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Sample records for nutrition environment measures

  1. Developing the School Physical Activity and Nutrition Environment Tool to Measure Qualities of the Obesogenic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Deborah H.; Gunter, Katherine; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Manore, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Practical tools are needed that reliably measure the complex physical activity (PA) and nutrition environments of elementary schools that influence children's health and learning behaviors for obesity prevention. The School Physical Activity and Nutrition-Environment Tool (SPAN-ET) was developed and beta tested in 6 rural Oregon…

  2. Strategies for Creating Supportive School Nutrition Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Good nutrition is vital to optimal health. The school environment plays a fundamental role in shaping lifelong healthy behaviors and can have a powerful influence on students' eating habits. A supportive school nutrition environment includes multiple elements: access to healthy and appealing foods and beverages available to students in school…

  3. Validity of a self-report survey tool measuring the nutrition and physical activity environment of primary schools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Valid tools measuring characteristics of the school environment associated with the physical activity and dietary behaviours of children are needed to accurately evaluate the impact of initiatives to improve school environments. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of Principal self-report of primary school healthy eating and physical activity environments. Methods Primary school Principals (n = 42) in New South Wales, Australia were invited to complete a telephone survey of the school environment; the School Environment Assessment Tool – SEAT. Equivalent observational data were collected by pre-service teachers located within the school. The SEAT, involved 65 items that assessed food availability via canteens, vending machines and fundraisers and the presence of physical activity facilities, equipment and organised physical activities. Kappa statistics were used to assess agreement between the two measures. Results Almost 70% of the survey demonstrated moderate to almost perfect agreement. Substantial agreement was found for 10 of 13 items assessing foods sold for fundraising, 3 of 6 items assessing physical activity facilities of the school, and both items assessing organised physical activities that occurred at recess and lunch and school sport. Limited agreement was found for items assessing foods sold through canteens and access to small screen recreation. Conclusions The SEAT provides researchers and policy makers with a valid tool for assessing aspects of the school food and physical activity environment. PMID:23758936

  4. Comparing nutrition environments in bodegas and fast food restaurants

    PubMed Central

    Lovasi, Laszlo; Yousefzadeh, Paulette; Sheehan, Daniel; Milinkovic, Karla; Baecker, Aileen; Bader, Michael D. M.; Weiss, Christopher; Lovasi, Gina S.; Rundle, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Many small grocery stores or “bodegas” sell prepared or ready-to-eat items, filling a similar niche in the food environment as fast food restaurants. However, little comparative information is available about the nutrition environments of bodegas and fast food outlets. This study compared the nutrition environments of bodegas and national chain fast food restaurants using a common audit instrument, the Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants (NEMS-R) protocol. The analytic sample included 109 bodegas and 107 fast food restaurants located in New York City neighborhoods in the upper third and lower third of the census tract poverty rate distribution. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated in 102 food outlets including 31 from the analytic sample and 71 from a supplementary convenience sample. The analysis compared scores on individual NEMS-R items, a total summary score, and sub-scores indicating healthy food availability, nutrition information, promotions of healthy or unhealthy eating, and price incentives for healthy eating, using t-tests and chi-square statistics to evaluate differences by outlet type and neighborhood poverty. Fast food restaurants were more likely to provide nutritional information, while bodegas scored higher on healthy food availability, promotions, and pricing. Bodegas and fast food restaurants had similar NEMS-R total scores (bodegas: 13.09, fast food: 14.31, p=0.22). NEMS-R total scores were higher (indicating healthier environments) in low- than high-poverty neighborhoods among both bodegas (14.79 vs. 11.54, p=0.01) and fast food restaurants (16.27 vs. 11.60, p<.01). Results imply different policy measures to improve nutrition environments in the two types of food outlets. PMID:24035459

  5. Comparing nutrition environments in bodegas and fast-food restaurants.

    PubMed

    Neckerman, Kathryn M; Lovasi, Laszlo; Yousefzadeh, Paulette; Sheehan, Daniel; Milinkovic, Karla; Baecker, Aileen; Bader, Michael D M; Weiss, Christopher; Lovasi, Gina S; Rundle, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Many small grocery stores or "bodegas" sell prepared or ready-to-eat items, filling a niche in the food environment similar to fast-food restaurants. However, little comparative information is available about the nutrition environments of bodegas and fast-food outlets. This study compared the nutrition environments of bodegas and national chain fast-food restaurants using a common audit instrument, the Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants (NEMS-R) protocol. The analytic sample included 109 bodegas and 107 fast-food restaurants located in New York City neighborhoods in the upper third and lower third of the census tract poverty rate distribution. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated in 102 food outlets, including 31 from the analytic sample and 71 from a supplementary convenience sample. The analysis compared scores on individual NEMS-R items, a total summary score, and subscores indicating healthy food availability, nutrition information, promotions of healthy or unhealthy eating, and price incentives for healthy eating, using t tests and χ(2) statistics to evaluate differences by outlet type and neighborhood poverty. Fast-food restaurants were more likely to provide nutrition information, and bodegas scored higher on healthy food availability, promotions, and pricing. Bodegas and fast-food restaurants had similar NEMS-R total scores (bodegas 13.09, fast food 14.31; P=0.22). NEMS-R total scores were higher (indicating healthier environments) in low- than high-poverty neighborhoods among both bodegas (14.79 vs 11.54; P=0.01) and fast-food restaurants (16.27 vs 11.60; P<0.01). Results imply different policy measures to improve nutrition environments in the two types of food outlets.

  6. Nutrition Knowledge and Training Needs in the School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Anna Marie

    2013-01-01

    The nutrition environment in schools can influence the risk for childhood overweight and obesity, which in turn can have life-long implications for risk of chronic disease. This dissertation aimed to examine the nutrition environment in primary public schools in California with regards to the amount of nutrition education provided in the…

  7. How to measure mood in nutrition research.

    PubMed

    Hammersley, Richard; Reid, Marie; Atkin, Stephen L

    2014-12-01

    Mood is widely assessed in nutrition research, usually with rating scales. A core assumption is that positive mood reinforces ingestion, so it is important to measure mood well. Four relevant theoretical issues are reviewed: (i) the distinction between protracted and transient mood; (ii) the distinction between mood and emotion; (iii) the phenomenology of mood as an unstable tint to consciousness rather than a distinct state of consciousness; (iv) moods can be caused by social and cognitive processes as well as physiological ones. Consequently, mood is difficult to measure and mood rating is easily influenced by non-nutritive aspects of feeding, the psychological, social and physical environment where feeding occurs, and the nature of the rating system employed. Some of the difficulties are illustrated by reviewing experiments looking at the impact of food on mood. The mood-rating systems in common use in nutrition research are then reviewed, the requirements of a better mood-rating system are described, and guidelines are provided for a considered choice of mood-rating system including that assessment should: have two main dimensions; be brief; balance simplicity and comprehensiveness; be easy to use repeatedly. Also mood should be assessed only under conditions where cognitive biases have been considered and controlled.

  8. Nutrition-Labeling Regulation Impacts on Restaurant Environments

    PubMed Central

    Saelens, Brian E.; Chan, Nadine; Krieger, James; Nelson, Young; Boles, Myde; Colburn, Trina; Glanz, Karen; Ta, Myduc; Bruemmer, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent attempts to improve the healthfulness of away-from-home eating include regulations requiring restaurants to post nutrition information. The impact of such regulations on restaurant environments is unknown. Purpose To examine changes in restaurant environments from before to after nutrition-labeling regulation in a newly regulated county versus a nonregulated county. Methods Using the Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys–Restaurant version audit, environments within the same quick-service chain restaurants were evaluated in King County (regulated) before and 6 and 18 months after regulation enforcement and in Multnomah County (nonregulated) restaurants over a 6-month period. Data were collected in 2008–2010 and analyses conducted in 2011. Results Overall availability of healthy options and facilitation of healthy eating did not differentially increase in King County versus Multnomah County restaurants aside from the substantial increase in onsite nutrition information posting in King County restaurants required by the new regulation. Barriers to healthful eating decreased in King County relative to Multnomah County restaurants, particularly in food-oriented establishments. King County restaurants demonstrated modest increases in signage that promotes healthy eating, although the frequency of such promotion remained low, and the availability of reduced portions decreased in these restaurants. The healthfulness of children’s menus improved modestly over time, but not differentially by county. Conclusions A restaurant nutrition-labeling regulation was accompanied by some, but not uniform, improvements in other aspects of restaurant environments in the regulated compared to the nonregulated county. Additional opportunities exist for improving the healthfulness of awayfrom- home eating beyond menu labeling. PMID:23079173

  9. The Healthy Communities Study Nutrition Assessments: Child Diet and the School Nutrition Environment.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Lorrene D; Wakimoto, Patricia; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Thompson, Frances E; Loria, Catherine M; Wilson, Dawn K; Kao, Janice; Crawford, Patricia B; Webb, Karen L

    2015-10-01

    Multifaceted community interventions directed at improving food environments are emerging, but their impact on dietary change and obesity prevalence has not been adequately documented. The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is seeking to identify characteristics and combinations of programs and policies that are associated with children's diets and obesity-related outcomes in various types of communities across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used in 2013-2015 in the HCS to assess dietary intake, school nutrition environments, and other nutrition-related behaviors. The conceptual framework of the HCS is based on the socioecological model and behaviors shown in previous studies to be related to obesity in children guided selection of domains. Nine domains were identified as essential measures of nutrition in the HCS: (1) intake of selected foods and beverages; (2) food patterns and behaviors; (3) social support; (4) home environment; (5) school environment; (6) community environment; (7) breastfeeding history; (8) household food insecurity; and (9) dieting behaviors and body image. Children's dietary intake was assessed using a dietary screener and up to two automated 24-hour recalls. Dietary-related behaviors were assessed by a survey administered to the parent, child, or both, depending on child age. School nutrition measures were obtained from a combination of school staff surveys and researcher observations. Information from these measures is expected to contribute to a better understanding of "what is working" to improve the dietary behaviors that are likely to prevent obesity and improve health in children. PMID:26384936

  10. Nutrition Knowledge and Training Needs in the School Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Anna Marie

    The nutrition environment in schools can influence the risk for childhood overweight and obesity, which in turn can have life-long implications for risk of chronic disease. This dissertation aimed to examine the nutrition environment in primary public schools in California with regards to the amount of nutrition education provided in the classroom, the nutrition knowledge of teachers, and the training needs of school nutrition personnel. In order to determine nutrition knowledge of teachers, a valid and reliable questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge. The systematic process involved cognitive interviews, a mail-based pretest that utilized a random sample of addresses in California, and validity and reliability testing in a sample of university students. Results indicated that the questionnaire had adequate construct validity, internal consistency reliability, and test-retest reliability. Following the validation of the knowledge questionnaire, it was used in a study of public school teachers in California to determine the relationship between demographic and classroom characteristics and nutrition knowledge, in addition to barriers to nutrition education and resources used to plan nutrition lessons. Nutrition knowledge was not found to be associated with teaching nutrition in the classroom, however it was associated with gender, identifying as Hispanic or Latino, and grade level grouping taught. The most common barriers to nutrition education were time, and unrelated subject matter. The most commonly used resources to plan nutrition lessons were Dairy Council of California educational materials. The school nutrition program was the second area of the school nutrition environment to be examined, and the primary focus was to determine the perceived training needs of California school nutrition personnel. Respondents indicated a need for training in topics related to: program management; the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010; nutrition, health and

  11. Analysis of the effects of early nutritional environment on inbreeding depression in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Valtonen, T M; Roff, D A; Rantala, M J

    2011-01-01

    The impact of nutritional deficiencies early in life in determining life-history variation in organisms is well recognized. The negative effects of inbreeding on fitness are also well known. Contrary to studies on vertebrates, studies on invertebrates are not consistent with the observation that inbreeding compromises resistance to parasites and pathogens. In this study, we investigated the effect of early nutrition on the magnitude of inbreeding depression in development time, adult body size and adult resistance to the bacterium Serratia marcescens in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that early nutritional environment had no effect on the magnitude of inbreeding depression in development time or adult body size but may have played a small role in adult resistance to the bacterial infection. Estimates of heritabilities for development time under the poor nutritional environment were larger than those measured under the standard nutritional conditions.

  12. Nutritional assessment with body composition measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Shizgal, H.M.

    1987-09-01

    The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution provides an accurate and precise measure of both the nutritional state and the response to nutritional support. A multiple isotope dilution technique has been developed that permits measurement of the three major components of body composition: body fat, extracellular mass (ECM), and body cell mass (BCM). Normal body composition was defined by data obtained in 25 healthy volunteers. Malnutrition is characterized by a loss of BCM and an expansion of the ECM, and as a result the lean body mass is not significantly different from normal. The loss of body weight with malnutrition therefore often reflects the loss of body fat. The utility of body composition measurements was demonstrated by determining the effect of total parenteral nutrition on body composition to determine the relationship between caloric intake and the change in the BCM. A statistically significant relationship was developed which demonstrated that a caloric intake in the range of 30-40 cal/kg/day is required for maintenance. To restore a depleted or malnourished BCM requires a caloric intake in excess of that required for maintenance. The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution is complex and time consuming, and requires specialized laboratory facilities and specially trained personnel. As a result, these measurements are not suited for routine patient management, but should rather be reserved for research purposes.

  13. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools

    PubMed Central

    Wijnhoven, Trudy M.A.; van Raaij, Joop M.A.; Sjöberg, Agneta; Eldin, Nazih; Yngve, Agneta; Kunešová, Marie; Starc, Gregor; Rito, Ana I.; Duleva, Vesselka; Hassapidou, Maria; Martos, Éva; Pudule, Iveta; Petrauskiene, Ausra; Farrugia Sant’Angelo, Victoria; Hovengen, Ragnhild; Breda, João

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Methods: Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively). School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children’s weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A) Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children’s BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Results: Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%−95% of schools) and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30−0.93). Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania) graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70) countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20−1.02), indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the school

  14. Teacher Attitudes, Perceived Influences, and Self-Reported Classroom Behaviors Related to School Nutrition Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Beverly Lawler

    2010-01-01

    This study determined attitudes of kindergarten through fifth grade teachers about school nutrition environments, their perceived influence on school nutrition environments, and self-reported classroom behaviors. Specific objectives were to: (a) identify perceived factors that influence the school nutrition environment, according to teachers…

  15. Measuring the Natural Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strangeways, Ian

    2003-11-01

    This new edition has been brought completely up-to-date and expanded considerably. It has five new chapters covering visibility, clouds, lightning, atmospheric composition, and the upper atmosphere. The chapter on barometric pressure has been rewritten and expanded, while the chapter on oceans and polar regions has been split into two separate and expanded chapters. In addition, the final chapter--Forward Look--has been rewritten. This volume will be important reading for all professionals involved in pure environmental research or in the day-to-day management of the environment. First Edition Hb (2000): 0-521-57310-6

  16. Modification of the school cafeteria environment can impact childhood nutrition. Results from the Wise Mind and LA Health studies.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Donald A; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Martin, Corby K; Newton, Robert L

    2013-02-01

    Recent changes in nutrition standards for the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs assume that modification of the nutritional serving practices of school cafeterias will result in improved childhood nutrition in the school environment. The primary aim of this paper is to summarize the findings from two recent cluster randomized controlled trials (Wise Mind and LA Health) that tested the hypothesis that modification of school cafeteria environments, including changes in nutrition standards, would yield beneficial changes in childhood nutrition and healthy eating in the school lunch environment. A secondary aim was to investigate the association of participant characteristics and changes in nutrition and healthy eating. A third aim was to investigate the relationships between the food intake of children and: (1) foods selected by the children and (2) food that was uneaten during the lunch meal (plate waste). The studies used similar approaches for modifying the school cafeteria environment and both studies used the digital photography method to measure changes in food intake, food selection, and plate waste. Both studies reported significant improvements in childhood nutrition, and the LA Health study reported improved healthy eating, following introduction of the cafeteria modification program in comparison to baseline and/or control arms. These studies confirm the hypothesis that interventions that modify the school cafeteria environment can beneficially impact childhood nutrition. PMID:23154216

  17. Modification of the school cafeteria environment can impact childhood nutrition. Results from the Wise Mind and LA Health studies.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Donald A; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Martin, Corby K; Newton, Robert L

    2013-02-01

    Recent changes in nutrition standards for the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs assume that modification of the nutritional serving practices of school cafeterias will result in improved childhood nutrition in the school environment. The primary aim of this paper is to summarize the findings from two recent cluster randomized controlled trials (Wise Mind and LA Health) that tested the hypothesis that modification of school cafeteria environments, including changes in nutrition standards, would yield beneficial changes in childhood nutrition and healthy eating in the school lunch environment. A secondary aim was to investigate the association of participant characteristics and changes in nutrition and healthy eating. A third aim was to investigate the relationships between the food intake of children and: (1) foods selected by the children and (2) food that was uneaten during the lunch meal (plate waste). The studies used similar approaches for modifying the school cafeteria environment and both studies used the digital photography method to measure changes in food intake, food selection, and plate waste. Both studies reported significant improvements in childhood nutrition, and the LA Health study reported improved healthy eating, following introduction of the cafeteria modification program in comparison to baseline and/or control arms. These studies confirm the hypothesis that interventions that modify the school cafeteria environment can beneficially impact childhood nutrition.

  18. Nutrition considerations in special environments for aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Stellingwerff, Trent; Pyne, David B; Burke, Louise M

    2014-08-01

    Elite athletes who compete in aquatic sports face the constant challenge of arduous training and competition schedules in difficult and changing environmental conditions. The huge range of water temperatures to which swimmers and other aquatic athletes are often exposed (16-31 °C for open-water swimming), coupled with altered aquatic thermoregulatory responses as compared with terrestrial athletes, can challenge the health, safety, and performance of these athletes. Other environmental concerns include air and water pollution, altitude, and jetlag and travel fatigue. However, these challenging environments provide the potential for several nutritional interventions that can mitigate the negative effects and enhance adaptation and performance. These interventions include providing adequate hydration and carbohydrate and iron intake while at altitude; optimizing body composition and fluid and carbohydrate intake when training or competing in varying water temperatures; and maximizing fluid and food hygiene when traveling. There is also emerging information on nutritional interventions to manage jetlag and travel fatigue, such as the timing of food intake and the strategic use of caffeine or melatonin. Aquatic athletes often undertake their major global competitions where accommodations feature cafeteria-style buffet eating. These environments can often lead to inappropriate choices in the type and quantity of food intake, which is of particular concern to divers and synchronized swimmers who compete in physique-specific sports, as well as swimmers who have a vastly reduced energy expenditure during their taper. Taken together, planned nutrition and hydration interventions can have a favorable impact on aquatic athletes facing varying environmental challenges.

  19. Nutrition considerations in special environments for aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Stellingwerff, Trent; Pyne, David B; Burke, Louise M

    2014-08-01

    Elite athletes who compete in aquatic sports face the constant challenge of arduous training and competition schedules in difficult and changing environmental conditions. The huge range of water temperatures to which swimmers and other aquatic athletes are often exposed (16-31 °C for open-water swimming), coupled with altered aquatic thermoregulatory responses as compared with terrestrial athletes, can challenge the health, safety, and performance of these athletes. Other environmental concerns include air and water pollution, altitude, and jetlag and travel fatigue. However, these challenging environments provide the potential for several nutritional interventions that can mitigate the negative effects and enhance adaptation and performance. These interventions include providing adequate hydration and carbohydrate and iron intake while at altitude; optimizing body composition and fluid and carbohydrate intake when training or competing in varying water temperatures; and maximizing fluid and food hygiene when traveling. There is also emerging information on nutritional interventions to manage jetlag and travel fatigue, such as the timing of food intake and the strategic use of caffeine or melatonin. Aquatic athletes often undertake their major global competitions where accommodations feature cafeteria-style buffet eating. These environments can often lead to inappropriate choices in the type and quantity of food intake, which is of particular concern to divers and synchronized swimmers who compete in physique-specific sports, as well as swimmers who have a vastly reduced energy expenditure during their taper. Taken together, planned nutrition and hydration interventions can have a favorable impact on aquatic athletes facing varying environmental challenges. PMID:24937361

  20. Improving children's nutrition environments: A survey of adoption and implementation of nutrition guidelines in recreational facilities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the mandate of recreational facilities is to enhance well-being, many offer foods inconsistent with recommendations for healthy eating. Little is known regarding recreational facility food environments and how they might be improved, as few studies exist. The Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (ANGCY) are intended to ensure access to healthy food choices in schools, childcare and recreational facilities. This study investigated awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY among recreational facilities in Alberta, Canada, one year following their release. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted from June - December, 2009 (n = 151) with managers of publicly funded recreational facilities that served food. The questionnaire included 10 closed and 7 open ended questions to assess the organizational priority for healthy eating, awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY. Chi-squared tests examined quantitative variables, while qualitative data were analysed using directed content analysis. Greenhalgh's model of diffusion of complex innovations within health service organizations constituted the theoretical framework for the study. Results One half of respondents had heard of the ANGCY, however their knowledge of them was limited. Although 51% of facilities had made changes to improve the nutritional quality of foods offered in the past year, only a small fraction (11%) of these changes were motivated by the ANGCY. At the time of the survey, 14% of facilities had adopted the ANGCY and 6% had implemented them. Barriers to adoption and implementation were primarily related to perceived negative attributes of the ANGCY, the inner (organizational) context, and negative feedback received during the implementation process. Managers strongly perceived that implementing nutrition guidelines would limit their profit-making ability. Conclusions If fully adopted and implemented, the ANGCY have the potential to

  1. [Nutritional genomics: an approach to the genome-environment interaction].

    PubMed

    Xacur-García, Fiona; Castillo-Quan, Jorge I; Hernández-Escalante, Víctor M; Laviada-Molina, Hugo

    2008-11-01

    Nutritional genomics forms part of the genomic sciences and addresses the interaction between genes and the human diet, its influence on metabolism and subsequent susceptibility to develop common diseases. It encompasses both nutrigenomics, which explores the effects of nutrients on the genome, proteome and metabolome; and nutrigenetics, that explores the effects of genetic variations on the diet/disease interaction. A number of mechanisms drive the gene/diet interaction: elements in the diet can act as links for transcription factor receptors and after intermediary concentrations, thereby modifying chromatin and impacting genetic regulation; affect signal pathways, regulating phosphorylation of tyrosine in receptors; decrease signaling through the inositol pathway; and act through epigenetic mechanisms, silencing DNA fragments by methylation of cytosine. The signals generated by polyunsaturated fatty acids are so powerful that they can even bypass insulin mediated lipogenesis, stimulated by carbohydrates. Some fatty acids modify the expression of genes that participate in fatty acid transport by lipoproteins. Nutritional genomics has myriad possible therapeutic and preventive applications: in patients with enzymatic deficiencies; in those with a genetic predisposition to complex diseases such as dyslipidemia, diabetes and cancer; in those that already suffer these diseases; in those with altered mood or memory; during the aging process; in pregnant women; and as a preventive measure in the healthy population. PMID:19301779

  2. The Role of the School Nutrition Environment for Promoting the Health of Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Mary Kay; Marshak, John; Conklin, Martha T.

    2004-01-01

    This study identifies the nature of nutrition environment in middle grades schools from the principals' and superintendents' point of view and determines which elements of a school's nutrition environment these school administrators considered most relevant to students' health and well-being. Most school administrators did not think the…

  3. Consumer Nutrition Environments of Hospitals: An Exploratory Analysis Using the Hospital Nutrition Environment Scan for Cafeterias, Vending Machines, and Gift Shops, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Sallis, James F.; Swartz, Michael D.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Peskin, Melissa F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hospitals are the primary worksite of over 5 million adults in the United States, and millions of meals are procured and consumed in this setting. Because many worksite nutrition initiatives use an ecological framework to improve the dietary habits of employees, the nutrition values of foods served in hospitals is receiving attention. Methods This study used the Hospital Nutrition Environment Scan for Cafeterias, Vending Machines, and Gift Shops to quantitatively describe the consumer nutrition environments of 39 hospitals in Southern California. Data were collected by visiting each facility once from February 2012 through May 2012. Results On average, hospitals achieved only 29%, 33%, and less than 1% of the total possible points for their cafeteria, vending machines, and gift shops sections, respectively; overall, hospitals scored 25% of the total possible points. Large facility size and contracted food service operations were associated with some healthy practices in hospital cafeterias, but we found no association between these variables and the sectional or overall nutrition composite scores. Conclusion The average consumer nutrition environment of hospitals in this sample was minimally conducive to healthful eating. Nutrition-related interventions are warranted in hospital settings. PMID:23823699

  4. Measuring local food environments: an overview of available methods and measures.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bridget; Flood, Victoria M; Yeatman, Heather

    2011-11-01

    Reliable and valid measures of local food environments are needed to more fully understand the relationship between these environments and health and identify potential intervention points to improve access to, and the availability of, healthy foods. These measures also inform policy making, including the zoning of food outlets and food labelling/information requirements. A literature review was undertaken using health, behavioural and social sciences, nutrition and public health databases and grey literature, to determine available information on the measurement of local food environments. Included articles were those measuring aspects of food environments published from 2000 to 2010. A range of tools and methods are available to measure different components of food environments. Those focusing on community nutrition environments record the number, type and location of food outlets. The tools that focus on the consumer nutrition environment incorporate other factors, such as available food and beverage products, their price and quality, and any promotions or information to prompt consumers to make purchasing decisions. A summary and critique of these measures are provided.

  5. Making Schools the Model for Healthier Environments Toolkit: General School Nutrition Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The federal school nutrition programs are the keystones to the diets of millions of American children. Schools have the opportunity to support healthy nutrition habits early in life by creating environments that encourage the consumption of healthy foods and beverages. This paper provides resources which offer general information about the…

  6. Geographic Disparity in Funding for School Nutrition Environments: Evidence from Mississippi Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yunhee; Carithers, Teresa; Leeke, Shannon; Chin, Felicia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the federal initiatives on equitable provision of school nutrition programs, geographic disparity in childhood obesity persists. It may be partly because built-in school nutrition environments rely on each school's efficient use of existing operational funds or its ability to obtain expanded financial support. This study…

  7. Aluminum in Pediatric Parenteral Nutrition Products: Measured Versus Labeled Content

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Robert L.; Pieroni, Kevin P.; Gaskari, Shabnam; Dixon, Tessa K.; Park, KT; Kerner, John A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Aluminum is a contaminant in all parenteral nutrition solutions. Manufacturers currently label these products with the maximum aluminum content at the time of expiry, but there are no published data to establish the actual measured concentration of aluminum in parenteral nutrition solution products prior to being compounded in the clinical setting. This investigation assessed quantitative aluminum content of products commonly used in the formulation of parenteral nutrition solutions. The objective of this study is to determine the best products to be used when compounding parenteral nutrition solutions (i.e., those with the least amount of aluminum contamination). METHODS All products available in the United States from all manufacturers used in the production of parenteral nutrition solutions were identified and collected. Three lots were collected for each identified product. Samples were quantitatively analyzed by Mayo Laboratories. These measured concentrations were then compared to the manufacturers' labeled concentration. RESULTS Large lot-to-lot and manufacturer-to-manufacturer differences were noted for all products. Measured aluminum concentrations were less than manufacturer-labeled values for all products. CONCLUSIONS The actual aluminum concentrations of all the parenteral nutrition solutions were significantly less than the aluminum content based on manufacturers' labels. These findings indicate that 1) the manufacturers should label their products with actual aluminum content at the time of product release rather than at the time of expiry, 2) that there are manufacturers whose products provide significantly less aluminum contamination than others, and 3) pharmacists can select products with the lowest amounts of aluminum contamination and reduce the aluminum exposure in their patients. PMID:22477831

  8. Reliability of skin testing as a measure of nutritional state

    SciTech Connect

    Forse, R.A.; Christou, N.; Meakins, J.L.; MacLean, L.D.; Shizgal, H.M.

    1981-10-01

    The reliability of skin testing to assess the nutritional state was evaluated in 257 patients who received total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The nutritional state was assessed by determining body composition, by multiple-isotope dilution. Immunocompetence was simultaneously evaluated by skin testing with five recall antigens. These measurements were carried out before and at two-week intervals during TPN. A statistically significant relationship existed between the response to skin testing and the nutritional state. A body composition consistent with malnutrition was present in the anergic patients, while body composition was normal in the patients who reacted normally to skin testing. However, a considerable overlap existed as 43% of the reactive patients were malnourished, and 21% of the anergic patients were normally nourished. Thirty-seven (43%) of the 86 anergic patients converted and became reactive during TPN, and their body composition improved significantly. The remaining 49 anergic patients (57%) did not convert, and their body composition did not change despite similar nutritional support. The principal difference between the two groups of anergic patients was the nature of the therapy administered. In the anergic patients who converted, therapy was aggressive and appropriate, and clinical improvement occurred in 23 (62.2%) of the patients, with a mortality of 5.4%. In the 49 patients who remained anergic, therapy was often inappropriate or unsuccessful, with clinical improvement in only three (6.1%) of the patients and a mortality of 42.8%. The data demonstrated a significant relationship between the response to skin testing and the nutritional state. However, because of the wide overlap, skin testing does not accurately assess a person's nutritional state. The persistence of the anergic state is indicative of a lack of response to therapy.

  9. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  10. A Systematic Review of Athletes’ and Coaches’ Nutrition Knowledge and Reflections on the Quality of Current Nutrition Knowledge Measures

    PubMed Central

    Trakman, Gina L.; Forsyth, Adrienne; Devlin, Brooke L.; Belski, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Context: Nutrition knowledge can influence dietary choices and impact on athletic performance. Valid and reliable measures are needed to assess the nutrition knowledge of athletes and coaches. Objectives: (1) To systematically review the published literature on nutrition knowledge of adult athletes and coaches and (2) to assess the quality of measures used to assess nutrition knowledge. Data Sources: MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscuss, Web of Science, and SCOPUS. Study Selection: 36 studies that provided a quantitative measure of nutrition knowledge and described the measurement tool that was used were included. Data extraction: Participant description, questionnaire description, results (mean correct and responses to individual items), study quality, and questionnaire quality. Data synthesis: All studies were of neutral quality. Tools used to measure knowledge did not consider health literacy, were outdated with regards to consensus recommendations, and lacked appropriate and adequate validation. The current status of nutrition knowledge in athletes and coaches is difficult to ascertain. Gaps in knowledge also remain unclear, but it is likely that energy density, the need for supplementation, and the role of protein are frequently misunderstood. Conclusions: Previous reports of nutrition knowledge need to be interpreted with caution. A new, universal, up-to-date, validated measure of general and sports nutrition knowledge is required to allow for assessment of nutrition knowledge. PMID:27649242

  11. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your diet. These include brightly colored and dark fruits and vegetables. Balance the food you eat ... can also order your free copy of Nutrition Matters and visit our Ask about Nutrition forum. << Back ...

  12. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    Nutrition Health Education During the 2 years preceding the study: • The percentage of states that provided funding for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health ...

  13. Enabled or Disabled: Is the Environment Right for Using Biodiversity to Improve Nutrition?

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Danny; Özkan, Isa; Moura de Oliveira Beltrame, Daniela; Samarasinghe, Wellakke Lokuge Gamini; Wasike, Victor Wafula; Charrondière, U. Ruth; Borelli, Teresa; Sokolow, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    How can we ensure that 9 billion people will have access to a nutritious and healthy diet that is produced in a sustainable manner by 2050? Despite major advances, our global food system still fails to feed a significant part of humanity adequately. Diversifying food systems and diets to include nutrient-rich species can help reduce malnutrition, while contributing other multiple benefits including healthy ecosystems. While research continues to demonstrate the value of incorporating biodiversity into food systems and diets, perverse subsidies, and barriers often prevent this. Countries like Brazil have shown that, by strategic actions and interventions, it is indeed possible to create better contexts to mainstream biodiversity for improved nutrition into government programs and public policies. Despite some progress, there are few global and national policy mechanisms or processes that effectively join biodiversity with agriculture and nutrition efforts. This perspective paper discusses the benefits of biodiversity for nutrition and explores what an enabling environment for biodiversity to improve nutrition might look like, including examples of steps and actions from a multi-country project that other countries might replicate. Finally, we suggest what it might take to create enabling environments to mainstream biodiversity into global initiatives and national programs and policies on food and nutrition security. With demand for new thinking about how we improve agriculture for nutrition and growing international recognition of the role biodiversity, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development presents an opportunity to move beyond business-as-usual to more holistic approaches to food and nutrition security. PMID:27376067

  14. Enabled or Disabled: Is the Environment Right for Using Biodiversity to Improve Nutrition?

    PubMed

    Hunter, Danny; Özkan, Isa; Moura de Oliveira Beltrame, Daniela; Samarasinghe, Wellakke Lokuge Gamini; Wasike, Victor Wafula; Charrondière, U Ruth; Borelli, Teresa; Sokolow, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    How can we ensure that 9 billion people will have access to a nutritious and healthy diet that is produced in a sustainable manner by 2050? Despite major advances, our global food system still fails to feed a significant part of humanity adequately. Diversifying food systems and diets to include nutrient-rich species can help reduce malnutrition, while contributing other multiple benefits including healthy ecosystems. While research continues to demonstrate the value of incorporating biodiversity into food systems and diets, perverse subsidies, and barriers often prevent this. Countries like Brazil have shown that, by strategic actions and interventions, it is indeed possible to create better contexts to mainstream biodiversity for improved nutrition into government programs and public policies. Despite some progress, there are few global and national policy mechanisms or processes that effectively join biodiversity with agriculture and nutrition efforts. This perspective paper discusses the benefits of biodiversity for nutrition and explores what an enabling environment for biodiversity to improve nutrition might look like, including examples of steps and actions from a multi-country project that other countries might replicate. Finally, we suggest what it might take to create enabling environments to mainstream biodiversity into global initiatives and national programs and policies on food and nutrition security. With demand for new thinking about how we improve agriculture for nutrition and growing international recognition of the role biodiversity, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development presents an opportunity to move beyond business-as-usual to more holistic approaches to food and nutrition security.

  15. Reliability of the hospital nutrition environment scan for cafeterias, vending machines, and gift shops.

    PubMed

    Winston, Courtney P; Sallis, James F; Swartz, Michael D; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Peskin, Melissa F

    2013-08-01

    According to ecological models, the physical environment plays a major role in determining individual health behaviors. As such, researchers have started targeting the consumer nutrition environment of large-scale foodservice operations when implementing obesity-prevention programs. In 2010, the American Hospital Association released a call-to-action encouraging health care facilities to join in this movement and improve their facilities' consumer nutrition environments. The Hospital Nutrition Environment Scan (HNES) for Cafeterias, Vending Machines, and Gift Shops was developed in 2011, and the present study evaluated the inter-rater reliability of this instrument. Two trained raters visited 39 hospitals in southern California and completed the HNES. Percent agreement, kappa statistics, and intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated. Percent agreement between raters ranged from 74.4% to 100% and kappa statistics ranged from 0.458 to 1.0. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the overall nutrition composite scores was 0.961. Given these results, the HNES demonstrated acceptable reliability metrics and can now be disseminated to assess the current state of hospital consumer nutrition environments. PMID:23747171

  16. Measures of galaxy environment - I. What is 'environment'?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muldrew, Stuart I.; Croton, Darren J.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Pearce, Frazer R.; Ann, Hong Bae; Baldry, Ivan K.; Brough, Sarah; Choi, Yun-Young; Conselice, Christopher J.; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Gallazzi, Anna; Gray, Meghan E.; Grützbauch, Ruth; Li, I.-Hui; Park, Changbom; Pilipenko, Sergey V.; Podgorzec, Bret J.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Wilman, David J.; Yang, Xiaohu; Zhang, Youcai; Zibetti, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The influence of a galaxy's environment on its evolution has been studied and compared extensively in the literature, although differing techniques are often used to define environment. Most methods fall into two broad groups: those that use nearest neighbours to probe the underlying density field and those that use fixed apertures. The differences between the two inhibit a clean comparison between analyses and leave open the possibility that, even with the same data, different properties are actually being measured. In this work, we apply 20 published environment definitions to a common mock galaxy catalogue constrained to look like the local Universe. We find that nearest-neighbour-based measures best probe the internal densities of high-mass haloes, while at low masses the interhalo separation dominates and acts to smooth out local density variations. The resulting correlation also shows that nearest-neighbour galaxy environment is largely independent of dark matter halo mass. Conversely, aperture-based methods that probe superhalo scales accurately identify high-density regions corresponding to high-mass haloes. Both methods show how galaxies in dense environments tend to be redder, with the exception of the largest apertures, but these are the strongest at recovering the background dark matter environment. We also warn against using photometric redshifts to define environment in all but the densest regions. When considering environment, there are two regimes: the 'local environment' internal to a halo best measured with nearest neighbour and 'large-scale environment' external to a halo best measured with apertures. This leads to the conclusion that there is no universal environment measure and the most suitable method depends on the scale being probed.

  17. Environment, epigenetics and neurodegeneration: Focus on nutrition in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Nicolia, Vincenzina; Lucarelli, Marco; Fuso, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Many different environmental factors (nutrients, pollutants, chemicals, physical activity, lifestyle, physical and mental stress) can modulate epigenetic markers in the developing and adult organism. Epigenetics, in turn, can cause and is associated with several neurodegenerative and aging-dependent human diseases. Alzheimer's disease certainly represents one of the most relevant neurodegenerative disorders due to its incidence and its huge socio-economic impact. Therefore, it is easy to understand why recent literature focuses on the epigenetic modifications associated with Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. One of the most intriguing and, at the same time, worrying evidence is that even "mild" environmental factors (such as behavioral or physical stress) as well as the under-threshold exposure to pollutants and chemicals, can be effective. Finally, even mild nutrients disequilibria can result in long-lasting and functional alterations of many epigenetic markers, although they don't have an immediate acute effect. Therefore, we will probably have to re-define the current risk threshold for many factors, molecules and stresses. Among the many different environmental factors affecting the epigenome, nutrition represents one of the most investigated fields; the reasons are probably that each person interacts with nutrients and that, in turn, nutrients can modulate at molecular level the epigenetic biochemical pathways. The role that nutrition can exert in modulating epigenetic modifications in Alzheimer's disease will be discussed with particular emphasis on the role of B vitamins and DNA methylation.

  18. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, F.

    2014-05-01

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  19. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, F.

    2014-05-09

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  20. INFLUENCES OF ASTHMA AND HOUSEHOLD ENVIRONMENT ON LUNG FUNCTION OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS: THE THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined influences of asthma and household environment (passive smoking, gas stove use, and having a dog or cat), on seven measures of spirometric lung function in 8-16 yearold subjects, as measured in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). ...

  1. Exploring the school nutrition policy environment in Canada using the ANGELO framework.

    PubMed

    Vine, Michelle M; Elliott, Susan J

    2014-05-01

    Excess body weight has become a major public health issue. Given the link between poor nutrition, obesity, and chronic disease in youth, increasing attention is being paid to the school as an ideal setting for promoting nutritious eating practices. Informed by the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity) framework, we employ a documentary analysis to investigate the context of school nutrition in Canada, particularly the relationship between regional- and upper-level policies. In doing so, we examine policy documents and technical reports across three levels. We used mixed methods to analyze relevant English language policy documents and technical reports across Canada (n = 58), published between 1989 and 2011. Results reveal distinct differences across federal, provincial, and regional levels. The availability of nutritious food in schools and having nutrition education as part of the curriculum were key components of the physical environment across federal and provincial levels. Federal and provincial priorities are guided by a health promotion framework and adopting a partnership approach to policy implementation. Gaps in regional-level policy include incorporating nutrition education in the curriculum and making the link between nutrition and obesity. Policy implications are provided, in addition to future research opportunities to explore the connections between these environments at the local level.

  2. Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

  3. Economic measurement of environment damages

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, F.

    1980-05-01

    The densities, energy consumption, and economic development of the increasing population exacerbate environmental degradation. Air and water pollution is a major environmental problem affecting life and health, outdoor recreation, household soiling, vegetation, materials, and production. The literature review indicated that numerous studies have assessed the physical and monetary damage to populations at risk from excessive concentrations of major air and water pollutants-sulfur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter, oxidants, and carbon monoxide in air; and nutrients, oil, pesticides, and toxic metals and others in water. The measurement of the damages was one of the most controversial issues in pollution abatement. The methods that have been used to estimate the societal value of pollution abatement are: (1) chain of effects, (2) market approaches, and (3) surveys. National gross damages of air pollution of $20.2 billion and of water pollution of $11.1 billion for 1973 are substantial. These best estimates, updated for the economic and demographic conditions, could provide acceptable control totals for estimating and predicting benefits and costs of abating air and water pollution emissions. The major issues to be resolved are: (1) lack of available noneconomic data, (2) theoretical and empirical difficulties of placing a value on human life and health and on benefits such as aesthetics, and (3) lack of available demographic and economic data.

  4. Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Durnin, J V

    1976-07-01

    Nutrition appeared somewhat late on the scene in the I.B.P. projects in the U.K., but eventually it occupied an integral part of many of the H.A. (human adaptability) investigations. The nutritional data obtained in the studies of isolated and nearisolated communities in Tristan da Cunha and in New Guinea provided information of wide nutritional significance. There were also detailed and extensive studies in Israel which, similarly to those in New Guinea, attempted to relate nutritional factors to enviroment, working conditions, and physical fitness. Some extraordinarily low energy intakes found in Ethiopians have induced much speculation on the extent which man can adequately adapt to restricted food supplies. Interesting nutritional observations, of general importance, have also arisen from results obtained on such disparate groups as Glasgow adolescents, Tanzanian and Sudanese students, children in Malawi and vegans in the U.K.

  5. Continuous quantum measurement in spin environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Dong; Wang, An Min

    2015-08-01

    We derive a stochastic master equation (SME) which describes the decoherence dynamics of a system in spin environments conditioned on the measurement record. Markovian and non-Markovian nature of environment can be revealed by a spectroscopy method based on weak continuous quantum measurement. On account of that correlated environments can lead to a non-local open system which exhibits strong non-Markovian effects although the local dynamics are Markovian, the spectroscopy method can be used to demonstrate that there is correlation between two environments.

  6. Implementation of an ICT-Based Learning Environment in a Nutrition Health Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Enkenberg, Jorma; Turunen, Hannele

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the views of school staff on a nutrition health project implemented via an ICT-based learning environment in a secondary school (7th to 9th grades). Design/methodology/approach: The study was a part of the wider European Network for Health Promoting Schools programme (ENHPS; since 2008, Schools…

  7. Identification of the Competencies, Knowledge, and Skills Needed by School Nutrition Assistants in the Current Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Mary Frances; Carr, Deborah H.; Cater, Jerry B.; Federico, Holly A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Study objectives were to identify the functional areas, competencies, knowledge, and skills needed by effective school nutrition (SN) assistants in the current SN environment, and determine at what point the SN assistant should be able to know/perform the knowledge/skill statement, at time of hire or after training. Methods: In…

  8. Development, Evaluation, and Validation of Environmental Assessment Tools to Evaluate the College Nutrition Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Marjorie R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop, evaluate, and validate 2 nutrition environment assessment tools (surveys), for specific use in combating overweight on college/university campuses. Participants and Methods: Invitations to complete surveys were e-mailed to food service and health center directors at 47 universities, Winter 2008. Overall response rate was…

  9. Anorexia nervosa and nutritional assessment: contribution of body composition measurements.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Lama; Godart, Nathalie; Melchior, Jean Claude; Pichard, Claude

    2011-06-01

    The psychiatric condition of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN) is affected by their nutritional status. An optimal assessment of the nutritional status of patients is fundamental in understanding the relationship between malnutrition and the psychological symptoms. The present review evaluates some of the available methods for measuring body composition in patients with AN. We searched literature in Medline using several key terms relevant to the present review in order to identify papers. Only articles in English or French were reviewed. A brief description is provided for each body composition technique, with its applicability in AN as well as its limitation. All methods of measuring body composition are not yet validated and/or feasible in patients with AN. The present review article proposes a practical approach for selecting the most appropriate methods depending on the setting, (i.e. clinical v. research) and the goal of the assessment (initial v. follow-up) in order to have a more personalised treatment for patients suffering from AN.

  10. Agreement between the Perceived and Actual Fruit and Vegetable Nutrition Environments among Low-Income Urban Women.

    PubMed

    Stallings, Tiffany L; Gazmararian, Julie A; Goodman, Michael; Kleinbaum, David

    2015-11-01

    The food environment is described by two measures: store-level (actual) and individual-level (perceived). Understanding the relationship between actual and perceived fruit and vegetable (F&V) nutrition environments is important as their association may influence F&V purchases and consumption. The study objective was to assess agreement between perceived and actual environment measures of availability, quality, and affordability/price for fresh and canned/frozen F&V. African American WIC recipients (n=84) self-reported perceptions corresponding to chain food stores (n=13) which were then assessed by surveyors. Nearly 80% of participants had positive perceptions of stores' F&V availability, quality, and affordability. Store assessments indicated high F&V availability and quality and lowest prices for canned varieties. Kappa statistics, sensitivity, and specificity calculated agreement between perceived and actual measures. Results indicated slight to fair agreements. Agreements were highest for quality measures (kappa=0.25 (95% CI:0.08-0.42), p=.008). Research implications include promoting nutrition education and resident interviewing to understand F&V expectations.

  11. Agreement between the Perceived and Actual Fruit and Vegetable Nutrition Environments among Low-Income Urban Women.

    PubMed

    Stallings, Tiffany L; Gazmararian, Julie A; Goodman, Michael; Kleinbaum, David

    2015-11-01

    The food environment is described by two measures: store-level (actual) and individual-level (perceived). Understanding the relationship between actual and perceived fruit and vegetable (F&V) nutrition environments is important as their association may influence F&V purchases and consumption. The study objective was to assess agreement between perceived and actual environment measures of availability, quality, and affordability/price for fresh and canned/frozen F&V. African American WIC recipients (n=84) self-reported perceptions corresponding to chain food stores (n=13) which were then assessed by surveyors. Nearly 80% of participants had positive perceptions of stores' F&V availability, quality, and affordability. Store assessments indicated high F&V availability and quality and lowest prices for canned varieties. Kappa statistics, sensitivity, and specificity calculated agreement between perceived and actual measures. Results indicated slight to fair agreements. Agreements were highest for quality measures (kappa=0.25 (95% CI:0.08-0.42), p=.008). Research implications include promoting nutrition education and resident interviewing to understand F&V expectations. PMID:26548680

  12. The healthy options for nutrition environments in schools (Healthy ONES) group randomized trial: using implementation models to change nutrition policy and environments in low income schools

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Healthy Options for Nutrition Environments in Schools (Healthy ONES) study was an evidence-based public health (EBPH) randomized group trial that adapted the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s (IHI) rapid improvement process model to implement school nutrition policy and environmental change. Methods A low-income school district volunteered for participation in the study. All schools in the district agreed to participate (elementary = 6, middle school = 2) and were randomly assigned within school type to intervention (n = 4) and control (n =4) conditions following a baseline environmental audit year. Intervention goals were to 1) eliminate unhealthy foods and beverages on campus, 2) develop nutrition services as the main source on campus for healthful eating (HE), and 3) promote school staff modeling of HE. Schools were followed across a baseline year and two intervention years. Longitudinal assessment of height and weight was conducted with second, third, and sixth grade children. Behavioral observation of the nutrition environment was used to index the amount of outside foods and beverages on campuses. Observations were made monthly in each targeted school environment and findings were presented as items per child per week. Results From an eligible 827 second, third, and sixth grade students, baseline height and weight were collected for 444 second and third grade and 135 sixth grade students (51% reach). Data were available for 73% of these enrolled students at the end of three years. Intervention school outside food and beverage items per child per week decreased over time and control school outside food and beverage items increased over time. The effects were especially pronounced for unhealthy foods and beverage items. Changes in rates of obesity for intervention school (28% baseline, 27% year 1, 30% year 2) were similar to those seen for control school (22% baseline, 22% year 1, 25% year 2) children. Conclusions

  13. Examination of community and consumer nutrition, tobacco and physical activity environments at food and tobacco retail stores in three diverse North Carolina communities

    PubMed Central

    D'Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R.; Rose, Shyanika W.; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    To advance our understanding of multiple health-related dimensions of the built environment, this study examined associations among nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity community and consumer environments. Community environment measures included supermarket access, tobacco outlet density, and physical activity resource density in store neighborhoods. Cross-sectional observations of the nutrition, tobacco and physical activity environments were conducted in 2011 at and around 303 food stores that sold tobacco products in three North Carolina counties. Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression were used to examine associations between community and consumer environments. Correlations between community nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity environments ranged from slight to fair (− 0.35 to 0.20) and from poor to fair (− 0.01 to − 0.38) between consumer environments. Significant relationships between consumer tobacco and nutrition environments were found after controlling for store and neighborhood characteristics. For example, stores with higher amounts of interior tobacco marketing had higher healthy food availability (p = 0.001), while stores with higher amounts of exterior tobacco marketing had lower healthy food availability (p = 0.02). Community and consumer environments for nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity were interrelated. Measures that assess single aspects of community or consumer environments could miss characteristics that may influence customer purchasing. Even chain supermarkets, typically regarded as healthful food sources compared to smaller food stores, may expose customers to tobacco marketing inside. Future research could explore combining efforts to reduce obesity and tobacco use by addressing tobacco marketing, healthy food availability and physical activity opportunities at retail food outlets. PMID:26516620

  14. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... you would like to see a registered dietitian nutritionist for nutritional guidance when you have lung cancer. ... seek out the expertise of a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) who works with lung cancer patients. This ...

  15. Measuring the Built Environment for Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Brownson, Ross C.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Day, Kristen; Forsyth, Ann; Sallis, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important public health issues in the U.S. and internationally. Increasingly, links are being identified between various elements of the physical—or built—environment and physical activity. To understand the impact of the built environment on physical activity, the development of high-quality measures is essential. Three categories of built environment data are being used: (1) perceived measures obtained by telephone interview or self-administered questionnaires; (2) observational measures obtained using systematic observational methods (audits); and (3) archival data sets that are often layered and analyzed with GIS. This review provides a critical assessment of these three types of built-environment measures relevant to the study of physical activity. Among perceived measures, 19 questionnaires were reviewed, ranging in length from 7 to 68 questions. Twenty audit tools were reviewed that cover community environments (i.e., neighborhoods, cities), parks, and trails. For GIS-derived measures, more than 50 studies were reviewed. A large degree of variability was found in the operationalization of common GIS measures, which include population density, land-use mix, access to recreational facilities, and street pattern. This first comprehensive examination of built-environment measures demonstrates considerable progress over the past decade, showing diverse environmental variables available that use multiple modes of assessment. Most can be considered first-generation measures, so further development is needed. In particular, further research is needed to improve the technical quality of measures, understand the relevance to various population groups, and understand the utility of measures for science and public health. PMID:19285216

  16. Development and Evaluation of the School Cafeteria Nutrition Assessment Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krukowski, Rebecca A.; Philyaw Perez, Amanda G.; Bursac, Zoran; Goodell, Melanie; Raczynski, James M.; Smith West, Delia; Phillips, Martha M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Foods provided in schools represent a substantial portion of US children's dietary intake; however, the school food environment has proven difficult to describe due to the lack of comprehensive, standardized, and validated measures. Methods: As part of the Arkansas Act 1220 evaluation project, we developed the School Cafeteria…

  17. Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Susan

    An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

  18. Measuring Nutritional Intake of Adolescents in Ghana, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, Andrew; Murdock, Peggy O'Hara; Weatherby, Norman L.

    2007-01-01

    With 85% of the world's adolescent populations residing in developing countries, it is important to monitor and track their nutrition status and habits. The purpose of this study, conducted in Ghana, was to provide results from a nutrition intake and eating habits questionnaire which was modified from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Questions were…

  19. Measuring the Effects of Nutrition on Human Development and Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saadeh, Ibrahim Q.

    1974-01-01

    Food and nutrition affect the course in physical development that our bodies will follow. Our emotional make-up and mental behavior may be influenced by diet, but the direct relationship between these aspects of development and nutrition needs further study. A new research approach is described. (Author/RH)

  20. Simulating the sensitivity of cell nutritive environment to composition changes within the intervertebral disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, C. Ruiz; Malandrino, A.; van Rijsbergen, MM.; Lacroix, D.; Ito, K.; Noailly, J.

    2016-05-01

    Altered nutrition in the intervertebral disc affects cell viability and can generate catabolic cascades contributing to extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Such degradation is expected to affect couplings between disc mechanics and nutrition, contributing to accelerate degenerative processes. However, the relation of ECM changes to major biophysical events within the loaded disc remains unclear. A L4-L5 disc finite element model including the nucleus (NP), annulus (AF) and endplates was used and coupled to a transport-cell viability model. Solute concentrations and cell viability were evaluated along the mid-sagittal plane path. A design of experiment (DOE) was performed. DOE parameters corresponded to AF and NP biochemical tissue measurements in discs with different degeneration grades. Cell viability was not affected by any parameter combinations defined. Nonetheless, the initial water content was the parameter that affected the most the solute contents, especially glucose. Calculations showed that altered NP composition could negatively affect AF cell nutrition. Results suggested that AF and NP tissue degeneration are not critical to nutrition-related cell viability at early-stage of disc degeneration. However, small ECM degenerative changes may alter significantly disc nutrition under mechanical loads. Coupling disc mechano-transport simulations and enzyme expression studies could allow identifying spatiotemporal sequences related to tissue catabolism.

  1. Operational neuroscience: neurophysiological measures in applied environments.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Amy A

    2007-05-01

    There is, without question, an interest within the military services to understand, account for, and adapt to the cognitive state of the individual warfighter. As the field of neuroscience has matured through investments from numerous government agencies, we are on the cusp of being able to move confidently from the lab into the field--and deepen our understanding of the cognitive issues embedded in the warfighting environment. However, as we edge closer to this integration--it is critical for researchers in this arena to understand the landscape they are entering-reflected not only in the challenges of each task or operational environment but also in the individual differences intrinsic to each warfighter. The research papers in this section cover this spectrum, including individual differences and their prediction of adaptability to high-stress environments, the influence of sleep-deprivation on neurophysiological measures of stimulus categorization, neurophysiological measures of stress in the training environment and, finally, real-time neural measures of task engagement, mental workload and vigilance. It is clear from this research, and other work detailed in this supplement, that the judicious use of neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and physiology in the applied environment is desirable for both researchers and operators. In fact, we suggest that these investigations merit a field designation unto their own: Operational Neuroscience. It is our hope that the discussion of this new field of study will galvanize others to increase the confidence and utility of this research through their own investigations.

  2. Anthropometric measures and nutritional status in a healthy elderly population

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-García, Sergio; García-Peña, Carmen; Duque-López, María Ximena; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cortés-Núñez, Alma Rosa; Reyes-Beaman, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Background Anthropometric evaluation is an essential feature of geriatric nutritional evaluation for determining malnutrition, being overweight, obesity, muscular mass loss, fat mass gain and adipose tissue redistribution. Anthropometric indicators are used to evaluate the prognosis of chronic and acute diseases, and to guide medical intervention in the elderly. We evaluated anthropometric measurements and nutritional status as they relate to age and gender in healthy elderly people. Methods The study analyzed data from the national survey "Health needs and health service use by older-than-60-year-old beneficiaries of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS)". The present study included only individuals who reported no chronic disease in the last 20 years and had no hospital admission in the two months prior to the survey. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), body circumference (arm, waist, hip and calf), waist to hip ratio (WHR), elbow amplitude and knee-heel length. Results Application of the inclusion criteria resulted in a study population elderly of 1,968, representing 12.2% of the original number in the national survey in urban areas beneficiaries of the IMSS. The study population comprised 870 women and 1,098 men, with a mean age of 68.6 years. The average weights were 62.7 kg for women and 70.3 kg for men (p < 0.05), and the mean heights were 1.52 m for women and 1.63 m for men (p < 0.05). Age related changes in anthropometric values were identified. BMI values indicated that 62.3% of the population was overweight, and 73.6% of women and 16.5% of men had high fat tissue distribution. Conclusion Our findings suggest that applying the BMI thresholds that identify being overweight in the general adult population may lead to an overestimation in the number of overweight elderly Similar problems appear to exist when assessing waist circumference and WHR values. Prospective studies are required to determine the

  3. Improving women's nutrition imperative for rapid reduction of childhood stunting in South Asia: coupling of nutrition specific interventions with nutrition sensitive measures essential.

    PubMed

    Vir, Sheila C

    2016-05-01

    The implications of direct nutrition interventions on women's nutrition, birth outcome and stunting rates in children in South Asia are indisputable and well documented. In the last decade, a number of studies present evidence of the role of non-nutritional factors impacting on women's nutrition, birth outcome, caring practices and nutritional status of children. The implications of various dimensions of women's empowerment and gender inequality on child stunting is being increasingly recognised. Evidence reveals the crucial role of early age of marriage and conception, poor secondary education, domestic violence, inadequate decision-making power, poor control over resources, strenuous agriculture activities, and increasing employment of women and of interventions such as cash transfer scheme and microfinance programme on undernutrition in children. Analysis of the nutrition situation of women and children in South Asia and programme findings emphasise the significance of reaching women during adolescence, pre-conception and pregnancy stage. Ensuring women enter pregnancy with adequate height and weight and free from being anemic is crucial. Combining nutrition-specific interventions with measures for empowerment of women is essential. Improvement in dietary intake and health services of women, prevention of early age marriage and conception, completion of secondary education, enhancement in purchasing power of women, reduction of work drudgery and elimination of domestic violence deserve special attention. A range of programme platforms dealing with health, education and empowerment of women could be strategically used for effectively reaching women prior to and during pregnancy to accelerate reduction in stunting rates in children in South Asia. PMID:27187909

  4. Measuring political commitment and opportunities to advance food and nutrition security: piloting a rapid assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ashley M; Balarajan, Yarlini; Cheng, Chloe; Reich, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Lack of political commitment has been identified as a primary reason for the low priority that food and nutrition interventions receive from national governments relative to the high disease burden caused by malnutrition. Researchers have identified a number of factors that contribute to food and nutrition's 'low-priority cycle' on national policy agendas, but few tools exist to rapidly measure political commitment and identify opportunities to advance food and nutrition on the policy agenda. This article presents a theory-based rapid assessment approach to gauging countries' level of political commitment to food and nutrition security and identifying opportunities to advance food and nutrition on the policy agenda. The rapid assessment tool was piloted among food and nutrition policymakers and planners in 10 low- and middle-income countries in April to June 2013. Food and nutrition commitment and policy opportunity scores were calculated for each country and strategies to advance food and nutrition on policy agendas were designed for each country. The article finds that, in a majority of countries, political leaders had verbally and symbolically committed to addressing food and nutrition, but adequate financial resources were not allocated to implement specific programmes. In addition, whereas the low cohesion of the policy community has been viewed a major underlying cause of the low-priority status of food and nutrition, the analysis finds that policy community cohesion and having a well thought-out policy alternative were present in most countries. This tool may be useful to policymakers and planners providing information that can be used to benchmark and/or evaluate advocacy efforts to advance reforms in the food and nutrition sector; furthermore, the results can help identify specific strategies that can be employed to move the food and nutrition agenda forward. This tool complements others that have been recently developed to measure national commitment to

  5. Measuring political commitment and opportunities to advance food and nutrition security: piloting a rapid assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ashley M; Balarajan, Yarlini; Cheng, Chloe; Reich, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Lack of political commitment has been identified as a primary reason for the low priority that food and nutrition interventions receive from national governments relative to the high disease burden caused by malnutrition. Researchers have identified a number of factors that contribute to food and nutrition's 'low-priority cycle' on national policy agendas, but few tools exist to rapidly measure political commitment and identify opportunities to advance food and nutrition on the policy agenda. This article presents a theory-based rapid assessment approach to gauging countries' level of political commitment to food and nutrition security and identifying opportunities to advance food and nutrition on the policy agenda. The rapid assessment tool was piloted among food and nutrition policymakers and planners in 10 low- and middle-income countries in April to June 2013. Food and nutrition commitment and policy opportunity scores were calculated for each country and strategies to advance food and nutrition on policy agendas were designed for each country. The article finds that, in a majority of countries, political leaders had verbally and symbolically committed to addressing food and nutrition, but adequate financial resources were not allocated to implement specific programmes. In addition, whereas the low cohesion of the policy community has been viewed a major underlying cause of the low-priority status of food and nutrition, the analysis finds that policy community cohesion and having a well thought-out policy alternative were present in most countries. This tool may be useful to policymakers and planners providing information that can be used to benchmark and/or evaluate advocacy efforts to advance reforms in the food and nutrition sector; furthermore, the results can help identify specific strategies that can be employed to move the food and nutrition agenda forward. This tool complements others that have been recently developed to measure national commitment to

  6. Factor Analysis of Measures of Nutritional Status of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, H. A.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    On the basis of the findings of this study, it is reasonable to recommend elimination of some of the demography, anthropometry, and biochemical indices commonly evaluated in nutritional surveys of U.S. preschool children. (DM)

  7. Sustainable diets: The interaction between food industry, nutrition, health and the environment.

    PubMed

    Alsaffar, Ayten Aylin

    2016-03-01

    Everyday great amounts of food are produced, processed, transported by the food industry and consumed by us and these activities have direct impact on our health and the environment. The current food system has started causing strain on the Earth's natural resources and that is why sustainable food production systems are needed. This review article discusses the need for sustainable diets by exploring the interactions between the food industry, nutrition, health and the environment, which are strongly interconnected. The most common environmental issues in the food industry are related to food processing loss, food wastage and packaging; energy efficiency; transportation of foods; water consumption and waste management. Among the foods produced and processed, meat and meat products have the greatest environmental impact followed by the dairy products. Our eating patterns impact the environment, but the environment can impact dietary choices as well. The foods and drinks we consume may also affect our health. A healthy and sustainable diet would minimise the consumption of energy-dense and highly processed and packaged foods, include less animal-derived foods and more plant-based foods and encourage people not to exceed the recommended daily energy intake. Sustainable diets contribute to food and nutrition security, have low environmental impacts and promote healthy life for present and future generations. There is an urgent need to develop and promote strategies for sustainable diets; and governments, United Nations agencies, civil society, research organisations and the food industry should work together in achieving this. PMID:25680370

  8. Sustainable diets: The interaction between food industry, nutrition, health and the environment.

    PubMed

    Alsaffar, Ayten Aylin

    2016-03-01

    Everyday great amounts of food are produced, processed, transported by the food industry and consumed by us and these activities have direct impact on our health and the environment. The current food system has started causing strain on the Earth's natural resources and that is why sustainable food production systems are needed. This review article discusses the need for sustainable diets by exploring the interactions between the food industry, nutrition, health and the environment, which are strongly interconnected. The most common environmental issues in the food industry are related to food processing loss, food wastage and packaging; energy efficiency; transportation of foods; water consumption and waste management. Among the foods produced and processed, meat and meat products have the greatest environmental impact followed by the dairy products. Our eating patterns impact the environment, but the environment can impact dietary choices as well. The foods and drinks we consume may also affect our health. A healthy and sustainable diet would minimise the consumption of energy-dense and highly processed and packaged foods, include less animal-derived foods and more plant-based foods and encourage people not to exceed the recommended daily energy intake. Sustainable diets contribute to food and nutrition security, have low environmental impacts and promote healthy life for present and future generations. There is an urgent need to develop and promote strategies for sustainable diets; and governments, United Nations agencies, civil society, research organisations and the food industry should work together in achieving this.

  9. [Nutritional laminitis--preventive measures for the obese horse].

