating the ratios for those nutrients assessed in the studies [i.e., macronutrients, vitamins A (including beta-carotene), D, E and K, folate, vitamin B12, calcium, iron and zinc]. Subgroups with the greatest olestra-to-nutrient intake ratios for one or more nutrients included children, teenagers and young adults, women from low income families and vegetarians. Subgroups with the greatest metabolic need for one or more nutrients included children, teenagers, and pregnant and lactating women. The olestra-to-nutrient ratios and nutrient requirements of the subgroups having the greatest ratios and requirements were compared with those of the test population. The olestra-to-nutrient intake ratios fed in the studies were greater than those for any subgroup for all nutrients except calcium, which is not affected by olestra. Metabolic needs of the test population were greater than those

  4. Potassium nutrition and water availability affect phloem transport of photosynthetic carbon in eucalypt trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epron, Daniel; Cabral, Osvaldo; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Dannoura, Masako; Packer, Ana Paula; Plain, Caroline; Battie-Laclau, Patricia; Moreira, Marcelo; Trivelin, Paulo; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Gérant, Dominique; Nouvellon, Yann

    2015-04-01

    Potassium fertilisation strongly affects growth and carbon partitioning of eucalypt on tropical soil that are strongly weathered. In addition, potassium fertilization could be of great interest in mitigating the adverse consequences of drought in planted forests, as foliar K concentrations influence osmotic adjustment, stomatal regulation and phloem loading. Phloem is the main pathway for transferring photosynthate from source leaves to sink organs, thus controlling growth partitioning among the different tree compartments. But little is known about the effect of potassium nutrition on phloem transport of photosynthetic carbon and on the interaction between K nutrition and water availability. In situ 13C pulse labelling was conducted on tropical eucalypt trees (Eucalyptus grandis L.) grown in a trial plantation with plots in which 37% of throughfall were excluded (about 500 mm/yr) using home-made transparent gutters (-W) or not (+W) and plots that received 0.45 mol K m-2 applied as KCl three months after planting (+K) or not (-K). Three trees were labelled in each of the four treatments (+K+W, +K-W, -K+W and -K-W). Trees were labelled for one hour by injecting pure 13CO2 in a 27 m3 whole crown chamber. We estimated the velocity of carbon transfer in the trunk by comparing time lags between the uptake of 13CO2 and its recovery in trunk CO2 efflux recorded by off axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (Los Gatos Research) in two chambers per tree, one just under the crown and one at the base of the trunk. We analyzed the dynamics of the label recovered in the foliage and in the phloem sap by analysing carbon isotope composition of bulk leaf organic matter and phloem extracts using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The velocity of carbon transfer in the trunk and the initial rate 13C disappearance from the foliage were much higher in +K trees than in -K trees with no significant effect of rainfall. The volumetric flow of phloem, roughly estimated by multiplying

  5. Ultrastructural Comparison of the Nasal Epithelia of Healthy and Naturally Affected Rabbits with Pasteurella multocida A

    PubMed Central

    Esquinas, Paula; Botero, Lucía; Patiño, María del Pilar; Iregui, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    An ultrastructural comparison between the nasal cavities of healthy rabbits and those suffering from two forms of spontaneous infection with Pasteurella multocida was undertaken. Twelve commercially produced rabbits of different ages and respiratory health status were divided into four groups: healthy from 0 to 21 days (G1, n = 2); healthy from 23 to 49 days (G2, n = 2); healthy from 51 to 69 days (G3, n = 2); diseased rabbits with septicemia and the rhinitic form of P. multocida infection (G4, n = 3). The main ultrastructural changes observed were a widening of the interepithelial spaces, increased activity and number of goblet cells, the formation of two types of vacuoles in epithelial cells, the degranulation and migration of heterophils between the epithelial cells, and the association of this migration with some of the other changes. No bacteria were observed adhering to the epithelium, and very few were observed free in the mucus. Scant inter-epithelial spaces were found in healthy rabbits, but they were not as large and numerous as those found in diseased animals. We discuss the origin and meaning of these changes but, we focus on the significance of the inter-epithelial spaces and goblet cells for the defense of the upper respiratory airways against the bacterium and its lipopolysaccharide. PMID:23577280

  6. Evaluation of a high nutritional quality snack based on oat flakes and inulin: effects on postprandial glucose, insulin and ghrelin responses of healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Stamataki, Nikoleta S; Nikolidaki, Eirini K; Yanni, Amalia E; Stoupaki, Maria; Konstantopoulos, Panagiotis; Tsigkas, Alexandros-Pantelis; Perrea, Despoina; Tentolouris, Nikolaos; Karathanos, Vaios T

    2016-07-13

    The consumption of high nutritional value snacks may favorably affect the diet quality. Biscuits manufactured with oat flakes and maltitol were assessed for glycemic, insulinemic and ghrelin responses. Enrichment with inulin, a fructooligosachararide (FOS) which acts as soluble fiber, was performed in an attempt to further increase the dietary fiber content and examine potential additional postprandial benefits. Eleven healthy subjects participated in the study and consumed either 80 g oat biscuits (OB) or 81 g oat biscuits with 4% inulin (OBIN) or a solution containing 50 g of glucose (reference food), each yielding 50 g of available carbohydrates. Venous blood samples were collected before consumption and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min postprandially. The developed products were also evaluated for physicochemical properties, including porosity, density, texture, color, sensory attributes and microstructure (by scanning electron microscopy). Both biscuits demonstrated a low glycemic index (GI), which was found to be 32.82 ± 8.07 for OB and 45.68 ± 9.64 for OBIN. Compared to OB, OBIN demonstrated higher insulin response at 45 and 60 min and higher ghrelin suppression at 60 and 120 min postprandially (P < 0.05). Furthermore, OBIN demonstrated increased hardness and color values, lower porosity, and higher rate of starch granule gelatinization, without significantly altering the sensory attributes. Biscuits formulated with oat flakes and maltitol with or without 4% inulin can be classified as low GI foods. Inulin addition significantly lowered the ghrelin response to OBIN, suggesting an advantage of OBIN in the modulation of satiety; however, no further benefits regarding glucose and insulin responses were observed. PMID:27381507

  7. Evaluation of a high nutritional quality snack based on oat flakes and inulin: effects on postprandial glucose, insulin and ghrelin responses of healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Stamataki, Nikoleta S; Nikolidaki, Eirini K; Yanni, Amalia E; Stoupaki, Maria; Konstantopoulos, Panagiotis; Tsigkas, Alexandros-Pantelis; Perrea, Despoina; Tentolouris, Nikolaos; Karathanos, Vaios T

    2016-07-13

    The consumption of high nutritional value snacks may favorably affect the diet quality. Biscuits manufactured with oat flakes and maltitol were assessed for glycemic, insulinemic and ghrelin responses. Enrichment with inulin, a fructooligosachararide (FOS) which acts as soluble fiber, was performed in an attempt to further increase the dietary fiber content and examine potential additional postprandial benefits. Eleven healthy subjects participated in the study and consumed either 80 g oat biscuits (OB) or 81 g oat biscuits with 4% inulin (OBIN) or a solution containing 50 g of glucose (reference food), each yielding 50 g of available carbohydrates. Venous blood samples were collected before consumption and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min postprandially. The developed products were also evaluated for physicochemical properties, including porosity, density, texture, color, sensory attributes and microstructure (by scanning electron microscopy). Both biscuits demonstrated a low glycemic index (GI), which was found to be 32.82 ± 8.07 for OB and 45.68 ± 9.64 for OBIN. Compared to OB, OBIN demonstrated higher insulin response at 45 and 60 min and higher ghrelin suppression at 60 and 120 min postprandially (P < 0.05). Furthermore, OBIN demonstrated increased hardness and color values, lower porosity, and higher rate of starch granule gelatinization, without significantly altering the sensory attributes. Biscuits formulated with oat flakes and maltitol with or without 4% inulin can be classified as low GI foods. Inulin addition significantly lowered the ghrelin response to OBIN, suggesting an advantage of OBIN in the modulation of satiety; however, no further benefits regarding glucose and insulin responses were observed.

  8. [Nutritional status, healthy habits, quality of life and daytime sleepiness in nightlife workers of Córdoba].

    PubMed

    Moreno Linares, Vicente; Diéguez Cantueso, Inmaculada; Lara Carmona, Juan José; Molina Recio, Guillermo

    2015-04-01

    This study is aimed to analyze the factors that affect body composition, nutritional status, dietary habits, substance abuse (alcohol and smoking), physical activity, sleepiness disorders and self-rated health status in people working in nightlife in the city of Cordoba. Representative sample of 144 subjects (88 men and 56 women) with a mean age of 26.88 (± 4.7) years was studied. Individuals were analized for their body composition. Besides, a personal interview was used to administrate validated questionnaires to get other important data related to the aim of the study. The male group showed higher body mass index (p<0.05), showing overweight in more than half of the sample, and higher levels of body fat in 42% of subjects. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was low and up to 48.6% presents a risk alcohol consumption, being higher in the male group. 40% of the subjects suffer from disorders of daytime sleepiness, however they spend a big amount of time in physical activities. The sample shows a high obesity and overweight prevalence and a low adherence to the mediterranean diet. Although they are not sedentary, the sample has unhealthy habits such as drinking alcohol and smoking and at the same time they suffer from sleepiness daytime disorders. In spite of they seems to have a high self-awareness about their own health status, 1 from every 5 individuals recognize that they could improve it.

  9. Specificity of Affective Instability in Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder Compared to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Bulimia Nervosa, and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Santangelo, Philip; Mussgay, Lutz; Sawitzki, Günther; Trull, Timothy J.; Reinhard, Iris; Steil, Regina; Klein, Christoph; Bohus, Martin; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.

    2014-01-01

    Affective instability is a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The use of advanced assessment methodologies and appropriate statistical analyses has led to consistent findings that indicate a heightened instability in patients with BPD compared with healthy controls. However, few studies have investigated the specificity of affective instability among patients with BPD with regard to relevant clinical control groups. In this study, 43 patients with BPD, 28 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 20 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 28 healthy controls carried e-diaries for 24 hours and were prompted to rate their momentary affective states approximately every 15 minutes while awake. To quantify instability, we used 3 state-of-the-art indices: multilevel models for squared successive differences (SSDs), multilevel models for probability of acute changes (PACs), and aggregated point-by-point changes (APPCs). Patients with BPD displayed heightened affective instability for emotional valence and distress compared with healthy controls, regardless of the specific instability indices. These results directly replicate earlier studies. However, affective instability did not seem to be specific to patients with BPD. With regard to SSDs, PACs, and APPCs, patients with PTSD or BN showed a similar heightened instability of affect (emotional valence and distress) to that of patients with BPD. Our results give raise to the discussion if affective instability is a transdiagnostic or a disorder-specific mechanism. Current evidence cannot answer this question, but investigating psychopathological mechanisms in everyday life across disorders is a promising approach to enhance validity and specificity of mental health diagnoses. PMID:24661176

  10. Maternal prenatal distress and poor nutrition – mutually influencing risk factors affecting infant neurocognitive development

    PubMed Central

    Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K.; Osterholm, Erin A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Accumulating data from animal and human studies indicate that the prenatal environment plays a significant role in shaping children’s neurocognitive development. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research suggests that two experiences relatively common in pregnancy — an unhealthy maternal diet and psychosocial distress — significantly affect children’s future neurodevelopment. These prenatal experiences exert their influence in the context of one another and yet, almost uniformly, are studied independently. Scope and Method of Review In this review, we suggest that studying neurocognitive development in children in relation to both prenatal exposures is ecologically most relevant, and methodologically most sound. To support this approach, we selectively review two research topics that demonstrate the need for dual exposure studies, including exemplar findings on (1) the associations between pregnant women’s inadequate maternal intake of key nutrients – protein, fat, iron, zinc, and choline – as well as distress in relation to overlapping effects on children’s neurocognitive development; and (2) cross-talk between the biology of stress and nutrition that can amplify each experience for the mother and fetus,. We also consider obstacles to this kind of study design, such as questions of statistical methods for ‘disentangling’ the exposure effects, and aim to provide some answers. Conclusion Studies that specifically include both exposures in their design can begin to determine the relative and/or synergistic impact of these prenatal experiences on developmental trajectories — and thereby contribute most fully to the understanding of the early origins of health and disease. PMID:23039359

  11. VASCULAR OCCLUSION AFFECTS GAIT VARIABILITY PATTERNS OF HEALTHY YOUNGER AND OLDER INDIVIDUALS

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Sara A.; Johanning, Jason M.; Pipinos, Iraklis I.; Schmid, Kendra K.; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Insufficient blood flow is one possible mechanism contributing to altered gait patterns in lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Previously, our laboratory found that induced occlusion alters gait variability patterns in healthy young individuals. However the effect of age was not explored. The purpose of this study was to account for age by investigating gait variability following induced vascular occlusion in healthy older individuals and to identify amount of change from baseline to post vascular occlusion between younger and older individuals. Thirty healthy younger individuals and 30 healthy older individuals walked on a treadmill during baseline and post vascular occlusion conditions while lower extremity joint kinematics were captured. Vascular occlusion was induced by thigh cuffs inflated bilaterally on the upper thighs. Amount and temporal structure of gait variability was assessed. Older individuals exhibited significantly increased values of temporal structure of variability post vascular occlusion. Post vascular occlusion values were similar between younger and older individuals after adjusting for baseline measurements. Results show blood flow contributes to altered gait variability. However alterations were less severe than previously documented in symptomatic PAD patients, suggesting that neuromuscular problems in the lower extremities of PAD patients also contribute to gait alterations in these patients. PMID:23053301

  12. Maternal nutrition during pregnancy as it affects infant growth, development and health.

    PubMed

    Norton, R

    1994-01-01

    Strong epidemiological evidence exists of an association between maternal nutritional status, during and before pregnancy, and birthweight and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Trials of nutritional supplementation during pregnancy have, however, found only a modest effect of supplementation on birthweight, even in undernourished women. One study even found no long-term benefit to children in terms of growth or neurocognitive development. Since it is not clear whether the supplementation trials were conducted at the right time during pregnancy, future supplementation during pregnancy should probably be targeted at nutritionally disadvantaged populations during all three trimesters of pregnancy. Distinguishing between IUGR and prematurity, and between stunted and wasted IUGR infants would be helpful in future trials. More research is also needed on the effect of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on preterm delivery, and during consecutive pregnancies and prior to pregnancy.

  13. Expression of characteristics of ammonium nutrition as affected by pH of the root medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaillou, S.; Vessey, J. K.; Morot-Gaudry, J. F.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Henry, L. T.; Boutin, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    To study the effect of root-zone pH on characteristic responses of NH4+ -fed plants, soybeans (Glycine max inverted question markL. inverted question mark Merr. cv. Ransom) were grown in flowing solution culture for 21 d on four sources of N (1.0 mol m-3 NO3-, 0.67 mol m-3 NO3- plus 0.33 mol m-3 NH4+, 0.33 mol m-3 NO3- plus 0.67 mol m-3 NH4+, and 1.0 mol m-3 NH4+) with nutrient solutions maintained at pH 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5. Amino acid concentration increased in plants grown with NH4+ as the sole source of N at all pH levels. Total amino acid concentration in the roots of NH4+ -fed plants was 8 to 10 times higher than in NO3(-)-fed plants, with asparagine accounting for more than 70% of the total in the roots of these plants. The concentration of soluble carbohydrates in the leaves of NH4+ -fed plants was greater than that of NO3(-)-fed plants, but was lower in roots of NH4+ -fed plants, regardless of pH. Starch concentration was only slightly affected by N source or root-zone pH. At all levels of pH tested, organic acid concentration in leaves was much lower when NH4+ was the sole N source than when all or part of the N was supplied as NO3-. Plants grown with mixed NO3- plus NH4+ N sources were generally intermediate between NO3(-)- and NH4+ -fed plants. Thus, changes in tissue composition characteristic of NH4+ nutrition when root-zone pH was maintained at 4.5 and growth was reduced, still occurred when pH was maintained at 5.0 or above, where growth was not affected. The changes were slightly greater at pH 4.5 than at higher pH levels.

  14. Amino acid metabolism during total parenteral nutrition in healthy volunteers: evaluation of a new amino acid solution.

    PubMed

    Berard, M P; Hankard, R; Cynober, L

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the metabolism and the tolerance of a new amino acid (AA) solution administered under conditions mimicking cyclical parenteral nutrition (PN) in humans. Eight healthy volunteers received peripheral PN for 10 h providing 10.5 mg N x kg(-1) x h(-1) and 2.0 kcal x kg(-1) x h(-1) (glucose-to-lipids ratio: 70/30%). For adaptation, a non-protein energy intake was increased progressively for 90 min; thereafter, AA infusion was started and maintained at a constant rate for 10 h. Plasma and urine concentrations of all the AAs were measured before, during and after the PN. For each given AA, the relation between plasma variations at the steady-state and infusion rate, plasma clearance (Cl), renal clearance (Clr), re-absorption rate (Reab) and, retention rate (Reten) were determined. The nitrogen balance (DeltaN) was calculated during the PN period. The results are presented as means+/-sem. All plasma AA concentrations decreased during the starting period of non-protein energy intake. The plasma AA concentrations reached a steady-state within 3 h upon AA infusion, except for glycine and lysine (6 h). At the steady state, the plasma concentrations of the infused AAs were closely correlated to their infusion rate (y= -18.3+1.5x, r(2)=0.92). The plasma glutamine concentration was maintained during the PN, which indicates that the solution might stimulate the de novo synthesis of this AA. When the PN was stopped, plasma levels of the AAs decreased, most of them returning to their basal levels, or significantly below for lysine (P<0.05), alanine (P<0.05), proline (P<0.01) and glutamine (P<0.05). No volunteer showed any adverse effect during the infusion period. DeltaN was: 0.8+/-0.5 gN/10 h. Metabolic characteristics for essential AAs were: Cl<0.5 l min(-1), Clr <1.5 ml x min(-1) Reab >or= 99%, Reten >or=99% and for non-essential AAs: Cl <0.6 l x min(-1) except aspartate (2.8+/-0.3 l x min(-1)), Clr < 3 ml x min(-1) except glycine (6

  15. An intervention to promote healthy weight: Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) theory and design.

    PubMed

    Ammerman, Alice S; Ward, Dianne S; Benjamin, Sara E; Ball, Sarah C; Sommers, Janice K; Molloy, Meg; Dodds, Janice M

    2007-07-01

    Health professionals are faced with the growing challenge of addressing childhood overweight. Few overweight prevention efforts have targeted young children, particularly children in child care settings. We describe the theory and development of a novel nutrition and physical activity environmental intervention. On the basis of findings from interviews and focus groups, a review of national recommendations and standards, and a review of the literature, we developed a nutrition and physical activity environmental self-assessment instrument to assess physical activity and nutrition policies and practices in child care settings. An intervention model was built around existing public health infrastructure to support use of the self-assessment instrument and encourage environmental changes at the child care level, and this intervention model became the Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) program. The NAP SACC program was designed for dissemination and has potential for implementation in many settings. Broad interest in NAP SACC has been expressed by a number of states and institutions, and many groups are using NAP SACC intervention and materials. The NAP SACC program shows promise as a useful approach to promoting healthy weight behaviors in child care settings.

  16. Lack of Healthy Food in Small-Size to Mid-Size Retailers Participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Minneapolis–St. Paul, Minnesota, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Caitlin E.; Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Friebur, Robin; Harnack, Lisa J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The US Department of Agriculture has stocking criteria for healthy foods among Supplemental Nutrition Assistant Program (SNAP)-authorized retailers. Increased access to healthy food could improve diet quality among SNAP participants, which has implications for chronic disease prevention. The objective of this study was to quantify healthy foods stocked in small-size to mid-size retailers who are authorized under SNAP but not under the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Methods We used formative, cross-sectional data from a large policy evaluation to conduct secondary analyses. Store audits were conducted in 2014 in 91 randomly selected, licensed food stores in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. Supermarkets and retailers participating in WIC, which are required to stock healthy foods, were excluded as were other stores not reasonably expected to stock staple foods, such as specialty stores or produce stands. Availability of milk, fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain–rich foods was assessed. Results The 91 stores studied were corner stores, food–gas marts, dollar stores, and pharmacies. More than half carried 1 or more varieties of fat-free or low-fat milk, fresh or canned fruit, and whole-grain–rich cereal. However, only one-third stocked 1 or more varieties of fresh vegetables and only one-quarter stocked whole-grain–rich products, such as whole-grain-rich bread (26%) or tortillas (21%) or brown rice (25%). Few stores stocked at least 2 varieties of each product. Conclusions Many stores did not stock a variety of healthy foods. The US Department of Agriculture should change policies to improve minimum stocking requirements for SNAP-authorized retailers. PMID:26312380

  17. Comparison of the lipid properties of captive, healthy wild, and pansteatitis-affected wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus).

    PubMed

    Osthoff, Gernot; Hugo, Arno; Bouwman, Henk; Buss, Peter; Govender, Danny; Joubert, Chris C; Swarts, Jannie C

    2010-01-01

    The results presented describe and compare the fatty acid composition and melting properties of captive, healthy wild, and pansteatitis-affected wild crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus). Differences in fatty acid composition between intramuscular and adipose fat is noted in captive crocodiles, and the latter differs from wild crocodiles as a result of different diets. Adipose fat of healthy wild crocodiles differs minimally from diseased ones, respectively with 37.3+/-2.6% vs. 43.2+/-2.3% monounsaturated fatty acids, and 43.2+/-2.9% in dead crocodiles, while polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease from 27.3+/-1.9% to as low as 21.9+/-3.6% respectively. Of the unsaturated fatty acids 18:2n-6 decreased from 6.5+/-2.6% in unaffected crocodiles to 3.5+/-0.6% in highly affected and 3.2+/-0.4% in dead crocodiles, and 22:5n-3 from 2.8+/-0.6% to 1.8+/-0.3% and 2.2+/-0.3% respectively. The melting properties as determined by differential scanning calorimetry show that extracted adipose fat is a small degree softer in pansteatitis-affected tissue, specifically in the temperature range 7-36 degrees C, and does not contribute to the hard texture noted for adipose fat tissue of pansteatitis-affected animals. A high moisture content of 51.0+/-19.7% of the fat tissue of pansteatitis-affected animals vs.17.1+/-8.0% of healthy ones, suggests that physiological changes due to interstitial inflammation may contribute to the hard texture.

  18. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devadas, Rajammal P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses principles, methods, places, and outcomes of nutrition education. Suggests that in order to have the active cooperation of participants, healthy relationships between the various agencies, officials, local functionaries, and nutritionists should be maintained. (Author/KC)

  19. Report of an EU-US symposium on understanding nutrition-related consumer behavior: strategies to promote a lifetime of healthy food choices

    PubMed Central

    Friedl, Karl E.; Rowe, Sylvia; Bellows, Laura L.; Johnson, Susan L.; Hetherington, Marion M.; de Froidmont-Görtz, Isabelle; Lammens, Veerle; Hubbard, Van S.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes an EU-US Task Force on Biotechnology Research symposium on healthy food choices and nutrition-related purchasing behaviors. This meeting was unique in its transdisciplinary approach to obesity and for bringing together scientists from academia, government, and industry. Discussion relevant to funders and researchers centered on: (1) increased use of public-private partnerships; (2) the complexity of food behaviors and obesity risk and multilevel aspects that must be considered; and (3) the importance of transatlantic cooperation and collaboration that could accelerate advances in this field. A call to action stressed these points along with a commitment to enhanced communication strategies. PMID:24974355

  20. Report of an EU-US symposium on understanding nutrition-related consumer behavior: strategies to promote a lifetime of healthy food choices.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Karl E; Rowe, Sylvia; Bellows, Laura L; Johnson, Susan L; Hetherington, Marion M; de Froidmont-Görtz, Isabelle; Lammens, Veerle; Hubbard, Van S

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes an EU-US Task Force on Biotechnology Research symposium on healthy food choices and nutrition-related purchasing behaviors. This meeting was unique in its transdisciplinary approach to obesity and in bringing together scientists from academia, government, and industry. Discussion relevant to funders and researchers centered on (1) increased use of public-private partnerships, (2) the complexity of food behaviors and obesity risk and multilevel aspects that must be considered, and (3) the importance of transatlantic cooperation and collaboration that could accelerate advances in this field. A call to action stressed these points along with a commitment to enhanced communication strategies.

  1. Healthy Adolescents' Neural Response to Reward: Associations with Puberty, Positive Affect, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Erika E.; Ryan, Neal D.; Phillips, Mary L.; Manuck, Stephen B.; Worthman, Carol M.; Moyles, Donna L.; Tarr, Jill A.; Sciarrillo, Samantha R.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Changes in reward-related behavior are an important component of normal adolescent affective development. Understanding the neural underpinnings of these normative changes creates a foundation for investigating adolescence as a period of vulnerability to affective disorders, substance use disorders, and health problems. Studies of…

  2. The influence of gender and self-efficacy on healthy eating in a low-income urban population affected by structural changes to the food environment.

    PubMed

    Robles, Brenda; Smith, Lisa V; Ponce, Mirna; Piron, Jennifer; Kuo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Although U.S. obesity prevention efforts have begun to implement a variety of system and environmental change strategies to address the underlying socioecological barriers to healthy eating, factors which can impede or facilitate community acceptance of such interventions are often poorly understood. This is due, in part, to the paucity of subpopulation health data that are available to help guide local planning and decision-making. We contribute to this gap in practice by examining area-specific health data for a population targeted by federally funded nutrition interventions in Los Angeles County. Using data from a local health assessment that collected information on sociodemographics, self-reported health behaviors, and objectively measured height, weight, and blood pressure for a subset of low-income adults (n = 720), we compared health risks and predictors of healthy eating across at-risk groups using multivariable modeling analyses. Our main findings indicate being a woman and having high self-efficacy in reading Nutrition Facts labels were strong predictors of healthy eating (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that intervening with women may help increase the reach of these nutrition interventions, and that improving self-efficacy in healthy eating through public education and/or by other means can help prime at-risk groups to accept and take advantage of these food environment changes.

  3. The influence of gender and self-efficacy on healthy eating in a low-income urban population affected by structural changes to the food environment.

    PubMed

    Robles, Brenda; Smith, Lisa V; Ponce, Mirna; Piron, Jennifer; Kuo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Although U.S. obesity prevention efforts have begun to implement a variety of system and environmental change strategies to address the underlying socioecological barriers to healthy eating, factors which can impede or facilitate community acceptance of such interventions are often poorly understood. This is due, in part, to the paucity of subpopulation health data that are available to help guide local planning and decision-making. We contribute to this gap in practice by examining area-specific health data for a population targeted by federally funded nutrition interventions in Los Angeles County. Using data from a local health assessment that collected information on sociodemographics, self-reported health behaviors, and objectively measured height, weight, and blood pressure for a subset of low-income adults (n = 720), we compared health risks and predictors of healthy eating across at-risk groups using multivariable modeling analyses. Our main findings indicate being a woman and having high self-efficacy in reading Nutrition Facts labels were strong predictors of healthy eating (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that intervening with women may help increase the reach of these nutrition interventions, and that improving self-efficacy in healthy eating through public education and/or by other means can help prime at-risk groups to accept and take advantage of these food environment changes. PMID:24800064

  4. Identification of major genes affecting nutritional element concentrations in rice grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofortification is the process by which the nutritional quality of food crops is improved through conventional plant breeding and/or use of biotechnology. Biofortification differs from conventional fortification in that biofortification aims to increase nutrient levels in crops during plant growth...

  5. Calcium oxalate content affects the nutritional availability of calcium from Medicago truncatula leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is known that oxalate, present in edible plants, can bind calcium in a crystalline form that reduces the availability of the bound calcium for nutritional absorption by humans. It is unknown, however, the degree to which the calcium oxalate content of a plant can be genetically altered and how mu...

  6. Healthy Diet and Nutrition Education Program among Women of Reproductive Age: A Necessity of Multilevel Strategies or Community Responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Dunneram, Yashvee; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reproductive years represent a major proportion of women‟s life. This review focuses on recommended nutritional considerations, physical activity pattern as well as the effect of nutrition education (NE) on behavior modification and health outcomes of women of reproductive age using either single-level, multiple-level or community-level interventions. Methods: For this narrative review, numerous searches were conducted on databases of PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar search engine using the keywords women, reproductive age, NE, interventions, community-based. Results: Even though single intervention is effective, multiple intervention programmes in addition to behavior modification components are even more successful in terms of modified behaviors and health outcomes. Moreover, community based interventions using multilevel strategies are further useful for improved health outcomes and behavior modification. Conclusion: NE programmes have been effective in positive behavior modification measured in terms of eating pattern and health quality. Thus, it is recommended that health professionals use multiple intervention strategies at community level to ensure improved outcomes. Political support is also required to create culturally sensitive methods of delivering nutritional programmes. Finally, as policy is dependent on program cost, nutritional programmes need to combine methods of cost analysis to show cost effectiveness of supplying adequate nutrition for women throughout the lifecycle. PMID:26290827

  7. Nutritional levels of diets fed to captive Amazon parrots: does mixing seed, produce, and pellets provide a healthy diet?

    PubMed

    Brightsmith, Donald J

    2012-09-01

    Poor nutrition is a serious problem in captive psittacine birds. Seed-based diets are known to contain excess fat, low calcium:phosphorus ratios, and other nutrient deficiencies, whereas many consider nutritionally superior, formulated diets to be monotonous. As a result, many bird owners feed a mixture of seed, produce, and formulated diet. However, the nutritional contents of such mixed diets have rarely been evaluated. In this study, we describe the nutrient contents of diets consumed by 7 adult (>6 years old), captive Amazon parrots offered produce (50% fresh weight), formulated diet (25%), and seed (25%). Diets consumed were deficient in calcium, sodium, and iron and contained more than the recommended amount of fat. In addition, the birds chose foods that exacerbated these imbalances. Birds offered low-seed diets (60% pellet, 22% produce, 18% seed, wet weight) consumed diets with more fat than recommended but acceptable levels of calcium and all other nutrients measured, as well as acceptable calcium:phosphorus ratios. This suggests that small quantities of seeds may not result in nutritionally imbalanced diets. Birds fed 75% formulated diet and 25% produce consumed diets within the recommendations for nearly all measured nutrients, demonstrating that owners of psittacine birds should be encouraged to supplement manufactured diets with low energy-density, fresh produce items to provide stimulation and foraging opportunities without fear of causing major nutritional imbalances.

  8. The Association between Taking Dietary Supplements and Healthy Habits among Korean Adults: Results from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, So-Hye; Kim, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyung-Do; Kwack, Tae-Eung; Kim, Bo-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jo, Eun-Bae; Park, Young-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, the number of people interested in health in South Korea has increased, and the rate of dietary supplement use is rising. Researchers have hypothesized that the rate of practicing healthy habits is higher among those who use dietary supplements than those who do not. Therefore, this study aimed to discover the association between taking dietary supplements and practicing various healthy habits in the Korean, adult population. Methods The sample included 15,789 adults over 19 years old who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The user group was defined as those taking dietary supplements for more than 2 weeks during the previous year or once during the past month. Measures for the seven healthy habits were based on those included in the Alameda study and were analyzed accounting for the complex sampling design. Results The rate of taking dietary supplements was significantly higher in women, middle aged participants, urban residents, those with a higher income, those with a higher education level, and nonsmokers as well as among women with a moderate subjective health status, women who limited their alcohol content, and women with dyslipidemia. In the adjusted analysis, the rate of performing three of the 'Alameda 7' habits—eating breakfast regularly, restricting snacking, and limiting drinking—was higher in the female dietary supplement user group than in the other groups. Women practiced more healthy habits and had a higher dietary supplement intake rate than men. Conclusion We found that taking dietary supplements in Korean adults is highly associated with demographic and social factors. Taking dietary supplements had a relationship with dietary habits, and there was no significant association between dietary supplement and other healthy habits. Thus in the health clinic, we suggest that taking dietary supplements complements a patient's healthy habits, with the exception of dietary habits, for

  9. Circulating leptin and osteoprotegerin levels affect insulin resistance in healthy premenopausal obese women.

    PubMed

    Ugur-Altun, Betul; Altun, Armagan

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between circulating leptin and osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels and insulin resistance assessed by HOMA-IR in premenopausal obese and normal weight women. Thirty four obese women (age 31 +/- 8 years) (BMI 35 +/- 4 kg/m(2)) with 19 healthy controls (age 31 +/- 7 years) (BMI <25 kg/m(2)) (BMI 21 +/- 2 kg/m(2)) were included in the study. Women were healthy and had no osteoporosis. Circulating leptin levels were significantly higher in obese women (17.11 +/- 2.05 ng/mL vs. 8.38 +/- 4.71 ng/mL, p <0.0001) and decreased OPG levels were found (14.7 +/- 7.15 pg/mL vs. 19.17 +/- 6.37 pg/mL, p = 0.03). Leptin showed a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.851, p <0.0001), waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.692, p <0.0001), fasting insulin (r = 0.441, p <0.001), HOMA-IR (r = 0.412, p = 0.002), fibrinogen (r = 0.387, p = 0.004), uric acid (r = 0.293, p = 0.033), hematocrit (r = 0.394, p = 0.003), systolic (r = 0.504, p <0.0001), and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.363, p = 0.008). OPG showed a negative correlation with insulin (r = -0.341, p = 0.013) and HOMA-IR (r = -0.324, p = 0.018). In obese women group, the regression equation of HOMA-IR was (HOMA-IR = [0.095 x leptin]-[0.051 x OPG] + 1.71). However, there was no relation between leptin and OPG levels. In conclusion, circulating leptin and OPG levels were related to insulin resistance in premenopausal obese women. However, leptin had no interference in OPG in premenopausal women. PMID:17923273

  10. Factors affecting urine specific gravity in apparently healthy cats presenting to first opinion practice for routine evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rishniw, Mark; Bicalho, Rodrigo

    2015-04-01

    Evidence suggests that apparently healthy cats presenting for routine evaluation should have a randomly sampled urine specific gravity (USG) >1.035. A USG <1.035 might reflect inappropriate concentrating ability warranting further investigation. We measured the USG of 1040 apparently healthy cats presenting to first opinion practice in an observational study, using either in-clinic refractometers or measurements provided by reference laboratories, and examined factors that might affect USG. In-clinic refractometers were calibrated using distilled water (specific gravity = 1.000). The USG was >1.030 in 91% of cats and >1.035 in 88% of cats; 121 adult cats (⩾6 months old) and five young cats (<6 months old) had USGs of <1.035. Of these 126 cats, a pathological cause was identified in 27 adult cats - of these, 26 were >9 years old - but no young cats. No cause was identified in 43 adult cats, and further investigation was not pursued in 51 adult cats. Factors that affected USG included age, diet type, sex, fasting status, drinking avidity, refractometer type, and the interaction between sex and diet - increasing dietary moisture content lowered USG only in female cats. Most factors minimally affected USG. The odds of having a USG <1.035 without apparent pathology included age and dietary moisture content. Drinking avidity decreased with increasing dietary moisture content. Our results show that most apparently healthy cats presenting to first-opinion practice should have a USG >1.035. Dietary management strategies to lower USG might be less effective than anticipated, and warrant monitoring of USG to determine efficacy. Older cats with USG <1.035 are more likely to have pathological causes identified, although clinicians are more likely to examine these cats for possible pathology. A lack of stringent refractometer calibration could have caused some errors in estimates of USG by some observers, but would be unlikely to alter markedly the findings.

  11. Impact of a healthy body image program among adolescent boys on body image, negative affect, and body change strategies.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Karantzas, Gery

    2010-03-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a healthy body image program. In total, 421 adolescent boys completed a five-session intervention program or a wait list control group. There were no differences between the intervention and the control group at post-intervention or any of the follow-up times. Boys in the intervention group who were one standard deviation above the mean on body dissatisfaction at baseline, demonstrated a reduction in negative affect in the intervention group at post-test and 6 months follow-up. Prevention programs need to target boys who are at risk of adopting health risk behaviors, rather than being universally applied.

  12. "Smart Bodies" school wellness program increased children's knowledge of healthy nutrition practices and self-efficacy to consume fruit and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Tuuri, Georgianna; Zanovec, Michael; Silverman, Linda; Geaghan, James; Solmon, Melinda; Holston, Denise; Guarino, Annrose; Roy, Heli; Murphy, Ellen

    2009-04-01

    Diets rich in fruit and vegetables are important for long-term health yet children frequently do not like these foods. The "Smart Bodies" school wellness program sought to increase children's knowledge of healthy nutritional practices, improve psychosocial variables associated with eating fruit and vegetables, and develop preferences for these foods. A randomized controlled intervention trial was conducted in 14 low-income, urban, public elementary schools (seven pairs). Data from 278 fourth and 282 fifth graders (234 boys, 326 girls; 82% Black, 10% White, 1% Hispanic, 5% Asian, 2% Other) were examined using multi-level modeling. The 12-week intervention program included participation in an interactive wellness exhibit and a classroom curriculum that emphasized consumption of fruit and vegetables. After the intervention, children that participated in the "Smart Bodies" program had greater nutrition knowledge and expressed more confidence that they could eat fruit instead of a favorite dessert, drink fruit juice and consume the recommended number of fruits and vegetables servings each day. Preferences for fruit and vegetables did not change as a result of participating in the program. These findings demonstrate that the "Smart Bodies" school-based wellness intervention positively impacted children's nutrition knowledge and psychosocial variables associated with consuming fruit and vegetables.

  13. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES): Evaluating the feasibility of using volunteers to deliver nutrition and food safety education to rural older adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getty, Morgan

    Due to their limited resources, rural, older adults in the United States are at risk for poor diet-related health outcomes. Nutrition education is a key component in improving health outcomes in older adults. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES) is a nine-lesson curriculum designed to teach rural, older adults culturally appropriate nutrition and food safety information. Funding to hire health professionals to deliver such a curriculum is limited, presenting the need to explore a less expensive mode of dissemination. In this community-based, participatory research study, a formative evaluation and feasibility study were conducted to examine the use of volunteers to deliver a nutrition and food safety curriculum to rural, older adults in South Carolina. Seven focus groups were conducted with members of the South Carolina Family and Community Leaders (SCFCL) and members of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) in the four regions of South Carolina to explore barriers and facilitators of volunteers delivering CHES (N=65 participants). The focus group findings informed the development of the volunteer training manual. A comparative case study method was used to examine the feasibility of a volunteer-based approach by observing and describing the delivery of CHES by two groups of volunteers in SC. The case study findings, including volunteer knowledge change, self-efficacy change, curriculum experience, program experience, and project team observations of volunteers indicated that using volunteers to deliver CHES is a plausible approach with the assistance of paid staff or project team members.

