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Sample records for nutrition stress management

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi Epimastigotes Are Able to Manage Internal Cholesterol Levels under Nutritional Lipid Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Miria Gomes; Visbal, Gonzalo; Salgado, Leonardo T.; Vidal, Juliana Cunha; Godinho, Joseane L. P.; De Cicco, Nuccia N. T.; Atella, Geórgia C.; de Souza, Wanderley; Cunha-e-Silva, Narcisa

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes store high amounts of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in reservosomes. These unique organelles are responsible for cellular digestion by providing substrates for homeostasis and parasite differentiation. Here we demonstrate that under nutritional lipid stress, epimastigotes preferentially mobilized reservosome lipid stocks, instead of lipid bodies, leading to the consumption of parasite cholesterol reservoirs and production of ergosterol. Starved epimastigotes acquired more LDL-NBD-cholesterol by endocytosis and distributed the exogenous cholesterol to their membranes faster than control parasites. Moreover, the parasites were able to manage internal cholesterol levels, alternating between consumption and accumulation. With normal lipid availability, parasites esterified cholesterol exhibiting an ACAT-like activity that was sensitive to Avasimibe in a dose-dependent manner. This result also implies that exogenous cholesterol has a role in lipid reservoirs in epimastigotes. PMID:26068009

  2. Trypanosoma cruzi Epimastigotes Are Able to Manage Internal Cholesterol Levels under Nutritional Lipid Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Miria Gomes; Visbal, Gonzalo; Salgado, Leonardo T; Vidal, Juliana Cunha; Godinho, Joseane L P; De Cicco, Nuccia N T; Atella, Geórgia C; de Souza, Wanderley; Cunha-e-Silva, Narcisa

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes store high amounts of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in reservosomes. These unique organelles are responsible for cellular digestion by providing substrates for homeostasis and parasite differentiation. Here we demonstrate that under nutritional lipid stress, epimastigotes preferentially mobilized reservosome lipid stocks, instead of lipid bodies, leading to the consumption of parasite cholesterol reservoirs and production of ergosterol. Starved epimastigotes acquired more LDL-NBD-cholesterol by endocytosis and distributed the exogenous cholesterol to their membranes faster than control parasites. Moreover, the parasites were able to manage internal cholesterol levels, alternating between consumption and accumulation. With normal lipid availability, parasites esterified cholesterol exhibiting an ACAT-like activity that was sensitive to Avasimibe in a dose-dependent manner. This result also implies that exogenous cholesterol has a role in lipid reservoirs in epimastigotes. PMID:26068009

  3. Manage Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Manage Stress Print This Topic En español Manage Stress Browse Sections The Basics Overview Signs and Health ... and Health Effects What are the signs of stress? When people are under stress, they may feel: ...

  4. [Nutrition management for COPD].

    PubMed

    Miki, Keisuke; Maekura, Ryoji

    2016-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory reaction of the lung and of the whole body, and pulmonary cachexia often occurs during the advanced stage. The effects of nutritional support upon the management of under-nutrition in COPD remain controversial. However, a study of the effects of nutritional supplement therapy upon such patients with COPD has recently been published. The present report comprises a review of recent articles about the nutritional support of patients with COPD, especially those with cachexia, and a discussion about the roles of nutritional supplement therapy, focusing on exercise and treatment with ghrelin and vitamin D in the management of COPD. PMID:27254950

  5. [Nutrition and stress].

    PubMed

    Tappy, L; Berger, M M; Chiolero, R L

    2000-11-01

    Acute illness induces major physiological responses, which favor the adaptation of the organism to stress and injury. The metabolic response plays key roles in maintenance of vital functions and promotion of the healing mechanisms. All the components of energy expenditure are modified, particularly the resting metabolism. The regulation of carbohydrate metabolism is also markedly altered. Such patients are characterized by fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and by a stimulation of the hepatic glucose production in fasted and fed states. Lipolysis and increased fat oxidation are typically observed. Ketogenesis processes are inhibited, concurring to alter the adaptation to starvation. Protein turnover is stimulated with a preponderance of the catabolic processes, even during full nutritional support. This induces a state of resistance to feeding, leading to a progressive depletion of the fat free mass. Such progressive tissue catabolism cannot be reversed by hypercaloric nutrition or growth factors. Specific nutrients (aminoacids, micronutrients, PUFA) may offer interesting perspectives in stimulating immunity, improving the antioxidant balance or modulating the inflammatory response. PMID:11139659

  6. [Management of clinical nutrition].

    PubMed

    Martín Folgueras, Tomás

    2015-05-07

    Proper management of Clinical Nutrition requires careful planning of the resources required to delineate the activities to be performed by each of the participants and consider the need for continued evaluation of the results to improve. Units of Nutrition and Nutritional Support Teams must have a multidisciplinary composition, incorporating professionals with training and experience in Clinical Nutrition. Whenever conditions permit and activity of each center indicates, the staff's dedication to nutrition must be complete. The organization of processes and use of clinical practice protocols facilitates the monitoring of the activities carried out by teams of Nutrition. Each stage of a process has quality criteria based on scientific knowledge, and some key objectives whose degree of achievement can be measured by monitoring quality indicators and their comparison with standards. Successive cycles of measurement indicators, evaluation and corrective interventions lead to continuous process improvement.

  7. [Management in clinical nutrition].

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J; Monereo, S; Ortiz, P; Salido, C

    2004-01-01

    Terms such as management, costs, efficacy, efficiency, etc. that are so common in the discourse of managers are now beginning to appear in the vocabulary of clinicians. Management in Clinical Nutrition is an innovative aspect of interest among health-care professionals dealing with the needs of undernourished patients or those at risk of malnutrition. The basic goal of this paper is to show that the tools for clinical management of hospitals are applicable to such a multidisciplinary and complex speciality as clinical nutrition and also to propose the measures needed to improve our information systems and optimize management in this field. The very concept of hospitals has changed, as has their activity, over the years. Hospitals are nowadays no longer just a charitable institution but has become a service company, a public utility for the promotion of good health and they have to be managed in accordance with criteria of efficacy, efficiency, equity and quality. The concepts of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) and Cost-Effective Medicine (CEM) are of evident importance in the different ways of managing health-care services. Good clinical practice is the combination of EBM and CEM. This review defines the various cost studies of fundamental importance when taking decisions in hospital management and analyzes such clinical management tools as analytical accounting, Minimum Hospital Database Set (MHDS) and encoding systems, among others, thus facilitating an analysis of the usefulness of data in clinical nutrition management systems. Finally, after reviewing some specific examples, measures are proposed to optimize current information systems. The medical staff and those of us responsible for Nutrition Units operate in hospitals as part of a centralized service transferring information to the various departments where the patient is physically located (Surgery, Internal Medicine, Digestive, ICU, etc.). One of the priority goals in micro-management and middle management

  8. Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollak, Ave

    This guide is intended for use in conducting a three-session course that will help employees in the manufacturing and service industries acquire necessary stress management skills. The instructional materials presented are designed to help students learn to accomplish the following: recognize good and bad stress and understand the physical,…

  9. Stress Management for Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, James H.

    Stress management for school children has had various degrees of success. School officials need information about stress and how to deal with it. The purpose of this book is to provide information useful in inauguration of such programs where they do not exist. While stress management should begin in the home and include nutrition, physical…

  10. Stress control and human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Eiji; Terao, Junji; Nakaya, Yutaka; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Baba, Yoshinobu; Chuman, Hiroshi; Kaji, Ryuji; Ohmori, Tetsuro; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2004-08-01

    Stress is a pervasive factor in everyday life that critically affects development and functioning. Severe and prolonged stress exposure impairs homeostatic mechanisms, particularly associated with the onset of depressive illness. Brain food is aimed at preventing as well as treating a growing number of stress-related mental disorders. Some topics on the association of stress and nutrition is reviewed. (1) An increased activity of serotonergic neurons in the brain is an established consequence of stress. An increase in brain tryptophan levels on the order of that produced by eating a carbohydrate-rich/protein-poor meal causes parallel increases in the amounts of serotonin released into synapses. (2) Eating is thought to be suppressed during stress, due to anorectic effects of corticotrophin releasing hormone, and increased during recovery from stress, due to appetite stimulating effects of residual cortisol. (3) A strong inverse association between coffee intake and risk of suicide. (4) Night eating syndrome has been found to occur during periods of stress and is associated with poor results at attempts to lose weight and disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. (5) Dietary antioxidants present in fruits and vegetables may improve cognitive function. Therefore, it is concluded that the establishment of functional foods that correctly regulate stress response must be firmly based upon scientific knowledge and legal regulation.

  11. Sport and Nutrition Education Interaction on Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Mehmet Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine sport and nutrition education interaction on stress. Three groups were selected for the study: control, single treatment and social treatment under nutrition treatment, too. The groups that were under nutrition treatments should have information about the nutrition resources. This experiment was done for two…

  12. Nutritional management of patients with chemosensory disturbances.

    PubMed

    Duffy, V B; Ferris, A M

    1989-05-01

    The effect of a chemosensory disturbance on nutrition and quality of life is not clear and may show individual variance. It is important for the clinician to become sensitive to this relationship and pursue appropriate nutritional management. Nutritional management of an individual with a chemosensory disorder requires nutritional assessment with appropriate dietary intake measurements, dietary and weight history, food behavior questions, and anthropometric measures. A registered dietitian can identify potential nutritional problems and provide guidance for weight control, dietary modification, and use of food-related compensatory mechanisms to maintain the nutritional status and quality of life in the person suffering from chemosensory disturbances.

  13. Web Based Personal Nutrition Management Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkurt, Selen; Zayim, Neşe; Gülkesen, Kemal Hakan; Samur, Mehmet Kemal

    Internet is being used increasingly as a resource for accessing health-related information because of its several advantages. Therefore, Internet tailoring becomes quite preferable in health education and personal health management recently. Today, there are many web based health programs de-signed for individuals. Among these studies nutrition and weight management is popular because, obesity has become a heavy burden for populations worldwide. In this study, we designed a web based personal nutrition education and management tool, The Nutrition Web Portal, in order to enhance patients’ nutrition knowledge, and provide behavioral change against obesity. The present paper reports analysis, design and development processes of The Nutrition Web Portal.

  14. Irritable bowel syndrome: contemporary nutrition management strategies.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Gerard E; Shepherd, Sue J; Chander Roland, Bani; Ireton-Jones, Carol; Matarese, Laura E

    2014-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a complex disorder whose pathophysiology involves alterations in the enteric microbiota, visceral hypersensitivity, gut immune/barrier function, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation, neurotransmitters, stress response, psychological factors, and more. The importance of diet in the management of irritable bowel syndrome has taken center stage in recent times as the literature validates the relationship of certain foods with the provocation of symptoms. Likewise, a number of elimination dietary programs have been successful in alleviating irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Knowledge of the dietary management strategies for irritable bowel syndrome will help guide nutritionists and healthcare practitioners to deliver optimal outcomes. This tutorial reviews the nutrition management strategies for irritable bowel syndrome.

  15. What Is Stress Management?

    MedlinePlus

    ... zone mark into the high-stress zone, it’s time to take a stress-management moment. Maybe that means that you call a ... you reserve your “high zone stress responses” for times when it’s more appropriate. When life and death are ... • Home • How Does Stress Affect You? Introduction FAQs ...

  16. Managing Leadership Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Vidula; Campbell, Michael; McDowell-Larsen, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Everyone experiences stress, and leaders face the additional stress brought about by the unique demands of leadership: having to make decisions with limited information, to manage conflict, to do more with less ...and faster! The consequences of stress can include health problems and deteriorating relationships. Knowing what signs of stress to…

  17. Managing Time and Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffstutter, Sandra

    Chapter 10 in a volume on school leadership, this chapter lists practical suggestions from many diverse sources for managing time and reducing stress. The author begins by noting attitudes and concepts that block or facilitate time or stress management. A number of time management strategies are suggested, including goal-setting, using a daily…

  18. Managing Time and Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffstutter, Sandra; Smith, Stuart C.

    Chapter 14 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter offers many practical suggestions for managing time and reducing stress. The primary challenge is to unblock the route to effective time/stress management by recognizing unproductive values and attitudes (such as overreliance on the Protestant work ethic or the appearance of…

  19. Oxidative Stress and Nutritional Status in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Niraj; Baral, Nirmal; Shrestha, Shrijana; Dhakal, Subodh Sagar; Bhatta, Narendra; Dubey, Raju Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress and malnutrition are shown to have pathogenic effect in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Aim: This study was done to assess the burden of oxidative stress in COPD and to determine its relation to their nutritional status. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 COPD cases from emergency and medical ward and meeting inclusion criteria, along with age, sex and occupation (mainly farmers, housewives and drivers) matched 100 controls without COPD and meeting inclusion criteria were enrolled. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring lipid peroxidation product, Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidants, like Vitamin C, E and Red Blood Cell Catalase (RBCC). Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) tool and Body Mass Index (BMI) were used to assess nutritional status. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test was applied for categorical variable. Student t-test was applied for comparison of means. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied for comparison between groups followed by Bonferroni post hoc analysis. Pearson correlation method was used for quantitative variables. Statistical significance was defined as p< 0.05 (two tailed). Results: COPD cases had significantly high MDA level with low level of Vitamin E and catalase as compared to controls (p < 0.001). Most of the COPD cases were underweight (BMI ≤ 18.5 Kg/m2) and malnourished (MNA score less than 7). Bonferroni post-hoc analysis, showed significantly high burden of oxidative stress in underweight and malnourished cases as compared to normal weight (p < 0.05) among COPD cases. Highly significant correlation was seen between BMI and plasma MDA level (r = −0.27, p = 0.008) in COPD cases. Conclusion: This study shows impaired oxidant/antioxidant balance along with malnutrition and underweight in COPD, which signals for considering antioxidant therapy along with nutritional management. PMID:25859442

  20. Stress Management for Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaichkowsky, Leonard D., Ed.; Sime, Wesley E., Ed.

    Included in this volume are papers on stress management in athletics; eight of the ten papers are followed with a "Coach's Reaction": (1) "Competitive Athletic Stress Factors in Athletes and Coaches" (Walter Kroll); (2) "Mental Preparation for Peak Performance in Swimmers" (Eugene F. Gauron)--Coach's Reaction by Suzi D'Annolfo; (3) "Cognitive…

  1. Endocrine and Nutritional Management After Bariatric Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Endocrine and Nutritional Management After Bariatric Surgery A Patient’s Guide Bariatric (weight loss) surgery is a treatment ... This guide for patients is based on The Endocrine Society’s practice guidelines for physicians that focus on ...

  2. Nutritionally Mediated Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Alexandra; Costa, Max

    2013-01-01

    There are many sources of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress that trigger inflammatory cascades along short and long time frames. These events are primarily mediated via NFκB. On the short-term scale postprandial inflammation is characterized by an increase in circulating levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and is mirrored on the long-term by proinflammatory gene expression changes in the adipocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of obese individuals. Specifically the upregulation of CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, CXCL2/MIP-2α, and CXCL3/MIP-2β is noted because these changes have been observed in both adipocytes and PBMC of obese humans. In comparing numerous human intervention studies it is clear that pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory consumption choices mediate gene expression in humans adipocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Arachidonic acid and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) both demonstrate an ability to increase pro-inflammatory IL-8 along with numerous other inflammatory factors including IL-6, TNFα, IL-1β, and CXCL1 for arachidonic acid and IGB2 and CTSS for SFA. Antioxidant rich foods including olive oil, fruits, and vegetables all demonstrate an ability to lower levels of IL-6 in PBMCs. Thus, dietary choices play a complex role in the mediation of unavoidable oxidative stress and can serve to exacerbate or dampen the level of inflammation. PMID:23844276

  3. Nutritional management of acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Latifi, R; McIntosh, J K; Dudrick, S J

    1991-06-01

    Acute pancreatitis often results in a catabolic state characterized by profound hemodynamic, metabolic, cardiovascular, pulmonary, hematologic, and renal aberrations. Parenteral nutrition and metabolic support are essential if morbidity and mortality are to be minimized. In chronic pancreatitis, nutritional management ranges from fundamental dietary manipulation with or without administration of appropriate digestive enzymes to enteral supplementation with modular chemically defined diets to total parenteral nutrition, depending on the stage, severity, and manifestations of the disease. In prescribing nutrient substrates in both acute and chronic pancreatitis, consideration must be given to their effects on pancreatic enzyme secretion if optimal results are to be achieved.

  4. Parenteral nutrition: risks, complications, and management.

    PubMed

    Worthington, Patricia H; Gilbert, Karen A

    2012-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition is a life-saving modality, but one that also carries risks for potentially life-threatening complications. Comprehensive management of patients receiving parenteral nutrition includes careful selection of candidates, individualizing formulas to meet patients' unique needs, monitoring response to therapy, and implementing strategies designed to avoid complications. Measures to mitigate the risk of central line-associated bloodstream infections are particularly important. As with all complex therapies, a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach promotes optimal outcomes. PMID:22222292

  5. Correlations among Stress, Physical Activity and Nutrition: School Employee Health Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillan, Wynn; Naquin, Millie; Zannis, Marie; Bowers, Ashley; Brewer, Julie; Russell, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Employee health promotion programs increase work productivity and effectively reduce employer costs related to health care and absenteeism, and enhance worker productivity. Components of an effective worksite health program include stress management, exercise and nutrition and/or weight management classes or counseling. Few studies have documented…

  6. Nutritional management of Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Yann, Lee H.; Lal, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional care and therapy forms an integral part of the management of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). Nutritional deficiencies result from reduced oral intake, malabsorption, medication side effects and systemic inflammation due to active disease. Enteral nutrition has a role in support for the malnourished patient, as well as in primary therapy to induce and maintain remission. The use of parenteral nutrition in CD is mainly limited to the preoperative setting or for patients with intestinal failure, but does not offer any additional advantage over EN in disease control. Dietary modifications, including elimination–reintroduction diets and a low fermentable, oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet may improve symptoms but there are currently no data to suggest that these approaches have any role in the induction or maintenance of remission. PMID:23634187

  7. Exploring Nutrition Literacy and Knowledge among a National Sample of School Nutrition Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoellner, Jamie; Carr, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this national study was to describe nutrition literacy levels and nutrition knowledge among school nutrition (SN) managers, and explore if barriers to seeking SN information, perceived role in school wellness, and confidence in SN decision making varied by nutrition literacy and knowledge scores. Methods: An…

  8. ISS Update: Nutrition Manager Talks About Children's Book '€œSpace Nutrition'

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Scott Smith, Manager of Nutritional Biochemistry at Johnson Space Center, about the children'€™s book he co-authored called "Space Nutrition."€ T...

  9. Nutritional management of grazing beef cows.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Clay P; Sawyer, Jason E

    2007-03-01

    In grazing operations, forage quality and availability are sometimes limited, and cattle are unable to consume enough nutrients from pasture forage to fulfill requirements. During such situations, supplemental or replacement feeding is necessary to meet production goals. A fundamental understanding of ruminant nutrition and forage management is helpful in deciding which feed or supplement type (ie, energy versus protein) best fits the goals of a specific beef production system. It is important to choose a delivery method and supplement form that provide the targeted amount of desired nutrients to each animal in the herd and that minimize input costs. The objective of this article is to serve as a resource for veterinarians as they provide nutritional management support to beef cow producers. PMID:17382837

  10. Nutritional management in acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    McClave, S A; Spain, D A; Snider, H L

    1998-06-01

    Patients with severe pancreatitis, characterized by multiple organ failure and pancreatic necrosis on CT scan (identified by an Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of > or = 10 with > or = 3 Ranson criteria), most likely require aggressive nutritional support. Use of the enteral route of feeding may help contain the hypermetabolic stress response, reduce morphologic change and atrophy of the gut, and theoretically decrease late complications of nosocomial infection and organ failure. Evidence that decreasing degrees of stimulation of the pancreas occur as the site of feeding descends in the gastrointestinal tract and evidence from perspective, randomized trials suggest that jejunal feeding appears at least as safe and well tolerated as total parenteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis.

  11. Nutritional management of gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Zoran, Deb

    2003-11-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is primarily responsible for acquiring and digesting food, absorbing nutrients and water, and expelling wastes from the body as feces. A proper diet and normally functioning GI tract are integral for the delivery of nutrients, prevention of nutrient deficiencies and malnutrition, repair of damaged intestinal epithelium, restoration of normal luminal bacterial populations, promotion of normal GI motility, and maintenance of normal immune functions (eg, both tolerance and protection from pathogens). The amount of food, its form, the frequency of feeding, and the composition of diet each have important effects on GI function and may be used to help ameliorate signs of GI disease. Although both nutrients and nonnutritional components of a diet are important to GI health, they also may cause or influence the development of GI pathology (eg, antibiotic responsive diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, dietary intolerance, or sensitivity and/or allergy). The appropriate diet may have a profound effect on intestinal recovery and successful management of chronic or severe GI disease.

  12. Nutritional recommendations for the management of sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Morley, John E; Argiles, Josep M; Evans, William J; Bhasin, Shalender; Cella, David; Deutz, Nicolaas E P; Doehner, Wolfram; Fearon, Ken C H; Ferrucci, Luigi; Hellerstein, Marc K; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Lochs, Herbert; MacDonald, Neil; Mulligan, Kathleen; Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Ponikowski, Piotr; Posthauer, Mary Ellen; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Schambelan, Morrie; Schols, Annemie M W J; Schuster, Michael W; Anker, Stefan D

    2010-07-01

    The Society for Sarcopenia, Cachexia, and Wasting Disease convened an expert panel to develop nutritional recommendations for prevention and management of sarcopenia. Exercise (both resistance and aerobic) in combination with adequate protein and energy intake is the key component of the prevention and management of sarcopenia. Adequate protein supplementation alone only slows loss of muscle mass. Adequate protein intake (leucine-enriched balanced amino acids and possibly creatine) may enhance muscle strength. Low 25(OH) vitamin D levels require vitamin D replacement. PMID:20627179

  13. Nutrition Training Improves Health Workers’ Nutrition Knowledge and Competence to Manage Child Undernutrition: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sunguya, Bruno F.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Mlunde, Linda B.; Urassa, David P.; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-01-01

    Background: Medical and nursing education lack adequate practical nutrition training to fit the clinical reality that health workers face in their practices. Such a deficit creates health workers with poor nutrition knowledge and child undernutrition management practices. In-service nutrition training can help to fill this gap. However, no systematic review has examined its collective effectiveness. We thus conducted this study to examine the effectiveness of in-service nutrition training on health workers’ nutrition knowledge, counseling skills, and child undernutrition management practices. Methods: We conducted a literature search on nutrition interventions from PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, and World Health Organization regional databases. The outcome variables were nutrition knowledge, nutrition-counseling skills, and undernutrition management practices of health workers. Due to heterogeneity, we conducted only descriptive analyses. Results: Out of 3910 retrieved articles, 25 were selected as eligible for the final analysis. A total of 18 studies evaluated health workers’ nutrition knowledge and showed improvement after training. A total of 12 studies with nutrition counseling as the outcome variable also showed improvement among the trained health workers. Sixteen studies evaluated health workers’ child undernutrition management practices. In all such studies, child undernutrition management practices and competence of health workers improved after the nutrition training intervention. Conclusion: In-service nutrition training improves quality of health workers by rendering them more knowledge and competence to manage nutrition-related conditions, especially child undernutrition. In-service nutrition training interventions can help to fill the gap created by the lack of adequate nutrition training in the existing medical and nursing education system. In this way, steps can be taken toward improving the overall nutritional status

  14. Stress Management. Program Evaluation Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IOX Assessment Associates, Culver City, CA.

    Intended as a resource for individuals wishing to evaluate stress management programs, this handbook, one of a series of seven, provides a collection of measuring devices that can improve the quality of such evaluations. Chapter 1 introduces the handbook's contents and outlines evaluation related issues specific to stress management programs.…

  15. Pressure ulcer management: the importance of nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, M; Cook, A; Rimmasch, H; Bender, S; Voss, A

    2000-08-01

    Nutrition plays an important role in pressure ulcer prevention and treatment. Nutrition assessment techniques and nutritional interventions for patients at risk for developing a pressure ulcer or who currently have pressure ulcers are essential components of quality patient care.

  16. Dairy Heifer Development and Nutrition Management.

    PubMed

    Akins, Matthew S

    2016-07-01

    Heifer development depends on nutritional management decisions throughout all growing phases. Optimizing costs to raise heifers improves profitability of dairy farms. Feed costs for heifers make up 50% of heifer costs. Required growth rates depend on the desired age at first calving and estimated mature body weight. Intensive milk feeding improves calf growth and subsequent milk production. Prepubertal heifers should be fed for adequate gains to calve between 22 and 24 months of age. Controlling gains in pregnant heifers to limit fat deposition is possible using limit-feeding of a higher concentrate diet or using high-fiber forages to reduce diet energy. PMID:27161393

  17. Management of Hyperglycemia and Enteral Nutrition in the Hospitalized Patient.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Patricia; Kwiatkowski, Cynthia Ann; Wien, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    There has been increased attention on the importance of identifying and distinguishing the differences between stress-induced hyperglycemia (SH), newly diagnosed hyperglycemia (NDH), and hyperglycemia in persons with established diabetes mellitus (DM). Inpatient blood glucose control is now being recognized as not only a cost issue for hospitals but also a concern for patient safety and care. The reasons for the increased incidence of hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients include preexisting DM, undiagnosed DM or prediabetes, SH, and medication-induced hyperglycemia with resulting transient blood glucose variability. It is clear that identifying and documenting hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients with and without a previous diagnosis of DM and initiating prompt insulin treatment are important. Agreement on the optimum treatment goals for hyperglycemia remains quite controversial, and the benefits of intensive glucose management may be lost at the cost of hypoglycemia in intensive care unit patients. Nutrition support in the form of enteral nutrition (EN) increases the risk of hyperglycemia in both critical and non-critically ill hospitalized patients. Reasons for beginning a tube feeding are the same whether a person has NDH or DM. What differs is how to incorporate EN into the established insulin management protocols. The risk for hyperglycemia with the addition of EN is even higher in those without a previous diagnosis of DM. This review discusses the incidence of hyperglycemia, the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia, factors contributing to hyperglycemia in the hospitalized patient, glycemic management goals, current glycemic management recommendations, and considerations for EN formula selection, administration, and treatment.

  18. Nutritional management of the patient with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Theologides, A

    1977-02-01

    Protein-calorie malnutrition, vitamin and other deficiencies, and weight loss frequently develop in cancer patients. Although there is no evidence that aggressive nutritional management prolongs survival, it may improve the quality of life. Efforts should be made to maintain adequate daily caloric intake with appropriate food selection and with control of complications interfering with nutrition. In selected patients, intravenous hyperalimentation can provide adequate nutrition during potentially effective chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Elemental diets also may be a source of complete or supplemental nutrition. Further experience with both approaches will help to clarify their role in the nutritional management of the patient with advanced cancer.

  19. The self-care series: Part II, stress management.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    Inmates have special needs in terms of their emotional and physical health and this second in a series is designed to give inmates living with HIV/AIDS practical advice on handling stress. Stress is a major problem for all who are diagnosed with HIV, particularly for inmates who may have limited access to drugs or health care providers. Several stress management techniques are described, including meditation. The importance of proper nutrition and exercise is addressed. Progressive relaxation and visualization techniques may also be useful in managing the stress associated with HIV diagnoses.

  20. How Can I Manage Stress?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Quit Smoking? How Can I Manage Stress? How Can I Make My Lifestyle Healthier? How Can I Monitor My Cholesterol, Blood Pressure and Weight? Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure ...

  1. Learn to manage stress

    MedlinePlus

    Ahmed SM, Lemkau JP, Hershberger PJ. Psychosocial influences on health. In: Rakel RE, ed. Textbook of Family Medicine . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 3. FamilyDoctor.org. Stress: How ...

  2. Perceived stress and dietary choices: The moderating role of stress management.

    PubMed

    Errisuriz, Vanessa L; Pasch, Keryn E; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-08-01

    Many college students exhibit unhealthy eating behaviors, consuming large quantities of high-fat foods and few fruits and vegetables. Perceived stress has been linked to daily dietary choices among college students; however, this work has been conducted among predominantly white, female populations. The role of perceived stress management in moderating this relationship is unclear. This study investigated the relationship between perceived stress and dietary choices among a diverse sample of male and female college freshmen and assessed whether perceived ability to manage stress moderated this relationship. 613 students from a large, public university completed an online survey which assessed past week consumption of various foods and beverages (e.g. soda, fast food, fruits, vegetables), as well as perceived stress and ability to manage stress. Hierarchical linear regression examined the association between perceived stress and past week dietary choices, and the moderating effect of perceived ability to manage stress, controlling for demographic variables. Perceived stress was positively associated with past week soda, coffee, energy drink, salty snack, frozen food, and fast food consumption (p<0.05). Perceived stress management moderated the relationship between stress and sweet snack consumption. Individuals who reported low ability to manage stress consumed greater amounts. Findings indicate greater stress is associated with poor dietary choices among college freshmen. The relationship between stress and sweet snack consumption was exacerbated among those who reported low ability to manage stress. It may be important for college nutrition education programs to focus on the relationship between stress and diet and promote effective stress management techniques. PMID:27310611

  3. Stress, Nutrition, and Intestinal Immune Responses in Pigs - A Review.

    PubMed

    Lee, In Kyu; Kye, Yoon Chul; Kim, Girak; Kim, Han Wool; Gu, Min Jeong; Umboh, Johnny; Maaruf, Kartini; Kim, Sung Woo; Yun, Cheol-Heui

    2016-08-01

    Modern livestock production became highly intensive and large scaled to increase production efficiency. This production environment could add stressors affecting the health and growth of animals. Major stressors can include environment (air quality and temperature), nutrition, and infection. These stressors can reduce growth performance and alter immune systems at systemic and local levels including the gastrointestinal tract. Heat stress increases the permeability, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses in the gut. Nutritional stress from fasting, antinutritional compounds, and toxins induces the leakage and destruction of the tight junction proteins in the gut. Fasting is shown to suppress pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas deoxynivalenol increases the recruitment of intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines and the level of lymphocytes in the gut. Pathogenic and viral infections such as Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus can lead to loosening the intestinal epithelial barrier. On the other hand, supplementation of Lactobacillus or Saccharaomyces reduced infectious stress by ETEC. It was noted that major stressors altered the permeability of intestinal barriers and profiles of genes and proteins of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in mucosal system in pigs. However, it is not sufficient to fully explain the mechanism of the gut immune system in pigs under stress conditions. Correlation and interaction of gut and systemic immune system under major stressors should be better defined to overcome aforementioned obstacles.

  4. Stress, Nutrition, and Intestinal Immune Responses in Pigs - A Review.

    PubMed

    Lee, In Kyu; Kye, Yoon Chul; Kim, Girak; Kim, Han Wool; Gu, Min Jeong; Umboh, Johnny; Maaruf, Kartini; Kim, Sung Woo; Yun, Cheol-Heui

    2016-08-01

    Modern livestock production became highly intensive and large scaled to increase production efficiency. This production environment could add stressors affecting the health and growth of animals. Major stressors can include environment (air quality and temperature), nutrition, and infection. These stressors can reduce growth performance and alter immune systems at systemic and local levels including the gastrointestinal tract. Heat stress increases the permeability, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses in the gut. Nutritional stress from fasting, antinutritional compounds, and toxins induces the leakage and destruction of the tight junction proteins in the gut. Fasting is shown to suppress pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas deoxynivalenol increases the recruitment of intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines and the level of lymphocytes in the gut. Pathogenic and viral infections such as Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus can lead to loosening the intestinal epithelial barrier. On the other hand, supplementation of Lactobacillus or Saccharaomyces reduced infectious stress by ETEC. It was noted that major stressors altered the permeability of intestinal barriers and profiles of genes and proteins of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in mucosal system in pigs. However, it is not sufficient to fully explain the mechanism of the gut immune system in pigs under stress conditions. Correlation and interaction of gut and systemic immune system under major stressors should be better defined to overcome aforementioned obstacles. PMID:27189643

  5. The need for additional training for nutritional management of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Carney, Trish; Stein, Susan E; Quinlan, Jennifer J

    The purpose of this study was to investigate nurses' and nursing students'knowledge and perceived role in assisting patients with the nutritional management of diabetes. Three focus groups were conducted and the results were used to modify a previously developed survey regarding the nutritional management of diabetes. The survey was administered via an online survey tool and completed by 231 nurses and students. Over 70% of respondents agreed that nurses have an important role in reinforcing patient nutritional education. Results indicated,however, that knowledge gaps in the nutritional management of diabetes exist among nurses, including not knowing the carbohydrate content of 120ml of orange juice, a common treatment for hypoglycaemia (47.5%), not knowing where to locate carbohydrate content on a food label (60%), and not identifying the correct treatment for hypoglycaemia (47.5%). These results indicate that there may be a need to improve the nutritional education of nurses with respect to diabetes management.

  6. Association between oxidative stress and nutritional status in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Priscila Lucelia; Villas Boas, Paulo Jose Fortes; Ferreira, Ana Lucia Anjos

    2014-01-01

    Ageing is a dynamic and progressive process that is characterized by the occurrence of morphological, biochemical, functional and psychological changes in the organism. The aim of the present article is to provide updated concepts on oxidative stress, covering its importance in aging, as well as nutritional status and supplementation with antioxidants (substances that prevent or attenuate oxidation of oxidizable substrates, such as lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and deoxyribonucleic acid) in the geriatric population. Evidence suggests that there is an inverse relationship between oxidative stress and nutritional status in elderly individuals. Although an increase in oxidative stress in chronic diseases associated with aging has been proven, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, up to now there has been no consistent clinical evidence proving the efficiency of supplementation with antioxidants against oxidative stress. In this context, supplementation is not recommended. On the other hand, the elderly should be encouraged to eat antioxidant foods, such as fruits and vegetables. Maintaining a normal weight (body mass index between 23 and 28 Kg/m(2)) should also be stimulated.

  7. HIV/AIDS and nutrition. Implications for disease management.

    PubMed

    Keithley, J K; Swanson, B; Murphy, M; Levin, D F

    2000-01-01

    As a result of major advances in treatment, persons with HIV/AIDS are living longer and requiring more care management. Effective management of HIV-infected patients with nutritional alterations can result in fewer secondary infections and hospital admissions, better clinical outcomes, and lower healthcare costs. In this article, nutritional alterations, interventions, and resources during the course of HIV disease and their implications for care management are discussed.

  8. Importance of nutritional management in diseases with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Ockenga, Johann

    2009-12-01

    Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) resulting from conditions such as chronic pancreatitis (CP), acute pancreatitis (AP) and upper gastrointestinal (GI) surgery increases risk for malnutrition and metabolic problems. Poor nutrition is associated with more complications and higher mortality. Therefore, effective nutritional management should be a high priority in these patients. In CP, poor nutrition has been shown to significantly affect quality of life and functional status. Clinical study data show that dietary counselling combined with pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is effective in improving nutritional status and is therefore recommended in these patients. In AP, early enteral nutrition reduces complications and mortality. However, EPI persists in many cases after the resolution of AP; these patients remain at increased risk for malnutrition and require further nutritional support. In patients undergoing surgery, preoperative weight loss is a risk factor for postoperative morbidity and mortality; outcomes can be improved considerably by preoperative screening to identify high-risk patients and by providing appropriate perioperative nutritional support. Pre- and perioperative enteral nutrition are cost-effective interventions that can improve outcomes in patients undergoing GI surgery. In all of these patient populations, nutritional management, including risk assessment and individualized nutritional support, is a key component of an effective multimodal therapeutic approach.

  9. Stress Management by Biofeedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the 1980's, Dr. Patrick Doyle served on a project to train U.S. astronauts at Johnson Space Center in biofeedback techniques to control anxiety and hypertension. Traditional biofeedback concepts were found to be too mundane, repetitive and boring, so Doyle developed Bio-Games with more interesting and involved formats. The first product, Bio-Ball, is an interactive, multimedia baseball video game that is played by relaxing in order to hit the ball. Gradually the player is able to relax at will, and with practice is able to apply the skills to real-life situations. Doyle has since gone on to create a number of biofeedback games marketed by Creative MultiMedia Inc. including Bio-Golf, Clutch City, and Pachyderm. Stress-busting screen savers are also being marketed under the Buddies series. In addition to being used in the corporate world, Bio-Games have been recognized by the Starbright Foundation which focuses on improving the total hospital environments of critically injured and chronically-ill children.

  10. Survivorship: Nutrition and Weight Management, Version 2.2014

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Dizon, Don; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S.; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G.; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J.; O’Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D.; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Raza, Muhammad; Rodriguez, M. Alma; Syrjala, Karen L.; Urba, Susan G.; Wakabayashi, Mark T.; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R.; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy lifestyle habits have been associated with improved health outcomes and quality of life and, for some cancers, a reduced risk of recurrence and death. The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship therefore recommend that cancer survivors be encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy lifestyle, including attention to weight management, physical activity, and dietary habits. This section of the NCCN Guidelines focuses on recommendations regarding nutrition, weight management, and supplement use in survivors. Weight management recommendations are based on the survivor’s body mass index and include discussions of nutritional, weight management, and physical activity principles, with referral to community resources, dietitians, and/or weight management programs as needed. PMID:25313179

  11. The management of perioperative nutrition in patients with end stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Kun; Wang, Meng-Long

    2015-10-01

    Malnutrition is found in almost 100% of patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD) awaiting transplantation and malnutrition before transplantation leads to higher rates of post-transplant complications and worse graft survival outcomes. Reasons for protein energy malnutrition include several metabolic alterations such as inadequate intake, malabsorption, and overloaded expenditure. And also, stress from surgery, gastrointestinal reperfusion injury, immunosuppressive therapy and corticosteriods use lead to delayed bowl function recovery and disorder of nutrients absorption. In the pretransplant phase, nutritional goals include optimization of nutritional status and treatment of nutrition-related symptoms induced by hepatic decompensation. During the acute post-transplant phase, adequate nutrition is required to help support metabolic demands, replenish lost stores, prevent infection, arrive at a new immunologic balance, and promote overall recovery. In a word, it is extremely important to identify and correct nutritional deficiencies in this population and provide an adequate nutritional support during all phases of liver transplantation (LT). This study review focuses on prevalence, nutrition support, evaluation, and management of perioperative nutrition disorder in patients with ESLD undergoing LT.

  12. [Importance of compliance in nutritional management. Case report].

    PubMed

    Mikulka, Ilona

    2016-04-10

    Disease-related malnutrition is usually caused by the joint action of the underlying disease itself and dietary deficiency. The consequences of malnutrition, if left untreated, are serious, causing a marked decline in physical and psychological health and function, and an increased rate of complications and decreased effectiveness of the medical treatments. In case a functional gastrointestinal tract is present, the recommended form of nutritional management is the use of oral nutritional supplements. However, just like to any other therapy, compliance to oral nutritional supplements is highly influenced by the consistency, taste, smell, volume consumed, and side effects. The aim of the present case report is to illustrate that nutritional management is a successful and effective treatment option of disease-related malnutrition when the selection of the oral nutritional supplement takes into consideration patient's preferences as well.

  13. [Importance of compliance in nutritional management. Case report].

    PubMed

    Mikulka, Ilona

    2016-04-10

    Disease-related malnutrition is usually caused by the joint action of the underlying disease itself and dietary deficiency. The consequences of malnutrition, if left untreated, are serious, causing a marked decline in physical and psychological health and function, and an increased rate of complications and decreased effectiveness of the medical treatments. In case a functional gastrointestinal tract is present, the recommended form of nutritional management is the use of oral nutritional supplements. However, just like to any other therapy, compliance to oral nutritional supplements is highly influenced by the consistency, taste, smell, volume consumed, and side effects. The aim of the present case report is to illustrate that nutritional management is a successful and effective treatment option of disease-related malnutrition when the selection of the oral nutritional supplement takes into consideration patient's preferences as well. PMID:27039999

  14. Nutritional management of patients with urea cycle disorders.

    PubMed

    Singh, R H

    2007-11-01

    The nutritional management of patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs) involves restriction of dietary protein along with provision of adequate protein-free energy, essential amino acid supplements, and vitamins and minerals in combination with nitrogen-scavenging drugs. The present paper discusses nutrition therapy for a range of circumstances: during an acute hyperammonaemic episode and at hospital discharge; before, during, and after surgery; and for lifelong chronic management of UCDs.

  15. A Stress Management Primer for College Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of stress and college administrators looks at two types of stress (eustress and distress), stress and the autonomic nervous system, the need for regular exercise as well as stress reduction activities, the influence of personality on stress, the sources and stages of burnout, and stress management for administrators. (MSE)

  16. Economics, management, and public health nutrition.

    PubMed

    Dahl, T

    1977-02-01

    Research has shown that including a nutritional functional area in comprehensive health care delivery can reduce the total cost per registrant. The savings occur when nutritionists substitute for more costly medical personnel in a team-care setting. Further research has demonstrated that the cost of nutritional care is related to the performance of nutritional staff, i.e., productivity, which may be improved as much as 25 to 70% through simple managerial techniques. The implications for nutritional planning and operations are discussed. Nevertheless, the greatest potential for improving nutritional health rests with the patient himself. Thus, the future orientation in public health nutrition must be directed toward the problems of shifting the major part of the responsibility from the provider to the patient, with accompanying competence in self-care and health maintenance. A promising approach to the idea of greater patient responsibility and autonomy is the so-called Vinland Center concept. Originally developed in Norway, a center incorporating the principles is now being planned in Minnesota and is expected to begin operation in 1979. Funds for the planning effort were given to the U.S. as a Bicentennial gift from Norway. The concept is explained.

  17. Nutritional management of older adults with cognitive decline and dementia.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Sumito

    2014-04-01

    Age-related cognitive decline is a main predictor of disability among elderly people, and with the continued expansion of the aging population and the increase in life expectancy, the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment and dementia represented by Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder of older adults, have increased. Recent epidemiological and observational studies suggest a relationship exists between lifestyle factors, including nutrition and diet, and cognitive function in aging adults. It is also suggested that malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies are associated with cognitive decline in patients with dementia. There are a variety of nutritional factors, including nutritional status and dietary patterns, that might be associated with cognitive function, and specific micronutrients and dietary components have been suggested to have an association with cognitive function as well. Based on these findings and evidence, evaluation of nutritional state, as well as nutritional intervention, might be able to play a role in the management and prevention of dementia.