    PubMed

    Kienzle, E; Fritz, J

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition-induced laminitis is often caused by i) fermentation of large amounts of carbohydrates in the hindgut (usually fructans from grass or starch from cereals), which cause the release and absorption of microbial toxins and ii) insulin resistance induced by being overweight (equine metabolic syndrome). Both causes can act together. Overweight horses with a history of laminitis need to reduce body weight to prevent further incidences of laminitis. Weight reduction occurs normally on a diet of late-cut hay, a hay-straw mixture (maximally one third straw to prevent constipation) or grass seed straw all at 1-1.2% of ideal body weight. However, this roughage allowance does not satisfy the need of horses to chew, for which it requires at least 1.5% of ideal body weight. This may lead to behavioural issues, such as allophagia and aggression, and in extreme cases, stereotypic behaviour. Starch concentrates should not be replaced with high fat concentrates. Used saw dust is recommended for bedding. The intake of grass from a pasture has to be considerably and efficiently reduced. If the horse is extremely prone to laminitis or if stable management is unreliable, abstention from grazing is recommended. Any supplements need to be low in energy, and should supply minerals and vitamins which are deficient in the diet. Some additional protein or amino acids may be beneficial. Regular exercise, such as a daily 30-minute speedy trot, improves insulin sensitivity. Exercise increases energy expenditure to a certain extent, allowing a slight increase in the roughage supply, thus alleviating the conflict between energy reduction and fulfilling the need to chew. Weight loss should be 0.5-1% of body weight per week, while at a higher rate there is a potential risk of hyperlipemia. The effectiveness of the reducing diet should be monitored regularly, either by weighing or measuring body, neck or girth circumference (aiming for a reduction of 1-2 cm per week). PMID:23959622

  10. Nutritional Cues Tie Living Organisms to Their Environment and Its Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Adams, Melanie S; Adams, Robert B; Wessman, Carol A; Demmig-Adams, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    We connect modern, intensive agriculture's role in environmental degradation to its role in producing nutritionally unbalanced foods, and delineate specific approaches to reduce agriculture's environmental impact, while producing healthful foods. We call attention to recently discovered genetic programs used by all living organisms to respond to their environment, and present a model of how these programs change body composition and function (of humans and their crop plants and livestock alike) in response to environmental cues. We propose that production of nutritionally balanced crops and livestock requires careful consideration of how these plants and animals are grown; the composition of plant food is modulated by growing conditions, body composition of livestock reflects their feed; composition and function of human body and brain are strongly affected by how food plants and animals are produced. We selected four nutritional features not only involved in (i) governing human health by modulating these genetic programs, but (ii) also affected by agricultural practices. These nutritional features are fat composition (especially saturated fat and the ratio of polyunsaturated omega-6 oils to omega-3 oils), carbohydrate composition (especially the proportion of carbohydrates with a high glycemic index, such as sugars and quick-burning starches) and the level of antioxidant micronutrients. We not only outline threats to human health presented by the current environment, but also potential gains in quality-of-life in a future environment designed to optimize human wellness using insights into the gene-programing effect of diet- and other lifestyle-related factors. These gains could extend beyond optimal human physical and mental health to gains in workforce productivity. The same changes in agricultural practices required to achieve these gains in human health are also needed to support environmental health and sustainable food production. The resulting vision of

  11. Nutritional Cues Tie Living Organisms to Their Environment and Its Sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Melanie S.; Adams, Robert B.; Wessman, Carol A.; Demmig-Adams, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    We connect modern, intensive agriculture’s role in environmental degradation to its role in producing nutritionally unbalanced foods, and delineate specific approaches to reduce agriculture’s environmental impact, while producing healthful foods. We call attention to recently discovered genetic programs used by all living organisms to respond to their environment, and present a model of how these programs change body composition and function (of humans and their crop plants and livestock alike) in response to environmental cues. We propose that production of nutritionally balanced crops and livestock requires careful consideration of how these plants and animals are grown; the composition of plant food is modulated by growing conditions, body composition of livestock reflects their feed; composition and function of human body and brain are strongly affected by how food plants and animals are produced. We selected four nutritional features not only involved in (i) governing human health by modulating these genetic programs, but (ii) also affected by agricultural practices. These nutritional features are fat composition (especially saturated fat and the ratio of polyunsaturated omega-6 oils to omega-3 oils), carbohydrate composition (especially the proportion of carbohydrates with a high glycemic index, such as sugars and quick-burning starches) and the level of antioxidant micronutrients. We not only outline threats to human health presented by the current environment, but also potential gains in quality-of-life in a future environment designed to optimize human wellness using insights into the gene-programing effect of diet- and other lifestyle-related factors. These gains could extend beyond optimal human physical and mental health to gains in workforce productivity. The same changes in agricultural practices required to achieve these gains in human health are also needed to support environmental health and sustainable food production. The resulting vision of

  12. Nutritional Cues Tie Living Organisms to Their Environment and Its Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Adams, Melanie S; Adams, Robert B; Wessman, Carol A; Demmig-Adams, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    We connect modern, intensive agriculture's role in environmental degradation to its role in producing nutritionally unbalanced foods, and delineate specific approaches to reduce agriculture's environmental impact, while producing healthful foods. We call attention to recently discovered genetic programs used by all living organisms to respond to their environment, and present a model of how these programs change body composition and function (of humans and their crop plants and livestock alike) in response to environmental cues. We propose that production of nutritionally balanced crops and livestock requires careful consideration of how these plants and animals are grown; the composition of plant food is modulated by growing conditions, body composition of livestock reflects their feed; composition and function of human body and brain are strongly affected by how food plants and animals are produced. We selected four nutritional features not only involved in (i) governing human health by modulating these genetic programs, but (ii) also affected by agricultural practices. These nutritional features are fat composition (especially saturated fat and the ratio of polyunsaturated omega-6 oils to omega-3 oils), carbohydrate composition (especially the proportion of carbohydrates with a high glycemic index, such as sugars and quick-burning starches) and the level of antioxidant micronutrients. We not only outline threats to human health presented by the current environment, but also potential gains in quality-of-life in a future environment designed to optimize human wellness using insights into the gene-programing effect of diet- and other lifestyle-related factors. These gains could extend beyond optimal human physical and mental health to gains in workforce productivity. The same changes in agricultural practices required to achieve these gains in human health are also needed to support environmental health and sustainable food production. The resulting vision of

  13. How Can the Operating Environment for Nutrition Research Be Improved in Sub-Saharan Africa? The Views of African Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Van Royen, Kathleen; Lachat, Carl; Holdsworth, Michelle; Smit, Karlien; Kinabo, Joyce; Roberfroid, Dominique; Nago, Eunice; Garimoi Orach, Christopher; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is critical for human development and economic growth. Sub-Saharan Africa is facing high levels of food insecurity and only few sub-Saharan African countries are on track to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. Effective research capacity is crucial for addressing emerging challenges and designing appropriate mitigation strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. A clear understanding of the operating environment for nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa is a much needed prerequisite. We collected data on the barriers and requirements for conducting nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa through semi-structured interviews with 144 participants involved in nutrition research in 35 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 133 interviews were retained for coding. The main barriers identified for effective nutrition research were the lack of funding due to poor recognition by policymakers of the importance of nutrition research and under-utilisation of research findings for developing policy, as well as an absence of research priority setting from within Africa. Current research topics were perceived to be mainly determined by funding bodies from outside Africa. Nutrition researchers argued for more commitment from policymakers at national level. The low capacity for nutrition research was mainly seen as a consequence of insufficient numbers of nutrition researchers, limited skills and a poor research infrastructure. In conclusion, African nutrition researchers argued how research priorities need to be identified by African stakeholders, accompanied by consensus building to enable creating a problem-driven national research agenda. In addition, it was considered necessary to promote interactions among researchers, and between researchers and policymakers. Multidisciplinary research and international and cross-African collaboration were seen as crucial to build capacity in sub-Saharan nutrition research. PMID:23776663

  14. Effect of multiple stress factors (thermal, nutritional and pregnancy type) on adaptive capability of native ewes under semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    Dias E Silva, Tairon Pannunzio; Costa Torreão, Jacira Neves da; Torreão Marques, Carlo Aldrovandi; de Araújo, Marcos Jácome; Bezerra, Leílson Rocha; Kumar Dhanasekaran, Dinesh; Sejian, Veerasamy

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of multiple stress factors (thermal, nutritional and pregnancy type) on two different native track breeds of ewes as reflected by their adaptive capability under semi-arid environment. The multiple stressor experiment was conducted in twenty-four ewes (12 Santa Inês and 12 Morada Nova ewes). Both heat stress and pregnancy stress was common to all four groups. However, the animals were divided into further two groups within each breed on the basis of nutrition regimen. According the groupings were: Group 1 (Six Santa Ines ewes; heat stress; nutrition at 0.5% of BW; single pregnancy); Group 2 (Six Santa Ines ewes; heat stress; nutrition at 1.5% BW; twin pregnancy); groups Group 3 (Six Morada Nova ewes; heat stress; nutrition at 0.5% of BW; single pregnancy); Group 4 (Six Morada Nova ewes; heat stress; nutrition at 1.5% BW; twin pregnancy). All the animals in the experiment were pregnant. Heat stress was induced by exposing all animals to summer heat stress in outside environment while the nutritional regimen followed was at 0.5% and 1.5% level of body weight (BW) respectively in each breed. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with two breeds, two nutritional treatments and two pregnancy types, 10 repetitions for physiological parameters and six for blood parameters, with repeated measures over time. Physiological parameters (respiratory rate, pulse rate and rectal temperature) were measured with the animals at rest in the morning and afternoon, 0600-0700 and 1300-1400h, respectively, every seven days. Blood samples were collected every 14d for determination of serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, urea and creatinine. We found interaction effect between breed and pregnancy type on respiratory rate and rectal temperature with greater values in Santa Inês ewes than Morada Nova ewes. However, there was no significant fixed effect of pregnancy type and supplementation level on physiological

  15. Effect of multiple stress factors (thermal, nutritional and pregnancy type) on adaptive capability of native ewes under semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    Dias E Silva, Tairon Pannunzio; Costa Torreão, Jacira Neves da; Torreão Marques, Carlo Aldrovandi; de Araújo, Marcos Jácome; Bezerra, Leílson Rocha; Kumar Dhanasekaran, Dinesh; Sejian, Veerasamy

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of multiple stress factors (thermal, nutritional and pregnancy type) on two different native track breeds of ewes as reflected by their adaptive capability under semi-arid environment. The multiple stressor experiment was conducted in twenty-four ewes (12 Santa Inês and 12 Morada Nova ewes). Both heat stress and pregnancy stress was common to all four groups. However, the animals were divided into further two groups within each breed on the basis of nutrition regimen. According the groupings were: Group 1 (Six Santa Ines ewes; heat stress; nutrition at 0.5% of BW; single pregnancy); Group 2 (Six Santa Ines ewes; heat stress; nutrition at 1.5% BW; twin pregnancy); groups Group 3 (Six Morada Nova ewes; heat stress; nutrition at 0.5% of BW; single pregnancy); Group 4 (Six Morada Nova ewes; heat stress; nutrition at 1.5% BW; twin pregnancy). All the animals in the experiment were pregnant. Heat stress was induced by exposing all animals to summer heat stress in outside environment while the nutritional regimen followed was at 0.5% and 1.5% level of body weight (BW) respectively in each breed. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with two breeds, two nutritional treatments and two pregnancy types, 10 repetitions for physiological parameters and six for blood parameters, with repeated measures over time. Physiological parameters (respiratory rate, pulse rate and rectal temperature) were measured with the animals at rest in the morning and afternoon, 0600-0700 and 1300-1400h, respectively, every seven days. Blood samples were collected every 14d for determination of serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, urea and creatinine. We found interaction effect between breed and pregnancy type on respiratory rate and rectal temperature with greater values in Santa Inês ewes than Morada Nova ewes. However, there was no significant fixed effect of pregnancy type and supplementation level on physiological

  16. Assessment of dietary intake and nutritional status (MNA) in Polish free-living elderly people from rural environments.

    PubMed

    Wyka, Joanna; Biernat, Jadwiga; Mikołajczak, Jolanta; Piotrowska, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of elderly people in the global population is rapidly increasing. Their nutritional status indicates many deficiencies that are risky to health. The aim of this paper was to assess the nutrition and nutritional status in elderly individuals above 60 years old living in their family houses in rural areas. Dietary intake and nutritional status were measured in 174 elderly women and 64 men living in the rural areas of Oleśnica (near Wrocław, SW Poland). Energy intake, consumption of nutrients, selected anthropometric and biochemical indicators, were measured in two groups: one at risk of malnutrition and one with adequate nutrition. Using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) questionnaire, 238 persons over 60 years of age were qualified according to their nutritional status. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. The group of women at risk of malnutrition (n=30) showed a statistically significantly lower energy intake in their diet (1,127 kcal) compared to women with adequate nutrition (1,351 kcal). The entire group of examined individuals showed a too low consumption of fiber, calcium, vitamins C and D, and folates. Most of the examined women had a too high body mass index (BMI) (on average 28.8), waist circumference was 96.3 cm, and the triceps skinfold (TSF) was 25.2mm thick. Women at a risk of malnutrition had statistically significantly lower lipid parameters than those with adequate nutrition (respectively: TC 191.1 vs. 219.1m/dl, p<0.001, LDL-cholesterol 107.1 vs. 125.1m/dl, p<0.008, TG 129 vs. 143 mg/dl). Men with a risk of malnutrition had a statistically significantly lower BMI (26.0 vs. 28.7, p<0.04), and also lower waist and arm perimeters compared to men with correct nutrition. According to the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), 8.2% of person with adequate nutrition had poor prognostic indicator for overall survival. All the examined individuals showed many significant nutritional deficiencies. The group with

  17. Innovative Operations Measures and Nutritional Support for Mass Endurance Events.

    PubMed

    Chiampas, George T; Goyal, Anita V

    2015-11-01

    Endurance and sporting events have increased in popularity and participation in recent years worldwide, and with this comes the need for medical directors to apply innovative operational strategies and nutritional support to meet such demands. Mass endurance events include sports such as cycling and running half, full and ultra-marathons with over 1000 participants. Athletes, trainers and health care providers can all agree that both participant outcomes and safety are of the utmost importance for any race or sporting event. While demand has increased, there is relatively less published guidance in this area of sports medicine. This review addresses public safety, operational systems, nutritional support and provision of medical care at endurance events. Significant medical conditions in endurance sports include heat illness, hyponatraemia and cardiac incidents. These conditions can differ from those typically encountered by clinicians or in the setting of low-endurance sports, and best practices in their management are discussed. Hydration and nutrition are critical in preventing these and other race-related morbidities, as they can impact both performance and medical outcomes on race day. Finally, the command and communication structures of an organized endurance event are vital to its safety and success, and such strategies and concepts are reviewed for implementation. The nature of endurance events increasingly relies on medical leaders to balance safety and prevention of morbidity while trying to help optimize athlete performance.

  18. Innovative Operations Measures and Nutritional Support for Mass Endurance Events.

    PubMed

    Chiampas, George T; Goyal, Anita V

    2015-11-01

    Endurance and sporting events have increased in popularity and participation in recent years worldwide, and with this comes the need for medical directors to apply innovative operational strategies and nutritional support to meet such demands. Mass endurance events include sports such as cycling and running half, full and ultra-marathons with over 1000 participants. Athletes, trainers and health care providers can all agree that both participant outcomes and safety are of the utmost importance for any race or sporting event. While demand has increased, there is relatively less published guidance in this area of sports medicine. This review addresses public safety, operational systems, nutritional support and provision of medical care at endurance events. Significant medical conditions in endurance sports include heat illness, hyponatraemia and cardiac incidents. These conditions can differ from those typically encountered by clinicians or in the setting of low-endurance sports, and best practices in their management are discussed. Hydration and nutrition are critical in preventing these and other race-related morbidities, as they can impact both performance and medical outcomes on race day. Finally, the command and communication structures of an organized endurance event are vital to its safety and success, and such strategies and concepts are reviewed for implementation. The nature of endurance events increasingly relies on medical leaders to balance safety and prevention of morbidity while trying to help optimize athlete performance. PMID:26553491

  19. Nutritional considerations during prolonged exposure to a confined, hyperbaric, hyperoxic environment: recommendations for saturation divers.

    PubMed

    Deb, S K; Swinton, P A; Dolan, E

    2016-01-01

    Saturation diving is an occupation that involves prolonged exposure to a confined, hyperoxic, hyperbaric environment. The unique and extreme environment is thought to result in disruption to physiological and metabolic homeostasis, which may impact human health and performance. Appropriate nutritional intake has the potential to alleviate and/or support many of these physiological and metabolic concerns, whilst enhancing health and performance in saturation divers. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to identify the physiological and practical challenges of saturation diving and consequently provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for saturation divers to promote health and performance within this challenging environment. Saturation diving has a high-energy demand, with an energy intake of between 44 and 52 kcal/kg body mass per day recommended, dependent on intensity and duration of underwater activity. The macronutrient composition of dietary intake is in accordance with the current Institute of Medicine guidelines at 45-65 % and 20-35 % of total energy intake for carbohydrate and fat intake, respectively. A minimum daily protein intake of 1.3 g/kg body mass is recommended to facilitate body composition maintenance. Macronutrient intake between individuals should, however, be dictated by personal preference to support the attainment of an energy balance. A varied diet high in fruit and vegetables is highly recommended for the provision of sufficient micronutrients to support physiological processes, such as vitamin B12 and folate intake to facilitate red blood cell production. Antioxidants, such as vitamin C and E, are also recommended to reduce oxidised molecules, e.g. free radicals, whilst selenium and zinc intake may be beneficial to reinforce endogenous antioxidant reserves. In addition, tailored hydration and carbohydrate fueling strategies for underwater work are also advised. PMID:26744625

  20. MSL-RAD radiation environment measurements.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingnan; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Hassler, Donald M; Ehresmann, Bent; Köhler, Jan; Böhm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Brinza, David; Burmeister, Sönke; Cucinotta, Francis; Martin, Cesar; Posner, Arik; Rafkin, Scot; Reitz, Guenther

    2015-09-01

    In this study, results are presented from the on-board radiation assessment detector (RAD) of Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). RAD is designed to measure the energetic particle radiation environment, which consists of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs) as well as secondary particles created by nuclear interactions of primary particles in the shielding (during cruise) or Martian soil and atmosphere (surface measurements). During the cruise, RAD collected data on space radiation from inside the craft, thus allowing for a reasonable estimation of what a human crew travelling to/from Mars might be exposed to. On the surface of Mars, RAD is shielded by the atmosphere (from above) and the planet itself (from below). RAD measures the first detailed radiation data from the surface of another planet, and they are highly relevant for planning future crewed missions. The results for radiation dose and dose equivalent (a quantity most directly related to human health risk) are presented during the cruise phase, as well as on the Martian surface. Dose and dose equivalent are dominated by the continuous GCR radiation, but several SEP events were also detected and are discussed here.

  1. MSL-RAD radiation environment measurements.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingnan; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Hassler, Donald M; Ehresmann, Bent; Köhler, Jan; Böhm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Brinza, David; Burmeister, Sönke; Cucinotta, Francis; Martin, Cesar; Posner, Arik; Rafkin, Scot; Reitz, Guenther

    2015-09-01

    In this study, results are presented from the on-board radiation assessment detector (RAD) of Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). RAD is designed to measure the energetic particle radiation environment, which consists of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs) as well as secondary particles created by nuclear interactions of primary particles in the shielding (during cruise) or Martian soil and atmosphere (surface measurements). During the cruise, RAD collected data on space radiation from inside the craft, thus allowing for a reasonable estimation of what a human crew travelling to/from Mars might be exposed to. On the surface of Mars, RAD is shielded by the atmosphere (from above) and the planet itself (from below). RAD measures the first detailed radiation data from the surface of another planet, and they are highly relevant for planning future crewed missions. The results for radiation dose and dose equivalent (a quantity most directly related to human health risk) are presented during the cruise phase, as well as on the Martian surface. Dose and dose equivalent are dominated by the continuous GCR radiation, but several SEP events were also detected and are discussed here. PMID:25969529

  2. Navigating a strange and complex environment: experiences of Sudanese refugee women using a new nutrition resource

    PubMed Central

    Mannion, Cynthia A; Raffin-Bouchal, Shelley; Henshaw, Christena Jane

    2014-01-01

    Background Refugees experience dietary changes as part of the daily challenges they face resettling in a new country. Sudanese women seek to care and feed their families, but face language barriers in the marketplace, limited access to familiar foods, and forced new food choices. This study aimed to understand the acceptability of a purse-sized nutrition resource, “The Market Guide”, which was developed to help recently immigrated Sudanese refugee women identify and purchase healthy foods and navigate grocery stores. Methods Eight women participated in a focus group, four of whom were also observed during accompanied grocery store visits. Individual interviews were conducted with four health care workers at the resettlement center to gather perceptions about the suitability of The Market Guide. Focus groups and interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Data from field notes and transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory for preliminary open codes, followed by selective and theoretical coding. Results The Market Guide was of limited use to Sudanese women. Their response to this resource revealed the struggles of women acculturating during their first year in Calgary, Canada. We discovered the basic social process, “Navigating through a strange and complex environment: learning ways to feed your family.” Language, transportation, and an unfamiliar marketplace challenged women and prevented them from exercising their customary role of “knowing” which foods were “safe and good” for their families. The nutrition resource fell short of informing food choices and purchases, and we discovered that “learning to feed your family” is a relational process where trusted persons, family, and friends help navigate dietary acculturation. Conclusion Emergent theory based on the basic social process may help health care professionals consider relational learning when planning health promotion and nutrition activities with Sudanese families. PMID:24790470

  3. The effect of developmental nutrition on life span and fecundity depends on the adult reproductive environment in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    May, Christina M; Doroszuk, Agnieszka; Zwaan, Bas J

    2015-01-01

    Both developmental nutrition and adult nutrition affect life-history traits; however, little is known about whether the effect of developmental nutrition depends on the adult environment experienced. We used the fruit fly to determine whether life-history traits, particularly life span and fecundity, are affected by developmental nutrition, and whether this depends on the extent to which the adult environment allows females to realize their full reproductive potential. We raised flies on three different developmental food levels containing increasing amounts of yeast and sugar: poor, control, and rich. We found that development on poor or rich larval food resulted in several life-history phenotypes indicative of suboptimal conditions, including increased developmental time, and, for poor food, decreased adult weight. However, development on poor larval food actually increased adult virgin life span. In addition, we manipulated the reproductive potential of the adult environment by adding yeast or yeast and a male. This manipulation interacted with larval food to determine adult fecundity. Specifically, under two adult conditions, flies raised on poor larval food had higher reproduction at certain ages – when singly mated this occurred early in life and when continuously mated with yeast this occurred during midlife. We show that poor larval food is not necessarily detrimental to key adult life-history traits, but does exert an adult environment-dependent effect, especially by affecting virgin life span and altering adult patterns of reproductive investment. Our findings are relevant because (1) they may explain differences between published studies on nutritional effects on life-history traits; (2) they indicate that optimal nutritional conditions are likely to be different for larvae and adults, potentially reflecting evolutionary history; and (3) they urge for the incorporation of developmental nutritional conditions into the central life-history concept of

  4. Sensitive measures of the nutritional status of children with cancer in hospital and in the field.

    PubMed

    Brennan, B M

    1998-01-01

    Sensitive measures of nutritional status exist. Initial assessment must include some measure that is independent of tumour mass, particularly in children with large solid tumours. Arm anthropometry, including triceps and biceps skinfold thickness (SFT), and mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) are ideal in this situation, but MUAC is probably the simplest measure to use. In the clinical setting, a direct measure of fat-free body mass (FFBM) does not exist, but bio-electrical impedance (BIA) measures FFBM indirectly, and has many advantages, in particular its ease of use and immediate results. The BIA analyzer is portable and hence can be used in the field as well as by the bedside. Serum proteins and insulin-like growth factors are insufficiently sensitive as nutritional indices and have only a minor role in nutritional assessment.

  5. Measuring Nutrition Literacy in Breast Cancer Patients: Development of a Novel Instrument.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Heather D; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Befort, Christie; Gajewski, Byron; Kennett, Amy R; Yu, Qing; Christifano, Danielle; Sullivan, Debra K

    2016-09-01

    No nutrition literacy instruments have been tested in breast cancer survivors, yet nutrition is a critical lifestyle factor for optimizing weight and improving quality of life in breast cancer survival. Our objectives were to adapt our Nutrition Literacy Assessment Instrument for breast cancer populations and to pilot test its validity and reliability. We modified the instrument based on review by content experts in cancer and nutrition and cognitive interviews with 18 cancer survivors. The modified instrument (Nutrition Literacy Assessment Instrument for Breast Cancer, NLit-BCa) was pilot-tested with 17 high-risk women and 55 breast cancer survivors. We conducted the NLit-BCa on two separate occasions 4 weeks apart and assessed reliability by confirmatory factor analysis. Construct validity was evaluated by comparing results of the NLit-BCa to a Healthy Eating Index score derived from two separate 24-h dietary recalls. Content validity of the NLit-BCa was acceptable (0.93). Entire reliability for three instrument domains was substantial (>0.80), while remaining domains demonstrated fair or moderate reliability. Significant relationships were found between five of the six domains of nutrition literacy and diet quality (P < 0.05). The NLit-BCa is content valid and demonstrates promising reliability and construct validity related to diet quality, through a larger sample size, and removal of non-discriminating items is needed to confirm these findings. Thus, the NLit-BCa demonstrates potential for comprehensively measuring nutrition literacy in breast cancer populations.

  6. Resilience and measured gene-environment interactions.

    PubMed

    Kim-Cohen, Julia; Turkewitz, Rebecca

    2012-11-01

    The past decade has witnessed an exponential growth in studies that have attempted to identify the genetic polymporphisms that moderate the influence of environmental risks on mental disorders. What tends to be neglected in these Gene × Environment (G × E) interaction studies has been a focus on resilience, which refers to a dynamic pattern of positive adaptation despite the experience of a significant trauma or adversity. In this article, we argue that one step toward advancing the field of developmental psychopathology would be for G × E research to consider resilience instead of focusing almost exclusively on mental disorders. After providing an up-to-date summary on the expanding definitions and models of resilience, and the available evidence regarding measured G × E studies of childhood maltreatment, we discuss why resilience would be a worthwhile phenotype for studies of measured G × E. First, although G × E hypotheses require that there be an environmental risk (e-risk) involved in a causal process that leads to psychopathology, e-risks are typically not included in the diagnostic criteria for most psychiatric disorders. In contrast, resilience by definition includes an e-risk. Second, G × E hypotheses require that there is evidence of variability in response to an environmental stressor, and resilience often represents the positive end on this continuum of adaptation. Third, both resilience and G × E are best understood from a developmental perspective. Fourth, although resilient outcomes are not public health concerns, the types of adversities (e.g., childhood maltreatment, poverty, or exposure to natural disasters) that are often investigated in studies of resilience certainly are. Understanding how some individuals, perhaps because of their genetic makeup, are able to withstand such adversities can inform prevention and intervention efforts to improve mental health.

  7. Resilience and measured gene-environment interactions.

    PubMed

    Kim-Cohen, Julia; Turkewitz, Rebecca

    2012-11-01

    The past decade has witnessed an exponential growth in studies that have attempted to identify the genetic polymporphisms that moderate the influence of environmental risks on mental disorders. What tends to be neglected in these Gene × Environment (G × E) interaction studies has been a focus on resilience, which refers to a dynamic pattern of positive adaptation despite the experience of a significant trauma or adversity. In this article, we argue that one step toward advancing the field of developmental psychopathology would be for G × E research to consider resilience instead of focusing almost exclusively on mental disorders. After providing an up-to-date summary on the expanding definitions and models of resilience, and the available evidence regarding measured G × E studies of childhood maltreatment, we discuss why resilience would be a worthwhile phenotype for studies of measured G × E. First, although G × E hypotheses require that there be an environmental risk (e-risk) involved in a causal process that leads to psychopathology, e-risks are typically not included in the diagnostic criteria for most psychiatric disorders. In contrast, resilience by definition includes an e-risk. Second, G × E hypotheses require that there is evidence of variability in response to an environmental stressor, and resilience often represents the positive end on this continuum of adaptation. Third, both resilience and G × E are best understood from a developmental perspective. Fourth, although resilient outcomes are not public health concerns, the types of adversities (e.g., childhood maltreatment, poverty, or exposure to natural disasters) that are often investigated in studies of resilience certainly are. Understanding how some individuals, perhaps because of their genetic makeup, are able to withstand such adversities can inform prevention and intervention efforts to improve mental health. PMID:23062298

  8. Rural Middle School Nutrition and Physical Activity Environments and the Change in Body Mass Index during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demment, Margaret; Wells, Nancy; Olson, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background: For rural adolescents, schools are among the few places where environmental interventions can promote health outside of the home. The goal of this study was to assess the nutrition and physical activity (N&PA) environments of schools attended by a birth cohort and examine the association with change in body mass index (BMI) from…

  9. Creating Healthful Home Food Environments: Results of a Study with Participants in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Smalling, Agueda Lara; Thompson, Debbe; Watson, Kathleen B.; Reed, Debra; Konzelmann, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a modified curriculum for the 6-session Texas Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) promoting healthful home food environments and parenting skills related to obesity prevention. Design: Two-group randomized control trial; intervention versus usual EFNEP curriculum. Setting: Texas EFNEP classes. Participants:…

  10. The effects of larval nutrition on reproductive performance in a food-limited adult environment.

    PubMed

    Dmitriew, Caitlin; Rowe, Locke

    2011-01-01

    It is often assumed that larval food stress reduces lifetime fitness regardless of the conditions subsequently faced by adults. However, according to the environment-matching hypothesis, a plastic developmental response to poor nutrition results in an adult phenotype that is better adapted to restricted food conditions than one having developed in high food conditions. Such a strategy might evolve when current conditions are a reliable predictor of future conditions. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effects of larval food conditions (low, improving and high food) on reproductive fitness in both low and high food adults environments. Contrary to this hypothesis, we found no evidence that food restriction in larval ladybird beetles produced adults that were better suited to continuing food stress. In fact, reproductive rate was invariably lower in females that were reared at low food, regardless of whether adults were well fed or food stressed. Juveniles that encountered improving conditions during the larval stage compensated for delayed growth by accelerating subsequent growth, and thus showed no evidence of a reduced reproductive rate. However, these same individuals lost more mass during the period of starvation in adults, which indicates that accelerated growth results in an increased risk of starvation during subsequent periods of food stress.

  11. Nutritional Assessment During a 14-d Saturation Dive: the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operation V Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Fesperman, J. V.; Smith, M. D.; Rice, B. L.; Zwart, S. R.

    2006-01-01

    Ground-based analogs of spaceflight are an important means of studying physiological and nutritional changes associated with space travel, particularly since exploration missions are anticipated, and flight research opportunities are limited. A clinical nutritional assessment of the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operation V (NEEMO) crew (4 M, 2 F) was conducted before, during, and after the 14-d saturation dive. Blood and urine samples were collected before (D-12 and D-1), during (MD 7 and MD 12), and after (R + 0 and R + 7) the dive. The foods were typical of the spaceflight food system. A number of physiological changes were reported both during the dive and post dive that are also commonly observed during spaceflight. Serum hemoglobin and hematocrit were decreased (P less than 0.05) post dive. Serum ferritin and ceruloplasmin significantly increased during the dive, while transferring receptors tended to go down during the dive and were significantly decreased by the last day (R + 0). Along with significant hematological changes, there was also evidence for increased oxidative damage and stress during the dive. 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was elevated (P less than 0.05) during the dive, while glutathione peroxidase and superoxide disrnutase activities were decreased (P less than 0.05) during the dive. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration also tended to increase during the dive, suggesting the presence of a stress-induced inflammatory response, Decreased leptin during the dive (P less than 0.05) may also be related to the increased stress. Similar to what is observed during spaceflight, subjects had decreased energy intake and weight loss during the dive. Together, these similarities to spaceflight provide a model to further define the physiological effects of spaceflight and investigate potential countermeasures.

  12. Toward an integrated approach to nutritional quality, environmental sustainability, and economic viability: research and measurement gaps.

    PubMed

    Herforth, Anna; Frongillo, Edward A; Sassi, Franco; Mclean, Mireille Seneclauze; Arabi, Mandana; Tirado, Cristina; Remans, Roseline; Mantilla, Gilma; Thomson, Madeleine; Pingali, Prabhu

    2014-12-01

    Nutrition is affected by numerous environmental and societal causes. This paper starts with a simple framework based on three domains: nutritional quality, economic viability, and environmental sustainability, and calls for an integrated approach in research to simultaneously account for all three. It highlights limitations in the current understanding of each domain, and how they influence one another. Five research topics are identified: measuring the three domains (nutritional quality, economic viability, environmental sustainability); modeling across disciplines; furthering the analysis of food systems in relation to the three domains; connecting climate change and variability to nutritional quality; and increasing attention to inequities among population groups in relation to the three domains. For an integrated approach to be developed, there is a need to identify and disseminate available metrics, modeling techniques, and tools to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. This is a first step so that a systems approach that takes into account potential environmental and economic trade-offs becomes the norm in analyzing nutrition and food-security patterns. Such an approach will help fill critical knowledge gaps and will guide researchers seeking to define and address specific research questions in nutrition in their wider socioeconomic and environmental contexts. PMID:25351044

  13. Toward an integrated approach to nutritional quality, environmental sustainability, and economic viability: research and measurement gaps.

    PubMed

    Herforth, Anna; Frongillo, Edward A; Sassi, Franco; Mclean, Mireille Seneclauze; Arabi, Mandana; Tirado, Cristina; Remans, Roseline; Mantilla, Gilma; Thomson, Madeleine; Pingali, Prabhu

    2014-12-01

    Nutrition is affected by numerous environmental and societal causes. This paper starts with a simple framework based on three domains: nutritional quality, economic viability, and environmental sustainability, and calls for an integrated approach in research to simultaneously account for all three. It highlights limitations in the current understanding of each domain, and how they influence one another. Five research topics are identified: measuring the three domains (nutritional quality, economic viability, environmental sustainability); modeling across disciplines; furthering the analysis of food systems in relation to the three domains; connecting climate change and variability to nutritional quality; and increasing attention to inequities among population groups in relation to the three domains. For an integrated approach to be developed, there is a need to identify and disseminate available metrics, modeling techniques, and tools to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. This is a first step so that a systems approach that takes into account potential environmental and economic trade-offs becomes the norm in analyzing nutrition and food-security patterns. Such an approach will help fill critical knowledge gaps and will guide researchers seeking to define and address specific research questions in nutrition in their wider socioeconomic and environmental contexts.

  14. Nutritional and environmental studies on an ocean-going oil tanker. 1. Thermal environment

    PubMed Central

    Collins, K. J.; Eddy, T. P.; Lee, D. E.; Swann, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Collins, K. J., Eddy, T. P., Lee, D. E., and Swann, P. G. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 237-245. Nutritional and environmental studies on an ocean-going oil tanker. I. Thermal environment. Investigations were made on board a modern, air-conditioned oil tanker (S.S. Esso Newcastle) en route to the Persian Gulf in July to August 1967 in order to study thermal conditions in the working environment, and the nutritional status of the crew, and to examine the interrelationship between climate and nutritional balance. In this introductory paper an account is given of the aims and design of the experiments together with details of the environmental survey. The voyage round Africa lasted one month, with high ambient temperatures of 37·7°C dry bulb, 30·8°C wet bulb (100/87°F) occurring only on the last few days into and out of the Persian Gulf. Mean accommodation temperature was maintained in the zone of comfort throughout, and at 23·9°C (75°F) Corrected Effective Temperature (CET) in the Gulf. On a previous voyage in a tanker without air-conditioning CETs up to 31·6°C (89°F) had been recorded in the accommodation in the same ambient conditions. With exposure to high solar radiation in the Gulf, the deck officer's cabins and bridge house in the upper superstructure became uncomfortably warm (CET exceeding 26·6°C (80°F)) and in these temperatures skilled performance is likely to deteriorate. The main thermal problems in the working environment were associated with the engine and boiler rooms which were consistently 11 to 17°C (20 to 30°F) higher than ambient temperature. For personnel on watch, the levels of heat stress were high but not intolerable if advantage was taken of the air blowers. Conditions under which emergency or repair tasks were carried out in very hot engine-room spaces were examined and often found to allow only a small margin of safety. Predicted average tolerance times were deduced from the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) scale of

  15. Veterinary students’ perceptions of their learning environment as measured by the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) has been widely used to evaluate the learning environment within health sciences education, however, this tool has not been applied in veterinary medical education. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the DREEM tool in a veterinary medical program and to determine veterinary students’ perceptions of their learning environment. Methods The DREEM is a survey tool which quantitatively measures students’ perceptions of their learning environment. The survey consists of 50 items, each scored 0–4 on a Likert Scale. The 50 items are subsequently analysed within five subscales related to students’ perceptions of learning, faculty (teachers), academic atmosphere, and self-perceptions (academic and social). An overall score is obtained by summing the mean score for each subscale, with an overall possible score of 200. All students in the program were asked to complete the DREEM. Means and standard deviations were calculated for the 50 items, the five subscale scores and the overall score. Cronbach’s alpha was determined for the five subscales and overall score to evaluate reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate construct validity. Results 224 responses (53%) were received. The Cronbach’s alpha for the overall score was 0.93 and for the five subscales were; perceptions of learning 0.85, perceptions of faculty 0.79, perceptions of atmosphere 0.81, academic self-perceptions 0.68, and social self-perceptions 0.72. Construct validity was determined to be acceptable (p < 0.001) and all items contributed to the overall validity of the DREEM. The overall DREEM score was 128.9/200, which is a positive result based on the developers’ descriptors and comparable to other health science education programs. Four individual items of concern were identified by students. Conclusions In this setting the DREEM was a reliable and valid tool to measure

  16. Measuring Physical Activity in the Elderly: Some Implications for Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Roy J.

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of physical activity patterns is discussed in terms of data obtained by attitude assessment, activity questionnaires, personal monitoring devices, and fitness assessment. Problems of each technique are described. Application of activity measures to the estimation of total dietary needs is discussed. (SK)

  17. Enteric Pathogens Exploit the Microbiota-generated Nutritional Environment of the Gut

    PubMed Central

    PACHECO, ALLINE R.; SPERANDIO, VANESSA

    2016-01-01

    Host bacterial associations have a profound impact on health and disease. The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is inhabited by trillions of commensal bacteria that aid in the digestion of food and vitamin production and play crucial roles in human physiology. Disruption of these relationships and the structure of the bacterial communities that inhabit the gut can contribute to dysbiosis, leading to disease. This fundamental relationship between the host and microbiota relies on chemical signaling and nutrient availability and exchange. GI pathogens compete with the endogenous microbiota for a colonization niche (1, 2). The ability to monitor nutrients and combine this information with the host physiological state is important for the pathogen to precisely program the expression of its virulence repertoire. A major nutrient source is carbon, and although the impact of carbon nutrition on the colonization of the gut by the microbiota has been extensively studied, the extent to which carbon sources affect the regulation of virulence factors by invading pathogens has not been fully defined. The GI pathogen enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) gages sugar sources as an important cue to regulate expression of its virulence genes. EHEC senses whether it is in a gluconeogenic versus a glycolytic environment, as well as fluctuations of fucose levels to fine tune regulation of its virulence repertoire. PMID:26185079

  18. Measuring Collaborative Consultation Practices in Natural Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basu, Semonti; Salisbury, Christine L.; Thorkildsen, Theresa A.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development of the "Triadic Intervention and Evaluation Rating Scale" (TIERS), a 33-item instrument designed to evaluate patterns of parent, service provider, and child interactions during early intervention sessions conducted in natural environments. Twenty-eight parent-provider-child triads were videotaped in home and…

  19. A bioelectrical impedance phase angle measuring system for assessment of nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guanghao; Huo, Xiaolin; Wu, Changzhe; Zhang, Cheng; Duan, Zhongping

    2014-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance phase angle has been recommended as a tool to assess nutrition state, but there are no measuring devices have been specially designed for hospital residents. In this study, a system was established for the measurement of bioelectrical impedance phase angle. The electrical composition, calculation method and measuring method of this system are presented in this paper. Experiments showed excellent performance of this system in measuring impedance made of resistors and capacitors. The designed system was also used to measure the bioelectrical impedance phase angle of both healthy subjects and patients with malnutrition, and the results demonstrated that the phase angle of patients with malnutrition is lower than that of healthy subjects (P < 0.01 for male and P < 0.05 for female). These results suggest that phase angle has the potential to be a useful tool for the quantitative assessment of nutritional status.

  20. Steady Diet of Confusion: Contradictory Nutrition Messages in the Public Information Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagler, Rebekah H.

    2010-01-01

    Nutrition researchers, clinicians, and communication scholars have assumed that contradictory health and nutrition messages exist in the news media, and that exposure to these messages negatively influences public understanding and health behavior. This dissertation does not take issue with these claims, but rather with the evidence base that…

  1. Enhancing nutritional environments through access to fruit and vegetables in schools and homes among children and youth: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption is one of the top 10 global risk factors for mortality, and is related to increased risk for cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Many environmental, sociodemographic and personal factors affect FV consumption. The purpose of this review is to examine the effects of interventions delivered in the home, school and other nutritional environments designed to increase FV availability for five to 18-year olds. Methods The search included: 19 electronic bibliographic databases; grey literature databases; reference lists of key articles; targeted Internet searching of key organization websites; hand searching of key journals and conference proceedings; and consultation with experts for additional references. Articles were included if: in English, French and Spanish; from high-, middle-, and low-income countries; delivered to anyone who could bring about change in FV environment for 5 to 18 year olds; with randomized and non-randomized study designs that provided before-after comparisons, with or without a control group. Primary outcomes of interest were measures of FV availability. Results The search strategy retrieved nearly 23,000 citations and resulted in 23 unique studies. Interventions were primarily policy interventions at the regional or state level, a number of curriculum type interventions in schools and community groups and a garden intervention. The majority of studies were done in high-income countries. The diversity of interventions, populations, outcomes and outcome measurements precluded meta-analysis. The most promising strategies for improving the FV environment for children are through local school food service policies. Access to FV was successfully improved in four of the six studies that evaluated school-based policies, with the other two studies finding no effect. Broader state or federally mandated policies or educational programs for food service providers and decision makers had mixed or

  2. Accuracy of plasma turbidity measurement for determining fat intolerance during total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Nordenström, J; Thörne, A; Lindholm, M

    1990-06-01

    The accuracy of plasma turbidity measurements in predicting ability to metabolise intravenous fat emulsions during total parenteral nutrition was studied in 35 adult surgical patients. Plasma turbidity, expressed as a light scattering index (LSI), was determined by nephelometry and compared with measured triglyceride (TG) concentrations. A poor coefficient of correlation was found between LSI and TG (r = 0.52). The sensitivity and specificity of LSI in predicting TG concentration were 19% and 96% respectively. This indicates that the measurement of LSI is more useful in ruling out hypertriglyceridaemia than in detecting it. Consequently, clinical tolerance of intravenous fat emulsion cannot be monitored by measuring plasma turbidity. In order to avoid metabolic complications which may occasionally occur during intravenous nutritional therapy including fat emulsion, determination of plasma TG levels at timed intervals are recommended.

  3. Nutrition, environment and cardiovascular health (NESCAV): protocol of an inter-regional cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the remarkable technological progress in health care and treatment, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of premature death, prolonged hospitalization and disability in most European countries. In the population of the Greater Region (Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, Wallonia in Belgium, and Lorraine in France), the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and disease is among the highest in Europe, warranting the need for a better understanding of factors contributing to this pattern. In this context, the cross-border "Nutrition, Environment and Cardiovascular Health-NESCAV" project is initiated by an inter-regional multi-disciplinary consortium and supported by the INTERREG IV A program "Greater Region", 2007-2013, to fight synergically and harmoniously against this major public health problem. Methods/design The objectives of the three-year planned project are to assess, in a representative sample of 3000 randomly selected individuals living at the Greater Region, 1) the cardiovascular health and risk profile, 2) the association between the dietary habits and the cardiovascular risk, 3) the association of occupational and environmental pollution markers with the cardiovascular risk, 4) the knowledge, awareness and level of control of cardiovascular risk factors, 5) the potential gaps in the current primary prevention, and finally, to address evidence-based recommendations enabling the development of inter-regional guidance to help policy-makers and health care workers for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Discussion The findings will provide tools that may enable the Greater Region's decision-makers and health professionals to implement targeted and cost-effective prevention strategies. PMID:21078172

  4. Assessment of Changes in School Nutrition Programs and the School Environment as a Result of Following the HealthierUS School Challenge Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer S.; Bednar, Carolyn; DiMarco, Nancy M.; Connors, Priscilla L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine changes in school nutrition programs and the school environment as reported by school nutrition directors who are following the U.S. Department of Agriculture's HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) program. The objective was to determine before and after changes in the average lunch…

  5. Impact of genetics and environment on nutritional and metabolite components of maize grain.

    PubMed

    Harrigan, George G; Stork, Leanna G; Riordan, Susan G; Reynolds, Tracey L; Ridley, William P; Masucci, James D; Macisaac, Susan; Halls, Steven C; Orth, Robert; Smith, Ronald G; Wen, Li; Brown, Wayne E; Welsch, Michael; Riley, Rochelle; McFarland, David; Pandravada, Anand; Glenn, Kevin C

    2007-07-25

    The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) recommends the measurement of specific plant components for compositional assessments of new biotechnology-derived crops. These components include proximates, nutrients, antinutrients, and certain crop-specific secondary metabolites. A considerable literature on the natural variability of these components in conventional and biotechnology-derived crops now exists. Yet the OECD consensus also suggests measurements of any metabolites that may be directly associated with a newly introduced trait. Therefore, steps have been initiated to assess natural variation in metabolites not typically included in the OECD consensus but which might reasonably be expected to be affected by new traits addressing, for example, nutritional enhancement or improved stress tolerance. The compositional study reported here extended across a diverse genetic range of maize hybrids derived from 48 inbreds crossed against two different testers. These were grown at three different, but geographically similar, locations in the United States. In addition to OECD analytes such as proximates, total amino acids and free fatty acids, the levels of free amino acids, sugars, organic acids, and selected stress metabolites in harvested grain were assessed. The major free amino acids identified were asparagine, aspartate, glutamate, and proline. The major sugars were sucrose, glucose, and fructose. The most predominant organic acid was citric acid, with only minor amounts of other organic acids detected. The impact of genetic background and location was assessed for all components. Overall, natural variation in free amino acids, sugars, and organic acids appeared to be markedly higher than that observed for the OECD analytes. PMID:17608428

  6. Electromagnetic Measurements in an Active Oilfield Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, K. A.; Aldridge, D. F.; Bartel, L. C.; Knox, H. A.; Weiss, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    An important issue in oilfield development pertains to mapping and monitoring of the fracture distributions (either natural or man-made) controlling subsurface fluid flow. Although microseismic monitoring and analysis have been used for this purpose for several decades, there remain several ambiguities and uncertainties with this approach. We are investigating a novel electromagnetic (EM) technique for detecting and mapping hydraulic fractures in a petroleum reservoir by injecting an electrically conductive contrast agent into an open fracture. The fracture is subsequently illuminated by a strong EM field radiated by a large engineered antenna. Specifically, a grounded electric current source is applied directly to the steel casing of the borehole, either at/near the wellhead or at a deep downhole point. Transient multicomponent EM signals (both electric and magnetic) scattered by the conductivity contrast are then recorded by a surface receiver array. We are presently utilizing advanced 3D numerical modeling algorithms to accurately simulate fracture responses, both before and after insertion of the conductive contrast agent. Model results compare favorably with EM field data recently acquired in a Permian Basin oilfield. However, extraction of the very-low-amplitude fracture signatures from noisy data requires effective noise suppression strategies such as long stacking times, rejection of outliers, and careful treatment of natural magnetotelluric fields. Dealing with the ever-present "episodic EM noise" typical in an active oilfield environment (associated with drilling, pumping, machinery, traffic, etc.) constitutes an ongoing problem. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Measurements in Nuclear Reactor Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Brian T.

    Several Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs, such as the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD), Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC), Light Water Reactor Sustainability, and Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants (NGNP), are investigating new fuels, materials, and inspection paradigms for advanced and existing reactors. A key objective of such programs is to understand the performance of these fuels and materials during irradiation. In DOE-NE's FCRD program, ultrasonic based technology was identified as a key approach that should be pursued to obtain the high-fidelity, high-accuracy data required to characterize the behavior and performance of new candidate fuels and structural materials during irradiation testing. The radiation, high temperatures, and pressure can limit the available tools and characterization methods. In this thesis, two ultrasonic characterization techniques will be explored. The first, finite amplitude wave propagation has been demonstrated to be sensitive to microstructural material property changes. It is a strong candidate to determine fuel evolution; however, it has not been demonstrated for in-situ reactor applications. In this thesis, finite amplitude wave propagation will be used to measure the microstructural evolution in Al-6061. This is the first demonstration of finite amplitude wave propagation at temperatures in excess of 200 °C and during an irradiation test. Second, a method based on contact nonlinear acoustic theory will be developed to identify compressed cracks. Compressed cracks are typically transparent to ultrasonic wave propagation; however, by measuring harmonic content developed during finite amplitude wave propagation, it is shown that even compressed cracks can be characterized. Lastly, piezoelectric transducers capable of making these measurements are developed. Specifically, three piezoelectric sensors (Bismuth Titanate, Aluminum Nitride, and Zinc Oxide) are tested in the Massachusetts

  8. Nutrition as a mediator in the relation between oral and systemic disease: associations between specific measures of adult oral health and nutrition outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Christine S; Joshipura, Kaumudi; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Douglass, Chester W

    2002-01-01

    Recent associations between oral health and systemic disease have led to renewed interest in the mouth and its contribution to health outcomes. Many pathways for this relationship have been postulated, among them the potential mediating role of nutrition. The link between various nutrients and systemic disease has been established, but relatively little work has been done in relating oral conditions with nutrition. We searched MEDLINE, from 1966 to July, 2001, to identify articles relating specific oral measures to nutrition outcomes. We included original articles written in English with a sample size greater than 30 that used objective oral health measures. We reviewed a total of 56 articles. Only a small proportion of these studies were methodologically sound. Although many studies were small and cross-sectional, the literature suggests that tooth loss affects dietary quality and nutrient intake in a manner that may increase the risk for several systemic diseases. The impact of tooth loss on diet may be only partially compensated for by prostheses. To date, there is little information relating periodontal disease and oral pain and nutrition. A few studies suggest poorer nutrition among individuals with xerostomia and altered taste. Further, impaired dentition may contribute to weight change, depending on age and other population characteristics. There is a paucity of well-designed studies addressing oral health and nutrition. Before we can acquire a better understanding of how nutrition and oral health interrelate, however, more studies will be required to confirm these associations-preferably longitudinal studies with larger sample sizes and better control of important confounders.

  9. Brain imaging and human nutrition: which measures to use in intervention studies?

    PubMed

    Sizonenko, Stéphane V; Babiloni, Claudio; de Bruin, Eveline A; Isaacs, Elizabeth B; Jönsson, Lena S; Kennedy, David O; Latulippe, Marie E; Mohajeri, M Hasan; Moreines, Judith; Pietrini, Pietro; Walhovd, Kristine B; Winwood, Robert J; Sijben, John W

    2013-08-01

    The present review describes brain imaging technologies that can be used to assess the effects of nutritional interventions in human subjects. Specifically, we summarise the biological relevance of their outcome measures, practical use and feasibility, and recommended use in short- and long-term nutritional studies. The brain imaging technologies described consist of MRI, including diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and functional MRI, as well as electroencephalography/magnetoencephalography, near-IR spectroscopy, positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computerised tomography. In nutritional interventions and across the lifespan, brain imaging can detect macro- and microstructural, functional, electrophysiological and metabolic changes linked to broader functional outcomes, such as cognition. Imaging markers can be considered as specific for one or several brain processes and as surrogate instrumental endpoints that may provide sensitive measures of short- and long-term effects. For the majority of imaging measures, little information is available regarding their correlation with functional endpoints in healthy subjects; therefore, imaging markers generally cannot replace clinical endpoints that reflect the overall capacity of the brain to behaviourally respond to specific situations and stimuli. The principal added value of brain imaging measures for human nutritional intervention studies is their ability to provide unique in vivo information on the working mechanism of an intervention in hypothesis-driven research. Selection of brain imaging techniques and target markers within a given technique should mainly depend on the hypothesis regarding the mechanism of action of the intervention, level (structural, metabolic or functional) and anticipated timescale of the intervention's effects, target population, availability and costs of the techniques.

  10. Measuring the Environment through Digital Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickle, J.; Schloss, A. L.

    2009-12-01

    A network of sites for citizen scientists to take a consistent time sequence of digital photographs of the landscape and an Internet site (http://picturepost.unh.edu/) that efficiently stores and distributes the digital images creates a low-cost and sustainable resource for scientific environmental monitoring and formal and informal science education. Digital photographs taken from the same location and positioned in the same direction and orientation allow scientists to monitor a variety of environmental parameters, including plant health, growth, and phenology; erosion and deposition; water levels; and cloud and canopy cover. The PicturePost platform is simply an octagon placed in the center of a flat surface and secured to a post anchored in the ground or onto a building. The edges of the octagon allow positioning of the camera so the complete landscape may be photographed in less than a minute. A NASA-funded project, Digital Earth Watch (aka Measuring Vegetation Health, (http://mvh.sr.unh.edu) provides educational activities and background materials that help people learn about plants as environmental “green canaries” and about the basics of cameras and digital images. The website also provides free software to analyze digital images. Although this project has been in development for four years, it is only beginning to find partners in which the data support multiple efforts. A large part of this integration is a result of recent NASA funding, which has allowed a new website to be developed to archive and display the images. The developing collaborations and the development of the new website at the same time enhanced both efforts. Because the website could include tools/features that appealed to the collaborating groups, all participants contributed ideas facing fewer restrictions. PicturePost made from recycled plastic lumber.

  11. Measurement of borate in occupational environments.

    PubMed

    Smith, R A; Ascherl, F M

    1998-01-01

    The hydration stability for inhalable borate particles has been characterized as a function of temperature and relative humidity when collected by a field personnel monitor. The rate of hydration was measured for boric acid (B[OH]3); Neobor borax 5 mol (Na2O x 2B2O3 x 5H2O); borax 10 mol (Na2O x 2B2O3 x 10H2O); anhydrous boric acid (B2O3); and anhydrous borax (Na2O x 2B2O3). The particle size is large in bulk commercial products, such that they can be handled and stored without problems. However, inhalable dust particles, in the range of 20 microm (MMD), undergo hydration/dehydration rapidly owing to their high surface-to-volume ratio. The hydration state of a collected air sample was found to be strongly dependent on the conditions of relative humidity and temperature during its collection. As a consequence, the actual chemical species of dust being inspired cannot be identified accurately. Inhalable particles of borax 10 mol placed in a field personal monitoring cartridge and exposed to dry air at 2.0 L/min at 70 degrees F for 7 h undergo rapid dehydration, producing a sodium borate residue having significantly less than four waters of hydration. Likewise, inhalable particles of anhydrous boric acid and anhydrous borax were found to hydrate under normal atmospheric conditions. Borax 5 mol and boric acid were found to be stable to dehydration. In most cases, the specific borate species or borate compounds collected in a field monitor cannot be accurately characterized other than by their boron (B) content.

  12. Combination with Anthropometric Measurements and MQSGA to Assess Nutritional Status in Chinese Hemodialysis Population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Peng, Hongquan; Yuan, Zhimin; Zhang, Kun; Xiao, Long; Huang, Jialian; Wang, Jingfeng; Huang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To assess the nutritional status, combination with anthropometric measurements and modified quantitative subjective global assessment (MQSGA) was used in multi-center hemodialysis population in South China. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive-analytic study was performed in 4 teaching hospitals in South China, dated from January 2010 to December 2011. Nutritional status was assessed with MQSGA and related anthropometric indexes. Serum albumin and transthyretin were also determined for nutritional assessment. Results: Eighty-two randomly selected hemodialysis patients participated in the nutritional assessment, of which 75 hemodialysis patients completed all assessments. The average age was 62.70 ± 14.21 years. The mean duration of hemodialysis was 3.29 ± 1.08 years. Of the included patients, 32% patients were well nourished, 60% were mild to moderately malnourished, and 8% were severely malnourished. Along with the malnutrition severity, the serum transthyretin significantly decreased. However, no obvious changes were found in serum albumin. The mean value (Mean ± SD; 25.78 ± 4.09 cm) of mid arm circumference (MAC) was negatively correlated with MQSGA (r = -0.365; P = 0.002). Body mass index (BMI) (Mean ± SD; 21.6 ± 3.1 kg/m2) was also significantly negatively correlated with MQSGA (r = -0.392; P = 0.001). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.664 and 0.726, respectively. Conclusions: Malnutrition is very common in South China hemodialysis population. Both BMI and MAC were effective markers for assessing nutritional status. PMID:23801883

  13. Nutritional status assessment in semiclosed environments: ground-based and space flight studies in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Rice, B. L.; Nillen, J. L.; Gillman, P. L.; Block, G.

    2001-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical during long-term spaceflight, as is the ability to easily monitor dietary intake. A comprehensive nutritional status assessment profile was designed for use before, during and after flight. It included assessment of both dietary intake and biochemical markers of nutritional status. A spaceflight food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed to evaluate intake of key nutrients during spaceflight. The nutritional status assessment protocol was evaluated during two ground-based closed-chamber studies (60 and 91 d; n = 4/study), and was implemented for two astronauts during 4-mo stays on the Mir space station. Ground-based studies indicated that the FFQ, administered daily or weekly, adequately estimated intake of key nutrients. Chamber subjects maintained prechamber energy intake and body weight. Astronauts tended to eat 40--50% of WHO-predicted energy requirements, and lost >10% of preflight body mass. Serum ferritin levels were lower after the chamber stays, despite adequate iron intake. Red blood cell folate concentrations were increased after the chamber studies. Vitamin D stores were decreased by > 40% on chamber egress and after spaceflight. Mir crew members had decreased levels of most nutritional indices, but these are difficult to interpret given the insufficient energy intake and loss of body mass. Spaceflight food systems can provide adequate intake of macronutrients, although, as expected, micronutrient intake is a concern for any closed or semiclosed food system. These data demonstrate the utility and importance of nutritional status assessment during spaceflight and of the FFQ during extended-duration spaceflight.

  14. Using Funds of Knowledge in an Ethnically Concentrated Classroom Environment to Teach Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser-Abder, Pamela; Doria, John A.; Yang, Ji-Sup; De Jesus, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The concept of funds of knowledge, as applied to an ethnically popular fruit, is the focus of this module. Teachers can use this concept to create contextually meaningful experiments that can contribute to a culturally relevant and more fully developed educational unit focusing on the science of nutrition and reflecting content Standards A and C.…

  15. Measuring the Dimensions of Serendipity in Digital Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCay-Peet, Lori; Toms, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Serendipitous information retrieval is the perhaps inevitable consequence of immersion in an information-rich environment. Just how well chance encounters are supported, however, within these environments varies and one of the challenges to the development of tools and systems to facilitate serendipity is measuring how well they…

  16. Measuring Language Learning Environments in Secondary Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Beverley J.; Hazari, Anjali

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore a new learning environment instrument which could be used by teaching practitioners and other educators to measure the language learning environment in the secondary science classroom. The science teacher is central in creating science classrooms conductive to the language needs of students and should be…

  17. Urinary C-Peptide Measurement as a Marker of Nutritional Status in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Girard-Buttoz, Cédric; Higham, James P.; Heistermann, Michael; Wedegärtner, Stefan; Maestripieri, Dario; Engelhardt, Antje

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the nutritional status of wild animals are important in a wide range of research areas such as ecology, behavioural ecology and reproductive biology. However, they have so far been strongly limited by the indirect nature of the available non-invasive tools for the measurement of individual energetic status. The measurement of urinary C-peptide (UCP), which in humans and great apes shows a close link to individual nutritional status, may be a more direct, non-invasive tool for such studies in other primates as well and possibly even in non-primate mammals. Here, we test the suitability of UCPs as markers of nutritional status in non-hominid primates, investigating relationships between UCPs and body-mass-index (BMI), skinfold fatness, and plasma C-peptide levels in captive and free-ranging macaques. We also conducted a food reduction experiment, with daily monitoring of body weight and UCP levels. UCP levels showed significant positive correlations with BMI and skinfold fatness in both captive and free-ranging animals and with plasma C-peptide levels in captive ones. In the feeding experiment, UCP levels were positively correlated with changes in body mass and were significantly lower during food reduction than during re-feeding and the pre-experimental control condition. We conclude that UCPs may be used as reliable biomarkers of body condition and nutritional status in studies of free-ranging catarrhines. Our results open exciting opportunities for energetic studies on free-ranging primates and possibly also other mammals. PMID:21479215

  18. Measuring food and nutrition security: tools and considerations for use among people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Fielden, Sarah J; Anema, Aranka; Fergusson, Pamela; Muldoon, Katherine; Grede, Nils; de Pee, Saskia

    2014-10-01

    As an increasing number of countries implement integrated food and nutrition security (FNS) and HIV programs, global stakeholders need clarity on how to best measure FNS at the individual and household level. This paper reviews prominent FNS measurement tools, and describes considerations for interpretation in the context of HIV. There exist a range of FNS measurement tools and many have been adapted for use in HIV-endemic settings. Considerations in selecting appropriate tools include sub-types (food sufficiency, dietary diversity and food safety); scope/level of application; and available resources. Tools need to reflect both the needs of PLHIV and affected households and FNS program objectives. Generalized food sufficiency and dietary diversity tools may provide adequate measures of FNS in PLHIV for programmatic applications. Food consumption measurement tools provide further data for clinical or research applications. Measurement of food safety is an important, but underdeveloped aspect of assessment, especially for PLHIV.

  19. Nutrition and Physical Activity in Child Care Centers: the Impact of a Wellness Policy Initiative on Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation Outcomes, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Joyce; Evers, Sarah; Davis, Justin; Griffin, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The child care environment has emerged as an ideal setting in which to implement policies that promote healthy body weight of children. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a wellness policy and training program on the physical activity and nutrition environment in 24 child care centers in Georgia. Methods We used the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation instrument to identify changes to foods served, staff behaviors, and physical activity opportunities. Observations were performed over 1 day, beginning with breakfast and concluding when the program ended for the day. Observations were conducted from February 2010 through April 2011 for a total of 2 observations in each center. Changes to nutrition and physical activity in centers were assessed on the basis of changes in scores related to the physical activity and nutrition environment documented in the observations. Paired t test analyses were performed to determine significance of changes. Results Significant improvements to total nutrition (P < .001) and physical activity scores (P < .001) were observed. Results indicate that centers significantly improved the physical activity environments of centers by enhancing active play (P = .02), the sedentary environment (P = .005), the portable environment (P = .002), staff behavior (P = .004), and physical activity training and education (P < .001). Significant improvements were found for the nutrition environment (P < .001), and nutrition training and education (P < .001). Conclusion Findings from this study suggest that implementing wellness policies and training caregivers in best practices for physical activity and nutrition can promote healthy weight for young children in child care settings. PMID:23701720

  20. Nutritional status changes in humans during a 14-day saturation dive: the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V project.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Davis-Street, Janis E; Fesperman, J Vernell; Smith, Myra D; Rice, Barbara L; Zwart, Sara R

    2004-07-01

    Ground-based analogs of spaceflight are an important means of studying physiologic and nutritional changes associated with space travel, and the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V (NEEMO) is such an analog. To determine whether saturation diving has nutrition-related effects similar to those of spaceflight, we conducted a clinical nutritional assessment of the NEEMO crew (4 men, 2 women) before, during, and after their 14-d saturation dive. Blood and urine samples were collected before, during, and after the dive. The foods consumed by the crew were typical of the spaceflight food system. A number of physiologic changes were observed, during and after the dive, that are also commonly observed during spaceflight. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were lower (P < 0.05) after the dive. Transferrin receptors were significantly lower immediately after the dive. Serum ferritin increased significantly during the dive. There was also evidence indicating that oxidative damage and stress increased during the dive. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase decreased during and after the dive (P < 0.05). Decreased leptin during the dive (P < 0.05) may have been related to the increased stress. Subjects had decreased energy intake and weight loss during the dive, similar to what is observed during spaceflight. Together, these similarities to spaceflight provide a model to use in further defining the physiologic effects of spaceflight and investigating potential countermeasures.