  14. Optimal level activity of matrix metalloproteinases is critical for adult visual plasticity in the healthy and stroke-affected brain

    PubMed Central

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Fortuna, Michal G; Löwel, Siegrid

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the adult brain to undergo plastic changes is of particular interest in medicine, especially regarding recovery from injuries or improving learning and cognition. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been associated with juvenile experience-dependent primary visual cortex (V1) plasticity, yet little is known about their role in this process in the adult V1. Activation of MMPs is a crucial step facilitating structural changes in a healthy brain; however, upon brain injury, upregulated MMPs promote the spread of a lesion and impair recovery. To clarify these seemingly opposing outcomes of MMP-activation, we examined the effects of MMP-inhibition on experience-induced plasticity in healthy and stoke-affected adult mice. In healthy animals, 7-day application of MMP-inhibitor prevented visual plasticity. Additionally, treatment with MMP-inhibitor once but not twice following stroke rescued plasticity, normally lost under these conditions. Our data imply that an optimal level of MMP-activity is crucial for adult visual plasticity to occur. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11290.001 PMID:26609811

  15. Hormonal contraceptive use is associated with neural and affective changes in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Lisofsky, Nina; Riediger, Michaela; Gallinat, Jürgen; Lindenberger, Ulman; Kühn, Simone

    2016-07-01

    Previous neuroimaging research has demonstrated that female gonadal hormones can alter the structure and function of adult women's brains. So far, we do not know how hormonal contraceptives affect female brain structure, in part because within-person longitudinal observations are lacking. Here, we compared 28 young women before and after three months of regular contraceptive intake with 28 naturally cycling women of comparable age. The goal was to explore within-person neural change in women using contraceptives. Neuroimaging, hormonal, cognitive, and affect data were collected at two time points for each participant. A voxel-wise whole-brain comparison of both groups revealed decreased gray matter volume in the left amygdala/anterior parahippocampal gyrus in women using contraceptives as compared to the control group. Resting-state functional connectivity of this region with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex changed from positive to negative connectivity following contraceptive intake whereas the opposite held for the control group. An exploratory analysis revealed that gray matter volume in the left amygdala/anterior parahippocampal gyrus was associated with positive affect at the second time point. There were no systematic differences in cognitive performance change between the groups. These findings provide initial insights into effects of hormonal contraceptives on the human brain and expand previous findings on hormone-related amygdala/hippocampal complex plasticity. The affected brain regions may be related to psychological wellbeing, underlining the importance of future studies on contraceptive-induced brain changes. PMID:27109356

  16. Soboliphyme baturini infection does not affect the nutritional condition of American marten (Martes americana) in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J G; Pauli, J N; Donadio, E; Buskirk, S W

    2008-12-01

    Soboliphyme baturini, a stomach-dwelling nematode of American martens (Martes Americana), reaches high levels of infection; however, its effects on the nutritional condition of the host are unknown. To understand the effects of this parasite on American martens, we collected S. baturini and measured abdominal fat deposits from 155 marten carcasses on Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska, in the winter 2006-2007. We analyzed how the dried mass of abdominal fat varied as a function of S. baturini intensity. Parasite intensity and nutritional condition were not correlated; these results suggest that American martens were able to withstand even very high levels of S. baturini infection (up to 178 parasites per host). PMID:18576861

  17. Soboliphyme baturini infection does not affect the nutritional condition of American marten (Martes americana) in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J G; Pauli, J N; Donadio, E; Buskirk, S W

    2008-12-01

    Soboliphyme baturini, a stomach-dwelling nematode of American martens (Martes Americana), reaches high levels of infection; however, its effects on the nutritional condition of the host are unknown. To understand the effects of this parasite on American martens, we collected S. baturini and measured abdominal fat deposits from 155 marten carcasses on Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska, in the winter 2006-2007. We analyzed how the dried mass of abdominal fat varied as a function of S. baturini intensity. Parasite intensity and nutritional condition were not correlated; these results suggest that American martens were able to withstand even very high levels of S. baturini infection (up to 178 parasites per host).

  18. Duration of fasting but not diurnal variation affects the response to glucagon in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Gilor, C; Glock, R; Gilor, S

    2015-10-01

    The role of glucagon disturbances in diabetes is increasingly recognized. Glucagon stimulation tests (GSTs) have been described in cats previously, but information is lacking on the response of cats to glucagon under specific conditions. The aim of this study was to assess a novel protocol for GST using human-recombinant glucagon and the effect of diurnal variation and duration of fasting using this protocol in healthy cats. All intravenous doses resulted in occasional vomiting and nausea, and eventually, a 20-μg/kg intramuscular dose was chosen. Five healthy cats were then used in a repeated-measures study. Cats were free-fed regularly at 7:30 AM and 5:30 PM for 30 min. In each cat, GST was performed at 7 PM after a 25-h fast (PM25), at 9 AM after a 25-h fast (AM25), and at 9 AM after a 15-h fast (AM15). Glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at -15, 0, 15, 25, 35, 45, and 60 min after stimulation. Baseline and peak concentrations were compared using the Friedman test. Baseline glucose and insulin did not differ significantly between treatment groups. Peak glucose concentrations occurred at 15 min and were significantly higher (P = 0.0085) at AM15 (mean ± standard deviation = 185.2 ± 43.0 mg/dL) vs AM25 (144.4 ± 10.5 mg/dL) and PM25 (128.0 ± 18.4 mg/dL). Similarly, peak insulin concentrations occurred at 15 min and were significantly higher (P = 0.04) at AM15 (1,911 ± 1,153 pg/mL) vs AM25 (739 ± 52 pg/mL) or PM25 (549 ± 366 pg/mL). In conclusion, prolonged fasting significantly blunted the glycemic response to glucagon compared with shorter fasting, but diurnal variation had no significant effect on glucose or insulin responses.

  19. Engineering Encounters: Designing Healthy Ice Pops. A STEM Enrichment Project for Second Graders Incorporates Nutrition and Design Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubnick, Laura; Enneking, Katie; Egbers, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education piques students' innate curiosity and opens their eyes to hundreds of career possibilities. This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information about a STEM enrichment project for second graders that incorporates nutrition and…

  20. Nutritional status evaluation in patients affected by bethlem myopathy and ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Toni, Silvia; Morandi, Riccardo; Busacchi, Marcello; Tardini, Lucia; Merlini, Luciano; Battistini, Nino Carlo; Pellegrini, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Collagen VI mutations lead to disabling myopathies like Bethlem myopathy (BM) and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD). We have investigated the nutritional and metabolic status of one UCMD and seven BM patients (five female, three male, mean age 31 ± 9 years) in order to find a potential metabolic target for nutritional intervention. For this study, we used standard anthropometric tools, such as BMI evaluation and body circumference measurements. All results were compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), considered the "gold standard" method. Energy intake of each patient was evaluated through longitudinal methods (7-day food diary) while resting energy expenditure (REE) was predicted using specific equations and measured by indirect calorimetry. Clinical evaluation included general and nutritional blood and urine laboratory analyses and quantitative muscle strength measurement by hand-held dynamometry. BM and UCMD patients showed an altered body composition, characterized by low free fat mass (FFM) and high fat mass (FM), allowing us to classify them as sarcopenic, and all but one as sarcopenic-obese. Another main result was the negative correlation between REE/FFM ratio (basal energy expenditure per kilograms of fat-free mass) and the severity of the disease, as defined by the muscle megascore (correlation coefficient -0.955, P-value <0.001). We postulate that the increase of the REE/FFM ratio in relation to the severity of the disease may be due to an altered and pathophysiological loss of energetic efficiency at the expense of skeletal muscle. We show that a specific metabolic disequilibrium is related to the severity of the disease, which may represent a target for a nutritional intervention in these patients. PMID:25477818

  1. How Varroa Parasitism Affects the Immunological and Nutritional Status of the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Aronstein, Katherine A; Saldivar, Eduardo; Vega, Rodrigo; Westmiller, Stephanie; Douglas, Angela E

    2012-06-27

    We investigated the effect of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor on the immunological and nutritional condition of honey bees, Apis mellifera, from the perspective of the individual bee and the colony. Pupae, newly-emerged adults and foraging adults were sampled from honey bee colonies at one site in S. Texas, USA. Varroa‑infested bees displayed elevated titer of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV), suggestive of depressed capacity to limit viral replication. Expression of genes coding three anti-microbial peptides (defensin1, abaecin, hymenoptaecin) was either not significantly different between Varroa-infested and uninfested bees or was significantly elevated in Varroa-infested bees, varying with sampling date and bee developmental age. The effect of Varroa on nutritional indices of the bees was complex, with protein, triglyceride, glycogen and sugar levels strongly influenced by life-stage of the bee and individual colony. Protein content was depressed and free amino acid content elevated in Varroa-infested pupae, suggesting that protein synthesis, and consequently growth, may be limited in these insects. No simple relationship between the values of nutritional and immune-related indices was observed, and colony-scale effects were indicated by the reduced weight of pupae in colonies with high Varroa abundance, irrespective of whether the individual pupa bore Varroa.

  2. Acute NK₁ receptor antagonist administration affects reward incentive anticipation processing in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Saji, Kanako; Ikeda, Yumiko; Kim, Woochan; Shingai, Yoshitoshi; Tateno, Amane; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Okubo, Yoshiro; Fukayama, Haruhisa; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2013-08-01

    The primary brain structures of reward processing are mainly situated in the mid-brain dopamine system. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) receives dopaminergic projections from the ventral tegmental area and works as a key brain region for the positive incentive value of rewards. Because neurokinin-1 (NK₁) receptor, the cognate receptor for substance P (SP), is highly expressed in the NAc, we hypothesized that the SP/NK₁ receptor system might play a role in positive reward processing in the NAc in humans. Therefore, we conducted a functional MRI (fMRI) study to assess the effects of an NK₁ receptor antagonist on human reward processing through a monetary incentive delay task that is known to elicit robust activation in the NAc especially during gain anticipation. Eighteen healthy adults participated in two series of an fMRI study, taking either a placebo or the NK₁ receptor antagonist aprepitant. Behavioural measurements revealed that there was no significant difference in reaction time, hit rate, or self-reported effort for incentive cues between the placebo and aprepitant treatments. fMRI showed significant decrease in blood oxygenation-level-dependent signals in the NAc during gain anticipation with the aprepitant treatment compared to the placebo treatment. These results suggest that SP/NK₁ receptor system is involved in processing of positive incentive anticipation and plays a role in accentuating positive valence in association with the primary dopaminergic pathways in the reward circuit.

  3. Modafinil affects mood, but not cognitive function, in healthy young volunteers.

    PubMed

    Randall, Delia C; Shneerson, John M; Plaha, Komal K; File, Sandra E

    2003-04-01

    Modafinil is a selective wakefulness-promoting agent with beneficial effects in narcolepsy and conditions of sleep deprivation. In a double-blind study we examined its effects in 30 healthy, non sleep-deprived students (19 men and 11 women, aged 19-23 years), who were randomly allocated to placebo, 100 or 200 mg modafinil and 3 h later completed 100 mm visual analogue scales relating to mood and bodily symptoms, before and after an extensive battery of cognitive tests (pen and paper and CANTAB). There were no significant differences between the three treatment groups on any of the cognitive tests used in this study. There was a significant post-treatment change in the factor measuring 'somatic anxiety' and in individual ratings of 'shaking', 'palpitations', 'dizziness', 'restlessness', 'muscular tension', 'physical tiredness' and 'irritability', which was mainly due to significantly higher ratings of somatic anxiety in the 100 mg group compared with the other two groups. Further changes in mood were revealed after the stress of cognitive testing, with the 100 mg group showing greater increases in the 'psychological anxiety' and the 'aggressive mood' factors (as measured from the Bond and Lader scales). PMID:12672167

  4. Semagacestat pharmacokinetics are not significantly affected by formulation, food, or time of dosing in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Willis, Brian A; Zhang, Wei; Ayan-Oshodi, Mosun; Lowe, Stephen L; Annes, William F; Sirois, Paul J; Friedrich, Stuart; de la Peña, Amparo

    2012-06-01

    Semagacestat, a γ-secretase inhibitor, reduces formation of amyloid beta peptide. Two single-dose (140 mg), open-label, randomized, 3-period, crossover studies evaluated the effect of formulation, food, and time of dosing on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of semagacestat in healthy participants. The first study (n = 14) compared tablet to capsules. For all formulations, the median time to maximum plasma concentration (t(max)) was generally 1.0 hour. Plasma elimination was rapid, with a half-life of approximately 2.5 hours. Tablet form II bioavailability (F) relative to capsule was approximately 100% (F = 1.03 [90% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.10]). In the second study, participants (n = 27) received semagacestat either fed or fasting in the morning or fasting in the evening. No significant change in exposure (AUC(0-∞) [area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity] ratio = 1.02, [90% CI, 0.990-1.05]) occurred with food, whereas maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) declined approximately 15%, and median t(max) was delayed to 1.5 hours. Time of dosing made no significant difference in AUC(0-∞), C(max), or t(max) (AUC(0-∞) ratio 1.01, [90% CI, 0.975-1.04]). No clinically significant safety concerns occurred in either study. Accordingly, semagacestat may be dosed without regard to formulation, food, or time of administration. PMID:21724950

  5. Unseen positive and negative affective information influences social perception in bipolar I disorder and healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Gruber, June; Siegel, Erika H; Purcell, Amanda L; Earls, Holly A; Cooper, Gaia; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2016-03-01

    Bipolar disorder is fundamentally a disorder of emotion regulation, and associated with explicit processing biases for socially relevant emotional information in human faces. Less is known, however, about whether implicit processing of this type of emotional information directly influences social perception. We thus investigated group-related differences in the influence of unconscious emotional processing on conscious person perception judgments using a continuous flash suppression task among 22 individuals with remitted bipolar I disorder (BD; AgeM=30.82, AgeSD=7.04; 68.2% female) compared with 22 healthy adults (CTL; AgeM=20.86, AgeSD=9.91; 72.2% female). Across both groups, participants rated neutral faces as more trustworthy, warm, and competent when paired with unseen happy faces as compared to unseen angry and neutral faces; participants rated neutral faces as less trustworthy, warm, and competent when paired with unseen angry as compared to neutral faces. These findings suggest that emotion-related disturbances are not explained by early automatic processing stages, and that activity in the dorsal visual stream underlying implicit emotion processing is intact in bipolar disorder. Implications for understanding the etiology of emotion disturbance in BD are discussed. PMID:26745436

  6. Unseen positive and negative affective information influences social perception in bipolar I disorder and healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Erika H.; Purcell, Amanda L.; Earls, Holly A.; Cooper, Gaia; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is fundamentally a disorder of emotion regulation, and associated with explicit processing biases for socially relevant emotional information in human faces. Less is known, however, about whether implicit processing of this type of emotional information directly influences social perception. We thus investigated group-related differences in the influence of unconscious emotional processing on conscious person perception judgments using a continuous flash suppression task among 22 individuals with remitted bipolar I disorder (BD; AgeM=30.82, AgeSD=7.04; 68.2% female) compared with 22 healthy adults (CTL; AgeM=20.86, AgeSD=9.91; 72.2% female). Across both groups, participants rated neutral faces as more trustworthy, warm, and competent when paired with unseen happy faces as compared to unseen angry and neutral faces; participants rated neutral faces as less trustworthy, warm, and competent when paired with unseen angry as compared to neutral faces. These findings suggest that emotion-related disturbances are not explained by early automatic processing stages, and that activity in the dorsal visual stream underlying implicit emotion processing is intact in bipolar disorder. Implications for understanding the etiology of emotion disturbance in BD are discussed. PMID:26745436

  7. Tibolone does not affect muscle power and functional ability in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Meeuwsen, Ingrid B A E; Samson, Monique M; Duursma, Sijmen A; Verhaar, Harald J J

    2002-02-01

    Maintenance of neuromuscular function into old age is critical to maintain normal daily activity and functional independence. Maximal muscle strength declines with age, and the age-related loss in power might be even greater. An accelerated loss of muscle strength and power has been observed in women around the time of the menopause. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of tibolone, a synthetic steroid with oestrogenic, progestogenic and androgenic activities, on muscle power, endurance and functional ability. A total of 85 healthy women, between 1 and 15 years postmenopausal, were recruited from local paper advertisements. Participants were randomly assigned to 2.5 mg of tibolone or to placebo pills of identical appearance; pills were taken daily for 12 months, orally in the morning. Muscle power was assessed as explosive leg extensor power. Endurance was measured on a 2 min walk test and a 3.5 m walk. Functional ability was determined with the timed Get Up and Go test and a Postural/Locomotor/Manual test. No significant between-group differences were observed for any of the parameters. Possible explanations for this lack of effect are either the absence of an effect of tibolone on muscle power and functional ability, or that our participants were too far above their strength-related functional limits to derive benefit from intervention. Further research is required to resolve this issue.

  8. Do adolescents' own intentions regarding healthy behaviours affect outcome? A two-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Berg-Kelly, K; Kullander, K

    1999-09-01

    Adolescents' own intentions regarding health behaviours, in addition to their context, are believed to be important for the health habits they chose. This was studied prospectively over a 2-y period. A total of 552 students, 391 aged 13 y and 161 aged 15 y, reported their health and problem behaviours, socioeconomic background and intentions regarding health behaviours through questionnaires in 1991 and in 1993. Outcome dealt with three domains: health habits; acquisition of adult lifestyles; and problem behaviours. The material was analysed for correlations. Significant results were entered into multiple regression stepwise procedures. As expected, already having initiated adult lifestyles or problem behaviours were the most important factors associated with such behaviours 2 y later. Further analyses were then limited to those students who had not started such lifestyles, in order to determine what factors kept them from doing so in a 2-y span. Key predictors for healthy behaviours were adolescents' own decisions not to engage in adult lifestyles or risky behaviours, family processes consistent with support and school satisfaction. Association with peer groups where smoking and drinking were commonplace predicted less optimal behaviours. Gender or socioeconomic factors were not predictive. The results support a comprehensive approach to health promotion during adolescence.

  9. Nutri-metabolomics: subtle serum metabolic differences in healthy subjects by NMR-based metabolomics after a short-term nutritional intervention with two tomato sauces.

    PubMed

    Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Cañellas, Nicolau; Abete, Itziar; Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Zulet, M Ángeles; Correig, Xavier; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    Postgenomics research and development is witnessing novel intersections of omics data intensive technology and applications in health and personalized nutrition. Chief among these is the nascent field of nutri-metabolomics that harnesses metabolomics platforms to discern person-to-person variations in nutritional responses. To this end, differences in the origin and ripening stage of fruits might have a strong impact on their phytochemical composition, and consequently, on their potential nutri-metabolomics effects on health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a 4-week cross-over nutritional intervention on the metabolic status of 24 young healthy subjects. The intervention was carried out with two tomato sauces differing in their natural lycopene content, which was achieved by using tomatoes harvested at different times. Blood samples were drawn from each subject before and after each intervention period. Aqueous and lipid extracts from serum samples were analyzed by 1H-NMR metabolic profiling combined with analysis of variance simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) and multilevel simultaneous component analysis (MSCA). These methods allowed the interpretation of the variation induced by the main factors of the study design (sauce treatment and time). The levels of creatine, creatinine, leucine, choline, methionine, and acetate in aqueous extracts were increased after the intervention with the high-lycopene content sauce, while those of ascorbic acid, lactate, pyruvate, isoleucine, alanine were increased after the normal-lycopene content sauce. In conclusion, NMR-based metabolomics of aqueous and lipid extracts allowed the detection of different metabolic changes after the nutritional intervention. This outcome might partly be due to the different ripening state of the fruits used in production of the tomato sauces. The findings presented herein collectively attest to the emergence of the field of nutri-metabolomics as a novel

  10. Does birth spacing affect maternal or child nutritional status? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Kathryn G; Cohen, Roberta J

    2007-07-01

    This review addresses the question of whether a short birth interval is associated with adverse nutritional outcomes for the mother or the child. Indices of anthropometric status (maternal weight or body mass index; child growth) and micronutrient status (e.g. iron or vitamin A) were included as outcomes. A computerized search of all relevant papers published since 1966 was completed, and the 'snowball' method was used to identify additional relevant published or unpublished papers. In total, 57 papers were found to contain data regarding the relationship between birth spacing and nutritional outcomes (35 for child nutrition, 11 for maternal anthropometric status, and 11 for maternal anaemia or micronutrient status). Of these, 23 papers were excluded from further consideration because they did not include any multivariate analysis, leaving 34 papers that met the criteria for the review (22 for child nutrition, eight for maternal anthropometric status, and four for maternal anaemia or micronutrient status). The studies on child nutrition outcomes indicate that a longer birth interval is associated with a lower risk of malnutrition in some populations, but not all. In those countries in which the relationship was significant, the reduction in stunting associated with a previous birth interval >or=36 months ranged from approximately 10% to 50%. Some of this reduction may be due to residual confounding, i.e. to factors not included in the analysis (such as breastfeeding and maternal height). The studies on maternal anthropometric outcomes yielded mixed results. Because the nutritional burden on the mother between pregnancies depends on the extent of breastfeeding, the interpregnancy interval is not the best measure of whether the mother has had a chance to recover from the pregnancy, in terms of repleting her nutritional status. Therefore, some studies examined the 'recuperative interval' (duration of the non-pregnant, non-lactating interval) instead. Taken as a whole

  11. Chromothripsis in healthy individuals affects multiple protein-coding genes and can result in severe congenital abnormalities in offspring.

    PubMed

    de Pagter, Mirjam S; van Roosmalen, Markus J; Baas, Annette F; Renkens, Ivo; Duran, Karen J; van Binsbergen, Ellen; Tavakoli-Yaraki, Masoumeh; Hochstenbach, Ron; van der Veken, Lars T; Cuppen, Edwin; Kloosterman, Wigard P

    2015-04-01

    Chromothripsis represents an extreme class of complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs) with major effects on chromosomal architecture. Although recent studies have associated chromothripsis with congenital abnormalities, the incidence and pathogenic effects of this phenomenon require further investigation. Here, we analyzed the genomes of three families in which chromothripsis rearrangements were transmitted from a mother to her child. The chromothripsis in the mothers resulted in completely balanced rearrangements involving 8-23 breakpoint junctions across three to five chromosomes. Two mothers did not show any phenotypic abnormalities, although 3-13 protein-coding genes were affected by breakpoints. Unbalanced but stable transmission of a subset of the derivative chromosomes caused apparently de novo complex copy-number changes in two children. This resulted in gene-dosage changes, which are probably responsible for the severe congenital phenotypes of these two children. In contrast, the third child, who has a severe congenital disease, harbored all three chromothripsis chromosomes from his healthy mother, but one of the chromosomes acquired de novo rearrangements leading to copy-number changes. These results show that the human genome can tolerate extreme reshuffling of chromosomal architecture, including breakage of multiple protein-coding genes, without noticeable phenotypic effects. The presence of chromothripsis in healthy individuals affects reproduction and is expected to substantially increase the risk of miscarriages, abortions, and severe congenital disease.

  12. Jaw-opening accuracy is not affected by masseter muscle vibration in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Wiesinger, B; Häggman-Henrikson, B; Wänman, A; Lindkvist, M; Hellström, F

    2014-11-01

    There is a functional integration between the jaw and neck regions with head extension-flexion movements during jaw-opening/closing tasks. We recently reported that trigeminal nociceptive input by injection of hypertonic saline into the masseter muscle altered this integrated jaw-neck function during jaw-opening/closing tasks. Thus, in jaw-opening to a predefined position, the head-neck component increased during pain. Previous studies have indicated that muscle spindle stimulation by vibration of the masseter muscle may influence jaw movement amplitudes, but the possible effect on the integrated jaw-neck function is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of masseter muscle vibration on jaw-head movements during a continuous jaw-opening/closing task to a target position. Sixteen healthy men performed two trials without vibration (Control) and two trials with bilateral masseter muscle vibration (Vibration). Movements of the mandible and the head were registered with a wireless three-dimensional optoelectronic recording system. Differences in jaw-opening and head movement amplitudes between Control and Vibration, as well as achievement of the predefined jaw-opening target position, were analysed with Wilcoxon's matched pairs test. No significant group effects from vibration were found for jaw or head movement amplitudes, or in the achievement of the target jaw-opening position. A covariation between the jaw and head movement amplitudes was observed. The results imply a high stability for the jaw motor system in a target jaw-opening task and that this task was achieved with the head-neck and jaw working as an integrated system.

  13. Heat exposure of Cannabis sativa extracts affects the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Martin; Spinedi, Luca; Unfer-Grauwiler, Sandra; Bodmer, Michael; Surber, Christian; Luedi, Markus; Drewe, Juergen

    2012-05-01

    The most important psychoactive constituent of CANNABIS SATIVA L. is Δ (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabidiol (CBD), another important constituent, is able to modulate the distinct unwanted psychotropic effect of THC. In natural plant extracts of C. SATIVA, large amounts of THC and CBD appear in the form of THCA-A (THC-acid-A) and CBDA (cannabidiolic acid), which can be transformed to THC and CBD by heating. Previous reports of medicinal use of cannabis or cannabis preparations with higher CBD/THC ratios and use in its natural, unheated form have demonstrated that pharmacological effects were often accompanied with a lower rate of adverse effects. Therefore, in the present study, the pharmacokinetics and metabolic profiles of two different C. SATIVA extracts (heated and unheated) with a CBD/THC ratio > 1 were compared to synthetic THC (dronabinol) in a double-blind, randomized, single center, three-period cross-over study involving 9 healthy male volunteers. The pharmacokinetics of the cannabinoids was highly variable. The metabolic pattern was significantly different after administration of the different forms: the heated extract showed a lower median THC plasma AUC (24 h) than the unheated extract of 2.84 vs. 6.59 pmol h/mL, respectively. The later was slightly higher than that of dronabinol (4.58 pmol h/mL). On the other hand, the median sum of the metabolites (THC, 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, CBN) plasma AUC (24 h) was higher for the heated than for the unheated extract. The median CBD plasma AUC (24 h) was almost 2-fold higher for the unheated than for the heated extract. These results indicate that use of unheated extracts may lead to a beneficial change in metabolic pattern and possibly better tolerability.

  14. Aromas of rosemary and lavender essential oils differentially affect cognition and mood in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Moss, Mark; Cook, Jenny; Wesnes, Keith; Duckett, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the olfactory impact of the essential oils of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and rosemary (Rosmarlnus officinalis) on cognitive performance and mood in healthy volunteers. One hundred and forty-four participants were randomly assigned to one of three independent groups, and subsequently performed the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized cognitive assessment battery in a cubicle containing either one of the two odors or no odor (control). Visual analogue mood questionnaires were completed prior to exposure to the odor, and subsequently after completion of the test battery. The participants were deceived as to the genuine aim of the study until the completion of testing to prevent expectancy effects from possibly influencing the data. The outcome variables from the nine tasks that constitute the CDR core battery feed into six factors that represent different aspects of cognitive functioning. Analysis of performance revealed that lavender produced a significant decrement in performance of working memory, and impaired reaction times for both memory and attention based tasks compared to controls. In contrast, rosemary produced a significant enhancement of performance for overall quality of memory and secondary memory factors, but also produced an impairment of speed of memory compared to controls. With regard to mood, comparisons of the change in ratings from baseline to post-test revealed that following the completion of the cognitive assessment battery, both the control and lavender groups were significantly less alert than the rosemary condition; however, the control group was significantly less content than both rosemary and lavender conditions. These findings indicate that the olfactory properties of these essential oils can produce objective effects on cognitive performance, as well as subjective effects on mood.

  15. Structural study of skeletal muscle fibres in healthy and pseudomyotonia affected cattle.

    PubMed

    Mascarello, Francesco; Sacchetto, Roberta

    2016-09-01

    Cattle congenital pseudomyotonia (PMT), recognized as naturally occurring animal model of human Brody disease, is an inherited recessive autosomal muscular disorder due to missense mutations in ATP2A1 gene, encoding sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase protein, isoform 1 (SERCA1). PMT has been described in the Chianina and Romagnola italian cattle breeds and as a single case in Dutch improved Red and White cross-breed. The genetic defect turned out to be heterogeneous in different cattle breeds, even though clinical symptoms were homogeneous. Skeletal muscles of affected animals are characterized by a selective deficiency of SERCA1 in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes. Recently, we provided evidence that in Chianina breed, the ubiquitin proteasome system is responsible for SERCA1 mutant premature disposal, even when the mutation does not affect the catalytic properties of the pump. Results presented here show that all SERCA1 mutants described until now, although expressed at low level, are correctly targeted to SR membranes. Ultrastructural studies confirm that in pathological muscle fibres, structure, as well as triads, is well preserved. All together these results suggest that a possible therapeutical approach based on the rescue of the defective protein at SR membranes could be hypothesized. Only fully functionally active missense mutants, whem located at the SR membrane could restore the efficient control of Ca(2+) homeostasis and prevent the appearance of the pathological signs. Moreover, these data demonstrate the increasing importance of domestic animals as genetic models of human pathologies. PMID:27210062

  16. Postnatal nutritional restriction affects growth and immune function of piglets with intra-uterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liang; Liu, Yan; Yan, Chuan; Peng, Xie; Xu, Qin; Xuan, Yue; Han, Fei; Tian, Gang; Fang, Zhengfeng; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Zhang, Keying; Chen, Daiwen; Wu, De; Che, Lianqiang

    2015-07-14

    Postnatal rapid growth by excess intake of nutrients has been associated with an increased susceptibility to diseases in neonates with intra-uterine growth restricted (IUGR). The aim of the present study was to determine whether postnatal nutritional restriction could improve intestinal development and immune function of neonates with IUGR using piglets as model. A total of twelve pairs of normal-birth weight (NBW) and IUGR piglets (7 d old) were randomly assigned to receive adequate nutrient intake or restricted nutrient intake (RNI) by artificially liquid feeding for a period of 21 d. Blood samples and intestinal tissues were collected at necropsy and were analysed for morphology, digestive enzyme activities, immune cells and expression of innate immunity-related genes. The results indicated that both IUGR and postnatal nutritional restriction delayed the growth rate during the sucking period. Irrespective of nutrient intake, piglets with IUGR had a significantly lower villous height and crypt depth in the ileum than the NBW piglets. Moreover, IUGR decreased alkaline phosphatase activity while enhanced lactase activity in the jejunum and mRNA expressions of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in the ileum of piglets. Irrespective of body weight, RNI significantly decreased the number and/or percentage of peripheral leucocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes of piglets, whereas the percentage of neutrophils and the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ were increased. Furthermore, RNI markedly enhanced the mRNA expression of TLR-9 and DNMT1, but decreased the expression of NOD2 and TRAF-6 in the ileum of piglets. In summary, postnatal nutritional restriction led to abnormal cellular and innate immune response, as well as delayed the growth and intestinal development of IUGR piglets. PMID:26059215

  17. Mercury exposure, nutritional deficiencies and metabolic disruptions may affect learning in children

    PubMed Central

    Dufault, Renee; Schnoll, Roseanne; Lukiw, Walter J; LeBlanc, Blaise; Cornett, Charles; Patrick, Lyn; Wallinga, David; Gilbert, Steven G; Crider, Raquel

    2009-01-01

    Among dietary factors, learning and behavior are influenced not only by nutrients, but also by exposure to toxic food contaminants such as mercury that can disrupt metabolic processes and alter neuronal plasticity. Neurons lacking in plasticity are a factor in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and mental retardation. Essential nutrients help maintain normal neuronal plasticity. Nutritional deficiencies, including deficiencies in the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, the amino acid methionine, and the trace minerals zinc and selenium, have been shown to influence neuronal function and produce defects in neuronal plasticity, as well as impact behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nutritional deficiencies and mercury exposure have been shown to alter neuronal function and increase oxidative stress among children with autism. These dietary factors may be directly related to the development of behavior disorders and learning disabilities. Mercury, either individually or in concert with other factors, may be harmful if ingested in above average amounts or by sensitive individuals. High fructose corn syrup has been shown to contain trace amounts of mercury as a result of some manufacturing processes, and its consumption can also lead to zinc loss. Consumption of certain artificial food color additives has also been shown to lead to zinc deficiency. Dietary zinc is essential for maintaining the metabolic processes required for mercury elimination. Since high fructose corn syrup and artificial food color additives are common ingredients in many foodstuffs, their consumption should be considered in those individuals with nutritional deficits such as zinc deficiency or who are allergic or sensitive to the effects of mercury or unable to effectively metabolize and eliminate it from the body. PMID:19860886

  18. Environmental and Nutritional Factors Affecting the Production of Rubratoxin B by Penicillium rubrum Stoll 1

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, A. Wallace; Wyatt, Elwanda P.; King, Patricia A.

    1970-01-01

    Rubratoxin B can be produced in a semisynthetic medium by Penicillium rubrum under varying environmental and nutritional conditions. Maximum production (552.0 mg/500 ml) was obtained with P. rubrum NRRL A-11785 grown in stationary cultures of Mosseray's simplified Raulin solution supplemented with 2.5% malt extract broth at ambient temperature. Zinc is required at levels of at least 0.4 mg per liter. In the absence of iron sulfate, there was a 50-fold reduction in rubratoxin B production but not in growth. No toxin was produced by this isolate in 5- or 7-liter fermentors. PMID:5485727

  19. Young doctors' health--I. How do working conditions affect attitudes, health and performance?

    PubMed

    Baldwin, P J; Dodd, M; Wrate, R W

    1997-07-01

    Long hours and other difficult working conditions are thought to affect the health of young doctors, but there has been little evidence to support these assertions. Data are presented from a class cohort of junior doctors in the U.K. showing the relationships between working conditions, health and performance. Long hours appear to have short-term consequences in terms of the doctors feeling unwell and reporting poor performance, as measured by the somatic and social dysfunction scales of the General Health Questionnaire, but there are no demonstrated long-term health consequences. Instead, a number of working conditions, number of emergency admissions, number of deaths on the ward and the number of minor menial tasks contribute to a perception of being overwhelmed, as revealed by factor analysis of the Attitudes to Work questionnaire. This factor correlates significantly with a range of long-term physical and mental health measures as well as measure of work performance. PMID:9203268

  20. The Right Supramarginal Gyrus Is Important for Proprioception in Healthy and Stroke-Affected Participants: A Functional MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Shabat, Ettie; Matyas, Thomas A.; Pell, Gaby S.; Brodtmann, Amy; Carey, Leeanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Human proprioception is essential for motor control, yet its central processing is still debated. Previous studies of passive movements and illusory vibration have reported inconsistent activation patterns related to proprioception, particularly in high-order sensorimotor cortices. We investigated brain activation specific to proprioception, its laterality, and changes following stroke. Twelve healthy and three stroke-affected individuals with proprioceptive deficits participated. Proprioception was assessed clinically with the Wrist Position Sense Test, and participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. An event-related study design was used, where each proprioceptive stimulus of passive wrist movement was followed by a motor response of mirror ­copying with the other wrist. Left (LWP) and right (RWP) wrist proprioception were tested separately. Laterality indices (LIs) were calculated for the main cortical regions activated during proprioception. We found proprioception-related brain activation in high-order sensorimotor cortices in healthy participants especially in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG LWP z = 4.51, RWP z = 4.24) and the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd LWP z = 4.10, RWP z = 3.93). Right hemispheric dominance was observed in the SMG (LI LWP mean 0.41, SD 0.22; RWP 0.29, SD 0.20), and to a lesser degree in the PMd (LI LWP 0.34, SD 0.17; RWP 0.13, SD 0.25). In stroke-affected participants, the main difference in proprioception-related brain activation was reduced laterality in the right SMG. Our findings indicate that the SMG and PMd play a key role in proprioception probably due to their role in spatial processing and motor control, respectively. The findings from stroke-­affected individuals suggest that decreased right SMG function may be associated with decreased proprioception. We recommend that clinicians pay particular attention to the assessment and rehabilitation of proprioception following right hemispheric

  1. Just Be It! Healthy and Fit Increases Fifth Graders' Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Physical Activity, and Nutrition Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelCampo, Diana; Baca, Jacqueline S.; Jimenez, Desaree; Sanchez, Paula Roybal; DelCampo, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Just Be It! Healthy and Fit reduces the risk factors for childhood obesity for fifth graders using hands-on field trips, in-class lessons, and parent outreach efforts. Pre-test and post-test scores from the year-long classroom instruction showed a statistically significant increase in fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, and nutrition…

  2. The effect of a communications campaign on middle school students' nutrition and physical activity: Results of the HEALTHY study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The HEALTHY Study was a 3-year school-based intervention designed to change the behaviors of middle school students to reduce their risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. This report examines the relation between exposure to communications campaign materials and behavior change among students...

  3. Evaluation of the Color Me Healthy Program in Influencing Nutrition and Physical Activity in Mississippi Preschool Child Care Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huye, Holly F.; Bankston, Sarah; Speed, Donna; Molaison, Elaine F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the level of implementation and perceived value in creating knowledge and behavior change from the Color Me Healthy (CMH) training program in child care centers, family day carehomes, or Head Start facilities throughout Mississippi. Methods: A two-phase survey was used to initially…

  4. Differences in cortical activity between methamphetamine-dependent and healthy individuals performing a facial affect matching task.

    PubMed

    Payer, Doris E; Lieberman, Matthew D; Monterosso, John R; Xu, Jiansong; Fong, Timothy W; London, Edythe D

    2008-01-11

    As individuals who abuse methamphetamine (MA) often exhibit socially maladaptive behaviors such as violence and aggression, it is possible that they respond abnormally to social cues. To investigate this issue, we exposed 12 MA-dependent participants (abstinent 5-16 days) and 12 healthy comparison participants to fearful and angry faces while they performed an affect matching task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Although the groups did not differ in task performance, the healthy participants showed more task-related activity than the MA-dependent participants in a set of cortical regions consisting of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), temporoparietal junction (TPJ), anterior and posterior temporal cortex, and fusiform gyrus in the right hemisphere, and the cuneus in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the MA-dependent participants showed more task-related activity than the healthy participants in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). As expected, the task elicited activation of the amygdala in both groups; however, contrary to expectation, we found no difference between groups in this activation. Dorsal ACC hyperactivity, along with high self-ratings of hostility and interpersonal sensitivity in the MA-dependent group, suggest a hyper-sensitivity to socially threatening cues in the MA-dependent participants, while lower VLPFC activation could point to a deficit in integrating socio-emotional information and/or regulating this limbic hyperactivity. Additional activation differences in neural circuitry related to social cognition (TPJ, anterior, and posterior temporal cortex) suggest further socio-emotional deficits. Together, the results point to cortical abnormalities that could underlie the socially inappropriate behaviors often shown by individuals who abuse MA. PMID:17964741

  5. Can decision-making skills affect responses to psychological stress in healthy women?

    PubMed

    Santos-Ruiz, Ana; Garcia-Rios, M Carmen; Fernandez-Sanchez, José Carlos; Perez-Garcia, Miguel; Muñoz-García, Miguel Angel; Peralta-Ramirez, Maria Isabel

    2012-12-01

    In recent studies showing how stress can affect an individual's decision-making process, the cognitive component of decision-making could also be considered a coping resource available to individuals when faced with a stressful situation. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) constitutes the standard test for the assessment of decision-making skills under conditions of uncertainty. Responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to psychosocial stress, in turn, have been estimated by means of cortisol measurements. Our main objective in this study was to test if good and bad IGT performers show distinct HPA axis responses, when challenged in a classic psychosocial stress test. Because women have been shown to outperform men on the IGT under the influence of psychosocial stress, we chose a sample of 40 women to take the IGT before they were exposed to a public speaking task in a virtual environment. The activation of the HPA axis, involved in the stress response, was assessed by examining the levels of cortisol in the subjects' saliva at the following four stages: before the challenge, after the challenge, and 10 and 20 min after the task. Participants were divided into two groups according to their level of performance, good or poor, on the IGT. Results showed statistically significant differences between the groups for pre-exposure cortisol levels and for cortisol levels 20 min after exposure. Overall cortisol levels were significantly higher in the group with poor performance on the IGT. It appears that good decision-making, which may be an important resource for coping with stress, is associated with a lower HPA axis response to a psychosocial stressor.