  18. Nutritional management of older adults with cognitive decline and dementia.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Sumito

    2014-04-01

    Age-related cognitive decline is a main predictor of disability among elderly people, and with the continued expansion of the aging population and the increase in life expectancy, the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment and dementia represented by Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder of older adults, have increased. Recent epidemiological and observational studies suggest a relationship exists between lifestyle factors, including nutrition and diet, and cognitive function in aging adults. It is also suggested that malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies are associated with cognitive decline in patients with dementia. There are a variety of nutritional factors, including nutritional status and dietary patterns, that might be associated with cognitive function, and specific micronutrients and dietary components have been suggested to have an association with cognitive function as well. Based on these findings and evidence, evaluation of nutritional state, as well as nutritional intervention, might be able to play a role in the management and prevention of dementia. PMID:24650061

  19. Teacher Wellness: Too Stressed for Stress Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipps-Vaughan, Debi; Ponsart, Tyler; Gilligan, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    Healthier, happier teachers promote healthier, happier, and more effective learning environments. Yet, many teachers experience considerable stress. Studies have found that between one fifth and one fourth of teachers frequently experience a great deal of stress (Kyriacou, 1998). Stress in teaching appears to be universal across nations and…

  20. Nutritional Management of Acute Diarrhea in Infants and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    Written primarily for health professionals advising on programs and policy related to nutrition and diarrhea therapy, this report is aimed at management of diarrhea in less-developed countries, but its information and technical insights are relevant to an understanding of diarrhea and its management throughout the world. Technical in orientation…

  1. Nutrition and exercise in the management of liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Toshikuni, Nobuyuki; Arisawa, Tomiyasu; Tsutsumi, Mikihiro

    2014-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis (LC) patients often have protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and decreased physical activity. These conditions often lead to sarcopenia, which is the loss of skeletal muscle volume and increased muscle weakness. Recent studies have demonstrated that PEM and sarcopenia are predictors for poor survival in LC patients. Nutrition and exercise management can improve PEM and sarcopenia in those patients. Nutrition management includes sufficient dietary intake and improved nutrient metabolism. With the current high prevalence of obesity, the number of obese LC patients has increased, and restriction of excessive caloric intake without the exacerbation of impaired nutrient metabolism is required for such patients. Branched chain amino acids are good candidates for supplemental nutrients for both obese and non-obese LC patients. Exercise management can increase skeletal muscle volume and strength and improve insulin resistance; however, nutritional status and LC complications should be assessed before an exercise management regimen is implemented in LC patients. The establishment of optimal exercise regimens for LC patients is currently required. In this review, we describe nutritional status and its clinical impact on the outcomes of LC patients and discuss general nutrition and exercise management in LC patients. PMID:24966599

  2. Nutritional management in chyle leaks and chylous effusions.

    PubMed

    Bibby, Anna C; Maskell, Nick A

    2014-10-01

    Chyle leaks occur when there is interruption to the lymphatic ducts that transport chyle around the body. The loss of this protein-rich, calorie-rich fluid can cause serious complications including dehydration, malnutrition and immunosuppression. Treatment of chyle leaks depends on the underlying cause, which may be surgical, secondary to malignant invasion or the result of a medical condition. Nutritional support is vital and leads to spontaneous leak closure in many cases. Nutritional management options include total bowel rest with parenteral nutrition, enteral feeding with specialized formula, or oral diet with supplementation. At present there is no consensus regarding which approach is superior. In reality, most patients with chyle leaks are managed with a combination or oral and enteral feeding, but further work is needed to clarify the optimum management strategy.

  3. Evaluating a Seminar on Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Shepard, Jeffrey M.

    1989-01-01

    Examines a college seminar's capacity to reduce stress by evaluating a psychology seminar on stress management over a six-year period. Students reported significantly less general anxiety, general anger, situational stress reactivity, and stress-related physiological reactivity after taking the class. Follow-ups of two classes indicated…

  4. The ABCs of Managing Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Liza; Brown, Sheri

    2003-01-01

    Describes stress management for teachers and presents strategies that teachers can use to lessen the impact of stress. Outlines the ABCs of stress: Acknowledge, Behavior Modification, and Communication. Notes that stress can motivate teachers to explore new instructional strategies, adopt innovative approaches to increasing student motivation, and…

  5. Stress Management and Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Vidisha A.

    2009-01-01

    Stress can affect anyone, and gifted children are no exception. Giftedness can sometimes be the cause of the stress. Perfectionism, sensitivity, and intensity are characteristics of gifted children that may exacerbate stress. Stress can be constructive. Prolonged stress, however, with no time to recover becomes detrimental. Continued stress upsets…

  6. Nutritional and management strategies to mitigate animal greenhouse gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal production is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. The current analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential of nutritional, manure and animal management practices for mitigating methane and nitrous oxide, i.e. non-carbon dioxide GHG emissions from enteric ferm...

  7. Nutritional Management of Kidney Stones (Nephrolithiasis)

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Adam M.; Seifter, Julian L.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of kidney stones is common in the United States and treatments for them are very costly. This review article provides information about epidemiology, mechanism, diagnosis, and pathophysiology of kidney stone formation, and methods for the evaluation of stone risks for new and follow-up patients. Adequate evaluation and management can prevent recurrence of stones. Kidney stone prevention should be individualized in both its medical and dietary management, keeping in mind the specific risks involved for each type of stones. Recognition of these risk factors and development of long-term management strategies for dealing with them are the most effective ways to prevent recurrence of kidney stones. PMID:26251832

  8. Nutritional therapy for the management of diabetic gastroparesis: clinical review

    PubMed Central

    Sadiya, Amena

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic gastroparesis (DGP), or slow emptying of the stomach, is a well-established complication of diabetes mellitus and is typically considered to occur in individuals with long-standing type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical consequences of DGP include induction of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (early satiety, abdominal distension, reflux, stomach spasm, postprandial nausea, vomiting), alteration in drug absorption, and destabilization of glycemic control (due to mismatched postprandial glycemic and insulin peaks). Effective nutritional management not only helps in alleviating the symptoms, but also in facilitating better glycemic control. Although there have been no evidence-based guidelines pertaining to the nutrition care process of the DGP, the current dietary recommendations are based on expert opinions or observational studies. The dietary management of gastroparesis needs to be tailored according to the severity of malnutrition and kind of upper GI symptom by changing the volume, consistency, frequency, fiber, fat, and carbohydrates in the meal. Small frequent meals, using more liquid calories, reducing high fat or high fiber, consuming bezoar forming foods, and adjusting meal carbohydrates based on medications or insulin helps in improving the upper GI symptoms and glycemic control. Enteral nutrition can be an option for patients who fail to stabilize their weight loss, or for those who cannot gain weight with oral feedings, while total parenteral nutrition is rarely necessary for the patient with gastroparesis. PMID:23055757

  9. Nutritional therapy for the management of diabetic gastroparesis: clinical review.

    PubMed

    Sadiya, Amena

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic gastroparesis (DGP), or slow emptying of the stomach, is a well-established complication of diabetes mellitus and is typically considered to occur in individuals with long-standing type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical consequences of DGP include induction of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (early satiety, abdominal distension, reflux, stomach spasm, postprandial nausea, vomiting), alteration in drug absorption, and destabilization of glycemic control (due to mismatched postprandial glycemic and insulin peaks). Effective nutritional management not only helps in alleviating the symptoms, but also in facilitating better glycemic control. Although there have been no evidence-based guidelines pertaining to the nutrition care process of the DGP, the current dietary recommendations are based on expert opinions or observational studies. The dietary management of gastroparesis needs to be tailored according to the severity of malnutrition and kind of upper GI symptom by changing the volume, consistency, frequency, fiber, fat, and carbohydrates in the meal. Small frequent meals, using more liquid calories, reducing high fat or high fiber, consuming bezoar forming foods, and adjusting meal carbohydrates based on medications or insulin helps in improving the upper GI symptoms and glycemic control. Enteral nutrition can be an option for patients who fail to stabilize their weight loss, or for those who cannot gain weight with oral feedings, while total parenteral nutrition is rarely necessary for the patient with gastroparesis.

  10. The nutritional management of urea cycle disorders.

    PubMed

    Leonard, J V

    2001-01-01

    Diet is one of the mainstays of the treatment of patients with urea cycle disorders. The protein intake should be adjusted to take account of the inborn error and its severity and the patient's age, growth rate, and individual preferences. Currently, the widely used standards for protein intake are probably more generous than necessary, particularly for those with the more severe variants. Most patients, except those with arginase deficiency, will need supplements of arginine, but the value of other supplements including citrate and carnitine is unclear. Any patient on a low-protein diet should be monitored clinically and with appropriate laboratory tests. All should have an emergency (crisis) regimen to prevent decompensation during periods of metabolic stress.

  11. Helping Young Children Manage Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the common symptoms of stress exhibited by young children including: (1) social or behavioral; (2) physical; (3) emotional; (4) cognitive; and (5) language. Addresses causes of stress, which typically represent change, fear, or loss in children. Offers strategies for easing children's stress including muscle relaxation, deep breathing,…

  12. Stress Management as a Pacifier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echterling, Lennis G.; Wylie, Mary Lou

    While numerous studies have identified economic, social, and environmental conditions related to stress, greater stress has been found to be related to poverty, unemployment, assembly line work, crowding, and chronic exposure to noise. These stressful situations most frequently confront people with little personal, economic, or political resources…

  13. Nutritional Management of the Older Horse.

    PubMed

    Argo, Caroline McG

    2016-08-01

    Leisure animals now comprise the majority of working horses in industrialized nations; a shift that has decreased workloads yet improved veterinary care and lifetime health. Although many horses now progress well into their 20s without any requirement for dietary modification, age-related changes are insidious, and older animals benefit from regular veterinary monitoring to identify, address, and ameliorate the inevitable onset of age-related "disease." Basal metabolic rate decreases with age; older animals expend less energy on controlled exercise, and there can be an increased propensity toward the development of obesity, which needs to be recognized and managed. PMID:27329493

  14. [Nutritional management of intestinal failure and potential stimulation mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Pérez de la Cruz, A J; Moreno-Torres Herrera, R; Pérez Roca, C

    2007-05-01

    Severe forms of intestinal failure represent one of the most complex pathologies to manage, in both children and adults. In adults, the most common causes are chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and severe short bowel syndrome following large intestinal resections, particularly due to massive mesenteric ischemic, within the context of cardiopathies occurring with atrial fibrillation. The essential management after stabilizing the patient consists in nutritional support, either by parenteral or enteral routes, with tolerance to oral diet being the final goal of intestinal adaptation in these pathologies. Surgery may be indicated in some cases to increase the absorptive surface area. Parenteral nutrition is an essential support measure that sometimes has to be maintained for long time, even forever, except for technique-related complications or unfavorable clinical course that would lead to extreme surgical alternatives such as intestinal transplantation. Hormonal therapy with trophism-stimulating factors opens new alternatives that are already being tried in humans.

  15. Stress, immunity, and the management of calves.

    PubMed

    Hulbert, Lindsey E; Moisá, Sonia J

    2016-04-01

    Despite many advances in management and housing of dairy calves, 1 in 10 US dairy heifers die before weaning. A better understanding of the internal and external stimuli that contribute to the physiological and behavioral responses of calves to stressors is needed to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality. Feeding calves their first meal is crucial, as successful passive transfer reduces the risk of mortality and morbidity. Sexually dimorphic immune and stress responses appear to be present in young cattle, but more research is needed to determine if this is caused by human bias for female calves. After that first feeding, 1 in 10 heifers and most bull calves in the United States are transported to specialized calf-raising facilities, yet information is lacking on the newborn calf stress response during transit. Whether calves are raised on site or at a calf ranch, individual housing systems are commonly used in the United States to reduce the risk of pathogen exposure and provide individual feeding and healthcare. However, health, growth, and social implications may be present for calves in alternative systems with greater space allowance than conventional systems or group housing. Disbudding and castration are typically performed at an early age for dairy calves during the pre-wean stage. These stressors often take place when the calf has decreased passive transfer of Ig and immunity is developing. Availability of pain mitigation through anesthetics and analgesics is limited, but evidence indicates that analgesics attenuate suppressed leukocyte function during these procedures. Solid-feed intake is a primary measure for determining weaning readiness, but some milk replacer formulas may influence the calf's oral behaviors before weaning; therefore, alternate weaning methods may need to coincide with alternate milk replacer formulas. The calf's behavioral and stress response at weaning may influence its immunity during the transition from individual to group

  16. Global Consensus Recommendations on Prevention and Management of Nutritional Rickets

    PubMed Central

    Munns, Craig F.; Shaw, Nick; Kiely, Mairead; Specker, Bonny L.; Thacher, Tom D.; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi; Tiosano, Dov; Mughal, M. Zulf; Mäkitie, Outi; Ramos-Abad, Lorna; Ward, Leanne; DiMeglio, Linda A.; Atapattu, Navoda; Cassinelli, Hamilton; Braegger, Christian; Pettifor, John M.; Seth, Anju; Idris, Hafsatu Wasagu; Bhatia, Vijayalakshmi; Fu, Junfen; Goldberg, Gail; Sävendahl, Lars; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Pludowski, Pawel; Maddock, Jane; Hyppönen, Elina; Oduwole, Abiola; Frew, Emma; Aguiar, Magda; Tulchinsky, Ted; Butler, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D and calcium deficiencies are common worldwide, causing nutritional rickets and osteomalacia, which have a major impact on health, growth, and development of infants, children, and adolescents; the consequences can be lethal or can last into adulthood. The goals of this evidence-based consensus document are to provide health care professionals with guidance for prevention, diagnosis, and management of nutritional rickets and to provide policy makers with a framework to work toward its eradication. Evidence: A systematic literature search examining the definition, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nutritional rickets in children was conducted. Evidence-based recommendations were developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system that describe the strength of the recommendation and the quality of supporting evidence. Process: Thirty-three nominated experts in pediatric endocrinology, pediatrics, nutrition, epidemiology, public health, and health economics evaluated the evidence on specific questions within five working groups. The consensus group, representing 11 international scientific organizations, participated in a multiday conference in May 2014 to reach a global evidence-based consensus. Results: This consensus document defines nutritional rickets and its diagnostic criteria and describes the clinical management of rickets and osteomalacia. Risk factors, particularly in mothers and infants, are ranked, and specific prevention recommendations including food fortification and supplementation are offered for both the clinical and public health contexts. Conclusion: Rickets, osteomalacia, and vitamin D and calcium deficiencies are preventable global public health problems in infants, children, and adolescents. Implementation of international rickets prevention programs, including supplementation and food fortification, is urgently required. PMID:26745253

  17. Recommendations for the nutrition management of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rani H; Rohr, Fran; Frazier, Dianne; Cunningham, Amy; Mofidi, Shideh; Ogata, Beth; Splett, Patricia L; Moseley, Kathryn; Huntington, Kathleen; Acosta, Phyllis B; Vockley, Jerry; Van Calcar, Sandra C

    2014-02-01

    The effectiveness of a phenylalanine-restricted diet to improve the outcome of individuals with phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency (OMIM no. 261600) has been recognized since the first patients were treated 60 years ago. However, the treatment regime is complex, costly, and often difficult to maintain for the long term. Improvements and refinements in the diet for phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency have been made over the years, and adjunctive therapies have proven to be successful for certain patients. Yet evidence-based guidelines for managing phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency, optimizing outcomes, and addressing all available therapies are lacking. Thus, recommendations for nutrition management were developed using evidence from peer-reviewed publications, gray literature, and consensus surveys. The areas investigated included choice of appropriate medical foods, integration of adjunctive therapies, treatment during pregnancy, monitoring of nutritional and clinical markers, prevention of nutrient deficiencies, providing of access to care, and compliance strategies. This process has not only provided assessment and refinement of current nutrition management and monitoring recommendations but also charted a direction for future studies. This document serves as a companion to the concurrently published American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guideline for the medical treatment of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency.

  18. Advances in the nutritional and pharmacological management of phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Ney, Denise M.; Blank, Robert D.; Hansen, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    Structural Abstract Purpose of review The purpose is to discuss advances in the nutritional and pharmacological management of phenylketonuria (PKU). Recent findings Glycomacropeptide (GMP), a whey protein produced during cheese production, is a low-phe intact protein that represents a new dietary alternative to synthetic amino acids (AAs) for people with PKU. Skeletal fragility is a long-term complication of PKU that based on murine research, appears to result from both genetic and nutritional factors. Skeletal fragility in murine PKU is attenuated with the GMP diet, compared with an AA diet, allowing greater radial bone growth. Pharmacologic therapy with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), acting as a molecular chaperone for phenylalanine hydroxylase, increases tolerance to dietary phe in some individuals. Large neutral AAs (LNAA) inhibit phe transport across the intestinal mucosa and blood brain barrier; LNAA are most effective for individuals unable to comply with the low-phe diet. Summary Although a low-phe synthetic AA diet remains the mainstay of PKU management, new nutritional and pharmacological treatment options offer alternative approaches to maintain lifelong low phe concentrations. GMP medical foods provide an alternative to AA formula that may improve bone health, and BH4 permits some individuals with PKU to increase tolerance to dietary phe. Further research is needed to characterize the long-term efficacy of these new approaches for PKU management. PMID:24136088

  19. Clinical management strategies and implications for parenteral nutrition drug shortages in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Hassig, Tanna B; McKinzie, Brian P; Fortier, Christopher R; Taber, David

    2014-01-01

    Drug shortages affect every aspect of patient care, including and especially, nutrition therapy. The purpose of this review is to discuss current parenteral nutrition-related drug shortages, including causes and duration of the disruptions, and provide recommendations for managing specific nutritional shortages that minimize negative patient care outcomes. A general framework for the management of current and future shortages is presented.

  20. Management of oxidative stress by microalgae.

    PubMed

    Cirulis, Judith T; Scott, J Ashley; Ross, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current research on oxidative stress in eukaryotic microalgae and the antioxidant compounds microalgae utilize to control oxidative stress. With the potential to exploit microalgae for the large-scale production of antioxidants, interest in how microalgae manage oxidative stress is growing. Microalgae can experience increased levels of oxidative stress and toxicity as a result of environmental conditions, metals, and chemicals. The defence mechanisms for microalgae include antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidases, and glutathione reductase, as well as non-enzymatic antioxidant molecules such as phytochelatins, pigments, polysaccharides, and polyphenols. Discussed herein are the 3 areas the literature has focused on, including how conditions stress microalgae and how microalgae respond to oxidative stress by managing reactive oxygen species. The third area is how beneficial microalgae antioxidants are when administered to cancerous mammalian cells or to rodents experiencing oxidative stress.

  1. Identification of Nutritional Stress-Responsive miRNAs in Phaseolus vulgaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators for Arabidopsis development and stress responses. A hybridization approach using miRNAs-macroarrays was used to identify miRNAs that respond to nutritional stress in Phaseolus vulgaris. miRNAs-macroarrays were prepared by printing nylon filters with DNA syntheti...

  2. Current nutritional recommendations and novel dietary strategies to manage sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Calvani, Riccardo; Miccheli, Alfredo; Landi, Francesco; Bossola, Maurizio; Cesari, Matteo; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Sieber, Cornel C; Bernabei, Roberto; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that occurs with aging, is associated with increased risk for several adverse health outcomes, including frailty, disability, falls, loss of independent living, and mortality. At present, no pharmacological treatment exists that is able to definitely halt the progression of sarcopenia. Likewise, no pharmacological remedies are yet available to prevent the onset of age-related muscle wasting. In this scenario, the combination of nutritional interventions and physical exercise appears to be the most effective strategy presently available for the management of sarcopenia. The purposes of this review are to summarize the current knowledge on the role of nutrition as a countermeasure for sarcopenia, illustrate the mechanisms of action of relevant dietary agents on the aging muscle, and introduce novel nutritional strategies that may help preserve muscle mass and function into old age. Issues related to the identification of the optimal timing of nutritional interventions in the context of primary and secondary prevention are also discussed. Finally, the prospect of elaborating personalized dietary and physical exercise recommendations through the implementation of integrated, high-throughput analytic approaches is illustrated. PMID:26082911

  3. Current nutritional recommendations and novel dietary strategies to manage sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Calvani, Riccardo; Miccheli, Alfredo; Landi, Francesco; Bossola, Maurizio; Cesari, Matteo; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Sieber, Cornel C.; Bernabei, Roberto; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that occurs with aging, is associated with increased risk for several adverse health outcomes, including frailty, disability, falls, loss of independent living, and mortality. At present, no pharmacological treatment exists that is able to definitely halt the progression of sarcopenia. Likewise, no pharmacological remedies are yet available to prevent the onset of age-related muscle wasting. In this scenario, the combination of nutritional interventions and physical exercise appears to be the most effective strategy presently available for the management of sarcopenia. The purposes of this review are to summarize the current knowledge on the role of nutrition as a countermeasure for sarcopenia, illustrate the mechanisms of action of relevant dietary agents on the aging muscle, and introduce novel nutritional strategies that may help preserve muscle mass and function into old age. Issues related to the identification of the optimal timing of nutritional interventions in the context of primary and secondary prevention are also discussed. Finally, the prospect of elaborating personalized dietary and physical exercise recommendations through the implementation of integrated, high-throughput analytic approaches is illustrated. PMID:26082911

  4. [Management models in clinical nutrition: weaknesses and strengths].

    PubMed

    García de Lorenzo, A; Alvarez, J; Burgos, R; Cabrerizo, L; Farrer, K; García Almeida, J M; García Luna, P P; García Peris, P; Llano, J Del; Planas, M; Piñeiro, G

    2009-01-01

    At the 6th Abbott-SENPE Debate Forum a multidisciplinary and multiprofessional discussion was established in order to seek for the model or the models of clinical management most appropriate for Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics Units (CNAD) in Spain. The weaknesses and strengths as well as opportunities for the current systems were assessed concluding that a certain degree of disparity was observed not only due to regional differences but also to different hospital types. It was proposed, from SENPE, the creation of a working group helping to standardize the models and promote the culture of Integral Control and Change Management.

  5. [Practical management of nutritional and food problems in crisis situations].

    PubMed

    Belchior-Bellino, V

    2002-01-01

    This article deals with one of the most consistent problems arising during crisis situations, i.e., food shortage. The author first presents the international context conducive to natural or man-made famine. He emphasizes the importance of early detection and the need for an evaluation phase using public health survey skills to determine the objectives of relief. He then describes strategies for management of alimentary and nutritional requirements in famine-stricken populations in function of the different types of malnutrition encountered. The article ends with a presentation of preventive measures that must be implemented in association with crisis management. PMID:12534175

  6. Managing the patient journey through enteral nutritional care.

    PubMed

    Howard, P; Jonkers-Schuitema, C; Furniss, L; Kyle, U; Muehlebach, S; Odlund-Olin, A; Page, M; Wheatley, C

    2006-04-01

    Nutritional support provision does not happen by accident. Clinical dimensions include screening and assessment, estimation of requirements, identification of a feeding route and the subsequent need for monitoring. Patients may need different forms of nutritional intervention during the course of their illness. Furthermore, these may need to be provided in different locations as their clinical status changes. If this is not properly managed there is potential for inappropriate treatment to be given. Clinical processes can only be effectively implemented if there is a robust infrastructure. The clinical team need to understand the different elements involved in effective service provision and this depends on bringing together disciplines which do not feature overtly on the clinical agenda including catering, finance and senior management. Excellent communication skills at all levels, financial awareness and insight into how other departments function are fundamental to success. Practice needs to be reviewed constantly and creativity about all aspects of service delivery is essential. Finally, it is important that key stakeholders are identified and involved so that they can support any successes and developments. This will raise awareness of the benefits of nutritional intervention and help to ensure that the right resources are available when they are needed. PMID:16697502

  7. Managing the patient journey through enteral nutritional care.

    PubMed

    Howard, P; Jonkers-Schuitema, C; Furniss, L; Kyle, U; Muehlebach, S; Odlund-Olin, A; Page, M; Wheatley, C

    2006-04-01

    Nutritional support provision does not happen by accident. Clinical dimensions include screening and assessment, estimation of requirements, identification of a feeding route and the subsequent need for monitoring. Patients may need different forms of nutritional intervention during the course of their illness. Furthermore, these may need to be provided in different locations as their clinical status changes. If this is not properly managed there is potential for inappropriate treatment to be given. Clinical processes can only be effectively implemented if there is a robust infrastructure. The clinical team need to understand the different elements involved in effective service provision and this depends on bringing together disciplines which do not feature overtly on the clinical agenda including catering, finance and senior management. Excellent communication skills at all levels, financial awareness and insight into how other departments function are fundamental to success. Practice needs to be reviewed constantly and creativity about all aspects of service delivery is essential. Finally, it is important that key stakeholders are identified and involved so that they can support any successes and developments. This will raise awareness of the benefits of nutritional intervention and help to ensure that the right resources are available when they are needed.

  8. Cost-Effective Stress Management Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Gordon F.

    1980-01-01

    Stress management training can be a cost effective way to improve productivity and job performance. Among many relaxation techniques, the most effective in terms of teachability, participant motivation, and profitability are self-hypnosis, progressive relaxation, and transcendental meditation. (SK)

  9. Three Approaches to Stress Management for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Samuel F.

    1989-01-01

    Describes guided fantasy, yoga and autogenic phrases and thermal feedback as approaches to helping children manage stress. Provides guidelines for the use of these methods, followed by descriptions of each approach. (BH)

  10. Stress Management Techniques for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Francesca M.

    The director of a not-for-profit nursery school adapted the adult stress management techniques of exercise and relaxation for use with 3- to 5-year-old children. Specifically, children were taught visualization techniques and yoga exercises involving deep breathing. The goal of the practicum was to rechannel children's negative stress-related…

  11. Between Teachers & Parent: Helping Children Manage Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodkin, Adele M.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to manage stress in children. A teacher's story and a parent's story about a child who complains of frequent stomach aches, is presented. Stomach aches and other somatic complaints without any apparent physical explanation are common among young children experiencing stress. Nevertheless, it is essential…

  12. The integration of studio cycling into a worksite stress management programme.

    PubMed

    Clark, Matthew M; Soyring, Jason E; Jenkins, Sarah M; Daniels, Denise C; Berkland, Bridget E; Werneburg, Brooke L; Hagen, Philip T; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Warren, Beth A; Olsen, Kerry D

    2014-04-01

    High stress is a prevalent problem in the worksite. To reduce stress, improve productivity, reduce absenteeism, and lower healthcare costs, many companies offer exercise classes or stress management programmes. Although physical activity is an important component of stress management, few worksites have integrated physical activity into their comprehensive stress reduction programmes. The purpose of this single-arm pilot project was to examine the potential effectiveness of an integrated exercise (studio cycling) and cognitive-behavioural stress management programme. Eighty-four adults, 75% female, mostly aged 40+ years, participated in an integrated 12-week cycling studio and cognitive-behavioural stress management programme. Participants experienced a significant and clinically meaningful reduction on the Perceived Stress Scale (p < 0.01), rating of current stress level and confidence to manage stress at the programme's end and at a 1-month follow-up. Participants also reported having significantly improved overall health, improved nutritional habits, higher physical activity level, greater confidence in their ability to follow a healthy diet, higher spiritual well-being, improved sleep, receiving more support for maintaining healthy living and improved quality of life at the completion of the 12-week programme and 1-month follow-up. These findings provide further support for an integrated exercise and stress management programme. PMID:23897838

  13. Resistance to nutritional stress in ants: when being fat is advantageous.

    PubMed

    Dussutour, Audrey; Poissonnier, Laure-Anne; Buhl, Jerome; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    In ants, nutrient acquisition for the whole colony relies on a minority of workers, the foragers, which are often old and lean. Some studies have shown that the link between age, physiology and foraging activity is more flexible than once thought, especially in response to colony or environmental perturbations. This great plasticity offers the intriguing possibility to disentangle the effect of age, behaviour and physiology on the ants' abilities to cope with nutritional stresses. In this paper, we first looked at the capacity of groups of foragers and inner-nest workers to resist starvation and macronutrient imbalance. Second, we investigated whether behavioural task reversion modified the tolerance to nutritional stresses and by extension, changed mortality rate. We found that inner-nest workers live longer than foragers under nutritional stresses but not under optimal conditions. The reversion from foraging to inner-nest activities is followed by an increase in fat content and longevity. Finally, we demonstrated that changes in fat content associated with behavioural transition are highly flexible and strongly correlated to tolerance of nutritional stress. Our results have considerable implications for our understanding of the population dynamics of social insects under adverse nutritional conditions. PMID:26985052

  14. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your diet. These include brightly colored and dark fruits and vegetables. Balance the food you eat ... can also order your free copy of Nutrition Matters and visit our Ask about Nutrition forum. << Back ...

  15. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    Nutrition Health Education During the 2 years preceding the study: • The percentage of states that provided funding for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health ...

  16. Nutritional Correlates of Perceived Stress among University Students in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Ansari, Walid; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-11-06

    Food intake choice and amount might change with stress. However, this has not been examined among Egyptian students. We examined students' stress levels, its correlation with their consumption of a range of food groups, and adherence to dietary guidelines. A cross sectional survey (N = 2810 undergraduates at 11 faculties at Assiut University, Egypt) assessed two composite food intake pattern scores (one unhealthy: sweets, cakes, snacks; and a healthy one: fruits and vegetables), and two indicators of healthy eating (subjective importance of healthy eating; and dietary guideline adherence index). Multiple linear regression tested the associations of stress with two food intake pattern scores and two indicators of healthy eating, controlling for six potential confounders for the sample and separately for males and females. Higher perceived stress score was significantly associated with less frequent food intake of fruit and vegetables in males and females. The association was more pronounced among males than in females. No significant association was observed between the sweets cakes and snacks score and stress. Of the two indicators of healthy eating, the dietary guideline adherence index was not associated with stress, while the subjective judgment of healthy eating was consistently negatively associated with stress. Stress related decreased-eating was present. Recent studies suggest that stress could be associated with either decreased or increased eating depending on the study population, food group, and type of stressor. Further research is necessary to understand stress related over- and undereating.

  17. Nutritional Correlates of Perceived Stress among University Students in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El Ansari, Walid; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Food intake choice and amount might change with stress. However, this has not been examined among Egyptian students. We examined students’ stress levels, its correlation with their consumption of a range of food groups, and adherence to dietary guidelines. A cross sectional survey (N = 2810 undergraduates at 11 faculties at Assiut University, Egypt) assessed two composite food intake pattern scores (one unhealthy: sweets, cakes, snacks; and a healthy one: fruits and vegetables), and two indicators of healthy eating (subjective importance of healthy eating; and dietary guideline adherence index). Multiple linear regression tested the associations of stress with two food intake pattern scores and two indicators of healthy eating, controlling for six potential confounders for the sample and separately for males and females. Higher perceived stress score was significantly associated with less frequent food intake of fruit and vegetables in males and females. The association was more pronounced among males than in females. No significant association was observed between the sweets cakes and snacks score and stress. Of the two indicators of healthy eating, the dietary guideline adherence index was not associated with stress, while the subjective judgment of healthy eating was consistently negatively associated with stress. Stress related decreased-eating was present. Recent studies suggest that stress could be associated with either decreased or increased eating depending on the study population, food group, and type of stressor. Further research is necessary to understand stress related over- and undereating. PMID:26561825

  18. The How, What and Why of Stress Management Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteson, Michael T.; Ivancevich, John M.

    1982-01-01

    The authors state that employers need to adopt a preventive orientation with respect to stress management and stress training. They examine the costs of stress, the stressed employee, the structure of a stress management program, training objectives, skill acquisition, sources of stress, learning new skills, feedback, and program evaluation. (CT)

  19. Work site stress management: national survey results.

    PubMed

    Fielding, J E

    1989-12-01

    The National Survey of Work Site Health Promotion Activities established baseline data on the frequency of nine types of health promotion activity at private work sites with more than 50 employees in the United States. Stress management activities were provided at 26.6% of work sites. Types of activities at those work sites with some stress management activity included group counseling (58.5%), individual counseling (39.3%), follow-up counseling (25.9%), special events (11.5%), providing information about stress (80.7%), providing a place to relax (64.8%), and making organizational changes to reduce employee stress (81.2%). Frequency of activities varied by industry type and by region of the country. Incidence of most types of activities did not increase as work site size increased, although the likelihood of having any of these activities did increase with work site size. Stress management activities were more likely to be present at work sites with a medical staff or health educator. An increase in output, productivity, or quality was the most frequently cited benefit (46.5%). Negative effects were reported at 2.6% of the work sites. Other health promotion activities found at the work sites surveyed included smoking cessation (61.8%), treatment and control of high blood pressure (36.7%), and weight control (34.7%). Employee Assistance Programs were responsible for stress management at 62% of the work sites with an Employee Assistance Program.

  20. Management of donated foods in child nutrition programs, the Nutrition Services Incentive Program, and charitable institutions. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2008-08-01

    This final rule revises and clarifies requirements for the management, distribution, and use of donated foods in the National School Lunch Program and other child nutrition programs, in the Nutrition Services Incentive Program, and by charitable institutions. In response to an audit by the USDA Office of Inspector General, the rule establishes specific requirements to ensure that recipient agencies in child nutrition programs receive the benefit and value of all donated foods received and provided to food service management companies to conduct the food service. The rule also incorporates legislative changes affecting the distribution of donated foods in the Nutrition Services Incentive Program, and reduces reporting and administrative requirements for donated foods provided to charitable institutions. Lastly, the rule restructures and revises regulatory provisions in a plain language format to make them easier to read and understand. PMID:18949885

  1. Inherited Metabolic Disorders: Aspects of Chronic Nutritional Management

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, SW; Barclay, LJ; Burrage, LC

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of newborn screening and the development of new therapies have led to an expanding population of patients with inherited metabolic disorders, and these patients are now entering adulthood. Dietary therapy is the mainstay of treatment for many of these disorders and thus, trained metabolic dietitians are critical members of the multidisciplinary team required for management of such patients. The main goals of dietary therapy in inborn errors of metabolism are the maintenance of normal growth and development while limiting offending metabolites and providing deficient products. Typically, the offending metabolite is either significantly reduced or removed completely from the diet and then reintroduced in small quantities until blood levels are within the normal range. Such treatment is required in infancy, childhood and adulthood and requires careful monitoring of micronutrient and macronutrient intake throughout the lifespan. The goal of this review is to highlight the basic principles of chronic nutritional management of the inborn errors of protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism. PMID:26079521

  2. Stress management for the radiologic technologist.

    PubMed

    Romano, Jeannine M

    2012-01-01

    Changes in technology in the radiology department and an emphasis on multitasking can lead to stress and burnout, along with the potential for medical errors. A shift in viewpoint and exercises in self-evaluation can help radiologic technologists learn to manage change in a positive manner. Learning to approach change through a series of transitions and positive steps can reduce stress at work and at home.

  3. [Options for stress management in obesity treatment].

    PubMed

    Czeglédi, Edit

    2016-02-14

    Overeating and physical inactivity are of great importance in the etiology of obesity. Psychological factors are often found in the background of life style. Chronic stress can contribute to physical inactivity and behaviors that hinder the keeping of a diet (e.g., irregular eating pattern, emotional eating). Results of randomized controlled trials show that relaxation can reduce emotional eating, improve cognitive restraint, and thereby reduce weight. However, stress management is more than relaxation. It consists of adaptive emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies and skills to improve relationships. Deflection skills may help in replacing emotional eating with other behaviors. Cognitive restructuring, saying no, and problem solving help to prevent or manage conflicts and difficulties otherwise would result in overeating due to distress. Developing stress management skills may result in greater compliance with the treatment. The techniques presented in the study can be easily applied by general practitioners or specialists, and provide tools for optimizing obesity treatment. PMID:26853727

  4. [Options for stress management in obesity treatment].

    PubMed

    Czeglédi, Edit

    2016-02-14

    Overeating and physical inactivity are of great importance in the etiology of obesity. Psychological factors are often found in the background of life style. Chronic stress can contribute to physical inactivity and behaviors that hinder the keeping of a diet (e.g., irregular eating pattern, emotional eating). Results of randomized controlled trials show that relaxation can reduce emotional eating, improve cognitive restraint, and thereby reduce weight. However, stress management is more than relaxation. It consists of adaptive emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies and skills to improve relationships. Deflection skills may help in replacing emotional eating with other behaviors. Cognitive restructuring, saying no, and problem solving help to prevent or manage conflicts and difficulties otherwise would result in overeating due to distress. Developing stress management skills may result in greater compliance with the treatment. The techniques presented in the study can be easily applied by general practitioners or specialists, and provide tools for optimizing obesity treatment.

  5. MORPHOMETRIC EVIDENCE FOR NUTRITIONAL STRESS IN ENGLISH SOLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present an application of the powerful thin plate spline method of morphometric analysis to demonstrate its utility for detecting environmental stress in an estuarine flatfish. Juvenile English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) were captured from Yaquina Bay, Oregon, photographed w...

  6. Effects of Heat Stress on Metabolite Accumulation and Composition, and Nutritional Properties of Durum Wheat Grain

    PubMed Central

    de Leonardis, Anna Maria; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Beleggia, Romina; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; de Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum (L.) subsp. turgidum (L.) convar. durum (Desf.)) is momentous for human nutrition, and environmental stresses can strongly limit the expression of yield potential and affect the qualitative characteristics of the grain. The aim of this study was to determine how heat stress (five days at 37 °C) applied five days after flowering affects the nutritional composition, antioxidant capacity and metabolic profile of the grain of two durum wheat genotypes: “Primadur”, an elite cultivar with high yellow index, and “T1303”, an anthocyanin-rich purple cultivar. Qualitative traits and metabolite evaluation (by gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry) were carried out on immature (14 days after flowering) and mature seeds. The effects of heat stress were genotype-dependent. Although some metabolites (e.g., sucrose, glycerol) increased in response to heat stress in both genotypes, clear differences were observed. Following the heat stress, there was a general increase in most of the analyzed metabolites in “Primadur”, with a general decrease in “T1303”. Heat shock applied early during seed development produced changes that were observed in immature seeds and also long-term effects that changed the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the mature grain. Therefore, short heat-stress treatments can affect the nutritional value of grain of different genotypes of durum wheat in different ways. PMID:26703576

  7. Effects of Heat Stress on Metabolite Accumulation and Composition, and Nutritional Properties of Durum Wheat Grain.

    PubMed

    de Leonardis, Anna Maria; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Beleggia, Romina; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; de Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum (L.) subsp. turgidum (L.) convar. durum (Desf.)) is momentous for human nutrition, and environmental stresses can strongly limit the expression of yield potential and affect the qualitative characteristics of the grain. The aim of this study was to determine how heat stress (five days at 37 °C) applied five days after flowering affects the nutritional composition, antioxidant capacity and metabolic profile of the grain of two durum wheat genotypes: "Primadur", an elite cultivar with high yellow index, and "T1303", an anthocyanin-rich purple cultivar. Qualitative traits and metabolite evaluation (by gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry) were carried out on immature (14 days after flowering) and mature seeds. The effects of heat stress were genotype-dependent. Although some metabolites (e.g., sucrose, glycerol) increased in response to heat stress in both genotypes, clear differences were observed. Following the heat stress, there was a general increase in most of the analyzed metabolites in "Primadur", with a general decrease in "T1303". Heat shock applied early during seed development produced changes that were observed in immature seeds and also long-term effects that changed the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the mature grain. Therefore, short heat-stress treatments can affect the nutritional value of grain of different genotypes of durum wheat in different ways. PMID:26703576

  8. STRESSMANAGEMENT : LEADS FROM AYURVEDA

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Deepa; Kumar, Mukesh; Dubey, S.D.; Baapat, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    The role of stress in the aetiology of several diseases is well recognized in Ayurvedic science and modern medicine. The stress is known as sahasa in Ayurveda. Sahasa by causing ojahksaya (loss of immunity) increases the susceptibility of the body to various diseases. Avoidance of stress is the best strategy for treatment and where it is not possible, the body should be well protected by taking appropriate care of the diet and sleep, sleep here indicates adequate rest required by the body. Further, regular intake of several rasayana herbs to increase the coping capacity of the body is advised. Several of these rasayanas have demonstrated significant stress attenuating effects in animal experimentation and scientific efforts are ongoing to logically utilize rasayana herbal formulation in stress management. PMID:22557107

  9. Stress management training for the handicapped.

    PubMed

    Garrison, J

    1978-12-01

    Stress Management Training (SMT) is described for teaching handicapped patients the use of relaxation as a coping skill. The procedure combines progressive muscle relaxation and clinical meditation into a standardized but flexible 8-session protocol. The training consists of 3 components: First, the patient is given a cognitive understanding of stress and relaxation. Second, the patient is taught to relax by controlling muscle tension and sympathetic activation. Third, the patient adapts the relaxation skill to real-life stress situations. Case reports demonstrating the process are included. Methods of assessing outcome and adaptations for particular handicaps are described.

  10. Technological disasters, crisis management and leadership stress.

    PubMed

    Weisaeth, Lars; Knudsen, Øistein; Tønnessen, Arnfinn

    2002-07-01

    This paper discusses how psychological stress disturbs decision making during technological crisis and disaster, and how to prevent this from happening. This is exemplified by scientific studies of a Norwegian large scale accident involving hazardous material, and of handling the far-off effects of the nuclear disaster at Chernobyl. The former constitutes an operative level of crisis management, whereas the latter involves crisis management at the strategic and political level. We conclude that stress had a negative effect on decision making in both cases.

  11. Nutritional strategy in the management of heart failure in adults.

    PubMed

    Bourdel-Marchasson, I; Emeriau, J P

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of congestive heart failure (CHF) is increasing in Westernized countries, and patients with CHF experience poor quality of life (functional impairment, high hospitalization rate and high mortality). Malnutrition occurring during the course of CHF is referred to as cardiac cachexia and is associated with higher mortality independent of the severity of CHF. Cardiac cachexia involving a loss of more than 10% of lean body mass can clinically be defined as a bodyweight loss of 7.5% of previous dry bodyweight in a period longer than 6 months. The energy requirements of patients with CHF, whether cachectic or not, are not noticeably modified since the increase in resting energy expenditure is compensated by a decrease in physical activity energy expenditure. Malnutrition in CHF has been ascribed to neurohormonal alterations, i.e. anabolic/catabolic imbalance and increased cytokine release. Anorexia may occur, particularly during acute decompensation of CHF. Function is impaired in CHF, because of exertional dyspnea and changes in skeletal muscle. Decreased exercise endurance seems to be related to decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacities and atrophy of type 1 fibers, which are attributed to alteration in muscle perfusion and are partially reversible by training. Malnutrition could also impair muscle function, because of decreased muscle mass and strength associated with decreased glycolytic capacities and atrophy of type 2a and 2b fibres. With respect to the putative mechanisms of cardiac cachexia, anabolic therapy (hormones or nutrients) and anticytokine therapy have been proposed, but trials are scarce and often inconclusive. In surgical patients with CHF, perioperative (pre- and postoperative) nutritional support has been shown to be effective in reducing the mortality rate. Long term nutritional supplementation trials in patients with CHF and cachexia are thus required to establish recommendations for the nutritional management of patients with CHF.

  12. Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

  13. Oral habits--part 1: the dental effects and management of nutritive and non-nutritive sucking.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mihiri; Manton, David

    2014-01-01

    Nutritive sucking and non-nutritive sucking are among the most commonly reported oral habits in children. These habits generally cease around four years of age as interaction with other children increases. However, prolonged habits may alter dento-skeletal development, leading to orthodontic problems, which may persist into the permanent dentition. Rewards, reminder therapy, and appliance therapy have been described for the management of nutritive and non-nutritive sucking habits. Reminder therapy includes the use of gloves, thumb-guards, mittens, and tastants applied to fingers. When other modes of treatment have failed, appliance therapy, such as palatal cribs or Bluegrass appliances, may be necessary to prevent the placement of the digit in its sucking position. These tools are very effective and are associated with few adverse effects; however, they must be used with the cooperation of the child and never as punishment. The purpose of this paper is to update clinicians about nutritive and non-nutritive sucking habits in children and their impact on dental/skeletal development, and management options.

  14. Mobilization of sequestered metabolities into degradative reactions by nutritional stress in Neurospora.

    PubMed

    Legerton, T L; Weiss, R L

    1979-06-01

    The pools of arginine and ornithine rapidly disappear during nitrogen starvation of Neurospora crassa. Much of this disappearance can be accounted for by degradation catalyzed by preexisting catabolic enzymes. Purine degradation is also initiated by nitrogen metabolic stress. Mobilization of these compounds into degradative reactions does not appear to be a general response to nutritional stress since neither carbon starvation nor inhibition of protein synthesis elicits this response. It is suggested that nitrogen starvation may specifically alter the distribution of arginine and ornithine between vesicles and cytosol. This would be sufficient to initiate and maintain their degradation. These result suggest that compartmentation of amino acids provides a metabolic reserve to be utilized during periods of specific nutritional stress.