  1. Nutritional status changes in humans during a 14-day saturation dive: the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Davis-Street, Janis E.; Fesperman, J. Vernell; Smith, Myra D.; Rice, Barbara L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-based analogs of spaceflight are an important means of studying physiologic and nutritional changes associated with space travel, and the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V (NEEMO) is such an analog. To determine whether saturation diving has nutrition-related effects similar to those of spaceflight, we conducted a clinical nutritional assessment of the NEEMO crew (4 men, 2 women) before, during, and after their 14-d saturation dive. Blood and urine samples were collected before, during, and after the dive. The foods consumed by the crew were typical of the spaceflight food system. A number of physiologic changes were observed, during and after the dive, that are also commonly observed during spaceflight. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were lower (P < 0.05) after the dive. Transferrin receptors were significantly lower immediately after the dive. Serum ferritin increased significantly during the dive. There was also evidence indicating that oxidative damage and stress increased during the dive. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase decreased during and after the dive (P < 0.05). Decreased leptin during the dive (P < 0.05) may have been related to the increased stress. Subjects had decreased energy intake and weight loss during the dive, similar to what is observed during spaceflight. Together, these similarities to spaceflight provide a model to use in further defining the physiologic effects of spaceflight and investigating potential countermeasures.

  2. Nutritional status changes in humans during a 14-day saturation dive: the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V project.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Davis-Street, Janis E; Fesperman, J Vernell; Smith, Myra D; Rice, Barbara L; Zwart, Sara R

    2004-07-01

    Ground-based analogs of spaceflight are an important means of studying physiologic and nutritional changes associated with space travel, and the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V (NEEMO) is such an analog. To determine whether saturation diving has nutrition-related effects similar to those of spaceflight, we conducted a clinical nutritional assessment of the NEEMO crew (4 men, 2 women) before, during, and after their 14-d saturation dive. Blood and urine samples were collected before, during, and after the dive. The foods consumed by the crew were typical of the spaceflight food system. A number of physiologic changes were observed, during and after the dive, that are also commonly observed during spaceflight. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were lower (P < 0.05) after the dive. Transferrin receptors were significantly lower immediately after the dive. Serum ferritin increased significantly during the dive. There was also evidence indicating that oxidative damage and stress increased during the dive. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase decreased during and after the dive (P < 0.05). Decreased leptin during the dive (P < 0.05) may have been related to the increased stress. Subjects had decreased energy intake and weight loss during the dive, similar to what is observed during spaceflight. Together, these similarities to spaceflight provide a model to use in further defining the physiologic effects of spaceflight and investigating potential countermeasures. PMID:15226467

  3. Candidate measures of whole plant food intake are related to biomarkers of nutrition and health in the US population (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002).

    PubMed

    Lipsky, Leah M; Cheon, Kyeongmi; Nansel, Tonja R; Albert, Paul S

    2012-04-01

    Indices of overall dietary patterns are used in epidemiologic research to examine the relationship between nutrition and health. The objective of this study was to develop and validate an interpretable summary measure of dietary intake of whole plant foods (WPF; whole grains, vegetables, whole fruit, legumes, nuts, seeds) because of their similar nutritional characteristics and health effects. Six candidate WPF measures were calculated using data from subjects (age ≥ 6 years) participating in the 1999-2000 and 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Measures differed by the inclusion or exclusion of potatoes and whether they were expressed as total intake or as a proportion of energy (4180 kJ) or mass (kg) consumed. Both standard and nontruncated (allowed to vary proportionally with intake) Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) scores were calculated. Regression analysis examined the associations between WPF and HEI-2005 measures, and between all diet measures and serum carotenoid concentration, serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and C-reactive protein. Mean total WPF intake was 3.6 cup/oz equivalents, or 1.7 cup/oz equivalents per 4180 kJ and per kg. The largest R² between WPF and HEI-2005 measures was found for energy-adjusted WPF including potatoes and nontruncated HEI-2005 (R² = 0.50). All diet measures were positively related to serum carotenoids (P <.001) and were similarly related to health indicators (R² range from 0.003 to 0.16, P <.045 for regressions, indicating significant associations between WPF measures and health indicators). Whole plant food measures are interpretable indicators of dietary intake that are significantly related to nutrition and health biomarkers and may be of public health use.

  4. Measuring the food environment: state of the science.

    PubMed

    Lytle, Leslie A

    2009-04-01

    The past decades have seen an increased interest in understanding how the environment affects population health. In particular, public health practitioners and researchers alike are eager to know how the food environments of neighborhoods, schools, and worksites affect food choices and, ultimately, population risk for obesity and other diet-related chronic disease. However, the measurement tools for assessing the environment and the employed study designs have limited our ability to gain important ground. The field has not yet fully considered the psychometric properties of the environmental measurement tools, or how to deal with the copious amounts of data generated from many environmental measures. The field is dominated by research using unsophisticated study designs and has frequently failed to see the role of social and individual factors and how they interrelate with the physical environment. This paper examines some of the measurement issues to be considered as public health practitioners and researchers attempt to understand the impact of the food environment on the health of communities and takes a broad look at where the science currently is with regard to how the food environment is measured, thoughts on what issues may benefit from more deliberate inspection, and directions for future work.

  5. Measuring the Food Environment State of the Science

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Leslie A.

    2009-01-01

    The past decades have seen an increased interest in understanding how the environment affects population health. In particular, public health practitioners and researchers alike are eager to know how the food environments of neighborhoods, schools, and worksites affect food choices and, ultimately, population risk for obesity and other diet-related chronic disease. However, the measurement tools for assessing the environment and the employed study designs have limited our ability to gain important ground. The field has not yet fully considered the psychometric properties of the environmental measurement tools, or how to deal with the copious amounts of data generated from many environmental measures. The field is dominated by research using unsophisticated study designs and has frequently failed to see the role of social and individual factors and how they interrelate with the physical environment. This paper examines some of the measurement issues to be considered as public health practitioners and researchers attempt to understand the impact of the food environment on the health of communities and takes a broad look at where the science currently is with regard to how the food environment is measured, thoughts on what issues may benefit from more deliberate inspection, and directions for future work. PMID:19285204

  6. Quinoa for Marginal Environments: Toward Future Food and Nutritional Security in MENA and Central Asia Regions

    PubMed Central

    Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Rao, Nanduri K.; Hirich, Abdelaziz; Shahid, Mohammad; Alshankiti, Abdullah; Toderich, Kristina; Gill, Shagufta; Butt, Khalil Ur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa is recognized as a crop of great value in terms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and there is growing interest to introduce it in marginal agricultural production systems worldwide. Also, quinoa is one of the most nutritious food crops currently known and the nutritive properties of the crop are seen as a mean to fight malnutrition globally. Various quinoa cultivars have been screened for tolerance to salinity, water-use efficiency and nutritional quality and the positive attributes found in them have created even wider global interest in its cultivation. This paper summarizes 15 years of studies on assessing the potential for introducing the crop in a few countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and Central Asia regions and describes the key constraints for scaling-up the production under marginal growing conditions in the newly introduced countries. PMID:27066019

  7. Impact of dining room environment on nutritional intake of Alzheimer's residents: a case study.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, J H; Hunt, A; Hackes, B; Pope, J F

    2001-01-01

    This case study, in a Veterans Affairs Alzheimer's unit, was conducted to evaluate noise and lighting conditions at mealtimes and to assess the food intake of ambulatory dementia residents. The case study compared the noise, lighting, and nutritional intake of 16 Alzheimer's residents eating the same cycle menu in the extended-care (EC) dining room and the Alzheimer's unit (AU) dining room five weeks later. Noise was significantly lower in the EC (p < or = .02). Lighting was significantly higher in the EC (p < or = .001). Intake of calories and protein was slightly higher, with some days significantly higher, in the AU. Total five-day fluid intake at breakfast was significantly higher in the AU (p < or = .02). Although residents' total food and fluid intake was higher in the AU, the project identified a need to decrease noise and increase lighting in the AU. Lighting enhancement and noise reduction may further improve intake, which, in turn, may promote improved nutritional status.

  8. Quinoa for Marginal Environments: Toward Future Food and Nutritional Security in MENA and Central Asia Regions.

    PubMed

    Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Rao, Nanduri K; Hirich, Abdelaziz; Shahid, Mohammad; Alshankiti, Abdullah; Toderich, Kristina; Gill, Shagufta; Butt, Khalil Ur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa is recognized as a crop of great value in terms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and there is growing interest to introduce it in marginal agricultural production systems worldwide. Also, quinoa is one of the most nutritious food crops currently known and the nutritive properties of the crop are seen as a mean to fight malnutrition globally. Various quinoa cultivars have been screened for tolerance to salinity, water-use efficiency and nutritional quality and the positive attributes found in them have created even wider global interest in its cultivation. This paper summarizes 15 years of studies on assessing the potential for introducing the crop in a few countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and Central Asia regions and describes the key constraints for scaling-up the production under marginal growing conditions in the newly introduced countries. PMID:27066019

  9. Quantifying Error in Survey Measures of School and Classroom Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweig, Jonathan David

    2014-01-01

    Developing indicators that reflect important aspects of school and classroom environments has become central in a nationwide effort to develop comprehensive programs that measure teacher quality and effectiveness. Formulating teacher evaluation policy necessitates accurate and reliable methods for measuring these environmental variables. This…

  10. Estimation of measurement variance in the context of environment statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Pulakesh

    2015-02-01

    The object of environment statistics is for providing information on the environment, on its most important changes over time, across locations and identifying the main factors that influence them. Ultimately environment statistics would be required to produce higher quality statistical information. For this timely, reliable and comparable data are needed. Lack of proper and uniform definitions, unambiguous classifications pose serious problems to procure qualitative data. These cause measurement errors. We consider the problem of estimating measurement variance so that some measures may be adopted to improve upon the quality of data on environmental goods and services and on value statement in economic terms. The measurement technique considered here is that of employing personal interviewers and the sampling considered here is that of two-stage sampling.

  11. Measurement of nutritional status in simulated microgravity by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartok, Cynthia; Atkinson, Richard L.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) for assessing nutritional status in spaceflight was tested in two head-down-tilt bed-rest studies. BIS-predicted extracellular water (ECW), intracellular water (ICW), and total body water (TBW) measured using knee-elbow electrode placement were compared with deuterium and bromide dilution (DIL) volumes in healthy, 19- to 45-yr-old subjects. BIS was accurate during 44 h of head-down tilt with mean differences (BIS - DIL) of 0-0.1 kg for ECW, 0.3-0.5 for ICW, and 0.4-0.6 kg for TBW (n = 28). At 44 h, BIS followed the within-individual change in body water compartments with a relative prediction error (standard error of the estimate/baseline volume) of 2.0-3.6% of water space. In the second study, BIS did not detect an acute decrease (-1.41 +/- 0.91 kg) in ICW secondary to 48 h of a protein-free, 800 kcal/day diet (n = 18). BIS's insensitivity to ICW losses may be because they were predominantly (65%) localized to the trunk and/or because there was a general failure of BIS to measure ICW independently of ECW and TBW. BIS may have potential for measuring nutritional status during spaceflight, but its limitations in precision and insensitivity to acute ICW changes warrant further validation studies.

  12. Electrophysiological measurement of interest during walking in a simulated environment.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yuji; Okuma, Takashi; Kimura, Motohiro; Kurata, Takeshi; Takenaka, Takeshi; Iwaki, Sunao

    2014-09-01

    A reliable neuroscientific technique for objectively estimating the degree of interest in a real environment is currently required in the research fields of neuroergonomics and neuroeconomics. Toward the development of such a technique, the present study explored electrophysiological measures that reflect an observer's interest in a nearly-real visual environment. Participants were asked to walk through a simulated shopping mall and the attractiveness of the shopping mall was manipulated by opening and closing the shutters of stores. During the walking task, participants were exposed to task-irrelevant auditory probes (two-stimulus oddball sequence). The results showed a smaller P2/early P3a component of task-irrelevant auditory event-related potentials and a larger lambda response of eye-fixation-related potentials in an interesting environment (i.e., open-shutter condition) than in a boring environment (i.e., closed-shutter condition); these findings can be reasonably explained by supposing that participants allocated more attentional resources to visual information in an interesting environment than in a boring environment, and thus residual attentional resources that could be allocated to task-irrelevant auditory probes were reduced. The P2/early P3a component and the lambda response may be useful measures of interest in a real visual environment.

  13. Microgravity acceleration measurement and environment characterization science (17-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) is a general purpose instrumentation system designed to measure the accelerations onboard the Shuttle Orbiter and Shuttle/Spacelab vehicles. These measurements are used to support microgravity experiments and investigation into the microgravity environment of the vehicle. Acceleration measurements can be made at locations remote from the SAMS main instrumentation unit by the use of up to three remote triaxial sensor heads. The prime objective for SAMS on the International Microgravity Lab (IML-1) mission will be to measure the accelerations experienced by the Fluid Experiment System (FES). The SAMS acceleration measurements for FES will be complemented by low level, low frequency acceleration measurements made by the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) installed on the shuttle. Secondary objectives for SAMS will be to measure accelerations at several specific locations to enable the acceleration transfer function of the Spacelab module to be analyzed. This analysis effort will be in conjunction with similar measurements analyses on other Spacelab missions.

  14. Objective measures of situation awareness in a simulated medical environment

    PubMed Central

    Wright, M; Taekman, J; Endsley, M

    2004-01-01

    One major limitation in the use of human patient simulators is a lack of objective, validated measures of human performance. Objective measures are necessary if simulators are to be used to evaluate the skills and training of medical practitioners and teams or to evaluate the impact of new processes or equipment design on overall system performance. Situation awareness (SA) refers to a person's perception and understanding of their dynamic environment. This awareness and comprehension is critical in making correct decisions that ultimately lead to correct actions in medical care settings. An objective measure of SA may be more sensitive and diagnostic than traditional performance measures. This paper reviews a theory of SA and discusses the methods required for developing an objective measure of SA within the context of a simulated medical environment. Analysis and interpretation of SA data for both individual and team performance in health care are also presented. PMID:15465958

  15. XVI European Charcot Foundation Lecture: Nutrition and environment, can MS be prevented?

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Kelly Claire; Munger, Kassandra L; Ascherio, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a relatively common debilitating neurologic disease that affects people in early adulthood. While the characteristic pathology of MS has been well described, the etiology of the disease is not well understood, despite decades of research and the identification of strong genetic and environmental candidates for susceptibility. A question central to all diseases, but posed specifically for MS at the XVI European Charcot Foundation Lecture, was ‘Can MS be prevented?’ To address this question, we have evaluated the available data regarding nutritional and environmental factors that may be related to MS susceptibility and suggest the extent to which a potential intervention may reduce disease burden. It is our opinion that intervention, particularly supplementation with vitamin D, could have a dramatic impact on disease prevalence. Understanding that any intervention or behavioral modification will surely act in the context of genetic susceptibility and unidentified stochastic events, it is likely that not all MS is ‘preventable’. Epidemiologic observation has provided key insights into environmental and nutritional factors that may alter one’s susceptibility to MS, however, there are still many questions in unraveling the etiology of this complex disease. PMID:21975017

  16. [Global environment and health--with emphasis on world nutritional status].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T

    1993-12-01

    Forthcoming global environmental changes threaten to endanger human survival through direct and indirect influences. In this paper, the contemporary world food supply situation and resultant nutritional status was first reviewed on by country and region. When compared with the nutritional energy requirement, countries with an inadequate food supply were concentrated in the developing world, in particular in some parts of Africa. The life expectancy at birth is clearly shorter in such countries, and peoples of African countries with an inadequate food supply have shorter life expectancies than other countries with a similar inadequacy. Global warning is likely to decrease food production in some parts of the world. According to the present estimation using various methods, a future crisis of food production may occur in African countries which are at present most vulnerable to food shortages, as well as in countries which are presently food exporters. Thus, a future crisis of human health conditions caused by the imbalance of food production and trade may be least avoidable in the region of present predicament.

  17. Evolving food retail environments in Thailand and implications for the health and nutrition transition

    PubMed Central

    Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Pangsap, Suttinan; Kelly, Matthew; Sleigh, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Objective An investigation into evolving food retail systems in Thailand Design Rapid assessment procedures based on qualitative research methods such as interviews, focus groups discussions and site visits Setting Seven freshmarkets located in the four main regions of Thailand Subjects Managers, food specialists, vendors and shoppers from seven freshmarkets who participated in interviews and focus group discussions. Results Freshmarkets are under economic pressure and are declining in number. They are attempting to resist the competition from supermarkets by improving convenience, food diversity, quality and safety. Conclusions Obesity has increased in Thailand at the same time as rapid growth of modern food retail formats has occurred. As freshmarkets are overtaken by supermarkets there is a likely loss of fresh, healthy, affordable food for poorer Thais, and a diminution of regional culinary culture, women’s jobs and social capital with implications for the health and nutrition transition in Thailand. PMID:23021291

  18. Measuring Performance of Virtual Learning Environment System in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, William; Higson, Helen E.; Dey, Prasanta K.; Xu, Xiaowei; Bahsoon, Rami

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure the performance of commercial virtual learning environment (VLE) systems, which helps the decision makers to select the appropriate system for their institutions. Design/methodology/approach: This paper develops an integrated multiple criteria decision making approach, which combines the analytic…

  19. Indirect Measures of Learning Transfer between Real and Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Michael; McMahon, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on research undertaken to determine the effectiveness of a 3D simulation environment used to train mining personnel in emergency evacuation procedures, designated the Fires in Underground Mines Evacuation Simulator (FUMES). Owing to the operational constraints of the mining facility, methods for measuring learning transfer were…

  20. Evaluating Virtual Learning Environments: What Are We Measuring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Mary C.; Campello, Silvio Barreto

    2003-01-01

    A basic framework is proposed to distinguish between the many ways in which Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) can be evaluated. This includes the purpose of the evaluation, the type of methods that might be used and the measures employed. The framework is not intended to cover all applications but offers one means of structuring a review of…

  1. X-Ray Measurements Of Displacements In Hostile Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gustave C.; Canistraro, Howard A.; Jordan, Eric H.; Pease, Douglas M.

    1995-01-01

    Developmental method of noncontact extensometry of objects in hot or otherwise hostile environments based on focusing and scanning of x rays. Principal advantage: ability to make measurements through stratified and/or flowing gases, smoke, and flames, as well as through solid layers of x-ray-transparent materials.

  2. A nutritional comparison of foods and beverages marketed to children in two advertising policy environments.

    PubMed

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Dubois, Lise; Wanless, Alissa

    2012-09-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with children's exposure to food/beverage marketing. Policy options in this area are being sought in order to reduce childhood obesity rates on a population-level. We examined the nutritional quality of foods advertised to children during their preferred television viewing in Ontario (Canada), where advertising is self-regulated by industry, and in Quebec (Canada), where a child-directed advertising ban exists. A total of 428 children aged 10-12 years completed television viewing diaries for 7 days. Thirty-two television stations were recorded simultaneously between 6 AM and midnight. A content analysis of 90 h of English Ontario, French Quebec, and English Quebec children's preferred viewing was then undertaken. A total of 429 food and beverage advertisements were analyzed and their nutritional quality was assessed. Food advertisements in the Quebec French sample were statistically significantly higher in total fat, saturated fat and protein, and lower in carbohydrates and sugar per 100 g, and as a percentage of energy than food ads in the two English samples. A statistically significantly lower percentage of the Quebec French food advertisements were classified as either high fat, sugar or sodium and a smaller proportion of food ads were classified as "less healthy" compared to the Ontario and Quebec English samples. These results suggest that the Quebec advertising ban is influencing the macronutrient profile of advertised foods viewed by French Quebec children during their preferred viewing and that their promotions are marginally healthier than that viewed by the English samples. PMID:21720425

  3. Community food environment measures in the Alabama Black Belt: Implications for cancer risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Gyawu, Rebecca; Quansah, Joseph E; Fall, Souleymane; Gichuhi, Peter N; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C

    2015-01-01

    In-store measures were utilized to evaluate the availability of healthy food choices and nutrition/health promotion messages for cancer risk reduction in the selected Alabama Black Belt counties/cities. Sixty one retail food outlets (RFOs) were audited in 12 Alabama Black Belt cities. Store types included convenience stores (49.2%), restaurants (19.7%), fast food restaurants (16.4%), small supermarkets (8.2%), and large supermarket and farmers' markets (3.3 %), respectively. Although there were low numbers of farmers' markets/street stands and large supermarkets, these had significantly (p < 0.0001) higher health scores than the other store types. A few health promotion messages were highly visible or obscurely positioned in some RFOs. The Alabama Black Belt food environment had limited opportunities for healthy food choices. PMID:26844138

  4. Community food environment measures in the Alabama Black Belt: Implications for cancer risk reduction

    PubMed Central

    Gyawu, Rebecca; Quansah, Joseph E.; Fall, Souleymane; Gichuhi, Peter N.; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C.

    2015-01-01

    In-store measures were utilized to evaluate the availability of healthy food choices and nutrition/health promotion messages for cancer risk reduction in the selected Alabama Black Belt counties/cities. Sixty one retail food outlets (RFOs) were audited in 12 Alabama Black Belt cities. Store types included convenience stores (49.2%), restaurants (19.7%), fast food restaurants (16.4%), small supermarkets (8.2%), and large supermarket and farmers' markets (3.3 %), respectively. Although there were low numbers of farmers' markets/street stands and large supermarkets, these had significantly (p < 0.0001) higher health scores than the other store types. A few health promotion messages were highly visible or obscurely positioned in some RFOs. The Alabama Black Belt food environment had limited opportunities for healthy food choices. PMID:26844138

  5. The school nutrition environment and its association with soft drink intakes in seven countries across Europe--the ENERGY project.

    PubMed

    Lien, Nanna; van Stralen, Maartje M; Androutsos, Odysseas; Bere, Elling; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Jan, Nataša; Kovacs, Eva; van Lippevelde, Wendy; Manios, Yannis; Te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes

    2014-11-01

    The school is an important setting for promoting healthy eating especially at the transition from childhood to adolescence. This study contributes to the literature by describing practices within physical, political and sociocultural aspects of the school nutrition environment in seven countries across Europe based on questionnaires to the school management, and exploring their associations with soft drink consumption reported on questionnaires by 10-12 year olds. Several of the commonly self-reported practices could be supportive of a healthy diet (time to eat, access to water, restriction on marketing), but some practices were underutilized (i.e. discussion with stakeholders, healthy foods at events). Only a few associations of practices with the pupils׳ soft drink consumption were found.

  6. Psychometric testing of an instrument designed to measure nutritional perceptions of hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Kamran, Aziz; Azadbakht, Leila; Mahaki, Behzad; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Measurement tools designed to ensure the achievements of studies’ objectives must be evaluated. Based on the health promotion model (HPM), the present study was conducted to assess the validity and reliability of the designed questionnaire of hypertensive patients’ nutritional perceptions. Methodology: In a cross-sectional study, the mentioned questionnaire was assessed based on opinions of 11 experienced faculty members and 671 hypertensive patients in rural areas in the year 2013. To evaluate the reliability, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was calculated. Concerning the validity of the questionnaire, its content and construct validity were examined. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 18 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Spearman-Brown and Cronbach's alpha coefficients results were acceptable in all constructs indicating a satisfactory reliability of the questionnaire. Questionnaire's questions were highly correlated with the total score signifying the internal consistency of the questions; therefore, all questions had a similar effect on the total score and the removal of each did no increase the alpha significantly (all questions had acceptable reliability). Factor analyses showed that all questions had acceptable factor loading and suitable validity. Moreover, the entire constructs of the questionnaire were approved by experts with high validity coefficient of 0.9. Conclusion: The designed questionnaire for assessment of the HPM constructs regarding hypertensive patients’ nutritional issues had appropriate psychometric characteristics. Reliability and validity of the questionnaire were also satisfactory and its overall structure was approved. PMID:25250357

  7. Measuring Work Environment and Performance in Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Temkin-Greener, Helena; Zheng, Nan (Tracy); Katz, Paul; Zhao, Hongwei; Mukamel, Dana B.

    2008-01-01

    Background Qualitative studies of the nursing home work environment have long suggested that such attributes as leadership and communication may be related to nursing home performance, including residents' outcomes. However, empirical studies examining these relationships have been scant. Objectives This study is designed to: develop an instrument for measuring nursing home work environment and perceived work effectiveness; test the reliability and validity of the instrument; and identify individual and facility-level factors associated with better facility performance. Research Design and Methods The analysis was based on survey responses provided by managers (N=308) and direct care workers (N=7,418) employed in 162 facilities throughout New York State. Exploratory factor analysis, Chronbach's alphas, analysis of variance, and regression models were used to assess instrument reliability and validity. Multivariate regression models, with fixed facility effects, were used to examine factors associated with work effectiveness. Results The reliability and the validity of the survey instrument for measuring work environment and perceived work effectiveness has been demonstrated. Several individual (e.g. occupation, race) and facility characteristics (e.g. management style, workplace conditions, staffing) that are significant predictors of perceived work effectiveness were identified. Conclusions The organizational performance model used in this study recognizes the multidimensionality of the work environment in nursing homes. Our findings suggest that efforts at improving work effectiveness must also be multifaceted. Empirical findings from such a line of research may provide insights for improving the quality of the work environment and ultimately the quality of residents' care. PMID:19330892

  8. Temperature measurements using multicolor pyrometry in thermal radiation heating environments

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Tairan; Liu, Jiangfan; Duan, Minghao; Zong, Anzhou

    2014-04-15

    Temperature measurements are important for thermal-structural experiments in the thermal radiation heating environments such as used for thermal-structural stress analyses. This paper describes the use of multicolor pyrometry for the measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments that eliminates the effects of background radiation reflections and unknown emissivities based on a least-squares algorithm. The near-infrared multicolor pyrometer had a spectral range of 1100–2400 nm, spectrum resolution of 6 nm, maximum sampling frequency of 2 kHz, working distance of 0.6 m to infinity, temperature range of 700–1700 K. The pyrometer wavelength response, nonlinear intensity response, and spectral response were all calibrated. The temperature of a graphite sample irradiated by quartz lamps was then measured during heating and cooling using the least-squares algorithm based on the calibrated irradiation data. The experiments show that higher temperatures and longer wavelengths are more suitable for the thermal measurements in the quartz lamp radiation heating system. This analysis provides a valuable method for temperature measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments.

  9. Temperature measurements using multicolor pyrometry in thermal radiation heating environments.

    PubMed

    Fu, Tairan; Liu, Jiangfan; Duan, Minghao; Zong, Anzhou

    2014-04-01

    Temperature measurements are important for thermal-structural experiments in the thermal radiation heating environments such as used for thermal-structural stress analyses. This paper describes the use of multicolor pyrometry for the measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments that eliminates the effects of background radiation reflections and unknown emissivities based on a least-squares algorithm. The near-infrared multicolor pyrometer had a spectral range of 1100-2400 nm, spectrum resolution of 6 nm, maximum sampling frequency of 2 kHz, working distance of 0.6 m to infinity, temperature range of 700-1700 K. The pyrometer wavelength response, nonlinear intensity response, and spectral response were all calibrated. The temperature of a graphite sample irradiated by quartz lamps was then measured during heating and cooling using the least-squares algorithm based on the calibrated irradiation data. The experiments show that higher temperatures and longer wavelengths are more suitable for the thermal measurements in the quartz lamp radiation heating system. This analysis provides a valuable method for temperature measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments. PMID:24784642

  10. Optimizing quantum correlation dynamics by weak measurement in dissipative environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Shao-Jiang; Xia, Yun-Jie; Duan, De-Yang; Zhang, Lu; Gao, Qiang

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the protection of quantum correlations of two qubits in independent vacuum reservoirs by means of weak measurements. It is found that the weak measurement can reduce the amount of quantum correlation for one type of initial state at the beginning in a non-Markovian environment and meanwhile it can reduce the occurrence time of entanglement sudden death (ESD) in the process of time evolution. In a Markovian environment, the quantum entanglements of the two kinds of initial states decay rapidly and the weak measurement can further weaken the quantum entanglement, therefore in this case the entanglement cannot be optimized in the evolution process. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61178012 and No.11147019).

  11. Food and Nutrition Information Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Outreach Farms and Farming Systems Food and Human Nutrition Marketing and Trade Natural Resources and Environment Plants ... Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research About the ICHNR Links Reports Research Tools ...

  12. Control of growth and adaptation to nutritional shifts for bacteria exposed to amino acid-limiting environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateescu, Eduard M.; Hwa, Terence

    2007-03-01

    In order to grow at the highest rate sustainable by the environment, bacteria turn on different metabolic pathways and utilize a myriad of adaptive strategies. The macromolecular composition (RNA, DNA, protein) and overall cell size (mass) can be very different in different environments. Surprisingly however, these differences appear to depend only on the growth rate and not on the growth medium itself. As the nutritional environment changes in time, the cells quickly adapt their composition to the one corresponding to the new conditions. Here, we propose a phenomenological model of growth and adaptation control for the bacterial cell, based on a simplified formulation of the central dogma and a simplified implementation of the stringent response. The core model contains no free parameters and provides a simple intuitive understanding of cell growth control. The results generated by the model, physiological state of the cell as well as the characteristics of the transition between optimized states of growth, are in qualitative and semi-quantitative agreement (i.e. within a factor of 2) with the experimental observations.

  13. Measuring the Internal Environment of Solid Rocket Motors During Ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisenberg, Brent; Smith, Doug; Speas, Kyle; Corliss, Adam

    2003-01-01

    A new instrumentation system has been developed to measure the internal environment of solid rocket test motors during motor ignition. The system leverages conventional, analog gages with custom designed, electronics modules to provide safe, accurate, high speed data acquisition capability. To date, the instrumentation system has been demonstrated in a laboratory environment and on subscale static fire test motors ranging in size from 5-inches to 24-inches in diameter. Ultimately, this system is intended to be installed on a full-scale Reusable Solid Rocket Motor. This paper explains the need for the data, the components and capabilities of the system, and the test results.

  14. Phytate: impact on environment and human nutrition. A challenge for molecular breeding*

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Lisbeth; Meyer, Anne S.; Rasmussen, Søren K.

    2008-01-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is the primary storage compound of phosphorus in seeds accounting for up to 80% of the total seed phosphorus and contributing as much as 1.5% to the seed dry weight. The negatively charged phosphate in PA strongly binds to metallic cations of Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn and Zn making them insoluble and thus unavailable as nutritional factors. Phytate mainly accumulates in protein storage vacuoles as globoids, predominantly located in the aleurone layer (wheat, barley and rice) or in the embryo (maize). During germination, phytate is hydrolysed by endogenous phytase(s) and other phosphatases to release phosphate, inositol and micronutrients to support the emerging seedling. PA and its derivatives are also implicated in RNA export, DNA repair, signalling, endocytosis and cell vesicular trafficking. Our recent studies on purification of phytate globoids, their mineral composition and dephytinization by wheat phytase will be discussed. Biochemical data for purified and characterized phytases isolated from more than 23 plant species are presented, the dephosphorylation pathways of phytic acid by different classes of phytases are compared, and the application of phytase in food and feed is discussed. PMID:18357620

  15. The association between worksite physical environment and employee nutrition, and physical activity behavior and weight status

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Fabio A.; Wall, Sarah S.; You, Wen; Harden, Samantha M.; Hill, Jennie L.; Krippendorf, Blake E.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Explore the relationship between worksite physical environment and employee dietary intake, physical activity behavior, and weight status. Methods Two trained research assistants completed audits (Checklist of Health Promotion Environments at Worksites) at each worksite (n = 28). Employees (n = 6,261) completed a brief health survey prior to participation in a weight loss program. Results Employees’ access to outdoor areas was directly associated with lower BMI, while access to workout facilities within a worksite was associated with higher BMI. The presence of a cafeteria and fewer vending machines were directly associated with better eating habits. Better eating habits and meeting physical activity recommendations were both related to lower BMI. Conclusions Selected environmental factors in worksites were significantly associated with employee behaviors and weight status; providing additional intervention targets to change the worksite environment and promote employee weight loss. PMID:24988105

  16. Characterizing individual differences in animal responses to a nutritional challenge: Toward improved robustness measures.

    PubMed

    Friggens, N C; Duvaux-Ponter, C; Etienne, M P; Mary-Huard, T; Schmidely, P

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to explore the variation between individuals in the response to and recovery from a nutritional challenge, the repeatability of responses between lactation stages, and the use of shape-clustering methods to classify similar individuals. Sixteen dairy goats were exposed to a 2-d nutritional challenge (underfeeding) at 2 different stages of lactation. Each challenge consisted of a 7-d control period with standard total mixed ration (TMR), 2d of straw-only feeding, and a 10-d recovery period on the TMR. All feeds were offered ad libitum, as was water. The first challenge was in late lactation on primiparous goats (mean days in milk=249), and the second challenge was carried out on the same goats early in the following lactation (mean days in milk=28). The main energetic response traits dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, body weight, milk fat and protein contents, and plasma glucose, fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), urea, and insulin, were measured daily throughout. A clustering procedure linked to a piecewise mixed model was used to characterize different types of response. As expected, straw feeding caused a large decline in DMI and milk yield, and substantial increases in milk fat and milk protein composition, relative to the prechallenge period on the control TMR. For both DMI and milk yield, the slope of the response, and hence the size of the drop, was strongly related to the prechallenge values, indicating that these 2 measures were tightly constrained by the challenge. Regression slopes between lactation stages for responses to the same nutritional challenge were significant for DMI, milk protein content, plasma BHB and urea, and body weight, indicating that within-animal responses in late and early lactation were repeatable. The clustering procedure generally performed well, classifying both scaling differences and differences in shape. The extent of reranking of cluster designations between late lactation and the

  17. Exposure Measurements in Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    The Japan Ministry of the Environment is conducting a large-scale birth cohort study called the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS), which involves 100000 mother-child pairs. Mothers are enrolled during pregnancy, and their children are followed up and studied until they reach the age of 13 years. The JECS started recruiting mothers in January 2011 and completed the registration of more than 103000 mothers in March 2014. The National Institute for Environmental Studies takes the lead in the study programming and implementation in cooperation with the National Centre for Child Health and Development and 15 Regional Centres that reach out to the study participants. In the study, the effects of environmental factors on children's health and development are investigated. The environment in this study is defined not only as air, soil, water, and indoor environments but also as various chemical substances, physical conditions, socioeconomic factors, psychological conditions, lifestyles and community situations. Mothers' and children's exposures to these environmental factors are measured through chemical analyses of biospecimens collected during pregnancy and after birth, questionnaires and computer modelling. The homes of the randomly selected participants (5000) are visited to measure the concentrations of volatile organic compounds, nitrogen and sulphuric oxides and particulate matter. Vacuum dust samples are also collected for chemical analysis. All these data will be combined with the information collected by the dwelling unit observation to assess the exposure of children aged 1.5 and 3 years. PMID:27252056

  18. Changes in Primary School Children's Behaviour, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Environments Related to Nutrition and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Magarey, Anthea Margaret; Pettman, Tahna Lee; Mastersson, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Rigorous evaluation of large-scale community-based obesity interventions can provide important guidance to policy and decision makers. The eat well be active (ewba) Community Programs, a five-year multilevel, multistrategy community-based obesity intervention targeting children in a range of settings, was delivered in two communities. A comprehensive mixed-methods evaluation using a quasiexperimental design with nonmatched comparison communities was undertaken. This paper describes the changes in primary school children's attitudes, behaviours, knowledge, and environments associated with healthy eating and physical activity, based on data from six questionnaires completed pre- and postintervention by students, parents, and school representatives. As self-reported by students in years from five to seven there were few significant improvements over time in healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, attitudes, knowledge, and perceived environments, and there were few changes in the home environment (parent report). Overall there were considerably more improvements in intervention compared with comparison schools affecting all environmental areas, namely, policy, physical, financial, and sociocultural, in addition to improvements in teacher skill and knowledge. These improvements in children's learning environments are important and likely to be sustainable as they reflect a change of school culture. More sensitive evaluation tools may detect behaviour changes. PMID:24555153

  19. Determining Transmission Loss from Measured External and Internal Acoustic Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scogin, Tyler; Smith, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    An estimate of the internal acoustic environment in each internal cavity of a launch vehicle is needed to ensure survivability of Space Launch System (SLS) avionics. Currently, this is achieved by using the noise reduction database of heritage flight vehicles such as the Space Shuttle and Saturn V for liftoff and ascent flight conditions. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is conducting a series of transmission loss tests to verify and augment this method. For this test setup, an aluminum orthogrid curved panel representing 1/8th of the circumference of a section of the SLS main structure was mounted in between a reverberation chamber and an anechoic chamber. Transmission loss was measured across the panel using microphones. Data measured during this test will be used to estimate the internal acoustic environments for several of the SLS launch vehicle internal spaces.

  20. Global outlook on nutrition and the environment: meeting the challenges of the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, G V; Nair, P P

    2000-04-17

    As we enter the new millennium, nearly 800 million of the World's population will remain chronically malnourished. Nearly 200 million children are moderately to severely underweight, while 70 million are severely malnourished. And those who are yet to be born will be faced with the same set of circumstances that predispose them to malnutrition and its consequences. Eradication of nutritional deficiencies among women and children on a global scale are needed to ensure improved quality of life for the next generation of citizens. Primary deficiencies in vitamin A, iron, iodine, calcium, folic acid and trace elements such as zinc are compounded by pollutants caused by human activity. Environmental lead, arsenic, mercury, and other heavy metals that enter the food chain can seriously deplete body stores of iron, vitamin C and other essential nutrients leading to decreased immune defenses, intrauterine growth retardation, impaired psycho-social faculties and other disabilities associated with malnutrition. Increased susceptibilities to communicable diseases, and those provoked by water or insect borne vectors are additional risks encountered by malnourished individuals. Migration of populations from rural to urban centers and the expansion of major metropolitan areas have had a significant and adverse impact on the quality of life of these citizens. In the next 20 years most of the growth in urban populations will be in Asia and Latin America. Urbanization and the resultant burden on limited national resources is a major contributory factor to malnutrition. There are many other lifestyle-associated disabilities such as use of tobacco (cancer) and alcoholism that require active intervention. Within the family unit, socioeconomic factors and the status of women (literacy, economic independence) are major determinants of the quality of life. In the coming century, the World will have to meet these challenges by careful planning and international cooperation. PMID:10813462

  1. Undercooling measurement in a low-gravity containerless environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, M. B.

    1981-01-01

    A technique is described for measuring the amount of undercooling for samples processed in a low-gravity containerless environment. The time of undercooling is determined by measuring the time of cooling before nucleation and recalescence by two infrared detectors. Once the cooling curve for each drop is calculated, the amount of undercooling can then be found. The technique is demonstrated by measuring the amount of undercooling for drops of pure niobium and select compositions of the niobium-germanium alloy system while free falling in a 32 n evacuated drop tube. The total hemispherical emissivities and specific heats for these materials were measured using a high-temperature containerless calorimeter. An overview of the effect of undercooling on drops of niobium and niobium-germanium is given.

  2. Advantages of High Tolerance Measurements in Fusion Environments Applying Photogrammetry

    SciTech Connect

    T. Dodson, R. Ellis, C. Priniski, S. Raftopoulos, D. Stevens, M. Viola

    2009-02-04

    Photogrammetry, a state-of-the-art technique of metrology employing digital photographs as the vehicle for measurement, has been investigated in the fusion environment. Benefits of this high tolerance methodology include relatively easy deployment for multiple point measurements and deformation/distortion studies. Depending on the equipment used, photogrammetric systems can reach tolerances of 25 microns (0.001 in) to 100 microns (0.004 in) on a 3-meter object. During the fabrication and assembly of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) the primary measurement systems deployed were CAD coordinate-based computer metrology equipment and supporting algorithms such as both interferometer-aided (IFM) and absolute distance measurementbased (ADM) laser trackers, as well as portable Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) arms. Photogrammetry was employed at NCSX as a quick and easy tool to monitor coil distortions incurred during welding operations of the machine assembly process and as a way to reduce assembly downtime for metrology processes.

  3. Environment-Wide Association Study of Blood Pressure in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2012).

    PubMed

    McGinnis, Denise P; Brownstein, John S; Patel, Chirag J

    2016-01-01

    Identifying environmental exposures associated with blood pressure is a priority. Recently, we proposed the environment-wide association study to search for and replicate environmental factors associated with phenotypes. We conducted the environment-wide association study (EWAS) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1999-2012) which evaluated a total of 71,916 participants to prioritize environmental factors associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We searched for factors on participants from survey years 1999-2006 and tentatively replicated findings in participants from years 2007-2012. Finally, we estimated the overall association and performed a second meta-analysis using all survey years (1999-2012). For systolic blood pressure, self-reported alcohol consumption emerged as our top finding (a 0.04 increase in mmHg of systolic blood pressure for 1 standard deviation increase in self-reported alcohol), though the effect size is small. For diastolic blood pressure, urinary cesium was tentatively replicated; however, this factor demonstrated high heterogeneity between populations (I(2) = 51%). The lack of associations across this wide of an analysis raises the call for a broader search for environmental factors in blood pressure. PMID:27457472

  4. Environment-Wide Association Study of Blood Pressure in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2012)

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, Denise P.; Brownstein, John S.; Patel, Chirag J.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying environmental exposures associated with blood pressure is a priority. Recently, we proposed the environment-wide association study to search for and replicate environmental factors associated with phenotypes. We conducted the environment-wide association study (EWAS) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1999–2012) which evaluated a total of 71,916 participants to prioritize environmental factors associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We searched for factors on participants from survey years 1999–2006 and tentatively replicated findings in participants from years 2007–2012. Finally, we estimated the overall association and performed a second meta-analysis using all survey years (1999–2012). For systolic blood pressure, self-reported alcohol consumption emerged as our top finding (a 0.04 increase in mmHg of systolic blood pressure for 1 standard deviation increase in self-reported alcohol), though the effect size is small. For diastolic blood pressure, urinary cesium was tentatively replicated; however, this factor demonstrated high heterogeneity between populations (I2 = 51%). The lack of associations across this wide of an analysis raises the call for a broader search for environmental factors in blood pressure. PMID:27457472

  5. Assessing Built Environment Walkability using Activity-Space Summary Measures

    PubMed Central

    Tribby, Calvin P.; Miller, Harvey J.; Brown, Barbara B.; Werner, Carol M.; Smith, Ken R.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis on active transportation, such as walking, in transportation planning as a sustainable form of mobility and in public health as a means of achieving recommended physical activity and better health outcomes. A research focus is the influence of the built environment on walking, with the ultimate goal of identifying environmental modifications that invite more walking. However, assessments of the built environment for walkability are typically at a spatially disaggregate level (such as street blocks) or at a spatially aggregate level (such as census block groups). A key issue is determining the spatial units for walkability measures so that they reflect potential walking behavior. This paper develops methods for assessing walkability within individual activity spaces: the geographic region accessible to an individual during a given walking trip. We first estimate street network-based activity spaces using the shortest path between known trip starting/ending points and a travel time budget that reflects potential alternative paths. Based on objective walkability measures of the street blocks, we use three summary measures for walkability within activity spaces: i) the average walkability score across block segments (representing the general level of walkability in the activity space); ii) the standard deviation (representing the walkability variation), and; iii) the network autocorrelation (representing the spatial coherence of the walkability pattern). We assess the method using data from an empirical study of built environment walkability and walking behavior in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. We visualize and map these activity space summary measures to compare walkability among individuals’ trips within their neighborhoods. We also compare summary measures for activity spaces versus census block groups, with the result that they agree less than half of the time. PMID:27213027

  6. Visualization of Radiation Environment on Mars: Assessment with MARIE Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saganti, P.; Cucinotta, F.; Zeitlin, C.; Cleghorn, T.; Flanders, J.; Riman, F.; Hu, X.; Pinsky, L.; Lee, K.; Anderson, V.; Atwell, W.; Turner, R.

    2003-01-01

    For a given GCR (Galactic Cosmic Ray) environment at Mars, particle flux of protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions, are also needed on the surface of Mars for future human exploration missions. For the past twelve months, the MARJE (Martian Radiation Environment Experiment) instrument onboard the 200J Mars Odyssey has been providing the radiation measurements from the Martian orbit. These measurements are well correlated with the HZETRN (High Z and Energy Transport) and QMSFRG (Quantum Multiple-Scattering theory of nuclear Fragmentation) model calculations. These model calculations during these specific GCR environment conditions are now extended and transported through the CO2 atmosphere onto the Martian surface. These calculated pa11icle flux distributions are presented as a function of the Martian topography making use of the MOLA (Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter) data from the MGS (Mars Global Surveyor). Also, particle flux calculations are presented with visualization in the human body from skin depth to the internal organs including the blood-forming organs.

  7. Epigenetics and life-long consequences of an adverse nutritional and diabetic intrauterine environment

    PubMed Central

    El Hajj, Nady; Schneider, Eberhard; Lehnen, Harald; Haaf, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon that adverse environmental exposures in early life are associated with increased susceptibilities for many adult, particularly metabolic diseases, is now referred to as ‘developmental origins of health and disease (DOHAD)’ or ‘Barker’ hypothesis. Fetal overnutrition and undernutrition have similar long-lasting effects on the setting of the neuroendocrine control systems, energy homeostasis, and metabolism, leading to life-long increased morbidity. There are sensitive time windows during early development, where environmental cues can program persistent epigenetic modifications which are generally assumed to mediate these gene–environment interactions. Most of our current knowledge on fetal programing comes from animal models and epidemiological studies in humans, in particular the Dutch famine birth cohort. In industrialized countries, there is more concern about adverse long-term consequences of fetal overnutrition, i.e. by exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus and/or maternal obesity which affect 10–20% of pregnancies. Epigenetic changes due to maternal diabetes/obesity may predispose the offspring to develop metabolic disease later in life and, thus, transmit the adverse environmental exposure to the next generation. This vicious cycle could contribute significantly to the worldwide metabolic disease epidemics. In this review article, we focus on the epigenetics of an adverse intrauterine environment, in particular gestational diabetes, and its implications for the prevention of complex disease. PMID:25187623

  8. [From the influence of genes to the influence of family and urban environment on the nutritional status, activity, and physical condition of european urban adolescents].

    PubMed

    Beghin, Laurent; Vanhelst, Jérémy; Deplanque, Dominique; Gonzales-Gross, Marcela; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis A; Gottrand, Frédéric

    HELENA was a cross-sectional study carried out from 2006 to 2007 in more than 3500 adolescents aged from 12.5 to 17.5 years old through 10 Europeans towns from 9 countries. Its objective was to assess adolescent nutritional status including: body composition, biological markers, physical activity and fitness. This study shown the high impact of socio-economic condition, life style and personal and collective environment, dietary pattern (including breastfeeding), some genetic mutations involved in adiposity and metabolism, physical activity level and fitness on adolescent nutritional status. PMID:27615183

  9. Two spacecraft measurements of the Martian plasma environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brain, David; Luhmann, Janet G.; Barabash, Stas; Fedorov, A.; Winningham, D. L.; Acuna, Mario; Frahm, Rudy

    For a period of nearly three years from early 2004 through late 2006, two spacecraft made complementary in situ measurements of the Martian plasma environment. The Mars Global Surveyor magnetometer and electron reflectometer (MGS MAG/ER) measured magnetic fields and suprathermal electrons from an orbit fixed in local time and altitude. The Mars Express Analyzer of Space Plasma and Energetic Atoms (MEX ASPERA-3) measured and still measures ions and suprathermal electrons from a precessing elliptical orbit. MGS lacked an ion instrument, and MEX lacks a magnetometer. Study of the two sets of measurements together provides an opportunity to better understand the complete Martian plasma environment spatially and temporally. We will discuss several advantageous configurations of MEX and MGS, and present examples of each. 'Close conjunctions' are defined as periods when the spacecraft passed very close to each other, within an ion gyroradius or inertial length, allowing examination of more complete particle and field measurements in a given region. 'Delay conjunctions' are defined as instances when the two spacecraft passed through the same region of space separated by a time delay, allowing examination of the evolution of electron distributions in a given region. 'Flux tube conjunctions' are defined as instances when it was likely that the two spacecraft occupied the same flux tube some distance apart, allowing study of the spatial evolution of plasma as it moves along a flux tube. We will also present examples of other fortuitous configurations of MEX and MGS, such as times when they were on opposite sides of a given plasma boundary.

  10. The Social Environment of Schools and Adolescent Nutrition: Associations between the School Nutrition Climate and Adolescents' Eating Behaviors and Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cvjetan, Branko; Utter, Jennifer; Robinson, Elizabeth; Denny, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the association between the school nutrition climate and students' eating behaviors and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Data were collected as part of Youth'07, a nationally representative health survey of high school students in New Zealand. Overall, 9107 randomly selected students from…

  11. Correlations between LDEX Measurements and the Lunar Plasma Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Jamey; Horanyi, Mihaly; Poppe, Andrew; Halekas, Jasper

    2014-05-01

    The Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is an impact ionization dust detector capable of measuring the mass of sub-micron sized dust grains above the lunar surface. LDEX can also search for the putative population of grains with radii on the order of ~ 0.1 μm lofted over the terminator regions by measuring the collective current of dust grains that are below the detection threshold for single impacts. This current, intended to measure the collective impact plasma from multiple small grain impacts, has also shown considerable correlations with plasma measurements from the ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, & Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun) mission. Through LADEE's many orbits, LDEX sees time periods with very low variability, having almost no activity as well as periods with very high variability. Since this type of high activity is also observed in anti-ram pointing measurements, much of this current cannot be explained by collections of small dust grain impacts. Given this, comparisons to ARTEMIS data provide a promising way to explain such measurements. This presentation will focus on the correlations between LDEX and ARTEMIS data.

  12. TDLAS for measurement of temperature in combustion environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pei-jin; Huang, Bin; Yang, Bin; He, Guo-qiang

    2013-05-01

    Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) technique has many significant advantages such as non-intrusive compared with traditional combustion parameter measurement techniques. In this paper, according to the absorption lines optimization criterions, the 7444.352+7444.371 cm-1 and 7185.597 cm-1 line pair of water vapor (H2O) is selected for the temperature measurement of combustion environment in 900-1600K region, and two most important influencing factors (temperature and pressure) are analyzed by simulation of absorption spectrum based on HITRAN. Therefore, TDLAS system using the 7444.352+7444.371 cm-1 and 7185.597 cm-1 line pair based on Time-Division-multiplexing (TDM) strategy has been designed. This TDLAS system has been applied for the temperature measurement in the exhaust of Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine. Compared with the pressure measured by the pressure transducer in combustion chamber, the tendency of temperature measurement has well agreement with the pressure. The result of temperature measurement using TDLAS technique has great importance to the evaluation of RBCC combustion efficiency.

  13. Systems-Level Nutrition Approaches to Define Phenotypes Resulting from Complex Gene-Environment Interactions.

    PubMed

    Kaput, Jim

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput metabolomic, proteomic, and genomic technologies have delivered 21st-century data showing that humans cannot be randomized into groups: individuals are genetically and biochemically distinct. Gene-environment interactions caused by unique dietary and lifestyle factors contribute to the heterogeneity in physiologies observed in human studies. The risk factors determined for populations (i.e. the population-attributable risk) cannot be applied to the individual. Developing individual risk/benefit factors in light of the genetic diversity of human populations, the complexity of foods, culture and lifestyle, and the variety in metabolic processes that lead to health or disease are significant challenges for personalizing dietary advice for healthy or diseased individuals. PMID:26764468

  14. Growth status related to brain responses, nutrition, home environment, and behavior in infants and toddlers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate whether growth status in infants and toddlers affects processes involved in speech perception and discrimination, cortical event-related potentials (ERPs) to consonant-vowel syllables were recorded from 48 healthy babies: 26 low in growth status (LGS, <25th percentile in growth measur...

  15. Neighborhood Environments and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in 11 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Cerin, Ester; Cain, Kelli L; Conway, Terry L; Dyck, Delfien Van; Hinckson, Erica; Schipperijn, Jasper; Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse De; Owen, Neville; Davey, Rachel C; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Mitáš, Josef; Orzanco-Garralda, Rosario; Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L; Christiansen, Lars B; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Schofield, Grant; Sallis, James F

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Environmental changes are potentially effective population-level physical activity (PA) promotion strategies. However, robust multi-site evidence to guide international action for developing activity-supportive environments is lacking. We estimated pooled associations of perceived environmental attributes with objectively-measured PA outcomes; between-site differences in such associations; and, the extent to which perceived environmental attributes explain between-site differences in PA. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 16 cities located in Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, China, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, United Kingdom, and USA. Participants were 6,968 adults residing in administrative units stratified by socio-economic status and transport-related walkability. Predictors were 10 perceived neighborhood environmental attributes. Outcome measures were accelerometry-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and meeting the PA guidelines for cancer/weight gain prevention (420 min/week of MVPA). Results Most perceived neighborhood attributes were positively associated with the PA outcomes in the pooled, site-adjusted, single-predictor models. Associations were generalizable across geographical locations. Aesthetics and land use mix – access were significant predictors of both PA outcomes in the fully-adjusted models. Environmental attributes accounted for within-site variability in MVPA corresponding to a 3 min/d or 21 min/week standard deviation. Large between-site differences in PA outcomes were observed: 15.9% to 16.8% of these differences were explained by perceived environmental attributes. All neighborhood attributes were associated with between-site differences in the total effects of the perceived environment on PA outcomes. Conclusions Residents’ perceptions of neighborhood attributes that facilitate walking were positively associated with objectively-measured MVPA and meeting the guidelines

  16. Material Property Measurement in Hostile Environments using Laser Acoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Ken L. Telschow

    2004-08-01

    Acoustic methods are well known and have been used to measure various intrinsic material properties, such as, elastic coefficients, density, crystal axis orientation, microstructural texture, and residual stress. Extrinsic properties, such as, dimensions, motion variables or temperature are also readily determined from acoustic methods. Laser acoustics, employing optical generation and detection of elastic waves, has a unique advantage over other acoustic methods—it is noncontacting, uses the sample surface itself for transduction, requires no couplant or invasive sample surface preparation and can be utilized in any hostile environment allowing optical access to the sample surface. In addition, optical generation and detection probe beams can be focused to the micron scale and/or shaped to alter the transduction process with a degree of control not possible using contact transduction methods. Laser methods are amenable to both continuous wave and pulse-echo measurements and have been used from Hz to 100’s of GHz (time scales from sec to psec) and with amplitudes sufficient to fracture materials. This paper shall review recent applications of laser acoustic methods to determining material properties in hostile environments that preclude the use of contacting transduction techniques. Example environments include high temperature (>1000C) sintering and molten metal processing, thin film deposition by plasma techniques, materials moving at high velocity during the fabrication process and nuclear high radiation regions. Recent technological advances in solid-state lasers and telecommunications have greatly aided the development and implementation of laser acoustic methods, particularly at ultra high frequencies. Consequently, laser acoustic material property measurements exhibit high precision and reproducibility today. In addition, optical techniques provide methods of imaging acoustic motion that is both quantitative and rapid. Possible future directions for

  17. Beam shaping for CARS measurements in turbulent environments.

    PubMed

    Magnotti, Gaetano; Cutler, Andrew D; Danehy, Paul M

    2012-07-10

    This paper describes a new technique to mitigate the effect of beam steering on CARS measurements in turbulent, variable density environments. The new approach combines planar BOXCARS phase-matching with elliptical shaping of one of the beams to generate a signal robust to beam steering, while keeping the same spatial resolution. Numerical and experimental results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. One experiment investigates the effect of beam shaping in the presence of a controlled and well quantified displacement of the beams at the focal plane. Another experiment, more qualitative, proves the effectiveness of the technique in the presence of severe beam steering due to turbulence. PMID:22781249

  18. Measurement of reverberation gain in an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Mijić, Miomir; Šumarac Pavlović, Dragana

    2012-09-01

    Multipath propagation within an urban area introduces a specific type of reverberation in response to sound excitation. That appearance affects the level of ambient noise produced by strong sound sources. In this paper, the signals recorded during the 1999 bombing of Belgrade were used to analyze the characteristics of reverberation in that urban environment. Six recorded signals were selected among more than 50 explosions recorded at that time. Due to the impulse nature of sound sources, the recorded signals represent the impulse responses of that area. The measured reverberation time T30 is about 7 ± 1 s in octaves between 31.5 Hz and 1 kHz. There is a variation of decay slope in time that is verified by differences between values of T10 and T30. The reverberation gain calculated from recorded signals is 2-7 dB, depending on the global position of the sound excitation point as well as its micro-location according to its position among the surrounding buildings. A variation of gain over octave bands is in the interval of approximately 3 dB. Information about reverberation gain in urban environment can be useful in a quick estimation of noise level produced by strong sound sources in a large area of urban environment.

  19. [Negative effects of anti-nutritional factors in animal feed on nitrogen burden of the environment and possibilities of its reduction. Nutritional physiology effects].

    PubMed

    Huisman, J

    1991-04-15

    Antinutritional factors (ANFs) protect the seed against attacks of moulds, bacteria, insects and birds. The defensive effect of ANFs is apparently related to disturbances in digestive processes in insects and microorganisms. When animals consume seeds containing ANFs, the digestive processes and growth may be disturbed in a similar manner. In the present paper, the fact is discussed that all proteins passing undigested through the small intestine will be fermentatively digested in the large intestine. The final products of the protein digested in the large intestine are excreted in the faeces or urine. For investigations into the digestion of protein in pigs and the amounts of N excreted into the environment, it is of importance to measure the ileal digestibility of protein. Studies showed that ANFs such as trypsin inhibitors, lectins and tannins present in legume seeds reduce the ileal digestibility of protein. In the case of Phaseolus beans it was found that more protein passed through the terminal ileum than was ingested with the feed. With peas was shown that ANFs reduce the ileal digestibility of protein. The carbohydrates of peas did not affect the ileal digestibility of protein, although the ileal chyme was more loose. In the case of faba beans, negative correlation of tannins with ileal digestibility of protein was observed. Calculations showed that, when ANFs were removed from peas and faba beans a considerable reduction in excretion of N into the environment can be achieved. These calculations also showed important possibilities of reducing the secretion of N into the environment by elimination of ANFs. PMID:1882367

  20. Worksite environment physical activity and healthy food choices: measurement of the worksite food and physical activity environment at four metropolitan bus garages

    PubMed Central

    Shimotsu, Scott T; French, Simone A; Gerlach, Anne F; Hannan, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Background The present research describes a measure of the worksite environment for food, physical activity and weight management. The worksite environment measure (WEM instrument) was developed for the Route H Study, a worksite environmental intervention for weight gain prevention in four metro transit bus garages in Minneapolis-St. Paul. Methods Two trained raters visited each of the four bus garages and independently completed the WEM. Food, physical activity and weight management-related items were observed and recorded on a structured form. Inter-rater reliability was computed at the item level using a simple percentage agreement. Results The WEM showed high inter-rater reliability for the number and presence of food-related items. All garages had vending machines, microwaves and refrigerators. Assessment of the physical activity environment yielded similar reliability for the number and presence/absence of fitness items. Each garage had a fitness room (average of 4.3 items of fitness equipment). All garages had at least one stationary bike and treadmill. Three garages had at least one weighing scale available. There were no designated walking areas inside or outside. There were on average < 1 food stores or restaurants within sight of each garage. Few vending machine food and beverage items met criteria for healthful choices (15% of the vending machine foods; 26% of the vending machine beverages). The garage environment was perceived to be not supportive of healthy food choices, physical activity and weight management; 52% reported that it was hard to get fruits and vegetables in the garages, and 62% agreed that it was hard to be physically active in the garages. Conclusion The WEM is a reliable measure of the worksite nutrition, physical activity, and weight management environment that can be used to assess changes in the work environment. PMID:17498308

  1. Martian Radiation Environment: Model Calculations and Recent Measurements with "MARIE"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saganti, P. B.; Cucinotta, F. A.; zeitlin, C. J.; Cleghorn, T. F.

    2004-01-01

    The Galactic Cosmic Ray spectra in Mars orbit were generated with the recently expanded HZETRN (High Z and Energy Transport) and QMSFRG (Quantum Multiple-Scattering theory of nuclear Fragmentation) model calculations. These model calculations are compared with the first eighteen months of measured data from the MARIE (Martian Radiation Environment Experiment) instrument onboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft that is currently in Martian orbit. The dose rates observed by the MARIE instrument are within 10% of the model calculated predictions. Model calculations are compared with the MARIE measurements of dose, dose-equivalent values, along with the available particle flux distribution. Model calculated particle flux includes GCR elemental composition of atomic number, Z = 1-28 and mass number, A = 1-58. Particle flux calculations specific for the current MARIE mapping period are reviewed and presented.

  2. Measurements and predictions for nonevaporating sprays in a quiescent environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, A. S. P.; Shuen, J.-S.; Faeth, G. M.; Zhang, Q.-F.

    1983-01-01

    Yule et al. (1982) have conducted a study of vaporizing sprays with the aid of laser techniques. The present investigation has the objective to supplement the measurements performed by Yule et al., by considering the limiting case of a spray in a stagnant environment. Mean and fluctuating velocities of the continuous phase are measured by means of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) techniques, while Fraunhofer diffraction and slide impaction methods are employed to determine drop sizes. Liquid fluxes in the spray are found by making use of an isokinetic sampling probe. The obtained data are used as a basis for the evaluation of three models of the process, including a locally homogeneous flow (LHF) model, a deterministic separated flow (DSF) model, and a stochastic separated flow (SSF) model. It is found that the LHF and DSF models do not provide very satisfactory predictions for the test sprays, while the SSF model does provide reasonably good predictions of the observed structure.