  6. Acute stress differentially affects spatial configuration learning in high and low cortisol-responding healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom; Giesbrecht, Timo; Quaedflieg, Conny W. E. M.; Merckelbach, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Background Stress and stress hormones modulate memory formation in various ways that are relevant to our understanding of stress-related psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Particular relevance is attributed to efficient memory formation sustained by the hippocampus and parahippocampus. This process is thought to reduce the occurrence of intrusions and flashbacks following trauma, but may be negatively affected by acute stress. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the efficiency of visuo-spatial processing and learning based on the hippocampal area is related to PTSD symptoms. Objective The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on spatial configuration learning using a spatial contextual cueing task (SCCT) known to heavily rely on structures in the parahippocampus. Method Acute stress was induced by subjecting participants (N = 34) to the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST). Following a counterbalanced within-subject approach, the effects of stress and the ensuing hormonal (i.e., cortisol) activity on subsequent SCCT performance were compared to SCCT performance following a no-stress control condition. Results Acute stress did not impact SCCT learning overall, but opposing effects emerged for high versus low cortisol responders to the MAST. Learning scores following stress were reduced in low cortisol responders, while high cortisol-responding participants showed improved learning. Conclusions The effects of stress on spatial configuration learning were moderated by the magnitude of endogenous cortisol secretion. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which cortisol responses serve an adaptive function during stress and trauma, and this may prove to be a promising route for future research in this area. PMID:23671762

  7. Does transcranial direct current stimulation to prefrontal cortex affect mood and emotional memory retrieval in healthy individuals?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Helen M; Davis, Nick J; Bracewell, R Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Studies using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of prefrontal cortex to improve symptoms of depression have had mixed results. We examined whether using tDCS to change the balance of activity between left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can alter mood and memory retrieval of emotional material in healthy volunteers. Participants memorised emotional images, then tDCS was applied bilaterally to DLPFC while they performed a stimulus-response compatibility task. Participants were then presented with a set of images for memory retrieval. Questionnaires to examine mood and motivational state were administered at the beginning and end of each session. Exploratory data analyses showed that the polarity of tDCS to DLPFC influenced performance on a stimulus-response compatibility task and this effect was dependent on participants' prior motivational state. However, tDCS polarity had no effect on the speed or accuracy of memory retrieval of emotional images and did not influence positive or negative affect. These findings suggest that the balance of activity between left and right DLPFC does not play a critical role in the mood state of healthy individuals. We suggest that the efficacy of prefrontal tDCS depends on the initial activation state of neurons and future work should take this into account.

  8. EEG-neurofeedback for optimising performance. I: a review of cognitive and affective outcome in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Gruzelier, John H

    2014-07-01

    A re-emergence of research on EEG-neurofeedback followed controlled evidence of clinical benefits and validation of cognitive/affective gains in healthy participants including correlations in support of feedback learning mediating outcome. Controlled studies with healthy and elderly participants, which have increased exponentially, are reviewed including protocols from the clinic: sensory-motor rhythm, beta1 and alpha/theta ratios, down-training theta maxima, and from neuroscience: upper-alpha, theta, gamma, alpha desynchronisation. Outcome gains include sustained attention, orienting and executive attention, the P300b, memory, spatial rotation, RT, complex psychomotor skills, implicit procedural memory, recognition memory, perceptual binding, intelligence, mood and well-being. Twenty-three of the controlled studies report neurofeedback learning indices along with beneficial outcomes, of which eight report correlations in support of a meditation link, results which will be supplemented by further creativity and the performing arts evidence in Part II. Validity evidence from optimal performance studies represents an advance for the neurofeedback field demonstrating that cross fertilisation between clinical and optimal performance domains will be fruitful. Theoretical and methodological issues are outlined further in Part III.

  9. EEG-neurofeedback for optimising performance. I: a review of cognitive and affective outcome in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Gruzelier, John H

    2014-07-01

    A re-emergence of research on EEG-neurofeedback followed controlled evidence of clinical benefits and validation of cognitive/affective gains in healthy participants including correlations in support of feedback learning mediating outcome. Controlled studies with healthy and elderly participants, which have increased exponentially, are reviewed including protocols from the clinic: sensory-motor rhythm, beta1 and alpha/theta ratios, down-training theta maxima, and from neuroscience: upper-alpha, theta, gamma, alpha desynchronisation. Outcome gains include sustained attention, orienting and executive attention, the P300b, memory, spatial rotation, RT, complex psychomotor skills, implicit procedural memory, recognition memory, perceptual binding, intelligence, mood and well-being. Twenty-three of the controlled studies report neurofeedback learning indices along with beneficial outcomes, of which eight report correlations in support of a meditation link, results which will be supplemented by further creativity and the performing arts evidence in Part II. Validity evidence from optimal performance studies represents an advance for the neurofeedback field demonstrating that cross fertilisation between clinical and optimal performance domains will be fruitful. Theoretical and methodological issues are outlined further in Part III. PMID:24125857

  10. Nutrition and pubertal development

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development. PMID:25538876

  11. Nitrogen Assimilation and Protein Synthesis in Wheat Seedlings As Affected by Mineral Nutrition. I. Macronutrients 1

    PubMed Central

    Harper, James E.; Paulsen, Gary M.

    1969-01-01

    Deficiencies of each macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca. Mg, S, and Fe) decreased the specific activity of nitrate reductase from Triticum aestivum L. seedlings. Nitrate content was decreased by N, P, K, Ca, and Mg deficiencies and unaffected by S and Fe deficiencies. Glutamic acid dehydrogenase activity was decreased by N, P, and S deficiencies, unchanged by K deficiency, and increased by Ca, Mg, and Fe deficiencies. Glutamine synthetase activity closely paralleled nitrate reductase activity and was decreased by deficiencies of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S. Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase was not sensitive to macronutrient deficiencies. High 14C-leucine incorporation into tissue sections of N-, P-, K-, Ca-, and S-deficient seedlings did not appear indicative of protein synthesis rates in intact seedlings. Nutritional deficiencies apparently depleted endogenous amino acid pools and caused less inhibition of exogenous 14C-leucine incorporation into protein. PMID:16657034

  12. Methodological development of an exploratory randomised controlled trial of an early years' nutrition intervention: the CHERRY programme (Choosing Healthy Eating when Really Young).

    PubMed

    Watt, Richard Geddie; Draper, Alizon K; Ohly, Heather R; Rees, Gail; Pikhart, Hynek; Cooke, Lucy; Moore, Laurence; Crawley, Helen; Pettinger, Clare; McGlone, Pauline; Hayter, Arabella K M

    2014-04-01

    Good nutrition in the early years of life is vitally important for a child's development, growth and health. Children's diets in the United Kingdom are known to be poor, particularly among socially disadvantaged groups, and there is a need for timely and appropriate interventions that support parents to improve the diets of young children. The Medical Research Council has highlighted the importance of conducting developmental and exploratory research prior to undertaking full-scale trials to evaluate complex interventions, but have provided very limited detailed guidance on the conduct of these initial phases of research. This paper describes the initial developmental stage and the conduct of an exploratory randomised controlled trial undertaken to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a family-centred early years' nutrition intervention. Choosing Healthy Eating when Really Young (CHERRY) is a programme for families with children aged 18 months to 5 years, delivered in children's centres in one urban (Islington) and one rural (Cornwall) location in the United Kingdom. In the development stage, a mixed-methods approach was used to investigate the nature of the problem and options for support. A detailed review of the evidence informed the theoretical basis of the study and the creation of a logic model. In the feasibility and pilot testing stage of the exploratory trial, 16 children's centres, with a sample of 394 families were recruited onto the study. We hope that the methodology, which we present in this paper, will inform and assist other researchers in conducting community-based, exploratory nutrition research in early years settings.

  13. Making healthy food choices using nutrition facts panels. The roles of knowledge, motivation, dietary modifications goals, and age.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lisa M Soederberg; Cassady, Diana L

    2012-08-01

    Nutrition facts panels (NFPs) contain a rich assortment of nutrition information and are available on most food packages. The importance of this information is potentially even greater among older adults due to their increased risk for diet-related diseases, as well as those with goals for dietary modifications that may impact food choice. Despite past work suggesting that knowledge and motivation impact attitudes surrounding and self-reported use of NFPs, we know little about how (i.e., strategies used) and how well (i.e., level of accuracy) younger and older individuals process NFP information when evaluating healthful qualities of foods. We manipulated the content of NFPs and, using eye tracking methodology, examined strategies associated with deciding which of two NFPs, presented side-by-side, was healthier. We examined associations among strategy use and accuracy as well as age, dietary modification status, knowledge, and motivation. Results showed that, across age groups, those with dietary modification goals made relatively more comparisons between NFPs with increasing knowledge and motivation; but that strategy effectiveness (relationship to accuracy) depended on age and motivation. Results also showed that knowledge and motivation may protect against declines in accuracy in later life and that, across age and dietary modification status, knowledge mediates the relationship between motivation and decision accuracy.

  14. Making Healthy Food Choices Using Nutrition Facts Panels: The Roles of Knowledge, Motivation, Dietary Modifications Goals, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Cassady, Diana L.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition facts panels (NFPs) contain a rich assortment of nutrition information and are available on most food packages. The importance of this information is potentially even greater among older adults due to their increased risk for diet-related diseases, as well as those with goals for dietary modifications that may impact food choice. Despite past work suggesting that knowledge and motivation impact attitudes surrounding and self-reported use of NFPs, we know little about how (i.e., strategies used) and how well (i.e., level of accuracy) younger and older individuals process NFP information when evaluating healthful qualities of foods. We manipulated the content of NFPs and, using eye tracking methodology, examined strategies associated with deciding which of two NFPs, presented side-by-side, was healthier. We examined associations among strategy use and accuracy as well as age, dietary modification status, knowledge, and motivation. Results showed that, across age groups, those with dietary modification goals made relatively more comparisons between NFPs with increasing knowledge and motivation; but that strategy effectiveness (relationship to accuracy) depended on age and motivation. Results also showed that knowledge and motivation may protect against declines in accuracy in later life and that, across age and dietary modification status, knowledge mediates the relationship between motivation and decision accuracy. PMID:22524999

  15. Making healthy food choices using nutrition facts panels. The roles of knowledge, motivation, dietary modifications goals, and age.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lisa M Soederberg; Cassady, Diana L

    2012-08-01

    Nutrition facts panels (NFPs) contain a rich assortment of nutrition information and are available on most food packages. The importance of this information is potentially even greater among older adults due to their increased risk for diet-related diseases, as well as those with goals for dietary modifications that may impact food choice. Despite past work suggesting that knowledge and motivation impact attitudes surrounding and self-reported use of NFPs, we know little about how (i.e., strategies used) and how well (i.e., level of accuracy) younger and older individuals process NFP information when evaluating healthful qualities of foods. We manipulated the content of NFPs and, using eye tracking methodology, examined strategies associated with deciding which of two NFPs, presented side-by-side, was healthier. We examined associations among strategy use and accuracy as well as age, dietary modification status, knowledge, and motivation. Results showed that, across age groups, those with dietary modification goals made relatively more comparisons between NFPs with increasing knowledge and motivation; but that strategy effectiveness (relationship to accuracy) depended on age and motivation. Results also showed that knowledge and motivation may protect against declines in accuracy in later life and that, across age and dietary modification status, knowledge mediates the relationship between motivation and decision accuracy. PMID:22524999

  16. Electrical low-frequency stimulation induces long-term depression of sensory and affective components of pain in healthy man.

    PubMed

    Rottmann, Silke; Jung, Kerstin; Ellrich, Jens

    2010-04-01

    Electrical low-frequency stimulation (LFS) of nociceptive skin afferents reliably induces long-term depression (LTD) of pain. Recent experiments have assessed the effects of LTD on pain perception by using a simple one-dimensional rating scale. The psychophysical study investigated the impact of noxious LFS on the sensory and affective aspects of pain perception by multidimensional rating scales. In 20 healthy volunteers, nociceptive fibers of the left hand dorsum were electrically stimulated by a concentric electrode. Test stimulation series (15 stimuli each, 0.125Hz) were performed before (Pre) and after (Post) a conditioning LFS (1Hz, 20min) or no stimulation period (Control). Pain ratings concerning test stimulation and LFS were obtained by multidimensional assessment including Verbal rating scale of perceived stimulus intensity (VRS-I) and unpleasantness (VRS-U) and pain perception scale with sensory (SES-S) and affective items (SES-A). After the conditioning LFS, VRS-I, VRS-U, SES-S, and SES-A decreased as compared to Pre series and Control. During conditioning LFS, ratings decreased. Factor analysis of SES-S revealed sole reduction of superficial sharp pain perception after conditioning LFS in contrast to Control experiment. Perception of deep rhythmic pain decreased over time. Deep constant pain and superficial heat pain were not affected. Electrical test stimulation via concentric electrode evokes sensory as well as affective pain perception. Both components decrease during noxious, conditioning LFS and remain depressed for at least one hour. Reduction of sharp pain points to Adelta fiber mediated LTD. These results stress the analgesic potency of LTD and its possible impact on future therapy in chronic pain.

  17. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques.

    PubMed

    Akonor, P T; Ofori, H; Dziedzoave, N T; Kortei, N K

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L (⁎) = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L (⁎) = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently.

  18. Nutritional state affects the expression of the obesity-associated genes Etv5, Faim2, Fto, and Negr1.

    PubMed

    Boender, Arjen J; van Rozen, Andrea J; Adan, Roger A H

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for type II diabetes, atherosclerosis, and some forms of cancer. Variation in common measures of obesity (e.g., BMI, waist/hip ratio) is largely explained by heritability. The advent of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has made it possible to identify several genetic variants that associate with measures of obesity, but how exactly these genetic variants contribute to overweight has remained largely unresolved. One first hint is given by the fact that many of the associated variants reside in or near genes that act in the central nervous system, which implicates neuronal signaling in the etiology of obesity. Although the brain controls both energy intake and expenditure, it has more capacity to regulate energy intake rather than energy expenditure. In environments where food is abundant, this renders the body prone to weight increases. To gain more insight into the neurobiological mechanisms involved, we set out to investigate the effect of dietary exposure on the expression levels of obesity-associated genes in the ventro-medial hypothalamus (VMH)/arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the substantia nigra (SN)/ventral tegmental area (VTA), two brain regions that are implicated in feeding behavior. We show that the expression of Etv5, Faim2, Fto, Negr1 but not Sh2b1 is affected by nutritional state in these two areas, thereby providing insight into the relationship between nutritional state and expression levels of obesity-associated genes in two brain areas relevant to feeding.

  19. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques.

    PubMed

    Akonor, P T; Ofori, H; Dziedzoave, N T; Kortei, N K

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L (⁎) = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L (⁎) = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently. PMID:27034924

  20. Pre-anthesis CPPU low dosage application increases 'Hayward' kiwifruit weight without affecting the other qualitative and nutritional characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Castillo, J G; Baldicchi, A; Frioni, T; Marocchi, F; Moscatello, S; Proietti, S; Battistelli, A; Famiani, F

    2014-09-01

    In 2008, in Central Italy, a low dosage of CPPU solution, 4 μL L(-1) (6 hL/ha), was sprayed on the canopy of vines of 'Hayward' kiwifruit, at the "break of sepals", about one week before anthesis, to study its effects on fruit weight/size and on qualitative and nutritional characteristics. At harvest, CPPU, with respect to control, significantly increased the fresh weight by about 12% (+12.6 g fruit(-1)) and consequently the yield per vine, without affecting fruit shape, firmness, dry matter (%), total soluble solids, glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch, citrate, malate, vitamin C and soluble and insoluble oxalic acid. After 3 months of storage, CPPU-treated kiwifruits and the control fruit showed no difference in dry matter content, fruit firmness and total soluble solids. The results indicate that a low dosage of CPPU applied in pre-anthesis can improve fruit weight/size without any negative effect on fruit qualitative and nutritional characteristics.

  1. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ofori, H.; Dziedzoave, N. T.; Kortei, N. K.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L⁎ = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L⁎ = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently. PMID:27034924

  2. Impact of the Healthy Foods North nutrition intervention program on Inuit and Inuvialuit food consumption and preparation methods in Canadian Arctic communities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The 12-month Healthy Foods North intervention program was developed to improve diet among Inuit and Inuvialuit living in Arctic Canada and assess the impact of the intervention established for the communities. Methods A quasi-experimental study randomly selected men and women (≥19 years of age) in six remote communities in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. Validated quantitative food frequency and adult impact questionnaires were used. Four communities received the intervention and two communities served as delayed intervention controls. Pre- and post-intervention changes in frequency of/total intake of de-promoted food groups and healthiness of cooking methods were determined. The impact of the intervention was assessed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results Post-intervention data were analysed in the intervention (n = 221) and control (n = 111) communities, with participant retention rates of 91% for Nunavut and 83% for the Northwest Territories. There was a significant decrease in de-promoted foods, such as high fat meats (−27.9 g) and high fat dairy products (−19.8 g) among intervention communities (all p ≤ 0.05). The use of healthier preparation methods significantly increased (14.7%) in intervention communities relative to control communities. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of using a community-based, multi-institutional nutrition intervention program to decrease the consumption of unhealthy foods and the use of unhealthy food preparation methods. PMID:24993180

  3. Nitrogen Assimilation and Protein Synthesis in Wheat Seedlings as Affected by Mineral Nutrition. II. Micronutrients 1

    PubMed Central

    Harper, James E.; Paulsen, Gary M.

    1969-01-01

    Activity of nitrate reductase from Triticum aestivum L. seedlings was decreased by deficiencies of molybdenum, zinc, and chlorine. Nitrate accumulated in molybdenum-deficient seedlings, declined in zinc-deficient seedlings, and was unaffected by the other micronutrient treatments. Glutamic acid dehydrogenase activity was decreased by deficiency of molybdenum, the only nutrient that affected the enzyme. Glutamine synthetase activity was decreased only by copper deficiency, and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase was not affected by any micronutrient deficiencies. Incorporation of 14C-leucine into protein by wheat seedlings was increased by molybdenum deficiency, apparently because of decreased inhibition from endogenous amino acids, and was decreased by copper deficiency. Protein content was not affected significantly by the micronutrient treatments. PMID:16657114

  4. Consumption of soy isoflavones does not affect plasma total homocysteine or asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Manja; Dierkes, Jutta; Carlsohn, Anja; Talbot, Duncan; Ferrari, Marika; Hallund, Jesper; Hall, Wendy L; Vafeiadou, Katerina; Huebner, Ulrich; Branca, Francesco; Bugel, Susanne; Williams, Christine M; Zunft, H-J Franz; Koebnick, Corinna

    2006-01-01

    Postmenopausal women are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease because many risk factors are aggravated by menopause. Phytoestrogens may modulate risk factors favorably, involving mechanisms similar to estrogen. The effect of phytoestrogens on the atherogenic amino acids homocysteine and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) was investigated in a controlled intervention study in healthy postmenopausal women. A multicenter, double-blind, crossover intervention trial in 89 postmenopausal women from Denmark, Germany, and the UK was performed. Subjects consumed fruit cereal bars with or without soy isoflavones (50 mg/d) for 8 wk each with an 8-wk washout period in between. Urinary phytoestrogens increased significantly after isoflavone intervention (P < 0.001). Isoflavone supplementation did not affect plasma total homocysteine or ADMA. For homocysteine, changes from baseline were 0.32 micromol/L (range: -0.31-0.92; 95% CI 0.13-0.72), and 0.29 micromol/L (range: -0.45-1.09; 95% CI 0.01-0.63, P = 0.286) for isoflavone treatment and placebo, respectively. For ADMA concentrations, changes from baseline were -0.02 micromol/L (range: -0.08-0.03; 95% CI -0.04-0.01, and 0.00 micromol/L (range: -0.05-0.03; 95% CI -0.03-0.01, P = 0.397) for isoflavone treatment and placebo, respectively. There was no association between plasma total homocysteine and ADMA. Changes from baseline in plasma ADMA and folate were negatively correlated (r = -0.18, P = 0.017). These results challenge the overall health effect of isoflavone supplementation in healthy postmenopausal women. PMID:16365066

  5. The Effect of a Communications Campaign on Middle School Students’ Nutrition and Physical Activity: Results of the HEALTHY Study

    PubMed Central

    SCHNEIDER, MARGARET; DEBAR, LYNN; CALINGO, ASHLEY; HALL, WILL; HINDES, KATIE; SLEIGH, ADRIANA; THOMPSON, DEBBE; VOLPE, STELLA L.; ZEVELOFF, ABBY; PHAM, TRANG; STECKLER, ALLAN

    2013-01-01

    The HEALTHY Study was a 3-year school-based intervention designed to change the behaviors of middle school students to reduce their risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. This report examines the relation between exposure to communications campaign materials and behavior change among students in the HEALTHY intervention schools. Using data from campaign tracking logs and student interviews, the authors examined communications campaign implementation and exposure to the communications campaign as well as health behavior change. Campaign tracking documents revealed variability across schools in the quantity of communications materials disseminated. Student interviews confirmed that there was variability in the proportion of students who reported receiving information from the communication campaign elements. Correlations and regression analysis controlling for semester examined the association between campaign exposure and behavior change across schools. There was a significant association between the proportion of students exposed to the campaign and the proportion of students who made changes in health behavior commensurate with study goals. The results suggest that, in the context of a multifaceted school-based health promotion intervention, schools that achieve a higher rate of exposure to communication campaign materials among the students may stimulate greater health behavior change. PMID:23409792

  6. Larval nutrition affects life history traits in a capital breeding moth.

    PubMed

    Colasurdo, Nadia; Gélinas, Yves; Despland, Emma

    2009-06-01

    Fitness depends not only on resource uptake but also on the allocation of these resources to various life history functions. This study explores the life-history consequences of larval diet in terms not only of larval performance but also of adult body composition and reproductive traits in the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hübner). Caterpillars were reared on their preferred tree host, trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), or on one of three artificial foods: high protein:low carbohydrate, equal protein-to-carbohydrate ratio or low protein:high carbohydrate. Survivorship, larval development rate and adult body size were lowest on the carbohydrate-biased diet and similar on the protein-biased and equal-ratio diets. Fecundity increased with body size but did not otherwise differ between diets. Moths reared on the carbohydrate-biased diet allocated a lower proportion of their mass to the ovaries and more to somatic growth whereas those on equal-ratio and protein-biased diets allocated more to reproductive tissue and less to somatic tissue. These differences in allocation to reproduction arose from differences in the size of eggs, an index of offspring quality. No differences were found in lipid and protein content of female ovaries, accessory glands or somatic tissue, or of the whole body of male moths. The findings show that physiological processes regulate the composition of the different components of the adult body. Diet effects occur as differences in overall body size and in relative allocation to these components. Although lepidopterans can, to a large extent, compensate post-ingestively for nutritionally deficient diets, investment in reproduction vs somatic growth depends on the nutrients available. PMID:19482996

  7. Larval nutrition affects life history traits in a capital breeding moth.

    PubMed

    Colasurdo, Nadia; Gélinas, Yves; Despland, Emma

    2009-06-01

    Fitness depends not only on resource uptake but also on the allocation of these resources to various life history functions. This study explores the life-history consequences of larval diet in terms not only of larval performance but also of adult body composition and reproductive traits in the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hübner). Caterpillars were reared on their preferred tree host, trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), or on one of three artificial foods: high protein:low carbohydrate, equal protein-to-carbohydrate ratio or low protein:high carbohydrate. Survivorship, larval development rate and adult body size were lowest on the carbohydrate-biased diet and similar on the protein-biased and equal-ratio diets. Fecundity increased with body size but did not otherwise differ between diets. Moths reared on the carbohydrate-biased diet allocated a lower proportion of their mass to the ovaries and more to somatic growth whereas those on equal-ratio and protein-biased diets allocated more to reproductive tissue and less to somatic tissue. These differences in allocation to reproduction arose from differences in the size of eggs, an index of offspring quality. No differences were found in lipid and protein content of female ovaries, accessory glands or somatic tissue, or of the whole body of male moths. The findings show that physiological processes regulate the composition of the different components of the adult body. Diet effects occur as differences in overall body size and in relative allocation to these components. Although lepidopterans can, to a large extent, compensate post-ingestively for nutritionally deficient diets, investment in reproduction vs somatic growth depends on the nutrients available.

  8. Bone quality is affected by food restriction and by nutrition-induced catch-up growth.

    PubMed

    Pando, Rakefet; Masarwi, Majdi; Shtaif, Biana; Idelevich, Anna; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat; Shahar, Ron; Phillip, Moshe; Gat-Yablonski, Galia

    2014-12-01

    Growth stunting constitutes the most common effect of malnutrition. When the primary cause of malnutrition is resolved, catch-up (CU) growth usually occurs. In this study, we have explored the effect of food restriction (RES) and refeeding on bone structure and mechanical properties. Sprague-Dawley male rats aged 24 days were subjected to 10 days of 40% RES, followed by refeeding for 1 (CU) or 26 days long-term CU (LTCU). The rats fed ad libitum served as controls. The growth plates were measured, osteoclasts were identified using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, and micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning and mechanical testing were used to study structure and mechanical properties. Micro-CT analysis showed that RES led to a significant reduction in trabecular BV/TV and trabecular number (Tb.N), concomitant with an increase in trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). Trabecular BV/TV and Tb.N were significantly greater in the CU group than in the RES in both short- and long-term experiments. Mechanical testing showed that RES led to weaker and less compliant bones; interestingly, bones of the CU group were also more fragile after 1 day of CU. Longer term of refeeding enabled correction of the bone parameters; however, LTCU did not achieve full recovery. These results suggest that RES in young rats attenuated growth and reduced trabecular bone parameters. While nutrition-induced CU growth led to an immediate increase in epiphyseal growth plate height and active bone modeling, it was also associated with a transient reduction in bone quality. This should be taken into consideration when treating children undergoing CU growth. PMID:25248555

  9. Neurological soft signs and cognitive functions: Amongst euthymic bipolar I disorder cases, non-affected first degree relatives and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Srikant; Bhatia, Triptish; Mazumdar, Sati; Deshpande, Smita N

    2016-08-01

    Both neurological soft signs (NSS) and cognitive deficits are present among euthymic bipolar patients. NSS could be related to neurocognitive performance, but this is not explored thoroughly. Healthy relatives of patients may also suffer from similar deficits. This study compared NSS and cognitive functions in euthymic Bipolar I Disorder (BPI) cases to their non-affected first degree relatives and healthy controls. We also investigated the association between NSS and cognitive functions in these three groups. NSS were assessed in three groups using Neurological Evaluation Scale-revised (NES-r). Eight cognitive domains were assessed in 31 euthymic BPI cases, their 30 non-affected first degree relatives and 30 healthy controls using Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (CNB). Euthymic BPI patients had significantly more NSS than non-affected first degree relatives on 5/7 tests (p-value ranges from 0.042 to p=0.0001) and healthy controls on all tests (p-value from 0.042 to <0.0001). Non-affected first degree relatives and controls did not have any significant difference. BPI participants performed worse than their non-affected first degree relatives on one neurocognitive domain of CNB (spatial memory accuracy, p=0.03) and healthy controls on four domains (spatial memory accuracy (p=0.04), abstraction and mental flexibility efficiency (p=0.04), spatial memory efficiency (p=0.04), and emotion efficiency (p=0.04). Non-affected relatives and healthy controls were similar on neurocognitive domains. Accuracy and efficiency indices of some specific cognitive domains were negatively associated with AV rating and tap copying NSS ratings. PMID:27520894

  10. Neurological soft signs and cognitive functions: Amongst euthymic bipolar I disorder cases, non-affected first degree relatives and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Srikant; Bhatia, Triptish; Mazumdar, Sati; Deshpande, Smita N.

    2016-01-01

    Both neurological soft signs (NSS) and cognitive deficits are present among euthymic bipolar patients. NSS could be related to neurocognitive performance, but this is not explored thoroughly. Healthy relatives of patients may also suffer from similar deficits. This study compared NSS and cognitive functions in euthymic Bipolar I Disorder (BPI) cases to their non-affected first degree relatives and healthy controls. We also investigated the association between NSS and cognitive functions in these three groups. NSS were assessed in three groups using Neurological Evaluation Scale-revised (NES-r). Eight cognitive domains were assessed in 31 euthymic BPI cases, their 30 non-affected first degree relatives and 30 healthy controls using Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (CNB). Euthymic BPI patients had significantly more NSS than non-affected first degree relatives on 5/7 tests (p-value ranges from 0.042 to p = 0.0001) and healthy controls on all tests (p-value from 0.042 to <0.0001). Non-affected first degree relatives and controls did not have any significant difference. BPI participants performed worse than their non-affected first degree relatives on one neurocognitive domain of CNB (spatial memory accuracy, p = 0.03) and healthy controls on four domains (spatial memory accuracy (p = 0.04), abstraction and mental flexibility efficiency (p = 0.04), spatial memory efficiency (p = 0.04), and emotion efficiency (p = 0.04). Non-affected relatives and healthy controls were similar on neurocognitive domains. Accuracy and efficiency indices of some specific cognitive domains were negatively associated with AV rating and tap copying NSS ratings. PMID:27520894

  11. Do government brochures affect physical activity cognition? A pilot study of Canada's physical activity guide to healthy active living.

    PubMed

    Kliman, Aviva M; Rhodes, Ryan

    2008-08-01

    Health Canada has published national physical activity (PA) guidelines, which are included in their 26-page Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living (CPAG). To date, the use of CPAG as a motivational instrument for PA promotion has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether reading CPAG 1) increased motivational antecedents to engage in regular PA, and 2) increased regular PA intention and behaviour over 1 month. Participants included 130 randomly sampled Canadian adults (18 years or older) who were randomly mailed pack ages consisting of either 1) a questionnaire and a copy of CPAG, or 2) a questionnaire. Questionnaire items pertained to participants' sociodemographics, previous PA behaviours (Godin Leisure-Time Questionnaire) and PA motivation (theory of planned behaviour). Participants were then sent a follow-up questionnaire pertaining to their PA behaviours throughout the previous month. Results revealed significant interactions between the guide condition and previous activity status on instrumental behavioural beliefs about strength activities and subjective norms about endurance activities (p < 0.05), but all other factors were not significantly different. It was concluded that among previously inactive people, receiving this guide may change some informational/motivational constructs, but key motivational antecedents (affective attitude, perceived behavioural control) and outcomes (intention, behaviour) seem unaffected. PMID:18825580

  12. Nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in three hurricane-affected areas of Honduras.

    PubMed

    Barrios, R E; Stansbury, J P; Palencia, R; Medina, M T

    2000-12-01

    Hurricanes and other natural disasters can produce crop destruction, population displacement, infrastructure damage, and long-term public health consequences that include increased malnutrition among the affected populations. This paper presents the results of anthropometric measurements taken of 295 children under 5 years of age from three regions of Honduras that were affected by Hurricane Mitch, a major storm that struck Central America in the fall of 1998. The children in our study were sampled in three shelters in the capital city of Tegucigalpa; in the resettlement zone of Nueva Choluteca, Choluteca; and in the small urban area of Catacamas, Olancho. Our data indicated that, in comparison to the period before the hurricane, there was an elevated prevalence of wasting in all three of the study areas, and that there were also high levels of underweight in the Tegucigalpa and Nueva Choluteca study areas. There were statistically significant differences between the mean values of malnutrition indicators for Catacamas and those for the Tegucigalpa and Nueva Choluteca settlements. These differences suggest that resettled families were confronting a nutritional crisis in July and August of 1999, some 9 months after the hurricane struck.

  13. Body and carcass composition of Angus and Charolais steers as affected by age and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Coleman, S W; Evans, B C; Guenther, J J

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of a low vs moderate rate of gain during the growing phase on empty body and carcass composition during finishing of Angus and Charolais steers of two ages. Forty-eight Angus and 48 Charolais steers that were either spring-born (OLDER) or fall-born (YOUNGER) were fed two diets (alfalfa pellets [CON] or cubed grass-alfalfa hay, wheat straw, cottonseed hulls, and soybean meal [RES]) for a growing period followed by a conventional feedlot period. The feedlot period started when the YOUNGER-CON steers weighed the same as the OLDER-RES steers. At that time, an interaction of age x diet occurred in empty body fat content (P < .10), whereas breed and age x diet affected carcass fat content (P < .01). OLDER-CON steers were larger (average 378 kg empty BW) and fatter than the other, smaller groups (average 222 kg). Angus carcasses were fatter than Charolais carcasses (P < .01). At the end of the finishing phase, compensating steers (OLDER-RES) had fatter carcasses than OLDER-CON steers. Empty body fat content was affected by a breed x age x diet interaction (P < .10). Allometric regressions (Y = aXb) of fat on empty BW indicated that empty body fat accretion was greater in Angus than in Charolais and in YOUNGER than in OLDER steers. A breed x age x diet interaction (P < .10) indicated that OLDER-Angus had higher fat accretive rates than YOUNGER-Angus, whereas OLDER-CON-Charolais steers deposited fat more slowly than the remaining groups. These data suggest that steers receiving feedlot diets at light weights, whether young in age or previously restricted, accumulate fat more rapidly than do larger steers. This feeding strategy may be an advantage in late-maturing types, but moderate growth through approximately 75% of slaughter weight is recommended for early-maturing types.

  14. National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: nutrition standards for all foods sold in school as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-06-28

    This interim final rule amends the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program regulations to establish nutrition standards for all foods sold in schools, other than food sold under the lunch and breakfast programs. Amendments made by Section 208 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) require the Secretary to establish nutrition standards for such foods, consistent with the most recent Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and directs the Secretary to consider authoritative scientific recommendations for nutrition standards; existing school nutrition standards, including voluntary standards for beverages and snack foods; current State and local standards; the practical application of the nutrition standards; and special exemptions for infrequent school-sponsored fundraisers (other than fundraising through vending machines, school stores, snack bars, à la carte sales and any other exclusions determined by the Secretary). In addition, this interim final rule requires schools participating in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program to make potable water available to children at no charge in the place where lunches are served during the meal service, consistent with amendments made by section 203 of the HHFKA, and in the cafeteria during breakfast meal service. This interim final rule is expected to improve the health and well-being of the Nation's children, increase consumption of healthful foods during the school day, and create an environment that reinforces the development of healthy eating habits.

  15. National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: nutrition standards for all foods sold in school as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-06-28

    This interim final rule amends the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program regulations to establish nutrition standards for all foods sold in schools, other than food sold under the lunch and breakfast programs. Amendments made by Section 208 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) require the Secretary to establish nutrition standards for such foods, consistent with the most recent Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and directs the Secretary to consider authoritative scientific recommendations for nutrition standards; existing school nutrition standards, including voluntary standards for beverages and snack foods; current State and local standards; the practical application of the nutrition standards; and special exemptions for infrequent school-sponsored fundraisers (other than fundraising through vending machines, school stores, snack bars, à la carte sales and any other exclusions determined by the Secretary). In addition, this interim final rule requires schools participating in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program to make potable water available to children at no charge in the place where lunches are served during the meal service, consistent with amendments made by section 203 of the HHFKA, and in the cafeteria during breakfast meal service. This interim final rule is expected to improve the health and well-being of the Nation's children, increase consumption of healthful foods during the school day, and create an environment that reinforces the development of healthy eating habits. PMID:23833807

  16. Healthy lifestyle and risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort study.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Fiona; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Chajès, Veronique; Rinaldi, Sabina; de Batlle, Jordi; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Baglietto, Laura; Dartois, Laureen; Dossus, Laure; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Rosso, Stefano; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; May, Anne; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Buckland, Genevieve; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Andersson, Anne; Sund, Malin; Ericson, Ulrika; Wirfält, Elisabet; Key, Tim J; Travis, Ruth C; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and prevention strategies are needed to reduce incidence worldwide. A healthy lifestyle index score (HLIS) was generated to investigate the joint effect of modifiable lifestyle factors on postmenopausal breast cancer risk. The study included 242,918 postmenopausal women from the multinational European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, with detailed information on diet and lifestyle assessed at baseline. The HLIS was constructed from five factors (diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and anthropometry) by assigning scores of 0-4 to categories of each component, for which higher values indicate healthier behaviours. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox proportional regression models. During 10.9 years of median follow-up, 7,756 incident breast cancer cases were identified. There was a 3% lower risk of breast cancer per point increase of the HLIS. Breast cancer risk was inversely associated with a high HLIS when fourth versus second (reference) categories were compared [adjusted HR = 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66-0.83]. The fourth versus the second category of the HLIS was associated with a lower risk for hormone receptor double positive (adjusted HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.67-0.98) and hormone receptor double negative breast cancer (adjusted HR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.40-0.90). Findings suggest having a high score on an index of combined healthy behaviours reduces the risk of developing breast cancer among postmenopausal women. Programmes which engage women in long term health behaviours should be supported.

  17. It's Time to Include Nutrition Education in the Secondary Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertelsen, Susan L.; Thompson, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Although the primary focus of physical educators is to increase students' physical activity levels and their knowledge about the importance of movement, they also have the opportunity to affect students' overall wellness by teaching nutrition and how healthy eating contributes to overall health and weight management. Nutrition concepts…

  18. Taste preferences for nutritional supplements: comparison of cancer patients and healthy controls using a wine-tasting scale.

    PubMed

    Brown, R O; Schlegel, K; Hall, N H; Bernard, S; Heizer, W D

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-nine cancer patients (Ca) and 37 age-and sex-matched healthy controls (Co) evaluated 11 commercially available enteral supplements using a modified wine-tasting scale. The cancer patients were 19 males with lung cancer and 20 females with breast cancer, and their controls consisted of 17 males and 20 females, respectively. Mean evaluation scores for the individual supplements revealed no significant differences (NS) between lung cancer patients and controls. Ensure Plus (strawberry) received the highest score from both groups (Ca 16.0 +/- 3.0 vs Co 17.1 +/- 2.6, N.S.) while Vital received the lowest (Ca 6.3 +/- 4.8 vs Co 4.9 +/- 4.2, NS). Similar results were obtained for breast cancer patients and their controls except that chocolate Sustacal was rated significantly higher by breast cancer patients than by controls (16.6 +/- 2.6 vs 13.3 +/- 4.3, p less than 0.01). Again, Ensure Plus (strawberry) received the highest score from both groups (Ca 17.0 +/- 3.5 vs Co 17.8 +/- 2.3, NS), while Vital was rated lowest by both groups (Ca 5.6 +/- 4.7 vs Co 4.3 +/- 5.0, NS). The modified wine-tasting scale provides a method for quantitating taste preference for various dietary supplements. We report here the numerical rating of 11 supplements by patients with lung cancer and patients with breast cancer as well as their age- and sex-matched controls. PMID:3761524

  19. Meiotic recombination frequencies are affected by nutritional states in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Mohamad F. F.; Borts, Rhona H.

    2001-01-01

    Meiotic recombination in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is initiated by programmed double-strand breaks at selected sites throughout the genome (hotspots). α-Hotspots are binding sites for transcription factors. Double-strand breaks at α-hotspots require binding of transcription factor but not high levels of transcription per se. We show that modulating the production of the transcription factor Gcn4p by deletion or constitutive transcription alters the rate of gene conversion and crossing-over at HIS4. In addition, we show that alterations in the metabolic state of the cell change the frequency of gene conversion at HIS4 in a Gcn4p-dependent manner. We suggest that recombination data obtained from experiments using amino acid and other biosynthetic genes for gene disruptions and/or as genetic markers should be treated cautiously. The demonstration that Gcn4p affects transcription of more than 500 genes and that the recombinationally “hottest” ORFs tend to be Gcn4p-regulated suggest that the metabolic state of a cell, especially with respect to nitrogen metabolism, is a determinant of recombination rates. This observation suggests that the effects of metabolic state may be global and may account for some as yet unexplained features of recombination in higher organisms, such as the differences in map length between the sexes. PMID:11724920

  20. Flexible responses to visual and olfactory stimuli by foraging Manduca sexta: larval nutrition affects adult behaviour.