  15. Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Durnin, J V

    1976-07-01

    Nutrition appeared somewhat late on the scene in the I.B.P. projects in the U.K., but eventually it occupied an integral part of many of the H.A. (human adaptability) investigations. The nutritional data obtained in the studies of isolated and nearisolated communities in Tristan da Cunha and in New Guinea provided information of wide nutritional significance. There were also detailed and extensive studies in Israel which, similarly to those in New Guinea, attempted to relate nutritional factors to enviroment, working conditions, and physical fitness. Some extraordinarily low energy intakes found in Ethiopians have induced much speculation on the extent which man can adequately adapt to restricted food supplies. Interesting nutritional observations, of general importance, have also arisen from results obtained on such disparate groups as Glasgow adolescents, Tanzanian and Sudanese students, children in Malawi and vegans in the U.K.

  16. [Changes in Appetite, Nutrition, and Oxidative Stress Reaction of Cancer Patients during Chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Nao; Asano, Sanae; Shingu, Miho; Ueno, Kazumi; Miyashita, Mika; Hamada, Hironobu; Aikata, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Tsuyoshi

    2015-08-01

    Weight loss during chemotherapy is a result of malnutrition and metabolism abnormality. A few reports have focused on the treatment and prevention of weight and appetite loss in patients with advanced cancer. We evaluated the relationship between weight and appetite loss during chemotherapy by studying the meal intake of patients. In addition, we also investigated whether anorexia is associated with the level of 8-hydroxy-2' -deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an oxidation stress marker. The weight loss rate in patients who lack energy intake was significantly higher than that in patients with adequate energy intake. Moreover, the pre-chemotherapy total energy intake, measured according to the hospital meal consumption of patients, was lower among those with than among those without anorexia. The 8-OHdG levels in the patients with anorexia were significantly higher. In conclusion, nutritional management is important for patients even before chemotherapy is started. The 8-OHdG level can be used as an index to evaluate appetite.

  17. [BALANCED SCORECARD AS A MANAGEMENT TOOL IN CLINICAL NUTRITION].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez López, Cristina; Mauriz, Jose L; Culebras, Jesús M

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays, balanced scorecards have updated traditional management systems in the business sector. In this way, Kaplan and Norton propose performance measurement through several perspectives with a logical sequence: internal processes and learning impact client services, so that financial performance is affected. The aim of the present paper is to analyze the main characteristics of balanced scorecard when it is applied to non-for-profit companies and, specifically to the health sector in the clinical nutrition field. This model improves the economic vision of management with clinical indicators that represent healthcare professional's perspective. The balanced scorecard would allow a proper monitoring and tracking system for the main healthcare indicators. This contributes to a better control in comparison with standards that are associated with adequate quality assistance. Owing to the role of management accounting and cost calculations, the definition of healthcare professionals as clients or users, and clinical results relevance, it is necessary to adapt the balanced scorecard to the specific characteristics of the clinical field, redefining both perspectives and indicators.

  18. [BALANCED SCORECARD AS A MANAGEMENT TOOL IN CLINICAL NUTRITION].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez López, Cristina; Mauriz, Jose L; Culebras, Jesús M

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, balanced scorecards have updated traditional management systems in the business sector. In this way, Kaplan and Norton propose performance measurement through several perspectives with a logical sequence: internal processes and learning impact client services, so that financial performance is affected. The aim of the present paper is to analyze the main characteristics of balanced scorecard when it is applied to non-for-profit companies and, specifically to the health sector in the clinical nutrition field. This model improves the economic vision of management with clinical indicators that represent healthcare professional's perspective. The balanced scorecard would allow a proper monitoring and tracking system for the main healthcare indicators. This contributes to a better control in comparison with standards that are associated with adequate quality assistance. Owing to the role of management accounting and cost calculations, the definition of healthcare professionals as clients or users, and clinical results relevance, it is necessary to adapt the balanced scorecard to the specific characteristics of the clinical field, redefining both perspectives and indicators. PMID:26262746

  19. Impact of heat stress, nutritional restriction and combined stresses (heat and nutritional) on growth and reproductive performance of Malpura rams under semi-arid tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Maurya, V P; Sejian, V; Kumar, D; Naqvi, S M K

    2016-10-01

    A study was conducted to assess the combined effect of heat stress and nutritional restriction on growth and reproductive performances in Malpura rams. Twenty-eight adult Malpura rams (average body weight (BW) 66.0 kg) were used in this study. The rams were divided into four groups: CON (n = 7; control), HES (n = 7; heat stress), NUS (n = 7; nutritional stress) and COS (n = 7; combined stress). The study was conducted for a period of 2 months. CON and HES rams had ad libitum access to their feed while NUS and COS rams were under restricted feed (30% intake of CON rams) to induce nutritional stress. The HES and COS rams were kept in climatic chamber at 42 °C and 55% relative humidity for 6 h a day between 10 : 00 h and 16 : 00 h to induce heat stress. Body weight increased significantly (p < 0.05) in CON as compared to NUS and COS. When compared within groups, scrotal width morning, scrotal width afternoon, scrotal circumference morning and scrotal circumference afternoon were significantly (p < 0.05) larger in CON while smaller in COS rams. The higher testicular length was recorded both during morning (p < 0.05) and afternoon (p < 0.01) in COS rams while the lowest in NUS rams. The highest plasma testosterone concentration was recorded in CON and lowest in COS rams. Semen volume and mass motility also differed significantly (p < 0.05) between the groups. The highest semen volume and mass motility was recorded in CON and NUS while lowest in both HES and COS rams. It can be concluded from this study that when two stressors occur simultaneously, they may have severe impact on reproductive performance of rams. PMID:26718122

  20. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... you would like to see a registered dietitian nutritionist for nutritional guidance when you have lung cancer. ... seek out the expertise of a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) who works with lung cancer patients. This ...

  1. A nutrigenomic approach to detect nutritional stress from gene expression in blood samples drawn from Steller sea lions.

    PubMed

    Spitz, Jérôme; Becquet, Vanessa; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2015-09-01

    Gene expression profiles are increasingly being used as biomarkers to detect the physiological responses of a number of species to disease, nutrition, and other stressors. However, little attention has been given to using gene expression to assess the stressors and physiological status of marine mammals. We sought to develop and validate a nutrigenomic approach to quantify nutritional stress in Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). We subjected 4 female Steller sea lions to 3 feeding regimes over 70-day trials (unrestricted food intake, acute nutritional stress, and chronic nutritional stress), and drew blood samples from each animal at the end of each feeding regime. We then extracted the RNA of white blood cells and measured the response of 8 genes known to react to diet restriction in terrestrial mammals. Overall, we found that the genomic response of Steller sea lions experiencing nutritional stress was consistent with how terrestrial mammals respond to dietary restrictions. Our nutritionally stressed sea lions down-regulated some cellular processes involved in immune response and oxidative stress, and up-regulated pro-inflammatory responses and metabolic processes. Nutrigenomics appears to be a promising means to monitor nutritional status and contribute to mitigation measures needed to assist in the recovery of Steller sea lions and other at-risk species of marine mammals.

  2. A nutrigenomic approach to detect nutritional stress from gene expression in blood samples drawn from Steller sea lions.

    PubMed

    Spitz, Jérôme; Becquet, Vanessa; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2015-09-01

    Gene expression profiles are increasingly being used as biomarkers to detect the physiological responses of a number of species to disease, nutrition, and other stressors. However, little attention has been given to using gene expression to assess the stressors and physiological status of marine mammals. We sought to develop and validate a nutrigenomic approach to quantify nutritional stress in Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). We subjected 4 female Steller sea lions to 3 feeding regimes over 70-day trials (unrestricted food intake, acute nutritional stress, and chronic nutritional stress), and drew blood samples from each animal at the end of each feeding regime. We then extracted the RNA of white blood cells and measured the response of 8 genes known to react to diet restriction in terrestrial mammals. Overall, we found that the genomic response of Steller sea lions experiencing nutritional stress was consistent with how terrestrial mammals respond to dietary restrictions. Our nutritionally stressed sea lions down-regulated some cellular processes involved in immune response and oxidative stress, and up-regulated pro-inflammatory responses and metabolic processes. Nutrigenomics appears to be a promising means to monitor nutritional status and contribute to mitigation measures needed to assist in the recovery of Steller sea lions and other at-risk species of marine mammals. PMID:25700740

  3. Lung cancer: what are the links with oxidative stress, physical activity and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Filaire, Edith; Dupuis, Carmen; Galvaing, Géraud; Aubreton, Sylvie; Laurent, Hélène; Richard, Ruddy; Filaire, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress appears to play an essential role as a secondary messenger in the normal regulation of a variety of physiological processes, such as apoptosis, survival, and proliferative signaling pathways. Oxidative stress also plays important roles in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including aging, degenerative disease, and cancer. Among cancers, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer in the Western world. Lung cancer is the commonest fatal cancer whose risk is dependent on the number of cigarettes smoked per day as well as the number of years smoking, some components of cigarette smoke inducing oxidative stress by transmitting or generating oxidative stress. It can be subdivided into two broad categories, small cell lung cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer, the latter is the most common type. Distinct measures of primary and secondary prevention have been investigated to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality caused by lung cancer. Among them, it seems that physical activity and nutrition have some beneficial effects. However, physical activity can have different influences on carcinogenesis, depending on energy supply, strength and frequency of exercise loads as well as the degree of exercise-mediated oxidative stress. Micronutrient supplementation seems to have a positive impact in lung surgery, particularly as an antioxidant, even if the role of micronutrients in lung cancer remains controversial. The purpose of this review is to examine lung cancer in relation to oxidative stress, physical activity, and nutrition.

  4. Lung cancer: what are the links with oxidative stress, physical activity and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Filaire, Edith; Dupuis, Carmen; Galvaing, Géraud; Aubreton, Sylvie; Laurent, Hélène; Richard, Ruddy; Filaire, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress appears to play an essential role as a secondary messenger in the normal regulation of a variety of physiological processes, such as apoptosis, survival, and proliferative signaling pathways. Oxidative stress also plays important roles in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including aging, degenerative disease, and cancer. Among cancers, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer in the Western world. Lung cancer is the commonest fatal cancer whose risk is dependent on the number of cigarettes smoked per day as well as the number of years smoking, some components of cigarette smoke inducing oxidative stress by transmitting or generating oxidative stress. It can be subdivided into two broad categories, small cell lung cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer, the latter is the most common type. Distinct measures of primary and secondary prevention have been investigated to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality caused by lung cancer. Among them, it seems that physical activity and nutrition have some beneficial effects. However, physical activity can have different influences on carcinogenesis, depending on energy supply, strength and frequency of exercise loads as well as the degree of exercise-mediated oxidative stress. Micronutrient supplementation seems to have a positive impact in lung surgery, particularly as an antioxidant, even if the role of micronutrients in lung cancer remains controversial. The purpose of this review is to examine lung cancer in relation to oxidative stress, physical activity, and nutrition. PMID:24161719

  5. Bovine immunoglobulin protein isolates for the nutritional management of enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Petschow, Bryon W; Blikslager, Anthony T; Weaver, Eric M; Campbell, Joy M; Polo, Javier; Shaw, Audrey L; Burnett, Bruce P; Klein, Gerald L; Rhoads, J Marc

    2014-09-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for a multitude of digestive and immune functions which depend upon the balanced interaction of the intestinal microbiota, diet, gut barrier function, and mucosal immune response. Disruptions in one or more of these factors can lead to intestinal disorders or enteropathies which are characterized by intestinal inflammation, increased gut permeability, and reduced capacity to absorb nutrients. Enteropathy is frequently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune enteropathy, radiation enteritis, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), where pathologic changes in the intestinal tract lead to abdominal discomfort, bloating, abnormal bowel function (e.g., diarrhea, urgency, constipation and malabsorption). Unfortunately, effective therapies for the management of enteropathy and restoring intestinal health are still not available. An accumulating body of preclinical studies has demonstrated that oral administration of plasma- or serum-derived protein concentrates containing high levels of immunoglobulins can improve weight, normalize gut barrier function, and reduce the severity of enteropathy in animal models. Recent studies in humans, using serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate, demonstrate that such protein preparations are safe and improve symptoms, nutritional status, and various biomarkers associated with enteropathy. Benefits have been shown in patients with HIV infection or diarrhea-predominant IBS. This review summarizes preclinical and clinical studies with plasma/serum protein concentrates and describes the effects on host nutrition, intestinal function, and markers of intestinal inflammation. It supports the concept that immunoglobulin-containing protein preparations may offer a new strategy for restoring functional homeostasis in the intestinal tract of patients with enteropathy.

  6. Bovine immunoglobulin protein isolates for the nutritional management of enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Petschow, Bryon W; Blikslager, Anthony T; Weaver, Eric M; Campbell, Joy M; Polo, Javier; Shaw, Audrey L; Burnett, Bruce P; Klein, Gerald L; Rhoads, J Marc

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for a multitude of digestive and immune functions which depend upon the balanced interaction of the intestinal microbiota, diet, gut barrier function, and mucosal immune response. Disruptions in one or more of these factors can lead to intestinal disorders or enteropathies which are characterized by intestinal inflammation, increased gut permeability, and reduced capacity to absorb nutrients. Enteropathy is frequently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune enteropathy, radiation enteritis, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), where pathologic changes in the intestinal tract lead to abdominal discomfort, bloating, abnormal bowel function (e.g., diarrhea, urgency, constipation and malabsorption). Unfortunately, effective therapies for the management of enteropathy and restoring intestinal health are still not available. An accumulating body of preclinical studies has demonstrated that oral administration of plasma- or serum-derived protein concentrates containing high levels of immunoglobulins can improve weight, normalize gut barrier function, and reduce the severity of enteropathy in animal models. Recent studies in humans, using serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate, demonstrate that such protein preparations are safe and improve symptoms, nutritional status, and various biomarkers associated with enteropathy. Benefits have been shown in patients with HIV infection or diarrhea-predominant IBS. This review summarizes preclinical and clinical studies with plasma/serum protein concentrates and describes the effects on host nutrition, intestinal function, and markers of intestinal inflammation. It supports the concept that immunoglobulin-containing protein preparations may offer a new strategy for restoring functional homeostasis in the intestinal tract of patients with enteropathy. PMID:25206275

  7. Pressure injury prevention: continence, skin hygiene and nutrition management.

    PubMed

    Roosen, Kerri; Fulbrook, Paul; Nowicki, Tracy

    2010-08-10

    To prevent pressure injuries research indicates the importance of focusing on three key areas of practice: continence, skin hygiene and nutrition. These are a synergistic trio and many patients require considered management in all three areas. In addition to targeting specific aspects of nursing care in these areas, it is also crucial that there is organisational buy-in for strategic initiatives. Some of the ways that we achieved this are outlined below: Support from managerial level by presenting evidence and education to senior nurses and directors. Nurse unit managers completed individual ward action plans outlining their individual commitments to reducing pressure injuries. Providing support and education to staff to choose and use continence products effectively. Support from allied health colleagues in prevention of pressure injuries. After implementing the actions described above, pressure injury prevalence at the Prince Charles Hospital in Brisbane decreased from 13.78% in 2008 to 5.15% in 2010, representing a 62% reduction overall. Of these pressure injuries, 53% were stage one.

  8. [Evaluating the nutritional status of a lung cancer patient is an important element in patient management].

    PubMed

    Antoun, S; Merad, M; Raynard, B; Ruffie, P

    2008-04-01

    Nutritional status assessment during the comprehensive management of patients treated for cancer is becoming increasingly necessary. Various data are currently available which show a relationship between the nutritional status and certain morbidity-mortality parameters. In contrast, there is a paucity of data concerning lung cancer. A relationship between survival and the nutritional status has been found in the literature, exclusively in advanced stages of lung cancer. Unlike that observed in oncological digestive tract surgery, where artificial nutrition is recommended preoperatively in severely malnourished patients, no link has been evidenced between postoperative morbidity and mortality and the preoperative nutritional status in lung surgery. The scientific nutritional societies simply recommend preoperative nutritional assessment. Reflection on management of malnourished patients receiving chemotherapy is still "archaic" and recent studies and recommendations are lacking. Although largely prescribed, oral nutritional supplements have not proven efficient and patient compliance will probably have to be improved. According to "good nutrition practice" rules, the digestive tube should be used when it is functional and in theory, enteral nutrition is indicated in this situation. In addition to the lack of clinical studies, one of the obstacles to its use is cultural with the need to obtain not only patient approval but also that of the prescriber. Parenteral nutrition was discredited in earlier studies. It should probably be reevaluated in the context of new chemotherapeutic molecules and a different way of handling nutrition care. The physiological concept of omega-3 fatty acid modulation of inflammation is of interest in animal studies but the clinical modalities of use remain to be defined and determined. The role of nutrition in the management of lung cancer is still very limited but there are major expectations and many solutions are awaited in the coming

  9. [Nutritional management of patients with acute pancreatitis: when the past is present].

    PubMed

    García Almansa, A; García Peris, P

    2008-05-01

    Patients with acute pancreatitis usually present nutritional status impairment. In alcoholic pancreatitis this impairment is usually presented before hospital admission. In patients with long-term complicated pancreatitis, malnutrition develops during the course of the disease. Besides, these patients present an increased stress and protein hypercatabolism. Treatment of acute pancreatitis usually maintains patients in a short period of starvation. In mild pancreatitis, starvation is needed for a few days, beginning progressively oral feeding. These patients don't need special nutritional support, unless they were previously malnourished. Patients with severe acute pancreatitis should always receive artificial nutritional support in order to preserve the nutritional status as starvation will be maintained for more than one week. In this paper, we review the nutritional treatment in these situations, trying to answer some different questions: type of nutritional support, when it should be started and when it is indicated to withdraw.

  10. A comparative study on dietary behavior, nutritional knowledge and life stress between Korean and Chinese female high school students

    PubMed Central

    Son, Sohwan; Ro, Yoona; Hyun, Hwajin; Lee, Hongmie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Dietary behavior and life stress in adolescence is related to growth rate and learning ability. This study was conducted to identify the relations between dietary habits, dietary attitude nutritional knowledge and life stress among high school girls in Korea and China. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects of this study were 221 high school girls in Korea and 227 high school girls in China. The questionnaire were about dietary habits, dietary attitude, nutritional knowledge and life stress. RESULTS The dietary habits of chinese girls were healthier than those of Korean girls with a significant difference (P < .001). There was no significant difference in dietary attitude between Korean girls and Chinese girls. Korean girls had more nutritional knowledge than Chinese girls with a significant difference (P < .001). Korean girls did less physical exercise but spent more time watching TV and using PCs, compared to Chinese girls. Korean girls' degree of confidence in nutrition information that they had learned and their performance in their real lives were low. Also, they had a low level of awareness of the need for nutritional education. There was no significant difference in life stress between the two groups. Dietary habits had a significantly negative correlation with life stress in both Korean and Chinese girls (P < .01, P < .001). As for Chinese students, dietary attitude had a negative correlation with life stress with a significant difference (P < .05). As for Korean girls, nutritional knowledge had a negative correlation with life stress with a significant difference (P < .05), which means as life stress was less, dietary habits were better. CONCLUSIONS This study shows that effective nutrition education programs should include components that encourage application of learned nutrition information to real life, increase physical exercise and reduce life stress. PMID:24741406

  11. [Stress urinary incontinence. Its surgical management].

    PubMed

    Neri Ruz, E S; Azcona Arteaga, F J

    1991-10-01

    Ninety eight patients with stress urinary incontinence treated surgically at Central Military Hospital, were studied. We analyzed the risk factors as age, weight, height, parity, menopause age, and previous medical and surgical procedures. They were divided in two groups. The Group I, vaginal approach, with 35 patients and Group II, retropubic surgery, with 63 patients. There were no differences both groups regarding age, weight, height, parity and menopausal age. The most frequent illness associated with stress urinary incontinence, was pelvic floor relaxation. The complications were 17.1% and 33.3%, respectively. The efficacy of Burch is procedure for the management of stress urinary incontinence, with a success rate of 84.1% versus 62.1% in the vaginal approach, was confirmed.

  12. Sugar maple growth in relation to nutrition and stress in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Long, Robert P; Horsley, Stephen B; Hallett, Richard A; Bailey, Scott W

    2009-09-01

    Sugar maple, Acer saccharum, decline disease is incited by multiple disturbance factors when imbalanced calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and manganese (Mn) act as predisposing stressors. Our objective in this study was to determine whether factors affecting sugar maple health also affect growth as estimated by basal area increment (BAI). We used 76 northern hardwood stands in northern Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont, and New Hampshire, USA, and found that sugar maple growth was positively related to foliar concentrations of Ca and Mg and stand level estimates of sugar maple crown health during a high stress period from 1987 to 1996. Foliar nutrient threshold values for Ca, Mg, and Mn were used to analyze long-term BAI trends from 1937 to 1996. Significant (P < or = 0.05) nutrient threshold-by-time interactions indicate changing growth in relation to nutrition during this period. Healthy sugar maples sampled in the 1990s had decreased growth in the 1970s, 10-20 years in advance of the 1980s and 1990s decline episode in Pennsylvania. Even apparently healthy stands that had no defoliation, but had below-threshold amounts of Ca or Mg and above-threshold Mn (from foliage samples taken in the mid 1990s), had decreasing growth by the 1970s. Co-occurring black cherry, Prunus serotina, in a subset of the Pennsylvania and New York stands, showed opposite growth responses with greater growth in stands with below-threshold Ca and Mg compared with above-threshold stands. Sugar maple growing on sites with the highest concentrations of foliar Ca and Mg show a general increase in growth from 1937 to 1996 while other stands with lower Ca and Mg concentrations show a stable or decreasing growth trend. We conclude that acid deposition induced changes in soil nutrient status that crossed a threshold necessary to sustain sugar maple growth during the 1970s on some sites. While nutrition of these elements has not been considered in forest management decisions, our research shows species

  13. Sugar maple growth in relation to nutrition and stress in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Long, Robert P; Horsley, Stephen B; Hallett, Richard A; Bailey, Scott W

    2009-09-01

    Sugar maple, Acer saccharum, decline disease is incited by multiple disturbance factors when imbalanced calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and manganese (Mn) act as predisposing stressors. Our objective in this study was to determine whether factors affecting sugar maple health also affect growth as estimated by basal area increment (BAI). We used 76 northern hardwood stands in northern Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont, and New Hampshire, USA, and found that sugar maple growth was positively related to foliar concentrations of Ca and Mg and stand level estimates of sugar maple crown health during a high stress period from 1987 to 1996. Foliar nutrient threshold values for Ca, Mg, and Mn were used to analyze long-term BAI trends from 1937 to 1996. Significant (P < or = 0.05) nutrient threshold-by-time interactions indicate changing growth in relation to nutrition during this period. Healthy sugar maples sampled in the 1990s had decreased growth in the 1970s, 10-20 years in advance of the 1980s and 1990s decline episode in Pennsylvania. Even apparently healthy stands that had no defoliation, but had below-threshold amounts of Ca or Mg and above-threshold Mn (from foliage samples taken in the mid 1990s), had decreasing growth by the 1970s. Co-occurring black cherry, Prunus serotina, in a subset of the Pennsylvania and New York stands, showed opposite growth responses with greater growth in stands with below-threshold Ca and Mg compared with above-threshold stands. Sugar maple growing on sites with the highest concentrations of foliar Ca and Mg show a general increase in growth from 1937 to 1996 while other stands with lower Ca and Mg concentrations show a stable or decreasing growth trend. We conclude that acid deposition induced changes in soil nutrient status that crossed a threshold necessary to sustain sugar maple growth during the 1970s on some sites. While nutrition of these elements has not been considered in forest management decisions, our research shows species

  14. Stress, Nutrition, and Intestinal Immune Responses in Pigs — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In Kyu; Kye, Yoon Chul; Kim, Girak; Kim, Han Wool; Gu, Min Jeong; Umboh, Johnny; Maaruf, Kartini; Kim, Sung Woo; Yun, Cheol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Modern livestock production became highly intensive and large scaled to increase production efficiency. This production environment could add stressors affecting the health and growth of animals. Major stressors can include environment (air quality and temperature), nutrition, and infection. These stressors can reduce growth performance and alter immune systems at systemic and local levels including the gastrointestinal tract. Heat stress increases the permeability, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses in the gut. Nutritional stress from fasting, antinutritional compounds, and toxins induces the leakage and destruction of the tight junction proteins in the gut. Fasting is shown to suppress pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas deoxynivalenol increases the recruitment of intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines and the level of lymphocytes in the gut. Pathogenic and viral infections such as Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus can lead to loosening the intestinal epithelial barrier. On the other hand, supplementation of Lactobacillus or Saccharaomyces reduced infectious stress by ETEC. It was noted that major stressors altered the permeability of intestinal barriers and profiles of genes and proteins of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in mucosal system in pigs. However, it is not sufficient to fully explain the mechanism of the gut immune system in pigs under stress conditions. Correlation and interaction of gut and systemic immune system under major stressors should be better defined to overcome aforementioned obstacles. PMID:27189643

  15. A Review of Managing Huanglongbing (Citrus Greening) in China Using a Nutritional Approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Supplemental nutrition as a part of huanglongbing (HLB) management is being adopted by an increasing number of citrus growers in Florida. The hope is that additional nutrition, especially micronutrients, will extend the productive life of HLB affected trees. Although the approach is recent in the U...

  16. Dietary Management in Gastrointestinal Diseases. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Joan Z.; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  17. Enhancing the role of nutrition professionals in weight management: A cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Bandara, Sachini; Bennett, Wendy; Cooper, Lisa A.; Gudzune, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective 1) To determine the non-physician health profession perceived as best qualified to provide weight management; 2) To examine nutrition professionals’ current practice characteristics and perceived challenges and solutions for obesity care; and 3) To examine the association between nutrition professionals’ quality of training and self-efficacy in weight management. Design and methods We analyzed a 2014 national cross-sectional online survey of 500 U.S. non-physician health professionals (100 from each: nutrition, nursing, behavioral/mental health, exercise, pharmacy). Results Nutrition professionals most commonly self-identified as the most qualified group to help patients lose weight (92%), sentiments supported by other health professionals (57%). The most often cited challenge was lack of patient adherence (87%). Among nutrition professionals, 77% reported receiving high quality training in weight loss counseling. Nutrition professionals who reported high quality training were significantly more likely to report confidence (95% vs. 48%) and success (74% vs. 50%) in helping obese patients lose weight (p<0.05) than those reporting lower quality training. Conclusion Across all non-physician health professionals, nutrition professionals were identified as best suited to provide routine weight management counseling to obese patients. Yet, nutrition professionals’ receipt of high quality weight management training appears critical to their success in helping patients lose weight. PMID:25445319

  18. Dietary Management for Alcoholic Patients. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Roberta Smith; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  19. Dietary Management in Hypertension. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molleson, Ann L.; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  20. Dietary Management in Hyperlipidemia. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.; Townley, Nancy A.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  1. Nutritional management of enterocutaneous fistula: a retrospective study at a Malaysian university medical center.

    PubMed

    Badrasawi, Manal Mh; Shahar, Suzana; Sagap, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Enterocutaneous fistula is a challenging clinical condition with serious complications and considerable morbidity and mortality. Early nutritional support has been found to decrease these complications and to improve the clinical outcome. Location of the fistula and physiological status affect the nutrition management plan in terms of feeding route, calories, and protein requirements. This study investigated the nutritional management procedures at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, and attempted to determine factors that affect the clinical outcome. Nutritional management was evaluated retrospectively in 22 patients with enterocutaneous fistula seen over a 5-year period. Medical records were reviewed to obtain data on nutritional status, biochemical indices, and route and tolerance of feeding. Calories and protein requirements are reported and categorized. The results show that surgery was the predominant etiology and low output fistula was the major physiological category; anatomically, the majority were ileocutaneous. The spontaneous healing rate was 14%, the total healing rate was 45%, and the mortality rate was 22%, with 14% due to fistula-associated complications. There was a significant relationship between body mass index/serum albumin levels and fistula healing; these parameters also had a significant relationship with mortality. Glutamine was used in 50% of cases; however, there was no significant relationship with fistula healing or mortality rate. The nutritional status of the patient has an important impact on the clinical outcome. Conservative management that includes nutrition support is very important in order to improve nutritional status before surgical repair of the fistula.

  2. Dietary Management in Obesity. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.; Townley, Nancy A.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  3. Nutritional management of enterocutaneous fistula: a retrospective study at a Malaysian university medical center

    PubMed Central

    Badrasawi, Manal MH; Shahar, Suzana; Sagap, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Enterocutaneous fistula is a challenging clinical condition with serious complications and considerable morbidity and mortality. Early nutritional support has been found to decrease these complications and to improve the clinical outcome. Location of the fistula and physiological status affect the nutrition management plan in terms of feeding route, calories, and protein requirements. This study investigated the nutritional management procedures at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, and attempted to determine factors that affect the clinical outcome. Nutritional management was evaluated retrospectively in 22 patients with enterocutaneous fistula seen over a 5-year period. Medical records were reviewed to obtain data on nutritional status, biochemical indices, and route and tolerance of feeding. Calories and protein requirements are reported and categorized. The results show that surgery was the predominant etiology and low output fistula was the major physiological category; anatomically, the majority were ileocutaneous. The spontaneous healing rate was 14%, the total healing rate was 45%, and the mortality rate was 22%, with 14% due to fistula-associated complications. There was a significant relationship between body mass index/serum albumin levels and fistula healing; these parameters also had a significant relationship with mortality. Glutamine was used in 50% of cases; however, there was no significant relationship with fistula healing or mortality rate. The nutritional status of the patient has an important impact on the clinical outcome. Conservative management that includes nutrition support is very important in order to improve nutritional status before surgical repair of the fistula. PMID:25187726

  4. Dietary Management in Diabetes Mellitus. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossetti, Brenda; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  5. The Nurturing Teacher: Managing the Stress of Caring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSlyke-Briggs, Kjersti

    2010-01-01

    This book tackles the concerns of stressed teachers. Whether from nurturance suffering (stress related to caring for students) or from the piles of paperwork yet to be tackled, this text helps the reader sort through the causes of stress, the emotional, physical and social reactions to stress and how one can begin to plan a stress management plan.…

  6. Helping Gifted Students with Stress Management. ERIC Digest #E488.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Leslie S.

    Presented in a question-and-answer format, this digest offers guidelines to help gifted students manage stress effectively. The following questions are considered: What is stress? How can a youngster experience stress when nothing bad is happening? Is a gifted student more likely to feel stress than others? What are some stresses on a gifted…

  7. Nutritional Management of the overweight child with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Corrales-Yauckoes, Kattia M; Higgins, Laurie A

    2005-09-01

    In light of the strong association between excess weight and type 2 diabetes, the nutritional management of the child with type 2 diabetes often focuses on changing dietary and physical activity habits to normalize weight, instill long-term healthy habits, and provide glycemic control. A multidisciplinary approach to the treatment of childhood obesity should include the child's family and caregivers to be most effective. Weight goals in children should be based on the age of the child, the extent of overweight, and the presence of complications. Likewise, physical activity is an important component of treatment and should be titrated to the child's age, ability and overweight status. Efforts to avoid the development of obesity, and potentially type 2 diabetes, should be started early in the child's life. Education and fostering a healthy lifestyle during childhood is the best defense to slow down or reverse the obesity epidemic in our society that is now affecting even the youngest of children, setting them up for potentially life-threatening diseases in the future.

  8. Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Susan

    An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

  9. Survivorship: nutrition and weight management, Version 2.2014. Clinical practice guidelines in oncology.

    PubMed

    Denlinger, Crystal S; Ligibel, Jennifer A; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Dizon, Don; Friedman, Debra L; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J; O'Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Raza, Muhammad; Rodriguez, M Alma; Syrjala, Karen L; Urba, Susan G; Wakabayashi, Mark T; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A

    2014-10-01

    Healthy lifestyle habits have been associated with improved health outcomes and quality of life and, for some cancers, a reduced risk of recurrence and death. The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship therefore recommend that cancer survivors be encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy lifestyle, including attention to weight management, physical activity, and dietary habits. This section of the NCCN Guidelines focuses on recommendations regarding nutrition, weight management, and supplement use in survivors. Weight management recommendations are based on the survivor's body mass index and include discussions of nutritional, weight management, and physical activity principles, with referral to community resources, dietitians, and/or weight management programs as needed.

  10. Nutritional Interventions to Alleviate the Negative Consequences of Heat Stress12

    PubMed Central

    Rhoads, Robert P.; Baumgard, Lance H.; Suagee, Jessica K.; Sanders, Sara R.

    2013-01-01

    Energy metabolism is a highly coordinated process, and preferred fuel(s) differ among tissues. The hierarchy of substrate use can be affected by physiological status and environmental factors including high ambient temperature. Unabated heat eventually overwhelms homeothermic mechanisms resulting in heat stress, which compromises animal health, farm animal production, and human performance. Various aspects of heat stress physiology have been extensively studied, yet a clear understanding of the metabolic changes occurring at the cellular, tissue, and whole-body levels in response to an environmental heat load remains ill-defined. For reasons not yet clarified, circulating nonesterified fatty acid levels are reduced during heat stress, even in the presence of elevated stress hormones (epinephrine, glucagon, and cortisol), and heat-stressed animals often have a blunted lipolytic response to catabolic signals. Either directly because of or in coordination with this, animals experiencing environmental hyperthermia exhibit a shift toward carbohydrate use. These metabolic alterations occur coincident with increased circulating basal and stimulated plasma insulin concentrations. Limited data indicate that proper insulin action is necessary to effectively mount a response to heat stress and minimize heat-induced damage. Consistent with this idea, nutritional interventions targeting increased insulin action may improve tolerance and productivity during heat stress. Further research is warranted to uncover the effects of heat on parameters associated with energy metabolism so that more appropriate and effective treatment methodologies can be designed. PMID:23674792

  11. Stress management by autophagy: Implications for chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhao; Zhou, Li; Chen, Zhibin; Nice, Edouard C; Huang, Canhua

    2016-07-01

    Development of chemoresistance, which limits the efficiency of anticancer agents, has long been a major problem in cancer therapy and urgently needs to be solved to improve clinical outcomes. Factors contributing to chemoresistance are various, but a key factor is the cell's capability for stress management. Autophagy, a favored survival strategy that organisms employ to get over many kinds of stress, is emerging as a crucial player in drug resistance. It has been shown that autophagy facilitates the resistance of tumor cells to anticancer agents, and abrogation of autophagy could be therapeutically beneficial in some cases, suggesting autophagy could be a promising target for cancer treatments. Thus, defining the roles of autophagy in chemoresistance, and the mechanisms involved, will be critical to enhance the efficiency of chemotherapy and develop novel anticancer strategy interventions.

  12. Learning and memory in workers reared by nutritionally stressed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Heather R; Smith, Brian H

    2008-12-15

    Chronic nutritional stress can have a negative impact on an individual's learning ability and memory. However, in social animals that share food among group members, such as the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.), it is unknown whether group-level nutritional stress is manifested in the learning performance of individuals. Accordingly, we examined learning and memory in honey bee workers reared by colonies exposed to varying degrees of long-term pollen stress. Pollen provides honey bee workers with almost all of the proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals that they require as larvae and adults. Colonies were created that were either chronically pollen poor or pollen rich, or were intermediate in pollen supply; treatments altered colonies' pollen stores and brood-rearing capacity. Workers from these colonies were put through a series of olfactory-conditioning assays using proboscis-extension response (PER). PER thresholds were determined, then workers learned in olfactory-conditioning trials to associate two floral odors (one novel and the other presented previously without reward) with stimulation with sucrose and a sucrose reward. The strength of the memory that was formed for the odor/sucrose association was tested after olfactory-conditioning assays ended. Colony-level nutritional status had no effect on worker learning or memory (response threshold of workers to sucrose, acquisition of the odor/sucrose association, occurrence of latent inhibition, or memory retention over 72 h). We conclude that potential effects of chronic, colony-wide nutrient deprivation on learning and memory are not found in workers, probably because colonies use brood-rearing capacity to buffer nutrient stress at the level of the individual.

  13. Learning and memory in workers reared by nutritionally stressed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Heather R; Smith, Brian H

    2008-12-15

    Chronic nutritional stress can have a negative impact on an individual's learning ability and memory. However, in social animals that share food among group members, such as the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.), it is unknown whether group-level nutritional stress is manifested in the learning performance of individuals. Accordingly, we examined learning and memory in honey bee workers reared by colonies exposed to varying degrees of long-term pollen stress. Pollen provides honey bee workers with almost all of the proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals that they require as larvae and adults. Colonies were created that were either chronically pollen poor or pollen rich, or were intermediate in pollen supply; treatments altered colonies' pollen stores and brood-rearing capacity. Workers from these colonies were put through a series of olfactory-conditioning assays using proboscis-extension response (PER). PER thresholds were determined, then workers learned in olfactory-conditioning trials to associate two floral odors (one novel and the other presented previously without reward) with stimulation with sucrose and a sucrose reward. The strength of the memory that was formed for the odor/sucrose association was tested after olfactory-conditioning assays ended. Colony-level nutritional status had no effect on worker learning or memory (response threshold of workers to sucrose, acquisition of the odor/sucrose association, occurrence of latent inhibition, or memory retention over 72 h). We conclude that potential effects of chronic, colony-wide nutrient deprivation on learning and memory are not found in workers, probably because colonies use brood-rearing capacity to buffer nutrient stress at the level of the individual. PMID:18761030

  14. Stress Management Model for the Elementary/Middle/High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Doris B.

    The Matthews Stress Management formula is a stress management model for use in schools. This effective, practical, and inexpensive model entails the awareness of the physiology of stress, perception of tangible bases of motivation for children, appropriate and simplified techniques, applicability to other areas, and full recognition of the…

  15. Effect of a Stress Management Class: One Year Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Addison W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Graduate and undergraduate students showed a reduction in anxiety during a 16-week course designed to include information on the causes and effects of stress as well as practical techniques for stress management. A follow-up study showed that the students were still successfully using the stress management techniques a year later. (RM)

  16. Nutrition in the management of cirrhosis and its neurological complications.

    PubMed

    Bémeur, Chantal; Butterworth, Roger F

    2014-06-01

    Malnutrition is a common feature of chronic liver diseases that is often associated with a poor prognosis including worsening of clinical outcome, neuropsychiatric complications as well as outcome following liver transplantation. Nutritional assessment in patients with cirrhosis is challenging owing to confounding factors related to liver failure. The objectives of nutritional intervention in cirrhotic patients are the support of liver regeneration, the prevention or correction of specific nutritional deficiencies and the prevention and/or treatment of the complications of liver disease per se and of liver transplantation. Nutritional recommendations target the optimal supply of adequate substrates related to requirements linked to energy, protein, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and minerals. Some issues relating to malnutrition in chronic liver disease remain to be addressed including the development of an appropriate well-validated nutritional assessment tool, the identification of mechanistic targets or therapy for sarcopenia, the development of nutritional recommendations for obese cirrhotic patients and liver-transplant recipients and the elucidation of the roles of vitamin A hepatotoxicity, as well as the impact of deficiencies in riboflavin and zinc on clinical outcomes. Early identification and treatment of malnutrition in chronic liver disease has the potential to lead to better disease outcome as well as prevention of the complications of chronic liver disease and improved transplant outcomes.

  17. A Stress-Management Guide for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngs, Bettie B.

    This document presents a comprehensive guide to help young people understand and cope with stress, pressure, and anxiety. Adolescent readers are introduced to the concept of stress, the ways that stress can affect them, and the skills and techniques needed to help them learn effective ways to reduce and manage stress. The guide begins by defining…

  18. Cognitive function, stress hormones, heart rate and nutritional status during simulated captivity in military survival training.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Harris R; Farina, Emily K; Caldwell, John; Williams, Kelly W; Thompson, Lauren A; Niro, Philip J; Grohmann, Kyle A; McClung, James P

    2016-10-15

    Stress influences numerous psychological and physiological processes, and its effects have practical implications in a variety of professions and real-world activities. However, few studies have concurrently assessed multiple behavioral, hormonal, nutritional and heart-rate responses of humans to acute, severe stress. This investigation simultaneously assessed cognitive, affective, hormonal, and heart-rate responses induced by an intensely stressful real-world environment designed to simulate wartime captivity. Sixty males were evaluated during and immediately following participation in U.S. Army Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape (SERE) school, three weeks of intense but standardized training for Soldiers at risk of capture. Simulated captivity and intense mock interrogations degraded grammatical reasoning (p<0.005), sustained-attention (p<0.001), working memory (p<0.05) and all aspects of mood assessed by the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire: Tension/Anxiety, Depression/Dejection, Anger/Hostility, Vigor/Activity, Fatigue/Inertia; Confusion/Bewilderment, and Total Mood Disturbance (p<0.001) It also elevated heart rate (p<0.001); increased serum and salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-s) (p<0.01); elevated serum epinephrine, norepinephrine, and soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR) (p<0.01); increased salivary neuropeptide-Y (NPY) (p<0.001); and decreased serum prolactin and serum and salivary testosterone (p<0.001). Partial recovery was observed immediately after training, but stress-induced changes, particularly in body weight and several of the biomarkers, persisted. This study demonstrates that when individuals were exposed to realistic and controlled simulated captivity, cognition, mood, stress hormones, nutritional status and heart rate are simultaneously altered, and each of these subsequently recovers at different rates. PMID:27374427

  19. Management of stress and stress-related diseases: Emerging computer-based technologies and the rationale for clinical laboratory assessment

    PubMed Central

    Nwose, Ezekiel Uba; Richards, Ross Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Background: Over the years, the issue of stress management in mental health has been discussed without reference to the clinical laboratory perspectives. Translational research and the vast array of emerging diagnostic technologies in alternative medical practice are now bridging the gap. While it would be scientific arrogance for the clinical practitioner and scientist to ignore the trend, the new technologies seeking clinical acceptability necessarily require expatiation of the scientific aspects of their products. Aims: This commentary builds on a comparative critical review to further our hypothesis that oxidative stress is the biochemical basis of the emerging computer-based diagnostic technologies. Materials & Method: The available information on Computer Meridian Diagnostics, Neuropattern and Virtual Scanning technologies were critically reviewed. The differences and similarities were articulated. Results: The technologies seem different, but have similarities that have not been articulated before. The seemingly different theories are traceable to Russian scientists and are based upon stress-induced adrenal secretions and the associated effect on glucose metabolism. The therapeutic effects of antioxidant nutrition, exercise or relaxation that are inherent in the technologies are highlighted. Conclusion: This commentary furthers explanation of the alterations in antioxidant activities as a result of biofeedback, oxidative stress and/or physiological effects as the biochemical basis of the technologies. The place for antioxidant indices and whole blood viscosity are also highlighted. This provides a rationale for the evaluation of available clinical diagnostic tests both to validate the technologies and as clinical laboratory correlates in stress management. PMID:22666709

  20. Tips for Survivors of a Traumatic Event: Managing Your Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Survivors of a Traumatic Event Managing Your Stress Know When to Get Help Sometimes things become ... anger, or desires revenge; or shows signs of stress (listed on this page) for several days or ...