  3. Improving Growth and Productivity of Oleiferous Brassicas under Changing Environment: Significance of Nitrogen and Sulphur Nutrition, and Underlying Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Anjum, Naser A.; Gill, Sarvajeet S.; Umar, Shahid; Ahmad, Iqbal; Duarte, Armando C.; Pereira, Eduarda

    2012-01-01

    Mineral nutrients are the integral part of the agricultural systems. Among important plant nutrients, nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) are known essential elements for growth, development, and various physiological functions in plants. Oleiferous brassicas (rapeseed and mustard) require higher amounts of S in addition to N for optimum growth and yield. Therefore, balancing S-N fertilization, optimization of nutrient replenishment, minimization of nutrient losses to the environment, and the concept of coordination in action between S and N could be a significant strategy for improvement of growth and productivity of oleiferous brassicas. Additionally, positive interaction between S and N has been reported to be beneficial for various aspects of oilseed brassicas. The current paper updates readers on the significance of N and S for the improvement of plant growth, development, and productivity in detail. In addition, S-N nutrition-mediated control of major plant antioxidant defense system components involved in the removal and/or metabolism of stress-induced/generated reactive oxygen species in plants (hence, the control of plant growth, development, and productivity) has been overviewed. PMID:22629181

  4. Improving growth and productivity of Oleiferous Brassicas under changing environment: significance of nitrogen and sulphur nutrition, and underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Naser A; Gill, Sarvajeet S; Umar, Shahid; Ahmad, Iqbal; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, Eduarda

    2012-01-01

    Mineral nutrients are the integral part of the agricultural systems. Among important plant nutrients, nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) are known essential elements for growth, development, and various physiological functions in plants. Oleiferous brassicas (rapeseed and mustard) require higher amounts of S in addition to N for optimum growth and yield. Therefore, balancing S-N fertilization, optimization of nutrient replenishment, minimization of nutrient losses to the environment, and the concept of coordination in action between S and N could be a significant strategy for improvement of growth and productivity of oleiferous brassicas. Additionally, positive interaction between S and N has been reported to be beneficial for various aspects of oilseed brassicas. The current paper updates readers on the significance of N and S for the improvement of plant growth, development, and productivity in detail. In addition, S-N nutrition-mediated control of major plant antioxidant defense system components involved in the removal and/or metabolism of stress-induced/generated reactive oxygen species in plants (hence, the control of plant growth, development, and productivity) has been overviewed.

  5. [Negative effects of anti-nutritional factors in animal feed on the nitrogen burden of the environment and possibilities for its reduction].

    PubMed

    van der Poel, A F

    1991-04-15

    The role of legume and oil seeds in animal nutrition could be more important if negative effects of so-called antinutritional factors (ANFs) could be adequately eliminated. Processing standards to attain an optimum nutritional value will then have to be based on the nutritional evaluation of legume and oil seeds. Priorities in studying the effects of processing these raw materials are to attain an optimum degree of nutritional value of protein rather than the reduction of ANFs. Obviously, reduction of proteinaceous ANFs can be accomplished by thermal methods of treatment. Residual activities of the ANFs alone, however, do not predict the quality of protein in vivo, in every case. Other factors (storage protein, carbohydrates) may also be important in addition to ANFs. This means that elimination of ANFs alone however, cannot always ensure a sufficient increase in digestibility as determined in experimental studies in animals. By correlating the results of technological experiments with those of trials in animals, optimum information may be gathered in attempting to attain an optimum nutritional value by technological methods of treatment. This will contribute to a more correct and accurate understanding of the effects of animal feed technology on the performance of animals and the consequences for the excretion of undigested nutrients in the environment. PMID:1882369

  6. Acoustic Environment of Admiralty Inlet: Broadband Noise Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jinshan; Deng, Zhiqun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Jones, Mark E.

    2011-09-30

    Admiralty Inlet has been selected as a potential tidal energy site. It is located near shipping lanes, is a highly variable acoustic environment, and is frequented by the highly endangered southern resident killer whale (SRKW). Resolving environmental impacts is the first step to receiving approval to deploy tidal turbines at Admiralty Inlet. Of particular concern is the potential for blade strike or other negative interactions between the SRKW and the tidal turbine. A variety of technologies including passive and active monitoring systems are being considered as potential tools to determine the presence of SRKW in the vicinity of the turbines. Broadband noise level measurements are critical for the determination of design and operation specifications of all marine and hydrokinetic energy capture technologies. Acoustic environment data at the proposed site was acquired at different depths using a cabled vertical line array (VLA) with four calibrated hydrophones. The sound pressure level (SPL) power spectrum density was estimated based on the fast Fourier transform. This study describes the first broadband SPL measurements for this site at different depths with frequency ranging from 10 kHz to 480 kHz in combination with other information. To understand the SPL caused by this bedload transport, three different pressure sensors with temperature and conductivity were also assembled on the VLA to measure the conditions at the hydrophone deployment depth. The broadband SPL levels at frequency ranges of 3 kHz to 7 kHz as a function of depth were estimated. Only the hydrophone at an average depth of 40 m showed the strong dependence of SPL with distance from the bottom, which was possibly caused by the cobbles shifting on the seabed. Automatic Identification System data were also studied to understand the SPL measurements.

  7. Late-instar Behavior of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae in Different Thermal and Nutritive Environments.

    PubMed

    Reiskind, Michael H; Janairo, M Shawn

    2015-09-01

    The effects of temperature on ectotherm growth have been well documented. How temperature affects foraging behavior is less well explored, and has not been studied in larval mosquitoes. We hypothesized that temperature changes foraging behavior in the aquatic larval phase of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. Based on empirical results in other systems, we predicted that foraging effort would increase at higher temperatures in these insects. We tested this prediction over three temperature conditions at two food levels. We measured behaviors by video recording replicated cohorts of fourth-instar mosquitoes and assessing individual behavior and time budgets using an ethogram. We found both food level and temperature had significant impacts on larval foraging behavior, with more time spent actively foraging at low food levels and at low temperatures, and more occurrences of active foraging at both temperature extremes. These results are contrary to some of our predictions, but fit into theoretical responses to temperature based upon dynamic energy budget models.

  8. Late-instar Behavior of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae in Different Thermal and Nutritive Environments.

    PubMed

    Reiskind, Michael H; Janairo, M Shawn

    2015-09-01

    The effects of temperature on ectotherm growth have been well documented. How temperature affects foraging behavior is less well explored, and has not been studied in larval mosquitoes. We hypothesized that temperature changes foraging behavior in the aquatic larval phase of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. Based on empirical results in other systems, we predicted that foraging effort would increase at higher temperatures in these insects. We tested this prediction over three temperature conditions at two food levels. We measured behaviors by video recording replicated cohorts of fourth-instar mosquitoes and assessing individual behavior and time budgets using an ethogram. We found both food level and temperature had significant impacts on larval foraging behavior, with more time spent actively foraging at low food levels and at low temperatures, and more occurrences of active foraging at both temperature extremes. These results are contrary to some of our predictions, but fit into theoretical responses to temperature based upon dynamic energy budget models. PMID:26336228

  9. General preventive measures against carcinogenic exposure in the external environment.

    PubMed

    Keiding, L M

    1993-01-01

    Different measures are used to prevent unacceptable carcinogenic exposure from different sources in the external environment, be it accumulated carcinogens from previous pollution, exposure related to life-style, and exposure related to living standards and the organization of the community as a whole. A precondition for goal-directed prevention is knowledge of exposures to carcinogens and measures to minimize or substitute carcinogens in products and in emissions. One of the most significant sources of carcinogens in the outdoor air in many Western countries is the traffic, especially diesel-powered vehicles. Necessary preventive measures include restriction of carcinogenic exhaust from the individual vehicle, plans for the community to diminish transportation needs, as well as to changing the usual behaviour of the individual. Unlike exposure to carcinogens in the surrounding air, exposure to accumulated carcinogens in ground-water and in soil at polluted sites may be diminished by the pattern of use. International aspects are involved in for instance minimizing the risk of getting skin cancer from sunlight. Besides protecting vulnerable individuals there should be a global preservation of the ozone layer. Lowering the risk of long transported air pollution, like radioactivity from accidents at nuclear power stations, demands international efforts to increase safety measures and information about accidents.

  10. Individualized nutritional recommendations: do we have the measurements needed to assess risk and make dietary recommendations?

    PubMed

    Arab, Lenore

    2004-02-01

    Is the information currently available to adjust nutritional recommendations and develop individualized nutrition? No. There is not even the information needed for setting dietary recommendations with confidence now at the group level. Will it be available soon? The answer to this question depends on the drive and will of the nutritional community, the success in recruiting funding to the area, the education of nutritionists and the spawning of great ideas and approaches. The emerging tools of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are enabling the in-depth study of relationships between diet, genetics and metabolism. The advent of technologies can be compared with the discovery of the microscope and the new dimensions of scientific visualization enabled by that discovery. Nutritionists stand at the crest of new waves of data that can be generated, and new methods for their digestion will be required. To date, the study of dietary requirements has been based largely on a black box approach. Subjects are supplemented or depleted and clinical outcomes are observed. Few recommendations are based on metabolic outcomes. Metabolomics and nutrigenomics promise tools with which recommendations can be refined to meet individual requirements and the potential of individualized nutrition can be explored. As yet, these tools are not being widely applied in nutritional research and are rarely being applied by nutritionists. The result is often interesting research that is frequently nutritionally flawed, resulting in inappropriate conclusions. Nutritional education is needed to put nutritionists at the forefront of the development of applications for these technologies, creating a generation of nutrigenomicists. A new generation of nutritionists should be working interdisciplinarily with geneticists, molecular biologists and bioinformaticians in the development of research strategies. The present paper reviews the current status of nutrigenomic research, the current

  11. Individualized nutritional recommendations: do we have the measurements needed to assess risk and make dietary recommendations?

    PubMed

    Arab, Lenore

    2004-02-01

    Is the information currently available to adjust nutritional recommendations and develop individualized nutrition? No. There is not even the information needed for setting dietary recommendations with confidence now at the group level. Will it be available soon? The answer to this question depends on the drive and will of the nutritional community, the success in recruiting funding to the area, the education of nutritionists and the spawning of great ideas and approaches. The emerging tools of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are enabling the in-depth study of relationships between diet, genetics and metabolism. The advent of technologies can be compared with the discovery of the microscope and the new dimensions of scientific visualization enabled by that discovery. Nutritionists stand at the crest of new waves of data that can be generated, and new methods for their digestion will be required. To date, the study of dietary requirements has been based largely on a black box approach. Subjects are supplemented or depleted and clinical outcomes are observed. Few recommendations are based on metabolic outcomes. Metabolomics and nutrigenomics promise tools with which recommendations can be refined to meet individual requirements and the potential of individualized nutrition can be explored. As yet, these tools are not being widely applied in nutritional research and are rarely being applied by nutritionists. The result is often interesting research that is frequently nutritionally flawed, resulting in inappropriate conclusions. Nutritional education is needed to put nutritionists at the forefront of the development of applications for these technologies, creating a generation of nutrigenomicists. A new generation of nutritionists should be working interdisciplinarily with geneticists, molecular biologists and bioinformaticians in the development of research strategies. The present paper reviews the current status of nutrigenomic research, the current

  12. A countermeasure to ameliorate immune dysfunction in in vitro simulated microgravity environment: role of cellularnucleotide nutrition.

    PubMed

    Hales, N W; Yamauchi, K; Alicea, A; Sundaresan, A; Pellis, N R; Kulkarni, A D

    2002-04-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that space travelers are immunosuppressed, presumably by microgravity environmental stresses, putting them at risk for adverse effects, such as opportunistic infections, poor wound healing, and cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine the role and mechanisms of nucleotide (NT) supplementation as a countermeasure to obviate immunosuppression during space travel. The in vitro rotary cell culture system, a bioreactor (BIO), was used to simulate the effect of microgravity and to isolate the neuroendocrine effects inherent to in vitro models. The splenocytes from normal mice were cultured in BIO and control tissue culture (TC) flasks with and without phytohemagglutinin (PHA) for mitogen assays. The culture medium was then supplemented with various concentrations of a nucleosides-nucleotides mixture (NS + NT), inosine, and uridine. Cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-3, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon (IFN)-gamma were measured from the supernatant by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the PHA-stimulated cultures the cellular proliferation in the BIO was significantly decreased as compared with the TC flask cells. BIO-cultured cells in the presence of NS + NT maintained mitogen responses similar to the control TC flask cells. The maintenance of the mitogen response in BIO was observed by the supplementation of uridine and not of inosine. These results are in agreement with our earlier results from unit gravity experiments that showed that pyrimidines are more effective in pleiogenic immunoprotection to hosts. Cytokines IL-1beta, IL-2, and IFN-gamma in the BIO supernatants of cells cultured in the presence of NS + NT had a significantly higher response than the control vessel. Thus, supplemental NT, especially pyrimidines, can confer immune protection and enhance cytokine responses during space travel.

  13. Mars environment and magnetic orbiter scientific and measurement objectives.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, F; Langlais, B; Fouchet, T; Barabash, S; Breuer, D; Chassefière, E; Coates, A; Dehant, V; Forget, F; Lammer, H; Lewis, S; Lopez-Valverde, M; Mandea, M; Menvielle, M; Pais, A; Paetzold, M; Read, P; Sotin, C; Tarits, P; Vennerstrom, S

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize our present understanding of Mars' atmosphere, magnetic field, and surface and address past evolution of these features. Key scientific questions concerning Mars' surface, atmosphere, and magnetic field, along with the planet's interaction with solar wind, are discussed. We also define what key parameters and measurements should be performed and the main characteristics of a martian mission that would help to provide answers to these questions. Such a mission--Mars Environment and Magnetic Orbiter (MEMO)--was proposed as an answer to the Cosmic Vision Call of Opportunity as an M-class mission (corresponding to a total European Space Agency cost of less than 300 Meuro). MEMO was designed to study the strong interconnection between the planetary interior, atmosphere, and solar conditions, which is essential to our understanding of planetary evolution, the appearance of life, and its sustainability. The MEMO main platform combined remote sensing and in situ measurements of the atmosphere and the magnetic field during regular incursions into the martian upper atmosphere. The micro-satellite was designed to perform simultaneous in situ solar wind measurements. MEMO was defined to conduct: * Four-dimensional mapping of the martian atmosphere from the surface up to 120 km by measuring wind, temperature, water, and composition, all of which would provide a complete view of the martian climate and photochemical system; Mapping of the low-altitude magnetic field with unprecedented geographical, altitude, local time, and seasonal resolutions; A characterization of the simultaneous responses of the atmosphere, magnetic field, and near-Mars space to solar variability by means of in situ atmospheric and solar wind measurements. PMID:19317625

  14. Aldehyde measurements in indoor environments in Strasbourg (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, C.; Bulliot, B.; Le Calvé, S.; Mirabel, Ph.

    Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations have been measured in indoor environments of various public spaces (railway station, airport, shopping center, libraries, underground parking garage, etc.) of Strasbourg area (east of France). In addition, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde propionaldehyde and hexanal concentrations have been measured in 22 private homes in the same area. In most of the sampling sites, indoor and outdoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were measured simultaneously. Gaseous aldehydes levels were quantified by a conventional DNHP-derivatization method followed by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection. Outdoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were both in the range 1-10 μg m -3, the highest values being measured at the airport and railway station. Indoor concentrations were strongly dependant upon the sampling sites. In homes, the average concentrations were 37 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 46 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for formaldehyde, 15 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 18 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for acetaldehyde, 1.2 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 1.6 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for propionaldehyde, 9 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 10 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for hexanal. However, concentrations as high as 123, 80 and 47 μg m -3 have been found for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and hexanal respectively. In public spaces, the highest formaldehyde concentration (62 μg m -3) was found in a library and the highest concentration of acetaldehyde (26 μg m -3) in the hall of a shopping center. Additional measurements of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were made inside a car both at rest or in a fluid or heavy traffic as well as in a room where cigarettes were smoked. Our data have been discussed and compared with those of previous studies.

  15. Mars environment and magnetic orbiter scientific and measurement objectives.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, F; Langlais, B; Fouchet, T; Barabash, S; Breuer, D; Chassefière, E; Coates, A; Dehant, V; Forget, F; Lammer, H; Lewis, S; Lopez-Valverde, M; Mandea, M; Menvielle, M; Pais, A; Paetzold, M; Read, P; Sotin, C; Tarits, P; Vennerstrom, S

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize our present understanding of Mars' atmosphere, magnetic field, and surface and address past evolution of these features. Key scientific questions concerning Mars' surface, atmosphere, and magnetic field, along with the planet's interaction with solar wind, are discussed. We also define what key parameters and measurements should be performed and the main characteristics of a martian mission that would help to provide answers to these questions. Such a mission--Mars Environment and Magnetic Orbiter (MEMO)--was proposed as an answer to the Cosmic Vision Call of Opportunity as an M-class mission (corresponding to a total European Space Agency cost of less than 300 Meuro). MEMO was designed to study the strong interconnection between the planetary interior, atmosphere, and solar conditions, which is essential to our understanding of planetary evolution, the appearance of life, and its sustainability. The MEMO main platform combined remote sensing and in situ measurements of the atmosphere and the magnetic field during regular incursions into the martian upper atmosphere. The micro-satellite was designed to perform simultaneous in situ solar wind measurements. MEMO was defined to conduct: * Four-dimensional mapping of the martian atmosphere from the surface up to 120 km by measuring wind, temperature, water, and composition, all of which would provide a complete view of the martian climate and photochemical system; Mapping of the low-altitude magnetic field with unprecedented geographical, altitude, local time, and seasonal resolutions; A characterization of the simultaneous responses of the atmosphere, magnetic field, and near-Mars space to solar variability by means of in situ atmospheric and solar wind measurements.

  16. Description, measurement and evaluation of tertiary-education food environments.

    PubMed

    Roy, R; Hebden, L; Kelly, B; De Gois, T; Ferrone, E M; Samrout, M; Vermont, S; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2016-05-01

    Obesity in young adults is an increasing health problem in Australia and many other countries. Evidence-based information is needed to guide interventions that reduce the obesity-promoting elements in tertiary-education environments. In a food environmental audit survey, 252 outlets were audited across seven institutions: three universities and four technical and further education institutions campuses. A scoring instrument called the food environment-quality index was developed and used to assess all food outlets on these campuses. Information was collated on the availability, accessibility and promotion of foods and beverages and a composite score (maximum score=148; higher score indicates healthier outlets) was calculated. Each outlet and the overall campus were ranked into tertiles based on their 'healthiness'. Differences in median scores for each outcome measure were compared between institutions and outlet types using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Scheffe's testing, χ 2 tests, Kruskal-Wallis H test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Binomial logistic regressions were used to compare the proportion of healthy v. unhealthy food categories across different types of outlets. Overall, the most frequently available items were sugar-sweetened beverages (20 % of all food/drink items) followed by chocolates (12 %), high-energy (>600 kJ/serve) foods (10 %), chips (10 %) and confectionery (10 %). Healthy food and beverages were observed to be less available, accessible and promoted than unhealthy options. The median score across all outlets was 72 (interquartile range=7). Tertiary-education food environments are dominated by high-energy, nutrient-poor foods and beverages. Interventions to decrease availability, accessibility and promotion of unhealthy foods are needed. PMID:27245102

  17. Measurements of the volume scattering function in a coastal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthon, Jean-François; Lee, Michael; Shybanov, Eugeny; Zibordi, Giuseppe

    2007-04-01

    The Volume Scattering Function (VSF) is an essential variable in the context of marine radiative transfer modeling and of the inversion of ocean colour remote sensing data. However, an important lack of knowledge on the VSF natural variability affects the present models, in particular for the coastal environment. Measurements of the Volume Scattering Function between 0.6° and 177.3° with an angular resolution of 0.3° were performed in the northern coastal Adriatic Sea onboard an oceanographic platform in October 2004 using a prototype instrument. Observed differences with the commonly used Petzold's functions are significant, in particular for the "open ocean" and "coastal" types in the backward directions. The use of an empirical relationship for the derivation of b b(λ) from a unique measurement of β(ψ,λ) at ψ=140 for the Hydroscat-6 was validated for this coastal site at that season. Finally, the use of the Kopelevich VSF model together with a measurement of b p(λ) at λ=555 nm allowed the reconstruction of the VSF to within about 35%.

  18. X-ray-based displacement measurement for hostile environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canistraro, H. A.; Jordan, E. H.; Pease, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    A new method on noncontacting, high temperature extensometry based on the focus and scanning of X-rays is currently under development and shows great promise of overcoming limitations associated with available techniques. The chief advantage is the ability to make undisturbed measurements through stratified or flowing gases, smoke, and flame. The system is based on the ability to focus and scan low energy, hard X-rays such as those emanating from copper or molybdenum sources. The X-rays are focused into a narrow and intense line image which can be scanned onto targets that fluoresce secondary X-ray radiation. The final goal of the system is the ability to conduct macroscopic strain measurements in hostile environments by utilizing two or more fluorescing targets. Current work is limited to displacement measurement of a single target with a resolution of 1.25 micro-m and a target temperature of 1200 C, directly through an open flame. The main advantage of the technique lies in the penetrating nature of X-rays which are not affected by the presence of refracting gas layers, smoke, flame, or intense thermal radiation, all of which could render conventional extensometry methods inoperative or greatly compromise their performance.

  19. X ray based displacement measurement for hostile environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canistraro, Howard A.; Jordon, Eric H.; Pease, Douglas M.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    1992-01-01

    A new method on noncontacting, high temperature extensometry based on the focus and scanning of x rays is currently under development and shows great promise of overcoming limitations associated with available techniques. The chief advantage is the ability to make undisturbed measurements through stratified or flowing gases, smoke, and flame. The system is based on the ability to focus and scan low energy, hard x rays such as those emanating from copper or molybdenum sources. The x rays are focused into a narrow and intense line image which can be scanned onto targets that fluoresce secondary x ray radiation. The final goal of the system is the ability to conduct macroscopic strain measurements in hostile environments by utilizing two or more fluorescing targets. Current work is limited to displacement measurement of a single target with a resolution of 1.25 micro-m and a target temperature of 1200 C, directly through an open flame. The main advantage of the technique lies in the penetrating nature of x rays which are not affected by the presence of refracting gas layers, smoke, flame, or intense thermal radiation, all of which could render conventional extensometry methods inoperative or greatly compromise their performance.

  20. Strength measurements of silica optical fibers under severe environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severin, I.; El Abdi, R.; Poulain, M.

    2007-03-01

    Optical fibers are key components in telecommunication technologies. Apart from optical specifications, optical fibers are expected to keep most of their physical properties for 10-20 years in current operating conditions. The reliability and the expected lifetime of optical links are closely related to action of the chemical environment on the silica network. However, the coating also contributes largely to the mechanical properties of the fibers. The aim of this work was to study the strength and the mechanical behavior of the silica optical fibers in an acid environment and with a permanent deformation. A container with ammonium bifluoride acid salt was plunged into hot water at different temperatures (55 and 75 °C). This emitted acid vapors which attacked the optical fibers for a period of 1-18 days. An aging study was performed on silica optical fibers with standard polyacrylate coating and with hermetic carbon coating. A dynamic two-point bending bench at different faceplate velocities (100, 200, 400 and 800 μm/s) was used. For comparison, the same dynamic measurements were also carried out on non-aged fibers. After acid vapor condensation, salt crystal deposits on the fibers were displayed using an electron scanning microscope. These crystals became visible to the naked eye from the seventh day.

  1. Preliminary Examination and Measurement of the Internship Research Training Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Julia C.; Szymanski, Dawn M.; Ozegovic, Jelena Jovanovic; Briggs-Phillips, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    Consistent with C. J. Gelso's (1979, 1993, 1997) research training environment theory, the authors hypothesized that research training environments exist in predoctoral internships. The Internship Research Training Environment Scale (IRTES) was developed to assess research training environments found in predoctoral psychology internships.…

  2. Beam Shaping for CARS Measurements in Turbulent Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnotti, Gaetano; Cutler, Andrew D.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique to mitigate the effect of beam steering on CARS measurements in turbulent, variable density environments. The new approach combines Planar BOXCARS phase-matching with elliptical shaping of one of the beams to generate a signal insensitive to beam steering, while keeping the same spatial resolution. Numerical and experimental results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. One set of experiments investigated the effect of beam shaping in the presence of a controlled and well quantified displacement of the beams at the focal plane. Another set of experiments, more qualitative, proved the effectiveness of the technique in the presence of severe beam steering due to turbulence.

  3. Effects of illuminants and illumination time on lettuce growth, yield and nutritional quality in a controlled environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y. Z.; Guo, S. S.; Ai, W. D.; Tang, Y. K.

    2014-07-01

    Effects of illuminants and illumination time on the growth of lettuce were researched. Red-blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs, 90% red light +10% blue light) and white light fluorescent (WF) lamps were compared as the illuminants for plant cultivation. Under each type of illuminant, lettuce was grown at 4 illumination times: 12 h, 16 h, 20 h and 24 h, with the same light intensity of 600 μmolm-2s-1. The leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under the two illuminants was comparable but the shape of lettuce was obviously affected by the illuminant. The WF lamps produced more compact plant, while red-blue LED resulted in less but longer leaves. However, the total leaf area was not significantly affected by the illuminant. The red-blue LED produced nearly same aboveground biomass with far less energy consumption relative to WF lamps. The underground biomass was lowered under red-blue LED in comparison with WF lamps. Red-blue LED could improve the nutritional quality of lettuce by increasing the concentration of soluble sugar and vitamin C (VC) and reducing the concentration of nitrate. Under each type of illuminant, longer illumination time resulted in higher Pn, more leaves and larger leaf area. The total chlorophyll concentration increased while the concentration ratio of chlorophyll a/b decreased with the extension of illumination time. Illumination time had highly significant positive correlation with biomass. Moreover, when total daily light input was kept the same, longer illumination time increased the biomass significantly as well. In addition, longer illumination time increased the concentration of crude fiber, soluble sugar and VC and reduced the concentration of nitrate. In summary, red-blue LEDs and 24 h illumination time were demonstrated to be more suitable for lettuce cultivation in the controlled environment.

  4. Measuring the Interestingness of Articles in a Limited User Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Pon, R; Cardenas, A; Buttler, David; Critchlow, Terence J

    2011-01-01

    Search engines, such as Google, assign scores to news articles based on their relevance to a query. However, not all relevant articles for the query may be interesting to a user. For example, if the article is old or yields little new information, the article would be uninteresting. Relevance scores do not take into account what makes an article interesting, which would vary from user to user. Although methods such as collaborative filtering have been shown to be effective in recommendation systems, in a limited user environment, there are not enough users that would make collaborative filtering effective. A general framework, called iScore, is presented for defining and measuring the ‘‘interestingness of articles, incorporating user-feedback. iScore addresses the various aspects of what makes an article interesting, such as topic relevance, uniqueness, freshness, source reputation, and writing style. It employs various methods, such as multiple topic tracking, online parameter selection, language models, clustering, sentiment analysis, and phrase extraction to measure these features. Due to varying reasons that users hold about why an article is interesting, an online feature selection method in naι¨ve Bayes is also used to improve recommendation results. iScore can outperform traditional IR techniques by as much as 50.7%. iScore and its components are evaluated in the news recommendation task using three datasets from Yahoo! News, actual users, and Digg.

  5. Measurement realities of current collection in dynamic space plasma environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szuszczewicz, Edward P.

    1990-01-01

    Theories which describe currents collected by conducting and non-conducting bodies immersed in plasmas have many of their concepts based upon the fundamentals of sheath-potential distributions and charged-particle behavior in superimposed electric and magnetic fields. Those current-collecting bodies (or electrodes) may be Langmuir probes, electric field detectors, aperture plates on ion mass spectrometers and retarding potential analyzers, or spacecraft and their rigid and tethered appendages. Often the models are incomplete in representing the conditions under which the current-voltage characteristics of the electrode and its system are to be measured. In such cases, the experimenter must carefully take into account magnetic field effects and particle anisotropies, perturbations caused by the current collection process itself and contamination on electrode surfaces, the complexities of non-Maxwellian plasma distributions, and the temporal variability of the local plasma density, temperature, composition and fields. This set of variables is by no means all-inclusive, but it represents a collection of circumstances guaranteed to accompany experiments involving energetic particle beams, plasma discharges, chemical releases, wave injection and various events of controlled and uncontrolled spacecraft charging. Here, an attempt is made to synopsize these diagnostic challenges and frame them within a perspective that focuses on the physics under investigation and the requirements on the parameters to be measured. Examples include laboratory and spaceborne applications, with specific interest in dynamic and unstable plasma environments.

  6. Evaluation of Occupational Cold Environments: Field Measurements and Subjective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    OLIVEIRA, A. Virgílio M.; GASPAR, Adélio R.; RAIMUNDO, António M.; QUINTELA, Divo A.

    2014-01-01

    The present work is dedicated to the study of occupational cold environments in food distribution industrial units. Field measurements and a subjective assessment based on an individual questionnaire were considered. The survey was carried out in 5 Portuguese companies. The field measurements include 26 workplaces, while a sample of 160 responses was considered for the subjective assessment. In order to characterize the level of cold exposure, the Required Clothing Insulation Index (IREQ) was adopted. The IREQ index highlights that in the majority of the workplaces the clothing ensembles worn are inadequate, namely in the freezing chambers where the protection provided by clothing is always insufficient. The questionnaires results show that the food distribution sector is characterized by a female population (70.6%), by a young work force (60.7% are less than 35 yr old) and by a population with a medium-length professional career (80.1% in this occupation for less than 10 yr). The incidence of health effects which is higher among women, the distribution of protective clothing (50.0% of the workers indicate one garment) and the significant percentage of workers (>75%) that has more difficulties in performing the activity during the winter represent other important results of the present study. PMID:24583510

  7. Evaluation of occupational cold environments: field measurements and subjective analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A Virgílio M; Gaspar, Adélio R; Raimundo, António M; Quintela, Divo A

    2014-01-01

    The present work is dedicated to the study of occupational cold environments in food distribution industrial units. Field measurements and a subjective assessment based on an individual questionnaire were considered. The survey was carried out in 5 Portuguese companies. The field measurements include 26 workplaces, while a sample of 160 responses was considered for the subjective assessment. In order to characterize the level of cold exposure, the Required Clothing Insulation Index (IREQ) was adopted. The IREQ index highlights that in the majority of the workplaces the clothing ensembles worn are inadequate, namely in the freezing chambers where the protection provided by clothing is always insufficient. The questionnaires results show that the food distribution sector is characterized by a female population (70.6%), by a young work force (60.7% are less than 35 yr old) and by a population with a medium-length professional career (80.1% in this occupation for less than 10 yr). The incidence of health effects which is higher among women, the distribution of protective clothing (50.0% of the workers indicate one garment) and the significant percentage of workers (>75%) that has more difficulties in performing the activity during the winter represent other important results of the present study.

  8. Rasch Measurement of Collaborative Problem Solving in an Online Environment.

    PubMed

    Harding, Susan-Marie E; Griffin, Patrick E

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to the assessment of human to human collaborative problem solving using a set of online interactive tasks completed by student dyads. Within the dyad, roles were nominated as either A or B and students selected their own roles. The question as to whether role selection affected individual student performance measures is addressed. Process stream data was captured from 3402 students in six countries who explored the problem space by clicking, dragging the mouse, moving the cursor and collaborating with their partner through a chat box window. Process stream data were explored to identify behavioural indicators that represented elements of a conceptual framework. These indicative behaviours were coded into a series of dichotomous items. These items represented actions and chats performed by students. The frequency of occurrence was used as a proxy measure of item difficulty. Then given a measure of item difficulty, student ability could be estimated using the difficulty estimates of the range of items demonstrated by the student. The Rasch simple logistic model was used to review the indicators to identify those that were consistent with the assumptions of the model and were invariant across national samples, language, curriculum and age of the student. The data were analysed using a one and two dimension, one parameter model. Rasch separation reliability, fit to the model, distribution of students and items on the underpinning construct, estimates for each country and the effect of role differences are reported. This study provides evidence that collaborative problem solving can be assessed in an online environment involving human to human interaction using behavioural indicators shown to have a consistent relationship between the estimate of student ability, and the probability of demonstrating the behaviour. PMID:26784377

  9. Rasch Measurement of Collaborative Problem Solving in an Online Environment.

    PubMed

    Harding, Susan-Marie E; Griffin, Patrick E

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to the assessment of human to human collaborative problem solving using a set of online interactive tasks completed by student dyads. Within the dyad, roles were nominated as either A or B and students selected their own roles. The question as to whether role selection affected individual student performance measures is addressed. Process stream data was captured from 3402 students in six countries who explored the problem space by clicking, dragging the mouse, moving the cursor and collaborating with their partner through a chat box window. Process stream data were explored to identify behavioural indicators that represented elements of a conceptual framework. These indicative behaviours were coded into a series of dichotomous items. These items represented actions and chats performed by students. The frequency of occurrence was used as a proxy measure of item difficulty. Then given a measure of item difficulty, student ability could be estimated using the difficulty estimates of the range of items demonstrated by the student. The Rasch simple logistic model was used to review the indicators to identify those that were consistent with the assumptions of the model and were invariant across national samples, language, curriculum and age of the student. The data were analysed using a one and two dimension, one parameter model. Rasch separation reliability, fit to the model, distribution of students and items on the underpinning construct, estimates for each country and the effect of role differences are reported. This study provides evidence that collaborative problem solving can be assessed in an online environment involving human to human interaction using behavioural indicators shown to have a consistent relationship between the estimate of student ability, and the probability of demonstrating the behaviour.

  10. Air Traffic Complexity Measurement Environment (ACME): Software User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A user's guide for the Air Traffic Complexity Measurement Environment (ACME) software is presented. The ACME consists of two major components, a complexity analysis tool and user interface. The Complexity Analysis Tool (CAT) analyzes complexity off-line, producing data files which may be examined interactively via the Complexity Data Analysis Tool (CDAT). The Complexity Analysis Tool is composed of three independently executing processes that communicate via PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) and Unix sockets. The Runtime Data Management and Control process (RUNDMC) extracts flight plan and track information from a SAR input file, and sends the information to GARP (Generate Aircraft Routes Process) and CAT (Complexity Analysis Task). GARP in turn generates aircraft trajectories, which are utilized by CAT to calculate sector complexity. CAT writes flight plan, track and complexity data to an output file, which can be examined interactively. The Complexity Data Analysis Tool (CDAT) provides an interactive graphic environment for examining the complexity data produced by the Complexity Analysis Tool (CAT). CDAT can also play back track data extracted from System Analysis Recording (SAR) tapes. The CDAT user interface consists of a primary window, a controls window, and miscellaneous pop-ups. Aircraft track and position data is displayed in the main viewing area of the primary window. The controls window contains miscellaneous control and display items. Complexity data is displayed in pop-up windows. CDAT plays back sector complexity and aircraft track and position data as a function of time. Controls are provided to start and stop playback, adjust the playback rate, and reposition the display to a specified time.

  11. Impact of heat stress, nutritional restriction and combined stresses (heat and nutritional) on growth and reproductive performance of Malpura rams under semi-arid tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Maurya, V P; Sejian, V; Kumar, D; Naqvi, S M K

    2016-10-01

    A study was conducted to assess the combined effect of heat stress and nutritional restriction on growth and reproductive performances in Malpura rams. Twenty-eight adult Malpura rams (average body weight (BW) 66.0 kg) were used in this study. The rams were divided into four groups: CON (n = 7; control), HES (n = 7; heat stress), NUS (n = 7; nutritional stress) and COS (n = 7; combined stress). The study was conducted for a period of 2 months. CON and HES rams had ad libitum access to their feed while NUS and COS rams were under restricted feed (30% intake of CON rams) to induce nutritional stress. The HES and COS rams were kept in climatic chamber at 42 °C and 55% relative humidity for 6 h a day between 10 : 00 h and 16 : 00 h to induce heat stress. Body weight increased significantly (p < 0.05) in CON as compared to NUS and COS. When compared within groups, scrotal width morning, scrotal width afternoon, scrotal circumference morning and scrotal circumference afternoon were significantly (p < 0.05) larger in CON while smaller in COS rams. The higher testicular length was recorded both during morning (p < 0.05) and afternoon (p < 0.01) in COS rams while the lowest in NUS rams. The highest plasma testosterone concentration was recorded in CON and lowest in COS rams. Semen volume and mass motility also differed significantly (p < 0.05) between the groups. The highest semen volume and mass motility was recorded in CON and NUS while lowest in both HES and COS rams. It can be concluded from this study that when two stressors occur simultaneously, they may have severe impact on reproductive performance of rams. PMID:26718122

  12. Nutritional and ecological evaluation of dairy farming systems based on concentrate feeding regimes in semi-arid environments of Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Alqaisi, Othman; Hemme, Torsten; Hagemann, Martin; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and ecological aspects of feeding systems practiced under semi-arid environments in Jordan. Nine dairy farms representing the different dairy farming systems were selected for this study. Feed samples (n = 58), fecal samples (n = 108), and milk samples (n = 78) were collected from the farms and analysed for chemical composition. Feed samples were also analysed for metabolisable energy (ME) contents and in vitro organic matter digestibility according to Hohenheim-Feed-Test. Furthermore, fecal nitrogen concentration was determined to estimate in vivo organic matter digestibility. ME and nutrient intakes were calculated based on the farmer’s estimate of dry matter intake and the analysed composition of the feed ingredients. ME and nutrient intakes were compared to recommended standard values for adequate supply of ME, utilizable crude protein, rumen undegradable crude protein (RUCP), phosphorus (P), and calcium (Ca). Technology Impact Policy Impact Calculation model complemented with a partial life cycle assessment model was used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions of milk production at farm gate. The model predicts CH4, N2O and CO2 gases emitted either directly or indirectly. Average daily energy corrected milk yield (ECM) was 19 kg and ranged between 11 and 27 kg. The mean of ME intake of all farms was 184 MJ/d with a range between 115 and 225 MJ/d. Intake of RUCP was lower than the standard requirements in six farms ranging between 19 and 137 g/d, was higher (32 and 93 g/d) in two farms, and matched the requirements in one farm. P intake was higher than the requirements in all farms (mean oversupply = 19 g/d) and ranged between 3 and 30 g/d. Ca intake was significantly below the requirements in small scale farms. Milk nitrogen efficiency N-eff (milk N/intake N) varied between 19% and 28% and was mainly driven by the level of milk yield. Total CO2 equivalent (CO2 equ) emission ranged

  13. An Examination of Correlates and Effects Associated with a Concise Measure of Consumers' Nutrition Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Tracy A.; Burton, Scot

    1996-01-01

    Consumers in two studies (n=374 and 500) were surveyed regarding their nutrition knowledge and the information on food labels. Validity of the survey instrument was supported by comparing results from professional nutritionists and dietitian students. Knowledge level was an important factor in consumer comprehension of and attitudes toward label…

  14. Measuring the Interestingness of Articles in a Limited User Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Pon, Raymond K.

    2008-01-01

    Search engines, such as Google, assign scores to news articles based on their relevancy to a query. However, not all relevant articles for the query may be interesting to a user. For example, if the article is old or yields little new information, the article would be uninteresting. Relevancy scores do not take into account what makes an article interesting, which varies from user to user. Although methods such as collaborative filtering have been shown to be effective in recommendation systems, in a limited user environment, there are not enough users that would make collaborative filtering effective. A general framework, called iScore, is presented for defining and measuring the 'interestingness' of articles, incorporating user-feedback. iScore addresses various aspects of what makes an article interesting, such as topic relevancy, uniqueness, freshness, source reputation, and writing style. It employs various methods to measure these features and uses a classifier operating on these features to recommend articles. The basic iScore configuration is shown to improve recommendation results by as much as 20%. In addition to the basic iScore features, additional features are presented to address the deficiencies of existing feature extractors, such as one that tracks multiple topics, called MTT, and a version of the Rocchio algorithm that learns its parameters online as it processes documents, called eRocchio. The inclusion of both MTT and eRocchio into iScore is shown to improve iScore recommendation results by as much as 3.1% and 5.6%, respectively. Additionally, in TREC11 Adaptive Filter Task, eRocchio is shown to be 10% better than the best filter in the last run of the task. In addition to these two major topic relevancy measures, other features are also introduced that employ language models, phrases, clustering, and changes in topics to improve recommendation results. These additional features are shown to improve recommendation results by iScore by up to 14

  15. Measuring Perceived Sociability of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreijns, Karel; Kirschner, Paul A.; Jochems, Wim; van Buuren, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Most asynchronous computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments can be characterized as "functional" environments because they focus on functional, task-specific support, often disregarding explicit support for the social (emotional) aspects of learning in groups which are acknowledged by many educational researchers to be…

  16. Effect of flavor enhancement of foods for the elderly on nutritional status: food intake, biochemical indices, and anthropometric measures.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S; Warwick, Z S

    1993-02-01

    The irreversible declines in taste and smell acuity that occur in many elderly persons can contribute to inadequate food intake and nutrition that are prevalent among the aged. Although chemosensory deficits cannot be reversed, previous studies have shown that the addition of intense flavors to foods can compensate for perceptual losses and improve food palatability and acceptance. In this study, the effect of sustained (3 week) flavor enhancement of typical institutional foods on the diet, health, and well being of 39 elderly (average age 84.6 SE 0.81 years) retirement-home residents was evaluated. For 3 weeks subjects ate an institutional diet (unenhanced). During another 3-week period, the same subjects ate identical foods to which intense flavors were added (enhanced). The 39 subjects were tested in two groups. For group 1 the unenhanced food period preceded the enhanced food period. For group 2, the order was reversed. Food intake was measured every weekday throughout the study, and the nutritional composition of the diet was analyzed. Biochemical measures of health status were obtained at the beginning of the study (baseline) and following both the unenhanced and enhanced periods. These measures included somatomedin-C/insulin-like growth factor I, transferrin, total T- and B-lymphocytes, and routine blood chemistries. Weight, height, midarm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness were also measured. Handgrip strength and pinch strength were measured in group 1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Measuring personal heat exposure in an urban and rural environment.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Molly C; Kent, Shia T; Sloan, Meagan E; Evans, Mary B; McClure, Leslie A; Gohlke, Julia M

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have linked heat waves to adverse health outcomes using ambient temperature as a proxy for estimating exposure. The goal of the present study was to test a method for determining personal heat exposure. An occupationally exposed group (urban groundskeepers in Birmingham, AL, USA N=21), as well as urban and rural community members from Birmingham, AL (N=30) or west central AL (N=30) wore data logging temperature and light monitors clipped to the shoe for 7 days during the summer of 2012. We found that a temperature monitor clipped to the shoe provided a comfortable and feasible method for recording personal heat exposure. Ambient temperature (°C) recorded at the nearest weather station was significantly associated with personal heat exposure [β 0.37, 95%CI (0.35, 0.39)], particularly in groundskeepers who spent more of their total time outdoors [β 0.42, 95%CI (0.39, 0.46)]. Factors significantly associated with lower personal heat exposure include reported time indoors [β -2.02, 95%CI (-2.15, -1.89)], reported income>20K [β -1.05, 95%CI (-1.79, -0.30)], and measured % body fat [β -0.07, 95%CI (-0.12, -0.02)]. There were significant associations between income and % body fat with lower indoor and nighttime exposures, but not with outdoor heat exposure, suggesting modifications of the home thermal environment play an important role in determining overall heat exposure. Further delineation of the effect of personal characteristics on heat exposure may help to develop targeted strategies for preventing heat-related illness.

  18. Measuring personal heat exposure in an urban and rural environment

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, Molly C; Kent, Shia T; Sloan, Meagan E; Evans, Mary B; McClure, Leslie A; Gohlke, Julia M

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have linked heat waves to adverse health outcomes using ambient temperature as a proxy for estimating exposure. The goal of the present study was to test a method for determining personal heat exposure. An occupationally exposed group (urban groundskeepers in Birmingham, AL, USA N=21), as well as urban and rural community members from Birmingham, AL (N=30) or west central AL (N=30) wore data logging temperature and light monitors clipped to the shoe for 7 days during the summer of 2012. We found that a temperature monitor clipped to the shoe provided a comfortable and feasible method for recording personal heat exposure. Ambient temperature (°C) recorded at the nearest weather station was significantly associated with personal heat exposure [β 0.37, 95%CI (0.35, 0.39)], particularly in groundskeepers who spent more of their total time outdoors [β 0.42, 95%CI (0.39, 0.46)]. Factors significantly associated with lower personal heat exposure include reported time indoors [β −2.02, 95%CI (−2.15, −1.89)], reported income > 20K [β −1.05, 95%CI (−1.79, −0.30)], and measured % body fat [β −0.07, 95%CI (−0.12, −0.02)]. There were significant associations between income and % body fat with lower indoor and nighttime exposures, but not with outdoor heat exposure, suggesting modifications of the home thermal environment play an important role in determining overall heat exposure. Further delineation of the effect of personal characteristics on heat exposure may help to develop targeted strategies for preventing heat-related illness. PMID:25617601

  19. The Counseling Training Environment Scale (CTES): Development of a Self-Report Measure to Assess Counseling Training Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Jared Miki Jun Kong

    2012-01-01

    Based on Bronfenbrenner's (1979, 1992) ecological framework, the Counseling Training Environment Scale (CTES) was developed as a self-report measure that assesses the learning and training environment of counseling and related mental health training programs as perceived by current students. A two-phase mixed-methods design was used to create…

  20. [Complementary nutrition for the young child following the devaluation of the CFA franc (African Financial Community): 2 case studies in the Congo and Senegal urban environment].

    PubMed

    Delpeuch, F; Martin-Prével, Y; Fouéré, T; Traissac, P; Mbemba, F; Ly, C; Sy, A; Trèche, S; Maire, B

    1996-01-01

    low nutritional value of such preparations is in part compensated by the addition of sugar, though less milk is added (28% in 1994 as opposed to 43% in 1993). In Senegal, mothers do not seem to have changed their breast-feeding practices either, the age at which baby foods are introduced, or the number of times they are provided daily. The most important change is the drop in quality of food given to children, and the poorer family food for the older children. The partial switch from imported products to local produce was an expected consequence of devaluation; it is clearly confirmed here for nutrition of young children, with the consequent loss of nutritional quality (a reduction in energy density and in nutrients). The first thing needed is, therefore, an improvement in local manufacture of food supplements of good nutritional quality, for young children. Mothers also complain of the increased difficulty in managing a family diet so as to take account of economic needs, cultural values and nutrition. They therefore criticize a number of nutritional education messages that are clearly no longer appropriate to the new economic context. Finally the fact that young children are getting poorer quality nutrition is worrying for the future: if it lasts, the nutritional status of children will deteriorate; whenever possible, monitoring must be established so that measures can be taken when necessary to forestall any dramatic deterioration that would endanger the health of the children.

  1. Mathematics in Context: Measurement, Packaging and Caring for Our Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Presents examples using the context of packaging materials and their impact on the environment to help teachers and teacher educators combine mathematics and science through activities that involve higher order thinking and worthwhile tasks. (Author/MKR)

  2. Nigerian Physiotherapy Clinical Students' Perception of Their Learning Environment Measured by the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odole, Adesola C.; Oyewole, Olufemi O.; Ogunmola, Oluwasolape T.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of the learning environment and the understanding of how students learn will help teacher to facilitate learning and plan a curriculum to achieve the learning outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate undergraduate physiotherapy clinical students' perception of University of Ibadan's learning environment. Using the…

  3. Symposium on 'Geographical and geological influences on nutrition': Factors controlling the distribution of selenium in the environment and their impact on health and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher C; Fordyce, Fiona M; Rayman, Margaret P

    2010-02-01

    Se is essential to human and animal health but can be toxic in excess. An interest in its geochemistry has developed alongside a greater understanding of its function in a number of health conditions. Geology exerts a strong control on the Se status of the surface environment; low-Se rock-types (0.05-0.09 mg Se/kg) make up the majority of rocks occurring at the Earth's surface, which in turn account for the generally low levels of Se in most soils. However, there are exceptions such as associations with sulfide mineralisation and in some types of sedimentary rocks (e.g. black shales) in which contents of Se can be much higher. Baseline geochemical data now enable a comparison to be made between environmental and human Se status, although a direct link is only likely to be seen if the population is dependent on the local environment for sustenance. This situation is demonstrated with an example from the work of the British Geological Survey in the Se-deficiency belt of China. The recent fall in the daily dietary Se intake in the UK is discussed in the context of human Se status and declining use of North American wheat in bread making. Generally, US wheat has ten times more Se than UK wheat, attributed to the fact that soils from the wheat-growing belt of America are more enriched in Se to a similar order of magnitude. In agriculture effective biofortification of crops with Se-rich fertilisers must be demonstrably safe to the environment and monitored appropriately and baseline geochemical data will enable this process to be done with confidence.

  4. [A test to measure the degree of knowledge on food and nutrition at the onset of elementary school].

    PubMed

    Ivanovic Marincovich, D; Castro Gómez, C G; Ivanovic Marincovich, R

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this work was to design a test to measure the degree of knowledge on food and nutrition in school-age children from elementary first and second grades. A graphic instrument was designed according to the psychological child development and was based on the specific objectives pursued by the curriculum programs of the Ministry of Education. The test was developed around the following topics through 15 items: Area 1: Basic Concepts on Food and Nutrition (9 items) and Area 2: Food, Personal and Environmental Hygiene (9 items). The test was pilot tested on 103 school-age children of both grades (1:1), of both sexes (1:1), belonging to Peñalolén and Las Condes counties from Chile's Metropolitan Region and from high and low socioeconomic status (SES) (1:1), measured through the Graffar's Modified Method. The final version of the test was applied in a representative sample of 1.482 school-age children from Chile's Metropolitan Region from elementary first and second grades during 1986-1987. Content validity was assured by a team of judges and by the curriculum programs. Reliability was assessed by the Spearman correlation with the Spearman-Brown correction. Item-test consistency was determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Data were processed by the statistical analysis system (SAS) package. Results showed that reliability coefficient was 0.84 and item-test consistency was equal or above 0.25 in all items. It can be concluded that this test can be useful to determine the degree of knowledge on food and nutrition at the onset of elementary school, both in Chile and in other countries. PMID:9659432

  5. [A test to measure the degree of knowledge on food and nutrition at the onset of elementary school].

    PubMed

    Ivanovic Marincovich, D; Castro Gómez, C G; Ivanovic Marincovich, R

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this work was to design a test to measure the degree of knowledge on food and nutrition in school-age children from elementary first and second grades. A graphic instrument was designed according to the psychological child development and was based on the specific objectives pursued by the curriculum programs of the Ministry of Education. The test was developed around the following topics through 15 items: Area 1: Basic Concepts on Food and Nutrition (9 items) and Area 2: Food, Personal and Environmental Hygiene (9 items). The test was pilot tested on 103 school-age children of both grades (1:1), of both sexes (1:1), belonging to Peñalolén and Las Condes counties from Chile's Metropolitan Region and from high and low socioeconomic status (SES) (1:1), measured through the Graffar's Modified Method. The final version of the test was applied in a representative sample of 1.482 school-age children from Chile's Metropolitan Region from elementary first and second grades during 1986-1987. Content validity was assured by a team of judges and by the curriculum programs. Reliability was assessed by the Spearman correlation with the Spearman-Brown correction. Item-test consistency was determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Data were processed by the statistical analysis system (SAS) package. Results showed that reliability coefficient was 0.84 and item-test consistency was equal or above 0.25 in all items. It can be concluded that this test can be useful to determine the degree of knowledge on food and nutrition at the onset of elementary school, both in Chile and in other countries.

  6. An Evaluation of the Measurement of Perceived Classroom Assessment Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkharusi, Hussain

    2015-01-01

    A classroom assessment environment is a classroom context experienced by students as the teacher determines assessment purposes, develops assessment tasks, defines assessment criteria and standards, provides feedback, and monitors outcomes (Brookhart, 1997). It is usually a group experience varying from class to class dependent upon the teacher's…

  7. Shuttle measured contaminant environment and modeling for payloads. Preliminary assessment of the space telescope environment in the shuttle bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    A baseline gaseous and particulate environment of the Shuttle bay was developed based on the various measurements which were made during the first four flights of the Shuttle. The environment is described by the time dependent pressure, density, scattered molecular fluxes, the column densities and including the transient effects of water dumps, engine firings and opening and closing of the bay doors. The particulate conditions in the ambient and on surfaces were predicted as a function of the mission time based on the available data. This basic Shuttle environment when combined with the outgassing and the particulate contributions of the payloads, can provide a description of the environment of a payload in the Shuttle bay. As an example of this application, the environment of the Space Telescope in the bay, which may be representative of the environment of several payloads, was derived. Among the many findings obtained in the process of modeling the environment, one is that the payloads environment in the bay is not substantially different or more objectionable than the self-generated environment of a large payload or spacecraft. It is, however, more severe during ground facilities operations, the first 15 to 20 hours of the flight, during and for a short period after ater was dumped overboard, and the reaction control engines are being fired.

  8. Utilization of Low Gravity Environment for Measuring Liquid Viscosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin

    1998-01-01

    The method of drop coalescence is used for determining the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids. Low gravity environment is necessary in order to allow for examining large volumes affording much higher accuracy for the viscosity calculations than possible for smaller volumes available under 1 - g conditions. The drop coalescence method is preferred over the drop oscillation technique since the latter method can only be applied for liquids with vanishingly small viscosities. The technique developed relies on both the highly accurate solution of the Navier-Stokes equations as well as on data from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment. Results are presented for method validation experiments recently performed on board the NASA/KC-135 aircraft. While the numerical solution was produced using the Boundary Element Method. In these tests the viscosity of a highly viscous liquid, glycerine at room temperature, was determined using the liquid coalescence method. The results from these experiments will be discussed.

  9. Risk factors affecting child cognitive development: a summary of nutrition, environment, and maternal-child interaction indicators for sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Ford, N D; Stein, A D

    2016-04-01

    An estimated 200 million children worldwide fail to meet their development potential due to poverty, poor health and unstimulating environments. Missing developmental milestones has lasting effects on adult human capital. Africa has a large burden of risk factors for poor child development. The objective of this paper is to identify scope for improvement at the country level in three domains--nutrition, environment, and mother-child interactions. We used nationally representative data from large-scale surveys, data repositories and country reports from 2000 to 2014. Overall, there was heterogeneity in performance across domains, suggesting that each country faces distinct challenges in addressing risk factors for poor child development. Data were lacking for many indicators, especially in the mother-child interaction domain. There is a clear need to improve routine collection of high-quality, country-level indicators relevant to child development to assess risk and track progress. PMID:26358240

  10. Pneumatic permeability measurements in a fractured, partially saturated environment

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman, A.; Sully, M.; Neuman, S.; Lohrstorfer, C.

    1993-06-01

    In the context of underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, the hydraulic conductivity of the host environment is an extremely important parameter. The research task of the authors addresses the technical design of instrumentation and the theoretical aspects of air flow through fractured, unsaturated rocks. Determinations of the pneumatic permeability are being conducted at different scales in selected boreholes located in unsaturated tuff at the Apache Leap Tuff site. 1 fig.

  11. A multi-sensor oceanographic measurement system for coastal environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martini, Marinna A.; Strahle, William J.

    1993-01-01

    An instrument system has been developed for long-term sediment transport studies that uses a modular design to combine off the shelf components into a complete and flexible package. A common data storage format is used in each instrument system so that the same hardware can be assembled in different ways to address specific scientific studies with minimal engineering support and modification. Three systems have been constructed and successfully deployed to date in two different coastal environments.

  12. Nutritional Status Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts.

  13. Measuring transient high temperature thermal phenomena in hostile environment

    SciTech Connect

    Brenden, B.B.; Hartman, J.S.; Reich, F.R.

    1980-01-01

    The design of equipment for measuring temperature and strain in a rapidly heated and pressurized cylinder of stainless steel is discussed. Simultaneous cinematography of the full circumference of the cylinder without interference with temperature and strain measurements is also illustrated. The integrated system uses a reflective chamber for the sample and requires careful consideration of the spectral energy distribution utilized by each instrument.

  14. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-12-31

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''.

  15. Measuring fluid flow and heat output in seafloor hydrothermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germanovich, Leonid N.; Hurt, Robert S.; Smith, Joshua E.; Genc, Gence; Lowell, Robert P.

    2015-12-01

    We review techniques for measuring fluid flow and advective heat output from seafloor hydrothermal systems and describe new anemometer and turbine flowmeter devices we have designed, built, calibrated, and tested. These devices allow measuring fluid velocity at high- and low-temperature focused and diffuse discharge sites at oceanic spreading centers. The devices perform at ocean floor depths and black smoker temperatures and can be used to measure flow rates ranging over 2 orders of magnitude. Flow velocity is determined from the rotation rate of the rotor blades or paddle assembly. These devices have an open bearing design that eliminates clogging by particles or chemical precipitates as the fluid passes by the rotors. The devices are compact and lightweight enough for deployment from either an occupied or remotely operated submersible. The measured flow rates can be used in conjunction with vent temperature or geochemical measurements to obtain heat outputs or geochemical fluxes from both vent chimneys and diffuse flow regions. The devices have been tested on 30 Alvin dives on the Juan de Fuca Ridge and 3 Jason dives on the East Pacific Rise (EPR). We measured an anomalously low entrainment coefficient (0.064) and report 104 new measurements over a wide range of discharge temperatures (5°-363°C), velocities (2-199 cm/s), and depths (1517-2511 m). These include the first advective heat output measurements at the High Rise vent field and the first direct fluid flow measurement at Middle Valley. Our data suggest that black smoker heat output at the Main Endeavour vent field may have declined since 1994 and that after the 2005-2006 eruption, the high-temperature advective flow at the EPR 9°50'N field may have become more channelized, predominately discharging through the Bio 9 structure. We also report 16 measurements on 10 Alvin dives and 2 Jason dives with flow meters that predate devices described in this work and were used in the process of their development

  16. Vestibular ontogeny: Measuring the influence of the dynamic environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Timothy A.; Devries, Sherri M.; Dubois, Linda M.; Nelson, Rick C.

    1993-01-01

    In comparison to other special senses, we are only meagerly informed about the development of vestibular function and the mechanisms that may operate to control or influence the course of vestibular ontogeny. Perhaps one contributing factor to this disparity is the difficulty of evaluating vestibular sense organs directly and noninvasively. The present report describes a recently developed direct noninvasive vestibular function test that can be used to address many basic questions about the developing vestibular system. More particularly, the test can be used to examine the effects of the dynamic environment (e.g. gravitational field and vibration) on vestibular ontogeny.

  17. Associations between body mass index, shopping behaviors, amenity density, and characteristics of the neighborhood food environment among female adult Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants in eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; McGuirt, Jared T; Carr, Lucas J; Wu, Qiang; Keyserling, Thomas C

    2012-01-01

    We examined associations between body mass index (BMI) and the food environment among adult female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants (N = 197) in eastern North Carolina. Food venue proximity to residential addresses was calculated using a geographic information system. Walk Score was used as a measure of amenity density. Correlation and linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between BMI and distance to and use of food venues, and residential amenity density. Frequency of supercenter use was significantly inversely associated with distance to supercenters. Walk Score was significantly inversely associated with BMI. BMI was not associated with distance to or use of any particular food venue. Future studies should examine specific health-promoting elements of amenity-dense neighborhoods accessible to limited-income populations.

  18. Mobile measurement system of ECG signal in vehicle environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Kwang-seok; Lee, Sang-Ryong; Lee, Choon-Young; Kim, Myun-Hee

    2005-12-01

    This paper proposed a new method to measure the ECG signal from the driver. The ECG signal is often measured in the room. But it is mixed with many kinds of noise when it is measured during the vehicle moving. Noise occupied most many parts as the experimental among them was classified. And one suitable filter for each noise was designed. It used ALE(Adaptive Line Enhancement) to remove the noise occurred to electromagnetic wave in vehicle. To remove the noise occurred to steering or vibration of vehicle, the paper used Wavelet transformation after ALE(preprocessing filter). To realize unconscious measurement, this research used the stainless steel(not the electrode) fixed at steering wheel and designed the adaptive filter without using reference signal.

  19. Development and Datametric Properties of a Scale Measuring Students' Perceptions of the Classroom Assessment Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkharusi, Hussain

    2011-01-01

    Each classroom has its own assessment environment perceived by the students and springs from the teacher's assessment practices. Although students' perceptions of the assessment environment may influence their achievement-related outcomes, little attention has been given to the measurement of perceived classroom assessment environment. This study…

  20. MCG measurement in the environment of active magnetic shield.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, K; Kato, K; Kobayashi, K; Igarashi, A; Sato, T; Haga, A; Kasai, N

    2004-01-01

    MCG (Magnetocardiography) measurement by a SQUID gradiometer was attempted with only active magnetic shielding (active shielding). A three-axis-canceling-coil active shielding system, where three 16-10-16 turns-coil sets were put in the orthogonal directions, produces a homogeneous magnetic field in a considerable volume surrounding the center. Fluxgate sensors were used as the reference sensors of the system. The system can reduce environmental magnetic noise at low frequencies of less than a few Hz, at 50 Hz and at 150 Hz. Reducing such disturbances stabilizes biomagnetic measurement conditions for SQUIDs in the absence of magnetically shielded rooms (MSR). After filtering and averaging the measured MCG data by a first-order SQUID gradiometer with only the active shielding during the daytime, the QRS complex and T wave was clearly presented. PMID:16012640

  1. Accuracy of Measurements in Oblique Aerial Images for Urban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, W.

    2016-10-01

    Oblique aerial images have been a source of data for urban areas for several years. However, the accuracy of measurements in oblique images during this time has been limited to a single meter due to the use of direct -georeferencing technology and the underlying digital elevation model. Therefore, oblique images have been used mostly for visualization purposes. This situation changed in recent years as new methods, which allowed for a higher accuracy of exterior orientation, were developed. Current developments include the process of determining exterior orientation and the previous but still crucial process of tie point extraction. Progress in this area was shown in the ISPRS/EUROSDR Benchmark on Multi-Platform Photogrammetry and is also noticeable in the growing interest in the use of this kind of imagery. The higher level of accuracy in the orientation of oblique aerial images that has become possible in the last few years should result in a higher level of accuracy in the measurements of these types of images. The main goal of this research was to set and empirically verify the accuracy of measurements in oblique aerial images. The research focused on photogrammetric measurements composed of many images, which use a high overlap within an oblique dataset and different view angles. During the experiments, two series of images of urban areas were used. Both were captured using five DigiCam cameras in a Maltese cross configuration. The tilt angles of the oblique cameras were 45 degrees, and the position of the cameras during flight used a high grade GPS/INS navigation system. The orientation of the images was set using the Pix4D Mapper Pro software with both measurements of the in-flight camera position and the ground control points (measured with GPS RTK technology). To control the accuracy, check points were used (which were also measured with GPS RTK technology). As reference data for the whole study, an area of the city-based map was used. The archived results

  2. Force Exertion Capacity Measurements in Haptic Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munih, Marko; Bardorfer, Ales; Ceru, Bojan; Bajd, Tadej; Zupan, Anton

    2010-01-01

    An objective test for evaluating functional status of the upper limbs (ULs) in patients with muscular distrophy (MD) is presented. The method allows for quantitative assessment of the UL functional state with an emphasis on force exertion capacity. The experimental measurement setup and the methodology for the assessment of maximal exertable force…

  3. An Approach to the Measurement of Preschool Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Robert P.

    The general method of observation of education for preschool children, and the conceptual dimensions underlying the categories of experience are discussed. The technique used for measuring preschool experience is the Inventory of Children's Preschool Experience (ICPE). The scale provides a description of the experiences of specific children in the…

  4. Ground-based Measurement Of Saharan Dust In Marine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, M. J.; Ji, Q.; Tsay, S.; Hsu, C.; Hansell, R. A.; Augustine, D.