    PubMed

    Goyret, Joaquín; Kelber, Almut; Pfaff, Michael; Raguso, Robert A

    2009-08-01

    Here, we show that the consequences of deficient micronutrient (beta-carotene) intake during larval stages of Manduca sexta are carried across metamorphosis, affecting adult behaviour. Our manipulation of larval diet allowed us to examine how developmental plasticity impacts the interplay between visual and olfactory inputs on adult foraging behaviour. Larvae of M. sexta were reared on natural (Nicotiana tabacum) and artificial laboratory diets containing different concentrations of beta-carotene (standard diet, low beta-carotene, high beta-carotene and cornmeal). This vitamin-A precursor has been shown to be crucial for photoreception sensitivity in the retina of M. sexta. After completing development, post-metamorphosis, starved adults were presented with artificial feeders that could be either scented or unscented. Regardless of their larval diet, adult moths fed with relatively high probabilities on scented feeders. When feeders were unscented, moths reared on tobacco were more responsive than moths reared on beta-carotene-deficient artificial diets. Strikingly, moths reared on artificial diets supplemented with increasing amounts of beta-carotene (low beta and high beta) showed increasing probabilities of response to scentless feeders. We discuss these results in relationship to the use of complex, multi-modal sensory information by foraging animals.

  1. Nutrition and disease progression pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and post-HAART: can good nutrition delay time to HAART and affect response to HAART?

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Aditya; Gupta, Amita

    2011-12-01

    Several studies have investigated a variety of nutritional supplementation interventions in adults with HIV. In this narrative review, we summarize the evidence from 31 clinical trials that explore clinical benefits of macronutrient and micronutrient supplementation in this population while attempting to answer the question of whether good nutrition can delay the time to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation and response. We focused on trials published in English between 1990 and 2010 that reported on CD4 count, viral load, and disease progression or survival. Among 9 macronutrient and 22 micronutrient trials, we found that evidence for improved CD4 count and HIV viral load with nutritional supplementation was limited; only 11.1% and 36.8% of macronutrient and micronutrient supplementation trials, respectively, reported improved CD4 count; and 33.3% and 12.5% of macronutrient and micronutrient trials, respectively, reported decreased viral load. Given their utility as surrogate markers of HIV disease progression, this suggests limited evidence for nutritional interventions having an impact on delaying HAART initiation or on improving HAART response. However, there are challenges in evaluating the effects of nutritional supplementation on clinical disease in that comparisons are difficult due to heterogeneity in study design, patient population, nutrient doses and combinations, baseline levels of deficiency, and study endpoints, including lack of clarity in defining and reporting HAART status. Future studies need to adopt a more rigorous standard design with adequate power and follow-up and require a consensus on composition and dose of nutrient interventions to be tested to more specifically answer the question on the impact of nutritional interventions on HIV disease progression and HAART response.

  2. Nutrition and disease progression pre–highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and post-HAART: can good nutrition delay time to HAART and affect response to HAART?1234

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekhar, Aditya; Gupta, Amita

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have investigated a variety of nutritional supplementation interventions in adults with HIV. In this narrative review, we summarize the evidence from 31 clinical trials that explore clinical benefits of macronutrient and micronutrient supplementation in this population while attempting to answer the question of whether good nutrition can delay the time to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation and response. We focused on trials published in English between 1990 and 2010 that reported on CD4 count, viral load, and disease progression or survival. Among 9 macronutrient and 22 micronutrient trials, we found that evidence for improved CD4 count and HIV viral load with nutritional supplementation was limited; only 11.1% and 36.8% of macronutrient and micronutrient supplementation trials, respectively, reported improved CD4 count; and 33.3% and 12.5% of macronutrient and micronutrient trials, respectively, reported decreased viral load. Given their utility as surrogate markers of HIV disease progression, this suggests limited evidence for nutritional interventions having an impact on delaying HAART initiation or on improving HAART response. However, there are challenges in evaluating the effects of nutritional supplementation on clinical disease in that comparisons are difficult due to heterogeneity in study design, patient population, nutrient doses and combinations, baseline levels of deficiency, and study endpoints, including lack of clarity in defining and reporting HAART status. Future studies need to adopt a more rigorous standard design with adequate power and follow-up and require a consensus on composition and dose of nutrient interventions to be tested to more specifically answer the question on the impact of nutritional interventions on HIV disease progression and HAART response. PMID:22089439

  3. Nutritional and environmental factors affecting plasma ghrelin and leptin levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Keiko; Okame, Rieko; Katayama, Tetsuro; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenji; Murakami, Noboru

    2010-10-01

    We examined which factors suppress the rise of ghrelin secretion under hunger in 16-h-starved rats, and compared the responses of plasma ghrelin and leptin levels to various exogenous and endogenous stimuli in intact rats. Although an acute expansion of the stomach by infusion of 6 ml air or 3 ml water in rats starved for 16 h did not change the level of plasma acyl-ghrelin 3 ml corn starch solution, corn oil, or 20% ethanol significantly decreased it. Vagotomy inhibited suppression by nutrients but not by ethanol. Chronic infusion of ethanol into the stomach for 3 weeks in free-feeding rats caused widespread injury of the stomach mucosa, and increased both plasma ghrelin levels and the number of ghrelin cells. In intact rats, low temperature did not change ghrelin levels, but increased leptin levels. On the other hand, restriction stress decreased plasma ghrelin levels, but had the reverse effect on plasma leptin levels. Although insulin decreased and 20% glucose increased plasma glucose levels, they both decreased plasma ghrelin levels. Insulin elevated plasma leptin levels, but glucose had no effect. These results indicate that 1) acyl-ghrelin secretion from the stomach under fasting condition is suppressed by nutrients but not by mechanical expansion of the stomach; 2) high and low environmental temperature, stress, or administration of insulin reciprocally affect plasma levels of ghrelin and leptin; and 3) an increase of stomach ghrelin cell number and plasma ghrelin levels after chronic ethanol treatment may be involved in restoration of gastric mucosae.

  4. Associations between macronutrient intake and serum lipid profile depend on body fat in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.

    PubMed

    Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Mouratidou, Theodora; Huybrechts, Inge; Labayen, Idoia; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Palacios, Gonzalo; Breidenassel, Christina; Molnár, Dénes; Roccaldo, Romana; Widhalm, Kurt; Gottrand, Frederic; Kafatos, Anthony; Manios, Yannis; Vyncke, Krishna; Sjöström, Michael; Libuda, Lars; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Moreno, Luis A

    2014-12-28

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between macronutrient intake and serum lipid profile in adolescents from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) cross-sectional study (2006-7), and to assess the role of body fat-related variables in these associations. Weight, height, waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol, TAG, apoB and apoA1 were measured in 454 adolescents (44% boys) aged 12.5-17.5 years. Macronutrient intake (g/4180 kJ per d (1000 kcal per d)) was assessed using two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. Associations were evaluated by multi-level analysis and adjusted for sex, age, maternal education, centre, sum of four skinfolds, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary behaviours and diet quality index for adolescents. Carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with HDL-C (β = - 0.189, P< 0.001). An inverse association was found between fat intake and TAG (β = - 0.319, P< 0.001). Associations between macronutrient intake and serum lipids varied according to adiposity levels, i.e. an inverse association between carbohydrate intake and HDL-C was only observed in those adolescents with a higher waist:height ratio. As serum lipids and excess body fat are the major markers of CVD, these findings should be considered when developing strategies to prevent the risk of CVD among adolescents.

  5. European adolescents' level of perceived stress is inversely related to their diet quality: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.

    PubMed

    De Vriendt, Tineke; Clays, Els; Huybrechts, Inge; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Moreno, Luis A; Patterson, Emma; Molnár, Dénes; Mesana, María I; Beghin, Laurent; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yannis; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-07-01

    As stress is hypothesised to influence dietary behaviour, the relationship between perceived stress and diet quality in European adolescents was investigated. Within the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study, adolescents (n 704, aged 12-17 years) from schools in five European cities (Ghent, Stockholm, Zaragoza, Athens and Vienna) completed a 2 d 24 h dietary recall assessment and an Adolescent Stress Questionnaire. Measurements and information were taken on height, weight, pubertal stage, parental education level, the level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep duration. The Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A) was calculated from the dietary data, which comprised three components reflecting dietary diversity, quality and equilibrium. Hierarchical linear models were performed to investigate the relationship between the adolescents' level of perceived stress and the DQI-A and its components, adjusting for relevant covariates (age, BMI z-score, pubertal stage and parental education). These models were additionally adjusted for MVPA or sleep duration. In both boys and girls, perceived stress was a significant independent negative predictor for their overall DQI-A. This inverse relationship was observed for all dietary components, except for dietary diversity in boys, and it was unaltered when additionally adjusted for MVPA or sleep duration. The observed inverse relationship between stress and diet quality within these European adolescents supports the hypothesis that stress influences dietary behaviour, thus emphasising the need for preventive stress-coping strategies for adolescents.

  6. Comparing Bacterial Community Composition of Healthy and Dark Spot-Affected Siderastrea siderea in Florida and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Gray, Michael A.; Andersen, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    Coral disease is one of the major causes of reef degradation. Dark Spot Syndrome (DSS) was described in the early 1990's as brown or purple amorphous areas of tissue on a coral and has since become one of the most prevalent diseases reported on Caribbean reefs. It has been identified in a number of coral species, but there is debate as to whether it is in fact the same disease in different corals. Further, it is questioned whether these macroscopic signs are in fact diagnostic of an infectious disease at all. The most commonly affected species in the Caribbean is the massive starlet coral Siderastrea siderea. We sampled this species in two locations, Dry Tortugas National Park and Virgin Islands National Park. Tissue biopsies were collected from both healthy colonies and those with dark spot lesions. Microbial-community DNA was extracted from coral samples (mucus, tissue, and skeleton), amplified using bacterial-specific primers, and applied to PhyloChip G3 microarrays to examine the bacterial diversity associated with this coral. Samples were also screened for the presence of a fungal ribotype that has recently been implicated as a causative agent of DSS in another coral species, but the amplifications were unsuccessful. S. siderea samples did not cluster consistently based on health state (i.e., normal versus dark spot). Various bacteria, including Cyanobacteria and Vibrios, were observed to have increased relative abundance in the discolored tissue, but the patterns were not consistent across all DSS samples. Overall, our findings do not support the hypothesis that DSS in S. siderea is linked to a bacterial pathogen or pathogens. This dataset provides the most comprehensive overview to date of the bacterial community associated with the scleractinian coral S. siderea. PMID:25289937

  7. Drinking Water Sodium and Elevated Blood Pressure of Healthy Pregnant Women in Salinity-Affected Coastal Areas.

    PubMed

    Scheelbeek, Pauline F D; Khan, Aneire E; Mojumder, Sontosh; Elliott, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Coastal areas in Southeast Asia are experiencing high sodium concentrations in drinking water sources that are commonly consumed by local populations. Salinity problems caused by episodic cyclones and subsequent seawater inundations are likely (partly) related to climate change and further exacerbated by changes in upstream river flow and local land-use activities. Dietary (food) sodium plays an important role in the global burden of hypertensive disease. It remains unknown, however, if sodium in drinking water-rather than food-has similar effects on blood pressure and disease risk. In this study, we examined the effect of drinking water sodium on blood pressure of pregnant women: increases in blood pressure in this group could severely affect maternal and fetal health. Data on blood pressure, drinking water source, and personal, lifestyle, and environmental confounders was obtained from 701 normotensive pregnant women residing in coastal Bangladesh. Generalized linear mixed regression models were used to investigate association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of these-otherwise healthy-women with their water source. After adjustment for confounders, drinkers of tube well and pond water (high saline sources) were found to have significantly higher average systolic (+4.85 and +3.62 mm Hg) and diastolic (+2.30 and +1.72 mm Hg) blood pressures than rainwater drinkers. Drinking water salinity problems are expected to exacerbate in the future, putting millions of coastal people-including pregnant women-at increased risk of hypertension and associated diseases. There is an urgent need to further explore the health risks associated to this understudied environmental health problem and feasibility of possible adaptation strategies. PMID:27297000

  8. Drinking Water Sodium and Elevated Blood Pressure of Healthy Pregnant Women in Salinity-Affected Coastal Areas.

    PubMed

    Scheelbeek, Pauline F D; Khan, Aneire E; Mojumder, Sontosh; Elliott, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Coastal areas in Southeast Asia are experiencing high sodium concentrations in drinking water sources that are commonly consumed by local populations. Salinity problems caused by episodic cyclones and subsequent seawater inundations are likely (partly) related to climate change and further exacerbated by changes in upstream river flow and local land-use activities. Dietary (food) sodium plays an important role in the global burden of hypertensive disease. It remains unknown, however, if sodium in drinking water-rather than food-has similar effects on blood pressure and disease risk. In this study, we examined the effect of drinking water sodium on blood pressure of pregnant women: increases in blood pressure in this group could severely affect maternal and fetal health. Data on blood pressure, drinking water source, and personal, lifestyle, and environmental confounders was obtained from 701 normotensive pregnant women residing in coastal Bangladesh. Generalized linear mixed regression models were used to investigate association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of these-otherwise healthy-women with their water source. After adjustment for confounders, drinkers of tube well and pond water (high saline sources) were found to have significantly higher average systolic (+4.85 and +3.62 mm Hg) and diastolic (+2.30 and +1.72 mm Hg) blood pressures than rainwater drinkers. Drinking water salinity problems are expected to exacerbate in the future, putting millions of coastal people-including pregnant women-at increased risk of hypertension and associated diseases. There is an urgent need to further explore the health risks associated to this understudied environmental health problem and feasibility of possible adaptation strategies.

  9. Comparing bacterial community composition of healthy and dark spot-affected Siderastrea siderea in Florida and the Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Gray, Michael A.; Andersen, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    Coral disease is one of the major causes of reef degradation. Dark Spot Syndrome (DSS) was described in the early 1990's as brown or purple amorphous areas of tissue on a coral and has since become one of the most prevalent diseases reported on Caribbean reefs. It has been identified in a number of coral species, but there is debate as to whether it is in fact the same disease in different corals. Further, it is questioned whether these macroscopic signs are in fact diagnostic of an infectious disease at all. The most commonly affected species in the Caribbean is the massive starlet coral Siderastrea siderea. We sampled this species in two locations, Dry Tortugas National Park and Virgin Islands National Park. Tissue biopsies were collected from both healthy colonies and those with dark spot lesions. Microbial-community DNA was extracted from coral samples (mucus, tissue, and skeleton), amplified using bacterial-specific primers, and applied to PhyloChip G3 microarrays to examine the bacterial diversity associated with this coral. Samples were also screened for the presence of a fungal ribotype that has recently been implicated as a causative agent of DSS in another coral species, but the amplifications were unsuccessful. S. siderea samples did not cluster consistently based on health state (i.e., normal versus dark spot). Various bacteria, including Cyanobacteria and Vibrios, were observed to have increased relative abundance in the discolored tissue, but the patterns were not consistent across all DSS samples. Overall, our findings do not support the hypothesis that DSS in S. siderea is linked to a bacterial pathogen or pathogens. This dataset provides the most comprehensive overview to date of the bacterial community associated with the scleractinian coral S. siderea.

  10. Comparing bacterial community composition of healthy and dark spot-affected Siderastrea siderea in Florida and the Caribbean

    DOE PAGES

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Gray, Michael A.; Andersen, Gary L.; Mormile, Melanie R.

    2014-10-07

    Coral disease is one of the major causes of reef degradation. Dark Spot Syndrome (DSS) was described in the early 1990's as brown or purple amorphous areas of tissue on a coral and has since become one of the most prevalent diseases reported on Caribbean reefs. It has been identified in a number of coral species, but there is debate as to whether it is in fact the same disease in different corals. Further, it is questioned whether these macroscopic signs are in fact diagnostic of an infectious disease at all. The most commonly affected species in the Caribbean ismore » the massive starlet coral Siderastrea siderea. We sampled this species in two locations, Dry Tortugas National Park and Virgin Islands National Park. Tissue biopsies were collected from both healthy colonies and those with dark spot lesions. Microbial-community DNA was extracted from coral samples (mucus, tissue, and skeleton), amplified using bacterial-specific primers, and applied to PhyloChip G3 microarrays to examine the bacterial diversity associated with this coral. Samples were also screened for the presence of a fungal ribotype that has recently been implicated as a causative agent of DSS in another coral species, but the amplifications were unsuccessful. S. siderea samples did not cluster consistently based on health state (i.e., normal versus dark spot). Various bacteria, including Cyanobacteria and Vibrios, were observed to have increased relative abundance in the discolored tissue, but the patterns were not consistent across all DSS samples. Overall, our findings do not support the hypothesis that DSS in S. siderea is linked to a bacterial pathogen or pathogens. This dataset provides the most comprehensive overview to date of the bacterial community associated with the scleractinian coral S. siderea.« less

  11. Uncovering the nutritional landscape of food.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seunghyeon; Sung, Jaeyun; Foo, Mathias; Jin, Yong-Su; Kim, Pan-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Recent progresses in data-driven analysis methods, including network-based approaches, are revolutionizing many classical disciplines. These techniques can also be applied to food and nutrition, which must be studied to design healthy diets. Using nutritional information from over 1,000 raw foods, we systematically evaluated the nutrient composition of each food in regards to satisfying daily nutritional requirements. The nutrient balance of a food was quantified and termed nutritional fitness; this measure was based on the food's frequency of occurrence in nutritionally adequate food combinations. Nutritional fitness offers a way to prioritize recommendable foods within a global network of foods, in which foods are connected based on the similarities of their nutrient compositions. We identified a number of key nutrients, such as choline and α-linolenic acid, whose levels in foods can critically affect the nutritional fitness of the foods. Analogously, pairs of nutrients can have the same effect. In fact, two nutrients can synergistically affect the nutritional fitness, although the individual nutrients alone may not have an impact. This result, involving the tendency among nutrients to exhibit correlations in their abundances across foods, implies a hidden layer of complexity when exploring for foods whose balance of nutrients within pairs holistically helps meet nutritional requirements. Interestingly, foods with high nutritional fitness successfully maintain this nutrient balance. This effect expands our scope to a diverse repertoire of nutrient-nutrient correlations, which are integrated under a common network framework that yields unexpected yet coherent associations between nutrients. Our nutrient-profiling approach combined with a network-based analysis provides a more unbiased, global view of the relationships between foods and nutrients, and can be extended towards nutritional policies, food marketing, and personalized nutrition.

  12. Uncovering the Nutritional Landscape of Food

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seunghyeon; Sung, Jaeyun; Foo, Mathias; Jin, Yong-Su; Kim, Pan-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Recent progresses in data-driven analysis methods, including network-based approaches, are revolutionizing many classical disciplines. These techniques can also be applied to food and nutrition, which must be studied to design healthy diets. Using nutritional information from over 1,000 raw foods, we systematically evaluated the nutrient composition of each food in regards to satisfying daily nutritional requirements. The nutrient balance of a food was quantified and termed nutritional fitness; this measure was based on the food’s frequency of occurrence in nutritionally adequate food combinations. Nutritional fitness offers a way to prioritize recommendable foods within a global network of foods, in which foods are connected based on the similarities of their nutrient compositions. We identified a number of key nutrients, such as choline and α-linolenic acid, whose levels in foods can critically affect the nutritional fitness of the foods. Analogously, pairs of nutrients can have the same effect. In fact, two nutrients can synergistically affect the nutritional fitness, although the individual nutrients alone may not have an impact. This result, involving the tendency among nutrients to exhibit correlations in their abundances across foods, implies a hidden layer of complexity when exploring for foods whose balance of nutrients within pairs holistically helps meet nutritional requirements. Interestingly, foods with high nutritional fitness successfully maintain this nutrient balance. This effect expands our scope to a diverse repertoire of nutrient-nutrient correlations, which are integrated under a common network framework that yields unexpected yet coherent associations between nutrients. Our nutrient-profiling approach combined with a network-based analysis provides a more unbiased, global view of the relationships between foods and nutrients, and can be extended towards nutritional policies, food marketing, and personalized nutrition. PMID:25768022

  13. Interactions between light intensity and phosphorus nutrition affect the phosphate-mining capacity of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lingyun; Tang, Xiaoyan; Vance, Carroll P; White, Philip J; Zhang, Fusuo; Shen, Jianbo

    2014-07-01

    Light intensity affects photosynthetic carbon (C) fixation and the supply of carbon to roots. To evaluate interactions between carbon supply and phosphorus (P) supply, effects of light intensity on sucrose accumulation, root growth, cluster root formation, carboxylate exudation, and P uptake capacity were studied in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown hydroponically with either 200 µmol m(-2) s(-1) or 600 µmol m(-2) s(-1) light and a sufficient (50 µM P) or deficient (1 µM P) P supply. Plant biomass and root:shoot ratio increased with increasing light intensity, particularly when plants were supplied with sufficient P. Both low P supply and increasing light intensity increased the production of cluster roots and citrate exudation. Transcripts of a phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase gene (LaPEPC3) in cluster roots (which is related to the exudation of citrate), transcripts of a phosphate transporter gene (LaPT1), and P uptake all increased with increasing light intensity, under both P-sufficient and P-deficient conditions. Across all four experimental treatments, increased cluster root formation and carboxylate exudation were associated with lower P concentration in the shoot and greater sucrose concentration in the roots. It is suggested that C in excess of shoot growth capabilities is translocated to the roots as sucrose, which serves as both a nutritional signal and a C-substrate for carboxylate exudation and cluster root formation.

  14. Interactions between light intensity and phosphorus nutrition affect the phosphate-mining capacity of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lingyun; Tang, Xiaoyan; Vance, Carroll P; White, Philip J; Zhang, Fusuo; Shen, Jianbo

    2014-07-01

    Light intensity affects photosynthetic carbon (C) fixation and the supply of carbon to roots. To evaluate interactions between carbon supply and phosphorus (P) supply, effects of light intensity on sucrose accumulation, root growth, cluster root formation, carboxylate exudation, and P uptake capacity were studied in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown hydroponically with either 200 µmol m(-2) s(-1) or 600 µmol m(-2) s(-1) light and a sufficient (50 µM P) or deficient (1 µM P) P supply. Plant biomass and root:shoot ratio increased with increasing light intensity, particularly when plants were supplied with sufficient P. Both low P supply and increasing light intensity increased the production of cluster roots and citrate exudation. Transcripts of a phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase gene (LaPEPC3) in cluster roots (which is related to the exudation of citrate), transcripts of a phosphate transporter gene (LaPT1), and P uptake all increased with increasing light intensity, under both P-sufficient and P-deficient conditions. Across all four experimental treatments, increased cluster root formation and carboxylate exudation were associated with lower P concentration in the shoot and greater sucrose concentration in the roots. It is suggested that C in excess of shoot growth capabilities is translocated to the roots as sucrose, which serves as both a nutritional signal and a C-substrate for carboxylate exudation and cluster root formation. PMID:24723402

  15. Patients with Parkinson׳s disease are less affected than healthy persons by relevant response-unrelated features in visual search.

    PubMed

    Verleger, Rolf; Koerbs, Alexander; Graf, Julia; Śmigasiewicz, Kamila; Schroll, Henning; Hamker, Fred H

    2014-09-01

    Patients with Parkinson׳s disease (PD) respond more readily than healthy controls to irrelevant stimuli that contain task-relevant, response-priming features. This behavior may reflect oversensitivity to response-relevant features of irrelevant stimuli or failure to select relevant stimuli. To decide between these alternatives, we investigated in a "contingent-capture" paradigm whether PD patients are also oversensitive to task-relevant features that do not prime responses. PD patients and healthy controls had to report the orientation of bars in target color, presented among bars of other colors. Critically, target arrays were preceded by arrays of rings, all gray except one which might be the target color and might be presented at the same position as the upcoming target. Replicating earlier results from young healthy participants (Eimer, Kiss, Press, & Sauter, 2009), signal rings in target color induced an N2pc component over contralateral visual cortex and some positivity at anterior sites (d-P200), both indicative of attentional capture. Correspondingly, signals in target color facilitated correct responding to upcoming targets presented at the same location and impeded correct responses otherwise. Patients with PD had diminished N2pc, lacked the frontal focus of d-P200, and their responses tended to be less affected than healthy participants' by signal position. Thus PD patients appeared less affected than healthy persons by stimuli with relevant features. This outcome is compatible with the notion that PD patients have poorer internal representations of what is relevant in a given task.

  16. Myostatin allelic status interacts with level of nutrition to affect growth, composition, and myofiber characteristics of lambs.

    PubMed

    Haynes, F E M; Greenwood, P L; McDonagh, M B; Oddy, V H

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine if growth, carcass composition, and myofiber characteristics of lambs were affected by heterozygosity for a myostatin mutation (g+6723G>A) when offered differing allowances of feed administered with or without ractopamine. Heterozygote [MSTN A/G (n = 40)] and homozygote wildtype [MSTN G/G (n = 39)] castrate male lambs were individually fed ad libitum (HI; 1.8 × estimated ME(m)) or a restricted allowance (LO; 1.1 × estimated ME(m)) of a diet (191 g of CP/kg of DM and 12 MJ of ME/kg of DM), supplemented with (0.4 mg/kg of BW) or without the β-adrenergic agonist ractopamine (RAC or NO RAC) for 47 d. The lambs were scanned by computed tomography at the beginning and completion of the feeding experiment to calculate composition of lean, fat, and bone in the carcass component of the body. The MSTN A/G HI intake lambs had significantly greater total daily carcass growth (P = 0.045) and loin eye depth (P = 0.022) and tended to have a greater daily growth of lean (P = 0.09) in the carcass, compared with MSTN G/G HI intake lambs. Conversely, MSTN A/G LO intake lambs tended to have less daily lean deposition (P = 0.09), significantly less total daily carcass growth (P = 0.045), and had a greater percentage of type IIX myofibers (P < 0.01) and total myofiber area (relative area) of type IIX myofibers (P = 0.013). The inclusion of RAC increased final BW (P = 0.03) and ADG (P = 0.02), percentage of type IIC (P < 0.001) and IIA (P = 0.012) myofibers, cross-sectional area of types I (P = 0.04) and IIAX (P = 0.04) fibers, and the relative area of type IIC (P = 0.003) and IIA (P = 0.01) myofibers in the LM. The experiment demonstrated that including RAC in the diet of lambs increased final BW and ADG, but not HCW, and increased proportion of type IIC and IIA myofibers and cross-sectional area of type I and IIAX myofibers. Our data suggest that RAC and the heterozygous myostatin mutation act together to increase growth of muscle on

  17. Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Christine; And Others

    This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…

  18. USDA's Great Nutrition Adventure [Packet].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This nutrition education packet provides information to schools setting up healthy school meal programs and nutrition education programs. Team Nutrition schools will involve students, teachers, families, food service personnel, and community organizations in nutrition education activities. The packet contains fact sheets that focus on: the Great…

  19. Healthy Ready-to-Eat Expanded Snack with High Nutritional and Antioxidant Value Produced from Whole Amarantin Transgenic Maize and Black Common Bean.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Moreno, Ramona J; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; López-Valenzuela, José A; Paredes-López, Octavio; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    The snack foods market is currently demanding healthier products. A ready-to-eat expanded snack with high nutritional and antioxidant value was developed from a mixture (70:30) of whole amarantin transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) and black common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by optimizing the extrusion process. Extruder operation conditions were: feed moisture content (FMC, 15-25 %, wet basis), barrel temperature (BT, 120-170 °C), and screw speed (SS, 50-240). The desirability numeric method of the response surface methodology (RSM) was applied as the optimization technique over four response variables [expansion ratio (ER), bulk density (BD), hardness (H), antioxidant activity (AoxA)] to obtain maximum ER and AoxA, and minimum BD, and H values. The best combination of extrusion process variables for producing an optimized expanded snack (OES, healthy snack) were: FMC = 15 %/BT = 157 °C/SS = 238 rpm. The OES had ER = 2.86, BD = 0.119 g/cm (3) , H = 1.818 N, and AoxA = 13,681 μmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g, dry weight. The extrusion conditions used to produce the OES increased the AoxA (ORAC: +18 %, ABTS:+20 %) respect to the unprocessed whole grains mixture. A 50 g portion of OES had higher protein content (7.23 vs 2.32 g), total dietary fiber (7.50 vs 1.97 g), total phenolic content (122 vs 47 mg GAE), and AoxA (6626 vs 763 μmol TE), and lower energy (169 vs 264 kcal) than an expanded commercial snack (ECS = Cheetos™). Because of its high content of quality protein, dietary fiber and phenolics, as well as high AoxA and low energy density, the OES could be used for health promotion and chronic disease prevention and as an alternative to the widely available commercial snacks with high caloric content and low nutritional/nutraceutical value. PMID:27170034

  20. Healthy Ready-to-Eat Expanded Snack with High Nutritional and Antioxidant Value Produced from Whole Amarantin Transgenic Maize and Black Common Bean.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Moreno, Ramona J; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; López-Valenzuela, José A; Paredes-López, Octavio; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    The snack foods market is currently demanding healthier products. A ready-to-eat expanded snack with high nutritional and antioxidant value was developed from a mixture (70:30) of whole amarantin transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) and black common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by optimizing the extrusion process. Extruder operation conditions were: feed moisture content (FMC, 15-25 %, wet basis), barrel temperature (BT, 120-170 °C), and screw speed (SS, 50-240). The desirability numeric method of the response surface methodology (RSM) was applied as the optimization technique over four response variables [expansion ratio (ER), bulk density (BD), hardness (H), antioxidant activity (AoxA)] to obtain maximum ER and AoxA, and minimum BD, and H values. The best combination of extrusion process variables for producing an optimized expanded snack (OES, healthy snack) were: FMC = 15 %/BT = 157 °C/SS = 238 rpm. The OES had ER = 2.86, BD = 0.119 g/cm (3) , H = 1.818 N, and AoxA = 13,681 μmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g, dry weight. The extrusion conditions used to produce the OES increased the AoxA (ORAC: +18 %, ABTS:+20 %) respect to the unprocessed whole grains mixture. A 50 g portion of OES had higher protein content (7.23 vs 2.32 g), total dietary fiber (7.50 vs 1.97 g), total phenolic content (122 vs 47 mg GAE), and AoxA (6626 vs 763 μmol TE), and lower energy (169 vs 264 kcal) than an expanded commercial snack (ECS = Cheetos™). Because of its high content of quality protein, dietary fiber and phenolics, as well as high AoxA and low energy density, the OES could be used for health promotion and chronic disease prevention and as an alternative to the widely available commercial snacks with high caloric content and low nutritional/nutraceutical value.

  1. Calcium-Vitamin D Co-supplementation Affects Metabolic Profiles, but not Pregnancy Outcomes, in Healthy Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Asemi, Zatollah; Samimi, Mansooreh; Siavashani, Mehrnush Amiri; Mazloomi, Maryam; Tabassi, Zohreh; Karamali, Maryam; Jamilian, Mehri; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy is associated with unfavorable metabolic profile, which might in turn result in adverse pregnancy outcomes. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of calcium plus Vitamin D administration on metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes in healthy pregnant women. Methods: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed among 42 pregnant women aged 18–40 years who were at week 25 of gestation. Subjects were randomly allocated to consume either 500 mg calcium-200 IU cholecalciferol supplements (n = 21) or placebo (n = 21) for 9 weeks. Blood samples were obtained at the onset of the study and after 9-week trial to determine related markers. Post-delivery, the newborn's weight, length, and head circumference were measured during the first 24 h after birth. Results: Consumption of calcium-Vitamin D co-supplements resulted in a significant reduction of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels compared with placebo (−1856.8 ± 2657.7 vs. 707.1 ± 3139.4 μg/mL, P = 0.006). We also found a significant elevation of plasma total antioxidant capacity (89.3 ± 118.0 vs. −9.4 ± 164.9 mmol/L, P = 0.03), serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (2.5 ± 3.5 vs. −1.7 ± 1.7 ng/mL, P < 0.0001), and calcium levels (0.6 ± 0.6 vs. −0.1 ± 0.4 mg/dL, P < 0.0001). The supplementation led to a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure (−1.9 ± 8.3 vs. 3.1 ± 5.2 mmHg, P = 0.02) compared with placebo. No significant effect of calcium-Vitamin D co-supplements was seen on other metabolic profiles. We saw no significant change of the co-supplementation on pregnancy outcomes as well. Conclusions: Although calcium-Vitamin D co-supplementation for 9 weeks in pregnant women resulted in improved metabolic profiles, it did not affect pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27076887

  2. MedlinePlus: Toddler Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nemours Foundation) Healthy Eating for Preschoolers (Department of Agriculture) - PDF Also in Spanish Nutrition Guide for Toddlers ( ... 10 Tips for Setting Good Examples (Department of Agriculture) - PDF Also in Spanish Children's Nutrition: Tips for ...

  3. Food as Risk: How Eating Habits and Food Knowledge Affect Reactivity to Pictures of Junk and Healthy Foods.

    PubMed

    Yegiyan, Narine S; Bailey, Rachel L

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how people respond to images of junk versus healthy food as a function of their eating habits and food knowledge. The experiment reported here proposed and tested the idea that those with unhealthy eating habits but highly knowledgeable about healthy eating would feel more positive and also more negative toward junk food images compared to images of healthy food because they may perceive them as risky--desirable but potentially harmful. The psychophysiological data collected from participants during their exposure to pictures of junk versus healthy food supported this idea. In addition, unhealthy eaters compared to healthy eaters with the same degree of food knowledge responded more positively to all food items. The findings are critical from a health communication perspective. Because unhealthy eaters produce stronger emotional responses to images of junk food, they are more likely to process information associated with junk food with more cognitive effort and scrutiny. Thus, when targeting this group and using images of junk food, it is important to combine these images with strong message claims and relevant arguments; otherwise, if the arguments are perceived as irrelevant or weak, the motivational activation associated with junk food itself may transfer into an increased desire to consume the unhealthy product.

  4. Food as Risk: How Eating Habits and Food Knowledge Affect Reactivity to Pictures of Junk and Healthy Foods.

    PubMed

    Yegiyan, Narine S; Bailey, Rachel L

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how people respond to images of junk versus healthy food as a function of their eating habits and food knowledge. The experiment reported here proposed and tested the idea that those with unhealthy eating habits but highly knowledgeable about healthy eating would feel more positive and also more negative toward junk food images compared to images of healthy food because they may perceive them as risky--desirable but potentially harmful. The psychophysiological data collected from participants during their exposure to pictures of junk versus healthy food supported this idea. In addition, unhealthy eaters compared to healthy eaters with the same degree of food knowledge responded more positively to all food items. The findings are critical from a health communication perspective. Because unhealthy eaters produce stronger emotional responses to images of junk food, they are more likely to process information associated with junk food with more cognitive effort and scrutiny. Thus, when targeting this group and using images of junk food, it is important to combine these images with strong message claims and relevant arguments; otherwise, if the arguments are perceived as irrelevant or weak, the motivational activation associated with junk food itself may transfer into an increased desire to consume the unhealthy product. PMID:26503541

  5. Optimized rapeseed oil enriched with healthy micronutrients: a relevant nutritional approach to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Results of the Optim'Oils randomized intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Gladine, Cécile; Combe, Nicole; Vaysse, Carole; Pereira, Bruno; Huertas, Alain; Salvati, Serafina; Rossignol-Castera, Anne; Cano, Noël; Chardigny, Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    Rapeseeds are naturally rich in cardioprotective micronutrients but refining leads to substantial losses or the production of undesirable compounds. The Optim'Oils European project proposed innovative refining conditions to produce an optimized rapeseed oil enriched in micronutrients and low in trans linolenic acid. We aimed to investigate cardioprotective properties of this Optimized oil. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over study, 59 healthy normolipidaemic men consumed either Optimized or Standard rapeseed oils (20 g/d) and margarines (22 g/d) for 3 weeks. The Optimized oil reduced the trans FA concentration (p=0.009) and increased the contents of alpha-tocopherol (p=0.022) and coenzyme Q10 (p<0.001) in comparison with the Standard oil. Over the 3-week trial, Total-/HDL-cholesterol and LDL-/HDL-cholesterol were increased by 4% (p<0.05) with the Standard oil consumption whereas none of them rose with the Optimized rapeseed oil which increased the HDL-cholesterol and ApoA1 plasma content (+2%, NS and +3%, p<0.05 respectively). The effects observed on the plasma HDL-cholesterol levels (p=0.059), the Total-/HDL-cholesterol ratio (p=0.092), and on the ApoA1 concentrations (p=0.060) suggest an improvement of the cholesterol profile with the Optimized rapeseed oil. Finally, the Optimized oil reduced the plasma content of LDLox (-6%, NS), this effect being significantly different from the Standard oil (p=0.050). In conclusion, reasonable intake of an Optimized rapeseed oil resulting from innovative refining processes and enriched in cardioprotective micronutrients represent a relevant nutritional approach to prevent the risk of cardiovascular diseases by improving the cholesterol profile and reducing LDL oxidation.

  6. Socioeconomic factors are associated with folate and vitamin B12 intakes and related biomarkers concentrations in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.

    PubMed

    Iglesia, Iris; Mouratidou, Theodora; González-Gross, Marcela; Novakovic, Romana; Breidenassel, Christina; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Huybrechts, Inge; De Henauw, Stefaan; Geelen, Anouk; Gottrand, Frédéric; Kafatos, Anthony; Mistura, Lorenza; de Heredia, Fátima Pérez; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yanis; Molnar, Denes; Stehle, Peter; Gurinovic, Mirjana; Cavelaars, Adrienne E J M; Van't Veer, Pieter; Moreno, Luis A

    2014-03-01

    Because socioeconomic factors (SEFs) may influence dietary quality and vitamin intakes, this study aimed to examine associations between socioeconomic factors and folate and vitamin B12 intakes as well as their related biomarkers in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Vitamin intakes were obtained from two 24-hour recalls in 2253 participants (47% males). Vitamin B biomarkers were assessed in a subsample of 977 participants (46% males). Socioeconomic factors were assessed by questionnaire, and 1-way analysis of covariance and linear regression analysis were applied. For males and females, mean intakes of folate were 211.19 and 177.18 μg/d, and for vitamin B12, 5.98 and 4.54 μg/d, respectively. Levels of plasma folate, red blood cell folate, serum B12, and holotranscobalamin were 18.74, 807.19, 330.64, and 63.04 nmol/L in males, respectively, and 19.13, 770.16, 377.9, and 65.63 nmol/L in females, respectively. Lower folate intakes were associated with several SEFs, including maternal and paternal education in both sexes. Regarding folate biomarkers, lower plasma folate intakes were associated with single/shared care in males and with lower paternal occupation in females. Lower vitamin B12 intakes were associated with almost all the studied SEFs, except paternal occupation in both sexes. In females, when considering vitamin B12 biomarkers, lower plasma vitamin B12 was associated with lower maternal education and occupation, and lower holotranscobalamin was associated with lower maternal education and lower paternal occupation. In conclusion, from the set of socioeconomic determinants studied in a sample of European adolescents, maternal education and paternal occupation were more consistently associated with folate and vitamin B12 intakes and biomarkers concentrations.