  1. Nutrition in Wound Care Management: A Comprehensive Overview.

    PubMed

    Quain, Angela M; Khardori, Nancy M

    2015-12-01

    Wound care is a multidisciplinary specialty requiring many physiologic and immunologic processes as well as physical, social, and societal factors to achieve successful wound closure. Most wounds are treated with combinations of antimicrobials, protective barriers, and topical growth agents, including skin and biologic grafts.The role of nutrition in wound healing may be overlooked in the wound care patient. Like the specialty, it is often multifaceted, with many nutritional components playing a variety of roles in the wound healing process. Suboptimal nutrition can alter immune function, collagen synthesis, and wound tensile strength, all of which are essential in the wound healing process. It is also important to remember that not all wounds are equal: a burn is different from a diabetic foot ulcer, which is different from a pressure ulcer. Nonetheless, nutrition is a common denominator for all wound patients, and what is studied in 1 wound population is often relevant in another. Due to the complexities of monitoring and measuring both wound healing and dietary intake, randomized, controlled trials of wound care patients are difficult to conduct, and much of the data concerning nutrition in wound care relies on combined supplements. In summary, it appears that some nutrients are necessary only if deficient, whereas others may become conditionally essential and serve a therapeutic role. All of the nutrients discussed should be viewed as a component of a broader, complete diet. This article is a summary of wound healing and the roles of a variety of macronutrients and micronutrients in the process. PMID:27447105

  2. Stress, food, and inflammation: psychoneuroimmunology and nutrition at the cutting edge.

    PubMed

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2010-05-01

    Inflammation is the common link among the leading causes of death. Mechanistic studies have shown how various dietary components can modulate key pathways to inflammation, including sympathetic activity, oxidative stress, transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB activation, and proinflammatory cytokine production. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that stressful events and depression can also influence inflammation through these same processes. If the joint contributions of diet and behavior to inflammation were simply additive, they would be important. However, several far more intriguing interactive possibilities are discussed: stress influences food choices; stress can enhance maladaptive metabolic responses to unhealthy meals; and diet can affect mood as well as proinflammatory responses to stressors. Furthermore, because the vagus nerve innervates tissues involved in the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of nutrients, vagal activation can directly and profoundly influence metabolic responses to food, as well as inflammation; in turn, both depression and stress have well-documented negative effects on vagal activation, contributing to the lively interplay between the brain and the gut. As one example, omega-3 fatty acid intake can boost mood and vagal tone, dampen nuclear factor-kappaB activation and responses to endotoxin, and modulate the magnitude of inflammatory responses to stressors. A better understanding of how stressors, negative emotions, and unhealthy meals work together to enhance inflammation will benefit behavioral and nutritional research, as well as the broader biomedical community.

  3. Epigenetic alterations caused by nutritional stress during fetal programming of the endocrine pancreas.

    PubMed

    Sosa-Larios, Tonantzin C; Cerbón, Marco A; Morimoto, Sumiko

    2015-02-01

    Nutrition during critical periods of development is one of the pivotal factors in establishing a lifelong healthy metabolism. Different nutritional deficiencies such as a low availability of proteins in the maternal diet produce alterations in offspring that include changes in insulin and glucose metabolism, a decrease in the size and number of cells of pancreatic islets of Langerhans, and premature ageing of the secretory function of pancreatic β cells. Moreover, it has been reported that chronic nutritional stress is associated with epigenetic alterations in mechanisms of gene regulation during pancreatic development and function. These alterations can lead to dysfunctional states in pancreatic β cells, which in the long run are responsible for the onset of metabolic diseases like type 2 diabetes. The present review summarizes the most important evidence in relation to the participation of epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of gene expression during the intrauterine programming of the endocrine pancreas in animal models. Such mechanisms include DNA methylation as well as modifications of histones and microRNAs (miRNAs).

  4. Total Parenteral Nutrition-Induced Cholestasis: Prevention and Management.

    PubMed

    Beath, Sue V; Kelly, Deirdre A

    2016-02-01

    When cholestasis occurs in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition, it is the result of many pathogenic pathways converging on the hepatic acinus. The result may be a temporary rise in liver function tests. The resulting fibrosis, portal hypertension, and jaundice are hallmarks of type 3 intestinal-associated liver disease to which children are more susceptible than adults. The key to prevention is in identifying high-risk scenarios, meticulous monitoring, and personalized prescription of parenteral nutrition solutions combined with an active approach in reducing the impact of inflammatory events when they occur by prompt use of antibiotics and line locks.

  5. Nutritional management and growth in children with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Rees, Lesley; Jones, Helen

    2013-04-01

    Despite continuing improvements in our understanding of the causes of poor growth in chronic kidney disease, many unanswered questions remain: why do some patients maintain a good appetite whereas others have profound anorexia at a similar level of renal function? Why do some, but not all, patients respond to increased nutritional intake? Is feed delivery by gastrostomy superior to oral and nasogastric routes? Do children who are no longer in the 'infancy' stage of growth benefit from enteral feeding? Do patients with protein energy wasting benefit from increased nutritional input? How do we prevent obesity, which is becoming so prevalent in the developed world? This review will address these issues. PMID:22825360

  6. Running Therapy: Change Agent in Anxiety and Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Michael L.

    1982-01-01

    Running can be used effectively to produce positive physiological and psychological changes, including cardiovascular and physical fitness, reduction of anxiety, and more effective management of stress. (CJ)

  7. Competency-Based Performance Appraisals: Improving Performance Evaluations of School Nutrition Managers and Assistants/Technicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Evelina W.; Asperin, Amelia Estepa; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the research was to develop a competency-based performance appraisal resource for evaluating school nutrition (SN) managers and assistants/technicians. Methods: A two-phased process was used to develop the competency-based performance appraisal resource for SN managers and assistants/technicians. In Phase I, draft…

  8. [Change of blood antioxidant capacity of experimental animals during nutritional correction under oxidative stress].

    PubMed

    Basov, A A; Bykov, I M

    2013-01-01

    The effect of nutritional correction (a diet high in foods with antioxidant content) on blood parameters in laboratory animals with metabolic disorders associated with oxidative stress has been studied. In experimental models of laboratory animals (male rabbits weighing 3.5-4.0 kg, n = 40) with purulent septic diseases it has been demonstrated that the use of nutritive correction (replacement of 100 g of the cereal mixture through day on a mixture of cabbage 50 g, carrots 50 g, beet 25 g, apple 25 g, kiwi 10 g and garnet 10 g per 1 rabbit) is not inferior to its efficiency of glutathione use (2 g per day). The use of these antioxidants in laboratory animals significantly reduced the phenomenon of oxidative stress on the 5th day: blood antioxidant capacity significantly increased by 14.9 and 26.6%, and the area of the flash of luminol-dependent H2O2-induced chemiluminescence of blood plasma reduced by 44.2 and 48.6% in the experimental groups receiving respectively nutritive correction and glutathione. The low-molecula level of blood antioxidant capacity was restored and the balance of the activity of superoxide dismutase (decrease) and catalase (increase) was achieved on the 10th day of the experiment. These figures significantly (p < 0.05) differed from than in the group of animals receiving no antioxidant correction. The latter studied parameters of prooxidant-antioxidant system reached values comparable with those in intact animals (n = 10) only on the 30th day, confirming the advisability of appointing a complex antioxidant therapy.

  9. Food and Nutrition Services Quality Control Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimsatt-Fraim, Teresa S.

    A program was conducted to improve the quality of food service through the training of 44 food and nutrition service employees in a 200-bed hospital. A 12-week quality control program was implemented to address four key areas: food temperatures, food accuracy, food quality, and dietary personnel. Learning strategies, emphasizing critical thinking…

  10. Perceived job importance and job performance satisfaction of selected clinical nutrition management responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Peggy E; Kwon, Junehee; Rew, Martha L

    2005-07-01

    A nationwide survey of clinical nutrition managers was conducted to assess perceived importance of selected job responsibilities and perceived performance satisfaction of those job responsibilities. A questionnaire was developed to achieve the study objectives, validated by an expert panel, and pilot-tested prior to data collection. All members of the American Dietetic Association's Clinical Nutrition Management dietetic practice group (N=1,668) were asked to rate the importance of selected job responsibilities and their satisfaction with those responsibilities using Likert-type scales with descriptions. Results revealed that clinical nutrition managers perceived all job responsibilities listed in the questionnaire to be important (ie, the mean score of each responsibility was >3.0 of a 4.0 scale). Respondents rated regulatory-related job responsibilities as most important and were most satisfied with their performance of these responsibilities. Following regulatory-related responsibilities, clinical nutrition managers perceived patient satisfaction and staff retention to be more important than other responsibilities. In general, clinical nutrition managers were more satisfied with their job performance for job responsibilities that they ranked as more important.

  11. Stress management in dental students: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alzahem, Abdullah M; Van der Molen, Henk T; Alaujan, Arwa H; De Boer, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of stress management programs in dental education by systematic review of the literature. The number of studies concerning stress management programs for dental students is limited compared with studies discussing sources of stress. Several types of programs for stress management have been reported, and differ in their duration, content, and outcomes. Two main strategies have been used to help stressed students, ie, decreasing the number of stressors and increasing the ability to cope with stress. The first strategy includes several components, such as reducing fear of failure and workload pressure due to examinations and requirements. The second strategy includes coping techniques, such as deep breathing exercises. Although positive effects have been reported for most of the programs, these have mainly been evaluated using subjective self-report measures. There is a need for more research to identify the most effective stress management program.

  12. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: revised 2014 standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists in management of food and nutrition systems.

    PubMed

    Berthelsen, Rita M; Barkley, William C; Oliver, Patricia M; McLymont, Veronica; Puckett, Ruby

    2014-07-01

    Management in food and nutrition systems is presented with an ever-challenging tension between effective utilization of manpower resources, mechanical equipment, financial management, material production, and time constraints to produce optimal products. Management drives opportunities for personal development for multiple levels of its employee workforce. Given an increasing need to deliver high-quality food and services to satisfied customers, the Management in Food and Nutrition Systems Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has developed the Revised 2014 Standards of Professional Performance, which replace the 2009 Standards, as a tool for registered dietitian nutritionists working in food and nutrition systems management within health care and non-health care organizations. These Standards of Professional Performance consist of six domains of professionalism: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. Within each standard, specific indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate how strong communication skills, attention to customer satisfaction, use of various resources, and application of personnel management principles can be applied to practice. The indicators describe three skill levels (ie, competent, proficient, and expert) for registered dietitian nutritionists managing food and nutrition systems. PMID:24956994

  13. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: revised 2014 standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists in management of food and nutrition systems.

    PubMed

    Berthelsen, Rita M; Barkley, William C; Oliver, Patricia M; McLymont, Veronica; Puckett, Ruby

    2014-07-01

    Management in food and nutrition systems is presented with an ever-challenging tension between effective utilization of manpower resources, mechanical equipment, financial management, material production, and time constraints to produce optimal products. Management drives opportunities for personal development for multiple levels of its employee workforce. Given an increasing need to deliver high-quality food and services to satisfied customers, the Management in Food and Nutrition Systems Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has developed the Revised 2014 Standards of Professional Performance, which replace the 2009 Standards, as a tool for registered dietitian nutritionists working in food and nutrition systems management within health care and non-health care organizations. These Standards of Professional Performance consist of six domains of professionalism: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. Within each standard, specific indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate how strong communication skills, attention to customer satisfaction, use of various resources, and application of personnel management principles can be applied to practice. The indicators describe three skill levels (ie, competent, proficient, and expert) for registered dietitian nutritionists managing food and nutrition systems.

  14. Macroelemental composition of cadmium stressed lettuce plants grown under conditions of intensive sulphur nutrition.

    PubMed

    Matraszek, Renata; Hawrylak-Nowak, Barbara; Chwil, Stanisław; Chwil, Mirosława

    2016-09-15

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is moderately sensitive to cadmium (Cd) and shows high accumulation of this metal. Thus, this species is considered to be a good model for both identifying determinants controlling Cd accumulation in plant tissues and for developing breeding strategies aimed at limiting the accumulation of this metal in edible tissues. Simultaneously, lettuce is characterised by medium requirements for sulphur (S) - a macronutrient whose role is associated not only with proper growth and development, but also with stress tolerance. The common use of NPK fertilizers without sulphates (S-SO4) together with the progressive process of reducing emissions of S compounds to the natural environment may lead to deficiency of this element in plants. The present study evaluated the changes in macronutrient content and accumulation in Cd-stressed lettuce 'Justyna' supplied with different S doses. Four concentrations of Cd (0, 0.0002, 0.02 or 0.04 mM) and three levels of S applied in the form of S-SO4 (2, 6 or 9 mM S) were used. Cd exposure impaired the macronutrient balance and accumulation in lettuce. Intensive S nutrition to some extent alleviated Cd-induced toxicity. High S doses, especially 6 mM S, partially improved macronutrient status and restored the macronutrient balance. In Cd-stressed plants supplemented with additional S, an increase in root and shoot biomass and in the content of N, K and Mg was found, without significant changes in the Ca content. Simultaneously, the P and S contents in the biomass of both above- and underground organs remained unchanged. In the leaves, as opposite to the roots, intensive S nutrition reduced the accumulation of Cd. However, the foliar Cd concentration still exceeded the acceptable limits established for consumption. All the obtained results concerning the content of macronutrients and their ratios were referred, inter alia, to the standards i.e. the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) norms.

  15. Stress and Stress Management in Contemporary Adult Education: A Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosbab, F. Paul

    The stress felt by older students in higher education should be addressed by educators and members of the helping professions. The word stress is related to "distress" and perhaps best describes what substantial numbers of adult learners experience when returning to school. For instance, researchers have found graduate students to be particularly…

  16. Dysphagia in the elderly: management and nutritional considerations.

    PubMed

    Sura, Livia; Madhavan, Aarthi; Carnaby, Giselle; Crary, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Dysphagia is a prevalent difficulty among aging adults. Though increasing age facilitates subtle physiologic changes in swallow function, age-related diseases are significant factors in the presence and severity of dysphagia. Among elderly diseases and health complications, stroke and dementia reflect high rates of dysphagia. In both conditions, dysphagia is associated with nutritional deficits and increased risk of pneumonia. Recent efforts have suggested that elderly community dwellers are also at risk for dysphagia and associated deficits in nutritional status and increased pneumonia risk. Swallowing rehabilitation is an effective approach to increase safe oral intake in these populations and recent research has demonstrated extended benefits related to improved nutritional status and reduced pneumonia rates. In this manuscript, we review data describing age related changes in swallowing and discuss the relationship of dysphagia in patients following stroke, those with dementia, and in community dwelling elderly. Subsequently, we review basic approaches to dysphagia intervention including both compensatory and rehabilitative approaches. We conclude with a discussion on the positive impact of swallowing rehabilitation on malnutrition and pneumonia in elderly who either present with dysphagia or are at risk for dysphagia.

  17. Capitalizing on Stress Management Techniques in Developmental Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Elsa C.

    Mastering stress management techniques can help college developmental class educators protect themselves from burnout. These techniques can also be taught to students in developmental classes to enable them to maximize the benefits from these classes. This paper outlines the causes of stress, identifies stressors, describes responses to stress,…

  18. Individual Stress Management Coursework in Canadian Teacher Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Gregory E.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher stress is a significant issue facing the teaching profession. The current paper explores individual stress management as a viable option to address stress in this profession. Specifically, Canadian teacher education programs are examined to identify the prevalence of pre-service teacher education courses focused on individual stress…

  19. A Stress Management Curriculum for At-Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollin, S. A.; Arnold, A. R.; Solomon, S.; Rubin, R. I.; Holland, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Project KICK (Kids in Cooperation with Kids) is a delinquency prevention program for at-risk youth that uses nontraditional approaches to stress management. Twelve African American children who were taught physical, cognitive, and experiential models of stress reduction and management reported that they enjoyed the program, and they demonstrated…

  20. Decreasing Students' Stress through Time Management Training: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Oberst, Verena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a time management training program on perceived control of time and perceived stress in the context of higher education. Twenty-three undergraduate students attended a time management training intervention and reported demands, perceived stress and perceived control of time directly before 2 and…

  1. Nutritional management of a patient with brain damage and spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bildsten, C; Lamid, S

    1983-08-01

    Few reports on nutritional management of patients with both brain damage and spinal-cord-injury appear in the literature. We present a case of a 20-year-old male quadriplegic, C4 complete, who also sustained brain damage secondary to cerebral anoxia. When the patient was transferred to our rehabilitation unit, deterioration in nutritional status was noted, as evidenced by weight loss and depressed serum albumin and hemoglobin. Nutritional rehabilitation consisted of weaning from nasogastric tube feedings to an oral diet providing snacks and commercial supplements. This resulted in a positive nitrogen balance. Other factors, such as mobilization, exercises, and closure of a pressure sore, contributed favorably to improvement of nutritional status. PMID:6411046

  2. Nutritional management of a patient with brain damage and spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bildsten, C; Lamid, S

    1983-08-01

    Few reports on nutritional management of patients with both brain damage and spinal-cord-injury appear in the literature. We present a case of a 20-year-old male quadriplegic, C4 complete, who also sustained brain damage secondary to cerebral anoxia. When the patient was transferred to our rehabilitation unit, deterioration in nutritional status was noted, as evidenced by weight loss and depressed serum albumin and hemoglobin. Nutritional rehabilitation consisted of weaning from nasogastric tube feedings to an oral diet providing snacks and commercial supplements. This resulted in a positive nitrogen balance. Other factors, such as mobilization, exercises, and closure of a pressure sore, contributed favorably to improvement of nutritional status.

  3. Individuals with hematological malignancies before undergoing chemotherapy present oxidative stress parameters and acute phase proteins correlated with nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Carolina de Quadros; Borges, Dayanne da Silva; de Oliveira, Paula Fernanda; Chagas, Thayz Rodrigues; Del Moral, Joanita Angela Gonzaga; Durigon, Giovanna Steffanello; Dias, Bruno Vieira; Vieira, André Guedes; Gaspareto, Patrick; Trindade, Erasmo Benício Santos de Moraes; Nunes, Everson Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Hematological malignancies present abnormal blood cells that may have altered functions. This study aimed to evaluate nutritional status, acute phase proteins, parameters of cell's functionality, and oxidative stress of patients with hematological malignancies, providing a representation of these variables at diagnosis, comparisons between leukemias and lymphomas and establishing correlations. Nutritional status, C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, phagocytic capacity and superoxide anion production of mononuclear cells, lipid peroxidation and catalase activity in plasma were evaluated in 16 untreated subjects. Main diagnosis was acute leukemia (n = 9) and median body mass index (BMI) indicated overweight (25.6 kg/m(2)). Median albumin was below (3.2 g/dL) and CRP above (37.45 mg/L) the reference values. Albumin was inversely correlated with BMI (r = -0.53). Most patients were overweight before the beginning of treatment and had a high CRP/albumin ratio, which may indicate a nutrition inflammatory risk. BMI values correlated positively with lipid peroxidation and catalase activity. A strong correlation between catalase activity and lipid peroxidation was found (r = 0.75). Besides the elevated BMI, these patients also have elevated CRP values and unexpected relations between nutritional status and albumin, reinforcing the need for nutritional counseling during the course of chemotherapy, especially considering the correlations between oxidative stress parameters and nutritional status evidenced here.

  4. Plant response and nutritional needs as affected by salinity and drought stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arid regions face increasing scarcity of fresh water, increasing salinization of water and soil resources and often increasing demand to minimize nutrient loading to drainage waters. Understanding the interaction of abiotic stress on crop production is essential for management and optimization of re...

  5. Maternal stress, nutrition and physical activity: Impact on immune function, CNS development and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Teixeira, Antônio L; Silverman, Marni N

    2015-08-18

    Evidence suggests that maternal and fetal immune dysfunction may impact fetal brain development and could play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders, although the definitive pathophysiological mechanisms are still not completely understood. Stress, malnutrition and physical inactivity are three maternal behavioral lifestyle factors that can influence immune and central nervous system (CNS) functions in both the mother and fetus, and may therefore, increase risk for neurodevelopmental/psychiatric disorders. First, we will briefly review some aspects of maternal-fetal immune system interactions and development of immune tolerance. Second, we will discuss the bidirectional communication between the immune system and CNS and the pathways by which immune dysfunction could contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders. Third, we will discuss the effects of prenatal stress and malnutrition (over and undernutrition) on perinatal programming of the CNS and immune system, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. Finally, we will discuss the beneficial impact of physical fitness during pregnancy on the maternal-fetal unit and infant and how regular physical activity and exercise can be an effective buffer against stress- and inflammatory-related disorders. Although regular physical activity has been shown to promote neuroplasticity and an anti-inflammatory state in the adult, there is a paucity of studies evaluating its impact on CNS and immune function during pregnancy. Implementing stress reduction, proper nutrition and ample physical activity during pregnancy and the childbearing period may be an efficient strategy to counteract the impact of maternal stress and malnutrition/obesity on the developing fetus. Such behavioral interventions could have an impact on early development of the CNS and immune system and contribute to the prevention of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Further research is needed to elucidate this relationship and the underlying

  6. Pancreatic cancer surgery and nutrition management: a review of the current literature

    PubMed Central

    Afaneh, Cheguevara; Gerszberg, Deborah; Slattery, Eoin; Seres, David S.; Chabot, John A.

    2015-01-01

    nutrition screening and intervention, and the surgical/oncological team should include nutrition professionals in managing these patients in the perioperative period. PMID:25713805

  7. Nutritional iron turned inside out: intestinal stress from a gut microbial perspective.

    PubMed

    Kortman, Guus A M; Raffatellu, Manuela; Swinkels, Dorine W; Tjalsma, Harold

    2014-11-01

    Iron is abundantly present on earth, essential for most microorganisms and crucial for human health. Human iron deficiency that is nevertheless highly prevalent in developing regions of the world can be effectively treated by oral iron administration. Accumulating evidence indicates that excess of unabsorbed iron that enters the colonic lumen causes unwanted side effects at the intestinal host-microbiota interface. The chemical properties of iron, the luminal environment and host iron withdrawal mechanisms, especially during inflammation, can turn the intestine in a rather stressful milieu. Certain pathogenic enteric bacteria can, however, deal with this stress at the expense of other members of the gut microbiota, while their virulence also seems to be stimulated in an iron-rich intestinal environment. This review covers the multifaceted aspects of nutritional iron stress with respect to growth, composition, metabolism and pathogenicity of the gut microbiota in relation to human health. We aim to present an unpreceded view on the dynamic effects and impact of oral iron administration on intestinal host-microbiota interactions to provide leads for future research and other applications. PMID:25205464

  8. Nutritional strategies to counter stress to the immune system in athletes, with special reference to football.

    PubMed

    Nieman, David C; Bishop, Nicolette C

    2006-07-01

    Although epidemiological data indicate that athletes are at increased risk of upper respiratory tract infection during periods of heavy training and the 1 - 2 week period following endurance race events, there is very limited information on the responses to football training and match-play. For several hours after heavy exertion, components of both the innate (e.g. natural killer cell activity and neutrophil oxidative burst activity) and adaptive (e.g. T and B cell function) immune system exhibit suppressed function. Although such responses to football training and competition do not appear to be as pronounced, variations in immune cell numbers and function are reported in professional footballers over the course of a season. Attempts have been made through nutritional means (e.g. glutamine, vitamins C and E, and carbohydrate supplementation) to attenuate immune changes following intensive exercise and thus lower the risk of upper respiratory tract infection. Carbohydrate supplementation during heavy exercise has emerged as a partial countermeasure and attenuates increases in blood neutrophil counts, stress hormones, and inflammatory cytokines, but has little effect on decrements in salivary IgA output or natural killer cell function. Animal research indicates that other nutritional components such as beta-glucan, quercetin, and curcumin warrant human investigations to determine if they are effective countermeasures to exercise-induced immune dysfunction. PMID:16766504

  9. Occupational Stress, Mental Health Status and Stress Management Behaviors among Secondary School Teachers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Sharron S. K.; Mak, Yim Wah; Chui, Ying Yu; Chiang, Vico C. L.; Lee, Angel C. K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine occupational stress and mental health among secondary school teachers in Hong Kong, and to identify the differences between those actively engaged in stress management behaviors and those who were not. Design: Survey design was adopted using validated instruments including Occupational Stress Inventory…

  10. Helping Clients Manage Stress: A Practical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Dennis

    The pervasiveness of stress as a problem, with its many harmful effects on people, makes it a matter of growing interest for counselors and other personnel workers. This monograph provides definitions of stress, distress, and eustress, and discusses numerous causes of distress, as well as the benefits of stress to a healthy, productive life.…

  11. Effects of nutritional stress and socio-economic status on maternal mortality in six German villages, 1766-1863.

    PubMed

    Scalone, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of nutritional stress on maternal mortality arising from short-term economic crises in eighteenth-century and nineteenth-century Germany, and how these effects might have been mitigated by socio-economic status. Historical data from six German villages were used to assess how socio-economic conditions and short-term economic crises following poor harvests may have affected maternal mortality. The results show that 1 year after an increase in grain prices the risk of maternal death increased significantly amongst the wives of those working outside the agricultural sector, and more so than for the wives of those working on farms. Nutritional crises seem to have had a significantly stronger impact on maternal mortality in the period 2-6 weeks after childbirth, when mothers were most prone to infections and indirect, obstetrical causes of maternal death. The findings indicate that both nutritional stress and socio-economic factors contributed to maternal mortality.

  12. Adult health outcomes and their implications for experiences of childhood nutritional stress in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Robin G

    2009-01-01

    With insights from the developmental origins of health and disease paradigm (DOHaD), this study explores the impact of childhood nutritional stress on adult health outcomes in Jamaica. Jamaica experienced a lengthy period of political and economic instability beginning in the postcolonial period of the early 1960s. This study tests whether decreased government spending on public resources and limited access to imported food products during the early postcolonial period will be reflected in increased adiposity and body mass index among Jamaican adults. Ethnographic and anthropometric data were collected from individuals born between 1958 and 1988. Variability in health outcomes was assessed using Z-score values for body mass index and summed skinfold thickness measures. Age was employed as both a continuous and categorical independent variable. In partial correlation models controlling for economic status, body mass index values and summed skinfold thickness increased with age. Birth cohort and gender effects were also apparent. Women born between 1959 and 1968 had higher body mass index Z-score values than younger women. Both men and women born between 1959 and 1968 had significantly higher skinfold thickness measures than younger individuals. Individuals born between 1959 and 1968 were children during the immediate postcolonial era in Jamaica. Experiences of nutritional stress during critical developmental periods may have contributed to the observed age-related increases in adipose tissue and body mass index values. This study informs our understanding of the ways that fluctuations in the sociopolitical environment during development can mediate and contribute to poor adult health outcomes.

  13. Current issues in the nutritional management of children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Daniels, L A; Davidson, G P

    1989-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that malnutrition has a negative impact on pulmonary function in children with cystic fibrosis. In the past, dietary management has aimed at high energy low fat intake, but this has recently been shown to fall far short of the 120-150% of the recommended daily allowance for energy cystic fibrosis patients require. This paper outlines the current principles of nutritional management for children with cystic fibrosis. These include a high energy, high fat containing diet (within limits of individual tolerance); high carbohydrate intake; high salt intake; replacement of fat-soluble vitamins; appropriate use of pancreatic enzyme preparations; and supplemental feeding when indicated. It is vital that a nutrition education programme be established for each child and his or her family so that the emphasis shifts from treatment of malnutrition to prevention. The long-term aim must be to promote an independent, healthy lifestyle which incorporates good nutrition and other healthy pursuits such as exercise. PMID:2686614

  14. Comparison of stress and stress management strategies between lesbian and heterosexual women.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, L A; Applegate, J M

    1999-01-01

    Stress is said to be part of life, but stress may be uniquely experienced by different groups of women. We conducted this study to compare the experiences of stress and the methods of stress management used by lesbian and heterosexual women. A convenience sample of 215 (136 lesbian and 79 heterosexual) urban women was used. All women reported generally good mental health; however, more than 80% of the women reported moderate or severe stress. There were more similarities than differences between the groups, but lesbians reported more stress due to sexual identity, being female, and mental problems, and heterosexual women reported more stress due to parents and children. Both groups used a wide range of stress management strategies, although lesbians more frequently used meditation and therapy.

  15. Stress management and erectile dysfunction: a pilot comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kalaitzidou, I; Venetikou, M S; Konstadinidis, K; Artemiadis, A K; Chrousos, G; Darviri, C

    2014-08-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a complex disorder with various biopsychosocial implications leading the individual into a state of chronic stress that further worsens ED symptoms. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a 8-week stress management programme on erectile dysfunction (ED). A convenience sample of 31 newly diagnosed men with ED, aged between 20 and 55 years, was recruited during a period of 5 months to receive either tadalafil (12 patients) or tadalafil and the 8-week stress management programme. Both groups showed statistical significant improvement of both perceived stress and erectile function scores. Men practising stress management showed a statistical significant reduction in perceived stress score compared with men receiving tadalafil alone. No other statistical significant differences were noted between the two groups, although the stress management group showed a lower daily exposure to cortisol compared with the control group after 8 weeks. Finally, perceived stress and cortisol showed some interesting correlations with sexual function measurements. These findings provide important insight into the role of stress management, as part of the recommended biopsychosocial approach, in ED. Future studies should focus on randomised, controlled trials with larger samples and longer follow-up time.

  16. Production of Correa 'Mannii' as a potted plant - propagation, nutrition management, and controlled flowering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Australian natives, Correa ‘Mannii’ and C. reflexa (Rutaceae), are considered suitable as a flowering pot plant. However, comprehensive information on the most effective propagation method and nutrition management and their impact on propagation and flowering is unavailable. The influence of temper...

  17. Perceptions of School Nutrition Directors and Managers Regarding Their Role in School Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Wendy Bounds; Lofton, Kristi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objectives of this study were to investigate the perceptions of school nutrition (SN) directors and managers regarding their role in school wellness, the responsibility of SN professionals for serving as positive role models, and factors contributing to greater involvement in school wellness. Methods: A survey assessing the…

  18. The school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are attempting to uncover the school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students. Data was collected within a time frame for the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) set at two months at the WT Cheney Elementary School and South Wood Elementary for 4th grade stud...

  19. Managing stress and burnout in clinical gerontology.

    PubMed

    Moracco, J C

    1983-01-01

    Stress and burnout is a prevalent feature of the helping profession. The toll that these phenomena take on the individual can be devastating. This article explains the stress reaction from an appraisal model and discusses how the clinic can initiate a stress reduction strategy. A three point intervention plan is recommended. Strategies for changing the occupational environment, individual characteristics, and coping mechanisms constitute three points in a comprehensive plan.

  20. Major intestinal complications of radiotherapy. Management and nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Deitel, M.; To, T.B.

    1987-12-01

    Hospitalization was required in 57 patients for intestinal injuries following radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix, endometrium, ovary, bladder, rectum, and other primary sites. Intestinal complications included stenosis, perforation, rectal ulcer, and rectovaginal, ileovaginal, and ileovesical fistula; 27 patients had multiple intestinal complications. Operation was necessary in 33 patients, as follows: bowel resections, 18; colostomy alone, five; adhesiolysis, five; ileocolic bypass, three; and Hartmann's procedure for sigmoid perforation, two. Five anastomotic leaks and six postoperative deaths occurred. Causes of death among the remaining patients included residual cancer (ten), de novo bowel cancer (two), radiation injury (four), and unrelated causes (six). Resection to uninvolved bowel, omental wrap of anterior resection anastomosis, avoidance of unnecessary adhesiolysis, and long-tube orientation seemed to contribute to successful operations. Nutritional support was used for repletion, post-operative fistulas, and short-gut syndrome.

  1. A multipronged, nutritional-based strategy for managing Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Glick, J Leslie; McMillan, Philip A

    2016-06-01

    A nutritional-based strategy has been proposed in order to improve cognitive performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The strategy requires daily dietary supplementation with magnesium (Mg), folic acid, and vitamins B6 and B12, daily consumption of silicic acid-rich mineral water in order to lower the body burden of Al, and several plasma exchange procedures in order to replace Aβ-bound albumin with fresh albumin. Evidence suggests that the deteriorating cognitive performance associated with AD may be improved by supplementation with either Mg alone or with the combination of the above three B vitamins (B vitamin combo), or by drinking silicic acid-rich mineral water, or by undergoing plasma exchange. However, for the following reasons the combination of all four therapeutic approaches may have a synergistic effect on improving cognitive performance of AD patients. PMID:27142155

  2. CEOs: managing stress key to success, sanity.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, J

    1991-05-01

    Today's high stress isn't driving large numbers of CEOs from health care, a recent survey conducted by Hospitals seems to indicate. Over 80 percent of those surveyed say they will be in health care five years from now. But a majority of the survey's respondents want greater compensation for the increased stress they're facing on the job. And although executive incentive compensation plans have helped CEOs' pay to keep pace with the increased stress, there's controversy over whether the added stress should affect compensation. PMID:2013471

  3. Managing work-related stress in the district nursing workplace.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    This article aims to highlight the issue of work-related stress within the district nursing workplace. It will acknowledge how the management of work-related stress has previously been discussed within nursing literature and will consider the emerging relationship between staff working conditions, staff wellbeing and quality of patient care. It will reintroduce the Health and Safety Executive's (HSE's) Management Standards approach to tackling work-related stress, which provides management support to reduce environmental work stressors and encourage enabling work environments and a positive workplace culture.

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa UV-A-induced lethal effect: influence of salts, nutritional stress and pyocyanine.

    PubMed

    Fernández, R O; Pizarro, R A

    1999-05-01

    The presence of NaCl in plating media shows an important protection against the Pseudomonas aeruginosa UV-A-induced lethal effect, contrasting with the known sensitizing action of salts on UV-A-irradiated Escherichia coli cells. MgSO4 exhibits a similar protection, but lower concentrations than for NaCl are needed to achieve the same effect. NaCl protection from lethal effects involves an osmotic mechanism, while MgSO4 could act by a different process. On the other hand, when cells grown in a complete medium are then incubated for 20 min in a synthetic medium and irradiated with UV-A, a very marked protection is obtained. This protection is dependent on protein synthesis, since treatment with tetracycline, during the nutritional stress, blocks its induction. These results offer a new example of cross-protection among different stressing agents. In our experimental conditions, natural phenazines of P. aeruginosa are not present in the cells, ruling out the possibility that these pigments act as photosensitizers. Conversely, pyocyanine (the major phenazine produced by this microorganism) prevents the UV-A killing effect in a concentration-dependent way when present in the irradiation media. Finally, UV-A irradiation induces, as in E. coli, the accumulation of guanosine tetraphosphate and guanosine pentaphosphate, although the physiological meaning of this finding has yet to be determined. PMID:10443032

  5. [Relationships between biomarkers of oxidative stress and nutritional status in adults, Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Salazar-Lugo, Raquel; Barahona, Amparito; Santamaria, Manuel; Salas, Hilda; Oleas, Mariana; Bermeo, Bélgica

    2014-12-01

    In this work it was evaluated the relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers (uric acid, bilirubin and C-reactive protein) with nutritional status in 321 adults of Ecuador, belonging to administrative staff of of the Universidad Tècnica del Norte, aged 43 ± 10 years old (46 30% female and 53.61% male). Socio demographic and epidemiological information and lifestyle were obtained through a survey; The Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat and body water percentages were calculated; waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure was measured. Determinations of uric acid, bilirubin, and serum C-reactive protein (PCR) were performed. 17.9% of the populations were obese and 51.72% overweight. The highest values of uric acid were found in obese, hypertensive and physical activity groups. The total direct and indirect bilirubin were found in upper limits in abdominal obesity and physical activity groups. The CRP level was influenced by % fat and % water in the low body fat group and in females. In male, BMI and WC were associated with CRP. Uric acid showed relationship with % fat and WC in overweight, high body fat and PHT groups, uric acid was associated with the % water and BMI in obese. Finally, uric acid was associated with % water and the WC in the abdominal obesity, and HT groups'. The body water percentage is an important indicator to development of oxidative stress in this population. PMID:26336722

  6. Mechanisms and Management of Stress Fractures in Physically Active Persons

    PubMed Central

    Romani, William A.; Gieck, Joe H.; Perrin, David H.; Saliba, Ethan N.; Kahler, David M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the anatomy of bone and the physiology of bone remodeling as a basis for the proper management of stress fractures in physically active people. Data Sources: We searched PubMed for the years 1965 through 2000 using the key words stress fracture, bone remodeling, epidemiology, and rehabilitation. Data Synthesis: Bone undergoes a normal remodeling process in physically active persons. Increased stress leads to an acceleration of this remodeling process, a subsequent weakening of bone, and a higher susceptibility to stress fracture. When a stress fracture is suspected, appropriate management of the injury should begin immediately. Effective management includes a cyclic process of activity and rest that is based on the remodeling process of bone. Conclusions/Recommendations: Bone continuously remodels itself to withstand the stresses involved with physical activity. Stress fractures occur as the result of increased remodeling and a subsequent weakening of the outer surface ofthe bone. Once a stress fracture is suspected, a cyclic management program that incorporates the physiology of bone remodeling should be initiated. The cyclic program should allow the physically active person to remove the source of the stress to the bone, maintain fitness, promote a safe return to activity, and permit the bone to heal properly. PMID:16558676

  7. Macroelemental composition of cadmium stressed lettuce plants grown under conditions of intensive sulphur nutrition.

    PubMed

    Matraszek, Renata; Hawrylak-Nowak, Barbara; Chwil, Stanisław; Chwil, Mirosława

    2016-09-15

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is moderately sensitive to cadmium (Cd) and shows high accumulation of this metal. Thus, this species is considered to be a good model for both identifying determinants controlling Cd accumulation in plant tissues and for developing breeding strategies aimed at limiting the accumulation of this metal in edible tissues. Simultaneously, lettuce is characterised by medium requirements for sulphur (S) - a macronutrient whose role is associated not only with proper growth and development, but also with stress tolerance. The common use of NPK fertilizers without sulphates (S-SO4) together with the progressive process of reducing emissions of S compounds to the natural environment may lead to deficiency of this element in plants. The present study evaluated the changes in macronutrient content and accumulation in Cd-stressed lettuce 'Justyna' supplied with different S doses. Four concentrations of Cd (0, 0.0002, 0.02 or 0.04 mM) and three levels of S applied in the form of S-SO4 (2, 6 or 9 mM S) were used. Cd exposure impaired the macronutrient balance and accumulation in lettuce. Intensive S nutrition to some extent alleviated Cd-induced toxicity. High S doses, especially 6 mM S, partially improved macronutrient status and restored the macronutrient balance. In Cd-stressed plants supplemented with additional S, an increase in root and shoot biomass and in the content of N, K and Mg was found, without significant changes in the Ca content. Simultaneously, the P and S contents in the biomass of both above- and underground organs remained unchanged. In the leaves, as opposite to the roots, intensive S nutrition reduced the accumulation of Cd. However, the foliar Cd concentration still exceeded the acceptable limits established for consumption. All the obtained results concerning the content of macronutrients and their ratios were referred, inter alia, to the standards i.e. the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) norms. PMID

  8. Examining the potential for nutritional stress in young Steller sea lions: physiological effects of prey composition.

    PubMed

    Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2005-05-01

    The effects of high- and low-lipid prey on the body mass, body condition, and metabolic rates of young captive Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) were examined to better understand how changes in prey composition might impact the physiology and health of wild sea lions and contribute to their population decline. Results of three feeding experiments suggest that prey lipid content did not significantly affect body mass or relative body condition (lipid mass as a percent of total mass) when sea lions could consume sufficient prey to meet their energy needs. However, when energy intake was insufficient to meet daily requirements, sea lions lost more lipid mass (9.16+/-1.80 kg+/-SE) consuming low-lipid prey compared with eating high-lipid prey (6.52+/-1.65 kg). Similarly, the sea lions lost 2.7+/-0.9 kg of lipid mass while consuming oil-supplemented pollock at maintenance energy levels but gained 5.2+/-2.7 kg lipid mass while consuming identical energetic levels of herring. Contrary to expectations, there was a 9.7+/-1.8% increase in metabolism during mass loss on submaintenance diets. Relative body condition decreased only 3.7+/-3.8% during periods of imposed nutritional stress, despite a 10.4+/-4.8% decrease in body mass. These findings raise questions regarding the efficacy of measures of relative body condition to detect such changes in nutritional status among wild animals. The results of these three experiments suggest that prey composition can have additional effects on sea lion energy stores beyond the direct effects of insufficient energy intake. PMID:15900507

  9. Welfare-positive management and nutrition for the dairy herd: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Logue, David N; Mayne, C Sinclair

    2014-01-01

    As European dairy farms become larger and diverge between grass-based and fully housed systems, interest in the welfare of the dairy cow and related environmental issues by consumers and legislators is increasing. These pressures mean that good nutrition and management, which underpin much dairy cow welfare, is critical. Despite considerable research into the management and nutrition of the dairy cow from calf to adulthood there is much on-farm variability in its application. While the incidences of many endemic diseases are reduced most are still significant, for example lameness. In addition, trade and climate change are bringing a more diverse range of pathogens, parasites and pests into Northern Europe. Housing aspects are limited in application by economics and in most cases still do not match grazing for welfare in temperate climates. Genomic technologies offer increased opportunities to breed for 'robustness' but like 'precision animal management systems' have still to be fully exploited.

  10. Effects of abiotic stress and crop management on cereal grain composition: implications for food quality and safety.

    PubMed

    Halford, Nigel G; Curtis, Tanya Y; Chen, Zhiwei; Huang, Jianhua

    2015-03-01

    The effects of abiotic stresses and crop management on cereal grain composition are reviewed, focusing on phytochemicals, vitamins, fibre, protein, free amino acids, sugars, and oils. These effects are discussed in the context of nutritional and processing quality and the potential for formation of processing contaminants, such as acrylamide, furan, hydroxymethylfurfuryl, and trans fatty acids. The implications of climate change for cereal grain quality and food safety are considered. It is concluded that the identification of specific environmental stresses that affect grain composition in ways that have implications for food quality and safety and how these stresses interact with genetic factors and will be affected by climate change needs more investigation. Plant researchers and breeders are encouraged to address the issue of processing contaminants or risk appearing out of touch with major end-users in the food industry, and not to overlook the effects of environmental stresses and crop management on crop composition, quality, and safety as they strive to increase yield.

  11. The Prevention of Teacher Burnout Through Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Doris B.

    The physical and emotional manifestations of burnout are described. A five-phase model is outlined for preventing extensive stress leading to teacher burnout. Phase One is predicated upon the notion that a professional cannot manage stress without the ability to identify it. Descriptions are given of the signs of physiological, psychological, and…

  12. Parent Stress Management Training for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treacy, Lee; Tripp, Gail; Baird, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a targeted 9-week parent stress management program (PSM) on the parenting stress, mood, family functioning, parenting style, locus of control, and perceived social support of parents of children diagnosed with DSM-IV ADHD. Sixty-three parents from 42 families were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions:…

  13. Sources of Faculty Stress and Strategies for Its Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Paul; Clagett, Craig

    Views on sources of stress on college faculty and strategies for its management were obtained at small-group sessions in the 1980 faculty orientation at Prince George's Community College, Maryland. Sixteen faculty groups generated 218 responses expressing sources of job stress, a complete listing of which is appended. The responses were aggregated…

  14. Blood Pressure Variability and Stress Management Training for Essential Hypertension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Vera, Maria Paz; Sanz, Jesus; Labrador, Francisco J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether stress management training reduces blood pressure (BP) variability in hypertensive patients. Previous literature suggests that cardiovascular risk is not only a function of BP levels, but also of BP variability, and this partially depends on changes induced by the stress of everyday life. The…

  15. Work-related stress management by Finnish enterprises.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen-Amoroso, Maritta; Liira, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Work-related stress has become one of the major problems in working societies and it increases employees' risk of disease. Its importance has been emphasized also due to its' great socio-economic consequences. Different stress management and worksite interventions have been implemented, however, the actual practices in companies have been assessed little. The purpose of this study was to examine how enterprises in Finland manage work-related stress. An assessment of work-related stress methods was conducted in 40 enterprises acting in the metropolitan area of Finland in May 2010 by a questionnaire. The concept of work-related stress was well known by participants. Enterprises rarely had their own work-related stress management protocol even though all of the workplaces had experienced work-related stress at some point. The collaboration between the workplace and occupational health services varied. Companies easily placed the responsibility for work-related stress assessment and handling on occupational health services. Workplaces have to pay more attention to work-related stress and related issues. The easiest way to do this is to collaborate with occupational health services. Protocols for collaboration should be developed jointly using the available models which have been established as cost-effective.