    2007-12-01

    An extensive field experiment, named NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA) was conducted during August-September of 2006 to investigate the genesis and development of hurricanes. Two ground-based mobile laboratories, Surface-sensing Measurements for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SMART) and Chemical, Optical, Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere (COMMIT), were deployed at Sal Island, Cape Verde to continuously monitor the structure and composition of the atmosphere in the major path of the Saharan Air Layer and the African Easterly Waves. A Micro-Pulse Lidar in SMART, which measures the vertical profiles of backscatter from the atmospheric particulates continuously, caught several episodes of Saharan dust layers reached the surface site. Simultaneously, physical and optical properties of aerosols (e.g., mixture of the Saharan dust and maritime aerosols) were captured by several instruments in COMMIT. In this study, we propose a novel method to separate dust properties from those of marine background aerosols by utilizing the synergy of a suite of in-situ measurements. Derived parameters are mass scattering coefficients and single scattering albedo (SSA) for dust near the surface (~10m). As a crosscheck, the SSA based on the surface measurements is compared with the result of Deep Blue satellite-based aerosol retrievals, which is now incorporated in the operational MODIS aerosol product. The presented preliminary results will be useful in studying the properties of Saharan dust originated from various source regions, which, in turns, can be used as inputs to aerosol transport models to help better understand the interactions between aerosol and cloud water cycle.

  5. Towards a mature measurement environment: Creating a software engineering research environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.

    1990-01-01

    Software engineering researchers are building tools, defining methods, and models; however, there are problems with the nature and style of the research. The research is typically bottom-up, done in isolation so the pieces cannot be easily logically or physically integrated. A great deal of the research is essentially the packaging of a particular piece of technology with little indication of how the work would be integrated with other prices of research. The research is not aimed at solving the real problems of software engineering, i.e., the development and maintenance of quality systems in a productive manner. The research results are not evaluated or analyzed via experimentation or refined and tailored to the application environment. Thus, it cannot be easily transferred into practice. Because of these limitations we have not been able to understand the components of the discipline as a coherent whole and the relationships between various models of the process and product. What is needed is a top down experimental, evolutionary framework in which research can be focused, logically and physically integrated to produce quality software productively, and evaluated and tailored to the application environment. This implies the need for experimentation, which in turn implies the need for a laboratory that is associated with the artifact we are studying. This laboratory can only exist in an environment where software is being built, i.e., as part of a real software development and maintenance organization. Thus, we propose that Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) type activities exist in all organizations to support software engineering research. We describe the SEL from a researcher's point of view, and discuss the corporate and government benefits of the SEL. The discussion focuses on the benefits to the research community.

  6. Measurement of surface reactions in the space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdou, Wedad A.; Megill, Lawrence R.; Brinza, David A.; Hart, Roger C.; Moore, R. Gilbert

    1989-01-01

    The Atomic Oxygen Measurement Spacecraft, ATOMS, and a suite of associated instruments, designed to measure the performance of improved atomic-oxygen-resistant materials and coatings in orbit and to telemeter the resulting data and video images to earth at intervals during a one-year mission, have been described in a definition study sponsored by the Langley Research Center under NASA's In-Space Technology Experiments Program. The objective of the program is to work toward an improvement of base materials and surface coatings which will resist the serious degradation experienced by the external surfaces of LEO spacecraft as a result of the ablative effects of atmospheric oxygen, possibly catalyzed by solar UV radiation. This miniature orbiting laboratory includes a radio-frequency mass spectrometer, a set of osmium actinometers, and a scanning optical microscope. The design of these instruments and their use in the overall experiment are discussed.

  7. Measuring the Restrictiveness of Living Environments for Children and Youth: Reconceptualizing Restriction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauktis, Mary E.; Huefner, Jonathan C.; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Doucette, Ann; Thompson, Ronald W.

    2009-01-01

    The "Restrictiveness of Living Environment Scale" has long been the primary way to conceptualize the "restrictiveness" of a child's living situation. However, changes in systems of care and other factors have created a need to revisit how restrictiveness is conceptualized and measured. A measure was created to assess an environment's level of…

  8. Measured Gene-by-Environment Interaction in Relation to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel; Nikolas, Molly; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To summarize and evaluate the state of knowledge regarding the role of measured gene-by-environment interactions in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Method: A selective review of methodologic issues was followed by a systematic search for relevant articles on measured gene-by-environment interactions; the search…

  9. Measuring the robustness of link prediction algorithms under noisy environment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Futian; Zeng, An; Xiao, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Link prediction in complex networks is to estimate the likelihood of two nodes to interact with each other in the future. As this problem has applications in a large number of real systems, many link prediction methods have been proposed. However, the validation of these methods is so far mainly conducted in the assumed noise-free networks. Therefore, we still miss a clear understanding of how the prediction results would be affected if the observed network data is no longer accurate. In this paper, we comprehensively study the robustness of the existing link prediction algorithms in the real networks where some links are missing, fake or swapped with other links. We find that missing links are more destructive than fake and swapped links for prediction accuracy. An index is proposed to quantify the robustness of the link prediction methods. Among the twenty-two studied link prediction methods, we find that though some methods have low prediction accuracy, they tend to perform reliably in the “noisy” environment. PMID:26733156

  10. Correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among older adults with undernourishment in residential institutions

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Devinder KA; Manaf, Zahara A; Yusoff, Noor Aini M; Muhammad, Nur A; Phan, Mei Fang; Shahar, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The consequences of combined undernourishment and decreased physical performance in older adults are debilitating and increases cost of care. To date, the information regarding the association between nutritional status and physical performance does not provide a complete picture. Most studies used limited or self-reported measures to evaluate physical performance. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among undernourished older adults who reside in residential institutions. Methods Forty-seven older adults (26 males, 21 females) aged ≥60 (69.23±8.63) years who were identified as undernourished from two residential institutions participated in this study. A battery of physical performance tests (10 m gait speed test, dominant hand grip strength test, timed five-repetition sit-to-stand test, ten step test, arm curl test, scratch test, and respiratory muscle strength test), biochemical profiles (serum albumin, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and prealbumin levels), and falls risk using the short-form Physiological Profile Approach were performed. The Functional Ability Questionnaire and Geriatric Depression Scale were also administered. Results The results demonstrated that generally older adults with undernourishment scored poorly on the physical performance tests, had depression, and a high risk of falls. Biochemical results demonstrated that 10.9% of the participants were anemic, 63% had hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dL), and 21.7% were at risk of protein energy malnutrition with prealbumin level (100–170 mg/L). A significant correlation (P<0.05) was demonstrated between hand grip strength and ferritin, between self-reported mobility dependence and prealbumin levels, and between self-reported mobility tiredness and body mass index. Conclusion These results confirm that older adults with undernutrition have poor physical function, higher falls risk, and depression

  11. Measuring human capital cost through benchmarking in health care environment.

    PubMed

    Kocakülâh, Mehmet C; Harris, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Each organization should seek to maximize its human capital investments, which ultimately lead to increased profits and asset efficiency. Service companies utilize less capital equipment and more human productivity, customer service, and/or delivery of service as the product. With the measurement of human capital, one can understand what is happening, exercise some degree of control, and make positive changes. Senior management lives or dies by the numbers and if Human Resources (HR) really wants to be a strategic business partner, HR must be judged by the same standards as everyone else in the health care organization. PMID:12462657

  12. Measuring human capital cost through benchmarking in health care environment.

    PubMed

    Kocakülâh, Mehmet C; Harris, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Each organization should seek to maximize its human capital investments, which ultimately lead to increased profits and asset efficiency. Service companies utilize less capital equipment and more human productivity, customer service, and/or delivery of service as the product. With the measurement of human capital, one can understand what is happening, exercise some degree of control, and make positive changes. Senior management lives or dies by the numbers and if Human Resources (HR) really wants to be a strategic business partner, HR must be judged by the same standards as everyone else in the health care organization.

  13. Mountain Heavy Rainfall Measurement Experiments in a Subtropical Monsoon Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jong-Dao Jou, Ben; Chi-June Jung, Ultimate; Lai, Hsiao-Wei; Feng, Lei

    2014-05-01

    Quantitative rainfall measurement experiments have been conducted in Taiwan area for the past 5 years (since 2008), especially over the complex terrain region. In this paper, results from these experiments will be analyzed and discussed, especially those associated with heavy rain events in the summer monsoon season. Observations from s-band polarimetric radar (SPOL of NCAR) and also x-band vertically-pointing radar are analyzed to reveal the high resolution temporal and spatial variation of precipitation structure. May and June, the Meiyu season in the area, are months with subtropical frontal rainfall events. Mesoscale convective systems, i.e., pre-frontal squall lines and frontal convective rainbands, are very active and frequently produce heavy rain events over mountain areas. Accurate quantitative precipitation measurements are needed in order to meet the requirement for landslide and flood early warning purpose. Using ground-based disdrometers and vertically-pointing radar, we have been trying to modify the quantitative precipitation estimation in the mountain region by using coastal operational radar. In this paper, the methodology applied will be presented and the potential of its application will be discussed. *corresponding author: Ben Jong-Dao Jou, jouben43@gmail.com

  14. "Measuring Me": Using Nutrition Education Curriculum Activities to Teach Elementary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Sara; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; Hovland, Jana; Duffrin, Melani

    2012-01-01

    "Measuring Me" is an introductory activity developed to be used while collecting pre-study anthropometric data for the Food Math and Science Teacher Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative. Using "Measuring Me" as an introductory activity for collecting anthropometric measurements in the classroom was feasible and well received by students…

  15. Defining and measuring the concept of 'community stress' for nutrition and physical activity interventions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Community-based research suggests that our physical and social environment makes a difference in our health status and that a key mechanism that relates one's context to their individual health status is stress. A better understanding of this relationship is important to healthcare providers, resear...

  16. [Management of clinical nutrition].

    PubMed

    Martín Folgueras, Tomás

    2015-05-07

    Proper management of Clinical Nutrition requires careful planning of the resources required to delineate the activities to be performed by each of the participants and consider the need for continued evaluation of the results to improve. Units of Nutrition and Nutritional Support Teams must have a multidisciplinary composition, incorporating professionals with training and experience in Clinical Nutrition. Whenever conditions permit and activity of each center indicates, the staff's dedication to nutrition must be complete. The organization of processes and use of clinical practice protocols facilitates the monitoring of the activities carried out by teams of Nutrition. Each stage of a process has quality criteria based on scientific knowledge, and some key objectives whose degree of achievement can be measured by monitoring quality indicators and their comparison with standards. Successive cycles of measurement indicators, evaluation and corrective interventions lead to continuous process improvement.

  17. Cross-Level Measurement Invariance in School and Classroom Environment Surveys: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweig, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Measures of classroom and school environments are central to policy efforts that assess school and teacher quality. These measures are often formed by aggregating individual survey responses to form group-level measures, and assume an invariant measurement model holds across the individual and group levels. This article explores the tenability of…

  18. Quantifying the urban environment: a scale measure of urbanicity outperforms the urban-rural dichotomy

    PubMed Central

    Adair, Linda S

    2007-01-01

    The rapid urbanization of the developing world has important consequences for human health. Although several authorities have called for better research on the relationships between urbanicity and health, most researchers still use a poor measurement of urbanicity, the urban-rural dichotomy. Our goal was to construct a scale of urbanicity using community level data from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. We used established scale development methods to validate the new measure and tested its performance against the dichotomy. The new scale illustrated misclassification by the urban-rural dichotomy, and was able to detect differences in urbanicity, both between communities and across time, that were not apparent before. Furthermore, using a continuous measure of urbanicity allowed for better illustrations of the relationships between urbanicity and health. The new scale is a better measure of urbanicity than the traditionally used urban-rural dichotomy. PMID:17196724

  19. Environment-physiology, diet quality and energy balance: the influence of early life nutrition on future energy balance.

    PubMed

    Burdge, Graham C; Lillycrop, Karen A

    2014-07-01

    Diseases caused by impaired regulation of energy balance, in particular obesity, represent a major global health burden. Although polymorphisms, lifestyle and dietary choices have been associated with differential risk of obesity and related conditions, a substantial proportion of the variation in disease risk remains unexplained. Evidence from epidemiological studies, natural experiments and from studies in animal models has shown that a poor intra-uterine environment is associated causally with increased risk of obesity and metabolic disease in adulthood. Induction of phenotypes that increase disease risk involves the fetus receiving cues from the mother about the environment which, via developmental plasticity, modify the phenotype of the offspring to match her environment. However, inaccurate information may induce an offspring phenotype that is mismatched to the future environment. Such mismatch has been suggested to underlie increased risk of metabolic disease associated with a poor early life environment. Recent studies have shown that induction of modified phenotypes in the offspring involves altered epigenetic regulation of specific genes. Identification of a central role of epigenetics in the aetiology of obesity and metabolic disease may facilitate the development of novel therapeutic interventions and of biomarkers of disease risk.

  20. [Nutrition and anthropobiology].

    PubMed

    Froment, A

    1992-01-01

    In analyzing the connections between nutrition and anthropology, it should be noted that the state of knowledge and available techniques are not yet sufficiently developed to support conclusions about such questions as the universality of dietary norms. Food choices are above all cultural, although they are limited by the physical environment and technological capacities. Human beings have some dietary constraints imposed by metabolic needs, but they manifest great ability to adapt to different dietary regimes, from the exclusive vegetarianism of Hindus to the almost exclusively animal-based diet of the Eskimos. In most parts of the world, the contribution of proteins is remarkably stable at about 12% of total caloric intake. Numerous examples of genetic adaptation illustrate the flexibility of humans. Many African populations, for example, have deficits of intestinal lactase, but herding groups do not. the diet of parts of the New Guinea highlands is almost completely lacking in proteins, but body growth is not inhibited. Such examples raise questions about the applicability of Recommended Dietary Allowances and evaluation of nutritional risks. Daily protein intake ranging from .2 to 5 gm/kg of body weight has been measured in different societies. WHO recommended 1.3 gm, but this norm has changed through time, and it is currently believed that total caloric intake is more important in insuring adequate growth. Food supplementation programs based on protein have generally failed. For most societies, the diet is varied enough to contain a sufficient portion of essential nutrients. Specific lacks have often been noted under very artificial conditions such as on ships at sea or in prisons. A reduction of body format may be biologically fixed quantity of food. The population of Mexico represents 24% of that of the US in individuals but only 17% in body mass. Clinical methods allow signs of deficiency at an earlier phase of development has been costly and disappointing

  1. Measurement and modeling of phosphorous transport in shallow groundwater environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, G. S.; Shukla, S.; Obreza, T. A.; Harris, W. G.

    2014-08-01

    amount of added fertilizer P between HEI (187 kg P2O5/ha) and REI (124 kg P2O5/ha), soil Mehlich 1 P (M1P) values were similar for both systems while they received Pinput. Soil M1P for REI and REI-SD increased to a maximum of 55 mg/kg while they received Pinput, and then gradually decreased after Pinput ceased. However, M1P for HEI increased steadily to a maximum of 145 mg/kg by the end of the study with continued Pinput. Mehlich-1 P measured six years after the study still showed relatively high levels of P, a legacy effect of Pinput. The main factors influencing groundwater P concentration varied by seasons. During fall with frequent rainfall, the concentrations were influenced mainly by M1P and Pinput, and highlight a need for greater focus on Pinput management (vs. water management) during this season. However, during the dry period of spring, a greater focus on irrigation management is required since depth to water table and rainfall also become contributing factors. Three multivariate models (r2 = 0.67 to 0.93), for spring, fall, and annual periods, were developed for predicting groundwater P concentrations for a wide range of water and P inputs (0 to 191 kg P2O5/ha of Pinput). The uniqueness of these models is that they use readily available hydrologic (rainfall and water table depth), management (Pinput), and soil (M1P) data commonly monitored by growers when managing water and nutrient inputs on agricultural landscapes. The development of similar models may not be necessary for other agro-ecosystems in similar regions since long-term data collected in these regions may be applied, with verification, to the models presented here.

  2. Measurement and modeling of phosphorous transport in shallow groundwater environments.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, G S; Shukla, S; Obreza, T A; Harris, W G

    2014-08-01

    added fertilizer P between HEI (187kg P2O5/ha) and REI (124kg P2O5/ha), soil Mehlich 1 P (M1P) values were similar for both systems while they received Pinput. Soil M1P for REI and REI-SD increased to a maximum of 55mg/kg while they received Pinput, and then gradually decreased after Pinput ceased. However, M1P for HEI increased steadily to a maximum of 145mg/kg by the end of the study with continued Pinput. Mehlich-1 P measured six years after the study still showed relatively high levels of P, a legacy effect of Pinput. The main factors influencing groundwater P concentration varied by seasons. During fall with frequent rainfall, the concentrations were influenced mainly by M1P and Pinput, and highlight a need for greater focus on Pinput management (vs. water management) during this season. However, during the dry period of spring, a greater focus on irrigation management is required since depth to water table and rainfall also become contributing factors. Three multivariate models (r(2)=0.67 to 0.93), for spring, fall, and annual periods, were developed for predicting groundwater P concentrations for a wide range of water and P inputs (0 to 191kg P2O5/ha of Pinput). The uniqueness of these models is that they use readily available hydrologic (rainfall and water table depth), management (Pinput), and soil (M1P) data commonly monitored by growers when managing water and nutrient inputs on agricultural landscapes. The development of similar models may not be necessary for other agro-ecosystems in similar regions since long-term data collected in these regions may be applied, with verification, to the models presented here. PMID:24981965

  3. Measurement and modeling of phosphorous transport in shallow groundwater environments.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, G S; Shukla, S; Obreza, T A; Harris, W G

    2014-08-01

    added fertilizer P between HEI (187kg P2O5/ha) and REI (124kg P2O5/ha), soil Mehlich 1 P (M1P) values were similar for both systems while they received Pinput. Soil M1P for REI and REI-SD increased to a maximum of 55mg/kg while they received Pinput, and then gradually decreased after Pinput ceased. However, M1P for HEI increased steadily to a maximum of 145mg/kg by the end of the study with continued Pinput. Mehlich-1 P measured six years after the study still showed relatively high levels of P, a legacy effect of Pinput. The main factors influencing groundwater P concentration varied by seasons. During fall with frequent rainfall, the concentrations were influenced mainly by M1P and Pinput, and highlight a need for greater focus on Pinput management (vs. water management) during this season. However, during the dry period of spring, a greater focus on irrigation management is required since depth to water table and rainfall also become contributing factors. Three multivariate models (r(2)=0.67 to 0.93), for spring, fall, and annual periods, were developed for predicting groundwater P concentrations for a wide range of water and P inputs (0 to 191kg P2O5/ha of Pinput). The uniqueness of these models is that they use readily available hydrologic (rainfall and water table depth), management (Pinput), and soil (M1P) data commonly monitored by growers when managing water and nutrient inputs on agricultural landscapes. The development of similar models may not be necessary for other agro-ecosystems in similar regions since long-term data collected in these regions may be applied, with verification, to the models presented here.

  4. Relationship of Nutrition and Physical Activity Behaviors and Fitness Measures to Academic Performance for Sixth Graders in a Midwest City School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jane U.; Mauch, Lois; Winkelman, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: To support curriculum and policy, a midwest city school district assessed the association of selected categories of nutrition and physical activity (NUTR/PA) behaviors, fitness measures, and body mass index (BMI) with academic performance (AP) for 800 sixth graders. Methods: Students completed an adapted Youth Risk Behavior…

  5. Airborne RF Measurement System (ARMS) and Analysis of Representative Flight RF Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Smith, Laura J.; Jones, Richard A.; Fleck, Vincent J.; Salud, Maria Theresa; Mielnik, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental radio frequency (RF) data over a broad band of frequencies (30 MHz to 1000 MHz) were obtained to evaluate the electromagnetic environment in airspace around several airports. An RF signal measurement system was designed utilizing a spectrum analyzer connected to the NASA Lancair Columbia 300 aircraft's VHF/UHF navigation antenna. This paper presents an overview of the RF measurement system and provides analysis of sample RF signal measurement data. This aircraft installation package and measurement system can be quickly returned to service if needed by future projects requiring measurement of an RF signal environment or exploration of suspected interference situations.

  6. We Can Do That! Collaborative Assessment of School Environments to Promote Healthy Adolescent Nutrition and Physical Activity Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan L.; Mummery, W. Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for effectiveness of school-based studies for prevention of adolescent obesity is equivocal. Tailoring interventions to specific settings is considered necessary for effectiveness and sustainability. The PRECEDE framework provides a formative research approach for comprehensive understanding of school environments and identification of…

  7. A hydrogen gas-water equilibration method produces accurate and precise stable hydrogen isotope ratio measurements in nutrition studies.

    PubMed

    Wong, William W; Clarke, Lucinda L

    2012-11-01

    Stable hydrogen isotope methodology is used in nutrition studies to measure growth, breast milk intake, and energy requirement. Isotope ratio MS is the best instrumentation to measure the stable hydrogen isotope ratios in physiological fluids. Conventional methods to convert physiological fluids to hydrogen gas (H(2)) for mass spectrometric analysis are labor intensive, require special reagent, and involve memory effect and potential isotope fractionation. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy and precision of a platinum catalyzed H(2)-water equilibration method for stable hydrogen isotope ratio measurements. Time to reach isotopic equilibrium, day-to-day and week-to-week reproducibility, accuracy, and precision of stable hydrogen isotope ratio measurements by the H(2)-water equilibration method were assessed using a Thermo DELTA V Advantage continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer. It took 3 h to reach isotopic equilibrium. The day-to-day and week-to-week measurements on water and urine samples with natural abundance and enriched levels of deuterium were highly reproducible. The method was accurate to within 2.8 (o)/oo and reproducible to within 4.0 (o)/oo based on analysis of international references. All the outcome variables, whether in urine samples collected in 10 doubly labeled water studies or plasma samples collected in 26 body water studies, did not differ from those obtained using the reference zinc reduction method. The method produced highly accurate estimation on ad libitum energy intakes, body composition, and water turnover rates. The method greatly reduces the analytical cost and could easily be adopted by laboratories equipped with a continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer.

  8. A Hydrogen Gas-Water Equilibration Method Produces Accurate and Precise Stable Hydrogen Isotope Ratio Measurements in Nutrition Studies12

    PubMed Central

    Wong, William W.; Clarke, Lucinda L.

    2012-01-01

    Stable hydrogen isotope methodology is used in nutrition studies to measure growth, breast milk intake, and energy requirement. Isotope ratio MS is the best instrumentation to measure the stable hydrogen isotope ratios in physiological fluids. Conventional methods to convert physiological fluids to hydrogen gas (H2) for mass spectrometric analysis are labor intensive, require special reagent, and involve memory effect and potential isotope fractionation. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy and precision of a platinum catalyzed H2-water equilibration method for stable hydrogen isotope ratio measurements. Time to reach isotopic equilibrium, day-to-day and week-to-week reproducibility, accuracy, and precision of stable hydrogen isotope ratio measurements by the H2-water equilibration method were assessed using a Thermo DELTA V Advantage continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer. It took 3 h to reach isotopic equilibrium. The day-to-day and week-to-week measurements on water and urine samples with natural abundance and enriched levels of deuterium were highly reproducible. The method was accurate to within 2.8 o/oo and reproducible to within 4.0 o/oo based on analysis of international references. All the outcome variables, whether in urine samples collected in 10 doubly labeled water studies or plasma samples collected in 26 body water studies, did not differ from those obtained using the reference zinc reduction method. The method produced highly accurate estimation on ad libitum energy intakes, body composition, and water turnover rates. The method greatly reduces the analytical cost and could easily be adopted by laboratories equipped with a continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer. PMID:23014490

  9. Measuring the Computer Classroom Environment: Lessons Learned from Using a New Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Keri A.; Crump, Barbara J.; Rennie, Leonie J.

    2006-01-01

    Research over the last four decades has shown that the classroom learning environment impacts on students' cognitive and affective outcomes. Different approaches have been taken to measure students' perceptions of their learning environment, and this has led to the development of a large number of survey instruments. One such instrument is the…

  10. Evaluation of a Brazilian Postgraduate Dental Program by the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    do Vale Placa, Rebeca; Ragghianti Zangrando, Mariana S.; Sant'Ana, Adriana C. P.; Greghi, Sebastião L. A.; de Rezende, Maria Lucia R.; Damante, Carla A.

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of education environment is essential to provide to the professors a better understanding of the teaching process. One valuable tool for this assessment is the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM). This questionnaire has 50 questions and is divided in five dimensions: D1--Perceptions of teaching, D2--Perceptions of…

  11. Prevalence and measures of nutritional compromise among nursing home patients: weight loss, low body mass index, malnutrition, and feeding dependency, a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bell, Christina L; Tamura, Bruce K; Masaki, Kamal H; Amella, Elaine J

    2013-02-01

    Weight loss and poor nutrition have been important considerations in measuring quality of nursing home care since 1987. Our purpose was to examine, synthesize, and provide a systematic review of the current literature on the prevalence and definitions of nutritional problems in nursing home residents. In the fall of 2011, we performed MEDLINE searches of English-language articles published after January 1, 1990. Articles were systematically selected for inclusion if they presented prevalence data for general nursing home populations on at least one of the following: weight loss, low body mass index, Mini-Nutritional Assessment or other measure of malnutrition, poor oral intake, or dependency for feeding. Data on each study, including study author, year, setting, population, type of study (study design), measures, and results, were systematically extracted onto standard matrix tables by consensus by a team of two fellowship-trained medical school faculty geriatrician clinician-researchers with significant experience in long term care. The MEDLINE search yielded 672 studies plus 229 studies identified through related citations and reference lists. Of the 77 studies included, 11 articles provided prevalence data from the baseline data of an intervention study, and 66 articles provided prevalence data in the context of an observational study of nutrition. There is a wide range of prevalence of low body mass index, poor appetite, malnutrition, and eating disability reported among nursing home residents. Studies demonstrate a lack of standardized definitions and great variability among countries. Of all the measures, the Minimum Data Set (MDS) weight loss definition of ≥5% in 1 month or ≥10% in 6 months had the narrowest range of prevalence rate: 6% to 15%. Weight loss, as measured by the MDS, may be the most easily replicated indicator of nutritional problems in nursing home residents for medical directors to follow for quality-improvement purposes. Additional

  12. Nutritional Concerns of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Rice, Barbara L.

    2002-01-01

    Nutrition has played a critical role throughout the history of exploration, and space exploration is no exception. While a one- to two-week flight aboard the Space Shuttle might be analogous to a camping trip, adequate nutrition is absolutely critical while spending several months on the International Space Station (Figure 1) or several years on a mission to another planet. To ensure adequate nutrition, space nutrition specialists must know how much of the individual nutrients astronauts need, and these nutrients must be available in the spaceflight food system. To complicate matters, these spaceflight nutritional requirements are influenced by many of the physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. In this chapter, we describe some of these changes, their impact on crew health, and ways NASA is investigating how to minimize these changes. We also review the space food systems, issues involved in setting up a cafeteria in a weightless environment, and information about dietary intake of nutrients during space missions

  13. Importance of Accurate Measurements in Nutrition Research: Dietary Flavonoids as a Case Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate measurements of the secondary metabolites in natural products and plant foods are critical to establishing diet/health relationships. There are as many as 50,000 secondary metabolites which may influence human health. Their structural and chemical diversity present a challenge to analytic...

  14. A statistical model for measurement error that incorporates variation over time in the target measure, with application to nutritional epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Laurence S; Midthune, Douglas; Dodd, Kevin W; Carroll, Raymond J; Kipnis, Victor

    2015-11-30

    Most statistical methods that adjust analyses for measurement error assume that the target exposure T is a fixed quantity for each individual. However, in many applications, the value of T for an individual varies with time. We develop a model that accounts for such variation, describing the model within the framework of a meta-analysis of validation studies of dietary self-report instruments, where the reference instruments are biomarkers. We demonstrate that in this application, the estimates of the attenuation factor and correlation with true intake, key parameters quantifying the accuracy of the self-report instrument, are sometimes substantially modified under the time-varying exposure model compared with estimates obtained under a traditional fixed-exposure model. We conclude that accounting for the time element in measurement error problems is potentially important.

  15. The association between nutrition transition score and measures of obesity: results from a cross-sectional study among Latina/o immigrants in Baltimore

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    on females than males. Conclusion These results suggest that country of origin’s nutrition transition score and gender affect Latino immigrants’ objective and subjective measures of weight. Future investigation should investigate the relationship between gender and the nutrition transition in Latin America and how the nutrition transition globalizes obesity and weight consciousness. PMID:25001844

  16. Nutrition Education and Gerontology Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckler, Terry Anne; Vogler, James D.

    The Nutrition and Gerontology Services Project attempted to affect basal nutrition knowledge and address dietary changes for 478 California senior citizens who were live-in residents in homes for the aged. Two instruments were employed to measure study variables. Knowledge of nutrition was measured by the Nutritional Learning Scale, an orally…

  17. Measuring the built environment for physical activity: state of the science.

    PubMed

    Brownson, Ross C; Hoehner, Christine M; Day, Kristen; Forsyth, Ann; Sallis, James F

    2009-04-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important public health issues in the U.S. and internationally. Increasingly, links are being identified between various elements of the physical-or built-environment and physical activity. To understand the impact of the built environment on physical activity, the development of high-quality measures is essential. Three categories of built environment data are being used: (1) perceived measures obtained by telephone interview or self-administered questionnaires; (2) observational measures obtained using systematic observational methods (audits); and (3) archival data sets that are often layered and analyzed with GIS. This review provides a critical assessment of these three types of built-environment measures relevant to the study of physical activity. Among perceived measures, 19 questionnaires were reviewed, ranging in length from 7 to 68 questions. Twenty audit tools were reviewed that cover community environments (i.e., neighborhoods, cities), parks, and trails. For GIS-derived measures, more than 50 studies were reviewed. A large degree of variability was found in the operationalization of common GIS measures, which include population density, land-use mix, access to recreational facilities, and street pattern. This first comprehensive examination of built-environment measures demonstrates considerable progress over the past decade, showing diverse environmental variables available that use multiple modes of assessment. Most can be considered first-generation measures, so further development is needed. In particular, further research is needed to improve the technical quality of measures, understand the relevance to various population groups, and understand the utility of measures for science and public health.

  18. Geometric measure of quantum correlation: The influence of the asymmetry environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qinsheng; Ding, Changchun; Wu, Shaoyi; Lai, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The quantum correlation in open quantum systems is of fundamental and practical importance for quantum information processing and controllable nanometer devices. And the properties of quantum correlation can be influenced by the information flow between systems and environments. In this study, we investigated the geometric measure discord of quantum correlation of a two qubits system, interacting with two independent and intrinsic interacting spin-environments, respectively. Based on the asymmetry environments with comparable parameters, the different properties of the geometric measure of entanglement and quantum discord are displayed and discussed for initial Bell states.

  19. Protecting tripartite entanglement in non-Markovian environments via quantum partially collapsing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhi-Yong; He, Juan; Ye, Liu

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the dynamics of tripartite entanglement via π -tangle in independent non-Markovian environments is investigated. The results indicate that the π -tangle vanishes periodically as decoherence time increases with a damping of its revival amplitude due to the memory of the non-Markovian environments. In addition, we present a scheme to protect entanglement of W state from non-Markovian environments by means of the quantum partially collapsing measurements. It is worth mentioning that our scheme is a successful protection for the tripartite quantum system and the effect is better for the larger measurement strength, while the stronger decoherence suppression induces smaller success probability.

  20. The Kety-Schmidt Technique for Quantitative Perfusion and Oxygen Metabolism Measurements in the MR Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John J.; Powers, William J.; Faulkner, Chad B.; Boyle, Patrick J.; Derdeyn, Colin P.

    2013-01-01

    The Kety-Schmidt technique provides quantitative measurement of whole brain cerebral blood flow (CBF). CBF is measured as the area between the arterial and venous washout curves of a diffusible tracer. Oxygen extraction and metabolism may be calculated from arterial and venous samples. In this report we present a method for performing these measurements in an MR environment. This technique could be useful for validation of MR methods of hemodynamic and metabolic measurements in humans. PMID:22997166

  1. Measuring Physical Activity in Outdoor Community Recreational Environments: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sydney A.; Stransky, Michelle; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) are major contributors to escalating health care costs in the USA. Physical activity is an important protective factor against CVD, and the National Prevention Strategy recognizes active living (defined as a way of life that integrates physical activity into everyday routines) as a priority for improving the nation’s health. This paper focuses on developing more inclusive measures of physical activity in outdoor community recreational environments, specifically parks and trails, to enhance their usability for at-risk populations such as persons with mobility limitations. We develop an integrated conceptual framework for measuring physical activity in outdoor community recreational environments, describe examples of evidence-based tools for measuring physical activity in these settings, and discuss strategies to improve measurement of physical activity for persons with mobility limitations. Addressing these measurement issues is critically important to making progress towards national CVD goals pertaining to active community environments. PMID:26005510

  2. Physician nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Kiraly, Laszlo N; McClave, Stephen A; Neel, Dustin; Evans, David C; Martindale, Robert G; Hurt, Ryan T

    2014-06-01

    Nutrition education for physicians in the United States is limited in scope, quality, and duration due to a variety of factors. As new data and quality improvement initiatives highlight the importance of nutrition and a generation of nutrition experts retire, there is a need for new physician educators and leaders in clinical nutrition. Traditional nutrition fellowships and increased didactic lecture time in school and postgraduate training are not feasible strategies to develop the next generation of physician nutrition specialists in the current environment. One strategy is the development of short immersion courses for advanced trainees and junior attendings. The most promising courses include a combination of close mentorship and adult learning techniques such as lectures, clinical experiences, literature review, curricular development, research and writing, multidisciplinary interactions, and extensive group discussion. These courses also allow the opportunity for advanced discourse, development of long-term collaborative relationships, and continued longitudinal career development for alumni after the course ends. Despite these curricular developments, ultimately the field of nutrition will not mature until the American Board of Medical Specialties recognizes nutrition medicine with specialty board certification.

  3. Interactive effects of nutrition, environment, and rat-strain on cortical and vertebral bone geometry and biomechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zernicke, R. F.; Li, K.-C.; Salem, G. J.; Vailas, A. C.; Grindeland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to generate comparative data on the sensitivity of cortical- and vertebral-bone adaptations in two different rat strains maintained at conditions typical for spaceborne experiments conducted by U.S.A. and USSR. The effects of cage environment, diet, and rat-strain on the cortical (humerus) and vertebral (T7) bones of male Taconic-Sprague-Dawley and Czechoslovakian-Wistar rats were investigated using different flight-simulation cages (one rat/cage for U.S.A.; ten rats/cage for USSR conditions) and fed either U.S.A. or USSR diet. The results showed significant effects of these factors on the humeral and vertebral geometry and mechanical properties, as well as significant interactive effects on the mechanical properties of the humerus.

  4. Nutrition and Physical Activity Environments of Home-Based Child Care: What Hispanic Providers Have to Say

    PubMed Central

    Mena, Noereem Z.; Risica, Patricia; Gorham, Gemma; Gans, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: It is important to understand the perceptions and beliefs of family child care providers (FCCPs) regarding which factors influence children's physical activity (PA), screen-time (ST), and dietary behaviors in order to develop and implement appropriate obesity prevention interventions. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the aforementioned perceptions and beliefs of FCCPs in Rhode Island. Methods: Four focus groups (n = 30) were held with FCCPs. Providers were female, Hispanic, and Spanish speaking. Providers were asked about different aspects of feeding, PA, and ST behaviors. Themes were coded using NVivo10 (QSR International Pty Ltd, Doncaster, Victoria, Australia). Content analysis was used to analyze final themes. Results: Providers understood the importance of providing opportunities for healthy eating and PA for the children they cared for, but there was room for improvement, especially with regard to certain feeding and ST practices. Several barriers were evident, including the lack of physical infrastructure for PA, cultural beliefs and practices related to child feeding, and difficulties working with parents to provide consistent messages across environments. Conclusions: Given that FCCPs are aware of the importance of healthy eating and PA, there is a need to address the specific barriers they face, and operationalize some of their knowledge into practical everyday actions. This formative work will inform the development of a culturally relevant, multicomponent intervention for ethnically diverse FCCPs to improve the food and PA environments of their homes, which should, in turn, improve the dietary, PA, and ST behaviors of the 2- to 5-year-old children they care for. PMID:26332455

  5. The changing nutrition scenario

    PubMed Central

    Gopalan, C.

    2013-01-01

    The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and ‘Green Revolution fatigue’. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and “hidden hunger” from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large. PMID:24135189

  6. Measurement with verification of stationary signals and noise in extremely quiet environments: Measuring below the noise floor

    PubMed Central

    Ellingson, Roger M.; Gallun, Frederick J.; Bock, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    It can be problematic to measure stationary acoustic sound pressure level in any environment when the target level approaches or lies below the minimum measureable sound pressure level of the measurement system itself. This minimum measureable level, referred to as the inherent measurement system noise floor, is generally established by noise emission characteristics of measurement system components such as microphones, preamplifiers, and other system circuitry. In this paper, methods are presented and shown accurate measuring stationary levels within 20 dB above and below this system noise floor. Methodology includes (1) measuring inherent measurement system noise, (2) subtractive energy based, inherent noise adjustment of levels affected by system noise floor, and (3) verifying accuracy of inherent noise adjustment technique. While generalizable to other purposes, the techniques presented here were specifically developed to quantify ambient noise levels in very quiet rooms used to evaluate free-field human hearing thresholds. Results obtained applying the methods to objectively measure and verify the ambient noise level in an extremely quiet room, using various measurement system noise floors and analysis bandwidths, are presented and discussed. The verified results demonstrate the adjustment method can accurately extend measurement range to 20 dB below the measurement system noise floor, and how measurement system frequency bandwidth can affect accuracy of reported noise levels. PMID:25786932

  7. The Development and Validation of an End-User Satisfaction Measure in a Student Laptop Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung; Meng, Juan; Kalinowski, Jon; Shin, Dooyoung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the development and validation of a measurement model for student user satisfaction in a laptop environment. Using a "quasi Delphi" method in addition to contributions from prior research we used EFA and CFA (LISREL) to identify a five factor (14 item) measurement model that best fit the data. The…

  8. An examination of speech reception thresholds measured in a simulated reverberant cafeteria environment

    PubMed Central

    Best, Virginia; Keidser, Gitte; Buchholz, J(x004E7)rg M.; Freeston, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is increasing demand in the hearing research community for the creation of laboratory environments that better simulate challenging real-world listening environments. The hope is that the use of such environments for testing will lead to more meaningful assessments of listening ability, and better predictions about the performance of hearing devices. Here we present one approach for simulating a complex acoustic environment in the laboratory, and investigate the effect of transplanting a speech test into such an environment. Design Speech reception thresholds were measured in a simulated reverberant cafeteria, and in a more typical anechoic laboratory environment containing background speech babble. Study Sample The participants were 46 listeners varying in age and hearing levels, including 25 hearing-aid wearers who were tested with and without their hearing aids. Results Reliable SRTs were obtained in the complex environment, but led to different estimates of performance and hearing aid benefit from those measured in the standard environment. Conclusions The findings provide a starting point for future efforts to increase the real-world relevance of laboratory-based speech tests. PMID:25853616

  9. Nutrition Counter

    MedlinePlus

    ... Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient AAKP Nutrition Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient Buy ... Harum RD, CSR, LD Certified Specialist in Renal Nutrition, Miami, Florida Reviewed by: 2005 – Maria Karalis, MBA, ...

  10. The concordance of directly and indirectly measured built environment attributes and physical activity adoption

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) adoption is essential for obesity prevention and control, yet ethnic minority women report lower levels of PA and are at higher risk for obesity and its comorbidities compared to Caucasians. Epidemiological studies and ecologic models of health behavior suggest that built environmental factors are associated with health behaviors like PA, but few studies have examined the association between built environment attribute concordance and PA, and no known studies have examined attribute concordance and PA adoption. Purpose The purpose of this study was to associate the degree of concordance between directly and indirectly measured built environment attributes with changes in PA over time among African American and Hispanic Latina women participating in a PA intervention. Method Women (N = 410) completed measures of PA at Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2); environmental data collected at T1 were used to compute concordance between directly and indirectly measured built environment attributes. The association between changes in PA and the degree of concordance between each directly and indirectly measured environmental attribute was assessed using repeated measures analyses. Results There were no significant associations between built environment attribute concordance values and change in self-reported or objectively measured PA. Self-reported PA significantly increased over time (F(1,184) = 7.82, p = .006), but this increase did not vary by ethnicity or any built environment attribute concordance variable. Conclusions Built environment attribute concordance may not be associated with PA changes over time among minority women. In an effort to promote PA, investigators should clarify specific built environment attributes that are important for PA adoption and whether accurate perceptions of these attributes are necessary, particularly among the vulnerable population of minority women. PMID:21736740

  11. Women's higher health risks in the obesogenic environment: a gender nutrition approach to metabolic dimorphism with predictive, preventive, and personalised medicine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Women's evolution for nurturing and fat accumulation, which historically yielded health and longevity advantages against scarcity, may now be counteracted by increasing risks in the obesogenic environment, recently shown by narrowing gender health gap. Women's differential metabolism/disease risks, i.e. in fat accumulation/distribution, exemplified during puberty/adolescence, suggest gender dimorphism with obesity outcomes. Women's higher body fat percentage than men, even with equal body mass index, may be a better risk predictor. Differential metabolic responses to weight-reduction diets, with women's lower abdominal fat loss, better response to high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate diets, higher risks with sedentariness vs. exercise benefits, and tendency toward delayed manifestation of central obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers until menopause—but accelerated thereafter—suggest a need for differing metabolic and chronological perspectives for prevention/intervention. These perspectives, including women's differential responses to lifestyle changes, strongly support further research with a gender nutrition emphasis within predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine. PMID:23311512

  12. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  13. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Nutrition education is the theme of this issue of "Children in the Tropics," which emphasizes an analysis of the situation of nutrition education programs, particularly in third world countries. It is noted that in most cases, it is necessary to integrate aspects of nutrition education into broader programs that encompass agricultural and food…

  14. Going beyond nutrition: regulation of potassium homoeostasis as a common denominator of plant adaptive responses to environment.

    PubMed

    Anschütz, Uta; Becker, Dirk; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-05-15

    Partially and fully completed plant genome sequencing projects in both lower and higher plants allow drawing a comprehensive picture of the molecular and structural diversities of plant potassium transporter genes and their encoded proteins. While the early focus of the research in this field was aimed on the structure-function studies and understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying K(+) transport, availability of Arabidopsis thaliana mutant collections in combination with micro-array techniques have significantly advanced our understanding of K(+) channel physiology, providing novel insights into the transcriptional regulation of potassium homeostasis in plants. More recently, posttranslational regulation of potassium transport systems has moved into the center stage of potassium transport research. The current review is focused on the most exciting developments in this field. By summarizing recent work on potassium transporter regulation we show that potassium transport in general, and potassium channels in particular, represent important targets and are mediators of the cellular responses during different developmental stages in a plant's life cycle. We show that regulation of intracellular K(+) homeostasis is essential to mediate plant adaptive responses to a broad range of abiotic and biotic stresses including drought, salinity, and oxidative stress. We further link post-translational regulation of K(+) channels with programmed cell death and show that K(+) plays a critical role in controlling the latter process. Thus, is appears that K(+) is not just the essential nutrient required to support optimal plant growth and yield but is also an important signaling agent mediating a wide range of plant adaptive responses to environment.

  15. Going beyond nutrition: regulation of potassium homoeostasis as a common denominator of plant adaptive responses to environment.

    PubMed

    Anschütz, Uta; Becker, Dirk; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-05-15

    Partially and fully completed plant genome sequencing projects in both lower and higher plants allow drawing a comprehensive picture of the molecular and structural diversities of plant potassium transporter genes and their encoded proteins. While the early focus of the research in this field was aimed on the structure-function studies and understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying K(+) transport, availability of Arabidopsis thaliana mutant collections in combination with micro-array techniques have significantly advanced our understanding of K(+) channel physiology, providing novel insights into the transcriptional regulation of potassium homeostasis in plants. More recently, posttranslational regulation of potassium transport systems has moved into the center stage of potassium transport research. The current review is focused on the most exciting developments in this field. By summarizing recent work on potassium transporter regulation we show that potassium transport in general, and potassium channels in particular, represent important targets and are mediators of the cellular responses during different developmental stages in a plant's life cycle. We show that regulation of intracellular K(+) homeostasis is essential to mediate plant adaptive responses to a broad range of abiotic and biotic stresses including drought, salinity, and oxidative stress. We further link post-translational regulation of K(+) channels with programmed cell death and show that K(+) plays a critical role in controlling the latter process. Thus, is appears that K(+) is not just the essential nutrient required to support optimal plant growth and yield but is also an important signaling agent mediating a wide range of plant adaptive responses to environment. PMID:24635902

  16. Measurement and Characterization of the Acceleration Environment on Board the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baugher, Charles R. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This workshop provides a comprehensive overview of the work and status of each of these areas to provide a basis for establishing a systematic approach to the challenge of avoiding these difficulties during the Space Station era of materials experimentation. The discussions were arranged in the order of: the scientific understanding of the requirements for a micro-gravity environment, a history of acceleration measurements on spacecraft, the state of accelerometer technology, and the current understanding of the predicted Space Station environment.

  17. The Healthy Communities Study Nutrition Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Wakimoto, Patricia; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Thompson, Frances E.; Loria, Catherine M.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Kao, Janice; Crawford, Patricia B.; Webb, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    Multifaceted community interventions directed at improving food environments are emerging, but their impact on dietary change and obesity prevalence has not been documented adequately. The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is seeking to identify characteristics and combinations of programs and policies that are associated with children’s diets and obesity-related outcomes in various types of communities across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used in 2013–2015 in the HCS to assess dietary intake, school nutrition environments, and other nutrition-related behaviors. The conceptual framework of the HCS is based on the socioecological model and behaviors shown in previous studies to be related to obesity in children-guided selection of domains. Nine domains were identified as essential measures of nutrition in the HCS: (1) intake of selected foods and beverages; (2) food patterns and behaviors; (3) social support; (4) home environment; (5) school environment; (6) community environment; (7) breastfeeding history; (8) household food insecurity; and (9) dieting behaviors and body image. Children’s dietary intake was assessed using a dietary screener and up to two automated 24-hour recalls. Dietary-related behaviors were assessed by a survey administered to the parent, child, or both, depending on child age. School nutrition measures were obtained from a combination of school staff surveys and researcher observations. Information from these measures is expected to contribute to a better understanding of “what is working” to improve the dietary behaviors that are likely to prevent obesity and improve health in children. PMID:26384936

  18. Enhancing Robustness of Entanglement in Finite Temperature Environment Using Quantum Measurement Reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yao-Hua; Tong, Lei; Tan, Yong-Gang; Fang, Mao-Fa

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate methods of enhancing robustness of entanglement of two-qubit systems undergoing generalized amplitude damping decoherence using weak measurement and measurement reversal. The results show that the local action of generalized amplitude damping noise can cause sudden death of entanglement, and the weak measurement and measurement reversal is useful for combating generalized amplitude damping decoherence and recovering the entanglement of two entangled qubits. In addition, the results indicate that it would be much more easily implemented by applying quantum measurement reversal on a single-qubit to enhance robustness of entanglement in finite temperature environment, than on both qubits.

  19. Recovering full coherence in a qubit by measuring half of its environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miatto, Filippo M.; Piché, Kevin; Brougham, Thomas; Boyd, Robert W.

    2015-12-01

    When a quantum system interacts with its environment it may incur in decoherence. Quantum erasure makes it possible to restore coherence in a system by gaining information about its environment, but measuring the whole of it may be prohibitive: Realistically, one might be forced to address only an accessible subspace and neglect the rest. In such a case, under what conditions will quantum erasure still be effective? In this work we compute analytically the largest recoverable coherence of a random qubit plus environment state and we show that it approaches 100% with overwhelmingly high probability as long as the dimension of the accessible subspace of the environment is larger than √{D }, where D is the dimension of the whole environment. Additionally, we find a sharp transition between a linear behavior and a power-law behavior as soon as the dimension of the inaccessible environment exceeds the dimension of the accessible one. Our results imply that the typical states of a qubit plus environment system admit a measurement spanning only about √{D } degrees of freedom, any outcome of which projects the qubit on a maximally coherent state. This suggests, for instance, that in the dynamics of open quantum systems, if the interactions are known, it would in principle be possible to gain sufficient information and restore coherence in a qubit by dealing with a fraction of the physical resources.

  20. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and temperature effects on seed composition, mineral nutrition, and 15N and 13C dynamics in soybean genotypes under controlled environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed nutrition of crops can be affected by global climate changes due to elevated CO2 and elevated temperatures. Information on the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on seed nutrition is very limited in spite of its importance to seed quality and food security. Therefore, the objective of this...

  1. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover.

    PubMed

    Hassler, Donald M; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L; Brinza, David E; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P

    2014-01-24

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  2. Mars' Surface Radiation Environment Measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Brinza, David E.; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A.; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P.; MSL Science Team; Kemppinen, Osku; Cremers, David; Bell, James F.; Edgar, Lauren; Farmer, Jack; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Blank, Jennifer; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stack, Katie; Stolper, Edward; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Léveillé, Richard; Marchand, Geneviève; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Hettrich, Sebastian; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; López, Sara Navarro; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pla-García, Jorge; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio José; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Berger, Thomas; Matthia, Daniel; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Kemppinen, Osku; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Fabre, Cécile; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Gupta, Sanjeev; Bish, David; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; d'Uston, Claude; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Israël, Guy; Szopa, Cyril; Dromart, Gilles; Robert, François; Sautter, Violaine; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Nachon, Marion; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; Clegg, Sam; Cousin, Agnès; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Wiens, Roger C.; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Treiman, Allan; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Edgett, Kenneth; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; Malin, Michael; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Dyar, M. Darby; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; DesMarais, David; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Conrad, Pamela; Dworkin, Jason P.; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Jones, Andrea; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Meyer, Michael; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C.; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Blaney, Diana; Calef, Fred; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; DeFlores, Lauren; Ehlmann, Bethany; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Flesch, Gregory; Hurowitz, Joel; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Mischna, Michael; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; Juarez, Manuel de la Torre; Webster, Christopher R.; Yen, Albert; Archer, Paul Douglas; Jones, John H.; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard V.; Niles, Paul; Rampe, Elizabeth; Nolan, Thomas; Fisk, Martin; Radziemski, Leon; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Tokar, Robert; Vaniman, David; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Yingst, Aileen; Lewis, Kevin; Leshin, Laurie; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Grant, John; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Hamilton, Victoria; Peterson, Joseph; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Clark, Benton; Wolff, Michael; McLennan, Scott; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Anderson, Ryan B.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Ávalos, Juan José Blanco; Ramos, Miguel; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; Navarro-González, Rafael; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Dietrich, William; Kortmann, Onno; Palucis, Marisa; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Rubin, David; Jakosky, Bruce; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Frydenvang, Jens; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Kinch, Kjartan; Koefoed, Asmus; Madsen, Morten Bo; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; Perrett, Glynis; Pradler, Irina; VanBommel, Scott; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Savijärvi, Hannu; García, César Martín; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Bridges, John C.; McConnochie, Timothy; Benna, Mehdi; Franz, Heather; Bower, Hannah; Brunner, Anna; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Atreya, Sushil; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Gordon, Suzanne; Newsom, Horton; Ollila, Ann; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Kah, Linda C.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey; Moores, John E.

    2014-01-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  3. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover.

    PubMed

    Hassler, Donald M; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L; Brinza, David E; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P

    2014-01-24

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment. PMID:24324275

  4. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gilbert F.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are perspectives on the emergence of environmental problems. Six major trends in scientific thinking are identified including: holistic approaches to examining environments, life support systems, resource management, risk assessment, streamlined methods for monitoring environmental change, and emphasis on the global framework. (Author/SA)

  5. An Inexpensive, Stable, and Accurate Relative Humidity Measurement Method for Challenging Environments

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Ma, Hong; Yang, Simon X.

    2016-01-01

    In this research, an improved psychrometer is developed to solve practical issues arising in the relative humidity measurement of challenging drying environments for meat manufacturing in agricultural and agri-food industries. The design in this research focused on the structure of the improved psychrometer, signal conversion, and calculation methods. The experimental results showed the effect of varying psychrometer structure on relative humidity measurement accuracy. An industrial application to dry-cured meat products demonstrated the effective performance of the improved psychrometer being used as a relative humidity measurement sensor in meat-drying rooms. In a drying environment for meat manufacturing, the achieved measurement accuracy for relative humidity using the improved psychrometer was ±0.6%. The system test results showed that the improved psychrometer can provide reliable and long-term stable relative humidity measurements with high accuracy in the drying system of meat products. PMID:26999161

  6. The DREEM, part 1: measurement of the educational environment in an osteopathy teaching program

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Measurement of the educational environment has become more common in health professional education programs. Information gained from these investigations can be used to implement and measure changes to the curricula, educational delivery and the physical environment. A number of questionnaires exist to measure the educational environment, and the most commonly utilised of these is the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM). Methods The DREEM was administered to students in all year levels of the osteopathy program at Victoria University (VU), Melbourne, Australia. Students also completed a demographic survey. Inferential and correlational statistics were employed to investigate the educational environment based on the scores obtained from the DREEM. Results A response rate of 90% was achieved. The mean total DREEM score was 135.37 (+/- 19.33) with the scores ranging from 72 to 179. Some subscales and items demonstrated differences for gender, clinical phase, age and whether the student was in receipt of a government allowance. Conclusions There are a number of areas in the program that are performing well, and some aspects that could be improved. Overall students rated the VU osteopathy program as more positive than negative. The information obtained in the present study has identified areas for improvement and will enable the program leaders to facilitate changes. It will also provide other educational institutions with data on which they can make comparisons with their own programs. PMID:24884931

  7. Influence of data acquisition environment on accuracy of acoustic voice quality measurements.

    PubMed

    Deliyski, Dimitar D; Evans, Maegan K; Shaw, Heather S

    2005-06-01

    Accuracy of acoustic voice analysis is influenced by the quality of recording. Lately, articles have suggested that soundcards perform equivalently to specialized professional-grade data acquisition (DA) systems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of DA environment (DA system and microphone) on acoustic voice quality measurement (VQM) while balancing for gender, age, intersubject and intrasubject variability, and analysis software. More specifically, the relative performance of different hardware environments and the relationship between their technical characteristics and VQM performance was investigated. The discretization error and the effective dynamic range of the different DA environments were measured. We used 3 software systems to record and measure separately 2000 acoustic samples of sustained phonation for fundamental frequency, jitter, and shimmer. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) were performed with these parameters as the dependent variables. The results of the study suggested that professional-grade DA hardware is strongly recommended to provide accurate and valid voice assessment. The fundamental frequency measurement differences across DA environments were highly correlated to the discretization error (r=1.00), whereas jitter and shimmer were highly correlated to the effective dynamic range of the DA environments (r=-0.68 and r=-0.86, respectively).

  8. Performance measurement and modeling of component applications in a high performance computing environment : a case study.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Robert C.; Ray, Jaideep; Malony, A.; Shende, Sameer; Trebon, Nicholas D.

    2003-11-01

    We present a case study of performance measurement and modeling of a CCA (Common Component Architecture) component-based application in a high performance computing environment. We explore issues peculiar to component-based HPC applications and propose a performance measurement infrastructure for HPC based loosely on recent work done for Grid environments. A prototypical implementation of the infrastructure is used to collect data for a three components in a scientific application and construct performance models for two of them. Both computational and message-passing performance are addressed.

  9. The measured radiation environment within Spacelabs 1 and 2 and comparison with predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, T. A.; Watts, J. W., Jr.; Fishman, G. J.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1986-01-01

    A set of passive and active radiation detectors was flown as part of the verification flight instrumentation (VFI) in an attempt to measure the radiation environment in the Spacelab (SL) module and on the pallet. SL 1 carried 4 passive and 2 active detector packages which were used to evaluate the radiation environment within the spacecraft and SL 2 carried 2 passive VFI units on the pallet. Dose equivalents of 330 + or - 70 mrem and 537 + or - 37 mrem were measured in the SL 1 module and SL 2 pallet, respectively.

  10. Analogue Materials Measured Under Simulated Lunar and Asteroid Environments: Application to Thermal Infrared Measurements of Airless Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Patterson, W., III; Moriarty, D.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing observations provide key insights into the composition and evolution of planetary surfaces. A fundamentally important component to any remote sensing study of planetary surfaces is laboratory measurements of well-characterized samples measured under the appropriate environmental conditions. The near-surface vacuum environment of airless bodies like the Moon and asteroids creates a thermal gradient in the upper hundred microns of regolith. Lab studies of particulate rocks and minerals as well as selected lunar soils under vacuum and lunar-like conditions have identified significant effects of this thermal gradient on thermal infrared (TIR) spectral measurements [e.g. Logan et al. 1973, Salisbury and Walter 1989, Thomas et al. 2010, Donaldson Hanna et al. 2012]. Compared to ambient conditions, these effects include: (1) the Christiansen feature (CF), an emissivity maximum diagnostic of mineralogy and average composition, shifts to higher wavenumbers and (2) an increase in spectral contrast of the CF relative to the Reststrahlen bands (RB), the fundamental molecular vibration bands due to Si-O stretching and bending. Such lab studies demonstrate the high sensitivity of TIR emissivity spectra to environmental conditions under which they are measured. The Asteroid and Lunar Environment Chamber (ALEC) is the newest addition to the RELAB at Brown University. The vacuum chamber simulates the space environment experienced by the near-surface soils of the Moon and asteroids. The internal rotation stage allows for six samples and two blackbodies to be measured without breaking vacuum (<10-4 mbar). Liquid nitrogen is used to cool the interior of the chamber, creating a cold, low emission environment (mimicking the space environment) for heated samples to radiate into. Sample cups can be heated in one of three configurations: (1) from below using heaters embedded in the base of the sample cup, (2) from above using a solar-like radiant heat source, and (3) from

  11. A new experimental setup for making thermal emission measurements in a simulated lunar environment.

    PubMed

    Thomas, I R; Greenhagen, B T; Bowles, N E; Donaldson Hanna, K L; Temple, J; Calcutt, S B

    2012-12-01

    One of the key problems in determining lunar surface composition for thermal-infrared measurements is the lack of comparable laboratory-measured spectra. As the surface is typically composed of fine-grained particulates, the lunar environment induces a thermal gradient within the near sub-surface, altering the emission spectra: this environment must therefore be simulated in the laboratory, considerably increasing the complexity of the measurement. Previous measurements have created this thermal gradient by either heating the cup in which the sample sits or by illuminating the sample using a solar-like source. This is the first setup able to measure in both configurations, allowing direct comparisons to be made between the two. Also, measurements across a wider spectral range and at a much higher spectral resolution can be acquired using this new setup. These are required to support new measurements made by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer, the first multi-spectral thermal-infrared instrument to orbit the Moon. Results from the two different heating methods are presented, with measurements of a fine-grained quartz sample compared to previous similar measurements, plus measurements of a common lunar highland material, anorthite. The results show that quartz gives the same results for both methods of heating, as predicted by previous studies, though the anorthite spectra are different. The new calibration pipeline required to convert the raw data into emissivity spectra is described also. PMID:23278007

  12. Precise Temperature Measurement for Increasing the Survival of Newborn Babies in Incubator Environments

    PubMed Central

    Frischer, Robert; Penhaker, Marek; Krejcar, Ondrej; Kacerovsky, Marian; Selamat, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Precise temperature measurement is essential in a wide range of applications in the medical environment, however the regarding the problem of temperature measurement inside a simple incubator, neither a simple nor a low cost solution have been proposed yet. Given that standard temperature sensors don't satisfy the necessary expectations, the problem is not measuring temperature, but rather achieving the desired sensitivity. In response, this paper introduces a novel hardware design as well as the implementation that increases measurement sensitivity in defined temperature intervals at low cost. PMID:25494352

  13. The Web Measurement Environment (WebME): A Tool for Combining and Modeling Distributed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesoriero, Roseanne; Zelkowitz, Marvin

    1997-01-01

    Many organizations have incorporated data collection into their software processes for the purpose of process improvement. However, in order to improve, interpreting the data is just as important as the collection of data. With the increased presence of the Internet and the ubiquity of the World Wide Web, the potential for software processes being distributed among several physically separated locations has also grown. Because project data may be stored in multiple locations and in differing formats, obtaining and interpreting data from this type of environment becomes even more complicated. The Web Measurement Environment (WebME), a Web-based data visualization tool, is being developed to facilitate the understanding of collected data in a distributed environment. The WebME system will permit the analysis of development data in distributed, heterogeneous environments. This paper provides an overview of the system and its capabilities.

  14. Measurement of Aspects of Classroom Environment Considered Likely to Influence Children's Prosocial Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Daniel; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes procedures used to measure aspects of a classroom environment in which the development of prosocial characteristics is emphasized. Explains observation procedures, a teacher questionnaire, a child interview, and a child questionnaire. Finds observation to be the most useful means of assessment, with the other three procedures…

  15. Measuring College Students' Alcohol Consumption in Natural Drinking Environments: Field Methodologies for Bars and Parties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapp, John D.; Holmes, Megan R.; Reed, Mark B.; Shillington, Audrey M.; Freisthler, Bridget; Lange, James E.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years researchers have paid substantial attention to the issue of college students' alcohol use. One limitation to the current literature is an over reliance on retrospective, self-report survey data. This article presents field methodologies for measuring college students' alcohol consumption in natural drinking environments.…

  16. Measuring School Climate in High Schools: A Focus on Safety, Engagement, and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy E.; Debnam, Katrina J.; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2014-01-01

    Background: School climate has been linked to multiple student behavioral, academic, health, and social-emotional outcomes. The US Department of Education (USDOE) developed a 3-factor model of school climate comprised of safety, engagement, and environment. This article examines the factor structure and measurement invariance of the USDOE model.…

  17. Elastic and plastic strain measurement in high temperature environment using laser speckle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, Fu-Pen

    1992-01-01

    Two laser speckle methods are described to measure strain in high temperature environment and thermal strain caused by high temperature. Both are non-contact, non-destructive and remote sensing techniques that can be automated. The methods have different but overlapping ranges of application with one being more suitable for large plastic deformation.

  18. Measuring in Dynamic Geometry Environments as a Tool for Conjecturing and Proving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivero, Federica; Robutti, Ornella

    2007-01-01

    This paper sits within the research on the affordances of new technologies in the mathematics classroom and focuses on a specific feature that is available in dynamic geometry environments, i.e. measuring tools, within the context of conjecturing and proving in open geometry problems. We develop a classification of different modalities of…

  19. Vitamin D deficiency is common among adults in Wallonia (Belgium, 51°30' North): findings from the Nutrition, Environment and Cardio-Vascular Health study.