  7. Contextual poverty, nutrition, and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition plays an important role in CKD outcomes. One of the strongest factors that affects nutrition is socioeconomic status as evidenced by the large body of epidemiologic data showing that income and education are directly associated with diet quality. Apart from individual-level markers of socioeconomic status such as income and education, contextual factors such as availability of and transportation to food outlets that provide healthy food options and the density of fast-food restaurants within particular regions markedly affect the ability of individuals to comply with nutrition recommendations. This is particularly true for nutrition guidelines most specific to individuals with CKD such as the consumption of protein, saturated fat, sodium, and phosphorus, all of which have been shown to affect CKD health and are influenced by the availability of healthy food options within individual neighborhood food environments. Because of the strong association of contextual poverty with the diet quality, any serious attempt to improve the diet of CKD patients must include a discussion of the environmental barriers that each individual faces in trying to access healthy foods, and health care providers should take account of these barriers when tailoring specific recommendations.

  8. Lipid Nutrition and Healthy Aging.

    PubMed

    Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive food factors are considered to be critical for health promotion and play an important role in the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases. Metabolic syndrome, a typical common disease, is a cluster of metabolic disorders, such as abdominal obesity, the combination of hypertriglyceridemia and lower level of HDL, hypertension and diabetes mellitus, that contribute to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In addition, the incidence of metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely linked with the increase in inflammation and the disorders of lipid metabolism. The pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and related diseases is complicated. However, food factors have been recognized as contributing factors in the development and prevention of these diseases. Provocative evidence profoundly supports the preventive role of dietary bioactive lipids, polyphenols and other food ingredients. Recent studies suggest the central role of nuclear transcription factors in the pathogenesis of obesity and NAFLD. The goal of the present symposium is to enhance our understanding of cellular and molecular effects of bioactive food factors against obesity related pathogenesis.

  9. Alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide do not affect iron absorption from formula in healthy term infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron absorption from infant formula is relatively low. Alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide have been suggested to enhance mineral absorption. We therefore assessed the effect of alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide on iron absorption from infant formula in healthy term infants. ...

  10. Therapy-Resistant, Spontaneously Remitting Generalized Neutrophilic Eccrine Hidradenitis in a Healthy Patient Decreases the Expression of Dermcidin in Affected Eccrine Glands

    PubMed Central

    Kambayashi, Yumi; Fujimura, Taku; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Aiba, Setsuya

    2011-01-01

    We describe a healthy 69-year-old Japanese man with generalized neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis (NEH). He visited our outpatient clinic with a 15-year history of disseminated pruritic papules on his trunk and extremities; the eruptions, however, were limited to the summer months. Histological findings reveal a dense accumulation of neutrophils around the sweat glands with degenerated secretary coils. Interestingly, immunohistochemical staining showed that the expression of dermcidin on the secretory portion of eccrine glands was significantly decreased in the affected lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first report in English of generalized NEH in a healthy adult that shows the downregulation of the expression of dermcidin in affected eccrine glands. PMID:22187538

  11. Detection of bovine papillomavirus DNA in sarcoid-affected and healthy free-roaming zebra (Equus zebra) populations in South Africa.

    PubMed

    van Dyk, Enette; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Bosman, Anna-Marie; Nel, Pierre J; Zimmerman, David; Venter, Estelle H

    2009-06-01

    The endangered Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra) is protected in small numbers in a few isolated populations in South African game parks. Since 1995, sarcoid lesions appeared in zebras in two of the parks. This study was undertaken to investigate if bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is associated with sarcoids in these zebras. A conventional PCR, targeting the E5 ORF of BPV, and subsequent RFLP analysis were initially used to demonstrate the presence of BPV-1 and -2 DNAs in zebra sarcoid tumours. A rapid, sensitive and reliable real-time PCR to detect and distinguish between BPV-1 and -2 infections in zebras was developed. With this assay it was demonstrated that BPV-1 and -2 DNA (either single or mixed infections) are present in sarcoid tumour, healthy skin and blood of sarcoid-affected and healthy zebras from sarcoid-affected parks as well as in the blood of zebras from parks where no sarcoid has been observed before.

  12. The Mulligan ankle taping does not affect balance performance in healthy subjects: a prospective, randomized blinded trial

    PubMed Central

    de-la-Morena, Jose Maria Delfa; Alguacil-Diego, Isabel Maria; Molina-Rueda, Francisco; Ramiro-González, Maria; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Fernández-Carnero, Josué

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the immediate effects of Mulligan fibular taping on static and dynamic postural balance in healthy subjects using computerized dynamic posturography (CDP). [Subjects and Methods] Forty-four volunteers (26 males and 18 females) aged 21 ±2 years participated in the study. The Mulligan tape was applied by a specialist in this technique. The placebo group received a treatment with a similar tape but with several cuts to avoid the fibular repositioning effect produced by Mulligan tape. Main outcome measures: The Sensory Organization Test (SOT) and the Motor Control Test (MCT) were performed by each subject at baseline and after the interventions. Outcome measures included equilibrium and strategy scores from each trial and condition of the SOT, and speed of reaction (latency period) from the MCT. [Results] Mulligan ankle taping did not have an impact on postural control during static and dynamic balance in subjects with healthy ankles when compared with placebo taping. [Conclusion] There was no difference in, equilibrium and strategy (SOT) and speed of reaction (MCT) in any of the subjects in this study. Therefore, this study suggests that Mulligan ankle taping does not have an impact on balance in healthy subjects. PMID:26157271

  13. Pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2014-03-01

    This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed. PMID:24580990

  14. Pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2014-03-01

    This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed.

  15. Nutrition in Space: Benefits on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2006-01-01

    History has often proven the criticality for adequate nutrition to ensure expedition success. Space exploration will be no different, with the exception of the certainty that food will not be found along the journey. Ensuring the health and safety of astronauts is critical and nutrition will serve several functions to that end. Nutritional assessment of International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers not only serves to evaluate the nutritional health of individuals, but also allows a better understanding of how space flight affects nutritional requirements, and how nutrition can serve in mitigating the negative effects of weightlessness on the human. Available data suggest that the nutritional status of astronauts is compromised during and after flight. Inadequate dietary intake and subsequent weight loss are often considered hallmarks of space flight, although exceptions to this do exist, and provide hope. However, beyond energy intake, specific nutrient issues also exist. Several vitamins, including D and folate, are affected in space travelers. Hematological and antioxidant defense systems are impacted, with increased iron storage, and increased markers of oxidative damage. Bone loss during space flight remains a critical challenge. Ground-based studies have proven that nutrition is a potent modulator of the bone response to simulated weightlessness. Protein and sodium are two nutrients which tend to exacerbate bone resorption and loss, likely mediated through acid base balance. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health. Both flight and ground-based research provide a unique situation, one where healthy individuals are put in a unique and challenging environment. A full understanding of the role of nutrition during space flight will not only enhance crew health and safety during flight, but will also expand our understanding of the role of

  16. Single nucleotide polymorphisms linked to mitochondrial uncoupling protein genes UCP2 and UCP3 affect mitochondrial metabolism and healthy aging in female nonagenarians.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangkyu; Myers, Leann; Ravussin, Eric; Cherry, Katie E; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2016-08-01

    Energy expenditure decreases with age, but in the oldest-old, energy demand for maintenance of body functions increases with declining health. Uncoupling proteins have profound impact on mitochondrial metabolic processes; therefore, we focused attention on mitochondrial uncoupling protein genes. Alongside resting metabolic rate (RMR), two SNPs in the promoter region of UCP2 were associated with healthy aging. These SNPs mark potential binding sites for several transcription factors; thus, they may affect expression of the gene. A third SNP in the 3'-UTR of UCP3 interacted with RMR. This UCP3 SNP is known to impact UCP3 expression in tissue culture cells, and it has been associated with body weight and mitochondrial energy metabolism. The significant main effects of the UCP2 SNPs and the interaction effect of the UCP3 SNP were also observed after controlling for fat-free mass (FFM) and physical-activity related energy consumption. The association of UCP2/3 with healthy aging was not found in males. Thus, our study provides evidence that the genetic risk factors for healthy aging differ in males and females, as expected from the differences in the phenotypes associated with healthy aging between the two sexes. It also has implications for how mitochondrial function changes during aging. PMID:26965008

  17. The Fading Affect Bias shows healthy coping at the general level, but not the specific level for religious variables across religious and non-religious events.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Jeffrey A; Hartzler, Jennifer K; Hartzler, Andrew W; Lee, Sherman A; Walker, W Richard

    2015-11-01

    The research on fading emotions has shown that unpleasant emotions fade more over time than pleasant emotions, which is a phenomenon referred to as the Fading Affect Bias (FAB). Based on the negative relation between the FAB and dysphoria (Walker, Skowronski, Gibbons, Vogl, & Thompson, 2003), some researchers have argued that the FAB is a healthy coping mechanism (Walker, Skowronski, & Thompson, 2003). As religious variables are related to positive emotions and emotional coping (e.g., Cohen, 2002; Pargament, Smith, Koenig, & Perez, 1998), we examined the FAB as a healthy coping mechanism at the general and specific levels of analysis in the context of religion. General healthy coping was supported by (1) FAB effects across both religious events (REs) and non-religious events (NREs) and (2) a positive relation for spirituality and the FAB. However, specific healthy coping was not supported by a small FAB for (1) REs at high levels of positive religious coping (PRC) for NREs, (2) NREs at low levels of PRC for NREs, and (3) purely REs relative to REs involving spirituality. Other implications are discussed.

  18. Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels as a possible predictor of psychopathology in healthy twins at high and low risk for affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a potential biomarker of affective disorder. However, longitudinal studies evaluating a potential predictive role of BDNF on subsequent psychopathology are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF alone or in interaction with the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism predict onset of affective disorder in healthy individuals at heritable risk for affective disorder. In a high-risk study, we assessed whole blood levels of BDNF in 234 healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with or without a co-twin history of affective disorder (high and low risk twins, respectively). Participants were followed up longitudinally with questionnaires at 6-month intervals for mean seven years and then reassessed with a personal interview to obtain information about whether they had developed psychiatric illness. At follow-up 36 participants (15.4%) had developed psychiatric disorder. Cox regression analysis revealed that BDNF levels at baseline were not associated with onset of illness in this explorative study. Further, two-way interactions between BDNF levels and the Val66Met polymorphism or between familial risk and the Val66Met polymorphism did not predict illness onset.

  19. Cooperation in USDA studies and evaluations, and full use of federal funds in nutrition assistance programs nondiscretionary provisions of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, Public Law 111-296. Final Rule.

    PubMed

    2011-06-29

    This final rule incorporates into the regulations governing the Programs authorized under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (NSLA) and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (CNA) two nondiscretionary provisions of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFK Act). The HHFK Act requires State and local cooperation in Department of Agriculture studies and evaluations related to Programs authorized under the NSLA and the CNA. The HHFK Act also amends the NSLA to stipulate that Federal funds must not be subject to State budget restrictions or limitations, including hiring freezes, work furloughs, and travel restrictions. This final rule amends regulations for the National School Lunch Program; the Special Milk Program for Children; the School Breakfast Program; the Summer Food Service Program; the Child and Adult Care Food Program; State Administrative Expense Funds ; the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children; and the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program. These provisions will strengthen program integrity by ensuring that sufficient data is made available for studies and evaluations. Additionally, exempting Federal funds from State budgetary restrictions or limitations is intended to increase the ability of State agencies to administer USDA's nutrition assistance programs effectively.

  20. Cooperation in USDA studies and evaluations, and full use of federal funds in nutrition assistance programs nondiscretionary provisions of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, Public Law 111-296. Final Rule.

    PubMed

    2011-06-29

    This final rule incorporates into the regulations governing the Programs authorized under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (NSLA) and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (CNA) two nondiscretionary provisions of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFK Act). The HHFK Act requires State and local cooperation in Department of Agriculture studies and evaluations related to Programs authorized under the NSLA and the CNA. The HHFK Act also amends the NSLA to stipulate that Federal funds must not be subject to State budget restrictions or limitations, including hiring freezes, work furloughs, and travel restrictions. This final rule amends regulations for the National School Lunch Program; the Special Milk Program for Children; the School Breakfast Program; the Summer Food Service Program; the Child and Adult Care Food Program; State Administrative Expense Funds ; the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children; and the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program. These provisions will strengthen program integrity by ensuring that sufficient data is made available for studies and evaluations. Additionally, exempting Federal funds from State budgetary restrictions or limitations is intended to increase the ability of State agencies to administer USDA's nutrition assistance programs effectively. PMID:21721318

  1. Proteomic analysis of anti-nutritional factors (ANF’s) in soybean seeds as affected by environmental and genetic factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genotype (G), environment (E), and the relationship between G and E on soybean seed anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) were examined under three different agro-climatic conditions. The field trials were conducted at Maryland, South Carolina, and South Dakota using nine region specific genotypes. At...

  2. Horse meat consumption affects iron status, lipid profile and fatty acid composition of red blood cells in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Del Bó, Cristian; Simonetti, Paolo; Gardana, Claudio; Riso, Patrizia; Lucchini, Giorgio; Ciappellano, Salvatore

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of moderate consumption of horse meat on iron status, lipid profile and fatty acid composition of red blood cells in healthy male volunteers. Fifty-two subjects were randomly assigned to two groups of 26 subjects each: a test group consuming two portions of 175 g/week of horse meat, and a control group that abstained from eating horse meat during the 90 days trial. Before and after 90 days, blood samples were collected for analysis. Horse meat consumption significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced serum levels of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( - 6.2% and - 9.1%, respectively) and transferrin ( - 4.6%). Total n - 3, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids n - 3 and docosahexeanoic acid content in erythrocytes increased (p ≤ 0.05) by about 7.8%, 8% and 11%, respectively. In conclusion, the regular consumption of horse meat may contribute to the dietary intake of n - 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and may improve lipid profile and iron status in healthy subjects.

  3. Sex Hormones Enhance Gingival Inflammation without Affecting IL-1β and TNF-α in Periodontally Healthy Women during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min; Chen, Shao-Wu; Su, Wei-Lan; Zhu, Hong-Ying; Ouyang, Shu-Yuan; Cao, Ya-Ting; Jiang, Shao-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Hormones (progesterone and estradiol) change greatly during pregnancy; however, the mechanism of hormonal changes on gingival inflammation is still unclear. This study is to evaluate the effects of hormonal changes during pregnancy on gingival inflammation and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). 30 periodontally healthy pregnant women were evaluated in the first, second, and third trimesters. 20 periodontally healthy nonpregnant women were evaluated twice (once per subsequent month). Clinical parameters including probing pocket depth (PPD), bleeding index (BI), gingival index (GI), clinical attachment level (CAL), and plaque index (PLI) were recorded. GCF levels of IL-1β and TNF-α and serum levels of progesterone and estradiol were measured. From the data, despite low PLI, BI and GI increased significantly during pregnancy; however, no significant changes in PLI, CAL, IL-1β, or TNF-α GCF levels were observed. Although IL-1β, not TNF-α, was higher in pregnant group than in nonpregnant group, they showed no correlation with serum hormone levels during pregnancy. GI and BI showed significant positive correlation with serum hormone levels during pregnancy. This study suggests that sex hormone increase during pregnancy might have an effect on inflammatory status of gingiva, independent of IL-1β and TNF-α in GCF. PMID:27034591

  4. Improvement in nutrition-related knowledge and behaviour of urban Asian Indian school children: findings from the 'Medical education for children/Adolescents for Realistic prevention of obesity and diabetes and for healthy aGeing' ( MARG) intervention study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Priyali; Misra, Anoop; Gupta, Nidhi; Hazra, Daya Kishore; Gupta, Rajeev; Seth, Payal; Agarwal, Anand; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Jain, Arvind; Kulshreshta, Atul; Hazra, Nandita; Khanna, Padmamalika; Gangwar, Prasann Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Tallikoti, Pooja; Mohan, Indu; Bhargava, Rooma; Sharma, Rekha; Gulati, Seema; Bharadwaj, Swati; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Goel, Kashish

    2010-08-01

    Increasing prevalence of childhood obesity calls for comprehensive and cost-effective educative measures in developing countries such as India. School-based educative programmes greatly influence children's behaviour towards healthy living. We aimed to evaluate the impact of a school-based health and nutritional education programme on knowledge and behaviour of urban Asian Indian school children. Benchmark assessment of parents and teachers was also done. We educated 40 196 children (aged 8-18 years), 25 000 parents and 1500 teachers about health, nutrition, physical activity, non-communicable diseases and healthy cooking practices in three cities of North India. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to assess randomly selected 3128 children, 2241 parents and 841 teachers before intervention and 2329 children after intervention. Low baseline knowledge and behaviour scores were reported in 75-94 % government and 48-78 % private school children, across all age groups. A small proportion of government school children gave correct answers about protein (14-17 %), carbohydrates (25-27 %) and saturated fats (18-32 %). Private school children, parents and teachers performed significantly better than government school subjects (P < 0.05). Following the intervention, scores improved in all children irrespective of the type of school (P < 0.001). A significantly higher improvement was observed in younger children (aged 8-11 years) as compared with those aged 12-18 years, in females compared with males and in government schools compared with private schools (P < 0.05 for all). Major gaps exist in health and nutrition-related knowledge and behaviour of urban Asian Indian children, parents and teachers. This successful and comprehensive educative intervention could be incorporated in future school-based health and nutritional education programmes.

  5. Healthy co-twins of patients with affective disorders show reduced risk-related activation of the insula during a monetary gambling task

    PubMed Central

    Macoveanu, Julian; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vinberg, Maj; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy first-degree relatives of patients with affective disorders are at increased risk for affective disorders and express discrete structural and functional abnormalities in the brain reward system. However, value-based decision making is not well understood in these at-risk individuals. Methods We investigated healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with or without a co-twin history of affective disorders (high-risk and low-risk groups, respectively) using functional MRI during a gambling task. We assessed group differences in activity related to gambling risk over the entire brain. Results We included 30 monozygotic and 37 dizygotic twins in our analysis. Neural activity in the anterior insula and ventral striatum increased linearly with the amount of gambling risk in the entire cohort. Individual neuroticism scores were positively correlated with the neural response in the ventral striatum to increasing gambling risk and negatively correlated with individual risk-taking behaviour. Compared with low-risk twins, the high-risk twins showed a bilateral reduction of risk-related activity in the middle insula extending into the temporal cortex with increasing gambling risk. Post hoc analyses revealed that this effect was strongest in dizygotic twins. Limitations The relatively old average age of the mono- and dizygotic twin cohort (49.2 yr) may indicate an increased resilience to affective disorders. The size of the monozygotic high-risk group was relatively small (n = 13). Conclusion The reduced processing of risk magnitude in the middle insula may indicate a deficient integration of exteroceptive information related to risk-related cues with interoceptive states in individuals at familial risk for affective disorders. Impaired risk processing might contribute to increased vulnerability to affective disorders. PMID:26395812

  6. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  7. Teaching about Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Marylou; Arnold, Anne Jurmu

    1983-01-01

    Concepts, such as nutrition density, that teachers need to understand to teach children good nutrition are explained. Teachers can use food diaries, protein picture charts, and class discussions about health problems related to excessive sugar and fats to instill healthy eating habits in their students. (PP)

  8. Nutritional Hormesis and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional hormesis has the potential to serve as a pro-healthy aging intervention by reducing the susceptibility of the elderly to various chronic degenerative diseases and thereby extending human healthspan. Supportive evidence for nutritional hormesis arising from essential nutrients (vitamins and minerals), dietary pesticides (natural and synthetic), dioxin and other herbicides, and acrylamide will be reviewed and discussed. PMID:20221283

  9. Getting Personal About Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Noecker, Cecilia; Borenstein, Elhanan

    2016-02-01

    Nutritional guidelines for maintaining healthy blood glucose levels are commonly portrayed as universally applicable. However, a new study now demonstrates that the impact of each food on blood glucose varies dramatically across individuals and largely depends on personal characteristics and gut microbiome properties, laying the foundation for the broad implementation of personalized nutrition.

  10. [Dexamethasone affect on the expression of bcl-2 and mTOR genes in T-lymphocytes from healthy donors].

    PubMed

    Fatkhullina, A R; Abramov, S N; Skibo, Iu V; Abramova, Z I

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids are able to activate apoptosis in the cells by regulating the transcription of the respective genes. Effect of dexamethasone on apoptosis is an established fact. However, its influence on another program of cell death autophagy, is currently unproven. Therefore, in this paper we have analyzed the influence of dexamethasone on the expression of bcl-2 and mTOR genes in T-lymphocytes from healthy donors. The results showed that dexamethasone reduced the expression of bcl-2 and mTOR genes. However, the nature of the effect of dexamethasone on mTOR and bcl-2 expression was different: the expression of bcl-2 gene in the long-term cultivation was maintained at the same reduced level, while the expression of mTOR was first reduced and then increased.

  11. Pollen Contaminated With Field-Relevant Levels of Cyhalothrin Affects Honey Bee Survival, Nutritional Physiology, and Pollen Consumption Behavior.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Adam G; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Miller, W Allen; Bonning, Bryony C; Toth, Amy L

    2016-02-01

    Honey bees are exposed to a variety of environmental factors that impact their health, including nutritional stress, pathogens, and pesticides. In particular, there has been increasing evidence that sublethal exposure to pesticides can cause subtle, yet important effects on honey bee health and behavior. Here, we add to this body of knowledge by presenting data on bee-collected pollen containing sublethal levels of cyhalothrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, which, when fed to young honey bees, resulted in significant changes in lifespan, nutritional physiology,and behavior. For the first time, we show that when young, nest-aged bees are presented with pollen containing field-relevant levels of cyhalothrin, they reduce their consumption of contaminated pollen. This indicates that, at least for some chemicals, young bees are able to detect contamination in pollen and change their behavioral response, even if the contamination levels do not prevent foraging honey bees from collecting the contaminated pollen. PMID:26476556

  12. Pollen Contaminated With Field-Relevant Levels of Cyhalothrin Affects Honey Bee Survival, Nutritional Physiology, and Pollen Consumption Behavior.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Adam G; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Miller, W Allen; Bonning, Bryony C; Toth, Amy L

    2016-02-01

    Honey bees are exposed to a variety of environmental factors that impact their health, including nutritional stress, pathogens, and pesticides. In particular, there has been increasing evidence that sublethal exposure to pesticides can cause subtle, yet important effects on honey bee health and behavior. Here, we add to this body of knowledge by presenting data on bee-collected pollen containing sublethal levels of cyhalothrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, which, when fed to young honey bees, resulted in significant changes in lifespan, nutritional physiology,and behavior. For the first time, we show that when young, nest-aged bees are presented with pollen containing field-relevant levels of cyhalothrin, they reduce their consumption of contaminated pollen. This indicates that, at least for some chemicals, young bees are able to detect contamination in pollen and change their behavioral response, even if the contamination levels do not prevent foraging honey bees from collecting the contaminated pollen.

  13. Iron concentration, bioavailability, and nutritional quality of polished rice affected by different forms of foliar iron fertilizer.

    PubMed

    He, Wanling; Shohag, M J I; Wei, Yanyan; Feng, Ying; Yang, Xiaoe

    2013-12-15

    The present study compared the effects of four different forms of foliar iron (Fe) fertilizers on Fe concentration, bioavailability and nutritional quality of polished rice. The results showed that foliar fertilisation at the anthesis stage was an effective way to promote Fe concentration and bioavailability of polished rice, especially in case of DTPA-Fe. Compared to the control, foliar application of DTPA-Fe increased sulphur concentration and the nutrition promoter cysteine content, whereas decreased phosphorus concentration and the antinutrient phytic acid content of polished rice, as a result increased 67.2% ferrtin formation in Caco-2 cell. Moreover, foliar DTPA-Fe application could maintain amylase, protein and minerals quality of polished rice. According to the current study, DTPA-Fe is recommended as an excellent foliar Fe form for Fe biofortification program.

  14. Good Nutrition Promotes Health: Guide for Parent Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    The purpose of this manual is to guide users of the nutrition education project produced by Padres Hispanos en Accion por Una Sana Generacion (Hispanic Parents in Action for a Healthy Generation). The project provides nutrition education materials to trainers who provide nutrition counseling to parents of Head Start children. The project has two…

  15. Nutrition in the elderly: diet pitfalls and nutrition advice.

    PubMed

    Baker, Herman

    2007-10-01

    This final installment of a special series on nutrition in the elderly considers dietary pitfalls and their sequelae. Years of poor dietary habits contribute to biological risk and lifestyle changes in the elderly. Clinicians must properly evaluate the nutritional status of their older patients to restore nutritional adequacy and healthy aging.

  16. The Influence of Nutrition Education on the Food Consumption and Nutrition Attitude of Schoolchildren in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostanjevec, Stojan; Jerman, Janez; Koch, Verena

    2012-01-01

    In Slovenia, nutrition education is included in the compulsory education curriculum of the nine-year elementary school. The aim of nutrition education is for schoolchildren to acquire knowledge on nutrition to help them form healthy nutritional habits. This research aims at establishing whether the formal nutrition education carried out at schools…

  17. The impact of affective contexts on working memory capacity in healthy populations and in individuals with PTSD.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Susanne; Dalgleish, Tim

    2016-02-01

    Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) strongly predict variations in real-world cognitive functioning. However, little is known about how WMC is influenced by the ubiquitously present affective information in our everyday environments. Here, we present a series of 3 experiments investigating a novel WMC paradigm performed in affective (vs. neutral) contexts. The paradigm requires simultaneous performance of a visuospatial search and a verbal storage task. These tasks are performed in the presence of either neutral or negative emotional distractor images. Experiments 1 and 2 confirmed our prediction that WMC would be reduced in the context of emotional compared with neutral distractors in student and community samples. Experiment 3 extended these findings to a clinical sample. WMC in motor vehicle accident survivors with a history of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was selectively reduced in the presence of trauma-related emotional distraction compared with survivors without a history of PTSD. Implications of these findings for affective cognitive science are discussed.

  18. Can food vouchers improve nutrition and reduce health inequalities in low-income mothers and young children: a multi-method evaluation of the experiences of beneficiaries and practitioners of the Healthy Start programme in England

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Good nutrition is important during pregnancy, breastfeeding and early life to optimise the health of women and children. It is difficult for low-income families to prioritise spending on healthy food. Healthy Start is a targeted United Kingdom (UK) food subsidy programme that gives vouchers for fruit, vegetables, milk, and vitamins to low-income families. This paper reports an evaluation of Healthy Start from the perspectives of women and health practitioners. Methods The multi-method study conducted in England in 2011/2012 included focus group discussions with 49 health practitioners, an online consultation with 620 health and social care practitioners, service managers, commissioners, and user and advocacy groups, and qualitative participatory workshops with 85 low-income women. Additional focus group discussions and telephone interviews included the views of 25 women who did not speak English and three women from Traveller communities. Results Women reported that Healthy Start vouchers increased the quantity and range of fruit and vegetables they used and improved the quality of family diets, and established good habits for the future. Barriers to registration included complex eligibility criteria, inappropriate targeting of information about the programme by health practitioners and a general low level of awareness among families. Access to the programme was particularly challenging for women who did not speak English, had low literacy levels, were in low paid work or had fluctuating incomes. The potential impact was undermined by the rising price of food relative to voucher value. Access to registered retailers was problematic in rural areas, and there was low registration among smaller shops and market stalls, especially those serving culturally diverse communities. Conclusions Our evaluation of the Healthy Start programme in England suggests that a food subsidy programme can provide an important nutritional safety net and potentially improve

  19. Adult nutrition, but not inbreeding, affects male primary sexual traits in the leaf-footed cactus bug Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae).

    PubMed

    Joseph, Paul N; Sasson, Daniel A; Allen, Pablo E; Somjee, Ummat; Miller, Christine W

    2016-07-01

    Adverse conditions may be the norm rather than the exception in natural populations. Many populations experience poor nutrition on a seasonal basis. Further, brief interludes of inbreeding can be common as population density fluctuates and because of habitat fragmentation. Here, we investigated the effects of poor nutrition and inbreeding on traits that can be very important to reproductive success and fitness in males: testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our study species was Narnia femorata, a species introduced to north-central Florida in the 1950s. This species encounters regular, seasonal changes in diet that can have profound phenotypic effects on morphology and behavior. We generated inbred and outbred individuals through a single generation of full-sibling mating or outcrossing, respectively. All juveniles were provided a natural, high-quality diet of Opuntia humifusa cactus cladode with fruit until they reached adulthood. New adult males were put on a high- or low-quality diet for at least 21 days before measurements were taken. As expected, the low-quality diet led to significantly decreased testes mass in both inbred and outbred males, although there were surprisingly no detectable effects on sperm traits. We did not find evidence that inbreeding affected testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our results highlight the immediate and overwhelming effects of nutrition on testes mass, while suggesting that a single generation of inbreeding might not be detrimental for primary sexual traits in this particular population. PMID:27547313

  20. Rootstock and fruit canopy position affect peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] (cv. Rich May) plant productivity and fruit sensorial and nutritional quality.

    PubMed

    Gullo, Gregorio; Motisi, Antonio; Zappia, Rocco; Dattola, Agostino; Diamanti, Jacopo; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2014-06-15

    The right combination of rootstock and training system is important for increased yield and fruit sensorial and nutritional homogeneity and quality with peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch]. We investigated the effects of rootstock and training system on these parameters, testing the effect of vigorous GF677 and weaker Penta rootstock on 'Rich May' peach cultivar. Fruit position effects regarding photosynthetically active radiation availability, along the canopy profile using the Y training system, were investigated. The positive relationships between total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity according to canopy vigour and architecture were determined for the two scion/stock combinations. Changes in fruit epicarp colour and content of bioactive compounds were also determined. Lower-vigour trees from Penta rootstock grafting yielded larger fruit with improved skin overcolour, and greater total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity. GF677 rootstock produced more vigorous trees with fruit with lower sensorial and nutritional parameters. Canopy position strongly affects fruit sensorial and nutritional qualities. These data define potential for improvements to peach production efficiency and fruit quality, particularly for southern Europe peach cultivation conditions.

  1. Adult nutrition, but not inbreeding, affects male primary sexual traits in the leaf-footed cactus bug Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae).

    PubMed

    Joseph, Paul N; Sasson, Daniel A; Allen, Pablo E; Somjee, Ummat; Miller, Christine W

    2016-07-01

    Adverse conditions may be the norm rather than the exception in natural populations. Many populations experience poor nutrition on a seasonal basis. Further, brief interludes of inbreeding can be common as population density fluctuates and because of habitat fragmentation. Here, we investigated the effects of poor nutrition and inbreeding on traits that can be very important to reproductive success and fitness in males: testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our study species was Narnia femorata, a species introduced to north-central Florida in the 1950s. This species encounters regular, seasonal changes in diet that can have profound phenotypic effects on morphology and behavior. We generated inbred and outbred individuals through a single generation of full-sibling mating or outcrossing, respectively. All juveniles were provided a natural, high-quality diet of Opuntia humifusa cactus cladode with fruit until they reached adulthood. New adult males were put on a high- or low-quality diet for at least 21 days before measurements were taken. As expected, the low-quality diet led to significantly decreased testes mass in both inbred and outbred males, although there were surprisingly no detectable effects on sperm traits. We did not find evidence that inbreeding affected testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our results highlight the immediate and overwhelming effects of nutrition on testes mass, while suggesting that a single generation of inbreeding might not be detrimental for primary sexual traits in this particular population.

  2. Improving nutrition education newsletters for the food stamp eligible audience.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Alison H; Grim, Brian J; Gromis, Judy C

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the types of nutrition newsletter content that reading clientele perceive as relevant to them in making healthy food choices consistent with sound dietary advice, and to identify ways newsletter design and wording affect the usefulness of the content. The authors conducted five focus groups with readers of nutrition education newsletters in three different regions of Pennsylvania between January and April 2003. All participants were obtaining food from their community food pantry, where newsletters are distributed by the Pennsylvania Nutrition Education Program. Major nutrition and health concerns of participants included heart disease, diabetes, dietary fat, and sodium intake. Recipes are the most highly valued portion of the newsletters. To summarize, newsletter readers indicate that effectiveness in facilitating food and nutrition behavior change is a function of the relevance, design, and practicality of the content.

  3. Eat healthily, stay healthy.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    HIV and poor nutrition destroys the immune system. A well-nourished HIV infected person is less likely to develop an opportunistic infection than those with poor nutrition. Emotional stress and opportunistic infections can decrease one's appetite. Eating can become difficult and painful in persons with oropharyngeal infections. HIV-related wasting reduces protein and fat reserves. Vitamin A maintains a healthy immune system. Adding nuts, oil, mashed fish, dark green or orange fruits and vegetables, or fruit juice and replacing some water with fresh milk or coconut milk makes porridge more energy-rich. Fermenting or malting porridge makes it thinner, easier to swallow, and more nutritious. Fermentation allows for increased absorption of some nutrients (e.g., iron and zinc). The diet for persons with HIV-related infections should increase their appetite, and they should ingest enough nutrients to help the gastrointestinal tract manage and recover from diarrhea and to regain weight and strength lost during illness. All HIV-infected persons should eat as much as possible, particularly easy-to-eat and easily-absorbed foods. Those with mouth sores should avoid spicy and peppery foods. Those with a poor appetite should eat small amounts more often than usual. Those with diarrhea should eat easily digestible foods (e.g., soups) and, in some cases, avoid fatty or oily foods and milk. They should drink extra fluids to prevent dehydration. HIV-infected pregnant women should eat foods rich in vitamin A (dark green leaves or orange fruits and vegetables, liver, or egg yolk) and iron. Maternal vitamin A deficiency increases the risk of vertical HIV transmission 3-4 fold. Breast milk is the best food for all infants, particularly during diarrhea. In some communities, nongovernmental organizations provide those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS with food, food production maintenance, and nutrition counseling through their home care services. PMID:12290562

  4. Enzymatic activities in different strains isolated from healthy and brittle leaf disease affected date palm leaves: study of amylase production conditions.

    PubMed

    Mouna, Jrad; Imen, Fendri; Choba Ines, Ben; Nourredine, Drira; Adel, Kadri; Néji, Gharsallah

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate and compare the enzymatic production of endophytic bacteria isolated from healthy and brittle leaf disease affected date palm leaves (pectinase, cellulase, lipase, and amylase). The findings revealed that the enzymatic products from the bacterial isolates of healthy date palm leaves were primarily 33% amylolytic enzyme, 33 % cellulase, 25 % pectinase, and 25 % lipase. The isolates from brittle leaf disease date palm leaves, on the other hand, were noted to produce 16 % amylolytic enzyme, 20 % cellulose, 50 % pectinase, and 50 % lipase. The effects of temperature and pH on amylase, pectinase, and cellulose activities were investigated. The Bacillus subtilis JN934392 strain isolated from healthy date palm leaves produced higher levels of amylase activity at pH 7. A Box Behnken Design (BBD) was employed to optimize amylase extraction. Maximal activity was observed at pH and temperature ranges of pH 6-6.5 and 37-39 °C, respectively. Under those conditions, amylase activity was noted to be attained 9.37 U/ml. The results showed that the enzyme was able to maintain more than 50 % of its activity over a temperature range of 50-80 °C, with an optimum at 70 °C. This bacterial amylase showed high activity compared to other bacteria, which provides support for its promising candidacy for future industrial application.

  5. Daytime variation in ambient temperature affects skin temperatures and blood pressure: Ambulatory winter/summer comparison in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Nicolas, Antonio; Meyer, Martin; Hunkler, Stefan; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Rol, Maria Angeles; Meyer, Andrea H; Schötzau, Andy; Orgül, Selim; Kräuchi, Kurt

    2015-10-01

    It is widely accepted that cold exposure increases peripheral vascular resistance and arterial blood pressure (BP) and, hence, increases cardiovascular risk primarily in the elderly. However, there is a lack of concomitantly longitudinal recordings at personal level of environmental temperature (PET) and cardiophysiological variables together with skin temperatures (STs, the “interface-variable” between the body core and ambient temperature). To investigate the intra-individual temporal relationships between PET, STs and BP 60 healthy young women (52 completed the entire study) were prospectively studied in a winter/summer design for 26 h under real life conditions. The main hypothesis was tested whether distal ST (Tdist)mediates the effect of PET-changes on mean arterial BP (MAP). Diurnal profiles of cardiophysiological variables (including BP), STs and PET were ambulatory recorded. Daytime variations between 0930 and 2030 h were analyzed in detail by intra-individual longitudinal path analysis. Additionally, time segments before, during and after outdoor exposure were separately analyzed. In both seasons short-term variations in PET were positively associated with short-term changes in Tdist (not proximal ST, Tprox) and negatively with those in MAP. However, long-term seasonal differences in daytime mean levels were observed in STs but not in BP leading to non-significant inter-individual correlation between STs and BP. Additionally, higher individual body mass index (BMI) was significantly associated with lower daytime mean levels of Tprox and higher MAP suggesting Tprox as potential mediator variable for the association of BMI with MAP. In healthy young women the thermoregulatory and BP-regulatory systems are closely linked with respect to short-term, but not long-term changes in PET. One hypothetical explanation could serve recent findings that thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue is activated in a cool environment, which could be responsible for the

  6. Quality of life is not negatively affected by diet and exercise intervention in healthy men with cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hellénius, M L; Dahlöf, C; Aberg, H; Krakau, I; de Faire, U

    1995-02-01

    Health-related quality of life was assessed in a diet and exercise intervention study among 157 healthy men aged 35-60 years (mean +/- s.d.; 46.2 +/- 5.0) with moderately raised cardiovascular risk factors. The men were randomized to four groups, diet (D, n = 40), exercise (E, n = 39), diet plus exercise (DE, n = 39), and no active intervention (controls (C) n = 39). Quality of life was measured with two self-administered questionnaires; Subjective Symptoms Assessment Profile and Minor Symptom Evaluation Profile, at baseline and after 1.5, 3 and 6 months. Cardiovascular risk factors were investigated at baseline and after 6 months. As a result of changes in dietary habits and physical exercise in the three intervention groups, several important cardiovascular risk factors were significantly reduced. The quality of life/well-being did not differ between the four groups and did not change significantly in any of the groups during the study. There was, however, a tendency towards fewer gastrointestinal symptoms in group D and fewer cardiac symptoms in group DE. We conclude that advice on lifestyle changes in the form of diet and exercise reduce risk factors in middle-aged men without negative effects on their quality of life.