  16. Work-related Stress Management by Finnish Enterprises

    PubMed Central

    KINNUNEN-AMOROSO, Maritta; LIIRA, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Work-related stress has become one of the major problems in working societies and it increases employees’ risk of disease. Its importance has been emphasized also due to its’ great socio-economic consequences. Different stress management and worksite interventions have been implemented, however, the actual practices in companies have been assessed little. The purpose of this study was to examine how enterprises in Finland manage work-related stress. An assessment of work-related stress methods was conducted in 40 enterprises acting in the metropolitan area of Finland in May 2010 by a questionnaire. The concept of work-related stress was well known by participants. Enterprises rarely had their own work-related stress management protocol even though all of the workplaces had experienced work-related stress at some point. The collaboration between the workplace and occupational health services varied. Companies easily placed the responsibility for work-related stress assessment and handling on occupational health services. Workplaces have to pay more attention to work-related stress and related issues. The easiest way to do this is to collaborate with occupational health services. Protocols for collaboration should be developed jointly using the available models which have been established as cost-effective. PMID:24583512

  17. Effects of Boron Nutrition and Water Stress on Nitrogen Fixation, Seed δ15N and δ13C Dynamics, and Seed Composition in Soybean Cultivars Differing in Maturities

    PubMed Central

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Mengistu, Alemu

    2015-01-01

    Therefore, the objective of the current research was to investigate the effects of foliar B nutrition on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars under water stress conditions. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted using different maturity group (MG) cultivars. Plants were well-watered with no foliar B (W − B), well-watered with foliar B (W + B), water-stressed with no foliar B (WS − B), and water-stressed with foliar B (WS + B). Foliar B was applied at rate of 0.45 kg·ha−1 and was applied twice at flowering and at seed-fill stages. The results showed that seed protein, sucrose, fructose, and glucose were higher in W + B treatment than in W − B, WS + B, and WS − B. The increase in protein in W + B resulted in lower seed oil, and the increase of oleic in WS − B or WS + B resulted in lower linolenic acid. Foliar B resulted in higher nitrogen fixation and water stress resulted in seed δ15N and δ13C alteration. Increased stachyose indicated possible physiological and metabolic changes in carbon and nitrogen pathways and their sources under water stress. This research is beneficial to growers for fertilizer management and seed quality and to breeders to use 15N/14N and 13C/12C ratios and stachyose to select for drought tolerance soybean. PMID:25667936

  18. Effects of boron nutrition and water stress on nitrogen fixation, seed δ15N and δ13C dynamics, and seed composition in soybean cultivars differing in maturities.

    PubMed

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Mengistu, Alemu

    2015-01-01

    Therefore, the objective of the current research was to investigate the effects of foliar B nutrition on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars under water stress conditions. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted using different maturity group (MG) cultivars. Plants were well-watered with no foliar B (W - B), well-watered with foliar B (W + B), water-stressed with no foliar B (WS - B), and water-stressed with foliar B (WS + B). Foliar B was applied at rate of 0.45 kg · ha(-1) and was applied twice at flowering and at seed-fill stages. The results showed that seed protein, sucrose, fructose, and glucose were higher in W + B treatment than in W - B, WS + B, and WS - B. The increase in protein in W + B resulted in lower seed oil, and the increase of oleic in WS - B or WS + B resulted in lower linolenic acid. Foliar B resulted in higher nitrogen fixation and water stress resulted in seed δ (15)N and δ (13)C alteration. Increased stachyose indicated possible physiological and metabolic changes in carbon and nitrogen pathways and their sources under water stress. This research is beneficial to growers for fertilizer management and seed quality and to breeders to use (15)N/(14)N and (13)C/(12)C ratios and stachyose to select for drought tolerance soybean.

  19. Effects of boron nutrition and water stress on nitrogen fixation, seed δ15N and δ13C dynamics, and seed composition in soybean cultivars differing in maturities.

    PubMed

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Mengistu, Alemu

    2015-01-01

    Therefore, the objective of the current research was to investigate the effects of foliar B nutrition on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars under water stress conditions. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted using different maturity group (MG) cultivars. Plants were well-watered with no foliar B (W - B), well-watered with foliar B (W + B), water-stressed with no foliar B (WS - B), and water-stressed with foliar B (WS + B). Foliar B was applied at rate of 0.45 kg · ha(-1) and was applied twice at flowering and at seed-fill stages. The results showed that seed protein, sucrose, fructose, and glucose were higher in W + B treatment than in W - B, WS + B, and WS - B. The increase in protein in W + B resulted in lower seed oil, and the increase of oleic in WS - B or WS + B resulted in lower linolenic acid. Foliar B resulted in higher nitrogen fixation and water stress resulted in seed δ (15)N and δ (13)C alteration. Increased stachyose indicated possible physiological and metabolic changes in carbon and nitrogen pathways and their sources under water stress. This research is beneficial to growers for fertilizer management and seed quality and to breeders to use (15)N/(14)N and (13)C/(12)C ratios and stachyose to select for drought tolerance soybean. PMID:25667936

  20. Nutritional ecology of ursids: A review of newer methods and management implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Charles T.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Felicetti, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    The capability to understand the nutritional ecology of free-ranging bears has increased dramatically in the last 20 years. Advancements have occurred because (1) managers and biologists recognized the need to link habitat quality, productivity, and variability with bear movements, home ranges, and demographic parameters like reproductive output, survival, and population growth, and (2) several research teams are using new methods to build on the results of earlier field studies. Our ability to couple new field methods and empirical field research with controlled experiments using captive bears has been central to our increased understanding of bear nutrition. Newer methods include the use of stable isotopes to quantify assimilated diet and nutrient flows within ecosystems, bioelectrical impedance to measure body composition, and naturally occurring mercury to estimate fish intake. Controlled experiments using captive bears have been integral to developing methods, isolating specific variables by controlling the environment, and providing additional nutritional understanding necessary to interpret field observations. We review new methods and apply our increased understanding of bear nutritional ecology to 3 management issues: (1) the importance of salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) to brown bears (Ursus arctos) in the Pacific Northwest, (2) the consequences of the closure of the Yellowstone garbage dumps to grizzly bears, and (3) the relocation of problem bears.

  1. Bee Abundance and Nutritional Status in Relation to Grassland Management Practices in an Agricultural Landscape.

    PubMed

    Smith, Griffin W; Debinski, Diane M; Scavo, Nicole A; Lange, Corey J; Delaney, John T; Moranz, Raymond A; Miller, James R; Engle, David M; Toth, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    Grasslands provide important resources for pollinators in agricultural landscapes. Managing grasslands with fire and grazing has the potential to benefit plant and pollinator communities, though there is uncertainty about the ideal approach. We examined the relationships among burning and grazing regimes, plant communities, and Bombus species and Apis mellifera L. abundance and nutritional indicators at the Grand River Grasslands in southern Iowa and northern Missouri. Treatment regimes included burn-only, grazed-and-burned, and patch-burn graze (pastures subdivided into three temporally distinct fire patches with free access by cattle). The premise of the experimental design was that patch-burn grazing would increase habitat heterogeneity, thereby providing more diverse and abundant floral resources for pollinators. We predicted that both bee abundance and individual bee nutritional indicators (bee size and lipid content) would be positively correlated with floral resource abundance. There were no significant differences among treatments with respect to bee abundance. However, some of the specific characteristics of the plant community showed significant relationships with bee response variables. Pastures with greater abundance of floral resources had greater bee abundance but lower bee nutritional indicators. Bee nutritional variables were positively correlated with vegetation height, but, in some cases, negatively correlated with stocking rate. These results suggest grassland site characteristics such as floral resource abundance and stocking rate are of potential importance to bee pollinators and suggest avenues for further research to untangle the complex interactions between grassland management, plant responses, and bee health.

  2. Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) have greater blood volumes, higher diving metabolic rates and a longer aerobic dive limit when nutritionally stressed.

    PubMed

    Gerlinsky, Carling D; Trites, Andrew W; Rosen, David A S

    2014-03-01

    Marine mammal foraging behaviour inherently depends on diving ability. Declining populations of Steller sea lions may be facing nutritional stress that could affect their diving ability through changes in body composition or metabolism. Our objective was to determine whether nutritional stress (restricted food intake resulting in a 10% decrease in body mass) altered the calculated aerobic dive limit (cADL) of four captive sea lions diving in the open ocean, and how this related to changes in observed dive behaviour. We measured diving metabolic rate (DMR), blood O2 stores, body composition and dive behaviour prior to and while under nutritional restriction. We found that nutritionally stressed sea lions increased the duration of their single long dives, and the proportion of time they spent at the surface during a cycle of four dives. Nutritionally stressed sea lions lost both lipid and lean mass, resulting in potentially lower muscle O2 stores. However, total body O2 stores increased due to rises in blood O2 stores associated with having higher blood volumes. Nutritionally stressed sea lions also had higher mass-specific metabolic rates. The greater rise in O2 stores relative to the increase in mass-specific DMR resulted in the sea lions having a longer cADL when nutritionally stressed. We conclude that there was no negative effect of nutritional stress on the diving ability of sea lions. However, nutritional stress did lower foraging efficiency and require more foraging time to meet energy requirements due to increases in diving metabolic rates and surface recovery times.

  3. Evaluation of the Role of Enteral Nutrition in Managing Patients with Diabetes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Omorogieva; Brooke, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in managing patients with diabetes on enteral feed. The prevalence of diabetes is on the increase in the UK and globally partly due to lack of physical activities, poor dietary regimes and genetic susceptibility. The development of diabetes often leads to complications such as stroke, which may require enteral nutritional support. The provision of enteral feeds comes with its complications including hyperglycaemia which if not managed can have profound consequences for the patients in terms of clinical outcomes. Therefore, it is essential to develop strategies for managing patients with diabetes on enteral feed with respect to the type and composition of the feed. This is a systematic review of published peer reviewed articles. EBSCOhost Research, PubMed and SwetsWise databases were searched. Reference lists of identified articles were reviewed. Randomised controlled trials comparing enteral nutrition diabetes specific formulas with standard formulas were included. The studies which compared diabetes specific formulas (DSF) with standard formulas showed that DSF was more effective in controlling glucose profiles including postprandial glucose, HbA1c and insulinemic response. The use of DSF appears to be effective in managing patients with diabetes on enteral feed compared with standard feed. PMID:25412151

  4. Evaluation of the role of enteral nutrition in managing patients with diabetes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Omorogieva; Brooke, Joanne

    2014-11-18

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in managing patients with diabetes on enteral feed. The prevalence of diabetes is on the increase in the UK and globally partly due to lack of physical activities, poor dietary regimes and genetic susceptibility. The development of diabetes often leads to complications such as stroke, which may require enteral nutritional support. The provision of enteral feeds comes with its complications including hyperglycaemia which if not managed can have profound consequences for the patients in terms of clinical outcomes. Therefore, it is essential to develop strategies for managing patients with diabetes on enteral feed with respect to the type and composition of the feed. This is a systematic review of published peer reviewed articles. EBSCOhost Research, PubMed and SwetsWise databases were searched. Reference lists of identified articles were reviewed. Randomised controlled trials comparing enteral nutrition diabetes specific formulas with standard formulas were included. The studies which compared diabetes specific formulas (DSF) with standard formulas showed that DSF was more effective in controlling glucose profiles including postprandial glucose, HbA1c and insulinemic response. The use of DSF appears to be effective in managing patients with diabetes on enteral feed compared with standard feed.

  5. Effective Stress Management: A Model of Emotional Intelligence, Self-Leadership, and Student Stress Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Jeffery D.; Wu, Jinpei; Godwin, Jeffrey L.; Neck, Christopher P.; Manz, Charles C.

    2012-01-01

    This article develops and presents a model of the relationships among emotional intelligence, self-leadership, and stress coping among management students. In short, the authors' model suggests that effective emotion regulation and self-leadership, as mediated through positive affect and self-efficacy, has the potential to facilitate stress coping…

  6. Effects of boron nutrition and water stress on nitrogen fixation, seed d15N and d13C daynamics, and seed composition in soybean cultivars differing in maturities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water stress is a major abiotic stress factor, resulting in a major yield loss and poor seed quality. Little information is available on the effects of B nutrition on seed composition under water stress. Therefore, the objective of the current research was to investigate the effects of foliar B nutr...

  7. Nutritional approaches in the risk reduction and management of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mi, Weiqian; van Wijk, Nick; Cansev, Mehmet; Sijben, John W C; Kamphuis, Patrick J G H

    2013-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a heterogeneous and devastating neurodegenerative disease with increasing socioeconomic burden for society. In the past 30 y, notwithstanding advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and consequent development of therapeutic approaches to novel pathogenic targets, no cure has so far emerged. This contribution focuses on recent nutritional approaches in the risk reduction and management of AD with emphasis on factors providing a rationale for nutritional approaches in AD, including compromised nutritional status, altered nutrient uptake and metabolism, and nutrient requirements for synapse formation. Collectively these factors are believed to result in specific nutritional requirement in AD. The chapter also emphasizes investigated nutritional interventions in patients with AD, including studies with single nutrients and with the specific nutrient combination Fortasyn Connect and discusses the current shift of paradigm to intervene in earlier stages of AD, which offers opportunities for investigating nutritional strategies to reduce the risk for disease progression. Fortasyn Connect was designed to enhance synapse formation and function in AD by addressing the putative specific nutritional requirements and contains docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, uridine-5'-mono-phosphate, choline, phospholipids, antioxidants, and B vitamins. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with the medical food Souvenaid, containing Fortasyn Connect, showed that this intervention improved memory performance in mild, drug-naïve patients with AD. Electroencephalography outcome in one of these clinical studies suggests that Souvenaid has an effect on brain functional connectivity, which is a derivative of changed synaptic activity. Thus, these studies suggest that nutritional requirements in AD can be successfully addressed and result in improvements in behavioral and neuro-physiological alterations that are characteristic to AD

  8. An ambient agent model for analyzing managers' performance during stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Aziz, Azizi Ab; Gratim, Haned

    2016-08-01

    Stress at work have been reported everywhere. Work related performance during stress is a pattern of reactions that occurs when managers are presented with work demands that are not matched with their knowledge, skills, or abilities, and which challenge their ability to cope. Although there are many prior findings pertaining to explain the development of manager performance during stress, less attention has been given to explain the same concept through computational models. In such, a descriptive nature in psychological theories about managers' performance during stress can be transformed into a causal-mechanistic stage that explains the relationship between a series of observed phenomena. This paper proposed an ambient agent model for analyzing managers' performance during stress. Set of properties and variables are identified through past literatures to construct the model. Differential equations have been used in formalizing the model. Set of equations reflecting relations involved in the proposed model are presented. The proposed model is essential and can be encapsulated within an intelligent agent or robots that can be used to support managers during stress.

  9. ABA flow modelling in Ricinus communis exposed to salt stress and variable nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Peuke, Andreas D.

    2016-01-01

    In a series of experiments with Ricinus communis, abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations in tissues and transport saps, its de novo biosynthesis, long-distance transport, and metabolism (degradation) were affected by nutritional conditions, nitrogen (N) source, and nutrient limitation, or salt stress. In the present study these data were statistically re-evaluated, and new correlations presented that underpin the importance of this universal phytohormone. The biggest differences in ABA concentration were observed in xylem sap. N source had the strongest effect; however, nutrient limitation (particularly phosphorus limitation) and salt also had significant effects. ABA was found in greater concentration in phloem sap compared with xylem sap; however, the effect of treatment on ABA concentration in phloem was lower. In the leaves, ABA concentration was most variable compared with the other tissues. This variation was only affected by the N source. In roots, ABA was significantly decreased by nutrient limitation. Of the compartments in which ABA was quantified, xylem sap ABA concentration was most significantly correlated with leaf stomatal conductance and leaf growth. Additionally, ABA concentration in xylem was significantly correlated to that in phloem, indicating a 6-fold concentration increase from xylem to phloem. The ABA flow model showed that biosynthesis of ABA in roots affected the xylem flow of ABA. Moreover, ABA concentration in xylem affected the degradation of the phytohormone in shoots and also its export from shoots via phloem. The role of phloem transport is discussed since it stimulates ABA metabolism in roots. PMID:27440939

  10. Health of the non-elites at Tombos: Nutritional and disease stress in New Kingdom Nubia.

    PubMed

    Buzon, Michele R

    2006-05-01

    During the New Kingdom period, Egypt succeeded in occupying most of Nubia. Colonial towns were built, which served as centers of government and redistribution. This paper uses a bioarchaeological approach to address the effects of this cultural contact on non-elites. Skeletal remains from the site of Tombos (N = 100), a cemetery in Upper Nubia dating to this important time, are analyzed, in addition to 1,082 individuals from contemporaneous Egyptian and Nubian sites, in order to shed light on the social, political, and economic processes at play and to determine how the people at Tombos were affected during this transitional period. In many ways, the Tombos population appears to have been affected by similar stressors as the other populations under study. However, a few small differences in the subadult frequencies of pathological lesions, especially remodeling rates, are significant in the overall picture of health at Tombos. These analyses suggest that, although the people of Tombos may have been integrated into the Egyptian colonial network, the additional resources they may have obtained could not protect them from nutritional and disease stress. A lower childhood survival through bouts of ill health at Tombos is suggested. While status may have played a role in the differences seen in the comparative populations, it is likely that parasites and/or other infections led to childhood illness and death.

  11. Nutritional Strategies in the Management of Adult Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Dietary Considerations from Active Disease to Disease Remission.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Douglas L; Limketkai, Berkeley; Medici, Valentina; Saire Mendoza, Mardeli; Palmer, Lena; Bechtold, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic, lifelong, and relapsing illnesses, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, which involve the gastrointestinal tract. There is no cure for these diseases, but combined pharmacological and nutritional therapy can induce remission and maintain clinical remission. Malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies among IBD patients result in poor clinical outcomes such as growth failure, reduced response to pharmacotherapy, increased risk for sepsis, and mortality. The aim of this review is to highlight the consequences of malnutrition in the management of IBD and describe nutritional interventions to facilitate induction of remission as well as maintenance; we will also discuss alternative delivery methods to improve nutritional status preoperatively.

  12. [Dyslipidemia management with medical nutrition therapy: current status and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Sucato, Vincenzo; Triolo, Oreste Fabio; Bronte, Enrico; Trovato, Rosaria Linda; Tona, Giuseppe Riccardo; Novo, Salvatore

    2013-09-01

    In Italy, patients with dyslipidemia account for 15-20% of the adult population with major healthcare and socio-economic impact. According to the ESC/EAS guidelines for the management of dyslipidemias, desirable cholesterol and triglyceride levels can be achieved with a synergy between drug treatment and adequate diet therapy. However, what diets should be adopted? In this review article, different types of dietary treatments are compared, with a special focus on diet education. The new scientific frontier of nutrigenetics is also discussed.

  13. The 2014 ESPEN Arvid Wretlind Lecture: Metabolism & nutrition: Shifting paradigms in COPD management.

    PubMed

    Schols, Annemie M W J

    2015-12-01

    COPD is a chronic disease of the lungs, but heterogeneous with respect to clinical manifestations and disease progression. This has consequences for health risk assessment, stratification and management. Heterogeneity can be driven by pulmonary events but also by systemic consequences (e.g. cachexia and muscle weakness) and co-morbidity (e.g. osteoporosis, diabetes and cardiovascular disease). This paper shows how a metabolic perspective on COPD has contributed significantly to understanding clinical heterogeneity and the need for a paradigm shift from reactive medicine towards predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory medicine. These insights have also lead to a paradigm shift in nutritional therapy for COPD from initial ignorance or focusing on putative adverse effects of carbohydrate overload on the ventilatory system to beneficial effects of nutritional intervention on body composition and physical functioning as integral part of disease management. The wider implications beyond COPD as disease have been as clinical model for translational cachexia research. PMID:26474814

  14. Nutritional and management strategies for the prevention of fatty liver in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Grummer, Ric R

    2008-04-01

    Fatty liver occurs in dairy cattle during periods of elevated blood non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs). Elevated blood NEFAs are associated with hormonal changes at parturition and negative energy balance. Approaches for preventing fatty liver include inhibition of fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissues and altering hepatic metabolism to enhance fatty acid oxidation or export as a constituent of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). Nutritional and management strategies to implement these approaches have been examined. Increasing energy density of diet, either by increasing non-fiber carbohydrate or fat, has failed to prevent fatty liver. Two nutritional supplements, ruminally-protected choline and propylene glycol, have proven effective at preventing fatty liver. Choline probably enhances hepatic VLDL secretion. Propylene glycol most likely reduces fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue. Shortening or eliminating the dry period is a management strategy that reduces the magnitude of negative energy balance after calving and triglyceride accumulation in the liver.

  15. Stress Management for Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensor, M. Carol

    This handbook was designed to provide a basic introduction to and understanding of stress and its impact upon children. Several coping techniques for children are presented along with the methods with which to teach them. These techniques are intended to provide a resource for school psychologists working with children and adolescents who are…

  16. Nutritional overview on the management of type 2 diabetes and the prevention of its complications.

    PubMed

    Pegklidou, Kyriaki; Nicolaou, Ioannis; Demopoulos, Vassilis J

    2010-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an increasing world health problem; particularly the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has assumed epidemic dimensions in Western industrialized societies. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. Several epidemiological studies have linked over nutrition and lack of physical activity with type 2 diabetes. Indeed, the excessive consumption of energy dense foods as source of carbohydrates and fats along with ineffective medical management has negative impact on controlling blood glucose levels and on insulin response. This usually leads to a hyperglycemic state, which is associated with the development of the devastating secondary complications. Dietary guidelines have always been important for people with diabetes mellitus. Nutrition management aims to improve health quality maintaining blood glucose levels in normal range so as to reduce the risk for diabetes complications. A well-balanced diet that provides the essential macro- and micro-nutrients is always an impaired need for a patient with diabetes. In this article nutrition recommendations will be displayed for the management of diabetes type 2 and the prevention of its complications. Particular emphasis will be given to the important role of micronutrients such as trace elements and vitamins as well as to the potentiality of some dietary agents to inhibit aldose reductase enzyme, implicated in the etiology of diabetes complications.

  17. COPD - managing stress and your mood

    MedlinePlus

    ... al. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Vancouver, WA: GOLD; 2013. PMID: 22878278 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ ...

  18. [Management of parenteral nutrition in intensive care units in Spain].

    PubMed

    Vaquerizo Alonso, Clara; Mesejo, Alfonso; Acosta Escribano, José; Ruiz Santana, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    y en glucosa, el 42% con SMOF (Soja, MCT, Oliva, Pescado) y el 33% con EBAO (Emulsiones Basadas en Aceite de Oliva) como emulsión lipídica. El 92% adiciona glutamina. Un 60% considera que la nueva fórmula puede estar indicada en sepsis, trauma, quemados y FMO (Fracaso Multiorgánico) y un 30% la utilizaría de rutina al ingreso. Un 40% considera que disminuye las necesidades de insulina, 50% un mejor manejo del volumen y un 60% destaca la relación proteínas/volumen. Evolutivamente, los pacientes con fórmula específica tienen menor afectación hepática, mayor aporte proteico y menor aporte de volumen, sin diferencias significativas, y precisaron menos dosis de insulina (p = 0,07). Conclusiones: En las doce UCIs seleccionadas, los patrones de práctica clínica en el manejo de la nutrición parenteral se adaptan a las recomendaciones de sociedades científicas como la Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva, Crítica y Unidades Coronarias (SEMICYUC), Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral (SENPE) y European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN). Las nuevas fórmulas diseñadas para el paciente grave pueden tener indicaciones en estas patologías.

  19. Role of yoga in stress management.

    PubMed

    Parshad, O

    2004-06-01

    The state of the mind and that of the body are intimately related. If the mind is relaxed, the muscles in the body will also be relaxed. Stress produces a state of physical and mental tension. Yoga, developed thousands of years ago, is recognized as a form of mind-body medicine. In yoga, physical postures and breathing exercises improve muscle strength, flexibility, blood circulation and oxygen uptake as well as hormone function. In addition, the relaxation induced by meditation helps to stabilize the autonomic nervous system with a tendency towards parasympathetic dominance. Physiological benefits which follow, help yoga practitioners become more resilient to stressful conditions and reduce a variety of important risk factors for various diseases, especially cardio-respiratory diseases.

  20. Delivery and Evaluation of Training for School Nutrition Administrators and Managers on Meeting Special Food and Nutrition Needs of Students in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakley, Charlotte B.; Knight, Kathy; Hobbs, Margie; Dodd, Lacy M.; Cole, Janie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this investigation was to complete a formal evaluation of a project that provided specialized training for school nutrition (SN) administrators and managers on meeting children's special dietary needs in the school setting. Methods: The training was provided as part of the "Eating Good and Moving Like We Should"…

  1. [Advances in metabolic and nutritional management of patients in critical care].

    PubMed

    Hasebe, M; Suzuki, H; Nakatani, T; Kobayashi, K

    1999-07-01

    Nutritional management often fails in critically ill patients such as trauma and sepsis because of their acutely progressive malnutrition and metabolic derangement being characteristic of such clinical settings. Nutritional strategies for these patients have been almost established by the methods of clinical epidemiology. A considerable amount of clinical evidences suggests that the following should be of benefit for the patients, enteral delivery of nutrition, a nutrition assessment including metabolic evaluation such as liver function or energy requirements, and supplementation of specialty nutrients. Our current data suggest that the metabolic evaluation should include measurement of energy expenditure, assessment of hepatic mitochondrial function, and measurement of the magnitude of body water deviations. Energy expenditure and hepatic mitochondrial function can be observed by the methods of indirect calorimetry and arterial ketone body measurement, respectively. These parameters are helpful to prevent overfeeding from the patients. We emphasize that application of a new method, body impedance spectrum analysis, is important and useful to evaluate the change of body water distributions resulting from metabolic derangement. PMID:10481846

  2. Physical activity, genetic, and nutritional considerations in childhood weight management.

    PubMed

    Bar-Or, O; Foreyt, J; Bouchard, C; Brownell, K D; Dietz, W H; Ravussin, E; Salbe, A D; Schwenger, S; St Jeor, S; Torun, B

    1998-01-01

    Almost one-quarter of U.S. children are now obese, a dramatic increase of over 20% in the past decade. It is intriguing that the increase in prevalence has been occurring while overall fat consumption has been declining. Body mass and composition are influenced by genetic factors, but the actual heritability of juvenile obesity is not known. A low physical activity (PA) is characteristic of obese children and adolescents, and it may be one cause of juvenile obesity. There is little evidence, however, that overall energy expenditure is low among the obese. There is a strong association between the prevalence of obesity and the extent of TV viewing. Enhanced PA can reduce body fat and blood pressure and improve lipoprotein profile in obese individuals. Its effect on body composition, however, is slower than with low-calorie diets. The three main dietary approaches are: protein sparing modified fast, balanced hypocaloric diets, and comprehensive behavioral lifestyle programs. To achieve long-standing control of overweight, one should combine changes in eating and activity patterns, using behavior modification techniques. However, the onus is also on society to reduce incentives for a sedentary lifestyle and over-consumption of food. To address the key issues related to childhood weight management, the American College of Sports Medicine convened a Scientific Roundtable in Indianapolis. PMID:9475638

  3. Current trends in pig nutrition at intensive or organic-farm management.

    PubMed

    Grela, E R

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents some current problems related to pig nutrition at the intensive and organic rearing systems. Issues shared by both sectors of the pig management as well as specific organic feeding regimes are discussed. A growing concern in nutrient balance has been emphasized, especially protein digested in the caudal segment of the small intestine. Besides, the problems of animal welfare in both management systems were addressed along with the ban on growth promoter application (hormones and antibiotics) that appear to be redundant or even hazardous for human health. PMID:19227142

  4. Adaptive capability as indicated by endocrine and biochemical responses of Malpura ewes subjected to combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) in a semi-arid tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Maurya, Vijai P.; Naqvi, Sayeed M. K.

    2010-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) on endocrine and biochemical responses in Malpura ewes. Twenty eight adult Malpura ewes (average body weight 33.56 kg) were used in the present study. The ewes were divided into four groups viz., GI ( n = 7; control), GII ( n = 7; thermal stress), GIII ( n = 7; nutritional stress) and GIV ( n = 7; combined stress). The animals were stall fed with a diet consisting of 60% roughage and 40% concentrate. GI and GII ewes were provided with ad libitum feeding while GIII and GIV ewes were provided with restricted feed (30% intake of GI ewes) to induce nutritional stress. GII and GIV ewes were kept in climatic chamber at 40°C and 55% RH for 6 h a day between 1000 hours and 1600 hours to induce thermal stress. The study was conducted for a period of two estrus cycles. The parameters studied were Hb, PCV, glucose, total protein, total cholesterol, ACP, ALP, cortisol, T4, T3, and insulin. Combined stress significantly ( P < 0.05) affected all parameters studied. Furthermore, the results revealed that, compared to thermal stress, nutritional stress had a less significant effect on the parameters studied. However, when both these stresses were coupled, they had a severe impact on all the parameters studied in these ewes. It can be concluded from this study that two stressors occurring simultaneously may impact severely on the biological functions necessary to maintain homeostasis in sheep.

  5. Nutritional aspects in diagnosis and management of food hypersensitivity-the dietitians role.

    PubMed

    Venter, Carina; Laitinen, Kirsi; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber

    2012-01-01

    Many common foods including cow's milk, hen's egg, soya, peanut, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, and wheat may cause food allergies. The prevalence of these immune-mediated adverse reactions to foods ranges from 0.5% to 9% in different populations. In simple terms, the cornerstone of managing food allergy is to avoid consumption of foods causing symptoms and to replace them with nutritionally equivalent foods. If poorly managed, food allergy impairs quality of life more than necessary, affects normal growth in children, and causes an additional economic burden to society. Delay in diagnosis may be a further incremental factor. Thus, an increased awareness of the appropriate procedures for both diagnosis and management is of importance. This paper sets out to present principles for taking an allergy-focused diet history as part of the diagnostic work-up of food allergy. A short overview of guidelines and principles for dietary management of food allergy is discussed focusing on the nutritional management of food allergies and the particular role of the dietitian in this process.

  6. Acid stress management by Cronobacter sakazakii.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Cummins, Conor; Deasy, Thérèse; Clifford, Tanya; Begley, Máire; Hill, Colin

    2014-05-16

    Cronobacter sakazakii is a foodborne pathogenic microorganism associated with sporadic cases of neonatal meningitis, necrotising enterocolitis, septicaemia, bloody diarrhoea and brain abscesses acquired through the consumption of contaminated powdered infant formula (PIF). This study aimed to investigate the growth of C. sakazakii DPC6529, a particularly stress tolerant clinical isolate, in acidified laboratory media and PIF. The possibility of a stationary-phase acid tolerance response (ATR) was also investigated. C. sakazakii DPC6529 grew in LB broth acidified to pH4.2 with hydrochloric acid (HCl) and was capable of relatively fast growth in PIF acidified to pH5.0 with HCl, representing the stomach pH reported for newborns and infants. Moreover, bacterial growth in LB broth supplemented with 1% (w/v) glucose gave rise to a stationary-phase ATR which resulted in enhanced survival against a subsequent acid challenge at pH3.0. A transposon mutagenesis approach was used to shed light on some of the molecular mechanisms involved in the response C. sakazakii DPC6529 to normally lethal acid exposures. The data suggests that repairing damage in proteins and nucleic acids, posttranscriptional modification of tRNA molecules and maintenance of the integrity of the cellular envelope are key processes in the defence against acid stress. Clones carrying transposon insertions in genes encoding the envelope stress response regulators CpxR and OmpR were identified as acid-sensitive mutants. Further analyses of the ompR defective mutant and its complemented counterpart evidenced that OmpR is a key player in the response of C. sakazakii to acid stress, although it was not essential to mount an active stationary-phase ATR, at least under the tested conditions. The ability of C. sakazakii DPC6529 to grow in acid environments and to develop an adaptive stationary-phase ATR may allow for its survival or even proliferation within the infant gastrointestinal tract after consumption of

  7. Assessing the nutritional stress hypothesis: Relative influence of diet quantity and quality on seabird productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Roby, D.D.; Turco, K.R.; Suryan, R.M.; Irons, D.B.; Piatt, J.F.; Shultz, M.T.; Roseneau, D.G.; Kettle, A.B.; Anthony, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Food availability comprises a complex interaction of factors that integrates abundance, taxonomic composition, accessibility, and quality of the prey base. The relationship between food availability and reproductive performance can be assessed via the nutritional stress (NSH) and junkfood (JFH) hypotheses. With respect to reproductive success, NSH posits that a deficiency in any of the aforementioned metrics can have a deleterious effect on a population via poor reproductive success. JFH, a component of NSH, posits specifically that it is a decline in the quality of food (i.e. energy density and lipid content) that leads to poor reproductive success. We assessed each in relation to reproductive success in a piscivorous seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. We measured productivity, taxonomic composition, frequency, size, and quality of meals delivered to nestlings from 1996 to 1999 at 6 colonies in Alaska, USA, 3 each in Prince William Sound and Lower Cook Inlet. Productivity varied widely among colony-years. Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, and capelin Mallotus villosus comprised ca. 80% of the diet among colony-years, and each was characterized by relatively high energy density. Diet quality for kittiwakes in this region therefore remained uniformly high during this study. Meal delivery rate and meal size were quite variable among colony-years, however, and best explained the variability in productivity. Parent kittiwakes appeared to select prey that were energy dense and that maximized the biomass provisioned to broods. While these results fail to support JFH, they do provide substantial support for NSH. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  8. A group self-care approach to stress management.

    PubMed

    Garrison, J; Scott, P A

    1979-06-01

    A procedure is described for teaching patients the use of relaxation as a coping skill. The procedure, called Stress Management Training, combines Progressive Relaxation and Clinical Meditation into a standardized but flexible seven-session protocol. The technique has been used to treat a variety of stress-related medical and psychological problems. The training consists of three components. The first is giving the patient a cognitive understanding of stress and relaxation. The second, teaching the patient to relax by controlling the muscle tension and sympathetic nervous system activity. The third, teaching the patient to generalize the relaxation skill to real-life stress situations. Patients are also instructed in the relationship between stress, basic health practices, and physical health status.

  9. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J.; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909

  10. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function.

    PubMed

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2014-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity.

  11. Viability of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional stress irradiated with red laser, infrared laser, and red light-emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Bagnato, Vanderley Salvador; Machado, Maria A. A. M.

    2011-07-01

    Phototherapy is noninvasive, painless and has no known side effect. However, for its incorporation into clinical practice, more well-designed studies are necessary to define optimal parameters for its application. The viability of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional stress irradiated with either a red laser, an infrared laser, or a red light-emitting diode (LED) was analyzed. Irradiation parameters were: red laser (660 nm, 40 mW, 1 W/cm2), infrared laser (780 nm, 40 mW, 1 W/cm2), and red LED (637 +/- 15 nm, 40 mW, 1 W/cm2). All applications were punctual and performed with a spot with 0.4 mm2 of diameter for 4 or 8 s. The Kruskal-Wallis test and analysis of variance of the general linear model (p <= 0.05) were used for statistical analysis. After 72 h, phototherapy with low-intensity laser and LED showed no toxicity at the cellular level. It even stimulated methylthiazol tetrazolium assay (MTT) conversion and neutral red uptake of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional stress, especially in the group irradiated with infrared laser (p = 0.004 for MTT conversion and p < 0.001 for neutral red uptake). Considering the parameters and protocol of phototherapy used, it can be concluded that phototherapy stimulated the viability of fibroblasts cultured under nutritional deficit resembling those found in traumatized tissue in which cell viability is reduced.

  12. Role of Medical Nutrition Therapy in the Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Castilla, Cristina; Mauricio, Didac; Hernandez, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) plays an important role in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and accordingly, it has a significant impact on women and newborns. The primary objective of MNT is to ensure adequate pregnancy weight gain and fetus growth while maintaining euglycemia and avoiding ketones. However, the optimal diet (energy content, macronutrient distribution, its quality and amount, among others) remains an outstanding question. Overall, the nutritional requirements of GDM are similar for all pregnancies, but special attention is paid to carbohydrates. Despite the classical intervention of restricting carbohydrates, the latest evidence, although limited, seems to favor a low-glycemic index diet. There is general agreement in the literature about caloric restrictions in the case of being overweight or obese. Randomized controlled trials are necessary to investigate the optimal MNT for GDM; this knowledge could yield health benefits and cost savings.

  13. Management of multicellular senescence and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Haines, David D; Juhasz, Bela; Tosaki, Arpad

    2013-01-01

    Progressively sophisticated understanding of cellular and molecular processes that contribute to age-related physical deterioration is being gained from ongoing research into cancer, chronic inflammatory syndromes and other serious disorders that increase with age. Particularly valuable insight has resulted from characterization of how senescent cells affect the tissues in which they form in ways that decrease an organism's overall viability. Increasingly, the underlying pathophysiology of ageing is recognized as a consequence of oxidative damage. This leads to hyperactivity of cell growth pathways, prominently including mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), that contribute to a build-up in cells of toxic aggregates such as progerin (a mutant nuclear cytoskeletal protein), lipofuscin and other cellular debris, triggering formation of senescent cellular phenotypes, which interact destructively with surrounding tissue. Indeed, senescent cell ablation dramatically inhibits physical deterioration in progeroid (age-accelerated) mice. This review explores ways in which oxidative stress creates ageing-associated cellular damage and triggers induction of the cell death/survival programs’ apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and ‘necroapoptophagy’. The concept of ‘necroapoptophagy’ is presented here as a strategy for varying tissue oxidative stress intensity in ways that induce differential activation of death versus survival programs, resulting in enhanced and sustained representation of healthy functional cells. These strategies are discussed in the context of specialized mesenchymal stromal cells with the potential to synergize with telocytes in stabilizing engrafted progenitor cells, thereby extending periods of healthy life. Information and concepts are summarized in a hypothetical approach to suppressing whole-organism senescence, with methods drawn from emerging understandings of ageing, gained from Cnidarians (jellyfish, corals and anemones) that undergo a

  14. Grazing management as it affects nutrition, animal production and economics of beef production.

    PubMed

    Parsons, S D; Allison, C D

    1991-03-01

    Until recently, the nutritional fate of the grazing animal has been largely ignored by both animal and range scientists despite the economic dependence of the extensive livestock industry on nutrition from grass. Of the three factors that can be manipulated to improve profit gross margin per animal, is one that is directly affected by nutrition and, hence, grazing management. The relationship between economics and grazing management may be summarized as: Gross margin = f(Animal Performance); Animal Performance = f(nutrition); Nutrition = f(grazing). Economical beef production must consider the needs of the animal and the forage plant at the same time. The health of the sward must be maintained while improving individual animal performance and simultaneously increasing stocking rate. Generally, plants that have been defoliated require a period of recovery before again being grazed. A sward is kept in a vigorous state by preventing repetitive defoliation at the one extreme, and avoiding excessive shading (mature growth) of photosynthetic material at the other. This state is best achieved where livestock grazing is controlled. For any individual paddock, periods of grazing are followed by periods that allow adequate physiologic recovery of the plants. A grazing regimen that keeps the plant in a healthy state is fortuitously also well suited to the nutritional requirements of the animal. Animals on overgrazed pastures are likely to suffer from inadequate feed intake because of deficiencies in feed quantity. Conversely, on over-rested pastures, intake deficiency results from paucity in feed quality. On most unmanaged ranges, overgrazed and over-rested plants are likely to be found side by side. By controlling duration of the rest period as well as duration of the grazing period through pasture subdivision, requirements of both the plant and the animal can be met. With artificially high economic demands placed on animal production, some form of supplementation is

  15. Prevalence of outsourcing and perception of clinical nutrition managers on performance of health care dietetics services.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Junehee; Yoon, Barbara J H

    2003-08-01

    A nationwide survey of clinical dietitians and clinical nutrition managers was conducted to assess the prevalence of outsourcing in health care dietetics services and to evaluate perceived performance of dietetics services. A questionnaire was developed, validated by an expert panel, and pilot tested prior to data collection. Members of the Clinical Nutrition Management Dietetic Practice Group (N=1,668) were selected as the study sample. Of 431 respondents, 152 (35.3%) indicated that management of both patient and cafeteria foodservices was outsourced. When mean scores of perceived performance ratings were compared using t test, respondents from self-operated facilities rated several items related to patient and cafeteria food quality and material and human resource utilization higher than respondents at contract-managed facilities. No significant differences were found in performance related to decision-making process, buying power, or training programs. Results suggest that careful weighing of advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing is needed before making decisions regarding outsourcing dietetics services.

  16. Occupational Stress and Turnover Intention: Implications for Nursing Management

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study was to explore the status of occupational stress among hospital nurses in Isfahan, Iran. It also aimed to examine the relationship between nurses’ occupational stress and their intention to leave the hospital. Methods: The study employed a cross-sectional research design. A validated questionnaire was used to collect data from 296 nurses. Respondents were asked to rate the intensity of 30 common occupational stressors using a five-point scale. Results: A third of hospital nurses rated their occupational stress high. The major sources of stress were inadequate pay, inequality at work, too much work, staff shortage, lack of promotion, job insecurity and lack of management support. More than 35% of nurses stated that they are considering leaving the hospital, if they could find another job opportunity. Occupational stress was positively associated with nurses’ turnover intentions. Conclusion: Hospital managers should develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to reduce occupational stress and consequently nurses’ turnover intention. PMID:24596858

  17. Emergency and crisis management: critical incident stress management for first responders and business organisations.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, Daniel H

    2012-01-01

    A literature review was performed on critical incident stress after September 11th, 2001 (9/11), and Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which focused on the need to implement a holistic critical incident stress management programme for first responders and business organisations. Critical incident stress management is required to handle acute stress and other distress in the face of natural or man-made disasters, including terrorist attacks. A holistic approach to community resilience through a well-planned and implemented critical incident stress management programme has been shown in the literature to promote self-help and self-efficacy of individuals and organisations. The interventions and programme elements defined clearly show how a number of different intervention and prevention strategies will promote business and community resilience and also self-efficacy in a culturally-diverse community and organisation. Implementing a critical incident stress management programme within a responding business organisation is critical because of the fact that first responders are the most susceptible every day to exposure to critical incidents that will affect their mental health; and business employees will suffer some of the same maladies as first responders in the event of a disaster or crisis. Utilising the framework provided, a holistic critical incident stress management programme can be implemented to help reduce the effects of burnout, absenteeism, acute stress, post-traumatic stress, substance use and traumatic stress, and to work to promote community resilience and toughen individuals against the effects of stress. Taking care of the needs of the employees of a business organisation, and of those of first responders, is clearly required.