    PubMed

    Hoge, Axelle; Donneau, Anne-Françoise; Streel, Sylvie; Kolh, Philippe; Chapelle, Jean-Paul; Albert, Adelin; Cavalier, Etienne; Guillaume, Michèle

    2015-08-01

    Data on the vitamin D status of the population of Wallonia (Belgium, 51°30' North) are scarce. This study was carried out to estimate vitamin D deficiency, identify potential determinants, and analyze their relationship with vitamin D supplementation. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency is common in the general population, particularly among subjects without supplementation. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration less than 50nmol/L. Data were analyzed from 915 participants of the Nutrition, Environment and Cardio-Vascular Health cross-sectional survey. The median (interquartile range) 25(OH)D level was 53.1 (37.8-69.9) nmol/L, and 44.7% of the subjects were vitamin D deficient. Subjects without vitamin D supplementation were more concerned by vitamin D deficiency than those with supplementation (odds ratio [OR], 3.35; P < .0001). From a multivariate standpoint, the potential determinants of vitamin D deficiency among subjects without vitamin D supplementation were season, specifically spring and winter (OR, 7.36 and 6.44, respectively), obesity (OR, 2.19), low household income (OR, 1.73), and lack of solarium use (OR, 1.79). For subjects with supplementation, the only determinant observed for vitamin D deficiency was obesity (OR, 5.00). This work evidenced the high prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency in the general population, especially among nonsupplemented subjects with obesity, low household income, and/or lack of light. Vitamin D supplementation looks effective in our population, especially via a stabilization of vitamin D coverage throughout the seasons. The best dietary strategy to achieve optimal 25(OH)D concentrations all year round in the general population requires more research. PMID:26149190

  20. Measuring Competitive Foods in Schools: A Point of Sales Approach. Nutrition Assistance Program Report Series. Report No. CN-04-CFMPR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Rhoda; KewalRamani, Angelina; Nogales, Renee; Ohls, James; Sinclair, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report describes research that Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. (MPR) has conducted for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), to develop methods to track the use of "competitive foods" in schools over time. Competitive foods are foods from a la carte cafeteria sales, vending machines, school stores,…

  1. Perceived and Objective Measures of Neighborhood Environment for Physical Activity Among Mexican Adults, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Salvo, Deborah; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hernández, Bernardo; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A.; Pratt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Environmental supports for physical activity may help residents to be physically active. However, such supports might not help if residents’ perceptions of the built environment do not correspond with objective measures. We assessed the associations between objective and perceived measures of the built environment among adults in Cuernavaca, Mexico, and examined whether certain variables modified this relationship. Methods We conducted a population-based (n = 645) study in 2011 that used objective (based on geographic information systems) and perceived (by questionnaire) measures of the following features of the built environment: residential density, mixed-land use, intersection density, and proximity to parks and transit stops. We used linear regression to assess the adjusted associations between these measures and to identify variables modifying these relationships. Results Adjusted associations were significant for all features (P < .05) except intersection density and proximity to transit stops. Significantly stronger associations between perceived and objective measures were observed among participants with low socioeconomic status, participants who did not own a motor vehicle or did not meet physical activity recommendations, and participants perceiving parks as safe. Conclusion Perceived measures of residential density, mixed-land use, and proximity to parks are associated with objective environmental measures related to physical activity. However, in Mexico, it should not be assumed that perceived measures of intersection density and proximity to transit stops are the same as objective measures. Our results are consistent with those from high-income countries in that associations between perceived and objective measures are modified by individual sociodemographic and psychosocial factors. PMID:27281391

  2. Direct measurements of near-highway emissions in a high diesel environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWitt, H. L.; Hellebust, S.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Ravier, S.; Polo, L.; Jacob, V.; Buisson, C.; Charron, A.; André, M.; Pasquier, A.; Besombes, J. L.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Wortham, H.; Marchand, N.

    2014-10-01

    Diesel-powered passenger cars currently outnumber gasoline-powered cars in many countries, particularly in Europe. In France, diesel cars represented 61% of Light Duty Vehicles in 2011 and this percentage is still increasing (French Environment and Energy Management Agency, ADEME). As part of the September~2011 joint PM-DRIVE (Particulate Matter- DiRect and Indirect on-road Vehicular Emissions) and MOCOPO (Measuring and mOdeling traffic COngestion and POllution) field campaign, the concentration and high-resolution chemical composition of aerosols and volatile organic carbon (VOC) species were measured adjacent to a major urban highway south of Grenoble, France. Alongside these atmospheric measurements, detailed traffic data were collected from nearby traffic cameras and loop detectors, which allowed the identification of vehicle type and characteristics, traffic concentration, and traffic speed to be quantified and compared to measured aerosol and VOCs. Six aerosol age and source profiles were resolved using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model on real-time high-resolution aerosol mass spectra. These six aerosol source/age categories included a hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) commonly associated with primary vehicular emissions, a nitrogen containing aerosol (NOA) with a diurnal pattern similar to that of HOA, oxidized organic aerosol (OOA), and biomass burning aerosol (BBOA). While quantitatively separating the influence of diesel vs. gasoline proved impossible, a low HOA : black carbon ratio, similar to that measured in other high-diesel environments, and high levels of NOx, also indicative of diesel emissions, were observed. A comparison between these high-diesel environment measurements and measurements taken in low-diesel (North American) environments was examined and the potential feedback between vehicular emissions and SOA formation was probed. Although the measurement site was located next to a large source of primary emissions, which are

  3. The estimation of total measurement uncertainty in a multiple metrology tool environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwu, Justin J.; Pham, Thao J.; Dulay, Sukhbir; Lopez, Andrew; Wilkens, Peter

    2004-05-01

    The appropriate definition and identification of total measurement uncertainty from a group of metrology tools is becoming ever important as process tolerances continue to shrink in today's data storage and semiconductor manufacturing environments. The precision-to-tolerance ratio needs to be properly defined and minimized in order to maintain capable process control. The task of identifying components contributing the total measurement uncertainty therefore poses a major challenge for both the metrology tool manufacture's and the system owners on the customer side. In this paper, two models are proposed to perform the estimation of total measurement uncertainty component and the corresponding precision-to-tolerance ratio estimation with the methodology of the analysis of variance. Two models are developed to suit the measurement characteristics difference. The first is a crossed model designed for the nondestructive measurements and the second is a nested model developed for the measurement environments where sample destruction is unavoidable. The models analyze precision components from an individual tool as well as the entire tool group so that the error from matching is accounted for. Optical overlay and CDSEM tools were both selected for study and the measurement data were used for precision analysis. The error contribution from the bias identification was performed using a CDAFM as a reference and a CDSEM as tool under test. The methodologies developed in this paper serve as a guide for the metrology tool manufacturers and tool users to systematically estimate the total measurement uncertainty and the related improvement for precise process control.

  4. Physical processes and real-time chemical measurement of the insect olfactory environment.

    PubMed

    Riffell, Jeffrey A; Abrell, Leif; Hildebrand, John G

    2008-07-01

    Odor-mediated insect navigation in airborne chemical plumes is vital to many ecological interactions, including mate finding, flower nectaring, and host locating (where disease transmission or herbivory may begin). After emission, volatile chemicals become rapidly mixed and diluted through physical processes that create a dynamic olfactory environment. This review examines those physical processes and some of the analytical technologies available to characterize those behavior-inducing chemical signals at temporal scales equivalent to the olfactory processing in insects. In particular, we focus on two areas of research that together may further our understanding of olfactory signal dynamics and its processing and perception by insects. First, measurement of physical atmospheric processes in the field can provide insight into the spatiotemporal dynamics of the odor signal available to insects. Field measurements in turn permit aspects of the physical environment to be simulated in the laboratory, thereby allowing careful investigation into the links between odor signal dynamics and insect behavior. Second, emerging analytical technologies with high recording frequencies and field-friendly inlet systems may offer new opportunities to characterize natural odors at spatiotemporal scales relevant to insect perception and behavior. Characterization of the chemical signal environment allows the determination of when and where olfactory-mediated behaviors may control ecological interactions. Finally, we argue that coupling of these two research areas will foster increased understanding of the physicochemical environment and enable researchers to determine how olfactory environments shape insect behaviors and sensory systems.

  5. Physical Processes and Real-Time Chemical Measurement of the Insect Olfactory Environment

    PubMed Central

    Abrell, Leif; Hildebrand, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Odor-mediated insect navigation in airborne chemical plumes is vital to many ecological interactions, including mate finding, flower nectaring, and host locating (where disease transmission or herbivory may begin). After emission, volatile chemicals become rapidly mixed and diluted through physical processes that create a dynamic olfactory environment. This review examines those physical processes and some of the analytical technologies available to characterize those behavior-inducing chemical signals at temporal scales equivalent to the olfactory processing in insects. In particular, we focus on two areas of research that together may further our understanding of olfactory signal dynamics and its processing and perception by insects. First, measurement of physical atmospheric processes in the field can provide insight into the spatiotemporal dynamics of the odor signal available to insects. Field measurements in turn permit aspects of the physical environment to be simulated in the laboratory, thereby allowing careful investigation into the links between odor signal dynamics and insect behavior. Second, emerging analytical technologies with high recording frequencies and field-friendly inlet systems may offer new opportunities to characterize natural odors at spatiotemporal scales relevant to insect perception and behavior. Characterization of the chemical signal environment allows the determination of when and where olfactory-mediated behaviors may control ecological interactions. Finally, we argue that coupling of these two research areas will foster increased understanding of the physicochemical environment and enable researchers to determine how olfactory environments shape insect behaviors and sensory systems. PMID:18548311

  6. Measurement in a marine environment using low cost sensors of temperature and dissolved oxygen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godshall, F.A.; Cory, R.L.; Phinney, D.E.

    1974-01-01

    Continuous records of physical parameters of the marine environment are difficult as well as expensive to obtain. This paper describes preliminary results of an investigative program with the purpose of developing low cost time integrating measurement and averaging devices for water temperature and dissolved oxygen. Measurements were made in an estuarine area of the Chesapeake Bay over two week periods. With chemical thermometers average water temperature for the two week period was found to be equal to average water temperature measured with thermocouples plus or minus 1.0 C. The slow diffusion of oxygen through the semipermiable sides of plastic bottles permitted the use of water filled bottles to obtain averaged oxygen measurements. Oxygen measurements for two week averaging times using 500 ml polyethylene bottles were found to vary from conventionally measured and averaged dissolved oxygen by about 1.8 mg/l. ?? 1974 Estuarine Research Federation.

  7. Material interactions with the low earth orbital environment Accurate reaction rate measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, J. T.; Leger, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between spacecraft surfaces and atomic oxygen within the low earth orbital (LEO) environment have been observed and measured during Space Shuttle flights over the past 3 yr. The results of these experiments have demonstrated that interaction rates for many materials proposed for spacecraft applications are high and that protective coatings must be developed to enable long-lived operation of spacecraft structures in the LEO environment. A flight experiment discussed herein uses the Space Shuttle as an orbiting exposure laboratory to obtain accurate reaction rate measurements for materials typically used in spacecraft construction. An ion-neutral mass spectrometer, installed in the Orbiter cargo bay, will measure diurnal ambient oxygen densities while material samples are exposed at low altitude (222 km) to the orbital environment. From in situ atomic oxygen density information and postflight material recession measurements, accurate reaction rates can be derived to update the Space Station materials interaction data base. Additionally, gases evolved from a limited number of material surfaces subjected to direct oxygen impingement will be identified using the mass spectrometer. These measurements will aid in mechanistic definitions of chemical reactions which cause atom-surface interactions and in validating results of upcoming degradation studies conducted in ground-based neutral beam laboratories.

  8. Development of a Composite Measure of State-Level Malpractice Environment

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jeanette W; Sohn, Min-Woong; Merkow, Ryan P; Oh, Elissa H; Minami, Christina; Black, Bernard S; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop a composite measure of state-level malpractice environment. Data Sources Public use data from the National Practitioner Data Bank, Medical Liability Monitor, the National Conference of State Legislatures, and the American Bar Association. Study Design Principal component analysis of state-level indicators (paid claims rate, malpractice premiums, lawyers per capita, average award size, and malpractice laws), with indirect validation of the composite using receiver-operating characteristic curves to determine how accurately the composite could identify states with high-tort activity and costs. Principal Findings A single composite accounted for over 73 percent of total variance in the seven indicators and demonstrated reasonable criterion validity. Conclusion An empirical composite measure of state-level malpractice risk may offer advantages over single indicators in measuring overall risk and may facilitate cross-state comparisons of malpractice environments. PMID:24117397

  9. A Model of Generating Visual Place Cells Based on Environment Perception and Similar Measure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It is an important content to generate visual place cells (VPCs) in the field of bioinspired navigation. By analyzing the firing characteristic of biological place cells and the existing methods for generating VPCs, a model of generating visual place cells based on environment perception and similar measure is abstracted in this paper. VPCs' generation process is divided into three phases, including environment perception, similar measure, and recruiting of a new place cell. According to this process, a specific method for generating VPCs is presented. External reference landmarks are obtained based on local invariant characteristics of image and a similar measure function is designed based on Euclidean distance and Gaussian function. Simulation validates the proposed method is available. The firing characteristic of the generated VPCs is similar to that of biological place cells, and VPCs' firing fields can be adjusted flexibly by changing the adjustment factor of firing field (AFFF) and firing rate's threshold (FRT).

  10. A Model of Generating Visual Place Cells Based on Environment Perception and Similar Measure.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Wu, Dewei

    2016-01-01

    It is an important content to generate visual place cells (VPCs) in the field of bioinspired navigation. By analyzing the firing characteristic of biological place cells and the existing methods for generating VPCs, a model of generating visual place cells based on environment perception and similar measure is abstracted in this paper. VPCs' generation process is divided into three phases, including environment perception, similar measure, and recruiting of a new place cell. According to this process, a specific method for generating VPCs is presented. External reference landmarks are obtained based on local invariant characteristics of image and a similar measure function is designed based on Euclidean distance and Gaussian function. Simulation validates the proposed method is available. The firing characteristic of the generated VPCs is similar to that of biological place cells, and VPCs' firing fields can be adjusted flexibly by changing the adjustment factor of firing field (AFFF) and firing rate's threshold (FRT).

  11. Mobile Robot Self-Localization System Using Single Webcam Distance Measurement Technology in Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Li, I-Hsum; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wang, Wei-Yen; Su, Shun-Feng; Lai, To-Wen

    2014-01-01

    A single-webcam distance measurement technique for indoor robot localization is proposed in this paper. The proposed localization technique uses webcams that are available in an existing surveillance environment. The developed image-based distance measurement system (IBDMS) and parallel lines distance measurement system (PLDMS) have two merits. Firstly, only one webcam is required for estimating the distance. Secondly, the set-up of IBDMS and PLDMS is easy, which only one known-dimension rectangle pattern is needed, i.e., a ground tile. Some common and simple image processing techniques, i.e., background subtraction are used to capture the robot in real time. Thus, for the purposes of indoor robot localization, the proposed method does not need to use expensive high-resolution webcams and complicated pattern recognition methods but just few simple estimating formulas. From the experimental results, the proposed robot localization method is reliable and effective in an indoor environment. PMID:24473282

  12. A Model of Generating Visual Place Cells Based on Environment Perception and Similar Measure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It is an important content to generate visual place cells (VPCs) in the field of bioinspired navigation. By analyzing the firing characteristic of biological place cells and the existing methods for generating VPCs, a model of generating visual place cells based on environment perception and similar measure is abstracted in this paper. VPCs' generation process is divided into three phases, including environment perception, similar measure, and recruiting of a new place cell. According to this process, a specific method for generating VPCs is presented. External reference landmarks are obtained based on local invariant characteristics of image and a similar measure function is designed based on Euclidean distance and Gaussian function. Simulation validates the proposed method is available. The firing characteristic of the generated VPCs is similar to that of biological place cells, and VPCs' firing fields can be adjusted flexibly by changing the adjustment factor of firing field (AFFF) and firing rate's threshold (FRT). PMID:27597859

  13. Vibration-based structural health monitoring using output-only measurements under changing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deraemaeker, A.; Reynders, E.; De Roeck, G.; Kullaa, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of damage detection using output-only vibration measurements under changing environmental conditions. Two types of features are extracted from the measurements: eigenproperties of the structure using an automated stochastic subspace identification procedure and peak indicators computed on the Fourier transform of modal filters. The effects of environment are treated using factor analysis and damage is detected using statistical process control with the multivariate Shewhart- T control charts. A numerical example of a bridge subject to environmental changes and damage is presented. The sensitivity of the damage detection procedure to noise on the measurements, environment and damage is studied. An estimation of the computational time needed to extract the different features is given, and a table is provided to summarize the advantages and drawbacks of each of the features studied.

  14. A Model of Generating Visual Place Cells Based on Environment Perception and Similar Measure.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Wu, Dewei

    2016-01-01

    It is an important content to generate visual place cells (VPCs) in the field of bioinspired navigation. By analyzing the firing characteristic of biological place cells and the existing methods for generating VPCs, a model of generating visual place cells based on environment perception and similar measure is abstracted in this paper. VPCs' generation process is divided into three phases, including environment perception, similar measure, and recruiting of a new place cell. According to this process, a specific method for generating VPCs is presented. External reference landmarks are obtained based on local invariant characteristics of image and a similar measure function is designed based on Euclidean distance and Gaussian function. Simulation validates the proposed method is available. The firing characteristic of the generated VPCs is similar to that of biological place cells, and VPCs' firing fields can be adjusted flexibly by changing the adjustment factor of firing field (AFFF) and firing rate's threshold (FRT). PMID:27597859

  15. Mobile robot self-localization system using single webcam distance measurement technology in indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Li, I-Hsum; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wang, Wei-Yen; Su, Shun-Feng; Lai, To-Wen

    2014-01-01

    A single-webcam distance measurement technique for indoor robot localization is proposed in this paper. The proposed localization technique uses webcams that are available in an existing surveillance environment. The developed image-based distance measurement system (IBDMS) and parallel lines distance measurement system (PLDMS) have two merits. Firstly, only one webcam is required for estimating the distance. Secondly, the set-up of IBDMS and PLDMS is easy, which only one known-dimension rectangle pattern is needed, i.e., a ground tile. Some common and simple image processing techniques, i.e., background subtraction are used to capture the robot in real time. Thus, for the purposes of indoor robot localization, the proposed method does not need to use expensive high-resolution webcams and complicated pattern recognition methods but just few simple estimating formulas. From the experimental results, the proposed robot localization method is reliable and effective in an indoor environment. PMID:24473282

  16. Mobile robot self-localization system using single webcam distance measurement technology in indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Li, I-Hsum; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wang, Wei-Yen; Su, Shun-Feng; Lai, To-Wen

    2014-01-27

    A single-webcam distance measurement technique for indoor robot localization is proposed in this paper. The proposed localization technique uses webcams that are available in an existing surveillance environment. The developed image-based distance measurement system (IBDMS) and parallel lines distance measurement system (PLDMS) have two merits. Firstly, only one webcam is required for estimating the distance. Secondly, the set-up of IBDMS and PLDMS is easy, which only one known-dimension rectangle pattern is needed, i.e., a ground tile. Some common and simple image processing techniques, i.e., background subtraction are used to capture the robot in real time. Thus, for the purposes of indoor robot localization, the proposed method does not need to use expensive high-resolution webcams and complicated pattern recognition methods but just few simple estimating formulas. From the experimental results, the proposed robot localization method is reliable and effective in an indoor environment.

  17. Nutrition Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  18. The application of magnetic measurements for the characterization of atmospheric particulate pollution within the airport environment.

    PubMed

    Jones, S; Richardson, N; Bennett, M; Hoon, S R

    2015-01-01

    The significant increase in global air travel which has occurred during the last fifty years has generated growing concern regarding the potential impacts associated with increasing emissions of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on health and the environment. PM within the airport environment may be derived from a range of sources. To date, however, the identification of individual sources of airport derived PM has remained elusive but constitutes a research priority for the aviation industry.The aim of this research was to identify distinctive and characteristic fingerprints of atmospheric PM derived from various sources in an airport environment through the use of environmental magnetic measurements. PM samples from aircraft engine emissions, brake wear and tire wear residues have been obtained from a range of different aircraft and engine types. Samples have been analyzed utilizing a range of magnetic mineral properties indicative of magnetic mineralogy and grain size. Results indicate that the dusts from the three 'aircraft' sources, (i.e. engines, brakes and tires) display distinctive magnetic mineral characteristics which may serve as 'magnetic fingerprints' for these sources. Magnetic measurements of runway dusts collected at different locations on the runway surface also show contrasting magnetic characteristics which, when compared with those of the aircraft-derived samples, suggest that they may relate to different sources characteristic of aircraft emissions at various stages of the take-off/landing cycle. The findings suggest that magnetic measurements could have wider applicability for the differentiation and identification of PM within the airport environment.

  19. A wireless inertial measurement system (WIMS) for an interactive dance environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, A.; Majeed, B.; O'Flynn, B.; Barton, J.; Murphy, F.; Delaney, K.; O'Mathuna, S. C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper will present the work carried out in designing a Wireless Inertial Measurement System (WIMS) designed for a wearable system operating in an interactive dance environment. The concept underpinning this system is the generation of inertial information from multiple nodes distributed over a dancer's body, which will enable the dancer to communicate with their environment and interact with their surroundings through movement. The IMU nodes will be arranged in a network configuration whose control will be based upon existing technology developed at Tyndall.

  20. Measurement of perceptions of educational environment in evidence-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Bergh, Anne-Marie; Grimbeek, Jackie; May, Win; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Khan, Khalid S; Kulier, Regina; Pattinson, Robert C

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in measuring perceptions regarding different aspects of the medical educational environment. A reliable tool was developed for measuring perceptions of the educational environment as it relates to evidence-based medicine as part of a multicountry randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a clinically integrated evidence-based medicine course. Participants from 10 specialties completed the questionnaire. A working dataset of 518 observations was available. Two independent subsets of data were created for conducting an exploratory factor analysis (n=244) and a confirmatory factor analysis (n=274), respectively. The exploratory factor analysis yielded five 67-item definitive instruments, with five to nine dimensions; all resulted in acceptable explanations of the total variance (range 56.6-65.9%). In the confirmatory factor analysis phase, all goodness of-fit measures were acceptable for all models (root mean square error of approximation ≤ 0.047; comparative fit index ≥ 0.980; normed χ(2) ≤ 1.647; Bentler-Bonett normed fit index ≥ 0.951). The authors selected the factorisation with seven dimensions (factor-7 instrument) as the most useful on pragmatic grounds and named it Evidence-Based Medicine Educational Environment Measure 67 (EBMEEM-67). Cronbach's α for subscales ranged between 0.81 and 0.93. The subscales are: 'Knowledge and learning materials'; 'Learner support'; 'General relationships and support'; 'Institutional focus on EBM'; 'Education, training and supervision'; 'EBM application opportunities'; and 'Affirmation of EBM environment'. The EBMEEM-67 can be a useful diagnostic and benchmarking tool for evaluating the perceptions of residents of the environment in which evidence-based medicine education takes place.

  1. District-level local measuring program of the urban environment in Budapest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dian, Csenge; Pongrácz, Rita; Dezsö, Zsuzsanna; Bartholy, Judit

    2016-04-01

    The natural environment and thus, the climatic conditions are modified by the concentrated human presence of urban areas. In our research we aim to analyze the resulting urban climatic effects in a downtown district of Budapest, Hungary. For this purpose, we have started a measuring program of in-situ measurements in the southern central located district called Ferencváros, which can be found near the river Danube, and mainly consists of 3- and 4-storey older and newly built buildings. The newly built buildings are mainly the results of the Ferencváros local government's efforts to improve the environment for the citizens. Within the framework of the block rehabilitation program, inner parts of the old house blocks were demolished, and inside the blocks common green areas have been created. In our urban climate measurement program air temperature and relative humidity are recorded along a pre-defined path consisting of 22 measuring points, which covers the studied area. The measuring sites are located in different characteristical points of the district, such as green parks, narrow streets, paved squares and roads. In order to calculate the urban heat island intensity, temperature measurements are compared to the hourly recorded data of the Budapest synoptic station (ID number: 12843) located in the southeastern suburb district of the city. After completing an entire year of measurements, the seasonal cycle of temperature and relative humidity differences are analyzed as well, as the diurnal changes and the spatial structure within the study area.

  2. Near-highway aerosol and gas-phase measurements in a high-diesel environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWitt, H. L.; Hellebust, S.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Ravier, S.; Polo, L.; Jacob, V.; Buisson, C.; Charron, A.; André, M.; Pasquier, A.; Besombes, J. L.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Wortham, H.; Marchand, N.

    2015-04-01

    Diesel-powered passenger cars currently outnumber gasoline-powered cars in many countries, particularly in Europe. In France, diesel cars represented 61% of light duty vehicles in 2011 and this percentage is still increasing (French Environment and Energy Management Agency, ADEME). As part of the September 2011 joint PM-DRIVE (Particulate Matter - DiRect and Indirect on-road Vehicular Emissions) and MOCOPO (Measuring and mOdeling traffic COngestion and POllution) field campaign, the concentration and high-resolution chemical composition of aerosols and volatile organic carbon species were measured adjacent to a major urban highway south of Grenoble, France. Alongside these atmospheric measurements, detailed traffic data were collected from nearby traffic cameras and loop detectors, which allowed the vehicle type, traffic concentration, and traffic speed to be quantified. Six aerosol age and source profiles were resolved using the positive matrix factorization model on real-time high-resolution aerosol mass spectra. These six aerosol source/age categories included a hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) commonly associated with primary vehicular emissions, a nitrogen-containing aerosol with a diurnal pattern similar to that of HOA, oxidized organic aerosol (OOA), and biomass burning aerosol. While quantitatively separating the influence of diesel from that of gasoline proved impossible, a low HOA : black carbon ratio, similar to that measured in other high-diesel environments, and high levels of NOx, also indicative of diesel emissions, were observed. Although the measurement site was located next to a large source of primary emissions, which are typically found to have low oxygen incorporation, OOA was found to comprise the majority of the measured organic aerosol, and isotopic analysis showed that the measured OOA contained mainly modern carbon, not fossil-derived carbon. Thus, even in this heavily vehicular-emission-impacted environment, photochemical processes

  3. Lessons Learned From Evaluations of California's Statewide School Nutrition Standards

    PubMed Central

    Gosliner, Wendi; Samuels, Sarah E.; Craypo, Lisa; Kao, Janice; Crawford, Patricia B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of legislation that established nutrition standards for foods and beverages that compete with reimbursable school meals in California. Methods. We used documentation of available foods and beverages, sales accounts, and surveys of and interviews with students and food service workers to conduct 3 studies measuring pre- and postlegislation food and beverage availability, sales, and student consumption at 99 schools. Results. Availability of nutrition standard–compliant foods and beverages increased. Availability of noncompliant items decreased, with the biggest reductions in sodas and other sweetened beverages, regular chips, and candy. At-school consumption of some noncompliant foods dropped; at-home consumption of selected noncompliant foods did not increase. Food and beverage sales decreased at most venues, and food service à la carte revenue losses were usually offset by increased meal program participation. Increased food service expenditures outpaced revenue increases. Conclusions. Regulation of competitive foods improved school food environments and student nutritional intake. Improvements were modest, partly because many compliant items are fat- and sugar-modified products of low nutritional value. Additional policies and actions are needed to achieve more substantive improvements in school nutrition environments and student nutrition and health. PMID:20864696

  4. The Africentric Home Environment Inventory: An Observational Measure of the Racial Socialization Features of the Home Environment for African American Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Randolph, Suzanne M.; O'Campo, Patricia J.

    2002-01-01

    Pilot tested the Africentric Home Environment Inventory (AHEI), an observational measure for racial socialization features of the home environment, collecting data during home visits with socioeconomically diverse, urban, African American families with preschoolers. There was a strong association between AHEI scores and family socioeconomic…

  5. Characterizing ISS Charging Environments with On-Board Ionospheric Plasma Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Jospeh I.; Craven, Paul D.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Wright Jr, Kenneth; Parker, Paul D.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Kramer, Leonard; Hartman, William A.; Alred, John W.; Koontz, Steven L.

    2008-01-01

    Charging of the International Space Station (ISS) is dominated by interactions of the biased United States (US) 160 volt solar arrays with the relatively high density, low temperature plasma environment in low Earth orbit. Conducting surfaces on the vehicle structure charge negative relative to the ambient plasma environment because ISS structure is grounded to the negative end of the US solar arrays. Transient charging peaks reaching potentials of some tens of volts negative controlled by photovoltaic array current collection typically occur at orbital sunrise and sunset as well as near orbital noon. In addition, surface potentials across the vehicle structure vary due to an induced v x B (dot) L voltage generated by the high speed motion of the conducting structure across the Earth's magnetic field. Induced voltages in low Earth orbit are typically only approx.0.4 volts/meter but the approx.100 meter scale dimensions of the ISS yield maximum induced potential variations ofapprox.40 volts across the vehicle. Induced voltages are variable due to the orientation of the vehicle structure and orbital velocity vector with respect to the orientation of the Earth's magnetic field along the ISS orbit. In order to address the need to better understand the ISS spacecraft potential and plasma environments, NASA funded development and construction of the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) which was deployed on an ISS starboard truss arm in August 2006. The suite of FPMU instruments includes two Langmuir probes, a plasma impedance probe, and a potential probe for use in in-situ monitoring of electron temperatures and densities and the vehicle potential relative to the plasma environment. This presentation will describe the use of the FPMU to better characterize interactions of the ISS with the space environment, changes in ISS charging as the vehicle configuration is modified during ISS construction, and contributions of FPMU vehicle potential and plasma environment

  6. Thermal history sensors for non-destructive temperature measurements in harsh environments

    SciTech Connect

    Pilgrim, C. C.; Heyes, A. L.; Feist, J. P.

    2014-02-18

    The operating temperature is a critical physical parameter in many engineering applications, however, can be very challenging to measure in certain environments, particularly when access is limited or on rotating components. A new quantitative non-destructive temperature measurement technique has been proposed which relies on thermally induced permanent changes in ceramic phosphors. This technique has several distinct advantages over current methods for many different applications. The robust ceramic material stores the temperature information allowing long term thermal exposures in harsh environment to be measured at a convenient time. Additionally, rare earth dopants make the ceramic phosphorescent so that the temperature information can be interpreted by automated interrogation of the phosphorescent light. This technique has been demonstrated by application of YAG doped with dysprosium and europium as coatings through the air-plasma spray process. Either material can be used to measure temperature over a wide range, namely between 300°C and 900°C. Furthermore, results show that the material records the peak exposure temperature and prolonged exposure at lower temperatures would have no effect on the temperature measurement. This indicates that these materials could be used to measure peak operating temperatures in long-term testing.

  7. Thermal history sensors for non-destructive temperature measurements in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilgrim, C. C.; Heyes, A. L.; Feist, J. P.

    2014-02-01

    The operating temperature is a critical physical parameter in many engineering applications, however, can be very challenging to measure in certain environments, particularly when access is limited or on rotating components. A new quantitative non-destructive temperature measurement technique has been proposed which relies on thermally induced permanent changes in ceramic phosphors. This technique has several distinct advantages over current methods for many different applications. The robust ceramic material stores the temperature information allowing long term thermal exposures in harsh environment to be measured at a convenient time. Additionally, rare earth dopants make the ceramic phosphorescent so that the temperature information can be interpreted by automated interrogation of the phosphorescent light. This technique has been demonstrated by application of YAG doped with dysprosium and europium as coatings through the air-plasma spray process. Either material can be used to measure temperature over a wide range, namely between 300°C and 900°C. Furthermore, results show that the material records the peak exposure temperature and prolonged exposure at lower temperatures would have no effect on the temperature measurement. This indicates that these materials could be used to measure peak operating temperatures in long-term testing.

  8. Nutritional epigenetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  9. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the Diabetic Athlete"; (8) "Pinning Down Your Optimal Weight"; (9)…

  10. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christy, Kathy J.; Dawes, Marge

    Included in this booklet are nutrition learning activities intended to help elementary school students acquire knowledge that will enable them to select diets that meet their bodies' needs, both now and in the future. The learning activities correspond to specific nutrition education objectives and are presented separately for students in the…

  11. [Community nutrition].

    PubMed

    Aranceta Bartrina, J; Pérez Rodrigo, C; Serra Majem, L I

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of scientific and epidemiological evidence indicates that diet and health are related: diet may be a risk factor or have potential protective effects. As a consequence, the focus of nutrition research has experienced a shift towards qualitative aspects of diet which could influence chronic disease, longevity, quality of life and physical and cognitive performance, leading to the development of Community Nutrition. The main undertakings in a Community Nutrition Unit are related to the identification, assessment and monitoring of nutrition problems at the community level and to planning, design, implementation and evaluation of nutrition intervention programs. Such programs combine a number of suitable strategies in a whole population approach, a high risk approach or an approach targeted at specific population groups, and are implemented in different settings, such as the work place, schools or community organizations. Community nutrition interventions aim to gradually achieve change in eating patterns towards a healthier profile. Community Nutrition programs require the use of a combination of strategies and a working group of people from different backgrounds. Many factors influence the nutritional status of an individual or a population. In order to gain effective work output, sound understanding of these patterns and a practical surveillance system are required. PMID:17424768

  12. Nutritional Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...

  13. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtkooper, Linda; And Others

    This kit provides coaches, physical education teachers, and health professionals with current nutrition information and guidelines for applying that information in classes and athletic training programs. The kit contains four components. A "Key Terms" section provides an index to nutrition-fitness terminology and concepts. The instructional…

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Young Children’s Participation and Environment Measure

    PubMed Central

    Khetani, Mary A.; Graham, James E.; Davies, Patricia L.; Law, Mary C.; Simeonsson, Rune J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the psychometric properties of the newly developed Young Children’s Participation and Environment Measure (YC-PEM). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Data were collected online and by telephone. Participants Convenience and snowball sampling methods were used to survey caregivers of 395 children (93 children with developmental disabilities and delays, 302 without developmental disabilities and delays) between 0–5 years (mean = 35.33 months, SD = 20.29) and residing in North America. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure(s) The YC-PEM includes three participation scales and one environment scale. Each scale is assessed across three settings: home, daycare/preschool, and community. Data were analyzed to derive estimates of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity. Results Internal consistency ranged from .68 to .96 and .92 to .96 for the participation and environment scales, respectively. Test-retest reliability (2–4 weeks) ranged from .31 to .93 for participation scales and from .91 to .94 for the environment scale. One of three participation scales and the environment scale demonstrated significant group differences by disability status across all three settings, and all four scales discriminated between disability groups for the daycare/preschool setting. The participation scales exhibited small to moderate positive associations with functional performance scores. Conclusion(s) Results lend initial support for the use of the YC-PEM in research to assess the participation of young children with disabilities and delays in terms of 1) home, daycare/preschool, and community participation patterns, 2) perceived environmental supports and barriers to participation, and 3) activity-specific parent strategies to promote participation. PMID:25449189

  15. The acoustic environment of intensive care wards based on long period nocturnal measurements.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; Kang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The patients in the Intensive Care Units are often exposed to excessive levels of noise and activities. They can suffer from sleep disturbance, especially at night, but they are often too ill to cope with the poor environment. This article investigates the acoustic environment of typical intensive care wards in the UK, based on long period nocturnal measurements, and examines the differences between singlebed and multibed wards, using statistical analysis. It has been shown that the acoustic environment differs significantly every night. There are also significant differences between the noise levels in the singlebed and multibed wards, where acoustic ceilings are present. Despite the similar background noises in both ward types, more intrusive noises tend to originate from the multibed wards, while more extreme sounds are likely to occur in the single wards. The sound levels in the measured wards for each night are in excess of the World Health Organization's (WHO) guide levels by at least 20 dBA, dominantly at the middle frequencies. Although the sound level at night varies less than that in the daytime, the nocturnal acoustic environment is not dependant on any specific time, thus neither the noisiest nor quietest period can be determined. It is expected that the statistical analysis of the collected data will provide essential information for the development of relevant guidelines and noise reduction strategies.

  16. Genetic and environmental mediation between measures of personality and family environment in twins reared together.

    PubMed

    Kandler, Christian; Riemann, Rainer; Kämpfe, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the etiology of the relationship between personality traits and retrospectively recalled family environment. The data of 226 identical and 168 fraternal twin pairs reared together from the Jena twin study of social attitudes were available. Personality traits were measured using the self- and peer report versions of the German NEO-personality inventory-revised. A German version of Blocks Environmental Questionnaire was applied to measure two broad dimensions of the family environment retrospectively: support and organization. We could replicate earlier findings that retrospective reports of these family environment dimensions were in part genetically influenced. A total of 66% of the genetic variance in support and 24% in organization could be accounted for by heritable variance in self-rated personality. That was replicated by using peer reports of personality, 41% explained genetic variance in support and 17% in organization. Environmental mediations were negligible. This indicates that the relationship between personality and retrospectively recalled family environment is largely genetically mediated.

  17. Real-life setting in data collection. The role of nutrition knowledge whilst selecting food products for weight management purposes in a supermarket environment.

    PubMed

    Saarela, Anna-Maria; Lapveteläinen, Anja T; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Kantanen, Teuvo T; Rissanen, Riitta L

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to explore the role of consumers' nutrition knowledge while selecting foods for weight management and the predominating food selection factors by combining quantitative and qualitative methodology in a real-life setting during two consecutive shopping tasks given in a supermarket. Thirty-six consumers were given a list of 11 products and asked to think-aloud while selecting (i) a product they usually buy and (ii) a product they use for weight management. After the consecutive shopping tasks, the subjects were interviewed and asked to answer a nutrition knowledge questionnaire. The subjects were categorized by the difference in the energy contents of their selections and the food selection criteria. The energy contents of the selections for weight management were reduced by 10-46%. Ten subjects with the greatest difference between the energy contents of their selections had higher level in nutrition knowledge and mentioned less nutritional issues during the selections than ten subjects with the smallest such differences. Taste was an important product selection criterion by the former group, while the latter focused primarily on price. Nutrition knowledge is interrelated with personal factors and selection goals. It is not necessarily utilized consistently when selecting food products.

  18. Real-life setting in data collection. The role of nutrition knowledge whilst selecting food products for weight management purposes in a supermarket environment.

    PubMed

    Saarela, Anna-Maria; Lapveteläinen, Anja T; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Kantanen, Teuvo T; Rissanen, Riitta L

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to explore the role of consumers' nutrition knowledge while selecting foods for weight management and the predominating food selection factors by combining quantitative and qualitative methodology in a real-life setting during two consecutive shopping tasks given in a supermarket. Thirty-six consumers were given a list of 11 products and asked to think-aloud while selecting (i) a product they usually buy and (ii) a product they use for weight management. After the consecutive shopping tasks, the subjects were interviewed and asked to answer a nutrition knowledge questionnaire. The subjects were categorized by the difference in the energy contents of their selections and the food selection criteria. The energy contents of the selections for weight management were reduced by 10-46%. Ten subjects with the greatest difference between the energy contents of their selections had higher level in nutrition knowledge and mentioned less nutritional issues during the selections than ten subjects with the smallest such differences. Taste was an important product selection criterion by the former group, while the latter focused primarily on price. Nutrition knowledge is interrelated with personal factors and selection goals. It is not necessarily utilized consistently when selecting food products. PMID:23994504

  19. Nutritional management of patients with chemosensory disturbances.

    PubMed

    Duffy, V B; Ferris, A M

    1989-05-01

    The effect of a chemosensory disturbance on nutrition and quality of life is not clear and may show individual variance. It is important for the clinician to become sensitive to this relationship and pursue appropriate nutritional management. Nutritional management of an individual with a chemosensory disorder requires nutritional assessment with appropriate dietary intake measurements, dietary and weight history, food behavior questions, and anthropometric measures. A registered dietitian can identify potential nutritional problems and provide guidance for weight control, dietary modification, and use of food-related compensatory mechanisms to maintain the nutritional status and quality of life in the person suffering from chemosensory disturbances.

  20. Current and Near-Term Future Measurements of the Orbital Debris Environment at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansbery, Gene; Liou, J.-C.; Mulrooney, M.; Horstman, M

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office places great emphasis on obtaining and understanding direct measurements of the orbital debris environment. The Orbital Debris Program Office's environmental models are all based on these measurements. Because OD measurements must cover a very wide range of sizes and altitudes, one technique realistically cannot be used for all measurements. In general, radar measurements have been used for lower altitudes and optical measurements for higher altitude orbits. For very small debris, in situ measurements such as returned spacecraft surfaces are utilized. In addition to receiving information from large debris (> 5-10 cm diameter) from the U.S. Space Surveillance Network, NASA conducts statistical measurements of the debris population for smaller sizes. NASA collects data from the Haystack and Goldstone radars for debris in low Earth orbit as small as 2- 4 mm diameter and from the Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope for debris near geosynchronous orbit altitude for sizes as small as 30-60 cm diameter. NASA is also currently examining the radiator panel of the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 which was exposed to space for 16 years and was recently returned to Earth during the STS- 125 Space Shuttle mission. This paper will give an overview of these on-going measurement programs at NASA as well as discuss progress and plans for new instruments and techniques in the near future.

  1. Danish policy measures to reduce diffuse nitrogen emissions from agriculture to the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Grant, R; Blicher-Mathiesen, G

    2004-01-01

    In Denmark, the first Action Plan for the Aquatic Environment (I) was introduced in 1987. The target was a 50% reduction in nitrogen emissions to the aquatic environment by 1993. Measures were directed towards the individual farmer and included the establishment of slurry tanks with 9 month storage capacity and obligations to grow winter crops on 65% of the area. In the early 1990s, it was obvious that agricultural practice had not changed towards a more efficient use of manure and fertilisers. Therefore, the Action Plan for Sustainable Agriculture was adopted in 1991, the reduction target being postponed until 2000. The plan set out restrictions on the actual utilisation of fertilisers and manure, obligations for the farmers to submit nitrogen accounts to the Ministry of Agriculture, and a levy system. However, the implemented measures were still insufficient to reach the reduction target. A second Action Plan for the Aquatic Environment (II) was adopted in 1998 and the reduction target was again postponed until 2003. This plan contained a range of measures, including reduced nitrogen standards for crops. The results from the Danish action plans confirm the need for an effective control body, and a continuous monitoring and evaluation programme. PMID:15053103

  2. Danish policy measures to reduce diffuse nitrogen emissions from agriculture to the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Grant, R; Blicher-Mathiesen, G

    2004-01-01

    In Denmark, the first Action Plan for the Aquatic Environment (I) was introduced in 1987. The target was a 50% reduction in nitrogen emissions to the aquatic environment by 1993. Measures were directed towards the individual farmer and included the establishment of slurry tanks with 9 month storage capacity and obligations to grow winter crops on 65% of the area. In the early 1990s, it was obvious that agricultural practice had not changed towards a more efficient use of manure and fertilisers. Therefore, the Action Plan for Sustainable Agriculture was adopted in 1991, the reduction target being postponed until 2000. The plan set out restrictions on the actual utilisation of fertilisers and manure, obligations for the farmers to submit nitrogen accounts to the Ministry of Agriculture, and a levy system. However, the implemented measures were still insufficient to reach the reduction target. A second Action Plan for the Aquatic Environment (II) was adopted in 1998 and the reduction target was again postponed until 2003. This plan contained a range of measures, including reduced nitrogen standards for crops. The results from the Danish action plans confirm the need for an effective control body, and a continuous monitoring and evaluation programme.

  3. Inducing multipartite entanglement revival in dissipative environment by means of prior quantum uncollapsing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Juan; Xu, Shuai; Ye, Liu

    2015-11-01

    A scheme for inducing multipartite entanglement revival in the dissipative environment is proposed, which is implemented by performing a prior quantum uncollapsing (weak measurements or measurement reversals) procedure on partial qubits of the system simultaneously. This procedure preferentially equips our initial states, and make them hold more powerful ability to actively battle against degradation of entanglement, even postpone entanglement sudden death (ESD). Notably, the effect is more pronounced for the multipartite system with less initial entanglement. In addition, we found that our scheme also works for the N-qubit GHZ-class state.

  4. Characteristic measurements of silicon dioxide aerogel plasmas generated in a Planckian radiation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Quanli; Wang Shoujun; Li Yutong; Zhang Yi; Zhao Jing; Wei Huigang; Shi Jianrong; Zhao Gang; Zhang Jiyan; Gu Yuqiu; Ding Yongkun; Wen Tianshu; Zhang Wenhai; Hu Xin; Liu Shenye; Zhang Lin; Tang Yongjian; Zhang Baohan; Zheng Zhijian; Nishimura, Hiroaki

    2010-01-15

    The temporally and spatially resolved characteristics of silicon dioxide aerogel plasmas were studied using x-ray spectroscopy. The plasma was generated in the near-Planckian radiation environment within gold hohlraum targets irradiated by laser pulses with a total energy of 2.4 kJ in 1 ns. The contributions of silicon ions at different charge states to the specific components of the measured absorption spectra were also investigated. It was found that each main feature in the absorption spectra of the measured silicon dioxide aerogel plasmas was contributed by two neighboring silicon ionic species.

  5. What is Nutrition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the science of nutrition, including: (1) nutrition as a branch of science and social science; (2) nutrition instruction in schools; (3) careers in nutrition; (4) training nutritionists; and (5) current issues in nutrition research. (JN)

  6. Defining Neighbourhoods as a Measure of Exposure to the Food Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lyseen, Anders K.; Hansen, Henning S.; Harder, Henrik; Jensen, Anders S.; Mikkelsen, Bent E.

    2015-01-01

    Neighbourhoods are frequently used as a measure for individuals’ exposure to the food environment. However, the definitions of neighbourhoods fluctuate and have not been applied consistently in previous studies. Neighbourhoods defined from a single fixed location fail to capture people’s complete exposure in multiple locations, but measuring behaviour using traditional methods can be challenging. This study compares the traditional methods of measuring exposure to the food environment to methods that use data from GPS tracking. For each of the 187 participants, 11 different neighbourhoods were created in which the exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets were measured. ANOVA, Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test and t-tests were performed to compare the neighbourhoods. Significant differences were found between area sizes and the exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets for different neighbourhood types. Second, significant differences in exposure to food outlets were found between the urban and rural neighbourhoods. Neighbourhoods are clearly a diffused and blurred concept that varies in meaning depending on each person’s perception and the conducted study. Complexity and heterogeneity of human mobility no longer appear to correspond to the use of residential neighbourhoods but rather emphasise the need for methods, concepts and measures of individual activity and exposure. PMID:26197331

  7. Defining Neighbourhoods as a Measure of Exposure to the Food Environment.

    PubMed

    Lyseen, Anders K; Hansen, Henning S; Harder, Henrik; Jensen, Anders S; Mikkelsen, Bent E

    2015-07-01

    Neighbourhoods are frequently used as a measure for individuals' exposure to the food environment. However, the definitions of neighbourhoods fluctuate and have not been applied consistently in previous studies. Neighbourhoods defined from a single fixed location fail to capture people's complete exposure in multiple locations, but measuring behaviour using traditional methods can be challenging. This study compares the traditional methods of measuring exposure to the food environment to methods that use data from GPS tracking. For each of the 187 participants, 11 different neighbourhoods were created in which the exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets were measured. ANOVA, Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test and t-tests were performed to compare the neighbourhoods. Significant differences were found between area sizes and the exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets for different neighbourhood types. Second, significant differences in exposure to food outlets were found between the urban and rural neighbourhoods. Neighbourhoods are clearly a diffused and blurred concept that varies in meaning depending on each person's perception and the conducted study. Complexity and heterogeneity of human mobility no longer appear to correspond to the use of residential neighbourhoods but rather emphasise the need for methods, concepts and measures of individual activity and exposure.

  8. A New Correction Technique for Strain-Gage Measurements Acquired in Transient-Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. Lance

    1996-01-01

    Significant strain-gage errors may exist in measurements acquired in transient-temperature environments if conventional correction methods are applied. As heating or cooling rates increase, temperature gradients between the strain-gage sensor and substrate surface increase proportionally. These temperature gradients introduce strain-measurement errors that are currently neglected in both conventional strain-correction theory and practice. Therefore, the conventional correction theory has been modified to account for these errors. A new experimental method has been developed to correct strain-gage measurements acquired in environments experiencing significant temperature transients. The new correction technique has been demonstrated through a series of tests in which strain measurements were acquired for temperature-rise rates ranging from 1 to greater than 100 degrees F/sec. Strain-gage data from these tests have been corrected with both the new and conventional methods and then compared with an analysis. Results show that, for temperature-rise rates greater than 10 degrees F/sec, the strain measurements corrected with the conventional technique produced strain errors that deviated from analysis by as much as 45 percent, whereas results corrected with the new technique were in good agreement with analytical results.

  9. Defining Neighbourhoods as a Measure of Exposure to the Food Environment.

    PubMed

    Lyseen, Anders K; Hansen, Henning S; Harder, Henrik; Jensen, Anders S; Mikkelsen, Bent E

    2015-07-01

    Neighbourhoods are frequently used as a measure for individuals' exposure to the food environment. However, the definitions of neighbourhoods fluctuate and have not been applied consistently in previous studies. Neighbourhoods defined from a single fixed location fail to capture people's complete exposure in multiple locations, but measuring behaviour using traditional methods can be challenging. This study compares the traditional methods of measuring exposure to the food environment to methods that use data from GPS tracking. For each of the 187 participants, 11 different neighbourhoods were created in which the exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets were measured. ANOVA, Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test and t-tests were performed to compare the neighbourhoods. Significant differences were found between area sizes and the exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets for different neighbourhood types. Second, significant differences in exposure to food outlets were found between the urban and rural neighbourhoods. Neighbourhoods are clearly a diffused and blurred concept that varies in meaning depending on each person's perception and the conducted study. Complexity and heterogeneity of human mobility no longer appear to correspond to the use of residential neighbourhoods but rather emphasise the need for methods, concepts and measures of individual activity and exposure. PMID:26197331

  10. Nutritional biology: a neglected basic discipline of nutritional science.

    PubMed

    Döring, Frank; Ströhle, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    On the basis of a scientific-philosophical analysis, this paper tries to show that the approaches in current nutritional science-including its subdisciplines which focus on molecular aspects-are predominantly application-oriented. This becomes particularly evident through a number of conceptual problems characterized by the triad of 'dearth of theoretical foundation,' 'particularist research questions,' and 'reductionist understanding of nutrition.' The thesis presented here is that an interpretive framework based on nutritional biology is able to shed constructive light on the fundamental problems of nutritional science. In this context, the establishment of 'nutritional biology' as a basic discipline in research and education would be a first step toward recognizing the phenomenon of 'nutrition' as an oecic process as a special case of an organism-environment interaction. Modern nutritional science should be substantively grounded on ecological-and therefore systems biology as well as organismic-principles. The aim of nutritional biology, then, should be to develop near-universal 'law statements' in nutritional science-a task which presents a major challenge for the current science system.

  11. Nutritional biology: a neglected basic discipline of nutritional science.

    PubMed

    Döring, Frank; Ströhle, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    On the basis of a scientific-philosophical analysis, this paper tries to show that the approaches in current nutritional science-including its subdisciplines which focus on molecular aspects-are predominantly application-oriented. This becomes particularly evident through a number of conceptual problems characterized by the triad of 'dearth of theoretical foundation,' 'particularist research questions,' and 'reductionist understanding of nutrition.' The thesis presented here is that an interpretive framework based on nutritional biology is able to shed constructive light on the fundamental problems of nutritional science. In this context, the establishment of 'nutritional biology' as a basic discipline in research and education would be a first step toward recognizing the phenomenon of 'nutrition' as an oecic process as a special case of an organism-environment interaction. Modern nutritional science should be substantively grounded on ecological-and therefore systems biology as well as organismic-principles. The aim of nutritional biology, then, should be to develop near-universal 'law statements' in nutritional science-a task which presents a major challenge for the current science system. PMID:26584807

  12. Effects of parental origins and length of residency on adiposity measures and nutrition in urban middle school students: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity in U.S. has been rising at an alarming rate, particularly among Hispanic, African, and Asian minority groups. This trend is due in part to excessive calorie consumption and sedentary lifestyle. We sought to investigate whether parental origins influence eating behaviors in healthy urban middle school students. Methods A multiethnic/racial population of students (N = 182) enrolled in the ROAD (Reduce Obesity and Diabetes) Study, a school-based trial to assess clinical, behavioral, and biochemical risk factors for adiposity and its co-morbidities completed questionnaires regarding parental origins, length of US residency, and food behaviors and preferences. The primary behavioral questionnaire outcome variables were nutrition knowledge, attitude, intention and behavior, which were then related to anthropometric measures of waist circumference, BMI z-scores, and percent body fat. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate the joint effects of number of parents born in the U.S. and ethnicity on food preference and knowledge score. The Tukey-Kramer method was used to compute pairwise comparisons to determine where differences lie. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyze the joint effects of number of parents born in the US and student ethnicity, along with the interaction term, on each adiposity measure outcome. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationships between maternal and paternal length of residency in the US with measures of adiposity, food preference and food knowledge. Results African Americans had significantly higher BMI, waist circumference and body fat percentage compared to other racial and ethnic groups. Neither ethnicity/race nor parental origins had an impact on nutrition behavior. Mothers’ length of US residency positively correlated with students’ nutrition knowledge, but not food attitude, intention or behavior. Conclusions Adiposity measures in children differ

  13. ["Care" and public nutrition].

    PubMed

    Martin-Prével, Yves

    2002-01-01

    In 1990, the Unicef conceptual framework for nutrition recognised the role of care, along with household food security and health services and environment, as one of the three underlying factors of child survival, growth, and development. This model has been adopted at a policy level at the International Conference on Nutrition (Rome, 1992) and over the past ten years the concept of care has been refined through literature reviews, consultative meetings and empirical works. "Care is the provision in the household and the community of time, attention, and support to meet the physical, mental, and social needs of the growing child and other household members". Basically, care refers to the actions of caregivers (mainly, but not only mothers) that translate food and health resources into positive outcomes for the child's nutrition. Even under circumstances of poverty, enhanced caregiving can optimise the use of resources to promote good nutrition. Care practices have been grouped into six categories: care for women, breastfeeding and child feeding practices, psychosocial care, food preparation, hygiene practices, household health practices. They cover a wide range of behaviours, are often culturally specific and are daily, repetitive, and time-consuming activities. It must be underlined that the way care practices are performed (i.e., quality of care) is as important as the practices themselves. It has also been emphasised that children play a significant role in determining the quality of care that they receive, through an interactive process: an active child elicits more care from the caregiver, who is in turn more responsive. Care resources at household level have been described according to three categories: human (knowledge, beliefs, education, physical and mental health of the caregiver), economic (control on income, workload and time), and organisational (alternate caregivers, community support). But the availability of care also depends on support at the

  14. On-body calibration and measurements using personal radiofrequency exposimeters in indoor diffuse and specular environments.

    PubMed

    Aminzadeh, Reza; Thielens, Arno; Bamba, Aliou; Kone, Lamine; Gaillot, Davy Paul; Lienard, Martine; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2016-07-01

    For the first time, response of personal exposimeters (PEMs) is studied under diffuse field exposure in indoor environments. To this aim, both numerical simulations, using finite-difference time-domain method, and calibration measurements were performed in the range of 880-5875 MHz covering 10 frequency bands in Belgium. Two PEMs were mounted on the body of a human male subject and calibrated on-body in an anechoic chamber (non-diffuse) and a reverberation chamber (RC) (diffuse fields). This was motivated by the fact that electromagnetic waves in indoor environments have both specular and diffuse components. Both calibrations show that PEMs underestimate actual incident electromagnetic fields. This can be compensated by using an on-body response. Moreover, it is shown that these responses are different in anechoic chamber and RC. Therefore, it is advised to use an on-body calibration in an RC in future indoor PEM measurements where diffuse fields are present. Using the response averaged over two PEMs reduced measurement uncertainty compared to single PEMs. Following the calibration, measurements in a realistic indoor environment were done for wireless fidelity (WiFi-5G) band. Measured power density values are maximally 8.9 mW/m(2) and 165.8 μW/m(2) on average. These satisfy reference levels issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection in 1998. Power density values obtained by applying on-body calibration in RC are higher than values obtained from no body calibration (only PEMs) and on-body calibration in anechoic room, by factors of 7.55 and 2.21, respectively. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:298-309, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. On-body calibration and measurements using personal radiofrequency exposimeters in indoor diffuse and specular environments.

    PubMed

    Aminzadeh, Reza; Thielens, Arno; Bamba, Aliou; Kone, Lamine; Gaillot, Davy Paul; Lienard, Martine; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2016-07-01

    For the first time, response of personal exposimeters (PEMs) is studied under diffuse field exposure in indoor environments. To this aim, both numerical simulations, using finite-difference time-domain method, and calibration measurements were performed in the range of 880-5875 MHz covering 10 frequency bands in Belgium. Two PEMs were mounted on the body of a human male subject and calibrated on-body in an anechoic chamber (non-diffuse) and a reverberation chamber (RC) (diffuse fields). This was motivated by the fact that electromagnetic waves in indoor environments have both specular and diffuse components. Both calibrations show that PEMs underestimate actual incident electromagnetic fields. This can be compensated by using an on-body response. Moreover, it is shown that these responses are different in anechoic chamber and RC. Therefore, it is advised to use an on-body calibration in an RC in future indoor PEM measurements where diffuse fields are present. Using the response averaged over two PEMs reduced measurement uncertainty compared to single PEMs. Following the calibration, measurements in a realistic indoor environment were done for wireless fidelity (WiFi-5G) band. Measured power density values are maximally 8.9 mW/m(2) and 165.8 μW/m(2) on average. These satisfy reference levels issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection in 1998. Power density values obtained by applying on-body calibration in RC are higher than values obtained from no body calibration (only PEMs) and on-body calibration in anechoic room, by factors of 7.55 and 2.21, respectively. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:298-309, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27121268

  16. Short wavelengths active bichromatic pulsed pyrometer for solids and liquids designed for measurements in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navello, L.; Lebedinsky, J.; Offret, J. P.; Serio, B.; Davin, T.; Bailly, Y.; Hervé, P.

    2015-05-01

    Optical passive methods for temperature measurements such as thermography or optical pyrometry are very interesting because they allow a non-intrusive measurement when the emissivity is known. The knowledge of this coefficient is critical for determining the actual temperature of a surface from the thermal radiation emitted in a wavelength band. The bichromatic pulsed pyrometer allows to overcome the knowledge of this parameter provided that precautions are taken in the choice of the values of wavelengths. When the object to be measured is placed in harsh environments, such passive optical methods are greatly disturbed by the presence of an optically absorbing medium. They are also distorted when the measured objects are located in very hot environments emitting intense disturbing radiation. In this study, we present an active bichromatic radiometric method for measuring the temperature of a surface in harsh environments. The method is based on a localized excitation by a modulated laser source in the infrared range. Detecting the temperature modulation, which is correlated with the excitation, is performed using a lock-in amplifier able to extract the signal embedded in a noise up to a million times superior. Working at short wavelengths (visible range and near infrared range) offers a large dynamic range and minimizes the error due to variations in emissivity with the wavelength. This system collects the radiation emitted by the object at a distance from a few meters up to dozens of meters depending on the configuration of the optical system. Both the principle and the design of the active bichromatic optical surface thermometer are presented and discussed. To demonstrate the method, results obtained on a molten ceramic stream are presented.

  17. Arctic (and Antarctic) Observing Experiment - an Assessment of Methods to Measure Temperature over Polar Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigor, I. G.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Nghiem, S. V.; Hall, D. K.; Woods, J. E.; Henderson, G. R.; Zook, J.; Marshall, C.; Gallage, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic environment has been undergoing profound changes; the most visible is the dramatic decrease in Arctic sea ice extent (SIE). These changes pose a challenge to our ability to measure surface temperature across the Polar Regions. Traditionally, the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP) and International Programme for Antarctic Buoys (IPAB) have measured surface air temperature (SAT) at 2-m height, which minimizes the ambiguity of measurements near of the surface. Specifically, is the temperature sensor measuring open water, snow, sea ice, or air? But now, with the dramatic decrease in Arctic SIE, increase in open water during summer, and the frailty of the younger sea ice pack, the IABP has had to deploy and develop new instruments to measure temperature. These instruments include Surface Velocity Program (SVP) buoys, which are commonly deployed on the world's ice-free oceans and typically measure sea surface temperature (SST), and the new robust Airborne eXpendable Ice Beacons (AXIB), which measure both SST and SAT. "Best Practice" requires that these instruments are inter-compared, and early results showing differences in collocated temperature measurements of over 2°C prompted the establishment of the IABP Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX) buoy test site at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Barrow, Alaska. Preliminary results showed that the color of the hull of SVP buoys introduces a bias due to solar heating of the buoy. Since then, we have recommended that buoys should be painted white to reduce biases in temperature measurements due to different colors of the buoys deployed in different regions of the Arctic or the Antarctic. Measurements of SAT are more robust, but some of the temperature shields are susceptible to frosting. During our presentation we will provide an intercomparison of the temperature measurements at the AOX test site (i.e. high quality DOE/ARM observations compared with

  18. Current Measurements and Overwash Monitoring Using Tilt Current Meters in Three Coastal Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowell, N. S.; Sherwood, C. R.; Decarlo, T. M.; Grant, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Tilt Current Meters (TCMs) provide accurate, cost effective measurements of near-bottom current velocities. Many studies in coastal environments require current measurements, which are frequently made with Acoustic Doppler Profilers (ADPs). ADPs are expensive, however, and may not be suitable for locations where there is significant risk of damage, loss, or theft or where a large spatial array of measurements is required. TCMs, by contrast, are smaller, less expensive, and easier to deploy. This study tested TCMs in three sites to determine their suitability for use in research applications. TCMs are based on the drag-tilt principle, where the instrument tilts in response to current. The meter consists of a buoyant float with an onboard accelerometer, three-axis tilt sensor, three-axis magnetometer (compass), and a data logger. Current measurements are derived by post processing the tilt and compass values and converting them to velocity using empirical calibration data. Large data-storage capacity (4 GB) and low power requirements allow long deployments (many months) at high sample rates (16 Hz). We demonstrate the utility of TCM current measurements on a reef at Dongsha Atoll in the South China Sea, and in Vineyard Sound off Cape Cod, where the TCM performance was evaluated against ADP measurements. We have also used the TCM to record waves during an overwash event on a Cape Cod barrier beach during a winter storm. The TCM recorded waves as they came through the overwash channel, and the data were in agreement with the water-level record used as a reference. These tests demonstrate that TCMs may be used in a variety of near shore environments and have the potential to significantly increase the density of meters in future studies were current measurements are required.

  19. [Two cases of long-term home parenteral nutrition in which increased doses of intravenous selenium were administered and the serum and hair selenium concentration was measured].

    PubMed

    Washizawa, Naohiro; Kozono, Koki; Naganuma, Hirokazu; Kimura, Yuki; Sato, Yukihiko; Sakai, Masahiro; Chino, Kenichi; Shimoda, Masato; Suzuki, Takashi; Oshima, Yoko; Kaneko, Hiromasa

    2013-12-01

    Care should be taken regarding the intravenous administration of selenium (Se), an essential element, which is known to be associated with toxemia. The concentration of Se in the serum and hair of 2 patients (patient A and B) with short bowel syndrome, undergoing long-term home parenteral nutrition (HPN), was measured. As nutritional management, commercial total parenteral nutrition infusion was used without restricting oral intake. The patients received sodium selenite (Na2O3Se x 5H2O), a hospital preparation, at the Toho University Omori Medical Center. The dosage was gradually increased from 40 microg/ week to 120 micog/week over 17 months, and the Se concentration in serum and hair was measured bimonthly using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The serum concentration of Se increased from 2.0 to 5.3 microg/dL and from 9.0 to 9.7 microg/dL in the case of patient A and B, respectively; however, it did not reach the average value that was observed in healthy volunteers (11.8 microg/dL). In contrast, the concentration of Se in hair gradually approached the reference value (reference range, 405-784 ppb at color correction criteria range 217-520 ppb) in the case of patient A (change from 189 to 278 ppb) and B (change from 291 to 200 ppb). Therefore, we were able to safely manage these cases without any deficiency and poisoning symptoms, by gradually increasing the administration doses.

  20. Measurement system for high-sensitivity LIBS analysis using ICCD camera in LabVIEW environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaytsev, S. M.; Popov, A. M.; Zorov, N. B.; Labutin, T. A.