  7. High intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, affects serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol in healthy, normal-weight adults: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Ingrid V; Helland, Anita; Bratlie, Marianne; Brokstad, Karl A; Rosenlund, Grethe; Sveier, Harald; Mellgren, Gunnar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether high intake of lean or fatty fish (cod and farmed salmon, respectively) by healthy, normal-weight adults would affect risk factors of type 2 diabetes and CVD when compared with lean meat (chicken). More knowledge is needed concerning the potential health effects of high fish intake (>300 g/week) in normal-weight adults. In this randomised clinical trial, thirty-eight young, healthy, normal-weight participants consumed 750 g/week of lean or fatty fish or lean meat (as control) for 4 weeks at dinner according to provided recipes to ensure similar ways of preparations and choices of side dishes between the groups. Energy and macronutrient intakes at baseline and end point were similar in all groups, and there were no changes in energy and macronutrient intakes within any of the groups during the course of the study. High intake of fatty fish, but not lean fish, significantly reduced TAG and increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations in fasting serum when compared with lean meat intake. When compared with lean fish intake, fatty fish intake increased serum HDL-cholesterol. No differences were observed between lean fish, fatty fish and lean meat groups regarding fasting and postprandial glucose regulation. These findings suggest that high intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, could beneficially affect serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol, which are CVD risk factors, in healthy, normal-weight adults, when compared with high intake of lean meat. PMID:27363518

  8. High intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, affects serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol in healthy, normal-weight adults: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Ingrid V; Helland, Anita; Bratlie, Marianne; Brokstad, Karl A; Rosenlund, Grethe; Sveier, Harald; Mellgren, Gunnar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether high intake of lean or fatty fish (cod and farmed salmon, respectively) by healthy, normal-weight adults would affect risk factors of type 2 diabetes and CVD when compared with lean meat (chicken). More knowledge is needed concerning the potential health effects of high fish intake (>300 g/week) in normal-weight adults. In this randomised clinical trial, thirty-eight young, healthy, normal-weight participants consumed 750 g/week of lean or fatty fish or lean meat (as control) for 4 weeks at dinner according to provided recipes to ensure similar ways of preparations and choices of side dishes between the groups. Energy and macronutrient intakes at baseline and end point were similar in all groups, and there were no changes in energy and macronutrient intakes within any of the groups during the course of the study. High intake of fatty fish, but not lean fish, significantly reduced TAG and increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations in fasting serum when compared with lean meat intake. When compared with lean fish intake, fatty fish intake increased serum HDL-cholesterol. No differences were observed between lean fish, fatty fish and lean meat groups regarding fasting and postprandial glucose regulation. These findings suggest that high intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, could beneficially affect serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol, which are CVD risk factors, in healthy, normal-weight adults, when compared with high intake of lean meat.

  9. National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in School as Required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Final rule and interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-07-29

    This rule adopts as final, with some modifications, the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program regulations set forth in the interim final rule published in the Federal Register on June 28, 2013. The requirements addressed in this rule conform to the provisions in the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 regarding nutrition standards for all foods sold in schools, other than food sold under the lunch and breakfast programs. Most provisions of this final rule were implemented on July 1, 2014, a full year subsequent to publication of the interim final rule. This was in compliance with section 208 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, which required that State and local educational agencies have at least one full school year from the date of publication of the interim final rule to implement the competitive food provisions. Based on comments received on the interim final rule and implementation experience, this final rule makes a few modifications to the nutrition standards for all foods sold in schools implemented on July 1, 2014. In addition, this final rule codifies specific policy guidance issued after publication of the interim rule. Finally, this rule retains the provision related to the standard for total fat as interim and requests further comment on this single standard.

  10. National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in School as Required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Final rule and interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-07-29

    This rule adopts as final, with some modifications, the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program regulations set forth in the interim final rule published in the Federal Register on June 28, 2013. The requirements addressed in this rule conform to the provisions in the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 regarding nutrition standards for all foods sold in schools, other than food sold under the lunch and breakfast programs. Most provisions of this final rule were implemented on July 1, 2014, a full year subsequent to publication of the interim final rule. This was in compliance with section 208 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, which required that State and local educational agencies have at least one full school year from the date of publication of the interim final rule to implement the competitive food provisions. Based on comments received on the interim final rule and implementation experience, this final rule makes a few modifications to the nutrition standards for all foods sold in schools implemented on July 1, 2014. In addition, this final rule codifies specific policy guidance issued after publication of the interim rule. Finally, this rule retains the provision related to the standard for total fat as interim and requests further comment on this single standard. PMID:27476195

  11. Erythropoietin administration alone or in combination with endurance training affects neither skeletal muscle morphology nor angiogenesis in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Mads S; Vissing, Kristian; Thams, Line; Sieljacks, Peter; Dalgas, Ulrik; Nellemann, Birgitte; Christensen, Britt

    2014-10-01

    The aim was to investigate the ability of an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), alone or in combination with endurance training, to induce changes in human skeletal muscle fibre and vascular morphology. In a comparative study, 36 healthy untrained men were randomly dispersed into the following four groups: sedentary-placebo (SP, n = 9); sedentary-ESA (SE, n = 9); training-placebo (TP, n = 10); or training-ESA (TE, n = 8). The ESA or placebo was injected once weekly. Training consisted of progressive bicycling three times per week for 10 weeks. Before and after the intervention period, muscle biopsies and magnetic resonance images were collected from the thigh muscles, blood was collected, body composition measured and endurance exercise performance evaluated. The ESA treatment (SE and TE) led to elevated haematocrit, and both ESA treatment and training (SE, TP and TE) increased maximal O2 uptake. With regard to skeletal muscle morphology, TP alone exhibited increases in whole-muscle cross-sectional area and fibre diameter of all fibre types. Also exclusively for TP was an increase in type IIa fibres and a corresponding decrease in type IIx fibres. Furthermore, an overall training effect (TP and TE) was statistically demonstrated in whole-muscle cross-sectional area, muscle fibre diameter and type IIa and type IIx fibre distribution. With regard to muscle vascular morphology, TP and TE both promoted a rise in capillary to muscle fibre ratio, with no differences between the two groups. There were no effects of ESA treatment on any of the muscle morphological parameters. Despite the haematopoietic effects of ESA, we provide novel evidence that endurance training rather than ESA treatment induces adaptational changes in angiogenesis and muscle morphology.

  12. Healthy Choices Afterschool: Investigation of the Alignment of Physical Activity and Nutrition Programs/Curricula and the National Afterschool Association Program Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Georgia; Gruber, Diane

    2006-01-01

    This document reports on physical activity and nutrition curriculum choices for afterschool programs, linking with the National Afterschool Association Program Standards. This project was stimulated by the national concern for child and youth obesity and the valuable role out-of-school time programs can fulfill in helping to address the crisis.…

  13. Glycemic increase induced by intravenous glucose infusion fails to affect hunger, appetite, or satiety following breakfast in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Schultes, Bernd; Panknin, Ann-Kristin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Wilms, Britta; de Courbière, Felix; Lehnert, Hendrik; Schmid, Sebastian M

    2016-10-01

    Meal-dependent fluctuations of blood glucose and corresponding endocrine signals such as insulin are thought to provide important regulatory input for central nervous processing of hunger and satiety. Since food intake also triggers the release of numerous gastrointestinal signals, the specific contribution of changes in blood glucose to appetite regulation in humans has remained unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that inducing glycemic fluctuations by intravenous glucose infusion is associated with concurrent changes in hunger, appetite, and satiety. In a single blind, counter-balanced crossover study 15 healthy young men participated in two experimental conditions on two separate days. 500 ml of a solution containing 50 g glucose or 0.9% saline, respectively, was intravenously infused over a 1-h period followed by a 1-h observation period. One hour before start of the respective infusion subjects had a light breakfast (284 kcal). Blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations as well as self-rated feelings of hunger, appetite, satiety, and fullness were assessed during the entire experiment. Glucose as compared to saline infusion markedly increased glucose and insulin concentrations (peak glucose level: 9.7 ± 0.8 vs. 5.3 ± 0.3 mmol/l; t(14) = -5.159, p < 0.001; peak insulin level: 370.4 ± 66.5 vs. 109.6 ± 21.5 pmol/l; t(14) = 4.563, p < 0.001) followed by a sharp decline in glycaemia to a nadir of 3.0 ± 0.2 mmol/l (vs. 3.9 ± 0.1 mmol/l at the corresponding time in the control condition; t(14) = -3.972, p = 0.001) after stopping the infusion. Despite this wide glycemic fluctuation in the glucose infusion condition subjective feelings of hunger, appetite satiety, and fullness did not differ from the control condition throughout the experiment. These findings clearly speak against the notion that fluctuations in glycemia and also insulinemia represent major signals in the short-term regulation of hunger and satiety.

  14. Glycemic increase induced by intravenous glucose infusion fails to affect hunger, appetite, or satiety following breakfast in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Schultes, Bernd; Panknin, Ann-Kristin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Wilms, Britta; de Courbière, Felix; Lehnert, Hendrik; Schmid, Sebastian M

    2016-10-01

    Meal-dependent fluctuations of blood glucose and corresponding endocrine signals such as insulin are thought to provide important regulatory input for central nervous processing of hunger and satiety. Since food intake also triggers the release of numerous gastrointestinal signals, the specific contribution of changes in blood glucose to appetite regulation in humans has remained unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that inducing glycemic fluctuations by intravenous glucose infusion is associated with concurrent changes in hunger, appetite, and satiety. In a single blind, counter-balanced crossover study 15 healthy young men participated in two experimental conditions on two separate days. 500 ml of a solution containing 50 g glucose or 0.9% saline, respectively, was intravenously infused over a 1-h period followed by a 1-h observation period. One hour before start of the respective infusion subjects had a light breakfast (284 kcal). Blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations as well as self-rated feelings of hunger, appetite, satiety, and fullness were assessed during the entire experiment. Glucose as compared to saline infusion markedly increased glucose and insulin concentrations (peak glucose level: 9.7 ± 0.8 vs. 5.3 ± 0.3 mmol/l; t(14) = -5.159, p < 0.001; peak insulin level: 370.4 ± 66.5 vs. 109.6 ± 21.5 pmol/l; t(14) = 4.563, p < 0.001) followed by a sharp decline in glycaemia to a nadir of 3.0 ± 0.2 mmol/l (vs. 3.9 ± 0.1 mmol/l at the corresponding time in the control condition; t(14) = -3.972, p = 0.001) after stopping the infusion. Despite this wide glycemic fluctuation in the glucose infusion condition subjective feelings of hunger, appetite satiety, and fullness did not differ from the control condition throughout the experiment. These findings clearly speak against the notion that fluctuations in glycemia and also insulinemia represent major signals in the short-term regulation of hunger and satiety. PMID

  15. Histological comparison of the smooth uterine muscle of healthy golden retriever bitches, carriers of the progressive muscular dystrophy (GRMD) gene, and GRMD-affected bitches.

    PubMed

    Brolio, M P; Cima, D S; Miglino, M A; Ambrósio, C E

    2014-11-10

    There is evidence to suggest that weakness of the pelvic and/or uterine musculature may negatively affect the obstetric performance of women who carry the gene for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The golden retriever dog is the ideal animal model for preclinical studies of progressive muscular dystrophy, and this model is referred to as "golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD)". This study evaluated and compared the histopathological aspects of the uterine muscle of eleven dogs: health, n=4; carriers of GRMD gene, n=5; and affected females, n=2. The obtained results showed that the uterine muscle of healthy dogs was exclusively composed of type III collagen, while a predominance of type I collagen and small amounts of type III were observed in the uterine muscle of the carriers. The myometrium of the affected bitches showed small quantities of both collagen types. The differences noted in the three evaluated groups suggest that female carrier and those individuals affected by muscular dystrophy had collagen alteration and muscle fiber commitment in the uterine muscle, a deficiency which could directly influence the composition and function of this tissue. In addition, this information is highly relevant to the reproductive management of these animals. This data open important venues for translate reproductive protocols for women, who carry the dystrophin gene.

  16. Negev nutritional studies: nutritional deficiencies in young and elderly populations.

    PubMed

    Fraser, D; Shahar, D; Shai, I; Vardi, H; Bilenko, N

    2000-01-01

    The importance of nutrition to public health and preventive medicine is evident. Undernutrition is a main nutritional risk factor in the elderly and has been established as a cause of excess morbidity and mortality in different segments of the older population. In the infant population, inadequate nutrition is one of the causes of iron-deficiency anemia, which is associated with impaired physical and cognitive development and lowered immunity. The aim of this paper was to estimate the nutritional pattern and micronutrient deficiencies in elderly and young populations in the Negev. In southern Israel, 351 subjects over 64 years old reported mean dietary intake that was lower than that in younger persons and was independent of the presence of chronic diseases. Current data from southern Israel on healthy Jewish children revealed anemia prevalence of 15% in the second year of life. Data from recent prospective study on Bedouin children showed that anemia affected one quarter of children at age one year. Thus, infants in this area are at high risk for iron deficiency. The findings require the attention of public health authorities and food manufacturers, and should result in a range of activities including publicity and educational programs, fortification of foods, and supplementation programs in high risk-groups.

  17. Nutritional composition, antinutritional factors, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of guava seeds (Psidium Myrtaceae) as affected by roasting processes.

    PubMed

    El Anany, Ayman Mohammed

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the influences of roasting process on the nutritional composition and nutritive value, antinutritional factors, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of guava seeds. Roasting process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) decreases in moisture content, crude protein, crude fiber, ash and mineral contents, isoleucine, arginine, glutamic and total aromatic and sulfur amino acids, antinutritional factors (tannins and phytic acid) and flavonoids, while oil content increased. Subjecting guava seeds to 150 °C for 10, 15 and 20 min increased the total essential amino acids from 35.19 g/100 g protein in the raw sample to 36.96, 37.30 and 37.47 g/100 g protein in roasted samples, respectively. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) of guava seeds roasted at 150 °C for 10, 15 and 20 min were about 1.08, 1.14 and 1.18 times as high as that in unroasted seeds. Lysine was the first limiting amino acid, while leucine was the second limiting amino acid in raw and roasted guava seeds. Total phenolic contents was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased by roasting at 150 °C for 10 min. However, roasting at 150 °C for 15 and 20 min caused significant decrease in the phenolic content of guava seeds. Guava seeds subjected to roasting process showed higher DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities. PMID:25829598

  18. Nutritional composition, antinutritional factors, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of guava seeds (Psidium Myrtaceae) as affected by roasting processes.

    PubMed

    El Anany, Ayman Mohammed

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the influences of roasting process on the nutritional composition and nutritive value, antinutritional factors, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of guava seeds. Roasting process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) decreases in moisture content, crude protein, crude fiber, ash and mineral contents, isoleucine, arginine, glutamic and total aromatic and sulfur amino acids, antinutritional factors (tannins and phytic acid) and flavonoids, while oil content increased. Subjecting guava seeds to 150 °C for 10, 15 and 20 min increased the total essential amino acids from 35.19 g/100 g protein in the raw sample to 36.96, 37.30 and 37.47 g/100 g protein in roasted samples, respectively. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) of guava seeds roasted at 150 °C for 10, 15 and 20 min were about 1.08, 1.14 and 1.18 times as high as that in unroasted seeds. Lysine was the first limiting amino acid, while leucine was the second limiting amino acid in raw and roasted guava seeds. Total phenolic contents was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased by roasting at 150 °C for 10 min. However, roasting at 150 °C for 15 and 20 min caused significant decrease in the phenolic content of guava seeds. Guava seeds subjected to roasting process showed higher DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities.

  19. Structure modification of a milk protein-based model food affects postprandial intestinal peptide release and fullness in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Juvonen, Kristiina R; Karhunen, Leila J; Vuori, Elisa; Lille, Martina E; Karhu, Toni; Jurado-Acosta, Alicia; Laaksonen, David E; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Niskanen, Leo K; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Herzig, Karl-Heinz

    2011-12-01

    Physico-chemical and textural properties of foods in addition to their chemical composition modify postprandial metabolism and signals from the gastrointestinal tract. Enzymatic cross-linking of protein is a tool to modify food texture and structure without changing nutritional composition. We investigated the effects of structure modification of a milk protein-based model food and the type of milk protein used on postprandial hormonal, metabolic and appetitive responses. Healthy males (n 8) consumed an isoenergetic and isovolumic test product containing either whey protein (Wh, low-viscous liquid), casein (Cas, high-viscous liquid) or Cas protein cross-linked with transglutaminase (Cas-TG, rigid gel) in a randomised order. Blood samples were drawn for plasma glucose, insulin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY analysis for 4 h. Appetite was assessed at concomitant time points. Cas and Wh were more potent in lowering postprandial glucose than Cas-TG during the first hour. Insulin concentrations peaked at 30 min, but the peaks were more pronounced for Cas and Wh than for Cas-TG. The increase in CCK was similar for Cas and Wh in the first 15 min, whereas for Cas-TG, the CCK release was significantly lower, but more sustained. The feeling of fullness was stronger after the consumption of Cas-TG than after the consumption of Cas and Wh. The present results suggest that food structure is more effective in modulating the postprandial responses than the type of dairy protein used. Modification of protein-based food structure could thus offer a possible tool for lowering postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations and enhancing postprandial fullness.

  20. Healthy Eating for Vegetarians: 10 Tips for Vegetarians

    MedlinePlus

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Healthy Eating for Vegetarians You are here Home Healthy Eating ... Vegetarians Print Share 10 TIPS NUTRITION EDUCATION SERIES Healthy Eating for Vegetarians 10 tips for vegetarians A vegetarian ...

  1. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C; O'Daly, Owen G

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a "need" state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide some

  2. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C.; O'Daly, Owen G.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a “need” state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide

  3. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C.; O'Daly, Owen G.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a “need” state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide

  4. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C; O'Daly, Owen G

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a "need" state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide some

  5. Keeping Kids Healthy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Sharon; And Others

    This pamphlet offers a collection of items relating to child health in the day care setting. Included is an overview of a collaborative project to develop a comprehensive set of national standards for health, nutrition, safety, and sanitation in child care programs. Contents of the project's resource kit, "Keeping Kids Healthy and Parents at…

  6. Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Knowledge of Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity Practices for Preschoolers: Instrument Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derscheid, Linda E.; Kim, So-Yeun; Zittel, Lauriece L.; Umoren, Josephine; Henry, Beverly W.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity remains a problem in the United States. Preschool teachers can help to attenuate it but need to have the confidence or self-efficacy to provide healthy practices. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to (a) develop and validate a preschool teacher self-efficacy tool to examine teachers' confidence in addressing the…

  7. Stores Healthy Options Project in Remote Indigenous Communities (SHOP@RIC): a protocol of a randomised trial promoting healthy food and beverage purchases through price discounts and in-store nutrition education

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Indigenous Australians suffer a disproportionate burden of preventable chronic disease compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts – much of it diet-related. Increasing fruit and vegetable intakes and reducing sugar-sweetened soft-drink consumption can reduce the risk of preventable chronic disease. There is evidence from some general population studies that subsidising healthier foods can modify dietary behaviour. There is little such evidence relating specifically to socio-economically disadvantaged populations, even though dietary behaviour in such populations is arguably more likely to be susceptible to such interventions. This study aims to assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of a price discount intervention with or without an in-store nutrition education intervention on purchases of fruit, vegetables, water and diet soft-drinks among remote Indigenous communities. Methods/Design We will utilise a randomised multiple baseline (stepped wedge) design involving 20 communities in remote Indigenous Australia. The study will be conducted in partnership with two store associations and twenty Indigenous store boards. Communities will be randomised to either i) a 20% price discount on fruit, vegetables, water and diet soft-drinks; or ii) a combined price discount and in-store nutrition education strategy. These interventions will be initiated, at one of five possible time-points, spaced two-months apart. Weekly point-of-sale data will be collected from each community store before, during, and for six months after the six-month intervention period to measure impact on purchasing of discounted food and drinks. Data on physical, social and economic factors influencing weekly store sales will be collected in order to identify important covariates. Intervention fidelity and mediators of behaviour change will also be assessed. Discussion This study will provide original evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of price discounts with or

  8. Development of the Oxford Hills Healthy Moms Project using a social marketing process: a community-based physical activity and nutrition intervention for low-socioeconomic-status mothers in a rural area in Maine.

    PubMed

    Dharod, Jigna M; Drewette-Card, Rebecca; Crawford, David

    2011-03-01

    A physical activity and nutrition community intervention called the Oxford Hills Healthy Moms (OHHM) Project was developed using a multifaceted social marketing process, including review of state surveillance results, key informant interviews, and a survey and focus group discussions with low-socioeconomic-status (low-SES) mothers. This formative work was used to make key decisions on the selection of the intervention region, segmentation of the audience, and design of intervention strategies addressing multiple levels of the socioecological model. The OHHM Project aims to increase fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity levels among low-SES mothers in the Oxford Hills region of Maine. The OHHM Project includes five components: (a) physical activity buddy program, (b) cooking club with education, (c) fruit and vegetable discount buying club with education, (d) increased access to produce vendors, and (e) increased access to places for physical activity.

  9. [Foods related to the novel 'don quixote de la mancha'. did they follow the healthy nutritional recommendations which are advised nowadays?].

    PubMed

    Carbayo Herencia, Julio A

    2015-01-01

    It is known that Miguel de Cervantes's novel 'Don Quixote de La Mancha' has done and is still doing a great contribution to the universal literature. A book that has reached such category and grows in number of its readers, shows multiple dimensions for its study. One of them is nutrition. One of the aims of this study has been to value and expound, according to their own nutrients, the kinds of food cited in 'The Quixote' and in the times of Cervantes. This has allowed the comparison made between ways of nutrition in La Mancha and in Catalonia, as well as the regions situated at the beginning and end of the itinerary covered by its main characters Don Quixote and Sancho Panza. The evaluation of the nutrients in the middle part of the itinerary, placed mainly in Aragón, has not been considered in this study. Another purpose has been to check if these nutrients followed the current recommendations of the Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis and other valid agreements at the moment.

  10. Cooking, Healthy Eating, Fitness and Fun (CHEFFs): Qualitative Evaluation of a Nutrition Education Program for Children Living at Urban Family Homeless Shelters

    PubMed Central

    Applebaum, Jo; Stephenson-Hunter, Cara; Tinio, Andrea; Shapiro, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the feasibility of a 15-week nutrition education, physical activity, and media literacy program for children living in urban family homeless shelters. Methods. We developed a qualitative monitoring tool to evaluate program process and impact at 2 shelter sites in the Bronx, New York, from 2009 to 2012. Facilitators recorded indications of participants’ understanding of intended messages and demonstrations of changes in attitudes and behaviors. Comments, insights, and actions were recorded as they occurred. Facilitators also documented barriers to delivery of content and activities as intended. We used content analysis to examine data for patterns and identify themes. Results. A total of 162 children participated at the 2 shelter sites. Analysis of qualitative data yielded 3 themes: (1) children’s knowledge and understanding of content, (2) children’s shift in attitudes or intentions, and (3) interpretations through children’s life experience. Food insecurity as well as shelter food service and policies were important influences on children’s choices, hunger, and sense of well-being. Conclusions. Children’s experiences highlighted the need to advocate for shelter policies that adequately provide for children’s nutritional and physical activity requirements and foster academic development. PMID:24148062

  11. Tuberculosis: Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

  12. Working toward Healthy and Sustainable Diets: The "Double Pyramid Model" Developed by the Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition to Raise Awareness about the Environmental and Nutritional Impact of Foods.

    PubMed

    Ruini, Luca Fernando; Ciati, Roberto; Pratesi, Carlo Alberto; Marino, Massimo; Principato, Ludovica; Vannuzzi, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    The Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition has produced an updated version of the traditional food pyramid based on the Mediterranean diet in order to assess the simultaneous impact that food has on human health and the environment. The Double Pyramid Model demonstrates how the foods recommended to be consumed most frequently are also those exerting less environmental impact, whereas the foods that should be consumed less frequently are those characterized by a higher environmental impact. The environmental impacts resulting from three different menus were compared. All menus were equally balanced and comparable in terms of nutrition, but they differed in relation to the presence of absence of animal flesh and animal products. The first dietary pattern (omnivorous) included both animal flesh and products; the second (lacto-ovo-vegetarian) included animal products (eggs and dairy) but no flesh; and the third (vegan) was solely plant-based. The results obtained suggest that a diet based on the principles of the Mediterranean diet, as suggested by the Double Pyramid, generates a lower environmental impact compared to diets that are heavily based on daily meat consumption.

  13. Working toward Healthy and Sustainable Diets: The “Double Pyramid Model” Developed by the Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition to Raise Awareness about the Environmental and Nutritional Impact of Foods

    PubMed Central

    Ruini, Luca Fernando; Ciati, Roberto; Pratesi, Carlo Alberto; Marino, Massimo; Principato, Ludovica; Vannuzzi, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    The Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition has produced an updated version of the traditional food pyramid based on the Mediterranean diet in order to assess the simultaneous impact that food has on human health and the environment. The Double Pyramid Model demonstrates how the foods recommended to be consumed most frequently are also those exerting less environmental impact, whereas the foods that should be consumed less frequently are those characterized by a higher environmental impact. The environmental impacts resulting from three different menus were compared. All menus were equally balanced and comparable in terms of nutrition, but they differed in relation to the presence of absence of animal flesh and animal products. The first dietary pattern (omnivorous) included both animal flesh and products; the second (lacto-ovo-vegetarian) included animal products (eggs and dairy) but no flesh; and the third (vegan) was solely plant-based. The results obtained suggest that a diet based on the principles of the Mediterranean diet, as suggested by the Double Pyramid, generates a lower environmental impact compared to diets that are heavily based on daily meat consumption. PMID:25988137

  14. Working toward Healthy and Sustainable Diets: The "Double Pyramid Model" Developed by the Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition to Raise Awareness about the Environmental and Nutritional Impact of Foods.

    PubMed

    Ruini, Luca Fernando; Ciati, Roberto; Pratesi, Carlo Alberto; Marino, Massimo; Principato, Ludovica; Vannuzzi, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    The Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition has produced an updated version of the traditional food pyramid based on the Mediterranean diet in order to assess the simultaneous impact that food has on human health and the environment. The Double Pyramid Model demonstrates how the foods recommended to be consumed most frequently are also those exerting less environmental impact, whereas the foods that should be consumed less frequently are those characterized by a higher environmental impact. The environmental impacts resulting from three different menus were compared. All menus were equally balanced and comparable in terms of nutrition, but they differed in relation to the presence of absence of animal flesh and animal products. The first dietary pattern (omnivorous) included both animal flesh and products; the second (lacto-ovo-vegetarian) included animal products (eggs and dairy) but no flesh; and the third (vegan) was solely plant-based. The results obtained suggest that a diet based on the principles of the Mediterranean diet, as suggested by the Double Pyramid, generates a lower environmental impact compared to diets that are heavily based on daily meat consumption. PMID:25988137

  15. Seasonal differences in the diurnal pattern of cortisol secretion in healthy participants and those with self-assessed seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Lisa; Evans, Phil; Cannon, Anne; Hucklebridge, Frank; Clow, Angela

    2011-07-01

    This study compared the daily pattern of free salivary cortisol secretion in winter and in summer between two groups; participants with self-assessed seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Fifty-two participants completed the study with an equal number in each group. The diurnal pattern of cortisol secretion was assessed across two consecutive weekdays in summer, and two in winter, with conditions being counterbalanced. On each study day participants collected multiple saliva samples in the domestic setting to capture the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and declining levels across the day. In addition, perceived stress, anxiety, depression, state stress and state arousal were assessed using validated questionnaires. There was no evidence for any seasonal changes in psychological data or cortisol pattern for the healthy control population. In summer, self-assessed SAD and control participants had similar psychological and cortisol profiles. In winter however, SAD participants reported greater depression, stress and anxiety, and lower levels of arousal. Furthermore, the CAR was significantly attenuated in SAD participants during winter months. There was no difference in cortisol levels during the rest of the day between controls and SAD participants in winter. In line with the above findings and previous research, there was an inverse relationship between the increase in cortisol following awakening and a measure of seasonality in winter. Furthermore in winter, a general dysphoria construct correlated inversely with the CAR, indicating that participants reporting greater depression, stress and anxiety and lower arousal, exhibited lower CARs. In conclusion, during the shortened photoperiod in winter, the cortisol response to awakening is attenuated in participants with self-assessed SAD in comparison to controls. These findings contribute to the understanding of the physiology of SAD.

  16. Bicarbonate concentration as affected by soil water content controls iron nutrition of peanut plants in a calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Y; Ren, L; Zhang, F; Jiang, R-F

    2007-05-01

    Strategy I peanut plants are frequently subjected to iron deficiency when growing in calcareous soils, which contain high concentrations of bicarbonate. In calcareous soils under field conditions, it has been noted that chlorosis increases in severity after excessive rainfall or irrigation, but the chlorosis symptoms of peanuts are alleviated after waterlogged soils dry. A pot experiment was conducted simulating the chlorosis symptom observed in the field when peanut plants are exposed to fluctuating soil water content induced from rainfall or irrigation. We investigated the bicarbonate fluctuations resulting from adjustable soil water content (SWC) that could lead to bicarbonate-induced iron chlorosis of peanuts growing in calcareous soil. The experiments included three treatments of SWC (50% of water holding capacity (WHC), 80% of WHC, and 100% of WHC) under two levels of CaCO(3) concentrations (at 8.67% and 18.67%.) The results showed that the iron nutrition of peanuts could be regulated by different SWC at both CaCO(3) levels. Our observations indicate that iron deficiency chlorosis symptoms in peanuts grown in high soil water content were more severe, compared to those of peanuts in lower soil water content. A shift from high soil water content to lower soil water content could improve or eliminate the iron deficiency chlorosis symptom of peanuts. The HCO(3)(-) concentration in the peanut rhizosphere increased with increasing SWC and CaCO(3) content and it correlated with the level of soil water content. We suggest that variations in the soil water content could induce HCO(3)(-) concentration variation in the rhizosphere of peanuts. Consequently, the high HCO(3)(-) concentration, which is induced by a high water content in calcareous soil and a high CaCO(3) level, could inhibit the physiological response to iron deficiency of peanuts, resulting in iron deficiency chlorosis. The study indicates that a reasonable agricultural practice of irrigation and drainage

  17. Weight and Glucose Reduction Observed with a Combination of Nutritional Agents in Rodent Models Does Not Translate to Humans in a Randomized Clinical Trial with Healthy Volunteers and Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Rebecca J.; Paulik, Mark A.; Walker, Ann; Boucheron, Joyce A.; McMullen, Susan L.; Gillmor, Dawn S.; Nunez, Derek J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Nutritional agents have modest efficacy in reducing weight and blood glucose in animal models and humans, but combinations are less well characterized. GSK2890457 (GSK457) is a combination of 4 nutritional agents, discovered by the systematic assessment of 16 potential components using the diet-induced obese mouse model, which was subsequently evaluated in a human study. Nonclinical Results In the diet-induced obese mouse model, GSK457 (15% w/w in chow) given with a long-acting glucagon-like peptide -1 receptor agonist, exendin-4 AlbudAb, produced weight loss of 30.8% after 28 days of treatment. In db/db mice, a model of diabetes, GSK457 (10% w/w) combined with the exendin-4 AlbudAb reduced glucose by 217 mg/dL and HbA1c by 1.2% after 14 days. Clinical Results GSK457 was evaluated in a 6 week randomized, placebo-controlled study that enrolled healthy subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes to investigate changes in weight and glucose. In healthy subjects, GSK457 well tolerated when titrated up to 40 g/day, and it reduced systemic exposure of metformin by ~ 30%. In subjects with diabetes taking liraglutide 1.8 mg/day, GSK457 did not reduce weight, but it slightly decreased mean glucose by 0.356 mmol/L (95% CI: -1.409, 0.698) and HbAlc by 0.065% (95% CI: -0.495, 0.365), compared to placebo. In subjects with diabetes taking metformin, weight increased in the GSK457-treated group [adjusted mean % increase from baseline: 1.26% (95% CI: -0.24, 2.75)], and mean glucose and HbA1c were decreased slightly compared to placebo [adjusted mean glucose change from baseline: -1.22 mmol/L (95% CI: -2.45, 0.01); adjusted mean HbA1c change from baseline: -0.219% (95% CI: -0.910, 0.472)]. Conclusions Our data demonstrate remarkable effects of GSK457 in rodent models of obesity and diabetes, but a marked lack of translation to humans. Caution should be exercised with nutritional agents when predicting human efficacy from rodent models of obesity and diabetes. Trial

  18. [Improving the nutritional value of plant foods through transgenic approaches].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-Mei; Mao, Xue; Wang, Shu-Jian; Li, Run-Zhi

    2004-07-01

    The most nutrients required in the human diet come from plants. The nutritional quality of plant products affects the human healthy. The advance of molecular cloning and transgenic technology has provided a new way to enhance the nutritional value of plant material. Transgenic modification of plant nutritional value has progressed greatly in the following aspects: improving the quality, composition and levels of protein, starch and fatty acid in different crops; increasing the levels of antioxidants (e.g. carotenoids and flavonoids); breeding the new type of plants with medical value for human. To date, many transgenic plants with nutritional enhancement have been developed. These transgenic plant products could be directly used as human diet or as valued materials in developing the "functional food" with especial nutritional quality and healthy effects after they are approved by a series of evaluations on their safety and nutritional efficiency for human being. We designed new zinc finger transcription factors (ZFP-TFs) that can specifically down-regulate the expression of the endogenous soybean FAD2-1 gene which catalyzes oleic acid to linoleic acid. Seed-specific expression of these ZFP-TFs in transgenic soybean somatic embryos repressed FAD2-1 transcription and increased significantly the levels of oleic acid, indicating that the engineered ZFP-TFs are capable of regulating fatty acid metabolism and modulating the expression of endogenous genes in plants.

  19. Majoring in nutrition influences BMI of female college students.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mee Young; Shepanski, Tahirih L; Gaylis, Jaclyn B

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining healthy eating habits in college is challenging. Interventions focused on nutrition education can assist in reversing these trends of poor eating habits among college students. The purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting the dietary habits, food choices and BMI of college females majoring in nutrition (NMs) compared with non-nutrition majors (OMs). A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey study of dietary behaviour and food frequency of 202 college females was conducted at San Diego State University. Data were analysed by using t tests, χ(2) tests and regression analysis in SPSS. NMs exhibited a lower BMI than OMs (P < 0·01); however, BMI values for both groups were within a healthy range. Interestingly, 3 % of NMs had a BMI in the range of overweight or obese; however, prevalence was three times higher for OMs, being 9·2 %. A healthier meal option was the most influential factor in NMs' meal choices whereas convenience and weight control were influential factors in OMs' meal choices. Most NMs read nutrition labels and reported that this affects their food choices. NMs exercised longer than OMs in the <120 min/week category. Exercise affected healthy meal conception in NMs only (P < 0·001). Taking dietary supplements influenced healthy meal awareness in OMs only (P < 0·05). University-level nutrition education is strongly associated with healthier eating habits and superior food choices among young adult females. More regular meal patterns, healthier snack choice and adherence to dietary guidelines may contribute to the lower BMI values observed among NMs compared with OMs.

  20. Do Indonesians follow its Dietary Guidelines?: evidence related to food consumption, healthy lifestyle, and nutritional status within the period 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Usfar, Avita A; Fahmida, Umi

    2011-01-01

    Dietary Guidelines are sets of advisory statements that give dietary advice for population to promote nutritional well-being. They contain information on foods or behaviors that are encouraged and cautionary messages derived from scientific evidence-based reviews and specific local conditions. The Indonesian Dietary Guidelines consisting of 13 messages that were publicized by the Ministry of Health in 1995 and have not been reviewed afterward in relation to nutritional status and health outcome of the population. By reviewing studies on different age groups in the past 10 years and comparing the results with the recommended guidelines, this paper aims to identify if messages have been successfully applied and if there are relevant issues not yet covered in the guidelines. The reviews covered 29 out of 33 provinces, representing studies from sub-district or higher levels (district, provincial, national). Results showed that some messages have been better implemented than others; also that information for some messages was not available for which to conclude of its implementation. In addition, some practices were identified which are prevalent in several age groups and have important public health consequence, but not yet included in the 13-guidelines. These include: smoking, increased intakes of fruit and vegetables, limited intakes of salt and sugar, increased intakes of foods rich in zinc and calcium (besides iron), hand-washing before food preparation and eating, and weight-monitoring. For infants and young children, nutrient density, feeding responsiveness and stimulation should be specifically highlighted. Based on the results, several recommendations in revising the guidelines were given.

  1. Do Indonesians follow its Dietary Guidelines?: evidence related to food consumption, healthy lifestyle, and nutritional status within the period 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Usfar, Avita A; Fahmida, Umi

    2011-01-01

    Dietary Guidelines are sets of advisory statements that give dietary advice for population to promote nutritional well-being. They contain information on foods or behaviors that are encouraged and cautionary messages derived from scientific evidence-based reviews and specific local conditions. The Indonesian Dietary Guidelines consisting of 13 messages that were publicized by the Ministry of Health in 1995 and have not been reviewed afterward in relation to nutritional status and health outcome of the population. By reviewing studies on different age groups in the past 10 years and comparing the results with the recommended guidelines, this paper aims to identify if messages have been successfully applied and if there are relevant issues not yet covered in the guidelines. The reviews covered 29 out of 33 provinces, representing studies from sub-district or higher levels (district, provincial, national). Results showed that some messages have been better implemented than others; also that information for some messages was not available for which to conclude of its implementation. In addition, some practices were identified which are prevalent in several age groups and have important public health consequence, but not yet included in the 13-guidelines. These include: smoking, increased intakes of fruit and vegetables, limited intakes of salt and sugar, increased intakes of foods rich in zinc and calcium (besides iron), hand-washing before food preparation and eating, and weight-monitoring. For infants and young children, nutrient density, feeding responsiveness and stimulation should be specifically highlighted. Based on the results, several recommendations in revising the guidelines were given. PMID:21859671

  2. Effectiveness of school-based interventions in Europe to promote healthy nutrition in children and adolescents: systematic review of published and 'grey' literature.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberghe, Eveline; Maes, Lea; Spittaels, Heleen; van Lenthe, Frank J; Brug, Johannes; Oppert, Jean-Michel; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2010-03-01

    The objective of the present review was to summarise the existing European published and 'grey' literature on the effectiveness of school-based interventions to promote a healthy diet in children (6-12 years old) and adolescents (13-18 years old). Eight electronic databases, websites and contents of key journals were systematically searched, reference lists were screened, and authors and experts in the field were contacted for studies evaluating school-based interventions promoting a healthy diet and aiming at primary prevention of obesity. The studies were included if they were published between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2007 and reported effects on dietary behaviour or on anthropometrics. Finally, forty-two studies met the inclusion criteria: twenty-nine in children and thirteen in adolescents. In children, strong evidence of effect was found for multicomponent interventions on fruit and vegetable intakes. Limited evidence of effect was found for educational interventions on behaviour, and for environmental interventions on fruit and vegetable intakes. Interventions that specifically targeted children from lower socio-economic status groups showed limited evidence of effect on behaviour. In adolescents, moderate evidence of effect was found for educational interventions on behaviour and limited evidence of effect for multicomponent programmes on behaviour. In children and adolescents, effects on anthropometrics were often not measured, and therefore evidence was lacking or delivered inconclusive evidence. To conclude, evidence was found for the effectiveness of especially multicomponent interventions promoting a healthy diet in school-aged children in European Union countries on self-reported dietary behaviour. Evidence for effectiveness on anthropometrical obesity-related measures is lacking.