  18. Coping Strategies for Managing Acculturative Stress among Asian International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ra, Young-An; Trusty, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the effects of specific coping strategies on managing acculturative stress and acculturation of Asian international students, based on a sample of 220 Asian international students in the U.S. The data were analyzed with hierarchical multiple regression using Baron and Kenny's (1986) mediation procedure. The results supported…

  19. Employee Assistance Programmes: The Emperor's New Clothes of Stress Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Andrew R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the employee assistance program (EAP), a benefit increasingly provided by United Kingdom employers that claims to reduce the effects of stress on individuals and organizations, provide a management tool to improve workplace performance and productivity, and respond to critical incidents. Describes EAPs, their history, development and…

  20. Stress Management Training for Parents of Severely Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, George H. S.

    The study examined the efficacy of a stress management training procedure for reducing anxiety and depression in parents of severely handicapped children between the ages of 4 and 16. Thirty-six parents were randomly assigned to treatment or control groups which completed pre- and post-measures of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the…

  1. Stress Management Techniques for Graduate Students: Cognitive Coping, Problem-Solving and Time Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolko, David J.

    The application of stress management techniques to highly specialized populations and disorders has become an increasingly important clinical endeavor in recent years. Curiously, however, individuals undergoing one of the most stress-laden experiences, graduate school, have rarely been the focus of such efforts. There are three major forms of…

  2. Pregnancy Weight Gain Limitation by a Supervised Nutritional Program Influences Placental NF-κB/IKK Complex Expression and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zerón, Hugo Mendieta; Flores, Alejandro Parada; Chávez, Araceli Amaya; Alanís, Adriana Garduño; Ferreyra, María del Carmen Colín; Benítez, Jonnathan Guadalupe Santillán; Castañeda, Violeta Saraí Morales; García, Ma. Victoria Domínguez

    2013-01-01

    Objective Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway and oxidative stress participate in endothelial dysfunction, which is one of the causes of pre-eclampsia. Among the human antioxidant mechanisms, there are the enzymes catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Our aim was to measure NF-κB, its inhibitor (IKK) and oxidative stress in placenta and umbilical cord of pregnant women submitted to a supervised nutritional program. Methods Two groups were conformed: A) 14 pregnant women with individualized nutritional counseling, and B) 12 pregnant women without nutritional guidance. NF-κB and IKK were assessed by real time PCR (RT-PCR). Enzymatic activity of CAT, GPx, lipoperoxidation (LPO) and SOD were also evaluated. Results Pregnant women that followed a supervised nutritional program had lower levels of systolic (p=0.03) and diastolic pressure (p=0.043) although they were heavier than the control group (p=0.048). Among all the women, the Spearman correlation was positive between weight gain and placental NF-κB expression (1, p≤0.01). In the placenta, women with nutritional advice had lower enzymatic activity of GPx (p≤0.038) and showed a tendency of IKK to be higher than in women without a nutritional supervised program. Conclusion A supervised nutritional program in pregnancy offers a proven option to control weight gain, hypertension, NF-κB/IKK complex expression and oxidative stress reactions in the placenta. PMID:23772281

  3. The ABCs of Stress Management: A Little Stress Is Good For You, If You Know How To Handle It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelehear, Zach

    2005-01-01

    Educational psychologist Jean Piaget (1972) used a term called "equilibration" to describe our attempts to manage stress. He suggested that some stress was a good thing because it was during moments of stress and angst that we were likely to learn and grow. Put another way, if we are never stressed then there is nothing challenging us to grow. So…

  4. Wound treatment and pain management: a stressful time.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Kyoichi; Upton, Dominic

    2013-12-01

    This review and case study report considers the evidence to indicate that the progress of wound healing is negatively affected by the presence of stressors and in circumstances where patients are in pain. It considers the relationship between perceptions of pain, stress and delayed wound healing with a specific focus on guidance for clinical practice. It is appreciated that although the literature has examined these issues in the management of acute wounds, demonstrating that psychological stress can have detrimental effects on the wound-healing process, the evidence to support this link in relation to chronic wounds is limited. The review considers evidence indicating that punch biopsy wounds heal more slowly in subjects under stress on account of caring for family members with long-term illnesses and also considers briefly the relationship between cortisol secretion in response to stress and the consequent influences on cytokine levels and the wound-healing process. PMID:22905710

  5. Interactions between nutrition and reproduction in the management of the mature male ruminant.

    PubMed

    Martin, G B; Blache, D; Miller, D W; Vercoe, P E

    2010-07-01

    end of the scale, overweight males can show reduced sexual success because they have difficulty courting and mounting. For this reason, exercise can enhance the fertilising capacity of rams. This will be important in extensive mating systems where males need to assemble and guard a harem and then mate many times for several weeks. For artificial insemination centres, there seems to be very few data on the nutritional management of males, but problems with overfed animals appear to be a risk. Future research should concentrate on the intra-testicular systems mediating the effects of nutrition on the production of spermatozoa.

  6. Nutritional education for management of osteodystrophy (NEMO) trial: Design and patient characteristics, Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Karavetian, Mirey; Abboud, Saade; Elzein, Hafez; Haydar, Sarah; de Vries, Nanne

    2014-02-01

    demonstrate a better nutritional management of HD patients. PMID:24611112

  7. Bioenergetic response of the extreme thermoacidophile Metallosphaera sedula to thermal and nutritional stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Peeples, T.L.; Kelly, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    The bioenergetic response of the extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon Metallosphaera sedula to thermal and nutritional stresses was examined. Continuous cultures (pH 2.0, 70{degrees}C, and dilution rate of 0.05h{sup {minus}1}) in which the levels of Casamino Acids and ferrous iron in growth media were reduced by a step change of 25 to 50% resulted in higher levels of several proteins. At 70{degrees}C under optimal growth conditions, M. sedula was typically found to have a {triangle}p of approximately -190 to -200{sub m}V, the result of an intracellular {sub p}H of 5.4 (extracellular {sub p}H, 2.0) and a {triangle}{Psi} of +40 to +50 {sub m}V, (positive inside). After cells had been shifted to either 80 or 85{degrees}C, {triangle}{Psi} decreased to nearly 0 {sub m}V and internal {sub p}H approached 4.0 within 4 h of the shift; respiratory activity, as evidenced by iron speciation in parallel temperature-shifted cultures on iron pyrite, had ceased by this point. If cultures shifted from ;70 to 80{degrees}C were shifted back to 70{degrees}C after 4 h, cells were able to regain pyrite oxidation capacity and internal {sub p}H increased to nearly normal levels after 13 h. However, {triangle}{Psi} remained close to 9 {sub m}V, possibly the result of enhanced ionic exchange with media upon thermal damage to cell membranes. Further, when M. sedula was subjected to an intermediate temperature shift from 73 to 79{degrees}C, an increase in pyrite dissolution (ferric iron levels doubled) over that of the unshifted control at 73{degrees}C was noted. The improvement in leaching was attributed to the synergistic effect of chemical and biological factors. As such, periodic exposure to higher temperatures, followed by a suitable recovery period, may provide a basis for improving bioleaching rates of acidophilic chemolithotrophs. 38 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Management and Prevention of Surgical and Nutritional Complications After Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Marcotte, Eric; Chand, Bipan

    2016-08-01

    Bariatric surgery is well-recognized for its effects on health, beyond weight-loss. It underwent a revolution recently with the growing performance of laparoscopic procedures, leading to enhanced recovery and a reduction in procedural risk. However, surgical complications, although rare, do develop. It is important to recognize the complications, and ideally prevent them from happening. This article reviews the risks of the four most commonly performed bariatric procedures, with an emphasis on technique and management in the intraoperative and postoperative period. The nutritional aspect of bariatric surgery is of the utmost importance, because catastrophic consequences have been linked to malnutrition and vitamin deficiencies. PMID:27473805

  9. [Management of stressing events and prevention of post-traumatic stress in the railroad setting].

    PubMed

    del Nord, P

    2012-01-01

    The paper addresses the proper management of events that can lead to post traumatic stress, that are the situations where: the person experienced or witnessed, or was confronted with an event or events that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others. This document results from a collation of the knowledge acquired by railway undertakings and infrastructure managers on the management and prevention of post-traumatic stress. Having surveyed the various strategies for the management of post-traumatic stress as these are applied in the participating countries, a number of recommendations and best practices were identified and these are presented in this guide. This guide comprises two parts: * A theoretical document comprising several parts: Part one deals with the fundamental notions involved in post-traumatic stress and potentially traumatic events; Part two deals with a strategy for managing potentially traumatic events and sets out a reference framework to this end. This strategy is broken down into five key phases: risk assessment, preparation and prevention, intervention, post-intervention and follow-up, appraisal, including reports from experience. Practical "check sheets" stating the key messages to be understood and/or the specific actions to be taken before, during or after a potentially traumatic event. These sheets are intended for operational staff, managers, directors and support workers. This guide was prepared by a working group under the supervision of the UIC Safety Platform's Occupational Health and Safety Group (OHSG). The working group brought together psychologists, occupational physicians, ergonomists, safety experts, managers and safety directors. It is the fruit of interdisciplinary collaboration, marrying the concerns, needs and knowledge of railway undertakings and infrastructure managers from a variety of European countries.

  10. Occupational Stress in Secondary Education in Cyprus: Causes, Symptoms, Consequences and Stress Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjisymeou, Georgia

    2010-01-01

    The survey attempted to look into the causes, symptoms and consequences that occupational stress has on teachers in Secondary Education in Cyprus and find ways to manage it. Thirty eight schools with 553 teachers participated in the survey. The sample chosen is a result of a simple random sampling and it is representative of the country's…

  11. Evaluating an online stress management intervention for college students.

    PubMed

    Hintz, Samuel; Frazier, Patricia A; Meredith, Liza

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a theory-based online intervention designed to improve stress management in undergraduate students. The intervention focused on present control because it has been found to be associated with a range of positive outcomes, including lower levels of depression, anxiety, and stress, controlling for a range of other variables (e.g., Frazier et al., 2011, 2012). Two pilot studies were first conducted to confirm that our intervention could increase present control. We then randomly assigned psychology students (n = 292) who were prescreened to have lower scores on the present control subscale of the Perceived Control Over Stressful Events Scale (Frazier et al., 2011) to 1 of 3 conditions: the present control intervention, the present control intervention plus feedback, and stress-information only. Seventy-six percent (n = 223) began the intervention, and 87% (n = 195) of those completed the posttest and 3-week follow-up. The 2 present control intervention groups had lower levels of stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms (on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) and perceived stress (on the Perceived Stress Scale; Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983) relative to the stress-information-only group at posttest and 3-week follow-up (mean between group d at follow-up = .35, mean within group d for intervention groups at follow-up = -.46). Further, mediation analyses revealed that these effects were mediated by changes in present control. Our intervention represents a potentially valuable tool for college mental health services.

  12. Evaluating an online stress management intervention for college students.

    PubMed

    Hintz, Samuel; Frazier, Patricia A; Meredith, Liza

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a theory-based online intervention designed to improve stress management in undergraduate students. The intervention focused on present control because it has been found to be associated with a range of positive outcomes, including lower levels of depression, anxiety, and stress, controlling for a range of other variables (e.g., Frazier et al., 2011, 2012). Two pilot studies were first conducted to confirm that our intervention could increase present control. We then randomly assigned psychology students (n = 292) who were prescreened to have lower scores on the present control subscale of the Perceived Control Over Stressful Events Scale (Frazier et al., 2011) to 1 of 3 conditions: the present control intervention, the present control intervention plus feedback, and stress-information only. Seventy-six percent (n = 223) began the intervention, and 87% (n = 195) of those completed the posttest and 3-week follow-up. The 2 present control intervention groups had lower levels of stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms (on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) and perceived stress (on the Perceived Stress Scale; Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983) relative to the stress-information-only group at posttest and 3-week follow-up (mean between group d at follow-up = .35, mean within group d for intervention groups at follow-up = -.46). Further, mediation analyses revealed that these effects were mediated by changes in present control. Our intervention represents a potentially valuable tool for college mental health services. PMID:24635586

  13. Influence of nutritional stress on digestive enzyme activities in juveniles of two marine clam species, Ruditapes decussatus and Venerupis pullastra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albentosa, Marina; Moyano, Francisco J.

    2008-08-01

    The potential use of digestive activities as indicators of the nutritional status in bivalves is discussed in relation to the results obtained in two clam species exposed to starvation and refeeding. Activities of some digestive enzymes (amylase, laminarinase, cellulase, and protease) were measured in juveniles of two commercially interesting species of clams, Ruditapes decussatus and Venerupis pullastra. The specimens were fed normally, being after subjected to a 15-days starvation and a further refeeding period. Samples were obtained at different moments of such feeding schedule to evaluate enzymes as well as weight (live, dry and organic) and length, in order to calculate growth rates and feeding efficiencies. Starvation led to a major decrease in clam growth as measured by dry weight and a negative growth as measured by organic weight, this coinciding with a certain degree of growth of the shell and a consumption of soft tissue. This response occurred more rapidly in R. decussatus but was of a lower magnitude than in V. pullastra. Activity of carbohydrases decreased rapidly in both species with starvation, although protease activity was maintained in R. decussatus. Recovery after the end of starvation was not similar in both species; while R. decussatus attained similar growth rates and enzyme activities to those measured prior to nutritional stress, V. pullastra only recovered 50% of its initial values. For both species of bivalves it can be concluded that digestive enzymes, and more specifically amylase, could be used as indicative of their nutritional condition.

  14. [Stress management in the treatment of essential arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Schwickert, M; Langhorst, J; Paul, A; Michalsen, A; Dobos, G J

    2006-11-23

    Between 60 and 90% of patients consult their family doctor for stress-associated complaints. Not infrequently, a considerable number of these patients already have elevated blood pressure. The positive effect on high blood pressure of relaxation techniques has been confirmed in various studies. Accordingly, stress management should now have a permanent place in effective antihypertensive treatment. Appropriate relaxation techniques include, for example, autogenic training, progressive muscle relaxation, visualization and breathing exercises, chi gong and yoga. These practices are incorporated in various lifestyle programs. They act in different ways, and can be offered to the patient in accordance with his/her individual wishes.

  15. RISK MANAGEMENT OF SEDIMENT STRESS: A FRAMEWORK FOR SEDIMENT RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research related to the ecological risk management of sediment stress in watersheds is placed under a common conceptual framework in order to help promote the timely advance of decision support methods for aquatic resource managers and watershed-level planning. The proposed risk ...

  16. A Pilot Study of Self-Management-based Nutrition and Physical Activity Intervention in Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michelle; Zrim, Stephanie; Lawn, Sharon; Woodman, Richard; Leggett, Stephanie; Jones, Lynnette; Karapetis, Christos; Kichenadasse, Ganessan; Sukumaran, Shawgi; Roy, Amitesh C; Koczwara, Bogda

    2016-07-01

    Exercise and a healthy diet are beneficial after cancer, but are not uniformly adopted by cancer survivors. This study reports on the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a self-management-based nutrition and exercise intervention for Australian cancer survivors. Adult survivors (n  =  25) during curative chemotherapy (stratum 1[S1]; n  =  11) or post-treatment (stratum 2 [S2]; n  =  14) were recruited prospectively from a single center. The Flinders Living Well Self-Management Program™ (FLW Program) was utilized to establish patient-led nutrition and exercise goals and develop a tailored 12-wk intervention plan. Fortnightly reviews occurred with assessments at baseline, 6 and 12 wk. A recruitment and retention rate of 38% and 84% were observed. Both strata maintained total skeletal muscle mass. Small reductions in body mass index, hip circumference, and percentage body fat, and small increases in hand grip strength and exercise capacity among subjects in both strata were observed. No significant differences were observed between strata; however, significant increases in exercise capacity and global health status for S2 were observed from baseline to 12 wk. FLW Program is a feasible mode of delivering nutrition and exercise intervention to cancer survivors and it appears that there are no barriers to implementing this program early during chemotherapy. Hence, the additive effect of gains achieved over a longer duration is promising and this should be explored in randomized controlled trials adequately powered to observe clinically and statistically significant improvements in relevant outcomes. PMID:27176450

  17. Nutritional education for management of osteodystrophy: Impact on serum phosphorus, quality of life, and malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Karavetian, Mirey; Elzein, Hafez; Rizk, Rana; Jibai, Rime; de Vries, Nanne

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Osteodystrophy management includes dietary phosphorus restriction, which may limit protein intake, exacerbate malnutrition-inflammation syndrome and mortality among hemodialysis patients. Methods A multicenter randomized controlled trial was conducted in Lebanon, to test the hypothesis that intensive nutrition education focused on phosphorus-to-protein balance will improve patient outcomes. Six hemodialysis units were randomly assigned to the trained hospital dietitian (THD) protocol (210 patients). Six others (184 patients) were divided equally according to the patients' dialysis shifts and assigned to Dedicated Dietitian (DD) and Control protocols. Patients in the THD group received nutrition education from hospital dietitians who were trained by the study team on renal dietetics, but had limited time for hemodialysis patients. Patients in the DD group received individualized nutritional education on dietary phosphorus and protein management for 6 months (2-hour/patient/month) from study renal dietitians. Patients in the control group continued receiving routine care from hospital dietitians who had limited time for these patients and were blinded to the study. Serum phosphorus (mmol/L), malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS), health-related quality of life (HRQOL) index and length of hospital stay (LOS) were assessed at T0 (baseline), T1 (postintervention) and T2 (post6 month follow up). Findings Only the DD protocol significantly improved serum phosphorus (T0:1.78 ± 0.5, T1:1.63 ± 0.46, T2:1.69 ± 0.53), 3 domains of the HRQOL and maintained MIS at T1, but this protective effect resolved at T2. The LOS significantly dropped for all groups. Discussion The presence of competent renal dietitians fully dedicated to hemodialysis units was superior over the other protocols in temporarily improving patient outcomes. PMID:26843138

  18. The role of nutrition for pressure ulcer management: national pressure ulcer advisory panel, European pressure ulcer advisory panel, and pan pacific pressure injury alliance white paper.

    PubMed

    Posthauer, Mary Ellen; Banks, Merrilyn; Dorner, Becky; Schols, Jos M G A

    2015-04-01

    Nutrition and hydration play an important role in preserving skin and tissue viability and in supporting tissue repair for pressure ulcer (PrU) healing. The majority of research investigating the relationship between nutrition and wounds focuses on PrUs. This white paper reviews the 2014 National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, and Pan Pacific Pressure Injury Alliance Nutrition Guidelines and discusses nutrition strategies for PrU management.

  19. Role of Cyclic Nucleotide Gated Channels in Stress Management in Plants.

    PubMed

    Jha, Saroj K; Sharma, Manisha; Pandey, Girdhar K

    2016-08-01

    Tolerance of plants to a number of biotic and abiotic stresses such as pathogen and herbivore attack, drought, salinity, cold and nutritional limitations is ensued by complex multimodule signaling pathways. The outcome of this complex signaling pathways results in adaptive responses by restoring the cellular homeostasis and thus promoting survival. Functions of many plant cation transporter and channel protein families such as glutamate receptor homologs (GLRs), cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel (CNGC) have been implicated in providing biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. Ion homeostasis regulated by several transporters and channels is one of the crucial parameters for the optimal growth, development and survival of all living organisms. The CNGC family members are known to be involved in the uptake of cations such as Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) and regulate plant growth and development. Detail functional genomics approaches have given an emerging picture of CNGCs wherein these protein are believed to play crucial role in pathways related to cellular ion homeostasis, development and as a 'guard' in defense against biotic and abiotic challenges. Here, we discuss the current knowledge of role of CNGCs in mediating stress management and how they aid plants in survival under adverse conditions. PMID:27499681

  20. Water Stress and Foliar Boron Application Altered Cell Wall Boron and Seed Nutrition in Near-Isogenic Cotton Lines Expressing Fuzzy and Fuzzless Seed Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Our previous research, conducted under well-watered conditions without fertilizer application, showed that fuzziness cottonseed trait resulted in cottonseed nutrition differences between fuzzy (F) and fuzzless (N) cottonseed. Under water stress conditions, B mobility is further limited, inhibiting B movement within the plant, affecting seed nutrition (quality). Therefore, we hypothesized that both foliar B and water stress can affect B mobility, altering cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral nutrition. The objective of the current research was to evaluate the effects of the fuzziness seed trait on boron (B) and seed nutrition under water stress and foliar B application using near-isogenic cotton lines (NILs) grown in a repeated greenhouse experiment. Plants were grown under-well watered conditions (The soil water potential was kept between -15 to -20 kPa, considered field capacity) and water stress conditions (soil water potential between -100 and -150 kPa, stressed conditions). Foliar B was applied at a rate of 1.8 kg B ha-1 as H3BO3. Under well-watered conditions without B the concentrations of seed oil in N lines were higher than in F lines, and seed K and N levels were lower in N lines than in F lines. Concentrations of K, N, and B in leaves were higher in N lines than in F lines, opposing the trend in seeds. Water-stress resulted in higher seed protein concentrations, and the contribution of cell wall (structural) B to the total B exceeded 90%, supporting the structural role of B in plants. Foliar B application under well-watered conditions resulted in higher seed protein, oil, C, N, and B in only some lines. This research showed that cottonseed nutrition differences can occur due to seed fuzziness trait, and water stress and foliar B application can alter cottonseed nutrition. PMID:26098564

  1. Water Stress and Foliar Boron Application Altered Cell Wall Boron and Seed Nutrition in Near-Isogenic Cotton Lines Expressing Fuzzy and Fuzzless Seed Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Turley, Rickie B; Stetina, Salliana R

    2015-01-01

    Our previous research, conducted under well-watered conditions without fertilizer application, showed that fuzziness cottonseed trait resulted in cottonseed nutrition differences between fuzzy (F) and fuzzless (N) cottonseed. Under water stress conditions, B mobility is further limited, inhibiting B movement within the plant, affecting seed nutrition (quality). Therefore, we hypothesized that both foliar B and water stress can affect B mobility, altering cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral nutrition. The objective of the current research was to evaluate the effects of the fuzziness seed trait on boron (B) and seed nutrition under water stress and foliar B application using near-isogenic cotton lines (NILs) grown in a repeated greenhouse experiment. Plants were grown under-well watered conditions (The soil water potential was kept between -15 to -20 kPa, considered field capacity) and water stress conditions (soil water potential between -100 and -150 kPa, stressed conditions). Foliar B was applied at a rate of 1.8 kg B ha(-1) as H3BO3. Under well-watered conditions without B the concentrations of seed oil in N lines were higher than in F lines, and seed K and N levels were lower in N lines than in F lines. Concentrations of K, N, and B in leaves were higher in N lines than in F lines, opposing the trend in seeds. Water-stress resulted in higher seed protein concentrations, and the contribution of cell wall (structural) B to the total B exceeded 90%, supporting the structural role of B in plants. Foliar B application under well-watered conditions resulted in higher seed protein, oil, C, N, and B in only some lines. This research showed that cottonseed nutrition differences can occur due to seed fuzziness trait, and water stress and foliar B application can alter cottonseed nutrition.

  2. Water Stress and Foliar Boron Application Altered Cell Wall Boron and Seed Nutrition in Near-Isogenic Cotton Lines Expressing Fuzzy and Fuzzless Seed Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Turley, Rickie B; Stetina, Salliana R

    2015-01-01

    Our previous research, conducted under well-watered conditions without fertilizer application, showed that fuzziness cottonseed trait resulted in cottonseed nutrition differences between fuzzy (F) and fuzzless (N) cottonseed. Under water stress conditions, B mobility is further limited, inhibiting B movement within the plant, affecting seed nutrition (quality). Therefore, we hypothesized that both foliar B and water stress can affect B mobility, altering cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral nutrition. The objective of the current research was to evaluate the effects of the fuzziness seed trait on boron (B) and seed nutrition under water stress and foliar B application using near-isogenic cotton lines (NILs) grown in a repeated greenhouse experiment. Plants were grown under-well watered conditions (The soil water potential was kept between -15 to -20 kPa, considered field capacity) and water stress conditions (soil water potential between -100 and -150 kPa, stressed conditions). Foliar B was applied at a rate of 1.8 kg B ha(-1) as H3BO3. Under well-watered conditions without B the concentrations of seed oil in N lines were higher than in F lines, and seed K and N levels were lower in N lines than in F lines. Concentrations of K, N, and B in leaves were higher in N lines than in F lines, opposing the trend in seeds. Water-stress resulted in higher seed protein concentrations, and the contribution of cell wall (structural) B to the total B exceeded 90%, supporting the structural role of B in plants. Foliar B application under well-watered conditions resulted in higher seed protein, oil, C, N, and B in only some lines. This research showed that cottonseed nutrition differences can occur due to seed fuzziness trait, and water stress and foliar B application can alter cottonseed nutrition. PMID:26098564

  3. Nutrition management guideline for maple syrup urine disease: an evidence- and consensus-based approach.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Dianne M; Allgeier, Courtney; Homer, Caroline; Marriage, Barbara J; Ogata, Beth; Rohr, Frances; Splett, Patricia L; Stembridge, Adrya; Singh, Rani H

    2014-07-01

    In an effort to increase harmonization of care and enable outcome studies, the Genetic Metabolic Dietitians International (GMDI) and the Southeast Regional Newborn Screening and Genetics Collaborative (SERC) are partnering to develop nutrition management guidelines for inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) using a model combining both evidence- and consensus-based methodology. The first guideline to be completed is for maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). This report describes the methodology used in its development: formulation of five research questions; review, critical appraisal and abstraction of peer-reviewed studies and unpublished practice literature; and expert input through Delphi surveys and a nominal group process. This report includes the summary statements for each research question and the nutrition management recommendations they generated. Each recommendation is followed by a standardized rating based on the strength of the evidence and consensus used. The application of technology to build the infrastructure for this project allowed transparency during development of this guideline and will be a foundation for future guidelines. Online open access of the full, published guideline allows utilization by health care providers, researchers, and collaborators who advise, advocate and care for individuals with MSUD and their families. There will be future updates as warranted by developments in research and clinical practice.

  4. Nutrition management guideline for maple syrup urine disease: an evidence- and consensus-based approach.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Dianne M; Allgeier, Courtney; Homer, Caroline; Marriage, Barbara J; Ogata, Beth; Rohr, Frances; Splett, Patricia L; Stembridge, Adrya; Singh, Rani H

    2014-07-01

    In an effort to increase harmonization of care and enable outcome studies, the Genetic Metabolic Dietitians International (GMDI) and the Southeast Regional Newborn Screening and Genetics Collaborative (SERC) are partnering to develop nutrition management guidelines for inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) using a model combining both evidence- and consensus-based methodology. The first guideline to be completed is for maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). This report describes the methodology used in its development: formulation of five research questions; review, critical appraisal and abstraction of peer-reviewed studies and unpublished practice literature; and expert input through Delphi surveys and a nominal group process. This report includes the summary statements for each research question and the nutrition management recommendations they generated. Each recommendation is followed by a standardized rating based on the strength of the evidence and consensus used. The application of technology to build the infrastructure for this project allowed transparency during development of this guideline and will be a foundation for future guidelines. Online open access of the full, published guideline allows utilization by health care providers, researchers, and collaborators who advise, advocate and care for individuals with MSUD and their families. There will be future updates as warranted by developments in research and clinical practice. PMID:24881969

  5. Hyperspectral imaging of oil producing microalgae under thermal and nutritional stress.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Davis, Ryan W.; Ricken, James Bryce; Powell, Amy Jo; Keenan, Michael Robert

    2008-09-01

    This short-term, late-start LDRD examined the effects of nutritional deprivation on the energy harvesting complex in microalgae. While the original experimental plan involved a much more detailed study of temperature and nutrition on the antenna system of a variety of TAG producing algae and their concomitant effects on oil production, time and fiscal constraints limited the scope of the study. This work was a joint effort between research teams at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico and California. Preliminary results indicate there is a photosystem response to silica starvation in diatoms that could impact the mechanisms for lipid accumulation.

  6. Prevention and Management of Type 2 Diabetes: Dietary Components and Nutritional Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Sylvia H.; Hamdy, Osama; Mohan, V.; Hu, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    Summary In the past couple of decades, evidence from prospective observational studies and clinical trials has converged to support the importance of individual nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. The quality of dietary fats and carbohydrates consumed is more crucial than the quantity of these macronutrients. Diets rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, moderate in alcohol consumption, and lower in refined grains, red/processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages have demonstrated to reduce diabetes risk and improve glycemic control and blood lipids in patients with diabetes. Several healthful dietary patterns emphasizing the overall diet quality can be adapted to appropriate personal and cultural food preferences and calorie needs for weight control and diabetes prevention and management. Although considerable progress has been made in developing and implementing evidence-based nutrition recommendations in developed countries, concerted global efforts and policies are warranted to alleviate regional disparities. PMID:24910231

  7. Heat stress, divergent nutrition level, and late pregnancy in hair sheep: effects upon cotyledon development and litter weight at birth.

    PubMed

    Meza-Herrera, César Alberto; Vicente-Pérez, Arnulfo; Osorio-Marín, Yolanda; Girón-Gómez, Blenda Sinahí; Beltran-Calderon, Eira; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Correa-Calderon, Abelardo; Macías-Cruz, Ulises

    2015-06-01

    The effect of two divergent nutritional levels during late pregnancy upon some physiological variables and the number (NC) and diameter (DC) of placental cotyledons along with litter weight at birth (LWB) on heat-stressed (42-45 °C) hair ewes was evaluated. Multiparous Katahdin x Pelibuey ewes (n = 24) at the onset of the 3/3 of pregnancy were randomly assigned to two treatments (n = 12): (1) non-nutritionally restricted (NNR) ewes, with free access to wheat straw plus 500 g/day of concentrate, and (2) nutritionally restricted (NR) ewes, receiving only wheat straw ad libitum. On days 100, 115, 130, and 145 of gestation, the body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), rectal temperature (RT), respiration rate (RR) were registered in the afternoon (15:00) while the temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated. At lambing, NC, DC, and LWB were also registered. Analyses considered a completely random design (CRD)-ANOVA with repeated measures across time, considering to litter size (LS) as covariable to reduce any possible influence of LS upon the response variables along experimental diets. BW and BCS were higher in NNR ewes at days 115, 130, and 145. Despite RT similarities (P < 0.05) between treatments, RR was greater (P < 0.01) in the NNR ewes, particularly towards the end of the experimental period. The observed THI averages confirmed severe heat stress conditions on ewes all day round across the experimental period, yet, NC, DC, and LWB favored (P < 0.05) to the NNR ewes. Despite that NNR ewes faced a significant heat stress based on the observed THI values, they consumed a diet with an increased energy-protein density, suggesting that the increased RR in the NNR group was exerted as a compensatory thermoregulation mechanism. Nutritional supplementation in hair ewes besides to an increase the energy body reserves (BW and BCS) also improved both the number and size of cotyledons, while generated an increased litter weight at birth.

  8. Stress and Reproductive Hormones in Grizzly Bears Reflect Nutritional Benefits and Social Consequences of a Salmon Foraging Niche

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Heather M.; Darimont, Chris T.; Paquet, Paul C.; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E.; Smits, Judit E. G.

    2013-01-01

    Physiological indicators of social and nutritional stress can provide insight into the responses of species to changes in food availability. In coastal British Columbia, Canada, grizzly bears evolved with spawning salmon as an abundant but spatially and temporally constrained food source. Recent and dramatic declines in salmon might have negative consequences on bear health and ultimately fitness. To examine broadly the chronic endocrine effects of a salmon niche, we compared cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone levels in hair from salmon-eating bears from coastal BC (n = 75) with the levels in a reference population from interior BC lacking access to salmon (n = 42). As predicted, testosterone was higher in coastal bears of both sexes relative to interior bears, possibly reflecting higher social density on the coast mediated by salmon availability. We also investigated associations between the amount of salmon individual bears consumed (as measured by stable isotope analysis) and cortisol and testosterone in hair. Also as predicted, cortisol decreased with increasing dietary salmon and was higher after a year of low dietary salmon than after a year of high dietary salmon. These findings at two spatial scales suggest that coastal bears might experience nutritional or social stress in response to on-going salmon declines, providing novel insights into the effects of resource availability on fitness-related physiology. PMID:24312230

  9. Stress and reproductive hormones in grizzly bears reflect nutritional benefits and social consequences of a salmon foraging niche.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Heather M; Darimont, Chris T; Paquet, Paul C; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Smits, Judit E G

    2013-01-01

    Physiological indicators of social and nutritional stress can provide insight into the responses of species to changes in food availability. In coastal British Columbia, Canada, grizzly bears evolved with spawning salmon as an abundant but spatially and temporally constrained food source. Recent and dramatic declines in salmon might have negative consequences on bear health and ultimately fitness. To examine broadly the chronic endocrine effects of a salmon niche, we compared cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone levels in hair from salmon-eating bears from coastal BC (n = 75) with the levels in a reference population from interior BC lacking access to salmon (n = 42). As predicted, testosterone was higher in coastal bears of both sexes relative to interior bears, possibly reflecting higher social density on the coast mediated by salmon availability. We also investigated associations between the amount of salmon individual bears consumed (as measured by stable isotope analysis) and cortisol and testosterone in hair. Also as predicted, cortisol decreased with increasing dietary salmon and was higher after a year of low dietary salmon than after a year of high dietary salmon. These findings at two spatial scales suggest that coastal bears might experience nutritional or social stress in response to on-going salmon declines, providing novel insights into the effects of resource availability on fitness-related physiology.

  10. Stress and reproductive hormones in grizzly bears reflect nutritional benefits and social consequences of a salmon foraging niche.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Heather M; Darimont, Chris T; Paquet, Paul C; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Smits, Judit E G

    2013-01-01

    Physiological indicators of social and nutritional stress can provide insight into the responses of species to changes in food availability. In coastal British Columbia, Canada, grizzly bears evolved with spawning salmon as an abundant but spatially and temporally constrained food source. Recent and dramatic declines in salmon might have negative consequences on bear health and ultimately fitness. To examine broadly the chronic endocrine effects of a salmon niche, we compared cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone levels in hair from salmon-eating bears from coastal BC (n = 75) with the levels in a reference population from interior BC lacking access to salmon (n = 42). As predicted, testosterone was higher in coastal bears of both sexes relative to interior bears, possibly reflecting higher social density on the coast mediated by salmon availability. We also investigated associations between the amount of salmon individual bears consumed (as measured by stable isotope analysis) and cortisol and testosterone in hair. Also as predicted, cortisol decreased with increasing dietary salmon and was higher after a year of low dietary salmon than after a year of high dietary salmon. These findings at two spatial scales suggest that coastal bears might experience nutritional or social stress in response to on-going salmon declines, providing novel insights into the effects of resource availability on fitness-related physiology. PMID:24312230

  11. Effect of multiple stress factors (thermal, nutritional and pregnancy type) on adaptive capability of native ewes under semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    Dias E Silva, Tairon Pannunzio; Costa Torreão, Jacira Neves da; Torreão Marques, Carlo Aldrovandi; de Araújo, Marcos Jácome; Bezerra, Leílson Rocha; Kumar Dhanasekaran, Dinesh; Sejian, Veerasamy

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of multiple stress factors (thermal, nutritional and pregnancy type) on two different native track breeds of ewes as reflected by their adaptive capability under semi-arid environment. The multiple stressor experiment was conducted in twenty-four ewes (12 Santa Inês and 12 Morada Nova ewes). Both heat stress and pregnancy stress was common to all four groups. However, the animals were divided into further two groups within each breed on the basis of nutrition regimen. According the groupings were: Group 1 (Six Santa Ines ewes; heat stress; nutrition at 0.5% of BW; single pregnancy); Group 2 (Six Santa Ines ewes; heat stress; nutrition at 1.5% BW; twin pregnancy); groups Group 3 (Six Morada Nova ewes; heat stress; nutrition at 0.5% of BW; single pregnancy); Group 4 (Six Morada Nova ewes; heat stress; nutrition at 1.5% BW; twin pregnancy). All the animals in the experiment were pregnant. Heat stress was induced by exposing all animals to summer heat stress in outside environment while the nutritional regimen followed was at 0.5% and 1.5% level of body weight (BW) respectively in each breed. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with two breeds, two nutritional treatments and two pregnancy types, 10 repetitions for physiological parameters and six for blood parameters, with repeated measures over time. Physiological parameters (respiratory rate, pulse rate and rectal temperature) were measured with the animals at rest in the morning and afternoon, 0600-0700 and 1300-1400h, respectively, every seven days. Blood samples were collected every 14d for determination of serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, urea and creatinine. We found interaction effect between breed and pregnancy type on respiratory rate and rectal temperature with greater values in Santa Inês ewes than Morada Nova ewes. However, there was no significant fixed effect of pregnancy type and supplementation level on physiological

  12. Effect of multiple stress factors (thermal, nutritional and pregnancy type) on adaptive capability of native ewes under semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    Dias E Silva, Tairon Pannunzio; Costa Torreão, Jacira Neves da; Torreão Marques, Carlo Aldrovandi; de Araújo, Marcos Jácome; Bezerra, Leílson Rocha; Kumar Dhanasekaran, Dinesh; Sejian, Veerasamy

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of multiple stress factors (thermal, nutritional and pregnancy type) on two different native track breeds of ewes as reflected by their adaptive capability under semi-arid environment. The multiple stressor experiment was conducted in twenty-four ewes (12 Santa Inês and 12 Morada Nova ewes). Both heat stress and pregnancy stress was common to all four groups. However, the animals were divided into further two groups within each breed on the basis of nutrition regimen. According the groupings were: Group 1 (Six Santa Ines ewes; heat stress; nutrition at 0.5% of BW; single pregnancy); Group 2 (Six Santa Ines ewes; heat stress; nutrition at 1.5% BW; twin pregnancy); groups Group 3 (Six Morada Nova ewes; heat stress; nutrition at 0.5% of BW; single pregnancy); Group 4 (Six Morada Nova ewes; heat stress; nutrition at 1.5% BW; twin pregnancy). All the animals in the experiment were pregnant. Heat stress was induced by exposing all animals to summer heat stress in outside environment while the nutritional regimen followed was at 0.5% and 1.5% level of body weight (BW) respectively in each breed. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with two breeds, two nutritional treatments and two pregnancy types, 10 repetitions for physiological parameters and six for blood parameters, with repeated measures over time. Physiological parameters (respiratory rate, pulse rate and rectal temperature) were measured with the animals at rest in the morning and afternoon, 0600-0700 and 1300-1400h, respectively, every seven days. Blood samples were collected every 14d for determination of serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, urea and creatinine. We found interaction effect between breed and pregnancy type on respiratory rate and rectal temperature with greater values in Santa Inês ewes than Morada Nova ewes. However, there was no significant fixed effect of pregnancy type and supplementation level on physiological

  13. Measuring occupational stress: development of the pressure management indicator.

    PubMed

    Williams, S; Cooper, C L

    1998-10-01

    The study of occupational stress is hindered by the lack of compact and comprehensive standardized measurement tools. The Pressure Management Indicator (PMI) is a 120-item self-report questionnaire developed from the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI). The PMI is more reliable, more comprehensive, and shorter than the OSI. It provides an integrated measure of the major dimensions of occupational stress. The outcome scales measure job satisfaction, organizational satisfaction, organizational security, organizational commitment, anxiety--depression, resilience, worry, physical symptoms, and exhaustion. The stressor scales cover pressure from workload, relationships, career development, managerial responsibility, personal responsibility, home demands, and daily hassles. The moderator variables measure drive, impatience, control, decision latitude, and the coping strategies of problem focus, life work balance, and social support.

  14. Transcription Regulation and Membrane Stress Management in Enterobacterial Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Jovanovic, Goran; McDonald, Christopher; Ces, Oscar; Zhang, Xiaodong; Buck, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Transcription regulation in a temporal and conditional manner underpins the lifecycle of enterobacterial pathogens. Upon exposure to a wide array of environmental cues, these pathogens modulate their gene expression via the RNA polymerase and associated sigma factors. Different sigma factors, either involved in general 'house-keeping' or specific responses, guide the RNA polymerase to their cognate promoter DNAs. The major alternative sigma54 factor when activated helps pathogens manage stresses and proliferate in their ecological niches. In this chapter, we review the function and regulation of the sigma54-dependent Phage shock protein (Psp) system-a major stress response when Gram-negative pathogens encounter damages to their inner membranes. We discuss the recent development on mechanisms of gene regulation, signal transduction and stress mitigation in light of different biophysical and biochemical approaches.

  15. Transcription Regulation and Membrane Stress Management in Enterobacterial Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Jovanovic, Goran; McDonald, Christopher; Ces, Oscar; Zhang, Xiaodong; Buck, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Transcription regulation in a temporal and conditional manner underpins the lifecycle of enterobacterial pathogens. Upon exposure to a wide array of environmental cues, these pathogens modulate their gene expression via the RNA polymerase and associated sigma factors. Different sigma factors, either involved in general 'house-keeping' or specific responses, guide the RNA polymerase to their cognate promoter DNAs. The major alternative sigma54 factor when activated helps pathogens manage stresses and proliferate in their ecological niches. In this chapter, we review the function and regulation of the sigma54-dependent Phage shock protein (Psp) system-a major stress response when Gram-negative pathogens encounter damages to their inner membranes. We discuss the recent development on mechanisms of gene regulation, signal transduction and stress mitigation in light of different biophysical and biochemical approaches. PMID:27193545

  16. Nutritional supplement of hatchery eggshell membrane improves poultry performance and provides resistance against endotoxin stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confe...