    2014-06-01

    A measurement system based on ultrafast (up to 10 ns time resolution) intensified CCD detector ``Nanogate-2V'' (Nanoscan, Russia) was developed for high-sensitivity analysis by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometry (LIBS). LabVIEW environment provided a high level of compatibility with variety of electronic instruments and an easy development of user interface, while Visual Studio environment was used for creation of LabVIEW compatible dll library with the use of ``Nanogate-2V'' SDK. The program for camera management and laser-induced plasma spectra registration was created with the use of Call Library Node in LabVIEW. An algorithm of integration of the second device ADC ``PCI-9812'' (ADLINK) to the measurement system was proposed and successfully implemented. This allowed simultaneous registration of emission and acoustic signals under laser ablation. The measured resolving power of spectrometer-ICCD system was equal to 12000 at 632 nm. An electron density of laser plasma was estimated with the use of H-α Balmer line. Steel spectra obtained at different delays were used for selection of the optimal conditions for manganese analytical signal registration. The feature of accumulation of spectra from several laser pulses was shown. The accumulation allowed reliable observation of silver signal at 328.07 nm in the LIBS spectra of soil (CAg = 4.5 ppm). Finally, the correlation between acoustic and emission signals of plasma was found. Thus, technical possibilities of the developed LIBS system were demonstrated both for plasma diagnostics and analytical measurements.

  1. Acoustical environment measurement at a very shallow port: Trial case in Hashirimizu Port

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasawara, Hanako; Mori, Kazuyoshi

    2016-07-01

    Recently, the needs for coastal environment measurement has been increasing for many purposes, such as fishing, weather forecasting, ocean noise measurement for power plants, and coastal security. Acoustical measurement is one of the solutions because it can cover a wide area with few sensors, and it is possible to monitor long term or in real time. In this study, a small-scale reciprocal sound travel experiment was carried out in Hashirimizu Port for coastal environment measurement, such as current speed and water temperature. Since the distance between the surface and the transducer becomes short according to the tidal effect, the direct signal is canceled by the surface-reflected signal under a specific condition. However, even under such a condition, mean water temperature could be estimated from the reciprocal travel time using bottom-reflected signals. The current along the travel path was a reasonable value. It is possible to obtain a special current speed with another reciprocal path, which is in a direction perpendicular to the current travel path.

  2. Measurement of the Soret coefficients for a ternary hydrocarbon mixture in low gravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahadi, Amirhossein; Van Varenbergh, S.; Saghir, M. Ziad

    2013-05-01

    While the Soret coefficients of binary mixtures have been widely measured in the past, here we report the first measurement of the Soret coefficient of a ternary mixture in a low gravity environment on board the International Space Station. The sample was contained in a 10 mm × 10 mm × 5 mm (w, l, h) cell and was monitored by means of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer at two wavelengths. The analyzed sample was a mixture of tetrahydronaphthalene, isobutylbenzene, and dodecane at the weight fraction of 0.1/0.8/0.1. While the lateral walls of the cell did not possess complete thermal isolation, the separation of the components in the central region of the cavity was comparable to purely diffusive behavior. The same experimental parameters have been monitored in Run7 and Run12 of the Selectable Optical Diagnostics Instrument-Diffusion and Soret Coefficient experiment in order to verify the accuracy of the setup. The similarity of the results demonstrates the repeatability of thermodiffusion experiments in a microgravity environment. There was nearly equal separation of the tetrahydronaphthalene and isobutylbenzene components in opposite directions, while dodecane experienced a weak separation in the same direction as isobutylbenzene. Finally, Fourier image processing and calculations of the transient separation of the components were used to analyze the heat transfer in the system and to measure the Soret coefficients for this ternary mixture. The successful measurements shown in this work can serve as the standard for ground experiments and for numerical modeling of hydrocarbon mixtures.

  3. Measuring natural resource scarcity under common property environment and uncertainty: an interpretive analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.N.

    1987-01-01

    In order to extract and use a natural resource (e.g., coal) the environment (air, water, etc.) must also be used as a repository of the discharged wastes (e.g., sulfur oxides, nitrous oxides, particulates, etc.). Moreover, if there is a mandated level of the environmental resource (e.g., clean air) that has to be maintained, then certain additional costs must be borne by society (firms utilizing the resource). Thus, in evaluating the scarcity of an extractible resource, the relative position of the environmental resource also must be evaluated. This study incorporated such jointness in the evaluation of the measure of resource scarcity, something earlier studies did not address. The theoretical model was developed in an optimal-control framework. It was analytically shown that this new measure of resource scarcity would indicate a different trend compared to earlier ones. The measure of resource scarcity developed in this study captures previous measures as special cases. In an uncertain world, when the impacts of use of an extractible resource on the environment is not known, the stock size of the environmental resource becomes uncertain.

  4. Evaluation of cancellation coil for precision magnetic measurements with strong prepolarization field inside shielded environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seong-min; Kim, Kiwoong; Seok Kang, Chan; Lee, Seong-Joo; Lee, Yong-Ho

    2012-04-01

    Many precision magnetic measurements can benefit significantly from or even require strong prepolarization fields (Bp) and magnetically shielded environments. We describe here in detail a cancellation coil (CC) which can neutralize the Bp on the electrically conductive shield walls that may otherwise induce currents on the walls to produce a lingering transient residual field (Btr) inside the shielded environment and disrupt the measurement operations. The CC was designed using the inverse problem method to effectively neutralize magnetic fields generated on the shield walls by the Bp coil. The implemented CC was evaluated by measuring Btr using a fluxgate magnetometer at different magnetometer positions and cancellation coil currents (ICC). Multi-mode component analysis on the Btr measurements revealed two dominant components, where the component with shorter time constant comes from the current induced around the shield side walls and the other with longer time constant from the current induced on the ceiling and floor of the magnetically shielded room. The analysis also revealed the optimal ICC for each of the top, side, and bottom sections of the CC, which enables significantly easier fine-tuning of individual sections of the CC to enhance CC performance.

  5. Measures of the consumer food store environment: a systematic review of the evidence 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Alison; Hankins, Scott; Jilcott, Stephanie

    2012-08-01

    Description of the consumer food environment has proliferated in publication. However, there has been a lack of systematic reviews focusing on how the consumer food environment is associated with the following: (1) neighborhood characteristics; (2) food prices; (3) dietary patterns; and (4) weight status. We conducted a systematic review of primary, quantitative, observational studies, published in English that conducted an audit of the consumer food environment. The literature search included electronic, hand searches, and peer-reviewed from 2000 to 2011. Fifty six papers met the inclusion criteria. Six studies reported stores in low income neighborhoods or high minority neighborhoods had less availability of healthy food. While, four studies found there was no difference in availability between neighborhoods. The results were also inconsistent for differences in food prices, dietary patterns, and weight status. This systematic review uncovered several key findings. (1) Systematic measurement of determining availability of food within stores and store types is needed; (2) Context is relevant for understanding the complexities of the consumer food environment; (3) Interventions and longitudinal studies addressing purchasing habits, diet, and obesity outcomes are needed; and (4) Influences of price and marketing that may be linked with why people purchase certain items.

  6. Effects of drought and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide on seed nutrition and 15N and 13C natural abundance isotopes in soybean cultivars under controlled environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change resulting from global warming is expected to affect crop production and seed quality. The objective of this research was to evaluate the response of soybean cultivars to the effect of drought and elevated temperature on seed composition and mineral nutrition. In a repeated growth cham...

  7. Adaptive capability as indicated by endocrine and biochemical responses of Malpura ewes subjected to combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) in a semi-arid tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Maurya, Vijai P.; Naqvi, Sayeed M. K.

    2010-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) on endocrine and biochemical responses in Malpura ewes. Twenty eight adult Malpura ewes (average body weight 33.56 kg) were used in the present study. The ewes were divided into four groups viz., GI ( n = 7; control), GII ( n = 7; thermal stress), GIII ( n = 7; nutritional stress) and GIV ( n = 7; combined stress). The animals were stall fed with a diet consisting of 60% roughage and 40% concentrate. GI and GII ewes were provided with ad libitum feeding while GIII and GIV ewes were provided with restricted feed (30% intake of GI ewes) to induce nutritional stress. GII and GIV ewes were kept in climatic chamber at 40°C and 55% RH for 6 h a day between 1000 hours and 1600 hours to induce thermal stress. The study was conducted for a period of two estrus cycles. The parameters studied were Hb, PCV, glucose, total protein, total cholesterol, ACP, ALP, cortisol, T4, T3, and insulin. Combined stress significantly ( P < 0.05) affected all parameters studied. Furthermore, the results revealed that, compared to thermal stress, nutritional stress had a less significant effect on the parameters studied. However, when both these stresses were coupled, they had a severe impact on all the parameters studied in these ewes. It can be concluded from this study that two stressors occurring simultaneously may impact severely on the biological functions necessary to maintain homeostasis in sheep.

  8. An instrument design to measure the sustainability of technology in risky environments: Case study of Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sammarraie, Munadil Khaleel Faaeq; Faieq, Alaa K.; Al-Qasa, Khaled

    2016-08-01

    Electronic Government (eG) has become a vital tool to serve the beneficiaries; therefore, it has received the attention of many Information System (IS) researchers. Due to the importance of the sustainability of IS, this paper identifies the emergence of a clear gape to measure the sustainability of IS in risky circumstances, such as wars, conflicts and violence; nowadays, the risky issue is increasing remarkably. This paper expands previous studies whose focus was on investigating the sustainability of electronic services unsecured countries in the world. Consequently, a need for a specific tool to measure the sustainability of technology among the users in risky conditions has become urgent. Based on the findings, it can be confirmed that this instrument is reliable to measure the sustainability of technology in risky environments.

  9. Design of a Multisensory Probe for Measuring Carbon Cycle Processes in Aqueous Subterranean Environments

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, Timothy J; Kisner, Roger; Woodworth, Ken; Lenarduzzi, Roberto; Frank, Steven Shane; McKnight, Timothy E

    2015-01-01

    The global carbon cycle describes the exchange of carbon between the atmosphere, terrestrial vegetation, oceans, and soil. Mechanisms involving carbon in sub-terrestrial ecosystems and their impact on climate are not well understood. This lack of understanding limits current climate models and prevents accurate soil-carbon storage predications for future climate conditions. To address the lack of instrumentation for conducting high fidelity measurements of appropriate parameters in the field, a multi-sensory probe using a mix of optical, fiber optic, and electronic technologies to measure CO2, temperature, dissolved oxygen, redox potential, and water level in subsurface environments has been developed. Details of the design, fabrication and laboratory performance verification are presented. Use cases and the anticipated impacts of such measurements on climate models are discussed.

  10. Optimization of liquid scintillation measurements applied to smears and aqueous samples collected in industrial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapon, Arnaud; Pigrée, Gilbert; Putmans, Valérie; Rogel, Gwendal

    Search for low-energy β contaminations in industrial environments requires using Liquid Scintillation Counting. This indirect measurement method supposes a fine control from sampling to measurement itself. Thus, in this paper, we focus on the definition of a measurement method, as generic as possible, for both smears and aqueous samples' characterization. That includes choice of consumables, sampling methods, optimization of counting parameters and definition of energy windows, using the maximization of a Figure of Merit. Detection limits are then calculated considering these optimized parameters. For this purpose, we used PerkinElmer Tri-Carb counters. Nevertheless, except those relative to some parameters specific to PerkinElmer, most of the results presented here can be extended to other counters.

  11. Conceptual Design and Demonstration of Space Scale for Measuring Mass in Microgravity Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youn-Kyu; Lee, Joo-Hee; Choi, Gi-Hyuk; Choi, Ik-Hyeon

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a new idea for developing a space scale for measuring mass in a microgravity environment was proposed by using the inertial force properties of an object to measure its mass. The space scale detected the momentum change of the specimen and reference masses by using a load-cell sensor as the force transducer based on Newton's laws of motion. In addition, the space scale calculated the specimen mass by comparing the inertial forces of the specimen and reference masses in the same acceleration field. By using this concept, a space scale with a capacity of 3 kg based on the law of momentum conservation was implemented and demonstrated under microgravity conditions onboard International Space Station (ISS) with an accuracy of ±1 g. By the performance analysis on the space scale, it was verified that an instrument with a compact size could be implemented and be quickly measured with a reasonable accuracy under microgravity conditions.

  12. Resolving small signal measurements in experimental plasma environments using calibrated subtraction of noise signals

    SciTech Connect

    Fimognari, P. J. Demers, D. R.; Chen, X.; Schoch, P. M.

    2014-11-15

    The performance of many diagnostic and control systems within fusion and other fields of research are often detrimentally affected by spurious noise signals. This is particularly true for those (such as radiation or particle detectors) working with very small signals. Common sources of radiated and conducted noise in experimental fusion environments include the plasma itself and instrumentation. The noise complicates data analysis, as illustrated by noise on signals measured with the heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus. The noise is time-varying and often exceeds the secondary ion beam current (in contrast with previous applications). Analysis of the noise identifies the dominant source as photoelectric emission from the detectors induced by ultraviolet light from the plasma. This has led to the development of a calibrated subtraction technique, which largely removes the undesired temporal noise signals from data. The advantages of the technique for small signal measurement applications are demonstrated through improvements realized on HIBP fluctuation measurements.

  13. Measurement of neutron spectra in varied environments by the foil-activation method with arbitrary trials

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.G.; Vehar, D.W.

    1987-12-01

    Neutron spectra have been measured by the foil-activation method in 13 different environments in and around the Sandia Pulsed Reactor, the White Sands Missile Range Fast Burst Reactor, and the Sandia Annular Core Research Reactor. The spectra were obtained by using the SANDII code in a manner that was not dependent on the initial trial. This altered technique is better suited for the determination of spectra in environments that are difficult to predict by calculation, and it tends to reveal features that may be biased out by the use of standard trial-dependent methods. For some of the configurations, studies have also been made of how well the solution is determined in each energy region. The experimental methods and the techniques used in the analyses are thoroughly explained. 34 refs., 51 figs., 40 tabs.

  14. Fitting Procedures for Novel Gene-by-Measured Environment Interaction Models in Behavior Genetic Designs.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hao; Rathouz, Paul J

    2015-07-01

    For quantitative behavior genetic (e.g., twin) studies, Purcell proposed a novel model for testing gene-by-measured environment (GxM) interactions while accounting for gene-by-environment correlation. Rathouz et al. expanded this model into a broader class of non-linear biometric models for quantifying and testing such interactions. In this work, we propose a novel factorization of the likelihood for this class of models, and adopt numerical integration techniques to achieve model estimation, especially for those without close-form likelihood. The validity of our procedures is established through numerical simulation studies. The new procedures are illustrated in a twin study analysis of the moderating effect of birth weight on the genetic influences on childhood anxiety. A second example is given in an online appendix. Both the extant GxM models and the new non-linear models critically assume normality of all structural components, which implies continuous, but not normal, manifest response variables.

  15. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devadas, Rajammal P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses principles, methods, places, and outcomes of nutrition education. Suggests that in order to have the active cooperation of participants, healthy relationships between the various agencies, officials, local functionaries, and nutritionists should be maintained. (Author/KC)

  16. Diet & Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... in MS is growing. Resources Find a dietician / nutritionist Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics – Provides an online search tool to locate registered dietician nutritionists (RDNs). Offers many consumer-geared resources. Food assistance ...

  17. Nutritional Assessment.

    PubMed

    Eirmann, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Nutritional assessment focuses on evaluation of animal-specific, diet-specific, feeding management, and environmental factors. Assessment includes evaluation of a patient's medical history, comprehensive diet history, and physical examination including body weight, body condition, and muscle condition. Diagnostic testing may identify comorbidities associated with obesity or concurrent health conditions that need to be considered when developing a nutrition plan. When obesity is diagnosed during the nutritional assessment this finding along with health implications must be clearly communicated to the pet owner. Careful consideration of animal-specific, diet-specific, owner-specific, and environmental factors allows the clinician to develop a specific nutrition plan tailored to the needs of pet and owner. PMID:27364967

  18. Are Front of Pack Claims Indicators of Nutrition Quality? Evidence from 2 Product Categories.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Debra; Hooker, Neal H; Stanton, John L

    2016-01-01

    American grocery shoppers face an array of front of pack (FOP) nutrition and health claims when making food selections. Such systems have been categorized as summary or nutrient specific. Either type should help consumers make judgments about the nutrition quality of a product. This research tests if the type or quantity of FOP claims are indeed good indicators of objective nutrition quality. Claim and nutrition information from more than 2200 breakfast cereals and prepared meals launched between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed using binary and multinomial logistic regression models. Results suggest that no type or number of front of pack claims could distinguish "healthy" foods. However, some types and frequencies of FOP claims were significant predictors of higher or lower levels of certain key nutrients. Given the complex and crowded label environment in which these FOP claims reside, one may be concerned that such cues are not closely related to objective measures of nutrition quality.

  19. Subjective versus objective measures of tic severity in Tourette syndrome - The influence of environment.

    PubMed

    Barnea, Meirav; Benaroya-Milshtein, Noa; Gilboa-Sechtman, Eva; Woods, Douglas W; Piacentini, John; Fennig, Silvana; Apter, Alan; Steinberg, Tamar

    2016-08-30

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of environmental challenges on tic expression by subjective and objective measures. The study group consisted of 41 children aged 6-18 years (M=10.15, SD=2.73) with a primary diagnosis of Tourette syndrome. Subjective measures included the Functional Assessment Interview developed for this study and three standard validated instruments. The objective measure was a video-recording of the patients in five daily-life situations: watching television, doing homework, being alone, receiving attention when ticcing, and talking to a stranger. In addition, the effect of premonitory urges on assessment of tic expression was evaluated. The associations between the subjective and objective measures of tic expression were moderate to low. A significantly higher number of tics were observed in the television situation, and a significantly lower number in the alone situation, compared to the other situations. Higher levels of premonitory urge were associated with greater awareness of objectively measured tic expression. In conclusion, tic expression is significantly influenced by the environment. Subjective measures of tic expression may be misleading. These results have implications for refining the clinical assessment of tics, improving research methodology, and developing new therapeutic strategies. PMID:27289326

  20. Subjective versus objective measures of tic severity in Tourette syndrome - The influence of environment.

    PubMed

    Barnea, Meirav; Benaroya-Milshtein, Noa; Gilboa-Sechtman, Eva; Woods, Douglas W; Piacentini, John; Fennig, Silvana; Apter, Alan; Steinberg, Tamar

    2016-08-30

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of environmental challenges on tic expression by subjective and objective measures. The study group consisted of 41 children aged 6-18 years (M=10.15, SD=2.73) with a primary diagnosis of Tourette syndrome. Subjective measures included the Functional Assessment Interview developed for this study and three standard validated instruments. The objective measure was a video-recording of the patients in five daily-life situations: watching television, doing homework, being alone, receiving attention when ticcing, and talking to a stranger. In addition, the effect of premonitory urges on assessment of tic expression was evaluated. The associations between the subjective and objective measures of tic expression were moderate to low. A significantly higher number of tics were observed in the television situation, and a significantly lower number in the alone situation, compared to the other situations. Higher levels of premonitory urge were associated with greater awareness of objectively measured tic expression. In conclusion, tic expression is significantly influenced by the environment. Subjective measures of tic expression may be misleading. These results have implications for refining the clinical assessment of tics, improving research methodology, and developing new therapeutic strategies.

  1. Space Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  2. The School Assessment for Environmental Typology (SAfETy): An Observational Measure of the School Environment.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Milam, Adam J; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2015-12-01

    School safety is of great concern for prevention researchers, school officials, parents, and students, yet there are a dearth of assessments that have operationalized school safety from an organizational framework using objective tools and measures. Such a tool would be important for deriving unbiased assessments of the school environment, which in turn could be used as an evaluative tool for school violence prevention efforts. The current paper presents a framework for conceptualizing school safety consistent with Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) model and social disorganization theory, both of which highlight the importance of context as a driver for adolescents' risk for involvement in substance use and violence. This paper describes the development of a novel observational measure, called the School Assessment for Environmental Typology (SAfETy), which applies CPTED and social disorganizational frameworks to schools to measure eight indicators of school physical and social environment (i.e., disorder, trash, graffiti/vandalism, appearance, illumination, surveillance, ownership, and positive behavioral expectations). Drawing upon data from 58 high schools, we provide preliminary data regarding the validity and reliability of the SAfETy and describe patterns of the school safety indicators. Findings demonstrate the reliability and validity of the SAfETy and are discussed with regard to the prevention of violence in schools.

  3. The School Assessment for Environmental Typology (SAfETy): An Observational Measure of the School Environment.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Milam, Adam J; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2015-12-01

    School safety is of great concern for prevention researchers, school officials, parents, and students, yet there are a dearth of assessments that have operationalized school safety from an organizational framework using objective tools and measures. Such a tool would be important for deriving unbiased assessments of the school environment, which in turn could be used as an evaluative tool for school violence prevention efforts. The current paper presents a framework for conceptualizing school safety consistent with Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) model and social disorganization theory, both of which highlight the importance of context as a driver for adolescents' risk for involvement in substance use and violence. This paper describes the development of a novel observational measure, called the School Assessment for Environmental Typology (SAfETy), which applies CPTED and social disorganizational frameworks to schools to measure eight indicators of school physical and social environment (i.e., disorder, trash, graffiti/vandalism, appearance, illumination, surveillance, ownership, and positive behavioral expectations). Drawing upon data from 58 high schools, we provide preliminary data regarding the validity and reliability of the SAfETy and describe patterns of the school safety indicators. Findings demonstrate the reliability and validity of the SAfETy and are discussed with regard to the prevention of violence in schools. PMID:26296310

  4. Multiparameter Flowfield Measurements in High-Pressure, Cryogenic Environments Using Femtosecond Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Peters, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) and Rayleigh scattering (RS) from a femtosecond laser are demonstrated in the NASA Langley 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT). The measured signals from these techniques are examined for their thermodynamic dependencies in pure nitrogen. The FLEET signal intensity and signal lifetimes are found to scale primarily with the gas density, as does the RS signal. Several models are developed, which capture these physical behaviors. Notably, the FLEET and Rayleigh scattering intensities scale linearly with the flow density, while the FLEET signal decay rates are a more complex function of the thermodynamic state of the gas. The measurement of various flow properties are demonstrated using these techniques. While density was directly measured from the signal intensities and FLEET signal lifetime, temperature and pressure were measured using the simultaneous FLEET velocity measurements while assuming the flow had a constant total enthalpy. Measurements of density, temperature, and pressure from the FLEET signal are made with accuracies as high as 5.3 percent, 0.62 percent, and 6.2 percent, respectively, while precisions were approximately 10 percent, 0.26 percent, and 11 percent for these same quantities. Similar measurements of density from Rayleigh scattering showed an overall accuracy of 3.5 percent and a precision of 10.2 percent over a limited temperature range (T greater than 195 K). These measurements suggest a high degree of utility at using the femtosecond-laser based diagnostics for making multiparameter measurements in high-pressure, cryogenic environments such as large-scale TCT facilities.

  5. Radiation environment on board Russian segment of International space station measured by raditon monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benghin, V.; Petrov, V.; Shurshakov, V.; Lyagushin, V.; Volkov, A.

    The operative radiation monitoring system (RMS) was installed on board the Russian segment of the International Space Station (RS ISS) and has been functioning since August 1, 2001.The RMS permits to measure the absorbed dose rate in 4 points of the RS ISS. In every point of measurement two semiconductor detectors one of which has no shielding and the other one has a lead spherical screen with thickness of 3 gc m-2, have been installed. The measurement results are beingprocessed and analyzed on board and simultaneously are being transmitted to the ground for estimating the radiat ion environment and hazard for the crew members and for the hardware verifying as well. For one year of RMS functioning the continuous massive of data on dose rate distribution inside RS ISS was formed. It permits to investigate the radiation environment characteristics under quiet conditions and during solar proton events (SPE). Regularities of behavior of the cosmic ray depth-dose curve for various radiation conditions in the near-earth space and during SPE were established on the basis of these data analysis. These curves permit to calculate the dose of cosmonaut's exposure with taking into account its dynamics if the shielding function of the ISS areas in which the crew members were during the exposure are known. During the future functioning of the RSM the results that will expand the massive of data for the period of solar minimum will be obtained. This will permit to investigate in detail the radiation environment inside the RS ISS depending on various helio -geophysical characteristics during its flight in various regions of the near-earth space.

  6. Ultrasonic techniques for measuring physical properties of fluids in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantea, Cristian

    Ultrasonic-based measurement techniques, either in the time domain or in the frequency domain, include a wide range of experimental methods for investigating physical properties of materials. This discussion is specifically focused on ultrasonic methods and instrumentation development for the determination of liquid properties at conditions typically found in subsurface environments (in the U.S., more than 80% of total energy needs are provided by subsurface energy sources). Such sensors require materials that can withstand harsh conditions of high pressure, high temperature and corrosiveness. These include the piezoelectric material, electrically conductive adhesives, sensor housings/enclosures, and the signal carrying cables, to name a few. A complete sensor package was developed for operation at high temperatures and pressures characteristic to geothermal/oil-industry reservoirs. This package is designed to provide real-time, simultaneous measurements of multiple physical parameters, such as temperature, pressure, salinity and sound speed. The basic principle for this sensor's operation is an ultrasonic frequency domain technique, combined with transducer resonance tracking. This multipurpose acoustic sensor can be used at depths of several thousand meters, temperatures up to 250 °C, and in a very corrosive environment. In the context of high precision measurement of sound speed, the determination of acoustic nonlinearity of liquids will also be discussed, using two different approaches: (i) the thermodynamic method, in which precise and accurate frequency domain sound speed measurements are performed at high pressure and high temperature, and (ii) a modified finite amplitude method, requiring time domain measurements of the second harmonic at room temperature. Efforts toward the development of an acoustic source of collimated low-frequency (10-150 kHz) beam, with applications in imaging, will also be presented.

  7. TRMM ground truth in a monsoon environment - Darwin, Australia. [Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, T. D.; Holland, G. J.; Manton, M. J.; Simpson, J.

    1988-01-01

    A ground truth station for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is described. The station is situated in Darwin, Australia in a monsoon environment typical for Southeast Asia. The climatological features of the site, and the Darwin observational program are examined. The instruments and operations at the station are discussed, including a Doppler radar making full upper tropospheric soundings every 12 hrs and wind soundings every 6 hrs, and a mesoscale raingauge and surface observing network operating continuously through the summer monsoon seasons. The spatial and temporal characteristics of rainfall in the area and an outline of the research objectives of the program are presented.

  8. Detecting Band Inversions by Measuring the Environment: Fingerprints of Electronic Band Topology in Bulk Phonon Linewidths.

    PubMed

    Saha, Kush; Légaré, Katherine; Garate, Ion

    2015-10-23

    The interplay between topological phases of matter and dissipative baths constitutes an emergent research topic with links to condensed matter, photonic crystals, cold atomic gases, and quantum information. While recent studies suggest that dissipative baths can induce topological phases in intrinsically trivial quantum materials, the backaction of topological invariants on dissipative baths is overlooked. By exploring this backaction for a centrosymmetric Dirac insulator coupled to phonons, we show that the linewidths of bulk optical phonons can reveal electronic band inversions. This result is the first known example where topological phases of an open quantum system may be detected by measuring the bulk properties of the surrounding environment.

  9. Family and School Psychosocial Environment (FSPE): development of a brief questionnaire measuring perceived psychosocial environments in children/siblings.

    PubMed

    Persson, Bertil

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a short Swedish standardized, factor analyzed and cross-validated, family and school psychosocial environment questionnaire (FSPE). The study was based on 244 Swedish girls and boys, 10-19 years old, who filled in the FSPE. Maximum likelihood factor analysis, promax rotation, yielded six primary factors, based on absolute ratings. Since the factors were somewhat correlated, two broader secondary factors, with satisfactory reliabilities, were also included in the form, named Warmth, support and openness from parents, siblings and peers, and Family conflicts and school discipline, respectively. Means and standard deviations for girls and boys showed sex differences in most of the factors. Because the children participated anonymously they could report about spanking without negative consequences. Indeed, 8.1% of the children had been spanked by their parents. Based on relative ratings, two factors were identified, covering environmental questions about "more than, the same as or less than" a sibling. Only 6.6% of the children rated their environment exactly the same on the Family Psychosocial Environment (FPE) factors, compared to a sibling within the family. Thus the majority reported environmental differences. Further research is proposed to evaluate such differences and relations to personality, genotype-environment correlation and genetic mediation.

  10. Measurements of OH and HO2 Radical Chemistry in a Forest Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, R. F.; Dusanter, S.; Griffith, S. M.; Stevens, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    Approximately 30 % of the earth’s surface is covered by forested areas, which make large contributions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) to the atmosphere. BVOCs have a significant impact on atmospheric chemistry at the local and regional scales, and, as a result, a complete understanding of the fast photochemistry involving BVOCs is important for air quality studies. Because of their high reactivity, measurements of hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxyl (HO2) radical concentrations can provide a rigorous test of our understanding of atmospheric chemistry. Previous measurements of OH in forest environments have shown that models of atmospheric chemistry usually underpredict daytime and nighttime concentrations of OH, suggesting that there may be additional sources of radicals or recycling mechanisms of OH that are not included in current models of atmospheric photochemistry. During the summers of 2008 and 2009, total OH reactivity and OH and HO2 radicals were measured above and below the forest canopy in a northern Michigan forest. Preliminary measurements are presented together with estimated production rates of OH from O3 photolysis to ascertain whether additional primary and secondary sources of OH are required to sustain the observed concentrations. In addition, measurements from above and below the forest canopy are grouped together in several temperature bins to investigate a potential temperature dependence of the radical sources.

  11. Assessment of sensing fire fighters uniforms for physiological parameter measurement in harsh environment.

    PubMed

    Curone, Davide; Secco, Emanuele Lindo; Caldani, Laura; Lanatà, Antonio; Paradiso, Rita; Tognetti, Alessandro; Magenes, Giovanni

    2012-05-01

    In the last few years, much effort has been devoted to the development of wearable sensing systems able to monitor physiological, behavioral, and environmental parameters. Less has been done on the accurate testing and assessment of this instrumentation, especially when considering devices thought to be used in harsh environments by subjects or operators performing intense physical activities. This paper presents methodology and results of the evaluation of wearable physiological sensors under these conditions. The methodology has been applied to a specific textile-based prototype, aimed at the real-time monitoring of rescuers in emergency contexts, which has been developed within a European funded project called ProeTEX. Wearable sensor measurements have been compared with the ones of suitable gold standards through Bland-Altman statistical analysis; tests were realized in controlled environments simulating typical intervention conditions, with temperatures ranging from 20 °C to 45 °C and subjects performing mild to very intense activities. This evaluation methodology demonstrated to be effective for the definition of the limits of use of wearable sensors. Furthermore, the ProeTEX prototype demonstrated to be reliable, since it produced negligible errors when used for up to 1 h in normal environmental temperature (20 °C and 35 °C) and up to 30 min in harsher environment (45 °C).

  12. Assessment of sensing fire fighters uniforms for physiological parameter measurement in harsh environment.

    PubMed

    Curone, Davide; Secco, Emanuele Lindo; Caldani, Laura; Lanatà, Antonio; Paradiso, Rita; Tognetti, Alessandro; Magenes, Giovanni

    2012-05-01

    In the last few years, much effort has been devoted to the development of wearable sensing systems able to monitor physiological, behavioral, and environmental parameters. Less has been done on the accurate testing and assessment of this instrumentation, especially when considering devices thought to be used in harsh environments by subjects or operators performing intense physical activities. This paper presents methodology and results of the evaluation of wearable physiological sensors under these conditions. The methodology has been applied to a specific textile-based prototype, aimed at the real-time monitoring of rescuers in emergency contexts, which has been developed within a European funded project called ProeTEX. Wearable sensor measurements have been compared with the ones of suitable gold standards through Bland-Altman statistical analysis; tests were realized in controlled environments simulating typical intervention conditions, with temperatures ranging from 20 °C to 45 °C and subjects performing mild to very intense activities. This evaluation methodology demonstrated to be effective for the definition of the limits of use of wearable sensors. Furthermore, the ProeTEX prototype demonstrated to be reliable, since it produced negligible errors when used for up to 1 h in normal environmental temperature (20 °C and 35 °C) and up to 30 min in harsher environment (45 °C). PMID:22231710

  13. Comparison of path visualizations and cognitive measures relative to travel technique in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Zanbaka, Catherine A; Lok, Benjamin C; Babu, Sabarish V; Ulinski, Amy C; Hodges, Larry F

    2005-01-01

    We describe a between-subjects experiment that compared four different methods of travel and their effect on cognition and paths taken in an immersive virtual environment (IVE). Participants answered a set of questions based on Crook's condensation of Bloom's taxonomy that assessed their cognition of the IVE with respect to knowledge, understanding and application, and higher mental processes. Participants also drew a sketch map of the IVE and the objects within it. The users' sense of presence was measured using the Steed-Usoh-Slater Presence Questionnaire. The participants' position and head orientation were automatically logged during their exposure to the virtual environment. These logs were later used to create visualizations of the paths taken. Path analysis, such as exploring the overlaid path visualizations and dwell data information, revealed further differences among the travel techniques. Our results suggest that, for applications where problem solving and evaluation of information is important or where opportunity to train is minimal, then having a large tracked space so that the participant can walk around the virtual environment provides benefits over common virtual travel techniques.

  14. Blood pressure measurement in noise intensive environments using adaptive interference cancellation.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Lisa; Dhanantwari, Amar; Wong, Winnie; Stergiopoulos, Stergios; Maris, Mike

    2002-05-01

    The traditional auscultatory technique and current methodologies for measuring human blood pressure are limited when used in situations where extreme vibration or acoustic noise is present. In this study, human subjects were used to establish the effectiveness of a novel adaptive blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) system in determining systolic-diastolic pressure in vibration and noise intense environments. To remove the effects of noise and vibration from the audible Korotkoff sounds, the proposed ABPM system employs two acoustic sensors in the pressure cuff. The primary acoustic sensor is placed on the brachial artery to record the Korotkoff sounds while the secondary acoustic sensor is placed away from the artery to record background noise and vibrations. The signals from the two acoustic sensors are provided to the input of an adaptive interference canceller to remove the noise effects in the signal of the primary acoustic sensor. In two phases of clinical testing, the ABPM system was first employed in a noiseless environment and then near and onboard search and rescue helicopters. The results from both phases deliver a successful demonstration of the ABPM system's capabilities to provide blood pressure estimates in noisy environments where the conventional auscultatory and other techniques have limited use.

  15. Establishing aeolian particulate 'fingerprints' in an airport environment using magnetic measurements and SEM/EDAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Sue; Hoon, Stephen R.; Richardson, Nigel; Bennett, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The significant increase in global air travel which has occurred during the last fifty years has generated growing concern regarding the potential impacts associated with increasing emissions of particulate matter (PM) from aviation activity on health and the environment. PM within the airport environment, in particular, may be derived from a wide range of potential sources including aircraft; vehicles; ground support equipment and buildings. In order to investigate and remediate potential problem sources, it is important to be able to identify characteristic particulate 'fingerprints' which would allow source attribution, particularly respirable particulates. To date the identification of such 'fingerprints' has remained elusive but remains a key research priority for the aviation industry (Webb et al, 2008). In previous PM studies, environmental magnetism has been used as a successful technique for discriminating between different emission types and particulate sources in both urban and industrial environments (e.g. Hunt et al 1984; Lecoanet et al 2003, Jones et al 2015). Environmental magnetism is a non-destructive and relatively rapid technique involving the use of non-directional, rock magnetic measurements to characterise the mineral magnetic properties of natural and anthropogenic materials. In other studies scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has also been used as an effective characterisation technique for the investigation of grain size and morphology of PM derived from vehicle emissions (e.g. Bucko et al 2010) and fossil fuel combustion sources (Kim et al 2009). In this study, environmental magnetic measurements and SEM/EDAX have been used to characterise dusts from specific aircraft sources including engines, brakes and tyres. Furthermore, these methods have also been applied to runway (both hard and grass covered surfaces), taxiway and apron dusts collected during extensive environmental sampling at Manchester International Airport, UK in order to

  16. How Natural Water Retention Measures (NWRM) can help rural and urban environments improve their resilience?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siauve, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    The challenges related to water resources management are exacerbated by climate change which implies additional complexity and uncertainty. The impacts of climate change have thus to be taken into account, from today on the next decades, to ensure a sustainable integrated water resources management. One of the main environmental objective of the Water Framework Directive (2000/30/CE) was to achieve and maintain a good status for all water bodies by the target date of 2015. Unfortunately, Member States didn't manage to reach this goal and in this context, the European Commission (EC), since many years, have started many initiatives and reforms to improve the global situation. In 2012 the DG Environment (DGENV) of the EC published a "Blueprint to safeguard Europe's water resources" that states the need for further implementation of water resource management measures and in particular Natural Water Retention Measures (NWRMs). NWRM are measures that aim to safeguard and enhance the water storage potential of landscape, soils and aquifers, by restoring ecosystems, natural features and characteristics of water courses, and by using natural processes. They are Nature-Based Solutions supporting adaptation and reducing vulnerability of water resources. Their interest lies with the multiple benefits they can deliver, and their capacity to contribute simultaneously to the achievement of the objectives of different European policies (WFD, FD, Biodiversity strategy …). However the knowledge on NWRM is scattered and addressed differently in the countries, whereas the NWRM potential for improving the state of the environment and resilience (drought, flood, biodiversity…) in a changing environment is high. In 2013, all EU countries started the elaboration of the second River Basin Management Plan and associated Programme of Measures. To support MS authorities and local implementers of these measures DGENV launched a 14 month project for collaboratively building knowledge and

  17. Conceptualizing and Comparing Neighborhood and Activity Space Measures for Food Environment Research

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Thomas W.; Pitts, Stephanie B. Jilcott; McGuirt, Jared T.; Keyserling, Thomas C.; Ammerman, Alice S.

    2014-01-01

    Greater accessibility to geospatial technologies has led to a surge of spatialized public health research, much of which has focused on food environments. The purpose of this study was to analyze differing spatial measures of exposure to supermarkets and farmers’ markets among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina. Exposure measures were derived using participant-defined neighborhoods, investigator-defined road network neighborhoods, and activity spaces incorporating participants’ time space behaviors. Results showed that mean area for participant-defined neighborhoods (0.04 sq. miles) was much smaller than 2.0 mile road network neighborhoods (3.11 sq. miles) and activity spaces (26.36 sq. miles), and that activity spaces provided the greatest market exposure. The traditional residential neighborhood concept may not be particularly relevant for all places. Time-space approaches capturing activity space may be more relevant, particularly if integrated with mixed methods strategies. PMID:25306420

  18. Conceptualizing and comparing neighborhood and activity space measures for food environment research.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Thomas W; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; McGuirt, Jared T; Keyserling, Thomas C; Ammerman, Alice S

    2014-11-01

    Greater accessibility to geospatial technologies has led to a surge of spatialized public health research, much of which has focused on food environments. The purpose of this study was to analyze differing spatial measures of exposure to supermarkets and farmers׳ markets among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina. Exposure measures were derived using participant-defined neighborhoods, investigator-defined road network neighborhoods, and activity spaces incorporating participants׳ time space behaviors. Results showed that mean area for participant-defined neighborhoods (0.04 sq. miles) was much smaller than 2.0 mile road network neighborhoods (3.11 sq. miles) and activity spaces (26.36 sq. miles), and that activity spaces provided the greatest market exposure. The traditional residential neighborhood concept may not be particularly relevant for all places. Time-space approaches capturing activity space may be more relevant, particularly if integrated with mixed methods strategies.

  19. Item wording and internal consistency of a measure of cohesion: the group environment questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Eys, Mark A; Carron, Albert V; Bray, Steven R; Brawley, Lawrence R

    2007-06-01

    A common practice for counteracting response acquiescence in psychological measures has been to employ both negatively and positively worded items. However, previous research has highlighted that the reliability of measures can be affected by this practice (Spector, 1992). The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect that the presence of negatively worded items has on the internal reliability of the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ). Two samples (N = 276) were utilized, and participants were asked to complete the GEQ (original and revised) on separate occasions. Results demonstrated that the revised questionnaire (containing all positively worded items) had significantly higher Cronbach alpha values for three of the four dimensions of the GEQ. Implications, alternatives, and future directions are discussed.

  20. Recommendations for Guidelines for Environment-Specific Magnetic-Field Measurements, Rapid Program Engineering Project #2

    SciTech Connect

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.; IIT Research Institute; Magnetic Measurements; Survey Research Center, University of California; T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The purpose of this project was to document widely applicable methods for characterizing the magnetic fields in a given environment, recognizing the many sources co-existing within that space. The guidelines are designed to allow the reader to follow an efficient process to (1) plan the goals and requirements of a magnetic-field study, (2) develop a study structure and protocol, and (3) document and carry out the plan. These guidelines take the reader first through the process of developing a basic study strategy, then through planning and performing the data collection. Last, the critical factors of data management, analysis reporting, and quality assurance are discussed. The guidelines are structured to allow the researcher to develop a protocol that responds to specific site and project needs. The Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) is based on exposure to magnetic fields and the potential health effects. Therefore, the most important focus for these magnetic-field measurement guidelines is relevance to exposure. The assumed objective of an environment-specific measurement is to characterize the environment (given a set of occupants and magnetic-field sources) so that information about the exposure of the occupants may be inferred. Ideally, the researcher seeks to obtain complete or "perfect" information about these magnetic fields, so that personal exposure might also be modeled perfectly. However, complete data collection is not feasible. In fact, it has been made more difficult as the research field has moved to expand the list of field parameters measured, increasing the cost and complexity of performing a measurement and analyzing the data. The guidelines address this issue by guiding the user to design a measurement protocol that will gather the most exposure-relevant information based on the locations of people in relation to the sources. We suggest that the "microenvironment" become the base unit of area in a study, with

  1. Clinical nutrition and drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Ekincioğlu, Aygin Bayraktar; Demirkan, Kutay

    2013-01-01

    A drug's plasma level, pharmacological effects or side effects, elimination, physicochemical properties or stability could be changed by interactions of drug-drug or drug-nutrition products in patients who receive enteral or parenteral nutritional support. As a result, patients might experience ineffective outcomes or unexpected effects of therapy (such as drug toxicity, embolism). Stability or incompatibility problems between parenteral nutrition admixtures and drugs might lead to alterations in expected therapeutic responses from drug and/or parenteral nutrition, occlusion in venous catheter or symptoms or mortality due to infusion of composed particles. Compatibilities between parenteral nutrition and drugs are not always guaranteed in clinical practice. Although the list of compatibility or incompatibilities of drugs are published for the use of clinicians in their practices, factors such as composition of parenteral nutrition admixture, drug concentration, contact time in catheter, temperature of the environment and exposure to light could change the status of compatibilities between drugs and nutrition admixtures. There could be substantial clinical changes occurring in the patient's nutritional status and pharmacological effects of drugs due to interactions between enteral nutrition and drugs. Drug toxicity and ineffective nutritional support might occur as a result of those predictable interactions. Although administration of drugs via feeding tube is a complex and problematic route for drug usage, it is possible to minimise the risk of tube occlusion, decreased effects of drug and drug toxicity by using an appropriate technique. Therefore, it is important to consider pharmacological dosage forms of drugs while administering drugs via a feeding tube. In conclusion, since the pharmacists are well-experienced and more knowledgeable professionals in drugs and drug usage compared to other healthcare providers, it is suggested that provision of information and

  2. Advanced Liquid-Free, Piezoresistive, SOI-Based Pressure Sensors for Measurements in Harsh Environments.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Ha-Duong; Mukhopadhyay, Biswaijit; Ehrmann, Oswin; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-08-18

    In this paper we present and discuss two innovative liquid-free SOI sensors for pressure measurements in harsh environments. The sensors are capable of measuring pressures at high temperatures. In both concepts media separation is realized using a steel membrane. The two concepts represent two different strategies for packaging of devices for use in harsh environments and at high temperatures. The first one is a "one-sensor-one-packaging_technology" concept. The second one uses a standard flip-chip bonding technique. The first sensor is a "floating-concept", capable of measuring pressures at temperatures up to 400 °C (constant load) with an accuracy of 0.25% Full Scale Output (FSO). A push rod (mounted onto the steel membrane) transfers the applied pressure directly to the center-boss membrane of the SOI-chip, which is placed on a ceramic carrier. The chip membrane is realized by Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE or Bosch Process). A novel propertied chip housing employing a sliding sensor chip that is fixed during packaging by mechanical preloading via the push rod is used, thereby avoiding chip movement, and ensuring optimal push rod load transmission. The second sensor can be used up to 350 °C. The SOI chips consists of a beam with an integrated centre-boss with was realized using KOH structuring and DRIE. The SOI chip is not "floating" but bonded by using flip-chip technology. The fabricated SOI sensor chip has a bridge resistance of 3250 Ω. The realized sensor chip has a sensitivity of 18 mV/µm measured using a bridge current of 1 mA.

  3. Advanced Liquid-Free, Piezoresistive, SOI-Based Pressure Sensors for Measurements in Harsh Environments

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Ha-Duong; Mukhopadhyay, Biswaijit; Ehrmann, Oswin; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss two innovative liquid-free SOI sensors for pressure measurements in harsh environments. The sensors are capable of measuring pressures at high temperatures. In both concepts media separation is realized using a steel membrane. The two concepts represent two different strategies for packaging of devices for use in harsh environments and at high temperatures. The first one is a “one-sensor-one-packaging_technology” concept. The second one uses a standard flip-chip bonding technique. The first sensor is a “floating-concept”, capable of measuring pressures at temperatures up to 400 °C (constant load) with an accuracy of 0.25% Full Scale Output (FSO). A push rod (mounted onto the steel membrane) transfers the applied pressure directly to the center-boss membrane of the SOI-chip, which is placed on a ceramic carrier. The chip membrane is realized by Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE or Bosch Process). A novel propertied chip housing employing a sliding sensor chip that is fixed during packaging by mechanical preloading via the push rod is used, thereby avoiding chip movement, and ensuring optimal push rod load transmission. The second sensor can be used up to 350 °C. The SOI chips consists of a beam with an integrated centre-boss with was realized using KOH structuring and DRIE. The SOI chip is not “floating” but bonded by using flip-chip technology. The fabricated SOI sensor chip has a bridge resistance of 3250 Ω. The realized sensor chip has a sensitivity of 18 mV/µm measured using a bridge current of 1 mA. PMID:26295235

  4. Effort for money? Farmers' rationale for participation in agri-environment measures with different implementation complexity.

    PubMed

    Van Herzele, Ann; Gobin, Anne; Van Gossum, Peter; Acosta, Lilibeth; Waas, Tom; Dendoncker, Nicolas; Henry de Frahan, Bruno

    2013-12-15

    European agri-environment programmes are based on the common principle that farmers deliver environmental services for which society pays. Due to the voluntary nature of agri-environment measures (AEM), the issue of farmers' motives or reasons for participation has been an important topic of investigation in past years. The present paper examines farmers' rationale for participation in AEM against the backdrop of continued debate over whether to develop relatively simple measures that can be readily applied by many farmers or give greater priority to measures that are more targeted - i.e. to the specific management requirement of particular habitats or species - but are often more complex. The paper draws on empirical material from a case study in the Dyle valley, Belgium, including in-depth interviews, expert consultations and a mail survey. It was sought not only to identify and quantify the importance of separate reasons for participation, but also to reveal how these reasons and other elements of relevance were logically interrelated in the explanation that farmers themselves give for their participation. As a result, six modes or styles of participation were identified: opportunistic, calculative, compensatory, optimising, catalysing and engaged. The analyses suggest that there were notable differences in that both separate reasons for and modes of participation do vary with the complexity of the measures' requirements. Overall, the study demonstrates that participation in AEM is not simply a matter of weighing the money against the effort for adoption. Whereas money is an important driver for participation (in particular, for those adopting complex AEM) it plays widely differing roles depending on the level of farmers' reasoning (farm enterprise, single practice or landscape feature) and the importance they give to other considerations (environmental effect, production potential of land, goodness of fit, etc.). Practical implications are drawn for both policy

  5. Measurement of the Soret coefficients for a ternary hydrocarbon mixture in low gravity environment.

    PubMed

    Ahadi, Amirhossein; Varenbergh, S Van; Saghir, M Ziad

    2013-05-28

    While the Soret coefficients of binary mixtures have been widely measured in the past, here we report the first measurement of the Soret coefficient of a ternary mixture in a low gravity environment on board the International Space Station. The sample was contained in a 10 mm × 10 mm × 5 mm (w, l, h) cell and was monitored by means of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer at two wavelengths. The analyzed sample was a mixture of tetrahydronaphthalene, isobutylbenzene, and dodecane at the weight fraction of 0.1∕0.8∕0.1. While the lateral walls of the cell did not possess complete thermal isolation, the separation of the components in the central region of the cavity was comparable to purely diffusive behavior. The same experimental parameters have been monitored in Run7 and Run12 of the Selectable Optical Diagnostics Instrument-Diffusion and Soret Coefficient experiment in order to verify the accuracy of the setup. The similarity of the results demonstrates the repeatability of thermodiffusion experiments in a microgravity environment. There was nearly equal separation of the tetrahydronaphthalene and isobutylbenzene components in opposite directions, while dodecane experienced a weak separation in the same direction as isobutylbenzene. Finally, Fourier image processing and calculations of the transient separation of the components were used to analyze the heat transfer in the system and to measure the Soret coefficients for this ternary mixture. The successful measurements shown in this work can serve as the standard for ground experiments and for numerical modeling of hydrocarbon mixtures. PMID:23742467

  6. LP DAAC MEaSUREs Project Artifact Tracking Via the NASA Earthdata Collaboration Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) is a NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) DAAC that supports selected EOS Community non-standard data products such as the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Database (GED), and also supports NASA Earth Science programs such as Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) to contribute in providing long-term, consistent, and mature data products. As described in The LP DAAC Project Lifecycle Plan (Daucsavage, J.; Bennett, S., 2014), key elements within the Project Inception Phase fuse knowledge between NASA stakeholders, data producers, and NASA data providers. To support and deliver excellence for NASA data stewardship, and to accommodate long-tail data preservation with Community and MEaSUREs products, the LP DAAC is utilizing NASA's own Earthdata Collaboration Environment to bridge stakeholder communication divides. By leveraging a NASA supported platform, this poster describes how the Atlassian Confluence software combined with a NASA URS/Earthdata support can maintain each project's members, status, documentation, and artifact checklist. Furthermore, this solution provides a gateway for project communities to become familiar with NASA clients, as well as educating the project's NASA DAAC Scientists for NASA client distribution.

  7. Environment-assisted-cracking under measured and/or controlled ectrochemical potential

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, A

    1997-11-07

    Longer-term stress corrosion cracking (SCC) experiments, described in the activity plan E-20-56, are well underway at LLNL to evaluate the SCC susceptibility of candidate corrosion-resistant inner container materials in a 90°ºC acidic brine containing 5 weight percent (wt%) NaCl using fatigue-precracked wedge-loaded double-cantilever-beam (DCB) specimens. The results of a recent localized corrosion study have revealed that the propensity to pitting and crevice corrosion in susceptible alloys is characterized by "critical potentials" obtained from the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) experiments described in the activity plan E-20-43/44. It is also well known that the tendency to SCC can be influenced by the electrochemical potential. But the role of electrochemistry in SCC has not been explored to a large extent. Therefore, the proposed activity is aimed at evaluating the SCC behavior of susceptible container materials under measured and/or controlled electrochemical potential in repository-relevant environments using DCB and slow-strain-rate (SSR) test specimens. The magnitude of the controlled potential will be selected based on the measured "critical potentials" obtained from the CPP experiment performed earlier in a similar environment. The resultant data will enable the mechanistic understanding of the cracking process in materials of interest under the synergistic influence of applied stress and corrosive medium, which will be utilized in developing and validating the SCC models for long-term performance assessment.

  8. Measuring the food environment: a systematic technique for characterizing food stores using display counts.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cassandra; Bodor, J Nicholas; Rose, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Marketing research has documented the influence of in-store characteristics-such as the number and placement of display stands-on consumer purchases of a product. However, little information exists on this topic for key foods of interest to those studying the influence of environmental changes on dietary behavior. This study demonstrates a method for characterizing the food environment by measuring the number of separate displays of fruits, vegetables, and energy-dense snack foods (including chips, candies, and sodas) and their proximity to cash registers in different store types. Observations in New Orleans stores (N = 172) in 2007 and 2008 revealed significantly more displays of energy-dense snacks than of fruits and vegetables within all store types, especially supermarkets. Moreover, supermarkets had an average of 20 displays of energy-dense snacks within 1 meter of their cash registers, yet none of them had even a single display of fruits or vegetables near their cash registers. Measures of the number of separate display stands of key foods and their proximity to a cash register can be used by researchers to better characterize food stores and by policymakers to address improvements to the food environment.

  9. Dimensions of Nutrition Knowledge among Preadolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Robert L.; Wimberley, Ronald C.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the underlying dimensionality of a nutrition knowledge test for preadolescent girls. In contrast to the manner in which nutrition knowledge has previously been measured in research, analysis of the results indicates that their nutrition knowledge is multidimensional. The dimensions include "differentiated eating" and "vitamin importance."…

  10. The measurement of gamma ray induced heating in a mixed neutron and gamma ray environment

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, H.K.

    1991-10-01

    The problem of measuring the gamma heating in a mixed DT neutron and gamma ray environment was explored. A new detector technique was developed to make this measurement. Gamma heating measurements were made in a low-Z assembly irradiated with 14-Mev neutrons and (n, n{prime}) gammas produced by a Texas Nuclear Model 9400 neutron generator. Heating measurements were made in the mid-line of the lattice using a proportional counter operating in the Continuously-varied Bias-voltage Acquisition mode. The neutron-induced signal was separated from the gamma-induced signal by exploiting the signal rise-time differences inherent to radiations of different linear energy transfer coefficient, which are observable in a proportional counter. The operating limits of this measurement technique were explored by varying the counter position in the low-Z lattice, hence changing the irradiation spectrum observed. The experiment was modelled numerically to help interpret the measured results. The transport of neutrons and gamma rays in the assembly was modelled using the one- dimensional radiation transport code ANISN/PC. The cross-section set used for these calculations was derived from the ENDF/B-V library using the code MC{sup 2}-2 for the case of DT neutrons slowing down in a low-Z material. The calculated neutron and gamma spectra in the slab and the relevant mass-stopping powers were used to construct weighting factors which relate the energy deposition in the counter fill-gas to that in the counter wall and in the surrounding material. The gamma energy deposition at various positions in the lattice is estimated by applying these weighting factors to the measured gamma energy deposition in the counter at those locations.

  11. Disjunct eddy accumulation flux measurements of individual VOCs from an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, Erik; Pressley, Shelley; Grivicke, Rasa; Allwine, Eugene; Jobson, B. Tom; Westberg, Hal; Molina, Luisa T.; Lamb, Brian

    2010-05-01

    As part of the MILAGRO-2006 study a flux tower was deployed at urban Mexico City to measure turbulent fluxes of trace gases. Fluxes of individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using a disjunct eddy accumulation (DEA) sampler with ionization detector/gas chromatography (GC-FID) analysis. The DEA method partitions the air into two reservoirs based on the magnitude and direction of the vertical wind speed. The VOCs concentrations in both reservoirs are analyzed and used to determine the fluxes with the vertical wind velocities. Although this method is not as precise as other micrometeorological techniques, such as the eddy covariance method, it provides the ability to directly measure the fluxes of an extended number of individual species using off-line sensors without relying on similarity scaling or empirical parameters. According to our knowledge these measurements constitute the first time that the DEA method was applied in an urban environment. A comparison of the DEA fluxes of selected aromatic and olefinic species measured in parallel by the more accurate eddy covariance and disjunct eddy covariance techniques coupled with fast-response analytical sensors evidenced a flux under-prediction by the DEA method. However, this under-prediction was consistent and constant for the species compared, allowing an analysis of the DEA fluxes in terms of relative magnitudes and ratios. It was found that fluxes of alkane species were the dominant VOCs fluxes, which is consistent with ambient concentration measurements and the local emissions inventory. Among the top 20 mean VOCs fluxes measured during daytime, 11 corresponded to alkanes, followed by 5 aromatics, 2 olefins, 1 alkyne and 1 oxygenated.

  12. Nutrition policy in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing.

  13. Nutrition policy in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing. PMID:18296374

  14. Nutrition and behavior of lemurs.

    PubMed

    Junge, Randall E; Williams, Cathy V; Campbell, Jennifer

    2009-05-01

    Attention to nutritional and behavioral factors is important for appropriate care of lemurs in captivity. Although only a few species are commonly held in captivity, differences between them are important. Knowledge of feeding ecology and natural diet guide nutrition guidelines, as well as management and prevention of common nutrition-related disorders, including obesity, diabetes, and iron-storage disease. Behavioral characteristics that influence captive management are related to social organization, reproductive behavior, territoriality, and infant care. Housing animals in appropriate social groupings in adequately complex environments reduces abnormal behaviors, and addition of enrichment activities and operant conditioning encourages normal behaviors.

  15. Hydroxyl radical measurements and oxidation capacity in a boreal forest environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hens, K.; Tatum Ernest, C.; Novelli, A.; Paasonen, P.; Sipilä, M.; Petäjä, T.; Nölscher, A.; Taraborrelli, D.; Keronen, P.; Trawny, K.; Kubistin, D.; Oswald, R.; Axinte, R.; Hosaynali Beygi, Z.; Auld, J.; Klüpfel, T.; Mesarchaki, E.; Song, W.; Valverde Canossa, J.; González Orozco, D.; Königstedt, R.; Bohn, B.; Rudolf, M.; Fischer, H.; Williams, J.; Crowley, J.; Martinez, M.; Harder, H. D.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-12-01

    Forests cover about one third of the earth's total land surface and are known to be an important global source of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) that are partly very reactive towards OH. Different types of forests are known to emit various characteristic BVOCs significantly influencing atmospheric oxidation chemistry. Measurements of OH and HO2 radicals in forest environments, however, reveal a serious lack of understanding of the underlying processes. The HUMPPA-COPEC intensive field campaign took place in summer 2010 at the SMEAR II station, located in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland, as collaboration between the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry and the University of Helsinki. The main goal of the campaign was to investigate the summertime emissions and photochemistry in a boreal forest. Comprehensive measurements including observations of many VOCs, HOx, and total OH reactivity were conducted to increase our understanding of atmospheric self-cleaning processes based on detailed analysis of production and loss mechanisms of the hydroxyl radical. Also the HOx budget in a coniferous forest was examined by using direct calculations from measured species as well as an observationally constrained chemical box model in steady state. For HUMPPA-COPEC chemical reaction schemes considering isoprene as the predominant primary BVOC lead to an over prediction of the measured OH concentration by a factor of up to 4. However, only a minor fraction of the measured total OH reactivity can be explained by measured isoprene. A preliminary terpene mechanism, taking the most abundant terpenes measured during HUMPPA-COPEC-2010 and their oxidation products into account, improves the agreement between simulated and measured OH, but is not sufficient to explain the missing OH reactivity in all cases. HO2 is described reasonably well by the model for conditions where the modeled and measured total OH reactivity agree. For lower than measured reactivity, the HO2 mixing ratios

  16. Real-time measurement of nonvolatile residue contamination in cleanroom environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogan, Paul A.

    1994-10-01

    A Real-Time Instrument for the detection of non-volatile residues (NVR) was developed under an SBIR Phase I contract for the NASA Contamination Monitoring Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida. A prototype device was fabricated and field tested in the Operations and Checkout Building and at the Orbiter Processing Facility at KSC. During the field testing, the data from the instrument was compared to standard KSC non-volatile residue measurements which are based on ASTM 1234/1235. Time fluctuations, unique to the real time measurement process, were also correlated to activity logs for the facility. The prototype instrument has already been applied commercially in the semiconductor industry to study NVR contamination in the plastic boats that wafers are stored and transported in during processing. This technology is being evaluated for use in the Hubble Space Telescope refurbishment mission to monitor NVR deposition during integration and processing prior to launch. This paper will discuss the temperature controlled SAW NVR instrument development program as well as the field testing done at KSC. Application to measurements of non-volatile residue in operational environments and comparisons with KSC NVR measurements will be made.

  17. Optical Mass Gauging System for Measuring Liquid Levels in a Reduced Gravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullenberger, Ryan M.; Munoz, Wesley M.; Lyon, Matt P.; Vogel, Kenny; Yalin, Azer P.; Korman, Valentin; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    A compact and rugged fiber-coupled liquid volume sensor designed for flight on a sounding rocket platform is presented. The sensor consists of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer capable of measuring the amount of liquid contained in a tank under any gravitational conditions, including a microgravity environment, by detecting small changes in the index of refraction of the gas contained within a sensing region. By monitoring changes in the interference fringe pattern as the system undergoes a small compression provided by a piston, the ullage volume of a tank can be directly measured allowing for a determination of the liquid volume. To demonstrate the technique, data are acquired using two tanks containing different volumes of liquid, which are representative of the levels of liquid in a tank at different time periods during a mission. The two tanks are independently exposed to the measurement apparatus, allowing for a determination of the liquid level in each. In a controlled, laboratory test of the unit, the system demonstrated a capability of measuring a liquid level in an individual tank of 10.53 mL with a 2% error. The overall random uncertainty for the flight system is higher than that one test, at +/- 1.5 mL.

  18. Charged Particle Environment on Mars - One Mars Year of MSL/RAD Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehresmann, B.; Hassler, D.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Kohler, J.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Brinza, D. E.; Rafkin, S. C.; Reitz, G.; Appel, J. K.; Guo, J.; Lohf, H.; Burmeister, S.; Matthiae, D.; Boettcher, S. I.; Boehm, E.; Martin-Garcia, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory's Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL/RAD) has been conducting measurements of the ionizing radiation field on the Martian surface since August 2012. This field is mainly dominated by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and their interactions with the atoms in the atmosphere and soil. This yields a radiation environment consisting of a wide variety of particles and energies which, at high energies, is dominated by charged particles, e.g., ions, and their isotopes, electrons, and others. Over the course of the first Martian year (~2 Earth years) of the MSL mission, the radiation field was mainly modulated by two influences: the seasonal pressure cycle at Gale crater; and the variation of the impeding GCR flux due to changes in the solar activity. Here, we present charged particle fluxes measured over a 1000 days and analyze how the more-abundant ion species vary over that time frame. A second major influence to the radiation field can be the contribution from Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events. In particular, the Martian surface proton flux can be enhanced by orders of magnitude on short time scales during strong events. Here, we present measurements of the proton fluxes during the SEP events MSL/RAD has so far directly measured in Gale crater.