  3. The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism affects the lipid profile and the prognosis of nutritional intervention in HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Aranalde, Laura C R; Pederzoli, Bruna S; Marten, Thais; Barros, Flavio C; Basso, Rossana P; Silveira, Jussara M; Valle, Sandra C; Pieniz, Simone; Araujo, Ronaldo C; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J; Schadock, Ines; Schneider, Augusto; Barros, Carlos C

    2016-06-01

    The hypothesis of the present study is that the polymorphisms in the APOC3, CEPT, ACE, and ACTN3 genes can affect the outcome of nutritional intervention and the plasma lipid profile of HIV+ patients. To test the hypothesis, genetic material was collected from buccal cells, and serum was collected for biochemical analysis. Sixty-five patients were analyzed. The incorporation of protease inhibitor (PI) was more frequent in women (77% vs 33% in men). Nutritional intervention improved anthropometric parameters independent of the genotype. Patients with the RR genotype for the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism had lower glycemia (RR = 95.4 ± 6.5 mg/dL, RX = 102.6 ± 10.6 mg/dL, XX = 110.1 ± 16.3 mg/dL; P = .03) and a greater reduction in low-density lipoproteins (LDL) after intervention (LDL: RR = -23.7 ± 15.8 mg/dL, RX = 1.32 ± 5.13 mg/dL, XX = 30.21 ± 24.4 mg/dL; P = .01). Patients using PI had a negative response to dietary intervention regarding the levels of high-density lipoprotein (-2.4 ± 1.70 with PI, 2.56 ± 1.60 mg/dL without PI; P = .02), very low density lipoprotein (0.84 ± 2.73 with IP, -5.46 ± 3.37 mg/dL without PI; P = .03), and triglycerides (1.79 ± 13.22 with PI, -34.00 ± 17.67 mg/dL without PI; P = .052). This response was also independent of the genotype (P > 0.05) and suggested the need for oral lipid-lowering drugs in all HIV+ patients using PI. Our results indicate that the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is a good predictor of both the lipid profile and the prognosis of nutritional intervention in reducing LDL in HIV+ patients. PMID:27188902

  4. The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism affects the lipid profile and the prognosis of nutritional intervention in HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Aranalde, Laura C R; Pederzoli, Bruna S; Marten, Thais; Barros, Flavio C; Basso, Rossana P; Silveira, Jussara M; Valle, Sandra C; Pieniz, Simone; Araujo, Ronaldo C; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J; Schadock, Ines; Schneider, Augusto; Barros, Carlos C

    2016-06-01

    The hypothesis of the present study is that the polymorphisms in the APOC3, CEPT, ACE, and ACTN3 genes can affect the outcome of nutritional intervention and the plasma lipid profile of HIV+ patients. To test the hypothesis, genetic material was collected from buccal cells, and serum was collected for biochemical analysis. Sixty-five patients were analyzed. The incorporation of protease inhibitor (PI) was more frequent in women (77% vs 33% in men). Nutritional intervention improved anthropometric parameters independent of the genotype. Patients with the RR genotype for the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism had lower glycemia (RR = 95.4 ± 6.5 mg/dL, RX = 102.6 ± 10.6 mg/dL, XX = 110.1 ± 16.3 mg/dL; P = .03) and a greater reduction in low-density lipoproteins (LDL) after intervention (LDL: RR = -23.7 ± 15.8 mg/dL, RX = 1.32 ± 5.13 mg/dL, XX = 30.21 ± 24.4 mg/dL; P = .01). Patients using PI had a negative response to dietary intervention regarding the levels of high-density lipoprotein (-2.4 ± 1.70 with PI, 2.56 ± 1.60 mg/dL without PI; P = .02), very low density lipoprotein (0.84 ± 2.73 with IP, -5.46 ± 3.37 mg/dL without PI; P = .03), and triglycerides (1.79 ± 13.22 with PI, -34.00 ± 17.67 mg/dL without PI; P = .052). This response was also independent of the genotype (P > 0.05) and suggested the need for oral lipid-lowering drugs in all HIV+ patients using PI. Our results indicate that the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is a good predictor of both the lipid profile and the prognosis of nutritional intervention in reducing LDL in HIV+ patients.

  5. Conventional and organic soil fertility management practices affect corn plant nutrition and Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larval performance.

    PubMed

    Murrell, Ebony G; Cullen, Eileen M

    2014-10-01

    Few studies compare how different soil fertilization practices affect plant mineral content and insect performance in organic systems. This study examined: 1) The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), larval response on corn (Zea mays L.) grown in field soils with different soil management histories; and 2) resilience of these plants to O. nubilalis herbivory. Treatments included: 1) standard organic--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and 2 yr of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the rotation; 2) basic cation saturation ratio--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and alfalfa nitrogen credits, plus addition of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) according to the soil balance hypothesis; and 3) conventional--conventionally managed soil fertilized with synthetic fertilizers. Corn plants were reared to maturity in a greenhouse, and then infested with 0-40 O. nubilalis larvae for 17 d. O. nubilalis exhibited negative competitive response to increasing larval densities. Mean development time was significantly faster for larvae consuming basic cation saturation ratio plants than those on standard organic plants, with intermediate development time on conventional plants. Neither total yield (number of kernels) nor proportion kernels damaged differed among soil fertility treatments. Soil nutrients differed significantly in S and in Ca:Mg and Ca:K ratios, but principal components analysis of plant tissue samples taken before O. nubilalis infestation showed that S, Fe, and Cu contributed most to differences in plant nutrient profiles among soil fertility treatments. Results demonstrate that different fertilization regimens can significantly affect insect performance within the context of organic systems, but the effects in this study were relatively minor compared with effects of intraspecific competition.

  6. Conventional and organic soil fertility management practices affect corn plant nutrition and Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larval performance.

    PubMed

    Murrell, Ebony G; Cullen, Eileen M

    2014-10-01

    Few studies compare how different soil fertilization practices affect plant mineral content and insect performance in organic systems. This study examined: 1) The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), larval response on corn (Zea mays L.) grown in field soils with different soil management histories; and 2) resilience of these plants to O. nubilalis herbivory. Treatments included: 1) standard organic--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and 2 yr of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the rotation; 2) basic cation saturation ratio--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and alfalfa nitrogen credits, plus addition of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) according to the soil balance hypothesis; and 3) conventional--conventionally managed soil fertilized with synthetic fertilizers. Corn plants were reared to maturity in a greenhouse, and then infested with 0-40 O. nubilalis larvae for 17 d. O. nubilalis exhibited negative competitive response to increasing larval densities. Mean development time was significantly faster for larvae consuming basic cation saturation ratio plants than those on standard organic plants, with intermediate development time on conventional plants. Neither total yield (number of kernels) nor proportion kernels damaged differed among soil fertility treatments. Soil nutrients differed significantly in S and in Ca:Mg and Ca:K ratios, but principal components analysis of plant tissue samples taken before O. nubilalis infestation showed that S, Fe, and Cu contributed most to differences in plant nutrient profiles among soil fertility treatments. Results demonstrate that different fertilization regimens can significantly affect insect performance within the context of organic systems, but the effects in this study were relatively minor compared with effects of intraspecific competition. PMID:25203485

  7. Nutrition in pancreatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Meier, Rémy F; Beglinger, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    The pancreas plays a major role in nutrient digestion. Therefore, in both acute and chronic pancreatitis, exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency can develop, impairing digestive and absorptive processes. These changes can lead to malnutrition over time. In parallel to these changes, decreased caloric intake and increased metabolic activity are often present. Nutritional deficiencies negatively affect outcome if they are not treated. Nutritional assessment and the clinical severity of the disease are important for planning any nutritional intervention. In severe acute pancreatitis, enteral nutrition with a naso-jejunal feeding tube and a low molecular diet displays clear advantages compared to parenteral nutrition. Infectious complications, length of hospital stay and the need for surgery are reduced. Furthermore, enteral nutrition is less costly than parenteral nutrition. Parenteral nutrition is reserved for patients who do not tolerate enteral nutrition. Abstinence from alcohol, dietary modifications and pancreatic enzyme supplementation is sufficient in over 80% of patients with chronic pancreatitis. In addition, oral supplements are helpful. Enteral nutrition can be necessary if weight loss continues. Parenteral nutrition is very seldom used in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

  8. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  9. Healthy shiftwork, healthy shiftworks.

    PubMed

    Kogi, K

    2001-12-01

    Reflecting diversifying shift systems, extensive effort is put into managing shiftwork and reducing safety and health risks. It is accepted that shiftworkers are exposed to particular risks inherent in their irregular work schedules. This raises the question of how and to what extent we can ensure healthy work life for shiftworkers. In answering the question, we need to identify effective measures to improve both shiftworking conditions and the health of shiftworkers. Based on recent experiences in managing shiftwork, we note three directions of such measures: (a) comprehensive action to avoid risk-enhancing conditions based on general guidelines, (b) risk control as to workload, worksite ergonomics and risk reduction, and (c) support for flexible and restful working life. International standards are obviously relevant to these three aspects. Our own experiences in applying a set of ergonomic checkpoints to plant maintenance shiftwork demonstrate the usefulness of focusing on flexible work schedules and on multiple job-related factors such as night workload, ergonomic environment, resting conditions and training. There is a strong need for participatory planning and implementation of multi-area improvements as well as for relying on flexible schedules and autonomic teamwork. We may conclude that healthy shiftwork and healthy shiftworkers are compatible with each other only when certain conditions are met. In achieving this end, we need to combine (a) comprehensive measures to improve work schedules and job life, (b) strict risk management and (c) locally adjusted participatory steps for continual improvement.

  10. Effectiveness of interventions targeting physical activity, nutrition and healthy weight for university and college students: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Costigan, Sarah A; Williams, Rebecca L; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Kennedy, Sarah G; Robards, Sara L; Allen, Jennifer; Collins, Clare E; Callister, Robin; Germov, John

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving physical activity, diet, and/or weight-related behaviors amongst university/college students. Five online databases were searched (January 1970 to April 2014). Experimental study designs were eligible for inclusion. Data extraction was performed by one reviewer using a standardized form developed by the researchers and checked by a second reviewer. Data were described in a narrative synthesis and meta-analyses were conducted when appropriate. Study quality was also established. Forty-one studies were included; of these, 34 reported significant improvements in one of the key outcomes. Of the studies examining physical activity 18/29 yielded significant results, with meta-analysis demonstrating significant increases in moderate physical activity in intervention groups compared to control. Of the studies examining nutrition, 12/24 reported significantly improved outcomes; only 4/12 assessing weight loss outcomes found significant weight reduction. This appears to be the first systematic review of physical activity, diet and weight loss interventions targeting university and college students. Tertiary institutions are appropriate settings for implementing and evaluating lifestyle interventions, however more research is needed to improve such strategies. PMID:25890337

  11. Effectiveness of interventions targeting physical activity, nutrition and healthy weight for university and college students: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Costigan, Sarah A; Williams, Rebecca L; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Kennedy, Sarah G; Robards, Sara L; Allen, Jennifer; Collins, Clare E; Callister, Robin; Germov, John

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving physical activity, diet, and/or weight-related behaviors amongst university/college students. Five online databases were searched (January 1970 to April 2014). Experimental study designs were eligible for inclusion. Data extraction was performed by one reviewer using a standardized form developed by the researchers and checked by a second reviewer. Data were described in a narrative synthesis and meta-analyses were conducted when appropriate. Study quality was also established. Forty-one studies were included; of these, 34 reported significant improvements in one of the key outcomes. Of the studies examining physical activity 18/29 yielded significant results, with meta-analysis demonstrating significant increases in moderate physical activity in intervention groups compared to control. Of the studies examining nutrition, 12/24 reported significantly improved outcomes; only 4/12 assessing weight loss outcomes found significant weight reduction. This appears to be the first systematic review of physical activity, diet and weight loss interventions targeting university and college students. Tertiary institutions are appropriate settings for implementing and evaluating lifestyle interventions, however more research is needed to improve such strategies.

  12. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Vaessen, Thomas; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Winz, Oliver; Heinzel, Alexander; Pruessner, Jens; Mottaghy, Felix M; Collip, Dina; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA) system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual's fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and 12 healthy controls (HC) to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0-11 years) and late (12-18 years) was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23) = -3.35, p = .004) and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11) = 3.06, p = .016) as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11) = -2, p = .07), where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11) = -0.67), nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11) = .01, p = .99). These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life stress

  13. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Vaessen, Thomas; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Winz, Oliver; Heinzel, Alexander; Pruessner, Jens; Mottaghy, Felix M.

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA) system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual’s fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and 12 healthy controls (HC) to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0–11 years) and late (12–18 years) was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23) = -3.35, p = .004) and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11) = 3.06, p = .016) as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11) = -2, p = .07), where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11) = -0.67), nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11) = .01, p = .99). These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life

  14. Kinesio Taping in Young Healthy Subjects Does Not Affect Postural Reflex Reactions and Anticipatory Postural Adjustments of the Trunk: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Voglar, Matej; Sarabon, Nejc

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic Kinesio Taping method is used for treatment of various musculo-skeletal conditions. Kinesio Taping might have some small clinically important beneficial effects on range of motion and strength but findings about the effects on proprioception and muscle activation are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to test if Kinesio Taping influences anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex reactions. To test the hypothesis twelve healthy young participants were recruited in randomized, participants blinded, placebo controlled cross-over study. In the experimental condition the tape was applied over the paravertebral muscles and in placebo condition sham application of the tape was done transversally over the lumbar region. Timing of anticipatory postural adjustments to fast voluntary arms movement and postural reflex reactions to sudden loading over the hands were measured by means of superficial electromyography before and one hour after each tape application. Results showed no significant differences between Kinesio Taping and placebo taping conditions for any of the analyzed muscles in anticipatory postural adaptations (F1,11 < 0.23, p > 0.64, η2 < 0.04) or postural reflex reactions (F1,11 < 4.16, p > 0.07, η2 < 0.49). Anticipatory postural adjustments of erector spinae and multifidus muscles were initiated significantly earlier after application of taping (regardless of technique) compared to pre-taping (F1,11 = 5.02, p = 0.046, η2 = 0.31 and F1,11 = 6.18, p = 0.030, η2 = 0.36 for erector spinae and multifidus, respectively). Taping application over lumbar region has potential beneficial effects on timing of anticipatory postural adjustments regardless of application technique but no effect on postural reflex reactions in young pain free participants. Further research in patients with low back pain would be encouraged. Key Points Application of Kinesio Taping does not affect postural reflex reactions in young healthy population. Earlier

  15. Kinesio taping in young healthy subjects does not affect postural reflex reactions and anticipatory postural adjustments of the trunk: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Voglar, Matej; Sarabon, Nejc

    2014-09-01

    Therapeutic Kinesio Taping method is used for treatment of various musculo-skeletal conditions. Kinesio Taping might have some small clinically important beneficial effects on range of motion and strength but findings about the effects on proprioception and muscle activation are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to test if Kinesio Taping influences anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex reactions. To test the hypothesis twelve healthy young participants were recruited in randomized, participants blinded, placebo controlled cross-over study. In the experimental condition the tape was applied over the paravertebral muscles and in placebo condition sham application of the tape was done transversally over the lumbar region. Timing of anticipatory postural adjustments to fast voluntary arms movement and postural reflex reactions to sudden loading over the hands were measured by means of superficial electromyography before and one hour after each tape application. Results showed no significant differences between Kinesio Taping and placebo taping conditions for any of the analyzed muscles in anticipatory postural adaptations (F1,11 < 0.23, p > 0.64, η2 < 0.04) or postural reflex reactions (F1,11 < 4.16, p > 0.07, η(2) < 0.49). Anticipatory postural adjustments of erector spinae and multifidus muscles were initiated significantly earlier after application of taping (regardless of technique) compared to pre-taping (F1,11 = 5.02, p = 0.046, η(2) = 0.31 and F1,11 = 6.18, p = 0.030, η(2) = 0.36 for erector spinae and multifidus, respectively). Taping application over lumbar region has potential beneficial effects on timing of anticipatory postural adjustments regardless of application technique but no effect on postural reflex reactions in young pain free participants. Further research in patients with low back pain would be encouraged. Key PointsApplication of Kinesio Taping does not affect postural reflex reactions in young healthy population

  16. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Vaessen, Thomas; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Winz, Oliver; Heinzel, Alexander; Pruessner, Jens; Mottaghy, Felix M; Collip, Dina; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA) system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual's fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and 12 healthy controls (HC) to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0-11 years) and late (12-18 years) was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23) = -3.35, p = .004) and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11) = 3.06, p = .016) as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11) = -2, p = .07), where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11) = -0.67), nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11) = .01, p = .99). These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life stress

  17. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Robert H.

    Nutritional deficiencies and imbalances can influence learning directly or indirectly. Fatigue, boredom and low motivation may be the result of poor nutrition. Some vision problems, it is known, are related to deficiencies in vitamin A. A number of studies indicate that protein-caloric malnutrition affects intellectual and psychomotor development.…

  18. Identification of environmental supports for healthy eating in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sylvie, Amanda K; Jiang, Qianzhi; Cohen, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Many environmental settings and influences can affect food choices and eating behaviors in the growing population of community-dwelling older adults. Using the Social Ecological model, an expert panel participated in online discussions and an Analytic Hierarchy Process survey to identify the most important and changeable environmental settings and enabling factors that promote healthy eating in older adults. Food stores were rated most important when considering accessibility and affordability. Congregate nutrition sites were important for social support along with supporting access and affordability of healthful foods and living accommodations. Senior housing, health care, and religious settings also contributed to the goal of promoting healthful eating in aging adults. Restaurants were rated of lower importance. Based on these results, it is recommended that community food policies include the nutritional needs of older adults by addressing food accessibility and affordability, social support, and living accommodations, with a focus on congregate nutrition sites, food stores, senior housing, health care, and religious organizations.

  19. 10 Healthy Breakfast and Lunch Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back to School, the Healthy Way 10 Healthy Breakfast and Lunch Tips Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents School children eating a healthy lunch. Remember that nutrition is an important factor in academic performance. Studies have shown that children who eat ...

  20. Determinants of healthy eating in children and youth.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jennifer P; Evers, Susan; McKenna, Mary

    2005-01-01

    This review outlines the state of knowledge and research gaps in the area of determinants of healthy eating among children and youth. The article is structured around individual and collective determinants that affect healthy eating in children and youth. We defined healthy eating as "eating practices and behaviours that are consistent with improving, maintaining and/or enhancing health." Relevant databases were searched for papers published between January 1992 and March 2003 that focussed on children or youth and reported at least one factor relevant to healthy eating. Among collective factors, familial factors and the nature of foods available in the physical environment, including at home, schools and in fast-food establishments, stand out as significant influences on healthy eating in children and youth. The media, particularly television, also have an enormous potential influence and can overshadow familial influences. Individual factors identified include knowledge, attitudes and food preferences; only the latter have been identified as a strong determinant of healthy eating in both children and adolescents. The results of the review identified a significant body of literature in the area of determinants of healthy eating in children and youth; however, very little of this research has taken place in Canada. Only a few determinants, such as economic factors and food security, the content of media nutritional messages, and the issue of flavours, neophobia and food preferences, have undergone some examination by Canadian researchers. Research priorities for Canada in the area of determinants of healthy eating and surveillance of eating behaviours are identified. PMID:16042160

  1. Diet quality of a pregnant, primarily African American cohort residing in the Mississippi Delta: Delta Healthy Sprouts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At no point during a woman’s life is good nutrition more important than during her reproductive years as her dietary choices affect not only her health but also that of her child. Delta Healthy Sprouts is a randomized, controlled, comparative trial testing the impact of two Maternal, Infant, and Ea...

  2. Strategies for Creating Supportive School Nutrition Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Good nutrition is vital to optimal health. The school environment plays a fundamental role in shaping lifelong healthy behaviors and can have a powerful influence on students' eating habits. A supportive school nutrition environment includes multiple elements: access to healthy and appealing foods and beverages available to students in school…

  3. The Karlsruhe Metabolomics and Nutrition (KarMeN) Study: Protocol and Methods of a Cross-Sectional Study to Characterize the Metabolome of Healthy Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Kriebel, Anita; Dörr, Claudia; Bandt, Susanne; Rist, Manuela; Roth, Alexander; Hummel, Eva; Kulling, Sabine; Hoffmann, Ingrid; Watzl, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Background The human metabolome is influenced by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. A precondition to identify such biomarkers is the comprehensive understanding of the composition and variability of the metabolome of healthy humans. Sample handling aspects have an important impact on the composition of the metabolome; therefore, it is crucial for any metabolomics study to standardize protocols on sample collection, preanalytical sample handling, storage, and analytics to keep the nonbiological variability as low as possible. Objective The main objective of the KarMeN study is to analyze the human metabolome in blood and urine by targeted and untargeted metabolite profiling (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry [GC-MS], GC×GC-MS, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry [LC-MS/MS], and1H nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR] spectroscopy) and to determine the impact of sex, age, body composition, diet, and physical activity on metabolite profiles of healthy women and men. Here, we report the outline of the study protocol with special regard to all aspects that should be considered in studies applying metabolomics. Methods Healthy men and women, aged 18 years or older, were recruited. In addition to a number of anthropometric (height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, body composition), clinical (blood pressure, electrocardiogram, blood and urine clinical chemistry) and functional parameters (lung function, arterial stiffness), resting metabolic rate, physical activity, fitness, and dietary intake were assessed, and 24-hour urine, fasting spot urine, and plasma samples were collected. Standard operating procedures were established for all steps of the study design. Using different analytical techniques (LC-MS, GC×GC-MS,1H NMR spectroscopy), metabolite profiles of urine and plasma were determined. Data will be analyzed using univariate and multivariate as well as predictive modeling methods. Results The project was funded in 2011 and enrollment was

  4. Nutrition and neurodevelopment in children: focus on NUTRIMENTHE project.

    PubMed

    Anjos, Tania; Altmäe, Signe; Emmett, Pauline; Tiemeier, Henning; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Luque, Verónica; Wiseman, Sheila; Pérez-García, Miguel; Lattka, Eva; Demmelmair, Hans; Egan, Bernadette; Straub, Niels; Szajewska, Hania; Evans, Jayne; Horton, Claire; Paus, Tomas; Isaacs, Elizabeth; van Klinken, Jan Willem; Koletzko, Berthold; Campoy, Cristina

    2013-12-01

    There is growing evidence that early nutrition affects later cognitive performance. The idea that the diet of mothers, infants, and children could affect later mental performance has major implications for public health practice and policy development and for our understanding of human biology as well as for food product development, economic progress, and future wealth creation. To date, however, much of the evidence is from animal, retrospective studies and short-term nutritional intervention studies in humans. The positive effect of micronutrients on health, especially of pregnant women eating well to maximise their child's cognitive and behavioural outcomes, is commonly acknowledged. The current evidence of an association between gestational nutrition and brain development in healthy children is more credible for folate, n-3 fatty acids, and iron. Recent findings highlight the fact that single-nutrient supplementation is less adequate than supplementation with more complex formulae. However, the optimal content of micronutrient supplementation and whether there is a long-term impact on child's neurodevelopment needs to be investigated further. Moreover, it is also evident that future studies should take into account genetic heterogeneity when evaluating nutritional effects and also nutritional recommendations. The objective of the present review is to provide a background and update on the current knowledge linking nutrition to cognition and behaviour in children, and to show how the large collaborative European Project NUTRIMENTHE is working towards this aim.

  5. Nutrition in centenarians.

    PubMed

    Hausman, Dorothy B; Fischer, Joan G; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2011-03-01

    The oldest old are among the fastest growing segment of the population and it is important to understand not only the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and nutrition on the achievement of exceptional longevity but also the role, if any, of these factors on maintaining optimal cognitive, mental and physical health into advanced age. This review summarizes studies of dietary intake and patterns of long-lived peoples and presents current knowledge of nutritional status of centenarians as determined with nutritionally relevant biomarkers, providing information on comparative levels of the various biomarkers between centenarians and older adult controls and on the prevalence and predictors of nutritional deficiencies in centenarians. The studies indicate that BMI and nutritional status as indicated by circulating levels of antioxidant vitamins, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and 25(OH) vitamin D of centenarians are quite heterogeneous and influenced by region of residency and many of the demographic, dietary and lifestyle factors that influence nutritional status in other older adults. While many of the studies have been small, convenience samples of relatively healthy community-dwelling centenarians, a few have population-based or included participants of varying cognitive functioning. These and future studies examining associations between nutritional status and cognitive, mental and physical function should be instrumental in determining the role of nutrition in promoting longevity and improving the quality of life in these exceptional survivors.

  6. Leucine supplementation does not affect protein turnover and impairs the beneficial effects of endurance training on glucose homeostasis in healthy mice.

    PubMed

    Costa Júnior, José M; Rosa, Morgana R; Protzek, André O; de Paula, Flávia M; Ferreira, Sandra M; Rezende, Luiz F; Vanzela, Emerielle C; Zoppi, Cláudio C; Silveira, Leonardo R; Kettelhut, Isis C; Boschero, Antonio C; de Oliveira, Camila A M; Carneiro, Everardo M

    2015-04-01

    Endurance exercise training as well as leucine supplementation modulates glucose homeostasis and protein turnover in mammals. Here, we analyze whether leucine supplementation alters the effects of endurance exercise on these parameters in healthy mice. Mice were distributed into sedentary (C) and exercise (T) groups. The exercise group performed a 12-week swimming protocol. Half of the C and T mice, designated as the CL and TL groups, were supplemented with leucine (1.5 % dissolved in the drinking water) throughout the experiment. As well known, endurance exercise training reduced body weight and the retroperitoneal fat pad, increased soleus mass, increased VO2max, decreased muscle proteolysis, and ameliorated peripheral insulin sensitivity. Leucine supplementation had no effect on any of these parameters and worsened glucose tolerance in both CL and TL mice. In the soleus muscle of the T group, AS-160(Thr-642) (AKT substrate of 160 kDa) and AMPK(Thr-172) (AMP-Activated Protein Kinase) phosphorylation was increased by exercise in both basal and insulin-stimulated conditions, but it was reduced in TL mice with insulin stimulation compared with the T group. Akt phosphorylation was not affected by exercise but was lower in the CL group compared with the other groups. Leucine supplementation increased mTOR phosphorylation at basal conditions, whereas exercise reduced it in the presence of insulin, despite no alterations in protein synthesis. In trained groups, the total FoxO3a protein content and the mRNA for the specific isoforms E2 and E3 ligases were reduced. In conclusion, leucine supplementation did not potentiate the effects of endurance training on protein turnover, and it also reduced its positive effects on glucose homeostasis.

  7. A low glycemic index diet does not affect postprandial energy metabolism but decreases postprandial insulinemia and increases fullness ratings in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Krog-Mikkelsen, Inger; Sloth, Birgitte; Dimitrov, Dimiter; Tetens, Inge; Björck, Inger; Flint, Anne; Holst, Jens J; Astrup, Arne; Elmståhl, Helena; Raben, Anne

    2011-09-01

    At present, it is difficult to determine whether glycemic index (GI) is an important tool in the prevention of lifestyle diseases, and long-term studies investigating GI with diets matched in macronutrient composition, fiber content, energy content, and energy density are still scarce. We investigated the effects of 2 high-carbohydrate (55%) diets with low GI (LGI; 79) or high GI (HGI; 103) on postprandial blood profile, subjective appetite sensations, energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation rates, and ad libitum energy intake (EI) from a corresponding test meal (LGI or HGI) after consuming the diets ad libitum for 10 wk. Two groups of a total of 29 healthy, overweight women (age: 30.5 ± 6.6 y; BMI: 27.6 ± 1.5 kg/m(2)) participated in the 10-wk intervention and a subsequent 4-h meal test. The breakfast test meals differed in GI but were equal in total energy, macronutrient composition, fiber content, and energy density. The LGI meal resulted in lower plasma glucose, serum insulin, and plasma glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and higher plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations than the HGI meal (P ≤ 0.05). Ratings of fullness were slightly higher and the desire to eat something fatty was lower after the test meal in the LGI group (P < 0.05). Postprandial plasma GLP-2, plasma glucagon, serum leptin, plasma ghrelin, EE, substrate oxidation rates, and ad libitum EI at lunch did not differ between groups. In conclusion, postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and subjective appetite ratings after a test meal were better after 10-wk ad libitum intake of a LGI compared to a HGI diet. EE and substrate oxidation rates were, however, not affected. These findings give some support to recommendations to consume a LGI diet. PMID:21775528

  8. No Consistent Difference in Gray Matter Volume between Individuals with Fibromyalgia and Age-Matched Healthy Subjects when Controlling for Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Michael C.; Harris, Richard E.; Sundgren, Pia C.; Welsh, Robert C.; Fernandes, Carlo R.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Williams, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HC) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p≤.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={−28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=−.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  9. Comparing bacterial community composition of healthy and dark spot-affected Siderastrea siderea in Florida and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Gray, Michael A.; Andersen, Gary L.; Mormile, Melanie R.

    2014-10-07

    Coral disease is one of the major causes of reef degradation. Dark Spot Syndrome (DSS) was described in the early 1990's as brown or purple amorphous areas of tissue on a coral and has since become one of the most prevalent diseases reported on Caribbean reefs. It has been identified in a number of coral species, but there is debate as to whether it is in fact the same disease in different corals. Further, it is questioned whether these macroscopic signs are in fact diagnostic of an infectious disease at all. The most commonly affected species in the Caribbean is the massive starlet coral Siderastrea siderea. We sampled this species in two locations, Dry Tortugas National Park and Virgin Islands National Park. Tissue biopsies were collected from both healthy colonies and those with dark spot lesions. Microbial-community DNA was extracted from coral samples (mucus, tissue, and skeleton), amplified using bacterial-specific primers, and applied to PhyloChip G3 microarrays to examine the bacterial diversity associated with this coral. Samples were also screened for the presence of a fungal ribotype that has recently been implicated as a causative agent of DSS in another coral species, but the amplifications were unsuccessful. S. siderea samples did not cluster consistently based on health state (i.e., normal versus dark spot). Various bacteria, including Cyanobacteria and Vibrios, were observed to have increased relative abundance in the discolored tissue, but the patterns were not consistent across all DSS samples. Overall, our findings do not support the hypothesis that DSS in S. siderea is linked to a bacterial pathogen or pathogens. This dataset provides the most comprehensive overview to date of the bacterial community associated with the scleractinian coral S. siderea.

  10. Nutrition in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Irtun, Øivind; Olesen, Søren Schou; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Holst, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The pancreas is a major player in nutrient digestion. In chronic pancreatitis both exocrine and endocrine insufficiency may develop leading to malnutrition over time. Maldigestion is often a late complication of chronic pancreatic and depends on the severity of the underlying disease. The severity of malnutrition is correlated with two major factors: (1) malabsorption and depletion of nutrients (e.g., alcoholism and pain) causes impaired nutritional status; and (2) increased metabolic activity due to the severity of the disease. Nutritional deficiencies negatively affect outcome if they are not treated. Nutritional assessment and the clinical severity of the disease are important for planning any nutritional intervention. Good nutritional practice includes screening to identify patients at risk, followed by a thoroughly nutritional assessment and nutrition plan for risk patients. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and the mainstay of treatment is abstinence from alcohol, pain treatment, dietary modifications and pancreatic enzyme supplementation. To achieve energy-end protein requirements, oral supplementation might be beneficial. Enteral nutrition may be used when patients do not have sufficient calorie intake as in pylero-duodenal-stenosis, inflammation or prior to surgery and can be necessary if weight loss continues. Parenteral nutrition is very seldom used in patients with chronic pancreatitis and should only be used in case of GI-tract obstruction or as a supplement to enteral nutrition. PMID:24259957

  11. Nutrition and Wellness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ways to Give Get Involved Home Run Challenge Golf Programs Athletes for a Cure Movember Other Ways ... us how much more we have yet to learn about how key nutritional strategies can affect the ...

  12. Healthy Homes Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Gina; Lyon, Melinda; Russ, Randall

    2012-01-01

    Extension is focusing on healthy homes programming. Extension educators are not qualified to diagnose consumers' medical problems as they relate to housing. We cannot give medical advice. Instead, we can help educate consumers about home conditions that may affect their well-being. Extension educators need appropriate healthy homes tools to…

  13. Dietary fatty acid intake, its food sources and determinants in European adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.

    PubMed

    Vyncke, Krishna E; Libuda, Lars; De Vriendt, Tineke; Moreno, Luis A; Van Winckel, Myriam; Manios, Yannis; Gottrand, Frederic; Molnar, Denes; Vanaelst, Barbara; Sjöström, Michael; González-Gross, Marcela; Censi, Laura; Widhalm, Kurt; Michels, Nathalie; Gilbert, Chantal C; Xatzis, Christos; Cuenca García, Magdalena; de Heredia, Fátima Pérez; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2012-12-28

    Dietary fatty acids (FA) play a role in several (patho)physiological processes at any age, and different FA have different effects on lipid status and health outcome. The present study aims to describe the FA intake and its main food sources in a population of healthy European adolescents and to assess the variation in intake as a function of non-dietary factors. FA intake was assessed with 24 h recall interviews in 1804 adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years. Usual intakes were calculated using the multiple source method. Multilevel analyses, adjusting for study centre, were used to investigate the influence of non-dietary factors. The mean total fat intake was 33·3 (sd 1·2) % of total energy intake (%E). The mean SFA intake was 13·8 (sd 1·2) %E, with 99·8 % of the population exceeding the recommendations. SFA was mainly delivered by meat and cake, pies and biscuits. In most adolescents, the PUFA intake was too low, and 35·5 % of the population did not achieve the minimum recommended intake for α-linolenic acid (ALA). The main determinants of FA intake in the present study population were age and sex, as well as physical activity in the male subgroup. No contributions of body composition, socio-economic status or sexual maturation to the variance in FA intake were observed. In conclusion, the most important public health concerns regarding FA intake in this adolescent population were the low intake of ALA and the high intake of SFA, mainly seen in the younger-aged boys. In this group the major contributor to SFA was meat.

  14. Role of School Meal Service in Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    School meal service programs are essential for children's long-term nutrition and health promotion. The programs vary in content, depending on the economic condition, health condition and the food supply situation in each country. Children are encouraged to improve their nutrition, and choose healthy foods and learn good dietary habits through school meals and nutrition education. In Japan, the school lunch program started in 1889. The percentage of elementary schools serving school lunches had reached 99.2% in 2014, and the Nutrition Teacher system started in 2004. Nutrition teachers are to play the roles of teachers on food and nutrition education in addition to managers of foodservice operations in schools. Nutrition teachers are expected to have effects on school nutrition programs by providing meal service together with nutrition education. And so, significant effort is needed from both academia and the field to raise the related nutritional issues.

  15. Role of School Meal Service in Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    School meal service programs are essential for children's long-term nutrition and health promotion. The programs vary in content, depending on the economic condition, health condition and the food supply situation in each country. Children are encouraged to improve their nutrition, and choose healthy foods and learn good dietary habits through school meals and nutrition education. In Japan, the school lunch program started in 1889. The percentage of elementary schools serving school lunches had reached 99.2% in 2014, and the Nutrition Teacher system started in 2004. Nutrition teachers are to play the roles of teachers on food and nutrition education in addition to managers of foodservice operations in schools. Nutrition teachers are expected to have effects on school nutrition programs by providing meal service together with nutrition education. And so, significant effort is needed from both academia and the field to raise the related nutritional issues. PMID:26598858

  16. Sympathetic Activation Does Not Affect the Cardiac and Respiratory Contribution to the Relationship between Blood Pressure and Pial Artery Pulsation Oscillations in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Winklewski, Pawel J.; Tkachenko, Yurii; Mazur, Kamila; Kot, Jacek; Gruszecki, Marcin; Guminski, Wojciech; Czuszynski, Krzysztof; Wtorek, Jerzy; Frydrychowski, Andrzej F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Using a novel method called near-infrared transillumination backscattering sounding (NIR-T/BSS) that allows for the non-invasive measurement of pial artery pulsation (cc-TQ) and subarachnoid width (sas-TQ) in humans, we assessed the influence of sympathetic activation on the cardiac and respiratory contribution to blood pressure (BP) cc-TQ oscillations in healthy subjects. Methods The pial artery and subarachnoid width response to handgrip (HGT) and cold test (CT) were studied in 20 healthy subjects. The cc-TQ and sas-TQ were measured using NIR-T/BSS; cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) was measured using Doppler ultrasound of the left internal carotid artery; heart rate (HR) and beat-to-beat mean BP were recorded using a continuous finger-pulse photoplethysmography; respiratory rate (RR), minute ventilation (MV), end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2) and end-tidal O2 (EtO2) were measured using a metabolic and spirometry module of the medical monitoring system. Wavelet transform analysis was used to assess the relationship between BP and cc-TQ oscillations. Results HGT evoked an increase in BP (+15.9%; P<0.001), HR (14.7; P<0.001), SaO2 (+0.5; P<0.001) EtO2 (+2.1; P<0.05) RR (+9.2%; P = 0.05) and MV (+15.5%; P<0.001), while sas-TQ was diminished (-8.12%; P<0.001), and a clear trend toward cc-TQ decline was observed (-11.0%; NS). CBFV (+2.9%; NS) and EtCO2 (-0.7; NS) did not change during HGT. CT evoked an increase in BP (+7.4%; P<0.001), sas-TQ (+3.5%; P<0.05) and SaO2(+0.3%; P<0.05). HR (+2.3%; NS), CBFV (+2.0%; NS), EtO2 (-0.7%; NS) and EtCO2 (+0.9%; NS) remained unchanged. A trend toward decreased cc-TQ was observed (-5.1%; NS). The sas-TQ response was biphasic with elevation during the first 40 seconds (+8.8% vs. baseline; P<0.001) and subsequent decline (+4.1% vs. baseline; P<0.05). No change with respect to wavelet coherence and wavelet phase coherence was found between the BP and cc-TQ oscillations. Conclusions Short sympathetic activation does not affect the

  17. Predictors, Including Blood, Urine, Anthropometry, and Nutritional Indices, of All-Cause Mortality among Institutionalized Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohwada, Hiroko; Nakayama, Takeo; Tomono, Yuji; Yamanaka, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    As the life expectancy of people with intellectual disability (ID) increases, it is becoming necessary to understand factors affecting survival. However, predictors that are typically assessed among healthy people have not been examined. Predictors of all-cause mortality, including blood, urine, anthropometry, and nutritional indices, were…

  18. Dietary fructo-oligosaccharides in healthy adults do not negatively affect faecal cytotoxicity: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Scholtens, Petra A M J; Alles, Martine S; Willemsen, Linette E M; van den Braak, Claudia; Bindels, Jacques G; Boehm, Günther; Govers, Mirjam J A P

    2006-06-01

    Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are widely used in commercial food products. Most studies on FOS concern the health benefits, but some negative effects were recently reported concerning the faecal cytotoxicity and excretion of mucin-type oligosaccharides in combination with a Ca-restricted diet. The present study was performed to investigate whether these effects of FOS are observed in adults consuming a regular diet unrestricted in Ca. The study was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, involving eleven healthy adults, who consumed 25-30 g FOS or maltodextrin (control) in a random order for 2 weeks in addition to their regular diet. Stools were collected for analysis of pH and SCFA (as markers of fermentation), for the assessment of faecal water cytotoxicity, and for the analysis of alkaline phosphatase activity (as a marker of epithelial cell turnover) and O-linked oligosaccharides (to estimate the excretion of mucin-type oligosaccharides). FOS consumption significantly altered bacterial fermentation (increased percentage of acetate, decreased percentage of butyrate) and tended to decrease stool pH. Furthermore, FOS consumption resulted in a significantly higher stool frequency and in significantly more complaints of flatulence. No significant differences between the control and FOS period were observed in the mean cytotoxicity of faecal water (37.5 (SEM 6.9)% v. 18.5 (SEM 6.9)%; P=0.084), in mean alkaline phosphatase activity (27.7 (SEM 2.9) v. 24.6 (SEM 3.2) U/g dry faeces; P=0.496) or in the mean excretion of mucin-type oligosaccharides (49.9 (sem 4.0) v. 53.5 (SEM 4.3) mg/g dry faeces; P=0.553). We conclude that dietary FOS in a dose up to 25-30 g/d altered the bacterial fermentation pattern but did not affect faecal cytotoxicity or the faecal concentration of mucin-type oligosaccharides in human adults consuming a regular diet. PMID:16768837

  19. Developing nutrition education resources for a multi-ethnic population in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Eyles, Helen; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Wharemate, Laurie; Funaki-Tahifote, Mafi; Lanumata, Tolotea; Rodgers, Anthony

    2009-08-01

    In New Zealand, the burden of nutrition-related disease is greatest among vulnerable and disadvantaged groups, including Maori and Pacific peoples. However, little research is currently available on effective ways to improve nutrition in these communities. This paper describes the development of six paper-based nutrition education resources for multi-ethnic participants in a large supermarket intervention trial. Six focus groups involving 15 Maori, 13 Pacific and 16 non-Maori, non-Pacific participants were held. A general inductive approach was applied to identify common themes around participants' understanding and thoughts on relevance and usefulness of the draft resources. Feedback from focus groups was used to modify resources accordingly. Five themes emerged across all focus groups and guided modification of the resources: (i) perceived higher cost of healthy food, (ii) difficulty in changing food-purchasing habits, (iii) lack of knowledge, understanding and information about healthy food, (iv) desire for personally relevant information that uses ethnically appropriate language and (v) other barriers to healthy eating, including limited availability of healthy food. Many issues affect the likelihood of purchase and consumption of healthy food. These issues should be taken into account when developing nutritional materials for New Zealanders and possibly other multi-ethnic populations worldwide.