  17. The Influence of Time Management Practices on Job Stress Level among Beginning Secondary Agriculture Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Misty D.; Torres, Robert M.; Tummons, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the stress of teachers continues to be important--particularly stress levels of beginning agriculture teachers. The study sought to describe the relationship between beginning teachers' perceived ability to manage their time and their level of stress. The Time Management Practices Inventory and the Job Stress Survey were used to measure…

  18. Stress management training for women on public assistance.

    PubMed

    Tablemann, B; Marciniak, D; Johnson, D; Rodgers, R R

    1982-06-01

    A life-coping skills training package for women supported by public assistance was designed to enhance self-esteem and teach life planning and stress management strategies. Ten weeks of training resulted in significant changes in scores on measures reflective of psychological distress, depression, anxiety, inadequacy, self-confidence, and ego strength. A rationale for the impact of the training is suggested. PMID:7113997

  19. Nutritional Strategies in the Management of Adult Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Dietary Considerations from Active Disease to Disease Remission.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Douglas L; Limketkai, Berkeley; Medici, Valentina; Saire Mendoza, Mardeli; Palmer, Lena; Bechtold, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic, lifelong, and relapsing illnesses, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, which involve the gastrointestinal tract. There is no cure for these diseases, but combined pharmacological and nutritional therapy can induce remission and maintain clinical remission. Malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies among IBD patients result in poor clinical outcomes such as growth failure, reduced response to pharmacotherapy, increased risk for sepsis, and mortality. The aim of this review is to highlight the consequences of malnutrition in the management of IBD and describe nutritional interventions to facilitate induction of remission as well as maintenance; we will also discuss alternative delivery methods to improve nutritional status preoperatively. PMID:27637649

  20. Nitrogen nutrition and drought hardening exert opposite effects on the stress tolerance of Pinus pinea L. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Villar-Salvador, Pedro; Peñuelas, Juan L; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2013-02-01

    Functional attributes determine the survival and growth of planted seedlings in reforestation projects. Nitrogen (N) and water are important resources in the cultivation of forest species, which have a strong effect on plant functional traits. We analyzed the influence of N nutrition on drought acclimation of Pinus pinea L. seedlings. Specifically, we addressed if high N fertilization reduces drought and frost tolerance of seedlings and whether drought hardening reverses the effect of high N fertilization on stress tolerance. Seedlings were grown under two N fertilization regimes (6 and 100 mg N per plant) and subjected to three drought-hardening levels (well-watered, moderate and strong hardening). Water relations, gas exchange, frost damage, N concentration and growth at the end of the drought-hardening period, and survival and growth of seedlings under controlled xeric and mesic outplanting conditions were measured. Relative to low-N plants, high-N plants were larger, had higher stomatal conductance (27%), residual transpiration (11%) and new root growth capacity and closed stomata at higher water potential. However, high N fertilization also increased frost damage (24%) and decreased plasmalemma stability to dehydration (9%). Drought hardening reversed to a great extent the reduction in stress tolerance caused by high N fertilization as it decreased frost damage, stomatal conductance and residual transpiration by 21, 31 and 24%, respectively, and increased plasmalemma stability to dehydration (8%). Drought hardening increased tissue non-structural carbohydrates and N concentration, especially in high-fertilized plants. Frost damage was positively related to the stability of plasmalemma to dehydration (r = 0.92) and both traits were negatively related to the concentration of reducing soluble sugars. No differences existed between moderate and strong drought-hardening treatments. Neither N nutrition nor drought hardening had any clear effect on seedling

  1. Nutritional management and follow up of infants and children with food allergy: Italian Society of Pediatric Nutrition/Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Task Force Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Marcello; D'Auria, Enza; Caffarelli, Carlo; Verduci, Elvira; Barberi, Salvatore; Indinnimeo, Luciana; Iacono, Iride Dello; Martelli, Alberto; Riva, Enrica; Bernardini, Roberto

    2014-01-03

    Although the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy recognize the role of nutrition, there is few literature on the practical issues concerning the nutritional management of children with food allergies. This Consensus Position Statement focuses on the nutritional management and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy.It provides practical advices for the management of children on exclusion diet and it represents an evidence-based consensus on nutritional intervention and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy. Children with food allergies have poor growth compared to non-affected subjects directly proportional to the quantity of foods excluded and the duration of the diet. Nutritional intervention, if properly planned and properly monitored, has proven to be an effective mean to substantiate a recovery in growth. Nutritional intervention depends on the subject's nutritional status at the time of the diagnosis. The assessment of the nutritional status of children with food allergies should follow a diagnostic pathway that involves a series of successive steps, beginning from the collection of a detailed diet-history. It is essential that children following an exclusion diet are followed up regularly. The periodic re-evaluation of the child is needed to assess the nutritional needs, changing with the age, and the compliance to the diet. The follow- up plan should be established on the basis of the age of the child and following the growth pattern.

  2. Nutritional management and follow up of infants and children with food allergy: Italian Society of Pediatric Nutrition/Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Task Force Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Marcello; D'Auria, Enza; Caffarelli, Carlo; Verduci, Elvira; Barberi, Salvatore; Indinnimeo, Luciana; Iacono, Iride Dello; Martelli, Alberto; Riva, Enrica; Bernardini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Although the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy recognize the role of nutrition, there is few literature on the practical issues concerning the nutritional management of children with food allergies. This Consensus Position Statement focuses on the nutritional management and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy.It provides practical advices for the management of children on exclusion diet and it represents an evidence-based consensus on nutritional intervention and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy. Children with food allergies have poor growth compared to non-affected subjects directly proportional to the quantity of foods excluded and the duration of the diet. Nutritional intervention, if properly planned and properly monitored, has proven to be an effective mean to substantiate a recovery in growth. Nutritional intervention depends on the subject's nutritional status at the time of the diagnosis. The assessment of the nutritional status of children with food allergies should follow a diagnostic pathway that involves a series of successive steps, beginning from the collection of a detailed diet-history. It is essential that children following an exclusion diet are followed up regularly. The periodic re-evaluation of the child is needed to assess the nutritional needs, changing with the age, and the compliance to the diet. The follow- up plan should be established on the basis of the age of the child and following the growth pattern. PMID:24386882

  3. Trait Anxiety Reductions in a Substance Abuse Population Trained in Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlesworth, Edward A.; Dempsey, George

    1982-01-01

    Investigated a stress management training program for 11 hospitalized drug-abusing patients, compared to a control group in different psychotherapy programs. Results indicated that the stress management treatment group produced significant decreases in trait anxiety. Subjects used the stress management techniques to overcome insomnia, anger, and…

  4. Can nutrition counselling be more behavioural? Lessons learned from dietary management of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Stark, Lori J

    2003-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetically-inherited disorder that results in energy imbalance. Undernutrition is common in children with CF and associated with poor health outcomes. To ensure optimal growth and nutrition, children with CF are recommended to consume 120-150% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for energy, but most studies show they typically are only able to achieve 100% of the RDA. While biological factors clearly contribute to poor dietary adherence, recent studies have documented behavioural and environmental barriers to adherence that includes parent-child interaction at mealtimes. While not 'abnormal', parent behaviours such as paying increased attention to the child in the form of coaxing, commanding and feeding when the child is engaged in behaviours incompatible with eating (food refusal, talking, leaving the meal) may serve to reinforce these child non-eating behaviours. Thus, dietary counselling alone, albeit necessary, is typically insufficient because of failure to specifically address these behavioural and environmental barriers to dietary treatment. Behavioural intervention that targets both nutrition education and behavioural management has been found to be effective in achieving an average increased energy intake of 4200 kJ (1000 kcal)/d and weight gain of 1.48 kg over 9 weeks in children with CF. This intervention utilizes self-monitoring, goal setting and shaping to structure the delivery of treatment. It also teaches parents to utilize child behaviour-management techniques to motivate children to increase their energy intake. These behavioural strategies include differential attention (praising and ignoring), contingency management and behavioural contracting. The potential application of these techniques to dietary counselling is suggested. PMID:15018477

  5. "Dietaly": practical issues for the nutritional management of CKD patients in Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Claudia; Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Calella, Patrizia; Brunori, Giuliano; Pasticci, Franca; Egidi, Maria Francesca; Capizzi, Irene; Bellizzi, Vincenzo; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2016-01-01

    Evidence exists that nutritional therapy induces favorable metabolic changes, prevents signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency, and is able to delay the need of dialysis. Currently, the main concern of the renal diets has turned from the efficacy to the feasibility in the daily clinical practice.Herewith we describe some different dietary approaches, developed in Italy in the last decades and applied in the actual clinical practice for the nutritional management of CKD patients.A step-wise approach or simplified dietary regimens are usually prescribed while taking into account not only the residual renal function and progression rate but also socio-economic, psychological and functional aspects.The application of the principles of the Mediterranean diet that covers the recommended daily allowances for nutrients and protein (0.8 g/Kg/day) exert a favorable effect at least in the early stages of CKD. Low protein (0.6 g/kg/day) regimens that include vegan diet and very low-protein (0.3-0.4 g/Kg/day) diet supplemented with essential amino acids and ketoacids, represent more opportunities that should be tailored on the single patient's needs.Rather than a structured dietary plan, a list of basic recommendations to improve compliance with a low-sodium diet in CKD may allow patients to reach the desired salt target in the daily eating.Another approach consists of low protein diets as part of an integrated menu, in which patients can choose the "diet" that best suits their preferences and clinical needs.Lastly, in order to allow efficacy and safety, the importance of monitoring and follow up of a proper nutritional treatment in CKD patients is emphasized. PMID:27473183

  6. Expanding research to provide an evidence base for nutritional interventions for the management of inborn errors of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Camp, Kathryn M; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A; Yao, Lynne; Groft, Stephen C; Parisi, Melissa A; Mulberg, Andrew; Gopal-Srivastava, Rashmi; Cederbaum, Stephen; Enns, Gregory M; Ershow, Abby G; Frazier, Dianne M; Gohagan, John; Harding, Cary; Howell, R Rodney; Regan, Karen; Stacpoole, Peter W; Venditti, Charles; Vockley, Jerry; Watson, Michael; Coates, Paul M

    2013-08-01

    A trans-National Institutes of Health initiative, Nutrition and Dietary Supplement Interventions for Inborn Errors of Metabolism (NDSI-IEM), was launched in 2010 to identify gaps in knowledge regarding the safety and utility of nutritional interventions for the management of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) that need to be filled with evidence-based research. IEM include inherited biochemical disorders in which specific enzyme defects interfere with the normal metabolism of exogenous (dietary) or endogenous protein, carbohydrate, or fat. For some of these IEM, effective management depends primarily on nutritional interventions. Further research is needed to demonstrate the impact of nutritional interventions on individual health outcomes and on the psychosocial issues identified by patients and their families. A series of meetings and discussions were convened to explore the current United States' funding and regulatory infrastructure and the challenges to the conduct of research for nutritional interventions for the management of IEM. Although the research and regulatory infrastructure are well-established, a collaborative pathway that includes the professional and advocacy rare disease community and federal regulatory and research agencies will be needed to overcome current barriers. PMID:23806236

  7. Expanding research to provide an evidence base for nutritional interventions for the management of inborn errors of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Camp, Kathryn M; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A; Yao, Lynne; Groft, Stephen C; Parisi, Melissa A; Mulberg, Andrew; Gopal-Srivastava, Rashmi; Cederbaum, Stephen; Enns, Gregory M; Ershow, Abby G; Frazier, Dianne M; Gohagan, John; Harding, Cary; Howell, R Rodney; Regan, Karen; Stacpoole, Peter W; Venditti, Charles; Vockley, Jerry; Watson, Michael; Coates, Paul M

    2013-08-01

    A trans-National Institutes of Health initiative, Nutrition and Dietary Supplement Interventions for Inborn Errors of Metabolism (NDSI-IEM), was launched in 2010 to identify gaps in knowledge regarding the safety and utility of nutritional interventions for the management of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) that need to be filled with evidence-based research. IEM include inherited biochemical disorders in which specific enzyme defects interfere with the normal metabolism of exogenous (dietary) or endogenous protein, carbohydrate, or fat. For some of these IEM, effective management depends primarily on nutritional interventions. Further research is needed to demonstrate the impact of nutritional interventions on individual health outcomes and on the psychosocial issues identified by patients and their families. A series of meetings and discussions were convened to explore the current United States' funding and regulatory infrastructure and the challenges to the conduct of research for nutritional interventions for the management of IEM. Although the research and regulatory infrastructure are well-established, a collaborative pathway that includes the professional and advocacy rare disease community and federal regulatory and research agencies will be needed to overcome current barriers.

  8. Glycyrrhizin Represses Total Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Acute Liver Injury in Rats by Suppressing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jai-Jen; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Lee, Kam-Fai; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2013-01-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is an artificial way to support daily nutritional requirements by bypassing the digestive system, but long-term TPN administration may cause severe liver dysfunction. Glycyrrhizin is an active component of licorice root that has been widely used to treat chronic hepatitis. The aim of this study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of glycyrrhizin on TPN-associated acute liver injury in vivo. Liver dysfunction was induced by intravenous infusion of TPN at a flow rate of 20 mL/kg/h for three h in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were pretreated with Glycyrrhizin (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg intravenously). After receiving TPN or saline (control group) for three h, the rats were sacrificed, blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses and liver tissue was removed for histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. We found that aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (TB) and triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly increased in the TPN group without glycyrrhizin pretreatment and decreased in the glycyrrhizin-pretreated TPN group in a dose-dependent manner. The stained liver sections showed that glycyrrhizin relieved acute liver injury. The upregulation of serum protein biomarkers of reactive nitrogen species, including nitrotyrosine and inducible NO synthase (iNOS), were attenuated by glycyrrhizin pretreatment. Levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress factors, such as phosphorylation of JNK1/2, p38 MAPK and CHOP, were decreased by glycyrrhizin pretreatment. In summary, our results suggest that glycyrrhizin decreases TPN-associated acute liver injury factors by suppressing endoplasmic reticulum stress and reactive nitrogen stress. PMID:23771023

  9. Assessment and management of nutrition in older people and its importance to health.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Haboubi, Nadim

    2010-08-09

    Nutrition is an important element of health in the older population and affects the aging process. The prevalence of malnutrition is increasing in this population and is associated with a decline in: functional status, impaired muscle function, decreased bone mass, immune dysfunction, anemia, reduced cognitive function, poor wound healing, delayed recovery from surgery, higher hospital readmission rates, and mortality. Older people often have reduced appetite and energy expenditure, which, coupled with a decline in biological and physiological functions such as reduced lean body mass, changes in cytokine and hormonal level, and changes in fluid electrolyte regulation, delay gastric emptying and diminish senses of smell and taste. In addition pathologic changes of aging such as chronic diseases and psychological illness all play a role in the complex etiology of malnutrition in older people. Nutritional assessment is important to identify and treat patients at risk, the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool being commonly used in clinical practice. Management requires a holistic approach, and underlying causes such as chronic illness, depression, medication and social isolation must be treated. Patients with physical or cognitive impairment require special care and attention. Oral supplements or enteral feeding should be considered in patients at high risk or in patients unable to meet daily requirements.

  10. Does nutrition-related stress carry over to spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) progeny?

    PubMed

    Carisey, N; Bauce, E

    2002-04-01

    Three different patterns of feeding of sixth-instar spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens were simulated in the laboratory. Larvae were fed artificial diets whose nitrogen and total soluble sugar contents varied according to levels similar to those found in three types of balsam fir, Abies balsamea (L.) Miller foliage (current-year foliage from middle and lower crown sections and one-year-old foliage). The biological performance of offspring was studied according to the nutrition of their parents. Although food quality had no impact on pupal weight of female parents and individual mean egg weight, progeny fitness was influenced by parental nutrition. Old foliage simulated diet, poor in nitrogen, clearly affected the early larval development of progeny, especially the percent of egg hatch and first-instar survival. Lower crown current-year foliage simulated diet, with low total soluble sugar content, reduced the first-instar survival of the progeny. However, the selective pressure exerted by low food qualities on the parental generation and on the early stages of their progenies resulted in C. fumiferana populations having higher tolerance to starvation and higher survival after the diapause period. These results highlighted the potentially direct and indirect effects of C. fumiferana parental nutrition on the next generation. The patterns of feeding of parental generations would appear to affect the quality and size of subsequent populations through several selections on the different life-history stages of both generations. PMID:12020367

  11. Management on tsunami causing posttraumatic stress disorder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jarusuraisin, Ngamwong; Kesornsukon, Kanch

    2005-11-01

    On December 26, 2004, tsunamis hit Southeast Asia and caused serious damage and loss of lives. In Thailand, six provinces (Ranong, Phang-Nga, Phuket, Krabi, Trang, and Satun) were impacted. The present study reports the psychiatric assessments such as Thai GHQ-60 and IES. It also reports management techniques of both cognitive behavior therapy and medication. Those were provided to a Thai female patient who was 54 years old. The patient responded to treatment quickly because of early management. The tsunami victim with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is not an individual. A mass of people who faced or witnessed the tsunami are vulnerable to get PTSD any time during 6 months after trauma. These early management techniques are useful and practical for a mass of victims and survivors.

  12. Evaluating physical and nutritional stress during mycelial growth as inducers of tolerance to heat and UV-B radiation in Metarhizium anisopliae conidia.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Drauzio E N; Anderson, Anne J; Roberts, Donald W

    2008-11-01

    Elevated tolerance to UV-B radiation and heat may be induced in conidia produced on fungi exposed during mycelial growth to sublethal stresses other than heat or UV-B. This is due to a phenomenon referred to as 'cross-protection'. Several mechanisms are associated with this increased conidial tolerance, one of which is the accumulation of trehalose and mannitol within conidia. In the present study, conidia of the insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae were produced on mycelium subjected to nutritive, heat-shock, osmotic, or oxidative stress. The tolerance levels to UV-B radiation and heat of the conidia from stressed mycelium were evaluated, and the amounts of trehalose and mannitol accumulated in conidia were quantified. Conidia produced under nutritive stress (carbon and nitrogen starvation) were two-times more heat and UV-B tolerant than conidia produced under rich (non-stress) nutrient conditions [potato-dextrose agar with yeast extract (PDAY)], and they also accumulated the highest concentrations of trehalose and mannitol. Conidia produced on heat-shock stressed PDAY cultures had higher tolerance to UV-B radiation and heat than conidia produced without heat shock; however, both the UV-B tolerance and trehalose/mannitol concentrations in conidia produced on heat-shocked mycelium were less than those of conidia produced under nutritive stress. Conidia produced under osmotic stress (sodium or potassium chloride added to PDAY) had elevated heat and UV-B tolerances similar to those of conidia produced under nutritive stress; however, they had the lowest levels of mannitol and trehalose, which indicates that accumulation of these compounds is not the only mechanism used by M. anisopliae for protection from heat and UV-B radiation. Oxidative stress from UV-A irradiation or hydrogen peroxide did not produce conidia with elevated UV-B or heat tolerances. Conidia produced under oxidative stress generated by menadione had increased or unchanged

  13. Management of spontaneous congenital chylothorax: oral medium-chain triglycerides versus total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Fernández Alvarez, J R; Kalache, K D; Graŭel, E L

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this article is to compare total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with oral medium-chain triglycerides-diets (MCT) in the management of spontaneous congenital chylothorax. We analyzed retrospectively the charts of 6 patients seen in our tertiary care center and of 11 comparable patients from the literature. All neonates were symptomatic at birth; 15 had bilateral chylothorax. In the neonates who received mainly TPN (n = 9), the chylothorax resolved significantly (p < 0.05) earlier (mean 10 days, SE 1) than in the others, who received mainly MCT (n = 8) (mean 23 days, SE 4). The mean chyle loss was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Our results suggest that TPN is more effective than oral MCT in the treatment of spontaneous congenital chylothorax. These results support the data of Peitersen et al, who reported that most of the positive results with MCT were achieved in postoperative chylothorax of the newborn.

  14. To Be or Not to Be (Stressed): The Critical Role of a Psychologically Healthy Workplace in Effective Stress Management.

    PubMed

    Grawitch, Matthew J; Ballard, David W; Erb, Kaitlyn R

    2015-10-01

    This article explains how key practices pertaining to the psychologically healthy workplace can be used to develop a comprehensive approach to stress management in contemporary organizations. Specifically, we demonstrate the ways in which employee involvement, recognition, work-life balance, health and safety, and growth and development practices can be used to assist in the reduction of work stress and the proactive management of strain. Although many organizations strive to establish a positive environment conducive to work and well-being, identifying where to begin can often seem like a daunting task. Currently, many stress management efforts emphasize individual-level interventions that are simply implemented alongside existing organizational practices. We propose that a broader perspective allows for a better understanding of the stress process, resulting in the ability to consider a wider range of changes to organizational processes. Combining knowledge regarding psychologically healthy workplace practices, stress management intervention levels and the personal resource allocation framework, we present a comprehensive framework for approaching workplace stress management, which can be tailored to the unique needs of various organizations, departments and employees. By adopting this broader perspective, we believe organizations can more strategically address employee stress, resulting in more effective stress management and a profound impact on stress-related outcomes. PMID:26468001

  15. To Be or Not to Be (Stressed): The Critical Role of a Psychologically Healthy Workplace in Effective Stress Management.

    PubMed

    Grawitch, Matthew J; Ballard, David W; Erb, Kaitlyn R

    2015-10-01

    This article explains how key practices pertaining to the psychologically healthy workplace can be used to develop a comprehensive approach to stress management in contemporary organizations. Specifically, we demonstrate the ways in which employee involvement, recognition, work-life balance, health and safety, and growth and development practices can be used to assist in the reduction of work stress and the proactive management of strain. Although many organizations strive to establish a positive environment conducive to work and well-being, identifying where to begin can often seem like a daunting task. Currently, many stress management efforts emphasize individual-level interventions that are simply implemented alongside existing organizational practices. We propose that a broader perspective allows for a better understanding of the stress process, resulting in the ability to consider a wider range of changes to organizational processes. Combining knowledge regarding psychologically healthy workplace practices, stress management intervention levels and the personal resource allocation framework, we present a comprehensive framework for approaching workplace stress management, which can be tailored to the unique needs of various organizations, departments and employees. By adopting this broader perspective, we believe organizations can more strategically address employee stress, resulting in more effective stress management and a profound impact on stress-related outcomes.

  16. Influence of stress, depletion, and/or malignant disease on the responsiveness of surgical patients to total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Shaw, J H

    1988-07-01

    We performed a series of 14C[urea] infusions to assess the effect of depletion (greater than 15% decrease in body weight), stress (VO2 greater than 130 mumol.kg-1.min-1), and cancer on the basal rate of net protein catabolism (NPC) and the response of patients to total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Depleted patients had low rates of NPC (0.8 +/- 0.1 g.kg-1.d-1) compared with nondepleted patients (p less than 0.05) and during TPN anabolism was achieved (0.5 +/- 0.2 g.kg-1.d-1). Gastrointestinal (GI) cancer patients had rates of NPC similar to those of normal volunteers; during TPN, NPC approximated zero. Severely stressed (SS) nondepleted patients had high rates of NPC (2.7 +/- 0.2 g.k-1.d-1) whereas SS-depleted patients had lower (p less than 0.05) rates of NPC (1.9 +/- 0.3 g.kg-1.d-1); both groups of SS patients remained catabolic despite TPN (1.2 +/- 0.3 and 0.5 +/- 0.2 g.kg-1.d-1, respectively). In response to TPN, depleted patients become anabolic, GI cancer patients stop losing protein but do not become anabolic, and stressed patients remain catabolic and continue to loss protein.

  17. A Stress Management Program for Higher Risk Medical Students: Preliminary Findings.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Julie; McGrady, Angele; Lynch, Denis J; Schaefer, Paul; Whearty, Kary

    2016-09-01

    Approximately 10 % of first year medical students have clinically relevant anxiety or depression which may affect academic success and quality of life. This study tested the effects of a stress management intervention on indicators of anxiety, depression and self-efficacy in self-selected first year medical students. Forty two medical students volunteered to participate and provided informed consent. An eight session intervention was offered and focused on building relaxation skills, adaptive coping, and basic nutrition. Anxiety, depression, and self-efficacy were assessed pre and post intervention. This group of students had significantly higher baseline values of depression and anxiety but lower self-efficacy compared to a previous study of medical students at the same institution (p < 0.03). After the intervention, statistically significant improvements were observed in anxiety (p < 0.05), and self-efficacy (p < 0.05), but not in depression. The entering levels of anxiety and depression in this group suggested that these students were at risk for later clinical syndromes. Intervention directed to decreasing the effects of stress was associated with improvement in indicators of distress and may modify the longer term risk. PMID:26969177

  18. A retrospective study on the influence of nutritional status on pain management in cancer patients using the transdermal fentanyl patch.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroaki; Chiba, Takeshi; Tairabune, Tomohiko; Kimura, Yusuke; Wakabayashi, Go; Takahashi, Katsuo; Kudo, Kenzo

    2014-01-01

    It is unknown whether nutritional status influences pain intensity in cancer patients receiving a transdermal fentanyl patch (FP). This study aimed to determine whether nutritional status is associated with pain intensity and to evaluate the influence of changes in nutritional status on pain intensity in cancer patients receiving transdermal FP treatment. We included 92 patients receiving transdermal FP treatment for the first time with switching from oxycodone. The patients were classified into low- and normal-nutrition groups based on their nutritional status, which was assessed according to the Nutrition Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) parameters. The pain intensity of each patient was evaluated by a numeric rating scale (11-point scale from 0 to 10). NRS 2002 score and pain intensity were obtained on day 3 after the FP was applied to the skin. Pain intensities were significantly higher among patients in the low-nutrition group than among patients in the normal-nutrition group. NRS 2002 scores showed a significant positive correlation with the pain intensities. In 52 of 92 patients, who were evaluated using the NRS 2002 score and pain intensity on day 30 after FP application, the changes in NRS 2002 scores were significantly related to changes in pain intensities (odds ratio, 30.0; 95% confidence interval, 4.48-200.97; p=0.0005). These results suggest that an increase in the NRS 2002 score is a risk factor for an increase in pain intensity in cancer patients receiving FP treatment. Malnutrition may lead to poor pain management in cancer patients receiving FP treatment.

  19. Expression of the F plasmid ccd toxin-antitoxin system in Escherichia coli cells under nutritional stress.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Ramírez, Marisela; Ramírez-Santos, Jesús; Van Melderen, Laurence; Gómez-Eichelmann, M Carmen

    2006-01-01

    The ccd system of the F plasmid encodes CcdB, a protein toxic to DNA-gyrase, and CcdA, its antitoxin. The function attributed to this system is to contribute to plasmid stability by killing bacteria that lose the plasmid during cell division. However, the function of ccd in resting bacteria is not clear. Results presented show that ccd transcription increases as bacteria enter stationary phase and that the amount of the Ccd proteins is higher in bacteria under nutritional stress than in growing bacteria. Moreover, an increase in the frequency of Lac+ "adaptive" mutations was observed in stationary-phase bacteria that over-express the Ccd proteins. PMID:16541156

  20. The role of information in the planning, management and evaluation of community nutrition programmes.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, D L; Shrimpton, R

    1994-06-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition has many diverse location-specific causes which make if difficult to solve through uniform interventions implemented through vertical programmes. This paper investigates the role of information in the planning, management and evaluation of several community nutrition programmes judged to be successful. The programmes come from Tanzania (Iringa), India (Tamil Nadu), Dominican Republic and Colombia. The review finds that the initial conceptualization and design of these programmes benefited from the results of earlier surveys and experience with similar programmes in the same or other countries. Strong capacity for operations research is important to assist with a myriad of small but important programme design details and larger mid-term re-orientations. The impact of this information depends upon the flexibility of the programme and receptivity of its management towards a learning-by-doing approach. Information for on-going programme management differs widely and conforms to the overall character of the individual programme. Thus, Iringa employs a simple system based on community growth monitoring, primarily to catalyze intervention planning and action at household and community levels. Tamil Nadu's system is far more complex and is primarily intended to assist in the delivery of centrally planned interventions. Programme evaluation benefited from information generated within the programme, but more rigorous impact evaluation requires stronger designs and more in-depth analysis than is usually provided. Overall, the review suggests that characteristics like community participation, empowerment and growth monitoring are less important in the short/medium term than strong management, a learning-by-doing approach, and the existence of some method for informing programme design and management about community needs and responses to the programme. The former characteristics may well be important for the longer-term sustainability of programmes.

  1. Quantifying livestock responses for heat stress management: a review.

    PubMed

    Nienaber, J A; Hahn, G L; Eigenberg, R A

    1999-04-01

    Hot weather challenges livestock production but technology exists to offset the challenge if producers have made appropriate strategic decisions. Key issues include understanding the hazards of heat stress, being prepared to offer relief from the heat, recognizing when an animal is in danger, and taking appropriate action. This paper describes our efforts to develop biological response functions; assesses climatic probabilities and performs associated risk analyses; provides inputs for computer models used to make environmental management decisions; and evaluates threshold temperatures as estimates of critical temperature limits for swine, cattle and sheep. PMID:10232054

  2. Quantifying livestock responses for heat stress management: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienaber, J. A.; Hahn, G. L.; Eigenberg, R. A.

    Hot weather challenges livestock production but technology exists to offset the challenge if producers have made appropriate strategic decisions. Key issues include understanding the hazards of heat stress, being prepared to offer relief from the heat, recognizing when an animal is in danger, and taking appropriate action. This paper describes our efforts to develop biological response functions; assesses climatic probabilities and performs associated risk analyses; provides inputs for computer models used to make environmental management decisions; and evaluates threshold temperatures as estimates of critical temperature limits for swine, cattle and sheep.

  3. [The food and nutrition program (1961-1982) and the training of housewives as family welfare managers].

    PubMed

    Trescastro López, E Ma; Galiana Sánchez, Ma E; Bernabeu-Mestre, J

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a gender-based analysis of the Food and Nutrition Education Program, developed in Spain over the last decades of the 20th century, to explore nutrition education messages and strategies aimed at improving the skills of housewives as guardians of family welfare and experts in all areas of household management. The Program's specific approach to housewives, and the assumptions on which it was based, further entrenched a social model of gender in which men were solely responsible for household income and women were family carers.

  4. [The food and nutrition program (1961-1982) and the training of housewives as family welfare managers].

    PubMed

    Trescastro López, E Ma; Galiana Sánchez, Ma E; Bernabeu-Mestre, J

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a gender-based analysis of the Food and Nutrition Education Program, developed in Spain over the last decades of the 20th century, to explore nutrition education messages and strategies aimed at improving the skills of housewives as guardians of family welfare and experts in all areas of household management. The Program's specific approach to housewives, and the assumptions on which it was based, further entrenched a social model of gender in which men were solely responsible for household income and women were family carers. PMID:23165530

  5. Stress Gym: Feasibility of deploying a web-enhanced behavioral self-management program for stress in a military setting.

    PubMed

    Williams, Arthur; Hagerty, Bonnie M; Brasington, Steve J; Clem, Joseph B; Williams, David A

    2010-07-01

    Stress and depression can adversely impact the performance of military personnel. Cognitive-behavioral (CBT) interventions for managing stress are efficacious in traditional face-to-face formats, but the Internet supports a broader reach of these programs. This study reports on the feasibility of using an Internet-based self-help stress-management intervention in military personnel. There were 142 officers/enlisted sailors at a Naval Medical Center who completed the program. Evaluation of the program titled "Stress Gym" was positive for the user interface, content, feasibility, and satisfaction. Positive evaluation was not influenced by rank/status, sex, or previous deployment. Stress ratings also decreased significantly while using the program. These data support Stress Gym as being an online CBT-based self-help intervention that is feasible to deploy, accepted by the intended end users, and demonstrates the intended goal of reducing stress.

  6. Effects of abiotic stress and crop management on cereal grain composition: implications for food quality and safety

    PubMed Central

    Halford, Nigel G.; Curtis, Tanya Y.; Chen, Zhiwei; Huang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    The effects of abiotic stresses and crop management on cereal grain composition are reviewed, focusing on phytochemicals, vitamins, fibre, protein, free amino acids, sugars, and oils. These effects are discussed in the context of nutritional and processing quality and the potential for formation of processing contaminants, such as acrylamide, furan, hydroxymethylfurfuryl, and trans fatty acids. The implications of climate change for cereal grain quality and food safety are considered. It is concluded that the identification of specific environmental stresses that affect grain composition in ways that have implications for food quality and safety and how these stresses interact with genetic factors and will be affected by climate change needs more investigation. Plant researchers and breeders are encouraged to address the issue of processing contaminants or risk appearing out of touch with major end-users in the food industry, and not to overlook the effects of environmental stresses and crop management on crop composition, quality, and safety as they strive to increase yield. PMID:25428997

  7. Stress Management for Special Educators: The Self-Administered Tool for Awareness and Relaxation (STAR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Krista; Poel, Elissa Wolfe

    2006-01-01

    The Self-Administered Tool for Awareness and Relaxation (STAR) is a stress management strategy designed to facilitate awareness of the physical, mental, emotional, and physiological effects of stress through the interconnectedness of the brain, body, and emotions. The purpose of this article is to present a stress-management model for teachers,…

  8. A Systematic Review of Stress-Management Programs for Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiralkar, Malan T.; Harris, Toi B.; Eddins-Folensbee, Florence F.; Coverdale, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Because medical students experience a considerable amount of stress during training, academic leaders have recognized the importance of developing stress-management programs for medical students. The authors set out to identify all controlled trials of stress-management interventions and determine the efficacy of those interventions.…

  9. Hardiness, stress, and use of ill-time among nurse managers: is there a connection?

    PubMed

    Judkins, Sharon; Massey, Christy; Huff, Burlean

    2006-01-01

    Intense job-related demands often result in effects on job performance and increased use of ill-time. In this study, associations between hardiness, stress, and use of ill-time among nurse managers were examined. High-hardy/low-stress managers used 27% less ill-time than those low-hardy/high-stressed. PMID:16967889

  10. Nutrigenomic profiling of transcriptional processes affected in liver and distal intestine in response to a soybean meal-induced nutritional stress in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    De Santis, Christian; Bartie, Kerry L; Olsen, Rolf E; Taggart, John B; Tocher, Douglas R

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to generate an experimental model to characterize the nutrigenomic profile of a plant-derived nutritional stress. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was used as the model species. The nutritional stress was induced by inclusion of dietary defatted soybean meal (SBM), as this ingredient had been previously demonstrated to induce enteropathy in the distal intestine and reduce growth in salmon. Triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon were fed concentrations of 0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg(-1) SBM for 12 weeks and reduced growth performance was used as the indicator of nutritional stress. The transcriptome was analyzed in two tissues, liver and distal intestine, with the hypothesis being that the liver transcriptome would be characterized by gene expression responses related to overall growth and health performance, whereas intestinal gene expression would be dominated by specific responses to SBM. A set of 133 genes was differentially expressed in liver including 44 genes in common with the intestinal response. The liver-specific response included up-regulation of genes involved in protein digestion, energy metabolism and immune functions, whereas genes in other metabolic pathways were generally anabolic and down-regulated. These responses may be more related to general nutritional stress than to SBM per se. The transcriptomic profile in the distal intestine was consistent with the enteritis response as described previously. This study provides a comprehensive report on the profiles of liver and distal intestine transcriptomes, specifically highlighting the role of the liver in fish undergoing SBM-induced nutritional stress.

  11. Sperm DNA damage caused by oxidative stress: modifiable clinical, lifestyle and nutritional factors in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Wright, C; Milne, S; Leeson, H

    2014-06-01

    DNA fragmentation is an important factor in the aetiology of male infertility. However, it is still underevaluated and its inclusion in routine semen analysis is debated. DNA fragmentation has been shown to be a robust indicator of fertility potential, more so than conventional semen parameters. Men with high DNA fragmentation levels have significantly lower odds of conceiving, naturally or through procedures such as intrauterine insemination and IVF. Couples may be counselled to proceed directly to intracytoplasmic sperm injection as it is more successful in this group, avoiding costly procedures, recurrent failures or pregnancy losses; however, this treatment is not without limitations or risks. Ideally DNA fragmentation should be minimized where possible. Oxidative stress is the major cause of DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa. Endogenous and exogenous factors that contribute to oxidative stress are discussed, and in many cases are shown to be easily modifiable. Antioxidants play a protective role, although a delicate balance of reduction and oxidation is required for essential functions, including fertilization. Reducing oxidative stress may improve a couple's chances of conception either naturally or via assisted reproduction. Sources of oxidative stress therefore should be thoroughly examined in men with high levels of DNA fragmentation and modified where possible. DNA fragmentation is an important factor in the aetiology of male infertility. However it is still underevaluated and its inclusion in routine semen analysis is still debated. DNA fragmentation has been shown to be a robust indicator of fertility potential, more so than conventional semen parameters. Men with high levels of DNA fragmentation will have significantly lower odds of conceiving naturally or through procedures such as intrauterine insemination and IVF. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be much more successful in this group, and couples may be counselled to proceed directly to

  12. [Adrenocortical activity in pigs in relation to nutrition, body weight mycobacteriosis and pre-slaughter stress].

    PubMed

    Dvorák, M; Herzig, I; Gilka, J

    1982-01-01

    In 115 pigs divided into 10 groups, with different nutrition levels or with experimentally evoked atypical mycobacteriosis, during the experiments or at slaughter the concentration of 11-hydroxycorticosteroids (11-OHCS) in blood plasma, relative weight of adrenal glands and liver were determined. The increase in adrenocortical function was proved in the cases when the body weight was significantly influenced by malnutrition, and then in the pigs at slaughter, even after relatively careful handling. No changes were found in the course of mycobacteriosis. The relative weight of adrenal glands in slaughtered pigs of lower body weight was higher than that in the pigs of the same age, but of higher body weight. On the other hand, the slaughtered pigs of higher body weights tended to have higher 11-OHCS concentrations. The prolonged stay of the pigs in slaughter houses before bleeding did not result in the increased 11-OHCS levels. The quality of meat was not affected.

  13. Stress and nutrition in relation to excess development of chronic disease in Puerto Rican adults living in the Northeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katherine L

    2005-11-01

    Although health disparities are well documented among minority populations, they have not been fully explained by socio-economic status. We have demonstrated that Puerto Rican elders in Massachusetts are significantly more likely to have physical disability, depression, cognitive impairment, diabetes and other chronic health conditions than do non-Hispanic white elders living in the same neighborhoods. This suggests that the disparity is not due only to physical or neighborhood location, and that other factors must be influencing these differences. In that study, we also showed that the Puerto Rican elders had diets that were limited in diversity and were relatively low in micronutrient content. In our ongoing cohort study within our Boston Puerto Rican Center for Population Health and Health Disparities, we are investigating the relationships between psychosocial stress, its effect on physiologic burden or "allostatic load" and, in turn, how this is associated with the functional outcomes previously identified as areas of health disparity: depression, cognitive impairment and functional limitation. We further propose that the association between life stress, physiologic response and chronic conditions is modified by nutritional status, with a focus on B vitamins and antioxidant vitamins.

  14. Occurrence of 20S RNA and 23S RNA replicons in industrial yeast strains and their variation under nutritional stress conditions.

    PubMed

    López, Victoria; Gil, Rosario; Vicente Carbonell, José; Navarro, Alfonso

    2002-04-01

    We have characterized industrial yeast strains used in the brewing, baking, and winemaking industries for the presence or absence of cytoplasmic single-stranded 20S and 23S RNAs. Furthermore, the variation of intracellular concentrations of these replicons in brewing and laboratory strains under nutritional stress conditions was determined. Our results show a correlation between the relative abundance of these replicons and exposure of yeast to nutritionally stressful conditions, indicating that these RNAs could be employed as molecular probes to evaluate the exposure of 20S(+) and/or 23S(+) yeast strains to stress situations during industrial manipulation. During this study, several 20S(-)23S(+) Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were isolated and identified. This is the first time that a yeast strain containing only 23S RNA has been reported, demonstrating that 20S RNA is not required for 23S RNA replication. PMID:11921103

  15. Occurrence of 20S RNA and 23S RNA replicons in industrial yeast strains and their variation under nutritional stress conditions.

    PubMed

    López, Victoria; Gil, Rosario; Vicente Carbonell, José; Navarro, Alfonso

    2002-04-01

    We have characterized industrial yeast strains used in the brewing, baking, and winemaking industries for the presence or absence of cytoplasmic single-stranded 20S and 23S RNAs. Furthermore, the variation of intracellular concentrations of these replicons in brewing and laboratory strains under nutritional stress conditions was determined. Our results show a correlation between the relative abundance of these replicons and exposure of yeast to nutritionally stressful conditions, indicating that these RNAs could be employed as molecular probes to evaluate the exposure of 20S(+) and/or 23S(+) yeast strains to stress situations during industrial manipulation. During this study, several 20S(-)23S(+) Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were isolated and identified. This is the first time that a yeast strain containing only 23S RNA has been reported, demonstrating that 20S RNA is not required for 23S RNA replication.

  16. Defining and measuring the concept of 'community stress' for nutrition and physical activity interventions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Community-based research suggests that our physical and social environment makes a difference in our health status and that a key mechanism that relates one's context to their individual health status is stress. A better understanding of this relationship is important to healthcare providers, resear...

  17. Nutritional immunomodulation as an approach to decreasing the negative effects of stress in poultry production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stress can lead to changes in the immune response resulting in both increased and decreased resistance to opportunistic bacterial pathogens. Growth-promoting antibiotics have been a major tool in modulating host-pathogen interactions and limiting clinical and sub-clinical bacterial infection in conf...

  18. [Nutritional management of patients with head and neck cancer treated with radiation].

    PubMed

    Thureau, S; Lefebvre, L; Dandoy, S; Guérault, F; Ebran, M; Lebreton, M; Veresezan, O; Rigal, O; Clatot, F

    2015-10-01

    Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are standard treatment of head and neck cancer alone or associated to surgical treatment. Early (during treatment or the following weeks) and late side effects contribute to malnutrition in this population at risk. In this context, nutritional support adapted by dietary monitoring and enteral nutrition (nasogastric tube or gastrostomy) are often necessary. The early identification of the patients with high malnutrition risk and requiring enteral nutrition is necessary to improve the tolerance and efficacy of treatment.

  19. Nutrition Management of School Age Children with Special Needs: A Resource Manual for School Personnel, Families, and Health Professionals. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsley, Janet W.; Allen, Elizabeth R.; Daniel, Patricia White

    This guide is intended to help school personnel facilitate the management of special diets and nutrition education in the school curriculum in accordance with requirements of the National School Lunch Act, the Child Nutrition Act, the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504), and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. After the introduction,…

  20. Chill Out! Helping Gifted Youth Deal with Stress: What Are Some Specific, Practical Ways to Teach Stress Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Terry

    2006-01-01

    What causes stress in gifted youth and what specific skills do they need to manage it? Although stress is a real presence in all people's lives, it can be more intense for the gifted because they are usually more sensitive, introspective, and emotional. Growing up gifted is a qualitatively different experience, which can manifest itself in the…

  1. Coping with Stress in the Special Education Classroom: Can Individual Teachers More Effectively Manage Stress?. ERIC Digest #E545.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Mary

    This digest discusses why special education teachers may become stressed by role overload and lack of autonomy, and presents strategies for successfully managing stresses related to teaching. Strategies include: (1) setting realistic expectations; (2) making distinctions between job and personal life; (3) finding ways to exercise professional…

  2. Effectiveness of a Comprehensive Stress Management Program to Reduce Work-Related Stress in a Medium-Sized Enterprise

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive workplace stress management program consisting of participatory action-oriented training (PAOT) and individual management. Methods A comprehensive workplace stress management program was conducted in a medium-sized enterprise. The baseline survey was conducted in September 2011, using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) and Worker’s Stress Response Inventory (WSRI). After implementing both organizational and individual level interventions, the follow up evaluation was conducted in November 2011. Results Most of the workers participated in the organizational level PAOT and made Team-based improvement plans. Based on the stress survey, 24 workers were interviewed by a researcher. After the organizational and individual level interventions, there was a reduction of several adverse psychosocial factors and stress responses. In the case of blue-collar workers, psychosocial factors such as the physical environment, job demands, organizational system, lack of rewards, and occupational climate were significantly improved; in the case of white-collar workers, the occupational climate was improved. Conclusions In light of these results, we concluded that the comprehensive stress management program was effective in reducing work-related stress in a short-term period. A persistent long-term follow up is necessary to determine whether the observed effects are maintained over time. Both team-based improvement activities and individual interviews have to be sustainable and complementary to each other under the long-term plan. PMID:24524591

  3. The World Trade Center Attack: Helping the helpers: the role of critical incident stress management

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Jeffrey; Brooks, Jill

    2001-01-01

    Healthcare and prehospital workers involved in disaster response are susceptible to a variety of stress-related psychological and physical sequelae. Critical incident stress management, of which critical incident stress debriefing is a component, can mitigate the response to these stressors. Critical incident stress debriefing is a peer-driven, therapist-guided, structured, group intervention designed to accelerate the recovery of personnel. The attack on the World Trade Center, and the impact it may have on rescue, prehospital, and healthcare workers, should urge us to incorporate critical incident stress management into disaster management plans. PMID:11737916

  4. Infliximab Combined with Enteral Nutrition for Managing Crohn's Disease Complicated with Intestinal Fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-Li; Tao, Li-Ping; Wu, Jian-Sheng; Chen, Xiang-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Aim. This study was performed to evaluate the additional enteral nutrition (EN) in the efficacy of infliximab (IFX) compared with the conventional therapy in managing Crohn's disease (CD) complicated with intestinal fistulas. Methods. A total of 42 CD with intestinal fistulas were randomly divided into infliximab treatment group (n = 20) and conventional therapy group (n = 22). We evaluated the laboratory indexes, Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI), Crohn's disease simplified endoscopic score (SES-CD), and healing of fistula in the two groups before treatment, at 14 weeks, and at 30 weeks, respectively. Results. In the IFX treatment group, the CDAI score, the SES-CD, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein levels were significantly decreased during treatment compared with those before treatment. The body mass index and albumin levels were increased in both groups. Moreover, in the IFX treatment group, fistula healing was found in 8 at the 14th week and 18 at the 30th week, respectively, which was greater than that in the conventional therapy group. Conclusion. Our study suggested that infliximab combined with EN is an effective treatment for CD patients complicated with intestinal fistulas. PMID:27738427

  5. Psychophysiological effects of breathing instructions for stress management.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Ansgar; Müller, Anett; Doberenz, Sigrun; Kim, Sunyoung; Meuret, Alicia E; Wollburg, Eileen; Roth, Walton T

    2007-06-01

    Stressed and tense individuals often are recommended to change the way they breathe. However, psychophysiological effects of breathing instructions on respiration are rarely measured. We tested the immediate effects of short and simple breathing instructions in 13 people seeking treatment for panic disorder, 15 people complaining of daily tension, and 15 controls. Participants underwent a 3-hour laboratory session during which instructions to direct attention to breathing and anti-hyperventilation instructions to breathe more slowly, shallowly, or both were given. Respiratory, cardiac, and electrodermal measures were recorded. The anti-hyperventilation instructions failed to raise end-tidal pCO(2) above initial baseline levels for any of the groups because changes in respiratory rate were compensated for by changes in tidal volume and vice versa. Paying attention to breathing significantly reduced respiratory rate and decreased tidal volume instability compared to the other instructions. Shallow breathing made all groups more anxious than did other instructions. Heart rate and skin conductance were not differentially affected by instructions. We conclude that simple and short instructions to alter breathing do not change respiratory or autonomic measures in the direction of relaxation, except for attention to breathing, which increases respiratory stability. To understand the results of breathing instructions for stress and anxiety management, respiration needs to be monitored physiologically.