  19. Establishing aeolian particulate 'fingerprints' in an airport environment using magnetic measurements and SEM/EDAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Sue; Hoon, Stephen R.; Richardson, Nigel; Bennett, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The significant increase in global air travel which has occurred during the last fifty years has generated growing concern regarding the potential impacts associated with increasing emissions of particulate matter (PM) from aviation activity on health and the environment. PM within the airport environment, in particular, may be derived from a wide range of potential sources including aircraft; vehicles; ground support equipment and buildings. In order to investigate and remediate potential problem sources, it is important to be able to identify characteristic particulate 'fingerprints' which would allow source attribution, particularly respirable particulates. To date the identification of such 'fingerprints' has remained elusive but remains a key research priority for the aviation industry (Webb et al, 2008). In previous PM studies, environmental magnetism has been used as a successful technique for discriminating between different emission types and particulate sources in both urban and industrial environments (e.g. Hunt et al 1984; Lecoanet et al 2003, Jones et al 2015). Environmental magnetism is a non-destructive and relatively rapid technique involving the use of non-directional, rock magnetic measurements to characterise the mineral magnetic properties of natural and anthropogenic materials. In other studies scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has also been used as an effective characterisation technique for the investigation of grain size and morphology of PM derived from vehicle emissions (e.g. Bucko et al 2010) and fossil fuel combustion sources (Kim et al 2009). In this study, environmental magnetic measurements and SEM/EDAX have been used to characterise dusts from specific aircraft sources including engines, brakes and tyres. Furthermore, these methods have also been applied to runway (both hard and grass covered surfaces), taxiway and apron dusts collected during extensive environmental sampling at Manchester International Airport, UK in order to

  20. A Nutrition Knowledge Test for Nutrition Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    1981-01-01

    Describes the development of a criterion-referenced instrument for assessing nutrition knowledge of potential nutrition educators. Discusses results which demonstrate that the instrument discriminates between groups of professionals who are trained in nutrition and those who are not. (CS)

  1. The Martian surface radiation environment - a comparison of models and MSL/RAD measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthiä, Daniel; Ehresmann, Bent; Lohf, Henning; Köhler, Jan; Zeitlin, Cary; Appel, Jan; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Slaba, Tony; Martin, Cesar; Berger, Thomas; Boehm, Eckart; Boettcher, Stephan; Brinza, David E.; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Hassler, Donald M.; Posner, Arik; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Reitz, Günther; Wilson, John W.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2016-03-01

    Context: The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) has been measuring the radiation environment on the surface of Mars since August 6th 2012. MSL-RAD is the first instrument to provide detailed information about charged and neutral particle spectra and dose rates on the Martian surface, and one of the primary objectives of the RAD investigation is to help improve and validate current radiation transport models. Aims: Applying different numerical transport models with boundary conditions derived from the MSL-RAD environment the goal of this work was to both provide predictions for the particle spectra and the radiation exposure on the Martian surface complementing the RAD sensitive range and, at the same time, validate the results with the experimental data, where applicable. Such validated models can be used to predict dose rates for future manned missions as well as for performing shield optimization studies. Methods: Several particle transport models (GEANT4, PHITS, HZETRN/OLTARIS) were used to predict the particle flux and the corresponding radiation environment caused by galactic cosmic radiation on Mars. From the calculated particle spectra the dose rates on the surface are estimated. Results: Calculations of particle spectra and dose rates induced by galactic cosmic radiation on the Martian surface are presented. Although good agreement is found in many cases for the different transport codes, GEANT4, PHITS, and HZETRN/OLTARIS, some models still show large, sometimes order of magnitude discrepancies in certain particle spectra. We have found that RAD data is helping to make better choices of input parameters and physical models. Elements of these validated models can be applied to more detailed studies on how the radiation environment is influenced by solar modulation, Martian atmosphere and soil, and changes due to the Martian seasonal pressure cycle. By extending the range of the calculated particle spectra with respect to

  2. Nutrition in Severe Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Pivi, Glaucia Akiko Kamikado; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; Schultz, Rodrigo Rizek

    2012-01-01

    An increasing proportion of older adults with Alzheimer's disease or other dementias are now surviving to more advanced stages of the illness. Advanced dementia is associated with feeding problems, including difficulty in swallowing and respiratory diseases. Patients become incompetent to make decisions. As a result, complex situations may arise in which physicians and families decide whether artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) is likely to be beneficial for the patient. The objective of this paper is to present methods for evaluating the nutritional status of patients with severe dementia as well as measures for the treatment of nutritional disorders, the use of vitamin and mineral supplementation, and indications for ANH and pharmacological therapy. PMID:22645608

  3. Nutrition and Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITIONNutrition and Diet ▶ Diet for the Non-transfused ... booklet ▶ 3 Simple Suggestions for a Healthy Diet Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  4. Nutritional Therapy.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Julie

    2016-03-01

    This article provides the reader with steps needed to accurately assess patient nutrition behaviors that contribute to weight gain, inability to lose weight, or inability to sustain weight loss. Evidence-based approaches in nutrition therapy that can create the daily energy deficit needed to produce 1/2 to 2 pounds of weight loss per week, and the strategies to create the energy deficit, are presented. To optimize health, long-term weight loss maintenance is needed. The benefits of using a multidisciplinary team approach in treating obesity are highlighted.

  5. Measurement Error in Multilevel Models of School and Classroom Environments: Implications for Reliability, Precision, and Prediction. CRESST Report 828

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweig, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Measuring school and classroom environments has become central in a nation-wide effort to develop comprehensive programs that measure teacher quality and teacher effectiveness. Formulating successful programs necessitates accurate and reliable methods for measuring these environmental variables. This paper uses a generalizability theory framework…

  6. In-Situ Acoustic Measurements of Temperature Profile in Extreme Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Skliar, Mikhail

    2015-03-31

    A gasifier’s temperature is the primary characteristic that must be monitored to ensure its performance and the longevity of its refractory. One of the key technological challenges impacting the reliability and economics of coal and biomass gasification is the lack of temperature sensors that are capable of providing accurate, reliable, and long-life performance in an extreme gasification environment. This research has proposed, demonstrated, and validated a novel approach that uses a noninvasive ultrasound method that provides real-time temperature distribution monitoring across the refractory, especially the hot face temperature of the refractory. The essential idea of the ultrasound measurements of segmental temperature distribution is to use an ultrasound propagation waveguide across a refractory that has been engineered to contain multiple internal partial reflectors at known locations. When an ultrasound excitation pulse is introduced on the cold side of the refractory, it will be partially reflected from each scatterer in the US propagation path in the refractory wall and returned to the receiver as a train of partial echoes. The temperature in the corresponding segment can be determined based on recorded ultrasonic waveform and experimentally defined relationship between the speed of sound and temperature. The ultrasound measurement method offers a powerful solution to provide continuous real time temperature monitoring for the occasions that conventional thermal, optical and other sensors are infeasible, such as the impossibility of insertion of temperature sensor, harsh environment, unavailable optical path, and more. Our developed ultrasound system consists of an ultrasound engineered waveguide, ultrasound transducer/receiver, and data acquisition, logging, interpretation, and online display system, which is simple to install on the existing units with minimal modification on the gasifier or use with new units. This system has been successfully tested

  7. Shallow water radio-magnetotelluric (RMT) measurements in urban environment: A case study from Stockholm city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Suman; Bastani, Mehrdad; Malehmir, Alireza; Wang, Shunguo; Pedersen, Laust

    2014-05-01

    The Radio-MagnetoTelluric (RMT) method uses the electromagnetic signal from distant radio transmitters in the frequency range 15 to 250 kHz. RMT applications in near-surface studies have already been well established. Two components of electric field and three components of magnetic field are measured. These measured components are related to each other via transfer functions which contain detailed information about the variation of electrical resistivity of the subsurface. The present study is carried out in the frame of TRUST (TRansparent Underground STructure) project supported by several research and public organizations as well as industry. The study area is located close to central Stockholm in Sweden where the Swedish traffic authority has planned to construct a 21-km long motorway to bypass the city. In order to reduce the impact on natural and cultural environments, 18 km of the motorway will be located in tunnels. The main objective of this study is thus to identify potential fracture zones and faults as well as the general geological settings. The proposed path of the tunnel partly passes under the Lake Mälaren at a depth of about 60 m. Thus a challenge was posed on the applicability of RMT method in shallow water environments. Successful applications of RMT measurements using the Uppsala University's EnviroMT system on land encouraged us to modify the system to acquire data over lake water especially in urban areas. Pioneered by the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), RMT data were collected over the Lake Mälaren in spring 2012. The prototype acquisition system did not only turn out to be appropriate for such a challenging environment, but it was also much more efficient as compared with land surveys. Fifty two lines including 1160 stations with an average spacing of 15 m were covered in three days. Cultural noise associated with the city-related environment had to be identified and filtered out before inversion could be carried out. Reliable estimates

  8. Cooperative Mobile Sensing Systems for In Situ Measurements in Hazardous Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argrow, B.

    2005-12-01

    Sondes are typically deployed from manned aircraft or taken to altitude by a balloon before they are dropped. There are obvious safety and physical limitations that dictate where and how sondes are deployed. These limitations have severely constrained sonde deployment into highly dynamic and dangerous environments. Additionally, conventional parachute dropsondes provide no means for active control. The "smartsonde" idea is to integrate miniature sonde packages into micro air vehicles (MAVs). These MAVs will be ferried into the hard to reach and hazardous environments to provide in situ measurements in regions that have been heretofore out of reach. Once deployed, the MAV will provide some means of control of the sonde, to enable it to remain aloft and to provide some measure of directional control. Preliminary smartsonde communications experiments have been completed. These experiments focused on characterizing the capabilities of the 802.11.4 wireless protocol. Range measurements with 60-mW, 2.4-GHz radios showed 100% throughput rate over 2.7 km during air to ground tests. The experiments also demonstrated the integration of an in-house distributed computing system that provides the interface between the sensors, UAV flight computers, and the telemetry system. The University of Colorado's Research and Engineering Center for Unmanned Vehicles (RECUV) is developing an engineering system that integrates small mobile sensor attributes into flexible mobile sensor infrastructures to be deployed for in situ sensing in hazardous environments. There are three focus applications: 1) Wildfire, to address sensing, communications, situational awareness, and safety needs to support fire-fighting operations and to increase capabilities for dynamic data acquisition for modeling and prediction; 2) Polar, where heterogeneous mixes of platforms and sensors will provide in-situ data acquisition from beneath the ocean surface into the troposphere; 3) Storm, to address the challenges

  9. In situ Measurements of Absorbing Aerosols from Urban Sources, in Maritime Environments and during Biomass Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoleni, C.; Manvendra, D.; Chylek, P.; Arnott, P.

    2006-12-01

    Absorbing aerosols have important but still ill quantified effects on climate, visibility, cloud processes, and air quality. The compilation of aerosol scattering and absorption databases from reliable measurements is essential to reduce uncertainties in these inter-linked research areas. The atmospheric radiative balance for example, is modeled using the aerosol single scattering albedo (ratio of scattering to scattering plus absorption, SSA) as a fundamental input parameter in climate models. Sulfate aerosols with SSA values close to 1 scatter solar radiation resulting in a negative radiative forcing. However aerosol SSA values less than 1 are common when combustion processes are contributing to the aerosol sources. Absorbing aerosols directly heat the atmosphere and reduce the solar radiation at the surface. Currently, the net global anthropogenic aerosol direct radiative forcing is estimated to be around -0.5W m-2 with uncertainty of about 80% largely due to lack of understanding of SSA of sulfate-organic-soot aerosols. We present a rapidly expanding data set of direct in situ aerosol absorption and scattering measurements performed since June 2005 by photoacoustic instrument (at 781 and 870 nm), with integrated a total scattering sensor, during numerous field campaigns. Data have been collected over a wide range of aerosol sources, local environments and anthropogenic activities. Airborne measurements were performed in marine stratus off shore of the California coast and in cumulus clouds and clear air in the Houston, TX area; ground-based measurements have been performed in many locations in Mexico City; while laboratory measurements have been collected during a controlled combustion experiment of many different biomass fuels. The large dynamic range of aerosol types and conditions from these different field campaigns will be integrated to help quantify the SSA values, their variability, and their implications on the radiative forcing of climate.

  10. Measuring microbial metabolism in atypical environments: Bentonite in used nuclear fuel storage.

    PubMed

    Stone, Wendy; Kroukamp, Otini; Moes, Ana; McKelvie, Jennifer; Korber, Darren R; Wolfaardt, Gideon M

    2016-01-01

    Genomics enjoys overwhelming popularity in the study of microbial ecology. However, extreme or atypical environments often limit the use of such well-established tools and consequently demand a novel approach. The bentonite clay matrix proposed for use in Deep Geological Repositories for the long-term storage of used nuclear fuel is one such challenging microbial habitat. Simple, accessible tools were developed for the study of microbial ecology and metabolic processes that occur within this habitat, since the understanding of the microbiota-niche interaction is fundamental to describing microbial impacts on engineered systems such as compacted bentonite barriers. Even when genomic tools are useful for the study of community composition, techniques to describe such microbial impacts and niche interactions should complement these. Tools optimised for assessing localised microbial activity within bentonite included: (a) the qualitative use of the resazurin-resorufin indicator system for redox localisation, (b) the use of a CaCl2 buffer for the localisation of pH, and (c) fluorometry for the localisation of precipitated sulphide. The use of the Carbon Dioxide Evolution Monitoring System was also validated for measuring microbial activity in desiccated and saturated bentonite. Finally, the buffering of highly-basic bentonite at neutral pH improved the success of isolation of microbial populations, but not DNA, from the bentonite matrix. Thus, accessible techniques were optimised for exploring microbial metabolism in the atypical environments of clay matrices and desiccated conditions. These tools have application to the applied field of used nuclear fuel management, as well as for examining the fundamental biogeochemical cycles active in sedimentary and deep geological environments.

  11. HOx Radical Chemistry in an Indiana Forest Environment: Measurement and Model Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew, M.; Bottorff, B.; Sigler, P. S. R.; Stevens, P. S.; Sklaveniti, S.; Leonardis, T.; Locoge, N.; Dusanter, S.; Kundu, S.; Deming, B.; Wood, E. C. D.; Gentner, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reactions of the hydroxyl (OH) and peroxy radicals (HO2 and RO2) play a central role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. In addition to controlling the lifetimes of many trace gases important to issues of global climate change, OH radical reactions initiate the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which can lead to the production of ozone and secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere. Previous measurements of these radicals in forest environments characterized by high mixing ratios of isoprene and low mixing ratios of NOx have shown serious discrepancies with modeled concentrations. These results bring into question our understanding of the atmospheric chemistry of isoprene and other biogenic VOCs under low NOx conditions. In the summer of 2015, HOx radicals were measured using Laser-Induced Fluorescence Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion (LIF-FAGE) technique as part of the Indiana Radical, Reactivity and Ozone Production Intercomparison (IRRONIC). This campaign took place in a forested area at the Indiana Research and Teaching Preserve (IURTP) near the Bloomington campus characterized by high mixing ratios of isoprene and low mixing ratios of NOx. Supporting measurements of photolysis rates, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, and other species were used to constrain a zero-dimensional box model based on the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM2) and the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM).

  12. A concentration rebound method for measuring particle penetrationand deposition in the indoor environment

    SciTech Connect

    tlthatcher@lbl.gov

    2002-09-01

    Continuous, size resolved particle measurements were performed in two houses in order to determine size-dependent particle penetration and deposition in the indoor environment. The experiments consisted of three parts: (1) measurement of the particle loss rate following artificial elevation of indoor particle concentrations, (2) rapid reduction in particle concentration through induced ventilation by pressurization of the houses with HEPA-filtered air, and (3) measurement of the particle concentration rebound after house pressurization stopped. During the particle concentration decay period, when indoor concentrations are very high, losses due to deposition are large compared to gains due to particle infiltration. During the concentration rebound period, the opposite is true. The large variation in indoor concentration allows the effects of penetration and deposition losses to be separated by the transient, two-parameter model we employed to analyze the data. We found penetration factors between 0.3 and 1 and deposition loss rates between 0.1 and 5 h{sup -1}, for particles between 0.1 and 10 {micro}m.

  13. Measurement and Modeling of Hydrogen Environment-Assisted Cracking in Monel K-500

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Ha, Hung M.; Burns, James T.; Scully, John R.

    2014-08-01

    Hydrogen environment-assisted cracking (HEAC) of Monel K-500 is quantified using slow-rising stress intensity loading with electrical potential monitoring of small crack propagation and elastoplastic J-integral analysis. For this loading, with concurrent crack tip plastic strain and H accumulation, aged Monel K-500 is susceptible to intergranular HEAC in NaCl solution when cathodically polarized at -800 mVSCE ( E A, vs saturated calomel) and lower. Intergranular cracking is eliminated by reduced cathodic polarization more positive than -750 mVSCE. Crack tip diffusible H concentration rises, from near 0 wppm at E A of -765 mVSCE, with increasing cathodic polarization. This behavior is quantified by thermal desorption spectroscopy and barnacle cell measurements of hydrogen solubility vs overpotential for planar electrodes, plus measured-local crevice potential, and pH scaled to the crack tip. Using crack tip H concentration, excellent agreement is demonstrated between measurements and decohesion-based model predictions of the E A dependencies of threshold stress intensity and Stage II growth rate. A critical level of cathodic polarization must be exceeded for HEAC to occur in aged Monel K-500. The damaging-cathodic potential regime likely shifts more negative for quasi-static loading or increasing metallurgical resistance to HEAC.

  14. Use of Smoothed Measured Winds to Predict and Assess Launch Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordova, Henry S.; Leahy, Frank; Adelfang, Stanley; Roberts, Barry; Starr, Brett; Puperi, Daniel; Duffin, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an approach which was used to predict Ares I-X launch vehicle structural airloads and controllability prior to launch. This prediction along with the proper application of protection for variations in key environment and trajectory parameters was used to predict the potential for the launch trajectory to stay within the integrated vehicle certification envelopes. This data was applied by the launch team as a key element of the launch day go/no-go recommendation. NASA s Space Shuttle and the heavy lift versions of the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles assessments require the use of a high fidelity wind measurement which limits the number of wind measurement sources which can be used for a pre-launch go/no-go assessment. The approach described in this paper has the potential to allow the pre-launch assessment team to use wind measurements from a number of additional sources which will enhance launch availability and also has the potential to improve mission assurance and enhance safety

  15. Nutrition Assessment of College Wrestlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Suzanne Nelson; McKinney, Shortie

    1986-01-01

    Diet recall, a food record, a written test, interviews, questionnaires, and anthropometric measurements were used to examine the nutrition and weight control practices and knowledge of 42 wrestlers from two college teams. Results are analyzed. (Author/MT)

  16. Measuring motivation and volition of nursing students in nontraditional learning environments.

    PubMed

    Nagelsmith, Laurie; Bryer, Jason; Yan, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the best fitting model to represent interrelationships between motivation, volition, and academic success for adult nursing students learning in nontraditional environments. Participants (N=297) completed a survey that incorporated two measures: the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) and the academic volitional strategies inventory (AVSI) as well as demographic information. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used for data analysis. In phase 1, EFA resulted in factors that generally aligned with previous theoretical factors as defined by the psychometrics used. In Phase 2 of the analysis, CFA validated the use of predefined factor structures. In Phase 3, SEM analysis revealed that motivation has a larger effect on grade point average (GPA; beta = .28, p < .01) than volition (beta = .15, p < .05). The covariance between motivation and volition (r = .42, p < .01) was also found to be significant. These results suggest that there is a significant relationship among motivation, volition, and academic success for adult learners studying in nontraditional learning environments. These findings are consistent with and elaborate the relationship between motivation and volition with a population and setting underrepresented in the research. PMID:22988781

  17. Measuring the Quality of Generalized Gradient Approximations in a Density Functional Theory Pseudopotential Environment for Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nault, Zachary; Cancio, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    Much recent development in DFT has focused on improving GGAs. Two schemes are second order GGA (SOGGA) and the APBE which builds the GGA from atomic systems and not the HEG. Both of these have been tested within an all electron (AE) environment, providing the most accurate results. The focus of many simulations, however, is on large systems using pseudopotentials (PsP's). Are these PsP calculations, which rely on functionals tested in an AE environment, accurately reproducing the AE ground state properties? If not, can the deficiencies be identified? To assess this, we use the PsP generator APE, using the functional library libXC which works with the PsP package ABINIT and the AE package Elk. We generate standard Troullier-Martin PsP's based on common and new XC functionals (LDA, PBE, PBEsol, APBE, SOGGA) and test their performance in 13 solids (Na, Li, Al, C, Si, GaAs, NaCl, LiF, LiCl, Cu, Pd, Rh, and Ag). We measure how well three ground state properties (lattice constant, bulk modulus, and cohesive energy) are calculated with PsP's as compared to the corresponding AE calculations.

  18. Psychosocial environment: definitions, measures and associations with weight status--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Glonti, K; Mackenbach, J D; Ng, J; Lakerveld, J; Oppert, J-M; Bárdos, H; McKee, M; Rutter, H

    2016-01-01

    Socio-ecological models suggest that many elements of the social environment act as upstream determinants of obesity. This systematic review examined definitions, measures and strength of associations between the psychosocial environment and adult weight status. Studies were included if they were conducted on adults, the outcome was weight status, carried out in any developed country and investigated at least one psychosocial environmental construct. Six databases for primary studies were searched: EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. We restricted our search to studies published in English between January 1995 and February 2015. An adapted 'Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies' was used to evaluate risk of bias of included studies. Out of 14,784 screened records, 42 articles were assessed using full text. A total of 19 studies were included. The strongest associations with weight status were found for social capital and collective efficacy, although few studies found significant associations. There was heterogeneity in the definitions and metrics of psychosocial environmental constructs. There is limited evidence that greater social capital and collective efficacy are associated with healthier weight status. The research conducted to date has not robustly identified relations. We highlight challenges to undertaking research and establishing causality in this field and provide recommendations for further research.

  19. USB environment measurements based on full-scale static engine ground tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sussman, M. B.; Harkonen, D. L.; Reed, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Flow turning parameters, static pressures, surface temperatures, surface fluctuating pressures and acceleration levels were measured in the environment of a full-scale upper surface blowing (USB) propulsive lift test configuration. The test components included a flightworthy CF6-50D engine, nacelle, and USB flap assembly utilized in conjunction with ground verification testing of the USAF YC-14 Advanced Medium STOL Transport propulsion system. Results, based on a preliminary analysis of the data, generally show reasonable agreement with predicted levels based on model data. However, additional detailed analysis is required to confirm the preliminary evaluation, to help delineate certain discrepancies with model data, and to establish a basis for future flight test comparisons.

  20. Fluorescence measurements for evaluating the application of multivariate analysis techniques to optically thick environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Reichardt, Thomas A.; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Jones, Howland D. T.; Sickafoose, Shane M.; Schmitt, Randal L.

    2010-09-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of cuvette-contained laser dye mixtures are made for evaluation of multivariate analysis techniques to optically thick environments. Nine mixtures of Coumarin 500 and Rhodamine 610 are analyzed, as well as the pure dyes. For each sample, the cuvette is positioned on a two-axis translation stage to allow the interrogation at different spatial locations, allowing the examination of both primary (absorption of the laser light) and secondary (absorption of the fluorescence) inner filter effects. In addition to these expected inner filter effects, we find evidence that a portion of the absorbed fluorescence is re-emitted. A total of 688 spectra are acquired for the evaluation of multivariate analysis approaches to account for nonlinear effects.

  1. Measured force on elongated bodies in a simulated low-Earth orbit environment

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, C. A.; Ketsdever, A. D.; Gimelshein, S. F.

    2014-12-09

    An overview of the development of a magnetically filtered atomic oxygen plasma source and the application of the source to study low-Earth orbit drag on elongated bodies is presented. Plasma diagnostics show that the magnetic filter plasma source produces atomic oxygen ions (O{sup +}) with streaming energies equivalent to the relative orbital environment of approximately 5eV and can supply the appropriate density for LEO simulation. Previous research has demonstrated that momentum transfer between ions and metal surfaces is equivalent to the momentum transfer expected for neutral molecules with similar energy, due to charge exchange occurring prior to momentum transfer. Total drag measurements of aluminum cuboid geometries of varying length to diameter ratios immersed in the extracted plasma plume are presented as a function of streaming ion energy.

  2. Material interactions with the Low Earth Orbital (LEO) environment: Accurate reaction rate measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, James T.; Leger, Lubert J.

    1987-01-01

    To resolve uncertainties in estimated LEO atomic oxygen fluence and provide reaction product composition data for comparison to data obtained in ground-based simulation laboratories, a flight experiment has been proposed for the space shuttle which utilizes an ion-neutral mass spectrometer to obtain in-situ ambient density measurements and identify reaction products from modeled polymers exposed to the atomic oxygen environment. An overview of this experiment is presented and the methodology of calibrating the flight mass spectrometer in a neutral beam facility prior to its use on the space shuttle is established. The experiment, designated EOIM-3 (Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials, third series), will provide a reliable materials interaction data base for future spacecraft design and will furnish insight into the basic chemical mechanisms leading to atomic oxygen interactions with surfaces.

  3. High speed railway environment safety evaluation based on measurement attribute recognition model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qizhou; Gao, Ningbo; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    In order to rationally evaluate the high speed railway operation safety level, the environmental safety evaluation index system of high speed railway should be well established by means of analyzing the impact mechanism of severe weather such as raining, thundering, lightning, earthquake, winding, and snowing. In addition to that, the attribute recognition will be identified to determine the similarity between samples and their corresponding attribute classes on the multidimensional space, which is on the basis of the Mahalanobis distance measurement function in terms of Mahalanobis distance with the characteristics of noncorrelation and nondimensionless influence. On top of the assumption, the high speed railway of China environment safety situation will be well elaborated by the suggested methods. The results from the detailed analysis show that the evaluation is basically matched up with the actual situation and could lay a scientific foundation for the high speed railway operation safety. PMID:25435866

  4. Light Emitting Diodes and Astronomical Environments: Results from in situ Field Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Brian L.; Craine, Eric R.

    2015-05-01

    Light emitting diode (LED) light fixtures are rapidly becoming industry standards for outdoor lighting. They are promoted on the strength of long lifetimes (hence economic efficiencies), low power requirements, directability, active brightness controls, and energy efficiency. They also tend to produce spectral shifts that are undesirable in astronomical settings, but which can be moderated by filters. LED lighting for continuous roadway and parking lot lighting is particularly popular, and many communities are in the process of retrofitting Low Pressure Sodium (LPS) and other lights by tens of thousands of new LED fixtures at a time. What is the impact of this process on astronomical observatories and on dark skies upon which amateur astronomers rely? We bypass modeling and predictions to make actual measurements of these lights in the field. We report on original ground, airborne, and satellite observations of LED lights and discuss their light budgets, zenith angle functions, and impacts on observatory environs.

  5. High speed railway environment safety evaluation based on measurement attribute recognition model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qizhou; Gao, Ningbo; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    In order to rationally evaluate the high speed railway operation safety level, the environmental safety evaluation index system of high speed railway should be well established by means of analyzing the impact mechanism of severe weather such as raining, thundering, lightning, earthquake, winding, and snowing. In addition to that, the attribute recognition will be identified to determine the similarity between samples and their corresponding attribute classes on the multidimensional space, which is on the basis of the Mahalanobis distance measurement function in terms of Mahalanobis distance with the characteristics of noncorrelation and nondimensionless influence. On top of the assumption, the high speed railway of China environment safety situation will be well elaborated by the suggested methods. The results from the detailed analysis show that the evaluation is basically matched up with the actual situation and could lay a scientific foundation for the high speed railway operation safety.

  6. High Speed Railway Environment Safety Evaluation Based on Measurement Attribute Recognition Model

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qizhou; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    In order to rationally evaluate the high speed railway operation safety level, the environmental safety evaluation index system of high speed railway should be well established by means of analyzing the impact mechanism of severe weather such as raining, thundering, lightning, earthquake, winding, and snowing. In addition to that, the attribute recognition will be identified to determine the similarity between samples and their corresponding attribute classes on the multidimensional space, which is on the basis of the Mahalanobis distance measurement function in terms of Mahalanobis distance with the characteristics of noncorrelation and nondimensionless influence. On top of the assumption, the high speed railway of China environment safety situation will be well elaborated by the suggested methods. The results from the detailed analysis show that the evaluation is basically matched up with the actual situation and could lay a scientific foundation for the high speed railway operation safety. PMID:25435866

  7. Time-resolved measurements of aerosol elemental concentrations in indoor working environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žitnik, M.; Kastelic, A.; Rupnik, Z.; Pelicon, P.; Vaupetič, P.; Bučar, K.; Novak, S.; Samardžija, Z.; Matsuyama, S.; Catella, G.; Ishii, K.

    2010-12-01

    We have measured the elemental concentrations in aerosols with a 2-h time resolution in two different types of working environment: a chemistry laboratory dealing with the processing of advanced nanoparticulate materials and a medium-sized machine workshop. Non-stop 10-day and 12-day samplings were performed at each location in order to determine the concentration trends during the non-working/working and weekday/weekend periods. Supplementary measurements of PM10 aerosols with a 2-day sample collection time were performed with a standard Gent PM10 sampler to compare the elemental concentrations with the time-averaged concentrations detected by the 2D step-sampler. The concentrations were determined a posteriori by analyzing the x-ray spectra of aerosol samples emitted after 3-MeV proton bombardment. The PM10 samples collected in the chemistry laboratory were additionally inspected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to determine the chemical compositions of the individual particles. In the workshop, a total PM10 mass sampling was performed simultaneously with a minute resolution to compare the signal with typical outdoor PM10 concentration levels. A factor analysis of the time-resolved dataset points to six and eight factors in the chemistry laboratory and the machine workshop, respectively. These factors describe most of the data variance, and their composition in terms of different elements can be related to specific indoor activities and conditions. We were able to demonstrate that the elemental concentration sampling with hourly resolution is an excellent tool for studying the indoor air pollution. While sampling the total PM10 mass concentration with a minute resolution may lack the potential to identify the emission sources in a "noisy" environment, the time averaging on a day time scale is too coarse to cope with the working dynamics, even if elemental sensitivity is an option.

  8. Measuring Change in Arctic Coastal Environments Using Repeat Aerial Photography and SfM Elevation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, A.; Nolan, M.; Kinsman, N.; Richmond, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial- and ground-based photography can provide valuable information about coastal environments in space and time including the presence or absence of shorefast ice, beach characteristics and morphology, high-water indicators produced during storm surge events, bluff failure mechanisms, and habitat identification. Recent advances in digital photogrammetry and construction of Digital Elevation Models (DEM) using Structure-from-Motion (SfM) algorithms allow for improved mapping and analysis of coastal change in 3-dimensions at a relatively low cost. For example, analyses can include delineating shorelines based on a tidal datum, mapping inundation extent based on a known or modeled flood level, or quantifying volumetric change. Repeat aerial surveys and associated orthophoto and DEM construction serve as a powerful monitoring tool that can provide insights into the mechanisms responsible for coastal change. Along the extensive and remote coast of Alaska, high-quality imagery and elevation data are rare, in part because traditional methods of acquiring the data are cost prohibitive. Here we evaluate the usefulness of data sets acquired using small aircraft and SfM techniques for evaluating seasonal change to the beach and permafrost bluffs at Barter Island, Alaska during the summer of 2014. Considerable bluff retreat and morphological change were measured along a 2.7 km stretch of coast with net mean volume loss of approximately 28,000 ± 540 m3 between the top and the base of the bluffs. The pattern of change was dominantly landward retreat of the top of the bluffs and removal of the debris fan at the base of the bluffs. Barrier-spit overwash and migration and deposition of storm berms were also observed and accurately measured. Our results suggest that this is a cost-effective method for mapping coastal change in remote environments leading to a similar data acquisition effort for the State of Alaska, primarily for shoreline and coastal hazard mapping purposes

  9. X-ray based displacement and strain measurements for hostile environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canistraro, Howard A.; Jordan, Eric H.; Pease, Douglas M.

    1993-01-01

    A completely new method of non-contacting, hostile environment displacement and strain measurement based on the focus and scanning of x-rays, has been developed and demonstrated. The new technique has the ability to overcome many of the limitations associated with available methods. The system is based on the focus and scanning of low energy, hard x-rays such as those emanating from table top copper or molybdenum sources. The x-rays are focused into a narrow and intense line image which can be swept onto targets that fluoresce secondary x-ray radiation. By monitoring the secondary radiation intensity and comparing it with the focused x-ray image's position as it is swept over the target edge, the position of the target edge relative to the focused image can be determined. The present system has a resolution of 0.5 micron, which has been shown to be limited by bearing backlash (or 'yaw' error) in the linear translation table. Its use has been demonstrated in the presence of an open flame with a resultant target temperature in excess of 2000 degrees Fahrenheit (1000 degrees Celsius). Strain measurements have been conducted in a laboratory environment at both room temperature and at a specimen temperature of 1300 degrees Fahrenheit, with an accuracy of within 20 microstrain (primarily a function of the 0.5 micron resolution limit). The main advantage of the technique lies in the penetrating, non-refractive nature of x-rays, which are virtually immune to the presence of refracting gas layers, smoke, flame or intense thermal radiation.

  10. Nutritional Needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dramatic growth of infants during the 1st yr of life (a 3-fold increase in weight; a 50% increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from 1 yr of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. The needs for growth are superimposed on relatively high maintenance nee...

  11. Nutritional requirements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dramatic growth of infants during the first year of life (e.g., a 3-fold increase in weight and a 2-fold increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from a year of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. Moreover, these needs for growth are superimposed on ...

  12. The System of the Calibration for Visibility Measurement Instrument Under the Atmospheric Aerosol Simulation Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Zhifeng; Yang, ShaoChen; Xu, Wenjing

    2016-06-01

    divided by 3 is MOR. The aerosol concentration in chamber can be changed by adjusting aerosol generator that producing variety of visibility atmospherical environment. The experiment has been carried out and the measurement accuracy of atmospheric transmittance is 0.3‰ Corresponding to the accuracy of MOR 4.9% at the 2km visibility environment. So this system can be calibrated and validated the other visibility measuring devices.

  13. Nutrition economics - characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition.

    PubMed

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Dapoigny, M; Dubois, D; van Ganse, E; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I; Hutton, J; Jones, P; Mittendorf, T; Poley, M J; Salminen, S; Nuijten, M J C

    2011-01-01

    There is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to estimate the absolute and relative monetary impact of health measures. For this purpose, an expert meeting assessed questions aimed at clarifying the scope and identifying the key issues that should be taken into consideration in developing nutrition economics as a discipline that could potentially address important questions. We propose a first multidisciplinary outline for understanding the principles and particular characteristics of this emerging field. We summarise here the concepts and the observations of workshop participants and propose a basic setting for nutrition economics and health outcomes research as a novel discipline to support nutrition, health economics and health policy development in an evidence and health-benefit-based manner. PMID:20797310

  14. Radiation Protection. Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Air- radon 222. A proposed ISO standard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, G.; Woods, M.

    2009-04-01

    Radon isotopes (222, 220, 219) are radioactive gases produced by the disintegration of radium isotopes 226, 224 and 223, which are decay products of uranium238, thorium232 and uranium235 respectively. All are found in the earth's crust. Solid elements, also radioactive, are produced by radon disintegration. Radon is classed as a rare gas in the periodic table of elements, along with helium, argon, neon, krypton and xenon. When disintegrating, radon emits alpha particles and generates solid decay products, which are also radioactive (polonium, bismuth, lead etc.). The potential danger of radon lies in its solid decay products rather than the gas itself. Whether or not they are attached aerosols, radon decay products can be inhaled and deposited in the bronchopulmonary tree to varying depths according to their size. Radon today is considered to be the main source of human exposure to natural radiation. At the international level, radon accounts for 52% of global average exposure to natural radiation. Isotope 222 (48%) is far more significant than isotope 220 (4%), whilst isotope 219 is considered as negligible. Exposure to radon varies considerably from one region to another, depending on factors such as weather conditions, and underlying geology. Activity concentration can therefore vary by a factor of 10 or even a 100 from one period of time to the next and from one area to another. There are many ways of measuring the radon 222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products. Measuring techniques fall into three categories: - spot measurement methods; continuous measurement; integrated measurement. The proposed ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) document suggests guidelines for measuring radon222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products in a free (environment) and confined (buildings) atmosphere. The target date for availability of

  15. Measurement of Effective Canopy Temperature: The Missing Link to Modeling Transpiration in Controlled Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monje, O. A.; McCormack, Ann; Bugbee, Bruce; Jones, Harry W., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The objectives were to apply energy balance principles to plant canopies, and to determine which parameters are essential for predicting plant canopy transpiration (E) in controlled environments. Transpiration was accurately measured in a gas-exchange system. Absorbed radiation (R(sub abs)) by the canopy was measured with a net radiometer and calculated from short and long-wave radiation components. Average canopy foliar temperature T(sub L) can be measured with an infrared radiometer, but since T(sub L) is seldom uniform, a weighed average measurement of T(sub L) must be made. The effective canopy temperature T(sub C) is that temperature that balances the energy flux between absorbed radiation and latent heat L(sub E) and sensible heat (H) fluxes. TC should exactly equal air temperature T(sub A) when L(sub E) equals R(sub abs). When unnecessary thermal radiation from the lighting system is removed by a water filter, the magnitude of L(sub E) from transpiration approaches Rabs and T(sub C) is close to T(sub A). Unlike field models, we included the energy used in photosynthesis and found that up to 10% of Rabs was used in photosynthesis. We calculated aerodynamic conductance for H from measurements of wind speed and canopy height using the wind profile equation. Canopy aerodynamic conductance ranged from.03 to.04 m/s for wind speeds from.6 to 1 m/s; thus a 0.1 C canopy to air temperature difference results in a sensible heat flux of about 4 W/sq m, which is only 1% of R(sub abs). We examined the ability of wide angle infrared transducers to accurately integrate T(sub L) from the top to the bottom of the canopy. We measured evaporation from the hydroponic media to be approximately 1 micro mol/sq m s or 10% of R(sub abs). This result indicates that separating evaporation from transpiration is more important than exact measurement of canopy temperature.

  16. Land surface thermal environment during heat wave event measured by satellite observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Yang, Song

    2014-11-01

    In summer 2013, mainly from July to August, most parts of China continued to experience an unusually severe heat wave with exceptionally high air temperatures, based on the records measured at meteorological stations. As a supplement to the weather station networks, remotely sensed observation can quantify detailed variation of surface temperature at relatively high spatial resolution, owing to its ability to provide a complete and homogeneous data sources. In addition to the GHCN CAMS gridded land air surface temperature, land surface temperature products of MODIS including MOD11C3/MYD11C3 and MOD11A2/MYD11A2 were used to evaluate the anomaly of summertime thermal environment over the South China in 2013. To investigate the impacts of heat wave event on built environment, the MODIS Land Cover Type yearly product (MCD12Q1) was collected. Regional thermal anomaly was observed in both air and surface temperature measurements, especially for August. Statistics based on MOD11A2/MYD11A2 shows the spatio-temporal variation of land surface temperature at regional scale, and the heterogeneous characteristics in diurnal cycle are also shown. Compared with other types, the urban and built-up generally presents larger surface temperature at daytime. Detailed analyses were further conducted for three selected regions roughly covering the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, and the areas around Wuhan City respectively. Findings indicate that urban and built-up exhibits more distinct thermal contrast to its surroundings at daytime, in contrast to the situation at nighttime. This thermal contrast was defined as surface urban heat island intensity (UHII) calculated using a newly proposed procedure, in this paper. The UHII shows both time- and geography-dependent variations. Meanwhile, the UHII over medium and small cities was even more obvious and larger than that over megalopolitan areas. These preliminary findings suggest that land use and land cover changes as a

  17. Measuring and modeling disturbance-induced changes to flux dynamics in increasingly heterogeneous canopy environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, K.; Bohrer, G.; He, L.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Vogel, C.; Curtis, P.

    2012-12-01

    Turbulent eddies control the flux of carbon, water and other gases between forested environments and the atmosphere. Inside the canopy, eddy correlation length is very small and surface heterogeneity due to tree-crown structures occurs at these scales. Computer simulations, particularly Large-Eddy Simulations (LES), provide the foundation to test the sensitivity of flux exchange and turbulent mixing to small scale processes, such as successional- or disturbance-driven changes to canopy structure. At the Forest Accelerated Succession ExperimenT (FASET), we disturbed 39 ha of forest by girdling all canopy-dominant early-successional aspen and birch trees, leading to a large mortality event, followed by a shift in forest structure that is typical of a more mature successional stage. Over the course of the study, we have found a divergence from pre-treatment biosphere-atmosphere gas-exchange trends between the control and disturbance sites due to changes in canopy structure and, as a consequence, biological response. We use the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS)-based Forest Large-Eddy Simulation (RAFLES), and the more dynamic RAFLES-Ecosystem Demography (ED2) model, to investigate the consequences of increasingly heterogeneous forest environments to canopy-atmosphere exchange. RAFLES-ED2 resolves multi-layered light attenuation and vegetation and surface heat, vapor and CO2 fluxes and includes a multi-layered soil column under each atmosphere-vegetation column, as opposed to the single-layered soil-vegetation model in RAFLES. The model environment was determined by remote sensing of the actual forested area of interest using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) measurements and eddy-flux gas exchange measurements at two neighboring AmeriFlux eddy-flux towers, the manipulated site (US-UMd) and its undisturbed control (US-UMB) both at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) cluster site. We find more accurate surface roughness estimates and

  18. Predicted versus measured photosynthetic water-use efficiency of crop stands under dynamically changing field environments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liu-Kang; Hsiao, Theodore C

    2004-11-01

    Water-use efficiency (WUE) is critical in determining the adaptation and productivity of plants in water-limited areas, either under the present climate or future global change. Data on WUE are often highly variable and a unifying and quantitative approach is needed to analyse and predict WUE for different environments. Hsiao has already proposed a set of paradigm equations based on leaf gas exchange for this purpose, calculating WUE (ratio of assimilation to transpiration) relative to the WUE for a chosen reference situation. This study tests the validity and applicability of these equations to cotton and sweet corn stands with full canopies in the open field. Measured were evapotranspiration and downward flux of atmospheric CO2 into the canopy, soil CO2 efflux, canopy temperature, and CO2 and vapour pressure of the air surrounding the canopy. With the measured mean WUE and conditions at midday serving as the reference, WUE for other times was predicted from the air CO2 and water vapour data, intercellular water vapour pressure calculated from canopy temperature, and an assumed ratio of Ci/Ca based on leaf gas-exchange data. Provided that the stomatal response to humidity as it affected the Ci/Ca ratio was accounted for, the equations predicted the moment-by-moment changes in canopy WUE of cotton over daily cycles reasonably well, and also the variation in midday WUE from day-to-day over a 47 d period. The prediction for sweet corn was fairly good for most parts of the day except the early morning. Measurement uncertainties and possible causes of the differences between predicted and measured WUE are discussed. Overall, the results indicate that the equations may be suitable to simulate changes in WUE without upscaling, and also demonstrate clearly the importance of stomatal response to humidity in determining stand WUE in the field. PMID:15448179

  19. Challenges of molecular nutrition research 6: the nutritional phenotype database to store, share and evaluate nutritional systems biology studies.

    PubMed

    van Ommen, Ben; Bouwman, Jildau; Dragsted, Lars O; Drevon, Christian A; Elliott, Ruan; de Groot, Philip; Kaput, Jim; Mathers, John C; Müller, Michael; Pepping, Fre; Saito, Jahn; Scalbert, Augustin; Radonjic, Marijana; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Travis, Anthony; Wopereis, Suzan; Evelo, Chris T

    2010-09-01

    The challenge of modern nutrition and health research is to identify food-based strategies promoting life-long optimal health and well-being. This research is complex because it exploits a multitude of bioactive compounds acting on an extensive network of interacting processes. Whereas nutrition research can profit enormously from the revolution in 'omics' technologies, it has discipline-specific requirements for analytical and bioinformatic procedures. In addition to measurements of the parameters of interest (measures of health), extensive description of the subjects of study and foods or diets consumed is central for describing the nutritional phenotype. We propose and pursue an infrastructural activity of constructing the "Nutritional Phenotype database" (dbNP). When fully developed, dbNP will be a research and collaboration tool and a publicly available data and knowledge repository. Creation and implementation of the dbNP will maximize benefits to the research community by enabling integration and interrogation of data from multiple studies, from different research groups, different countries and different-omics levels. The dbNP is designed to facilitate storage of biologically relevant, pre-processed-omics data, as well as study descriptive and study participant phenotype data. It is also important to enable the combination of this information at different levels (e.g. to facilitate linkage of data describing participant phenotype, genotype and food intake with information on study design and-omics measurements, and to combine all of this with existing knowledge). The biological information stored in the database (i.e. genetics, transcriptomics, proteomics, biomarkers, metabolomics, functional assays, food intake and food composition) is tailored to nutrition research and embedded in an environment of standard procedures and protocols, annotations, modular data-basing, networking and integrated bioinformatics. The dbNP is an evolving enterprise, which is

  20. [Management in clinical nutrition].

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J; Monereo, S; Ortiz, P; Salido, C

    2004-01-01

    Terms such as management, costs, efficacy, efficiency, etc. that are so common in the discourse of managers are now beginning to appear in the vocabulary of clinicians. Management in Clinical Nutrition is an innovative aspect of interest among health-care professionals dealing with the needs of undernourished patients or those at risk of malnutrition. The basic goal of this paper is to show that the tools for clinical management of hospitals are applicable to such a multidisciplinary and complex speciality as clinical nutrition and also to propose the measures needed to improve our information systems and optimize management in this field. The very concept of hospitals has changed, as has their activity, over the years. Hospitals are nowadays no longer just a charitable institution but has become a service company, a public utility for the promotion of good health and they have to be managed in accordance with criteria of efficacy, efficiency, equity and quality. The concepts of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) and Cost-Effective Medicine (CEM) are of evident importance in the different ways of managing health-care services. Good clinical practice is the combination of EBM and CEM. This review defines the various cost studies of fundamental importance when taking decisions in hospital management and analyzes such clinical management tools as analytical accounting, Minimum Hospital Database Set (MHDS) and encoding systems, among others, thus facilitating an analysis of the usefulness of data in clinical nutrition management systems. Finally, after reviewing some specific examples, measures are proposed to optimize current information systems. The medical staff and those of us responsible for Nutrition Units operate in hospitals as part of a centralized service transferring information to the various departments where the patient is physically located (Surgery, Internal Medicine, Digestive, ICU, etc.). One of the priority goals in micro-management and middle management

  1. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

    PubMed

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

  2. Magnetoresistive sensors for angle, position, and electrical current measurement in demanding environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doms, Marco; Slatter, Rolf

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, magnetoresistive (MR) sensors are used in a wide range of applications. In general, the MR-effect describes the change of the electrical resistance in an external magnetic field. MR sensors are not only used for measuring magnetic fields and rotational or linear motion, but also for non-contact switching applications and furthermore for highly dynamic current measurement. This is largely the result of increasingly complex demands on the sensors for e.g. high performance electrical drives. The sensors must not only be accurate and dynamic, but must also be robust under difficult operating conditions and exhibit very high reliability. Due to their physical working principle and their small size, MR sensors are especially suited to work in harsh environments like high or low temperature, radiation, pressure or mechanical shock. This paper describes the principle of operation, manufacturing process and benefits of MR sensors. This will be followed by a description of practical application examples from the automotive, oil and gas, renewable energy and space fields, where MR sensors are successfully applied in very small envelopes at very low /very high temperatures, under high pressure, high mechanical loading and under strong radiation.

  3. Application of a variable pressure infrared spectrometer for formaldehyde measurements in indoor and outdoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanoune, B.; Lemoine, B.

    2006-10-01

    Pollutants detection by tunable diode laser spectroscopy is conventionally achieved by scanning the emission frequency of the laser around an isolated absorption line of the species under investigation. Absolute quantification relies on the comparison of the measured absorption signal with the absorption signal of a calibrated sample at the same pressure, or with a calculated line profile when the spectroscopic parameters are available and accurate. We developed an alternative procedure : with the laser emission frequency actively stabilized on top of the absorption line, both the pressure inside the cell and the absorption signal are measured while the cell is progressively filled with the sample up to about 12 Torr. The slope at origin of the signal vs. pressure curve is proportional to the concentration in the sample and absolute concentration is obtained with a calibrated mixture injected into the cell at regular intervals. This procedure, which proves as efficient as the conventional one, has been applied together with a mobile spectrometer to the quantification of formaldehyde in outdoor and indoor (buildings and cars) environments.

  4. Measurement of dissolved organic matter fluorescense in aquatic environments: An interlaboratory comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Kathleen R.; Butler, Kenna D.; Spencer, Robert G. M.; Stedmon, Colin A.; Boehme, Jennifer R.; Aiken, George R.

    2010-01-01

    The fluorescent properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are often studied in order to infer DOM characteristics in aquatic environments, including source, quantity, composition, and behavior. While a potentially powerful technique, a single widely implemented standard method for correcting and presenting fluorescence measurements is lacking, leading to difficulties when comparing data collected by different research groups. This paper reports on a large-scale interlaboratory comparison in which natural samples and well-characterized fluorophores were analyzed in 20 laboratories in the U.S., Europe, and Australia. Shortcomings were evident in several areas, including data quality-assurance, the accuracy of spectral correction factors used to correct EEMs, and the treatment of optically dense samples. Data corrected by participants according to individual laboratory procedures were more variable than when corrected under a standard protocol. Wavelength dependency in measurement precision and accuracy were observed within and between instruments, even in corrected data. In an effort to reduce future occurrences of similar problems, algorithms for correcting and calibrating EEMs are described in detail, and MATLAB scripts for implementing the study's protocol are provided. Combined with the recent expansion of spectral fluorescence standards, this approach will serve to increase the intercomparability of DOM fluorescence studies.

  5. Direct measurement of efflux in Pseudomonas aeruginosa using an environment-sensitive fluorescent dye.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Ramkumar; Erwin, Alice L

    2015-01-01

    Resistance-Nodulation-Division (RND) family pumps AcrB and MexB are the major efflux routes in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. Fluorescent environment-sensitive dyes provide a means to study efflux pump function in live bacterial cells in real-time. Recently, we demonstrated the utility of this approach using the dye Nile Red to quantify AcrB-mediated efflux and measured the ability of antibiotics and other efflux pump substrates to compete with efflux of Nile Red, independent of antibacterial activity. Here, we extend this method to P. aeruginosa and describe a novel application that permits the comparison and rank-ordering of bacterial strains by their inherent efflux potential. We show that glucose and l-malate re-energize Nile Red efflux in P. aeruginosa, and we highlight differences in the glucose dependence and kinetics of efflux between P. aeruginosa and E. coli. We quantify the differences in efflux among a set of P. aeruginosa laboratory strains, which include PAO1, the hyper-sensitive strain ATCC 35151 and its parent, ATCC 12055. Efflux of Nile Red in P. aeruginosa is mediated by MexAB-OprM and is slower than in E. coli. In conclusion, we describe an efflux measurement tool for use in antibacterial drug discovery and basic research on P. aeruginosa efflux pumps.

  6. X-ray beam method for displacement measurement in hostile environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Eric H.; Pease, D. M.; Canistraro, H.; Brew, Dale

    1989-01-01

    A new method of extensometry using an X-ray beam was devised, and the results of current testing reveal it to be highly feasible. This technique has been shown to provide a non-contacting system that is immune to problems associated with density variations in gaseous environments, that plague currently available optical methods. This advantage is a result of the non-refracting penetrating nature of X-rays. The method is based on X-ray-induced X-ray fluorescence of targets, which subsequently serve as fudicial markers. Some target materials have melting points over 1600 degrees C which will facilitate measurement at extremely high temperatures. A highly focused intense X-ray beam, which is produced using a Johansen 'bent crystal', is then scanned across the target, which responds by fluorescing X-rays when stimulated by the incident beam. This secondary radiation is monitored using a detector. By carefully measuring beam orientation, change in target edge position can be determined. Many variations on this basic theme are now possible such as two targets demarcating a gage length, or a beam shadowing method using opaque targets.

  7. Use of Smoothed Measured Winds to Predict and Assess Launch Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordova, Henry S.; Leahy, Frank; Adelfang, Stanley; Roberts, Barry; Starr, Brett; Duffin, Paul; Pueri, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Since many of the larger launch vehicles are operated near their design limits during the ascent phase of flight to optimize payload to orbit, it often becomes necessary to verify that the vehicle will remain within certification limits during the ascent phase as part of the go/no-go review made prior to launch. This paper describes the approach used to predict Ares I-X launch vehicle structural air loads and controllability prior to launch which represents a distinct departure from the methodology of the Space Shuttle and Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) programs. Protection for uncertainty of key environment and trajectory parameters is added to the nominal assessment of launch capability to ensure that critical launch trajectory variables would be within the integrated vehicle certification envelopes. This process was applied by the launch team as a key element of the launch day go/no-go recommendation. Pre-launch assessments of vehicle launch capability for NASA's Space Shuttle and the EELV heavy lift versions require the use of a high-resolution wind profile measurements, which have relatively small sample size compared with low-resolution profile databases (which include low-resolution balloons and radar wind profilers). The approach described in this paper has the potential to allow the pre-launch assessment team to use larger samples of wind measurements from low-resolution wind profile databases that will improve the accuracy of pre-launch assessments of launch availability with no degradation of mission assurance or launch safety.

  8. Effectiveness of incentives for agri-environment measure in Mediterranean degraded and eroded vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galati, Antonino; Gristina, Luciano; Crescimanno, Maria; Barone, Ettore; Novara, Agata

    2015-04-01

    The evaluation of the economic damage caused by soil erosion assumes great importance. It serves to increase awareness of the problem among farmers and policy makers. Moreover, it can promote the implementation of conservative measures at the field and basin level by spurring the development of more sustainable soil management practices. In the present study we have developed a new approach to evaluate the incentive for the adoption of Agri-Environment Measure (AEM) in Mediterranean degraded and eroded vineyards. In order to estimate this incentive, the replacement cost and the loss of income are calculated under two different soil management such as Conventional Tillage (CT) and Cover crop (AEM). Our findings show that the incentive could range between the loss of income due to AEM adoption and ecosystem service benefit (RCCT - RC AEM). In the case of study the incentive ranged between 315 € ha-1 (loss of income) and 1,087.86 € ha-1 (Ecosystem service benefit). Within this range, the incentive amount is determined according to efficiency criteria taking into account the morphological conditions of the territory in which operate the farms. Moreover, a conceptual model on the public spending efficiency has been developed to allocate the incentives where the economic return in term of ecosystem service is higher.

  9. A new method to measure higher visual functions in an immersive environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Higher visual functions can be defined as cognitive processes responsible for object recognition, color and shape perception, and motion detection. People with impaired higher visual functions after unilateral brain lesion are often tested with paper pencil tests, but such tests do not assess the degree of interaction between the healthy brain hemisphere and the impaired one. Hence, visual functions are not tested separately in the contralesional and ipsilesional visual hemifields. Methods A new measurement setup, that involves real-time comparisons of shape and size of objects, orientation of lines, speed and direction of moving patterns, in the right or left visual hemifield, has been developed. The setup was implemented in an immersive environment like a hemisphere to take into account the effects of peripheral and central vision, and eventual visual field losses. Due to the non-flat screen of the hemisphere, a distortion algorithm was needed to adapt the projected images to the surface. Several approaches were studied and, based on a comparison between projected images and original ones, the best one was used for the implementation of the test. Fifty-seven healthy volunteers were then tested in a pilot study. A Satisfaction Questionnaire was used to assess the usability of the new measurement setup. Results The results of the distortion algorithm showed a structural similarity between the warped images and the original ones higher than 97%. The results of the pilot study showed an accuracy in comparing images in the two visual hemifields of 0.18 visual degrees and 0.19 visual degrees for size and shape discrimination, respectively, 2.56° for line orientation, 0.33 visual degrees/s for speed perception and 7.41° for recognition of motion direction. The outcome of the Satisfaction Questionnaire showed a high acceptance of the battery by the participants. Conclusions A new method to measure higher visual functions in an immersive environment was

  10. The use of autonomous unmanned vehicles for measuring the mean flow field in riverine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuggle, C.; Macmahan, J. H.; Brown, J.; Reniers, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Autonomous unmanned vehicles (AUVs) are commonly used in oceanic, estuarine and, more recently, riverine environments because they are small, versatile, moving platforms equipped with a suite of instruments for measuring environmental conditions. However, moving vessel observations, particularly those associated acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) observations, can be problematic owing to instrument noise, flow fluctuations, and spatial variability. As part of a riverine field experiment conducted in the Kootenai River, ID in August 2010, a spatial map of the mean horizontal and vertical velocity fields in a 200m wide, 8 m deep, and 0.5m/s meandering reach was obtained using two different AUV platforms: SeaRobotics unmanned surface vehicle (USV) and YSI/OceanServer Technology IVER-II unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV). The USV has dual-propellers navigating with GPS and was able to station-keep to within 1 m for 10 minutes at various locations within the reach in order to obtain the 3-D velocity field. Obtaining a statistically confident estimate of the mean velocity profile requires an appropriate time-interval to average instrument noise and environmental fluctuations. It has been previously proposed that 10 minutes is an adequate time interval when using an ADCP in a river. Preliminary results show that a shorter time interval is adequate, which would allow for increased spatial coverage. The UUV has a station-keeping capability when at the surface, but owing to its single propeller, it operates best by performing slow (0.2-0.35m/s) moving transects. Since the UUV is moving in a system that is spatially non-homogenous, additional errors in the mean velocity profile can be introduced due to spatial variability. An evaluation of the velocity profile quality, current measuring performance and minimum averaging time interval requirements are discussed for each platform, including the appropriate mission planning considerations for riverine observations. In

  11. Ground based radar measurements in a marine environment for glacier calving front studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolstad Denby, C.; Gundersen, R.

    2012-04-01

    A ground-based radar has been used successfully for monitoring velocities and calving events at Kronebreen, Svalbard, for four test seasons in 2007,2008, 2009 and 2010. The radar is placed ~4 km from the glacier front and it transmits the signal across Kongsfjorden. It transmits at 5.75 GHz and measures at high temporal rate (2 Hz). The antenna lobe covers a width of~700m of the calving front, and a range of 300 m. The latter includes the calving front and 250m up-glacier. We find that the glacier surface provides natural permanent scatterers, so spatially continuous movements at the front and at locations further up-glacier can be tracked. High frequent noise is present in the velocity data. We used daily terrestrial optical photogrammetry and continuous visual observation to validate the identification of calving events in a 116 hour record of amplitude of return signal data measured from 26 to 30 August 2008. Calving events were detected applying an automated change-detection technique to the radar dataset. This technique allowed us to detect 92% of the events that were observed during the same time. We also observe that the marine environment affects the radar signal in several ways. Destructive interference due to multipath scattering covers an enlarged area in the amplitude data set due to the tidal cycles. The transmitted and received radar signal is disturbed due to variations in the refraction index over the fjord. High frequent noise as observed on the velocity measurements may be due to ocean water waves in the fjord. The observed noise may be affected by the choice of antenna polarization. Plans for an improved version of the radar system designed for calving front monitoring and 2D mapping of glacier velocities will also be presented.

  12. Conceptual design of a device to measure hand swelling in a micro-gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hysinger, Christopher L.

    1993-01-01

    In the design of pressurized suits for use by astronauts in space, proper fit is an important consideration. One particularly difficult aspect of the suit design is the design of the gloves. If the gloves of the suit do not fit properly, the grip strength of the astronaut can be decreased by as much as fifty percent. These gloves are designed using an iterative process and can cost over 1.5 million dollars. Glove design is further complicated by the way the body behaves in a micro-gravity environment. In a micro-gravity setting, fluid from the lower body tends to move into the upper body. Some of this fluid collects in the hands and causes the hands to swell. Therefore, a pair of gloves that fit well on earth may not fit well when they are used in space. The conceptual design process for a device which can measure the swelling that occurs in the hands in a micro-gravity environment is described. This process involves developing a specifications list and function structure for the device and generating solution variants for each of the sub functions. The solution variants are then filtered, with the variants that violate any of the specifications being discarded. After acceptable solution variants are obtained, they are combined to form design concepts. These design concepts are evaluated against a set of criteria and the design concepts are ranked in order of preference. Through this process, the two most plausible design concepts were an ultrasonic imaging technique and a laser mapping technique. Both of these methods create a three dimensional model of the hand, from which the amount of swelling can be determined. In order to determine which of the two solutions will actually work best, a further analysis will need to be performed.

  13. A coupled sensor-spectrophotometric device for continuous measurement of formaldehyde in indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ellison M; Jackson, Mark C; Katz, Lynn E; Speitel, Gerald E

    2014-01-01

    Despite long-standing awareness of adverse health effects associated with chronic human exposure to formaldehyde, this hazardous air pollutant remains a challenge to measure in indoor environments. Traditional analytical techniques evaluate formaldehyde concentrations over several hours to several days in a single location in a residence, making it difficult to characterize daily temporal and spatial variation in human exposure to formaldehyde. There is a need for portable, easy-to-use devices that are specific and sensitive to gas-phase formaldehyde over short sampling periods so that dynamic processes governing formaldehyde fate, transport, and potential remediation in indoor environments may be studied more effectively. A recently developed device couples a chemical sensor element with spectrophotometric analysis for detection and quantification of part per billion (ppbv) gas-phase formaldehyde concentrations. This study established the ability of the coupled sensor-spectrophotometric device (CSSD) to report formaldehyde concentrations accurately and continuously on a 30-min sampling cycle at low ppbv concentrations previously untested for this device in a laboratory setting. Determination of the method detection limit (MDL), based on 40 samples each at test concentrations of 5 and 10 ppbv, was found to be 1.9 and 2.0 ppbv, respectively. Performance of the CSSD was compared with the dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatization method for formaldehyde concentrations ranging from 5-50 ppbv, and a linear relationship with a coefficient of determination of 0.983 was found between these two analytical techniques. The CSSD was also used to monitor indoor formaldehyde concentrations in two manufactured homes. During this time, formaldehyde concentrations varied from below detection limit to 65 ppbv and were above the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended exposure limit (REL) of 16 ppbv, which is also the exposure limit

  14. Measuring galaxy environment with the synergy of future photometric and spectroscopic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucciati, O.; Marulli, F.; Cimatti, A.; Merson, A. I.; Norberg, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Baugh, C. M.; Branchini, E.

    2016-10-01

    We exploit the synergy between low-resolution spectroscopy and photometric redshifts to study environmental effects on galaxy evolution in slitless spectroscopic surveys from space. As a test case, we consider the future Euclid Deep survey (˜40 deg2), which combines a slitless spectroscopic survey limited at Hα flux ≥5 × 10-17 erg cm-2 s-1 and a photometric survey limited in H band (H ≤ 26). We use Euclid-like galaxy mock catalogues, in which we anchor the photometric redshifts to the 3D galaxy distribution of the available spectroscopic redshifts. We then estimate the local density contrast by counting objects in cylindrical cells with radius from 1 to 10 h-1Mpc, over the redshift range 0.9 < z < 1.8. We compare this density field with the one computed in a mock catalogue with the same depth as the Euclid Deep survey (H = 26) but without redshift measurement errors. We find that our method successfully separates high- from low-density environments (the last from the first quintile of the density distribution), with higher efficiency at low redshift and large cells: the fraction of low-density regions mistaken by high-density peaks is <1 per cent for all scales and redshifts explored, but for scales of 1 h-1Mpc for which is a few per cent. These results show that we can efficiently study environment in photometric samples if spectroscopic information is available for a smaller sample of objects that sparsely samples the same volume. We demonstrate that these studies are possible in the Euclid Deep survey, i.e. in a redshift range in which environmental effects are different from those observed in the local Universe, hence providing new constraints for galaxy evolution models.

  15. Untold nutrition.

    PubMed

    Campbell, T Colin

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is generally investigated, and findings interpreted, in reference to the activities of individual nutrients. Nutrient composition of foods, food labeling, food fortification, and nutrient recommendations are mostly founded on this assumption, a practice commonly known as reductionism. While such information on specifics is important and occasionally useful in practice, it ignores the coordinated, integrated and virtually symphonic nutrient activity (wholism) that occurs in vivo. With reductionism providing the framework, public confusion abounds and huge monetary and social costs are incurred. Two examples are briefly presented to illustrate, the long time misunderstandings (1) about saturated and total fat as causes of cancer and heart disease and (2) the emergence of the nutrient supplement industry. A new definition of the science of nutrition is urgently needed. PMID:25036857

  16. Parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Thibault, R