  20. Determinants of healthy eating in community-dwelling elderly people.

    PubMed

    Payette, Hélène; Shatenstein, Bryna

    2005-01-01

    Among seniors, food choice and related activities are affected by health status, biological changes wrought by aging and functional abilities, which are mediated in the larger arena by familial, social and economic factors. Determinants of healthy eating stem from individual and collective factors. Individual components include age, sex, education, physiological and health issues, psychological attributes, lifestyle practices, and knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours, in addition to other universal dietary determinants such as income, social status and culture. Collective determinants of healthy eating, such as accessible food labels, an appropriate food shopping environment, the marketing of the "healthy eating" message, adequate social support and provision of effective, community-based meal delivery services have the potential to mediate dietary habits and thus foster healthy eating. However, there is a startling paucity of research in this area, and this is particularly so in Canada. Using search and inclusion criteria and key search strings to guide the research, this article outlines the state of knowledge and research gaps in the area of determinants of healthy eating among Canadian seniors. In conclusion, dietary self-management persists in well, independent seniors without financial constraints, whatever their living arrangements, whereas nutritional risk is high among those in poor health and lacking in resources. Further study is necessary to clarify contributors to healthy eating in order to permit the development and evaluation of programs and services designed to encourage and facilitate healthy eating in older Canadians.

  1. Regulation of sulfate uptake and expression of sulfate transporter genes in Brassica oleracea as affected by atmospheric H(2)S and pedospheric sulfate nutrition.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Peter; Stuiver, C Elisabeth E; Westerman, Sue; Wirtz, Markus; Hell, Rüdiger; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; De Kok, Luit J

    2004-10-01

    Demand-driven signaling will contribute to regulation of sulfur acquisition and distribution within the plant. To investigate the regulatory mechanisms pedospheric sulfate and atmospheric H(2)S supply were manipulated in Brassica oleracea. Sulfate deprivation of B. oleracea seedlings induced a rapid increase of the sulfate uptake capacity by the roots, accompanied by an increased expression of genes encoding specific sulfate transporters in roots and other plant parts. More prolonged sulfate deprivation resulted in an altered shoot-root partitioning of biomass in favor of the root. B. oleracea was able to utilize atmospheric H(2)S as S-source; however, root proliferation and increased sulfate transporter expression occurred as in S-deficient plants. It was evident that in B. oleracea there was a poor shoot to root signaling for the regulation of sulfate uptake and expression of the sulfate transporters. cDNAs corresponding to 12 different sulfate transporter genes representing the complete gene family were isolated from Brassica napus and B. oleracea species. The sequence analysis classified the Brassica sulfate transporter genes into four different groups. The expression of the different sulfate transporters showed a complex pattern of tissue specificity and regulation by sulfur nutritional status. The sulfate transporter genes of Groups 1, 2, and 4 were induced or up-regulated under sulfate deprivation, although the expression of Group 3 sulfate transporters was not affected by the sulfate status. The significance of sulfate, thiols, and O-acetylserine as possible signal compounds in the regulation of the sulfate uptake and expression of the transporter genes is evaluated. PMID:15377780

  2. Uptake of Germanium and Rare Earth Elements (La, Gd, Er, Nd) by white mustard (Brassica alba L.) and common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) as affected by Phosphorus Nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zill, Juliane; Wiche, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The effect of phosphate nutrition is important due to the future usage of fertilizer treatment in phytomining experiments e.g. in accumulation of the economically important rare earth elements (REE). It is expected that the trivalent charge of REE will result in complexation with phosphate and REEs could be immobilized and not further bioavailable for plants which would cause losses of REE concentration in biomass. To investigate this influence on lanthanum, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium two plant species Brassica alba (white mustard) and Panicum miliaceum (common millet) were cultured in a greenhouse study. The plants were cultivated onto two different substrates and were poured with modified REE and phosphate solutions within an eight-week period. The concentrations of REE in soil, soil solution and plant samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show an increase of concentration of REE with increasing levels of element solution applied for both species. REE accumulations are elevated in roots and decrease in the order of roots> leaves> stem> fruit/blossom. Brassica accumulated more REE in root whereas Panicum showed higher REE concentrations in leaves. Exposure to increased phosphate addition did not significantly change the concentrations of REE in both plant species yet the REE concentrations in leaves slightly decreased with increasing phosphate addition. For root and stem no precise trend could be determined. It is most likely that REEs precipitate with phosphate on root surfaces and in the roots. The bioavailability of REE to plants is affected by complexation processes of REEs with phosphate in the rhizosphere. The results indicate that phosphate application plays an important role on REE uptake by roots and accumulation in different parts of a plant and it might have an influence on translocation of REE within the plant.

  3. Nutrition Education and Gerontology Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckler, Terry Anne; Vogler, James D.

    The Nutrition and Gerontology Services Project attempted to affect basal nutrition knowledge and address dietary changes for 478 California senior citizens who were live-in residents in homes for the aged. Two instruments were employed to measure study variables. Knowledge of nutrition was measured by the Nutritional Learning Scale, an orally…

  4. Team Nutrition School Activity Planner. A How-To Guide for Team Nutrition Schools and Supporters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Consumer Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This "how-to" guide for Team Nutrition fairs and tasting activities helps Team Nutrition supporters and schools understand how to work together to improve the health and education of children. Team Nutrition is the implementation tool for the U.S. Department of Agriculture's School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children. Section 1 of the guide…

  5. Nutrition communication: consumer perceptions and predicting intentions.

    PubMed

    Dean, Moira; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Shepherd, Richard

    2011-02-01

    Health claims on food products, which aim at informing the public about the health benefits of the product, represent one type of nutrition communication; the use of these is regulated by the European Union. This paper provides an overview of the research on health claims, including consumers' perceptions of such claims and their intention to buy products that carry health-related claims. This is followed by a discussion on the results from some recent studies investigating public perceptions and willingness to use products with health claims. In these studies, claims are presented in the form of messages of different lengths, types, framing, with and without qualifying words and symbols. They also investigate how perceptions and intentions are affected by individual needs and product characteristics. Results show that adding health claims to products does increase their perceived healthiness. Claim structure was found to make a difference to perceptions, but its influence depended on the level of relevance, familiarity and individuals' need for information. Further, the type of health benefit proposed and the base product used also affected perceptions of healthiness. The paper concludes that while healthiness perceptions relating to products with health claims may vary between men and women, old and young and between countries, the main factor influencing perceived healthiness and intention to buy a product with health claim is personal relevance.

  6. Nutrition communication: consumer perceptions and predicting intentions.

    PubMed

    Dean, Moira; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Shepherd, Richard

    2011-02-01

    Health claims on food products, which aim at informing the public about the health benefits of the product, represent one type of nutrition communication; the use of these is regulated by the European Union. This paper provides an overview of the research on health claims, including consumers' perceptions of such claims and their intention to buy products that carry health-related claims. This is followed by a discussion on the results from some recent studies investigating public perceptions and willingness to use products with health claims. In these studies, claims are presented in the form of messages of different lengths, types, framing, with and without qualifying words and symbols. They also investigate how perceptions and intentions are affected by individual needs and product characteristics. Results show that adding health claims to products does increase their perceived healthiness. Claim structure was found to make a difference to perceptions, but its influence depended on the level of relevance, familiarity and individuals' need for information. Further, the type of health benefit proposed and the base product used also affected perceptions of healthiness. The paper concludes that while healthiness perceptions relating to products with health claims may vary between men and women, old and young and between countries, the main factor influencing perceived healthiness and intention to buy a product with health claim is personal relevance. PMID:21266092

  7. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: nutrition security in developing nations: sustainable food, water, and health.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Stacia M; Boyle, Marie; Kemmer, Teresa M

    2013-04-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that all people should have consistent access to an appropriately nutritious diet of food and water, coupled with a sanitary environment, adequate health services, and care that ensure a healthy and active life for all household members. The Academy supports policies, systems, programs, and practices that work with developing nations to achieve nutrition security and self-sufficiency while being environmentally and economically sustainable. For nations to achieve nutrition security, all people must have access to a variety of nutritious foods and potable drinking water; knowledge, resources, and skills for healthy living; prevention, treatment, and care for diseases affecting nutrition status; and safety-net systems during crisis situations, such as natural disasters or deleterious social and political systems. More than 2 billion people are micronutrient deficient; 1.5 billion people are overweight or obese; 870 million people have inadequate food energy intake; and 783 million people lack potable drinking water. Adequate nutrient intake is a concern, independent of weight status. Although this article focuses on nutritional deficiencies in developing nations, global solutions for excesses and deficiencies need to be addressed. In an effort to achieve nutrition security, lifestyles, policies, and systems (eg, food, water, health, energy, education/knowledge, and economic) contributing to sustainable resource use, environmental management, health promotion, economic stability, and positive social environments are required. Food and nutrition practitioners can get involved in promoting and implementing effective and sustainable policies, systems, programs, and practices that support individual, community, and national efforts.

  8. Healthy School Meals: Promotion Ideas That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Children, Families, and Learning, Roseville. Food and Nutrition Service.

    "Healthy School Meals: Promotion Ideas That Work" is a Minnesota program based on the USDA's Team Nutrition program. The program's goal is to improve the health of children through school meals and nutrition education. This is accomplished by empowering schools to serve meals meeting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and motivating children in…

  9. Protocols for clinical tests on Parkinson disease affected persons and comparison with healthy people with a quantitative method of a new system Daphne.

    PubMed

    Rovetta, A

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with Daphne, a portable equipment for the evaluation of the state of health in Parkinson disease. The protocols have been developed, according to the design, to the characteristics, to the performances of the system. Tests on patients and healthy persons are presented, as application of protocols.

  10. Novel replication-competent circular DNA molecules from healthy cattle serum and milk and multiple sclerosis-affected human brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Corinna; Gunst, Karin; Müller, Hermann; Funk, Mathis; Zur Hausen, Harald; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological data point to the involvement of a cow milk factor in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Eleven circular DNA molecules closely related to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-associated isolate Sphinx 1.76 were isolated from healthy cattle serum, cow milk, and serum and brain tissue from MS patients. PMID:25169859

  11. Factors affecting healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among multiethnic blue- and white-collar workers: a case study of one healthcare institution.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Jodi H; Braun, Kathryn L; Novotny, Rachel; Mokuau, Noreen

    2013-09-01

    Worksite health promotion programs can reduce prevalence of chronic disease among employees, but little research has been done to discern whether they meet the needs and incorporate the preferences of workers of different occupational types. The objective of this study is to examine differences in influences to healthy eating and physical activity and preferences for programs among multiethnic blue- and white-collar workers in Hawai'i. A total of 57 employees from a major health care corporation in Hawai'i participated. A mixed-methods approach was employed, in which findings from focus groups with white-collar workers (WCW) (n=18) were used to inform development of a questionnaire with closed and open-ended items for use with blue-collar workers (BCW) (n=39), whose jobs did not provide adequate time to participate in focus groups. Focus groups with WCW revealed that onsite availability of healthy food and fitness opportunities provided the most support for healthy eating and physical activity at work; work demands, easy access to unhealthy foods, and lack of onsite fitness opportunities were barriers; and lifestyle management was a topic of substantial interest. BCW cited the ability to bring home lunch and their (physically active) jobs as being supportive of healthy behaviors; not having enough time to eat and personal illness/injury were barriers; and chronic disease topics were of greatest interest. Knowing differences in influences to healthy eating and physical activity, as well as preferences for worksite wellness programming, among BCW and WCW, is important when planning and implementing worksite health promotion programs. PMID:24069570

  12. Factors affecting healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among multiethnic blue- and white-collar workers: a case study of one healthcare institution.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Jodi H; Braun, Kathryn L; Novotny, Rachel; Mokuau, Noreen

    2013-09-01

    Worksite health promotion programs can reduce prevalence of chronic disease among employees, but little research has been done to discern whether they meet the needs and incorporate the preferences of workers of different occupational types. The objective of this study is to examine differences in influences to healthy eating and physical activity and preferences for programs among multiethnic blue- and white-collar workers in Hawai'i. A total of 57 employees from a major health care corporation in Hawai'i participated. A mixed-methods approach was employed, in which findings from focus groups with white-collar workers (WCW) (n=18) were used to inform development of a questionnaire with closed and open-ended items for use with blue-collar workers (BCW) (n=39), whose jobs did not provide adequate time to participate in focus groups. Focus groups with WCW revealed that onsite availability of healthy food and fitness opportunities provided the most support for healthy eating and physical activity at work; work demands, easy access to unhealthy foods, and lack of onsite fitness opportunities were barriers; and lifestyle management was a topic of substantial interest. BCW cited the ability to bring home lunch and their (physically active) jobs as being supportive of healthy behaviors; not having enough time to eat and personal illness/injury were barriers; and chronic disease topics were of greatest interest. Knowing differences in influences to healthy eating and physical activity, as well as preferences for worksite wellness programming, among BCW and WCW, is important when planning and implementing worksite health promotion programs.

  13. Healthy Children Ready to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerbee, William J.; Bramson-Paul, Phyllis; Marcellino, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Education leaders throughout California are playing a key role in creating healthy school environments for the 6 million students in the state's public schools. Recognizing the strong connection between health and learning, they have made significant changes to the nutrition environment in their schools. This article looks at how these…

  14. Program Review: Raising Healthy Eaters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfrich, Christine M.; Fetsch, Robert J.; Benavente, Janet C.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight children and adults has been increasing steadily over the past three decades. Behaviors related to diet and nutrition are often established in early childhood. Toddlers most often develop healthy eating habits through parent modeling. Due to the steady increase in obesity in children, there is a clear need for…

  15. Nutrition and Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Joseph Andrew; Underdown, Mary Jane; Clark, William Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nutrition is one of the most basic of medical issues and is often ignored as a problem in the management of our chronic wound patients. Unfortunately, malnutrition is widespread in our geriatric patients even in nursing homes in developed countries. Attention to basic nutrition and providing appropriate supplements may assist in the healing of our chronic wounds. Recent Advances: Recent research has revealed the epidemiology of malnutrition in developed countries, the similarities to malnutrition in developing countries, and some of the physiologic and sociologic causes for this problem. More information is now available on the biochemical effects of nutrient deficiency and supplementation with macronutrients and micronutrients. In some cases, administration of isolated nutrients beyond recommended amounts for healthy individuals may have a pharmacologic effect to help wounds heal. Critical Issues: Much of the knowledge of the nutritional support of chronic wounds is based on information that has been obtained from trauma management. Due to the demographic differences of the patients and differences in the physiology of acute and chronic wounds, it is not logical to assume that all aspects of nutritional support are identical in these patient groups. Before providing specific nutritional supplements, appropriate assessments of patient general nutritional status and the reasons for malnutrition must be obtained or specific nutrient supplementation will not be utilized. Future Directions: Future research must concentrate on the biochemical and physiologic differences of the acute and chronic wounds and the interaction with specific supplements, such as antioxidants, vitamin A, and vitamin D. PMID:25371850

  16. Nutrition and Chronic Wounds.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Joseph Andrew; Underdown, Mary Jane; Clark, William Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Significance: Nutrition is one of the most basic of medical issues and is often ignored as a problem in the management of our chronic wound patients. Unfortunately, malnutrition is widespread in our geriatric patients even in nursing homes in developed countries. Attention to basic nutrition and providing appropriate supplements may assist in the healing of our chronic wounds. Recent Advances: Recent research has revealed the epidemiology of malnutrition in developed countries, the similarities to malnutrition in developing countries, and some of the physiologic and sociologic causes for this problem. More information is now available on the biochemical effects of nutrient deficiency and supplementation with macronutrients and micronutrients. In some cases, administration of isolated nutrients beyond recommended amounts for healthy individuals may have a pharmacologic effect to help wounds heal. Critical Issues: Much of the knowledge of the nutritional support of chronic wounds is based on information that has been obtained from trauma management. Due to the demographic differences of the patients and differences in the physiology of acute and chronic wounds, it is not logical to assume that all aspects of nutritional support are identical in these patient groups. Before providing specific nutritional supplements, appropriate assessments of patient general nutritional status and the reasons for malnutrition must be obtained or specific nutrient supplementation will not be utilized. Future Directions: Future research must concentrate on the biochemical and physiologic differences of the acute and chronic wounds and the interaction with specific supplements, such as antioxidants, vitamin A, and vitamin D.

  17. Nutrition policy in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing.

  18. Nutrition policy in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing. PMID:18296374

  19. Healthy Pregnancies. Healthy Moms, Healthy Kids: A Series on Maternal and Child Health in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A woman's behaviors during pregnancy can have a significant influence on her baby's healthy development. Women who smoke or drink alcohol during pregnancy, go without prenatal care or suffer from poor nutrition are more likely to experience complications during pregnancy or childbirth, and their babies are at increased risk for developing a number…

  20. Healthy Children Through School Nutrition Education Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Baca, Joe [D-CA-43

    2011-02-09

    03/04/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Nutrition Counter

    MedlinePlus

    ... Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient AAKP Nutrition Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient Buy ... Harum RD, CSR, LD Certified Specialist in Renal Nutrition, Miami, Florida Reviewed by: 2005 – Maria Karalis, MBA, ...

  2. Does aging change nutrition requirements?

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, A; Warren-Mears, V A

    2001-01-01

    The current adult guidelines for a healthy diet make no distinctions between adults aged 25-50 y and those aged 51 y and over. The question is whether dietary guidelines ought to be stratified by age, in recognition of the dietary and nutrient needs of the growing population of elderly adults. There are limited data on nutrient requirements of older adults. Aging is accompanied by a variety of physiological, psychological, economic and social changes that may adversely affect nutritional status. Older people have a higher prevalence of chronic disease, take multiple medications and supplements, and tend to be sedentary. Higher prevalence of obesity is difficult to reconcile with sharply lowered energy intakes. While basal metabolic rate does decline with age, lack of physical activity among the elderly is the more likely answer. The USDA Food Guide Pyramid is the key tool for communicating dietary advice to consumers. Researchers at Tufts University have produced a 70+ pyramid to reflect the nutrient needs of elderly adults. An additional focus has been on quality of life issues. Increased longevity is not always associated with continued good health. The Healthy People 2010 Objectives now use quality of life as a national health standard. Whereas health related quality of life (HRQOL) measures assess physical and mental health and their determinants, global quality of life measures focus on life satisfaction. Optimal nutrition promotes both functional health status and mental well-being. Dietary diversity and variety promotes enjoyment and satisfaction with the diet. Regular physical activity promotes strength and endurance, helps to maintain appropriate body weight, and contributes to independent physical functioning. Improving health-related quality of life is a key element in promoting the health and well-being of older adults. PMID:11426285

  3. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  4. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Nutrition education is the theme of this issue of "Children in the Tropics," which emphasizes an analysis of the situation of nutrition education programs, particularly in third world countries. It is noted that in most cases, it is necessary to integrate aspects of nutrition education into broader programs that encompass agricultural and food…

  5. Nutrigenomic profiling of transcriptional processes affected in liver and distal intestine in response to a soybean meal-induced nutritional stress in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    De Santis, Christian; Bartie, Kerry L; Olsen, Rolf E; Taggart, John B; Tocher, Douglas R

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to generate an experimental model to characterize the nutrigenomic profile of a plant-derived nutritional stress. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was used as the model species. The nutritional stress was induced by inclusion of dietary defatted soybean meal (SBM), as this ingredient had been previously demonstrated to induce enteropathy in the distal intestine and reduce growth in salmon. Triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon were fed concentrations of 0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg(-1) SBM for 12 weeks and reduced growth performance was used as the indicator of nutritional stress. The transcriptome was analyzed in two tissues, liver and distal intestine, with the hypothesis being that the liver transcriptome would be characterized by gene expression responses related to overall growth and health performance, whereas intestinal gene expression would be dominated by specific responses to SBM. A set of 133 genes was differentially expressed in liver including 44 genes in common with the intestinal response. The liver-specific response included up-regulation of genes involved in protein digestion, energy metabolism and immune functions, whereas genes in other metabolic pathways were generally anabolic and down-regulated. These responses may be more related to general nutritional stress than to SBM per se. The transcriptomic profile in the distal intestine was consistent with the enteritis response as described previously. This study provides a comprehensive report on the profiles of liver and distal intestine transcriptomes, specifically highlighting the role of the liver in fish undergoing SBM-induced nutritional stress.

  6. Towards a sustainable diet combining economic, environmental and nutritional objectives.

    PubMed

    Donati, Michele; Menozzi, Davide; Zighetti, Camilla; Rosi, Alice; Zinetti, Anna; Scazzina, Francesca

    2016-11-01

    Foods consumed and dietary patterns are strong determinants of health status. Diet and nutrition have a key role in health promotion and maintenance during the entire lifetime, but what we choose to eat and drink greatly affects the environmental impact on ecosystems as well as monetary resources. Some studies suggest that a healthy diet with a low environmental impact is not necessarily more expensive. This paper aims to identify a healthy, greener and cheaper diet based on current consumption patterns. Dietary information was collected from 104 young adults in the last year of high school in Parma (Italy). Diet was monitored with 7-day dietary records. Subsequently, food items were decoded to obtain nutritional, economic and environmental impact data. An optimization tool based on mathematical programming (Multi-Objective Linear Programming) was used to identify sustainable diet. Three different 7-day diets were identified, based on nutrition recommendations for the healthy Italian adult population, characterized by different targets and optimizing different impacts: first the diet at the lowest cost (Minimum Cost Diet - MCD), then the Environmentally Sustainable Diet (ESD) obtained by minimizing the three environmental indicators (CO2e emissions, H2O consumption and amount of land to regenerate the resources - m(2)). Finally, the Sustainable Diet (SD) was identified by integrating environmental and economic sustainability objectives. Lastly, suggestions and recommendations for communication campaigns and other interventions to achieve sustainable diet are suggested.

  7. Comparison of the lipid properties of healthy and pansteatitis-affected African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and the role of diet in pansteatitis outbreaks in the Olifants River in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Huchzermeyer, K D A; Osthoff, G; Hugo, A; Govender, D

    2013-11-01

    Pansteatitis has been identified in wild populations of sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, inhabiting the same waters in the Olifants River Gorge in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Mesenteric and pectoral fat tissue was investigated microscopically and by fatty acid analysis in healthy and pansteatitis-affected catfish from both captive and wild populations. Variation in fatty acid composition between pectoral and mesenteric fat was noted. Composition of mesenteric fat differed between fish from various localities as a result of differences in diet. Pansteatitis in the captive population, resulting from ingestion of high amounts of dietary oxidized fat, reflected higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids within the mesenteric fat. Mesenteric fat of pansteatitis-affected wild catfish was characterized by an increase in moisture content, a decrease in fat content and a decrease in stearic and linoleic acids. The n-3 to n-6 fatty acid ratio of mesenteric fat was higher in pansteatitis-affected wild catfish than in healthy catfish from the same locality, reflecting higher polyunsaturated fat intake by pansteatitis-affected fish. The possible role of alien, invasive, phytoplankton-feeding silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes), in the aetiology of pansteatitis in both catfish and crocodiles in the Olifants Gorge is discussed.

  8. Patients requiring perioperative nutritional support.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, T Miko; Larson, Dawn; Martindale, Robert G

    2013-11-01

    One of the most important factors affecting outcome and recovery from surgical trauma is preoperative nutritional status. Research in perioperative nutritional support has suffered from a lack of consensus as to the definition of malnutrition, no recognition of which nutrients are important to surgical healing, and a paucity of well-designed studies. In the past decade, there has been some activity to address this situation, recognizing the importance of nutrition as a therapy before surgery, after surgery, and possibly even during surgery.

  9. Healthy School Meals...Healthy Kids! A Leadership Guide for School Decision-Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Consumer Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    The School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children was launched in June 1994 to improve the health and education of children through better nutrition. This leadership guide provides information to school decision-makers on using materials and resources developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and describes Team Nutrition, an implementation…

  10. Nutrition and multifetal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Brown, J E; Carlson, M

    2000-03-01

    Largely because of assisted reproduction, the rate of multifetal pregnancy is rising rapidly in the United States. Accordingly, dietitians are increasingly being called upon to provide nutrition services for these high-risk pregnancies. This article gives an overview of the incidence of and risks associated with multifetal pregnancy and reviews studies that contribute to our knowledge of nutrition and multifetal pregnancy. Practice guidelines for promoting healthy outcomes based on the best available scientific data are suggested. Guidelines for weight gain for twin and triplet pregnancy, dietary intake, and supplement use are included. Suggested practice guidelines for multifetal pregnancy include a positive rate of weight gain early in pregnancy, the use of prepregnancy weight status to determine total weight gain goals in twin pregnancy, a 50-lb weight gain goal for triplet pregnancy, and higher minimal number of servings of foods from several of the Food Guide Pyramid groups. The need for additional information on the effects of nutritional status on the course and outcome of multifetal pregnancy is critical. Preliminary evidence of the benefits of nutrition services suggests that both the incorporation of dietetics services into care programs and additional research on nutrition and multifetal gestation are warranted. PMID:10719409

  11. Air pollution exposure affects circulating white blood cell counts in healthy subjects: the role of particle composition, oxidative potential and gaseous pollutants - the RAPTES project.

    PubMed

    Steenhof, Maaike; Janssen, Nicole A H; Strak, Maciej; Hoek, Gerard; Gosens, Ilse; Mudway, Ian S; Kelly, Frank J; Harrison, Roy M; Pieters, Raymond H H; Cassee, Flemming R; Brunekreef, Bert

    2014-02-01

    Studies have linked air pollution exposure to cardiovascular health effects, but it is not clear which components drive these effects. We examined the associations between air pollution exposure and circulating white blood cell (WBC) counts in humans. To investigate independent contributions of particulate matter (PM) characteristics, we exposed 31 healthy volunteers at five locations with high contrast and reduced correlations amongst pollutant components: two traffic sites, an underground train station, a farm and an urban background site. Each volunteer visited at least three sites and was exposed for 5 h with intermittent exercise. Exposure measurements on-site included PM mass and number concentration, oxidative potential (OP), elemental- and organic carbon, metals, O3 and NO2. Total and differential WBC counts were performed on blood collected before and 2 and 18 h post-exposure (PE). Changes in total WBC counts (2 and 18 h PE), number of neutrophils (2 h PE) and monocytes (18 h PE) were positively associated with PM characteristics that were high at the underground site. These time-dependent changes reflect an inflammatory response, but the characteristic driving this effect could not be isolated. Negative associations were observed for NO2 with lymphocytes and eosinophils. These associations were robust and did not change after adjustment for a large suite of PM characteristics, suggesting an independent effect of NO2. We conclude that short-term air pollution exposure at real-world locations can induce changes in WBC counts in healthy subjects. Future studies should indicate if air pollution exposure-induced changes in blood cell counts results in adverse cardiovascular effects in susceptible individuals.

  12. Making Nutrition Education Count: A Guide for Nutrition Education K-6. Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratky, Patricia; Haigh, Lois

    This curriculum guide for nutrition education grade 3, was designed to incorporate knowledge of thirteen concepts into the child's decision-making processes as a food consumer. These concepts, as covered by the guide, are: affecting bodily well-being through nutrition; affecting dental health through nutrition; models for diet selection;…

  13. Making Nutrition Education Count: A Guide for Nutrition Education K-6. Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratky, Patricia; Haigh, Lois

    This curriculum guide for nutrition education grade 5, was designed to incorporate knowledge of thirteen concepts into the child's decision-making processes as a food consumer. These concepts, as covered by the guide, are: affecting bodily well-being through nutrition; affecting dental health through nutrition; models for diet selection;…

  14. Making Nutrition Education Count: A Guide for Nutrition Education K-6. Grade 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratky, Patricia; Haigh, Lois

    This curriculum guide for nutrition education grade 1, was designed to incorporate knowledge of thirteen concepts into the child's decision-making processes as a food consumer. These concepts, as covered by the guide, are: affecting bodily well-being through nutrition; affecting dental health through nutrition; models for diet selection;…

  15. Making Nutrition Education Count: A Guide for Nutrition Education K-6. Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratky, Patricia; Haigh, Lois

    This curriculum guide for nutrition education grade 4, was designed to incorporate knowledge of thirteen concepts into the child's decision-making processes as a food consumer. These concepts, as covered by the guide, are: affecting bodily well-being through nutrition; affecting dental health through nutrition; models for diet selection;…

  16. Making Nutrition Education Count: A Guide for Nutrition Education K-6. Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratky, Patricia; Haigh, Lois

    This curriculum guide for nutrition education grade 6, was designed to incorporate knowledge of thirteen concepts into the child's decision-making processes as a food consumer. These concepts, as covered by the guide, are: affecting bodily well-being through nutrition; affecting dental health through nutrition; models for diet selection;…

  17. Making Nutrition Education Count: A Guide for Nutrition Education K-6. Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratky, Patricia; Haigh, Lois

    This curriculum guide for nutrition education grade 2, was designed to incorporate knowledge of thirteen concepts into the child's decision-making processes as a food consumer. These concepts, as covered by the guide, are: affecting bodily well-being through nutrition; affecting dental health through nutrition; models for diet selection;…

  18. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking good care of ... are qualified to perform eye exams. Aging and Vision Changes As you age, it is normal to ...

  19. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environment Kids Health Kids Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games Brainteasers Puzzles Riddles Songs Activities Be ...

  20. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Change Contrast print sign up Share Healthy Aging This category offers tips on how to stay ... with Smell Problems with Taste Skin Care and Aging Sleep and Aging Taking Medicines Talking with Your ...

  1. Healthy Weights for Healthy Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Basics of the Nutrition Facts Panel NNM Games National Nutrition Month Games scale in an apple - Eating Right Isn't ... Safety When Dining Outdoors Find an Expert Need serious help making a plan? The nutrition experts in ...

  2. Team Nutrition e-Newsletter, October 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Team Nutrition (TN) e-Newsletter is published periodically to share TN resources developed by United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and/or by State agencies, and to share ideas for promoting healthy eating and physical activity through Team Nutrition at the State and local levels. This issue includes: (1) Materials Developed by…

  3. Nutrition Education Curriculum. First Grade Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    Six major concepts form the framework for this first grade nutrition education curriculum: (1) Food is essential for all living things (identifying basic food groups and classifying processed foods into basic food groups); (2) Nutrition is the food you eat and how the body uses it (recognizing how food choices are related to a healthy body,…

  4. Coaches, Athletes and Nutrition: Food for Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docheff, Dennis; Mandali, Swarna; Conn, James

    2005-01-01

    Athletes often adjust their dietary routines to enhance sport performance, but problems can arise when athletes turn for guidance to coaches who may not be trained in the field of nutrition, or who, themselves, are poor examples when it comes to healthy eating habits. There are many myths regarding nutrition that are spread throughout the world of…

  5. Show 'n' Tell Nutrition at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhner, Jeanne Incantalupo

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Congress has passed a measure that would scrap the Child Nutrition Act's requirements and funding for more healthy lunches in schools. Unfortunately, foods of lower nutritional value are more available than healthier snacks in the nation's schools. The author argues that providing students with more fresh fruit and produce, whole grains…

  6. Team Nutrition e-Newsletter, February 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Team Nutrition (TN) e-Newsletter is published periodically to share TN resources developed by United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and/or by State agencies, and to share ideas for promoting healthy eating and physical activity through Team Nutrition at the State and local levels. This February 2009 issue includes: (1) State Developed…

  7. Curriculum Integration in Nutrition and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Delores C. S.; Adams, Thomasenia Lott

    1998-01-01

    Integrating nutrition into elementary mathematics curricula can help students develop skills for healthful food choices that will prepare them for healthy adult life. Nutrition science incorporates numerous mathematical concepts and procedures. Curriculum integration provides a framework for children to apply knowledge from several disciplines and…

  8. Counselors, Nutrition, and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Judith E.; Long, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses current nutritional trends and the ways our bodies convert foods into chemicals that may affect thought, mood, perception, and behavior. A review of current literature suggests that nutritional deficits and food allergies may adversely alter emotional adjustment. Examines implications for counseling and suggests training and program…

  9. Basal omega-3 fatty acid status affects fatty acid and oxylipin responses to high-dose n3-HUFA in healthy volunteers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Baseline concentrations of highly unsaturated omega-3 fatty acid (n3-HUFA) may influence the ability of dietary n3-HUFA to affect changes in concentrations of esterified fatty acids and their metabolites. This study evaluates the influence of basal n3-HUFA and n3-HUFA metabolite status ...

  10. Nutrition Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  11. Nutritional support of reptile patients.

    PubMed

    De Voe, Ryan S

    2014-05-01

    Providing nutritional support to reptile patients is a challenging and often misunderstood task. Ill reptiles are frequently anorexic and can benefit greatly from appropriate nutrition delivered via a variety of assist-feeding techniques. Neonatal reptiles can also be very challenging patients because many fail to thrive without significant efforts to establish normal feeding behaviors. This article presents ideas supporting the benefit of timely nutritional support as well as specific recommendations for implementation of assist feeding. Also discussed are a few nutritional issues that affect captive reptile species.

  12. Epidemiological study on healthy subjects affected by agriculture crop-residue burning episodes and its relation with their pulmonary function tests.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ravinder; Awasthi, Amit; Singh, Nirankar; Mittal, Susheel K; Gupta, Prabhat Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Impact of agriculture crop-residue burning (ACRB) was studied on pulmonary function tests (PFTs) of 50 healthy subjects (13-53 years). Human subjects with no previous history of lung disease were residents of five sampling sites. Investigations were carried out from February 2007 to January 2010 using spirometry. Simultaneously, concentration levels of suspended particulate matter (PM) and fine particulates (PM2.5 and PM10) were monitored using high volume sampler and Anderson Cascade Impactor, respectively. The PFTs show a significant (p < 0.05) decrease, while PM shows momentous increase during exhaustive burning of wheat and rice crop residues. Effect of ACRB on the peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) is more than that on force expiratory flow (FEF25-75%). The PEF and FEF25-75% recovered to some extent on completion of burning period, while PFTs like force vital capacity and force expiratory volume did not show a significant improvement. Due to greater concentration of fine particulates during rice crop-residue burning (CRB) than wheat CRB, there was a greater effect on pulmonary functions. The ACRB, in general, poses more effect on the lower and upper age groups in comparison to the middle age group subjects. All the analyses are well supported with large significant levels (p < 0.05) obtained by using the paired t-test.

  13. Aspirin-induced increase in intestinal paracellular permeability does not affect the levels of LPS in venous blood of healthy women.

    PubMed

    Gnauck, Anne; Lentle, Roger G; Kruger, Marlena C

    2015-07-01

    The presence of subclinical levels of LPS from Gram-negative bacteria, also referred to as endotoxin, in the circulation may induce a pro-inflammatory immune response that leads to the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent data indicate that high-fat meals may elevate circulating levels of LPS. However, it is currently unclear how the LPS transits from the gut lumen to the general circulation. We determined whether aspirin-induced damage of the small intestinal mucosa, evidenced by an increase in the paracellular permeability, allows greater transit of LPS into the systemic circulation. The 3-h cumulative excretion of lactulose was significantly increased after the consumption of aspirin solution relative to that after the consumption of an equal volume of water in 15 healthy women (median after aspirin 0.09% of dose vs. median after water 0.03% of dose; P = 0.004). Dosage with aspirin also significantly increased the lactulose : mannitol ratio (median after aspirin 0.014 vs. median after water 0.005; P = 0.017). However, serum LPS levels after the consumption of the aspirin solution were not significantly different from those after consumption of the control (plain water). Further, there was no correlation between body fat content and circulating levels of LPS.

  14. [Nutrition. Prevention through nutrition: approaches to further development].

    PubMed

    Bohren-Hoerni, M

    1978-12-01

    1. More research in nutrition will help those engaged in the practical aspects of the field, because the better the knowledge, the easier they can achieve their objectives. 2. Attractive and understandable publications continuously must bring the results of this research to the attention of the general public. 3. Cooperaation of key professions like physicians, teachers, managers and cooks has to be developed. All have to work together to achieve that healthy nutrition is perceived as a contribution to the immediate well-being. 4. The main goal of all these providing foods has to consist in maintaining health while covering the daily needs but also in making healthy nutritional habits the gastronomy of the future.

  15. Nutrition Knowledge and Food Choices of Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandiah, Jay; Jones, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of a 3-week school-based nutrition education program on nutrition knowledge and healthy food choices of fifth graders randomly assigned to experimental or control group. Found that the experimental group exhibited a significant increase in nutrition knowledge from pretest to posttest and significant change in compliance in…

  16. A randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of nutritional supplementation on visual function in normal, and age-related macular disease affected eyes: design and methodology [ISRCTN78467674

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Hannah; Eperjesi, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Background Age-related macular disease is the leading cause of blind registration in the developed world. One aetiological hypothesis involves oxidation, and the intrinsic vulnerability of the retina to damage via this process. This has prompted interest in the role of antioxidants, particularly the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, in the prevention and treatment of this eye disease. Methods The aim of this randomised controlled trial is to determine the effect of a nutritional supplement containing lutein, vitamins A, C and E, zinc, and copper on measures of visual function in people with and without age-related macular disease. Outcome measures are distance and near visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, colour vision, macular visual field, glare recovery, and fundus photography. Randomisation is achieved via a random number generator, and masking achieved by third party coding of the active and placebo containers. Data collection will take place at nine and 18 months, and statistical analysis will employ Student's t test. Discussion A paucity of treatment modalities for age-related macular disease has prompted research into the development of prevention strategies. A positive effect on normals may be indicative of a role of nutritional supplementation in preventing or delaying onset of the condition. An observed benefit in the age-related macular disease group may indicate a potential role of supplementation in prevention of progression, or even a degree reversal of the visual effects caused by this condition. PMID:14594455

  17. Macitentan, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, does not affect cardiac repolarization in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Lindegger, Nicolas; Sidharta, Patricia N; Reseski, Kathrin; Dingemanse, Jasper

    2014-10-01

    Macitentan is an orally active dual endothelin receptor antagonist, which demonstrated a reduction of the risk of