  6. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress.

    PubMed

    Makkar, S K; Rath, N C; Packialakshmi, B; Zhou, Z Y; Huff, G R; Donoghue, A M

    2016-01-01

    Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM) as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase resistance of

  7. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress

    PubMed Central

    Makkar, S. K.; Rath, N. C.; Packialakshmi, B.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Huff, G. R.; Donoghue, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM) as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase resistance of

  8. The Effect of Stress Management on Occupational Stress and Satisfaction among Midwives in Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital Wards in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jahromi, Mahdi Karimyar; Minaei, Shahnaz; Abdollahifard, Sareh; Maddahfar, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Occupational stress is one of the major problems of health care staff, substantially affecting their professional and personal performance. This research has been conducted with the aim of determining the effect of stress management on occupational stress and satisfaction among the Midwives in Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital wards at Motahari Hospital in Jahrom, Iran 2013-2014. Methods: This is a Quasi-experimental study of the pre- and post-clinical trials type. The study population included midwives employed in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital wards selected trough census. The samples were categorized into two groups randomly. The intervention group participated in the short-term training workshop of stress management. The studied samples were measured in terms of occupational stress and satisfaction before, right after, and one month after the workshop. Occupational stress measurement was measured by Toft-Anderson occupational stress questionnaire (1981). Similarly, the occupational satisfaction was measured by JDI checklist developed by Stephen Robins (1994). In order to analyze the information, SPSS 16 together with descriptive statistics tests (frequency, percentile, mean, and standard deviation), independent sample t-tests, iterative measurement and Spearman correlation coefficient were used. Results: A total of 70 people (two 35-person groups) of midwives participated in this study. The findings revealed that there was a significant difference between the mean of scores of occupational stress between the two groups before and after the workshop (p=0.001). There was, however, no significant difference between the scores of satisfactions across the two groups. Discussion: Training of skills of coping with stress including stress management can be effective in diminishing level of occupational stress. Mitigation of stress without catering for professional, occupational, organizational, and environmental factors would not lead to

  9. Nutritional supplementation with the mushroom Agaricus sylvaticus reduces oxidative stress in children with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Figueira, Marcela S; Sá, Luana A; Vasconcelos, Amanda S; Moreira, Danilo R; Laurindo, Paula SOC; Ribeiro, Danielle RG; Santos, Rogério S; Guzzo, Paulo; Dolabela, Maria F; Percario, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The involvement of free radicals and oxidative stress in HIV infection has been extensively studied, and the benefits of antioxidant supplementation in animal studies have been demonstrated. However, few studies have demonstrated a benefit in clinical studies. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effects of dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus, a mushroom rich in antioxidants, on the oxidative profile of children born with HIV undergoing antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN: The sample included 24 children (both boys and girls) between two and eight years of age, of whom 10 were HIV positive and received supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus for a three-month period, and 14 were HIV negative and received no supplementation. At the beginning and conclusion of the study, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite and nitrate (NN), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and the antioxidant capacity of inhibition of diphenyl-picrilhidrazil (DPPH) free radicals were analyzed. RESULTS: Before supplementation, significantly higher values of TBARS and NN, but decreased values of DPPH, were observed in infected subjects when compared with HIV-negative subjects. After supplementation, a reduction of TBARS and NN values and an increase in DPPH and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values were observed in HIV-positive subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study suggest the involvement of oxidative stress in HIV infection, with the participation of NN synthesis. Additionally, supplementation reversed oxidative alterations and improved antioxidant defense in infected individuals, and may become a complementary strategy in the treatment of these patients. PMID:25371688

  10. Cow-calf reproductive, genetic, and nutritional management to improve the sustainability of whole beef production systems.

    PubMed

    White, R R; Brady, M; Capper, J L; McNamara, J P; Johnson, K A

    2015-06-01

    Optimizing efficiency in the cow-calf sector is an important step toward improving beef sustainability. The objective of the study was to use a model to identify the relative roles of reproductive, genetic, and nutritional management in minimizing beef production systems' environmental impact in an economically viable, socially acceptable manner. An economic and environmental diet optimizer was used to identify ideal nutritional management of beef production systems varying in genetic and reproductive technology use. Eight management scenarios were compared to a least cost baseline: average U.S. production practices (CON), CON with variable nutritional management (NUT), twinning cattle (TWN), early weaning (EW), sire selection by EPD using either on-farm bulls (EPD-B) or AI (EPD-AI), decreasing the calving window (CW), or selecting bulls by EPD and reducing the calving window (EPD-CW). Diets to minimize land use, water use, and/or greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were optimized under each scenario. Increases in diet cost attributable to reducing environmental impact were constrained to less than stakeholder willingness to pay for improved efficiency and reduced environmental impact. Baseline land use, water use, and GHG emissions were 188 m, 712 L, and 21.9 kg/kg HCW beef. The NUT scenario, which assessed opportunities to improve sustainability by altering nutritional management alone, resulted in a simultaneous 1.5% reduction in land use, water use, and GHG emissions. The CW scenario improved calf uniformity and simultaneously decreased land use, water use, and GHG emissions by 3.2%. Twinning resulted in a 9.2% reduction in the 3 environmental impact metrics. The EW scenario allowed for an 8.5% reduction in the 3 metrics. The EPD-AI scenario resulted in an 11.1% reduction, which was comparable to the 11.3% reduction achieved by EPD-B in the 3 metrics. Improving genetic selection by using AI or by purchasing on-farm bulls based on their superior EPD demonstrated

  11. Nutritional Assessment.

    PubMed

    Eirmann, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Nutritional assessment focuses on evaluation of animal-specific, diet-specific, feeding management, and environmental factors. Assessment includes evaluation of a patient's medical history, comprehensive diet history, and physical examination including body weight, body condition, and muscle condition. Diagnostic testing may identify comorbidities associated with obesity or concurrent health conditions that need to be considered when developing a nutrition plan. When obesity is diagnosed during the nutritional assessment this finding along with health implications must be clearly communicated to the pet owner. Careful consideration of animal-specific, diet-specific, owner-specific, and environmental factors allows the clinician to develop a specific nutrition plan tailored to the needs of pet and owner. PMID:27364967

  12. Nutritional stress induces exchange of cell material and energetic coupling between bacterial species.

    PubMed

    Benomar, Saida; Ranava, David; Cárdenas, María Luz; Trably, Eric; Rafrafi, Yan; Ducret, Adrien; Hamelin, Jérôme; Lojou, Elisabeth; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Thérèse

    2015-02-23

    Knowledge of the behaviour of bacterial communities is crucial for understanding biogeochemical cycles and developing environmental biotechnology. Here we demonstrate the formation of an artificial consortium between two anaerobic bacteria, Clostridium acetobutylicum (Gram-positive) and Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (Gram-negative, sulfate-reducing) in which physical interactions between the two partners induce emergent properties. Molecular and cellular approaches show that tight cell-cell interactions are associated with an exchange of molecules, including proteins, which allows the growth of one partner (D. vulgaris) in spite of the shortage of nutrients. This physical interaction induces changes in expression of two genes encoding enzymes at the pyruvate crossroads, with concomitant changes in the distribution of metabolic fluxes, and allows a substantial increase in hydrogen production without requiring genetic engineering. The stress induced by the shortage of nutrients of D. vulgaris appears to trigger the interaction.

  13. Carotenoid and lipid production by the autotrophic microalga Chlorella protothecoides under nutritional, salinity, and luminosity stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Campenni', L; Nobre, B P; Santos, C A; Oliveira, A C; Aires-Barros, M R; Palavra, A M F; Gouveia, L

    2013-02-01

    Today microalgae represent a viable alternative source for high-value products. The specie Chlorella protothecoides (Cp), heterotrophically grown, has been widely studied and provides a high amount of lutein and fatty acids (FA) and has a good profile for biodiesel production. This work studies carotenoid and FA production by autotrophic grown Cp. Cp was grown until the medium's nitrogen was depleted, then diluted in NaCl solution, resulting in nutritional, luminosity, and salinity stresses. Different NaCl concentrations were tested (10, 20, 30 g/L) at two different dilutions. After dilution, a color shifting from green to orange-red was noticed, showing carotenoid production. The best production of both carotenoids and FA was attained with a 20 g/L NaCl solution. The total carotenoid content was 0.8 % w/w (canthaxanthin (23.3 %), echinenone (14.7 %), free astaxanthin (7.1 %), and lutein/zeaxanthin (4.1 %)). Furthermore, the total lipid content reached 43.4 % w/w, with a FA composition of C18:1 (33.64 %), C16:0 (23.30 %), C18:2 (11.53 %), and less than 12 % of C18:3, which is needed to fulfill the biodiesel quality specifications (EN 14214).

  14. Reproduction and nutritional stress are risk factors for Hendra virus infection in little red flying foxes (Pteropus scapulatus).

    PubMed

    Plowright, Raina K; Field, Hume E; Smith, Craig; Divljan, Anja; Palmer, Carol; Tabor, Gary; Daszak, Peter; Foley, Janet E

    2008-04-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is a lethal paramyxovirus which emerged in humans in 1994. Poor understanding of HeV dynamics in Pteropus spp. (flying fox or fruit bat) reservoir hosts has limited our ability to determine factors driving its emergence. We initiated a longitudinal field study of HeV in little red flying foxes (LRFF; Pteropus scapulatus) and examined individual and population risk factors for infection, to determine probable modes of intraspecific transmission. We also investigated whether seasonal changes in host behaviour, physiology and demography affect host-pathogen dynamics. Data showed that pregnant and lactating females had significantly higher risk of infection, which may explain previously observed temporal associations between HeV outbreaks and flying fox birthing periods. Age-specific seroprevalence curves generated from field data imply that HeV is transmitted horizontally via faeces, urine or saliva. Rapidly declining seroprevalence between two field seasons suggests that immunity wanes faster in LRFF than in other flying fox species, and highlights the potentially critical role of this species in interspecific viral persistence. The highest seroprevalence was observed when animals showed evidence of nutritional stress, suggesting that environmental processes that alter flying fox food sources, such as habitat loss and climate change, may increase HeV infection and transmission. These insights into the ecology of HeV in flying fox populations suggest causal links between anthropogenic environmental change and HeV emergence. PMID:18198149

  15. Training Programmes for Stress Management in Small Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treven, Sonja; Potocan, Vojko

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present: the problem of stress employees might encounter; the individual inclination to stress; the individual methods for reducing stress; and the authors' model of training for stress prevention. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper uses both descriptive and analytical approaches to research and…

  16. Challenges in the nutrition and management of herbivores in the temperate zone.

    PubMed

    van Vuuren, A M; Chilibroste, P

    2013-03-01

    The expected higher global demand for animal proteins and the competition for starch and sugars between food, fuel and feed seem to favour herbivores that convert solar energy captured in fibrous plants into animal products. However, the required higher production level of herbivores questions the sustainability of this conversion. An increase in herbivore production can be achieved by increasing the number of animals associated with the increasing demand of plant biomass or by improving the efficiency with which plant biomass is converted into meat and milk. The potential to increase food production by cattle, the main food-producing herbivore in the temperate zones outside China, was considered in three production systems: grassland-based, mixed rain-fed and mixed irrigated systems. The potential to increase plant biomass production in grassland-based systems seems limited, unless fertiliser is imported in large quantities and crop production is increased, sacrificing valuable, high-quality grasslands, which often conflicts with sustainable production methods. Also, in mixed systems with high inputs of fertiliser or water, improvements in plant biomass production seem marginal and the main challenges for these systems are in breeding high-quality plant biomass at lower levels of fertiliser and the use of new co-products from food processing and bio-based economies. Consequently, the main challenge in herbivore nutrition management is to improve the efficiency of plant biomass utilisation. Stocking rate management along with seasonal variation in the grazing capacity of grasslands and moderate use of fertiliser may increase meat production in grassland-based systems by 400%. Improving plant biomass utilisation in the more industrialised mixed rain-fed systems seems possible by better feed storage technologies and for dairy cattle by improving animal health and lifetime production level. Managing the transition period seems crucial to achieve more sustainable mixed

  17. Nitrogen Nutrition Improves the Potential of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Alleviate the Effects of Drought Stress during Vegetative Growth Periods

    PubMed Central

    Abid, Muhammad; Tian, Zhongwei; Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Tahir; Cui, Yakun; Liu, Yang; Zahoor, Rizwan; Jiang, Dong; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Efficient nitrogen (N) nutrition has the potential to alleviate drought stress in crops by maintaining metabolic activities even at low tissue water potential. This study was aimed to understand the potential of N to minimize the effects of drought stress applied/occur during tillering (Feekes stage 2) and jointing (Feekes stage 6) growth stages of wheat by observing the regulations and limitations of physiological activities, crop growth rate during drought periods as well as final grain yields at maturity. In present study, pot cultured plants of a wheat cultivar Yangmai-16 were exposed to three water levels [severe stress at 35–40% field capacity (FC), moderate stress at 55–60% FC and well-watered at 75–80% FC] under two N rates (0.24 g and 0.16 g/kg soil). The results showed that the plants under severe drought stress accompanied by low N exhibited highly downregulated photosynthesis, and chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence during the drought stress periods, and showed an accelerated grain filling rate with shortened grain filling duration (GFD) at post-anthesis, and reduced grain yields. Severe drought-stressed plants especially at jointing, exhibited lower Chl and Rubisco contents, lower efficiency of photosystem II and greater grain yield reductions. In contrast, drought-stressed plants under higher N showed tolerance to drought stress by maintaining higher leaf water potential, Chl and Rubisco content; lower lipid peroxidation associated with higher superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase activities during drought periods. The plants under higher N showed delayed senescence, increased GFD and lower grain yield reductions. The results of the study suggested that higher N nutrition contributed to drought tolerance in wheat by maintaining higher photosynthetic activities and antioxidative defense system during vegetative growth periods. PMID:27446197

  18. Sociodemographic Differences in the Association Between Obesity and Stress: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    PubMed

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Leigh, J Paul

    2015-01-01

    Few population-based studies have used an econometric approach to understand the association between two cancer risk factors, obesity and stress. This study investigated sociodemographic differences in the association between obesity and stress among Korean adults (6,546 men and 8,473 women). Data were drawn from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2008, 2009, and 2010. Ordered logistic regression models and propensity score matching methods were used to examine the associations between obesity and stress, stratified by gender and age groups. In women, the stress level of the obese group was found to be 27.6% higher than the nonobese group in the ordered logistic regression; the obesity effect on stress was statistically significant in the propensity score-matched analysis. Corresponding evidence for the effect of obesity on stress was lacking among men. Participants who were young, well-educated, and working were more likely to report stress. In Korea, obesity causes stress in women but not in men. Young women are susceptible to a disproportionate level of stress. More cancer prevention programs targeting young and obese women are encouraged in developed Asian countries.

  19. Coping with Stress. The Best of ERIC on Educational Management, Number 50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    The twelve items in this annotated bibliography are entries in the ERIC system intended to help administrators in coping with stress. The publications cited deal with causes of stress, how to manage stress, how to make life style changes, how to recognize stressors, and work patterns associated with Type A behavior. The publications listed also…

  20. Theoretical Foundations of Yoga Meditation: A Contribution to Self-Actualization and Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janowiak, John J.

    Recent evidence purporting that stress contributes to the development of disorders ranging from depression to cancer to general immunological dysfunction suggests that a concise understanding of stress and stress management techniques is needed in order to develop efficacious interventions. What is needed is an effective, easy-to-learn technique…

  1. Principals Responding to Constant Pressure: Finding a Source of Stress Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Caryn M.

    2013-01-01

    This conceptual article presents a review of the research concerning the stress level of principals over the past three decades, with emphasis on the occupational stress that principals encounter because of heightened accountability and expectations for student achievement. Mindfulness meditation, as a stress management intervention, provides the…

  2. Managing Stress and Feelings of Mastery among Swedish Comprehensive School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsson, Christian; Pousette, Anders; Thylefors, Ingela

    2001-01-01

    Created guidelines for stress management intervention by investigating the relationship of 12 factors with stress reactions and feelings of mastery among 826 Swedish teachers in 27 comprehensive schools. Teacher stress reactions were best predicted by perceived work demands, student misbehavior, and negative feedback, while mastery feelings were…

  3. Characterization of VuMATE1 Expression in Response to Iron Nutrition and Aluminum Stress Reveals Adaptation of Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata) to Acid Soils through Cis Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meiya; Xu, Jiameng; Lou, Heqiang; Fan, Wei; Yang, Jianli; Zheng, Shaojian

    2016-01-01

    Rice bean (Vigna umbellata) VuMATE1 appears to be constitutively expressed at vascular system but root apex, and Al stress extends its expression to root apex. Whether VuMATE1 participates in both Al tolerance and Fe nutrition, and how VuMATE1 expression is regulated is of great interest. In this study, the role of VuMATE1 in Fe nutrition was characterized through in planta complementation assays. The transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1 was investigated through promoter analysis and promoter-GUS reporter assays. The results showed that the expression of VuMATE1 was regulated by Al stress but not Fe status. Complementation of frd3-1 with VuMATE1 under VuMATE1 promoter could not restore phenotype, but restored with 35SCaMV promoter. Immunostaining of VuMATE1 revealed abnormal localization of VuMATE1 in vasculature. In planta GUS reporter assay identified Al-responsive cis-acting elements resided between -1228 and -574 bp. Promoter analysis revealed several cis-acting elements, but transcription is not simply regulated by one of these elements. We demonstrated that cis regulation of VuMATE1 expression is involved in Al tolerance mechanism, while not involved in Fe nutrition. These results reveal the evolution of VuMATE1 expression for better adaptation of rice bean to acid soils where Al stress imposed but Fe deficiency pressure released. PMID:27148333

  4. Role of UV Irradiation and Oxidative Stress in Cataract Formation. Medical Prevention by Nutritional Antioxidants and Metabolic Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Shambhu Dayal; Kovtun, Svitlana; Hegde, Kavita Rajeev

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Cataract is a significant cause of visual disability with relatively high incidence. It has been proposed that such high incidence is related to oxidative stress induced by continued intraocular penetration of light and consequent photochemical generation of reactive oxygen species such as superoxide and singlet oxygen and their derivatization to other oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical. The latter two can also interact to generate singlet oxygen by Haber-Weis reaction. It has been proposed that in addition to the endogenous enzymatic antioxidant enzymes, the process can be inhibited by many nutritional and metabolic oxyradical scavengers such as ascorbate, vitamin E, pyruvate and xanthine alkaloids such as caffeine. Methods Initial verification of the hypothesis has been done primarily by rat and mouse lens organ culture studies under ambient as well as UV light irradiation and determining the effect of such irradiation on its physiology in terms of its efficiency of active membrane transport activity and the levels of certain metabolites such as GSH and ATP as well as in terms of apoptotic cell death. In vivo studies on the possible prevention of oxidative stress and cataract formation has been done by administering pyruvate and caffeine orally in drinking water as well as by their topical application using diabetic and galactosemic animal models. Results Photosensitized damage to lens has been found to be significantly prevented by ascorbate and pyruvate caused by exposure to visible as well as UVA. Caffeine has been found be effective against UVA as well as UVB. Oral or topical application of pyruvate has been found to inhibit the formation of cataracts induced by diabetes as well as galactosemia. Caffeine has also been found to inhibit cataract induced by sodium selenite as well as high levels of galactose. Studies with diabetes are in progress. Conclusion Various in vitro and in vivo studies summarized in the review strongly

  5. Stages of Learning during a Self-Directed Stress Management Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Karl L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to document the stages of learning reflected through student journaling during a self-directed experience in stress management, and the relationship of those stages to a historical model. Methods: College students participating in a full-semester course in stress management theory were required to select a…

  6. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter.

    PubMed

    Joly, Kyle; Wasser, Samuel K; Booth, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The winter diet of barren-ground caribou may affect adult survival, timing of parturition, neonatal survival, and postpartum mass. We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress. Lichens, which are highly digestible but contain little protein, dominated the diet (> 68%) but were less prevalent in the diets of pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females and males. The amount of lichens in the diets of pregnant females decreased at higher latitudes and as winter progressed. Pregnancy rates (82.1%, 95% CI = 76.0 - 88.1%) of adult cows were within the expected range for a declining herd, while pregnancy status was not associated with lichen abundance in the diet. Most groups (80%) were of mixed sex. Male: female ratios (62:100) were not skewed enough to affect the decline. Levels of hormones indicating nutritional stress were detected in areas of low habitat quality and at higher latitudes. Levels of hormones indicated that physiological stress was greatest for pregnant cows, which faced the increasing demands of gestation in late winter. These fecal-based measures of diet and stress provided contextual information for the potential mechanisms of the ongoing decline. Non-invasive techniques, such as monitoring diets, pregnancy rates, sex ratios and stress levels from fecal samples, will become increasingly important as monitoring tools as the industrial footprint continues to expand in the Arctic.

  7. Persistent diarrhea in children: epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, nutritional impact, and management.

    PubMed

    Lima, A A; Guerrant, R L

    1992-01-01

    A review of data on the morbidity and mortality caused by persistent diarrhea (more than 14 days' duration) was undertaken from studies in several geographic areas, including Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, and Peru, over the last 3 decades. An estimated 3-5 billion diarrheal illnesses and 5-10 million diarrhea-related deaths occur annually among 3 billion people in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Mostly the 338 million to 1 billion episodes and 4.6 million deaths annually. A study from India showed that the incidence of persistent diarrhea was greater in the age group 0-11 months (31 episodes/100 child-years) than at age 12-23 months (9 episodes/100 child years) or 24-35 months (6 episodes/100 child-year). Similar results were obtained in periurban Peru, periurban northeastern Brazil, and rural guatemala. Diarrhea is believed to precipitate and exacerbate malnutrition while malnutrition predisposes to diarrhea. 2 studies in both Bangladesh and Peru indicate that the risk of developing diarrhea inversely parallels delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to standard skin-test antigens. In a cohort of 175 children under 5 years of age over a 28-month period in an urban slum in northeastern Brazil the children had an average of 11 episodes/year and spent 82 days/year with diarrhea. The leading potential pathogens seen with persistent diarrhea in some areas are enteroaggregative E. coli and Cryptosporidium. Other pathogens include Shigella, Salmonella, enteropathogenic (LA (local)) E. coli, and variably Giardia lamblia. Recent nutritional management promotes breast feeding, dietary supplementation with vitamin A, zinc, iron, folate, and vitamin B 12, and improved oral rehydration solutions with glucose polymers (such as rice starch) and possibly neutral amino acids (such as alanine or glycine) and glutamine. PMID:1289113

  8. Nutritional management of infants and children with specific diseases or other conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cystic fibrosis is characterized by progressive deterioration of pulmonary and pancreatic function. The former may increase nutrient requirements somewhat, but probably affects nutrition more by adversely affecting intake, particularly during acute exacerbations and in older children with severe pul...

  9. Use the Nutrition Facts Label

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Health Professionals Tools and Resources Promotional Materials Programming Materials Weight Management Nutrition Physical Activity Reduce Screen ... Training For Health Professionals Tools & Resources Promotional ... Programming Materials Weight Management Nutrition Physical Activity Reduce Screen ...

  10. [The trajectory of the Brazilian School Nutrition Program between 2003 and 2010: report of the national manager].

    PubMed

    Peixinho, Albaneide Maria Lima

    2013-04-01

    The scope of this paper is to study the report of the manager of the Brazilian School Nutrition Program (PNAE), with special emphasis on the period from 2003 to 2010. It is a critical essay based on a review of the literature and the official data. It was revealed that the program spent 954.2 million Brazilian reals in 2003 to assist 37.3 million students, and in 2010 the total resources increased to 3 billion Brazilian reals with 45.6 million students attended. Other important advances were the broadening and strengthening of the role of the School Nutrition Councils and the regulatory strategies of nutritionists as Accountable Technicians. Law No. 11.947/2009 gave a new impetus to the PNAE, extending the program to the entire basic public education grid and youths and adults, and recommending that 30% of the funds transferred from the FNDE should be used to acquire products from small farmers. The progress in technical and operational criteria seeking greater flexibility, efficiency and effectiveness in the management of the Program is clear for all to see. It is hoped that these advances will translate into effective improvement in food and nutrition conditions for schoolchildren. PMID:23670366

  11. Reprint of: Nutrition in the Management of Cirrhosis and its Neurological Complications.

    PubMed

    Bémeur, Chantal; Butterworth, Roger F

    2015-03-01

    Malnutrition is a common feature of chronic liver diseases that is often associated with a poor prognosis including worsening of clinical outcome, neuropsychiatric complications as well as outcome following liver transplantation. Nutritional assessment in patients with cirrhosis is challenging owing to confounding factors related to liver failure. The objectives of nutritional intervention in cirrhotic patients are the support of liver regeneration, the prevention or correction of specific nutritional deficiencies and the prevention and/or treatment of the complications of liver disease per se and of liver transplantation. Nutritional recommendations target the optimal supply of adequate substrates related to requirements linked to energy, protein, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and minerals. Some issues relating to malnutrition in chronic liver disease remain to be addressed including the development of an appropriate well-validated nutritional assessment tool, the identification of mechanistic targets or therapy for sarcopenia, the development of nutritional recommendations for obese cirrhotic patients and liver-transplant recipients and the elucidation of the roles of vitamin A hepatotoxicity, as well as the impact of deficiencies in riboflavin and zinc on clinical outcomes. Early identification and treatment of malnutrition in chronic liver disease has the potential to lead to better disease outcome as well as prevention of the complications of chronic liver disease and improved transplant outcomes.

  12. Reprint of: Nutrition in the Management of Cirrhosis and its Neurological Complications.

    PubMed

    Bémeur, Chantal; Butterworth, Roger F

    2015-03-01

    Malnutrition is a common feature of chronic liver diseases that is often associated with a poor prognosis including worsening of clinical outcome, neuropsychiatric complications as well as outcome following liver transplantation. Nutritional assessment in patients with cirrhosis is challenging owing to confounding factors related to liver failure. The objectives of nutritional intervention in cirrhotic patients are the support of liver regeneration, the prevention or correction of specific nutritional deficiencies and the prevention and/or treatment of the complications of liver disease per se and of liver transplantation. Nutritional recommendations target the optimal supply of adequate substrates related to requirements linked to energy, protein, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and minerals. Some issues relating to malnutrition in chronic liver disease remain to be addressed including the development of an appropriate well-validated nutritional assessment tool, the identification of mechanistic targets or therapy for sarcopenia, the development of nutritional recommendations for obese cirrhotic patients and liver-transplant recipients and the elucidation of the roles of vitamin A hepatotoxicity, as well as the impact of deficiencies in riboflavin and zinc on clinical outcomes. Early identification and treatment of malnutrition in chronic liver disease has the potential to lead to better disease outcome as well as prevention of the complications of chronic liver disease and improved transplant outcomes. PMID:26041952

  13. Reprint of: Nutrition in the Management of Cirrhosis and its Neurological Complications☆

    PubMed Central

    Bémeur, Chantal; Butterworth, Roger F.

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common feature of chronic liver diseases that is often associated with a poor prognosis including worsening of clinical outcome, neuropsychiatric complications as well as outcome following liver transplantation. Nutritional assessment in patients with cirrhosis is challenging owing to confounding factors related to liver failure. The objectives of nutritional intervention in cirrhotic patients are the support of liver regeneration, the prevention or correction of specific nutritional deficiencies and the prevention and/or treatment of the complications of liver disease per se and of liver transplantation. Nutritional recommendations target the optimal supply of adequate substrates related to requirements linked to energy, protein, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and minerals. Some issues relating to malnutrition in chronic liver disease remain to be addressed including the development of an appropriate well-validated nutritional assessment tool, the identification of mechanistic targets or therapy for sarcopenia, the development of nutritional recommendations for obese cirrhotic patients and liver-transplant recipients and the elucidation of the roles of vitamin A hepatotoxicity, as well as the impact of deficiencies in riboflavin and zinc on clinical outcomes. Early identification and treatment of malnutrition in chronic liver disease has the potential to lead to better disease outcome as well as prevention of the complications of chronic liver disease and improved transplant outcomes. PMID:26041952

  14. Critical Difference and Biological Variation in Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Nutritional Status in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Nathan A.; Newell, John; Burden, Richard; Howatson, Glyn; Pedlar, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    The longitudinal monitoring of oxidative stress (OS) in athletes may enable the identification of fatigued states and underperformance. The application of OS biomarker monitoring programs in sport are hindered by reliability and repeatability of in-the-field testing tools, the turnaround of results, and the understanding of biological variation (BV). Knowledge of BV and critical difference values (CDV) may assist with data interpretation in the individual athlete. Methods: We aimed firstly to assess the repeatability of the clinical point of care redox test, Free Oxygen Radical Test (FORT) and the Free Oxygen Radical Defence (FORD) in trained participants and elite athletes and secondly to calculate the analytical, BV, CDV and index of individuality (II) for FORT, FORD, red blood cell glutathione, lutein, α and γ–tocopherol. Part 1: Fifteen elite athletes were sampled in duplicate for calculation of the repeatability of the FORT and FORD tests. Part 2: Twelve well-trained athletes had venous samples drawn every 2 hours from 0800 to 1800 for calculation of BV, CDV, II for FORT, FORD, RBC GSH, lutein, α-tocopherol and γ–tocopherol. Results: Repeatability of the FORT and FORD assay was 3.9% and 3.7% respectively. Biomarker CDV ranged from 12.8% to 37%, with a circadian effect for FORT, α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol (p<0.01), with all biomarker indices of individuality < 0.8 arbitrary units. Conclusion: We report that the use of the novel redox test in athletes is practical, and the generation of BV and CDV for biomarkers of OS enhances the interpretation of physiologically meaningful changes in individuals above the use of clinical reference ranges alone. PMID:26930475

  15. The effect of stress management training on stress and depression in women with depression disorders: Using cognitive-behavioral techniques

    PubMed Central

    Abbasian, Farahzad; Najimi, Arash; Meftagh, Sayyed Davood; Ghasemi, Gholamreza; Afshar, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of stress management training through cognitive-behavioral techniques on stress, social adaptability and depression in women with depression disorders. Materials and Methods: In this study, 40 patients diagnosed with depression who had referred to psychiatry and consultation clinics of Isfahan were randomly selected and assigned to intervention and control groups (20 patients in each group). The intervention group received eight 90-min sessions of stress training through cognitive–behavioral techniques. Data collection tools included Cooper's stress questionnaire, Bell's social adaptability questionnaire and Hamilton's depression scale questionnaire. The participants completed the questionnaires before the intervention and 1 month after the same. Data analysis was performed using covariance analysis. Results: Based on the results, considering variables of stress, social adaptability and depression, the equal variance hypothesis was confirmed. The relationship between pre- and post-test scores on stress, social adaptability and depression was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The modified mean difference was F = 12.45, P < 0.001 on stress; F = 6.88, P < 0.01 on social adaptability; and F = 5.36, P < 0.02 on depression, all of which were significant. Conclusion: Stress management training through cognitive behavioral techniques can play a main role in depression reduction and development of social adaptability through modifying inappropriate social information-processing patterns. PMID:25077163

  16. Stress and Primary Headache: Review of the Research and Clinical Management.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    This review begins with a discussion of the nature of stress and then presents the functional model of primary headache as a framework for conceptualizing the complex relationship between stress and headaches. Research is reviewed on stress as a trigger of headaches and how stress can play a role in the developmental and psychosocial context of headaches. Clinical management of headaches from a stress perspective is considered both at the level of trials of behavioral interventions that broadly fit into the stress management category and the additional strategies that might be useful for individual cases based on the research demonstrating associations between stress and headaches. The review concludes by suggesting that although some researchers have questioned whether stress can trigger headaches, overall, the literature is still supportive of such a link. Advances in methodology are discussed, the recent emphasis on protective factors is welcomed, and directions for future research suggested.

  17. European adolescents' level of perceived stress is inversely related to their diet quality: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.

    PubMed

    De Vriendt, Tineke; Clays, Els; Huybrechts, Inge; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Moreno, Luis A; Patterson, Emma; Molnár, Dénes; Mesana, María I; Beghin, Laurent; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yannis; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-07-01

    As stress is hypothesised to influence dietary behaviour, the relationship between perceived stress and diet quality in European adolescents was investigated. Within the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study, adolescents (n 704, aged 12-17 years) from schools in five European cities (Ghent, Stockholm, Zaragoza, Athens and Vienna) completed a 2 d 24 h dietary recall assessment and an Adolescent Stress Questionnaire. Measurements and information were taken on height, weight, pubertal stage, parental education level, the level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep duration. The Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A) was calculated from the dietary data, which comprised three components reflecting dietary diversity, quality and equilibrium. Hierarchical linear models were performed to investigate the relationship between the adolescents' level of perceived stress and the DQI-A and its components, adjusting for relevant covariates (age, BMI z-score, pubertal stage and parental education). These models were additionally adjusted for MVPA or sleep duration. In both boys and girls, perceived stress was a significant independent negative predictor for their overall DQI-A. This inverse relationship was observed for all dietary components, except for dietary diversity in boys, and it was unaltered when additionally adjusted for MVPA or sleep duration. The observed inverse relationship between stress and diet quality within these European adolescents supports the hypothesis that stress influences dietary behaviour, thus emphasising the need for preventive stress-coping strategies for adolescents.

  18. Stress in crisis managers: evidence from self-report and psychophysiological assessments.

    PubMed

    Janka, A; Adler, C; Fischer, L; Perakakis, P; Guerra, P; Duschek, S

    2015-12-01

    Directing disaster operations represents a major professional challenge. Despite its importance to health and professional performance, research on stress in crisis management remains scarce. The present study aimed to investigate self-reported stress and psychophysiological stress responses in crisis managers. For this purpose, 30 crisis managers were compared with 30 managers from other disciplines, in terms of self-reported stress, health status and psychophysiological reactivity to crisis-related and non-specific visual and acoustic aversive stimuli and cognitive challenge. Crisis managers reported lower stress levels, a more positive strain-recuperation-balance, greater social resources, reduced physical symptoms, as well as more physical exercise and less alcohol consumption. They exhibited diminished electrodermal and heart rate responses to crisis-related and non-specific stressors. The results indicate reduced stress and physical complaints, diminished psychophysiological stress reactivity, and a healthier life-style in crisis managers. Improved stress resistance may limit vulnerability to stress-related performance decline and facilitate preparedness for major incidents.

  19. Principals' Management Behavior, Personality Types and Physiological Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Bruce S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Data from portable heart-rate monitors and work diaries were used to relate Mintzberg's "nature of managerial work" to physiological stress in small number of working principals over three complete work days. Principals found to be working under extreme stress for long hours, and certain activities were more stressful than others. Implications are…

  20. Oxidative stress as a novel target in pediatric sepsis management.

    PubMed

    von Dessauer, Bettina; Bongain, Jazmina; Molina, Víctor; Quilodrán, Julio; Castillo, Rodrigo; Rodrigo, Ramón

    2011-02-01

    Sepsis with secondary multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome is the leading cause of death in the pediatric intensive care unit. Increased reactive oxygen species may influence circulating and endothelial cells, contributing to inflammatory tissue injury and explaining the tissue hypoxia paradigm based on microvascular dysfunction. An impaired mitochondrial cellular oxygen utilization, rather than inadequate oxygen delivery, was claimed to play a more important role in the development of multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome. Anyway, it seems plausible that reactive oxygen species can mediate the pathophysiologic processes occurring in sepsis. However, the consensus guidelines for the management of patients with these conditions do not include the enhancement of antioxidant potential. Therefore, further investigation is needed to support interventions aimed to attenuate the severity of the systemic compromise by abrogating the mechanism of oxidative damage. Antioxidant supplementation currently in use lacks a mechanistic support. Specific pharmacologic targets, such as mitochondria or Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate-Oxidase (NADPH) oxidase system, need to be explored. Furthermore, the early recognition of oxidative damage in these seriously ill patients and the usefulness of oxidative stress biomarkers to define a cut point for more successful therapeutic antioxidant interventions to be instituted would offer a new strategy to improve the outcome of critically ill children.

  1. Experts stress both wellness and amenity aspects of food and nutrition services in assisted living facilities for older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been no consensus on best practices in food and nutrition services in assisted living facilities (ALFs) for older adults. We documented experts’ views on optimal food and nutrition services emphases in ALFs, and factors affecting their views. One hundred thirty-five national experts speci...

  2. Using biofeedback while immersed in a stressful videogame increases the effectiveness of stress management skills in soldiers.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Stéphane; Bernier, François; Boivin, Eric; Morin, Brian; Robillard, Geneviève

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of using visual and auditory biofeedback while immersed in a tridimensional videogame to practice a stress management skill (tactical breathing). All 41 participants were soldiers who had previously received basic stress management training and first aid training in combat. On the first day, they received a 15-minute refresher briefing and were randomly assigned to either: (a) no additional stress management training (SMT) for three days, or (b) 30-minute sessions (one per day for three days) of biofeedback-assisted SMT while immersed in a horror/first-person shooter game. The training was performed in a dark and enclosed environment using a 50-inch television with active stereoscopic display and loudspeakers. On the last day, all participants underwent a live simulated ambush with an improvised explosive device, where they had to provide first aid to a wounded soldier. Stress levels were measured with salivary cortisol collected when waking-up, before and after the live simulation. Stress was also measured with heart rate at baseline, during an apprehension phase, and during the live simulation. Repeated-measure ANOVAs and ANCOVAs confirmed that practicing SMT was effective in reducing stress. Results are discussed in terms of the advantages of the proposed program for military personnel and the need to practice SMT.

  3. Using Biofeedback while Immersed in a Stressful Videogame Increases the Effectiveness of Stress Management Skills in Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Stéphane; Bernier, François; Boivin, Éric; Morin, Brian; Robillard, Geneviève

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of using visual and auditory biofeedback while immersed in a tridimensional videogame to practice a stress management skill (tactical breathing). All 41 participants were soldiers who had previously received basic stress management training and first aid training in combat. On the first day, they received a 15-minute refresher briefing and were randomly assigned to either: (a) no additional stress management training (SMT) for three days, or (b) 30-minute sessions (one per day for three days) of biofeedback-assisted SMT while immersed in a horror/first-person shooter game. The training was performed in a dark and enclosed environment using a 50-inch television with active stereoscopic display and loudspeakers. On the last day, all participants underwent a live simulated ambush with an improvised explosive device, where they had to provide first aid to a wounded soldier. Stress levels were measured with salivary cortisol collected when waking-up, before and after the live simulation. Stress was also measured with heart rate at baseline, during an apprehension phase, and during the live simulation. Repeated-measure ANOVAs and ANCOVAs confirmed that practicing SMT was effective in reducing stress. Results are discussed in terms of the advantages of the proposed program for military personnel and the need to practice SMT. PMID:22558370

  4. Using biofeedback while immersed in a stressful videogame increases the effectiveness of stress management skills in soldiers.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Stéphane; Bernier, François; Boivin, Eric; Morin, Brian; Robillard, Geneviève

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of using visual and auditory biofeedback while immersed in a tridimensional videogame to practice a stress management skill (tactical breathing). All 41 participants were soldiers who had previously received basic stress management training and first aid training in combat. On the first day, they received a 15-minute refresher briefing and were randomly assigned to either: (a) no additional stress management training (SMT) for three days, or (b) 30-minute sessions (one per day for three days) of biofeedback-assisted SMT while immersed in a horror/first-person shooter game. The training was performed in a dark and enclosed environment using a 50-inch television with active stereoscopic display and loudspeakers. On the last day, all participants underwent a live simulated ambush with an improvised explosive device, where they had to provide first aid to a wounded soldier. Stress levels were measured with salivary cortisol collected when waking-up, before and after the live simulation. Stress was also measured with heart rate at baseline, during an apprehension phase, and during the live simulation. Repeated-measure ANOVAs and ANCOVAs confirmed that practicing SMT was effective in reducing stress. Results are discussed in terms of the advantages of the proposed program for military personnel and the need to practice SMT. PMID:22558370

  5. The Response of the Mediterranean Gorgonian Eunicella singularis to Thermal Stress Is Independent of Its Nutritional Regime

    PubMed Central

    Ezzat, Leïla; Merle, Pierre-Laurent; Furla, Paola; Buttler, Alexandre; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few decades, sessile benthic organisms from the Mediterranean Sea have suffered from the global warming of the world's oceans, and several mass mortality events were observed during warm summers. It has been hypothesized that mortality could have been due to a nutrient (food) shortage following the stratification of the water column. However, the symbiotic gorgonian Eunicella singularis has also presented a locally exceptional mortality, despite its autotrophic capacities through the photosynthesis of its dinoflagellate symbionts. Thus, this study has experimentally investigated the response of E. singularis to a thermal stress (temperature increase from 18 to 26°C), with colonies maintained more than 2 months under four nutritional diets: autotrophy only (AO), autotrophy and inorganic nitrogen addition (AN), autotrophy and heterotrophy (AH), heterotrophy only (HO). At 18°C, and contrary to many other anthozoans, supplementation of autotrophy with either inorganic nitrogen or food (heterotrophy) had no effect on the rates of respiration, photosynthesis, as well as in the chlorophyll, lipid and protein content. In the dark, heterotrophy maintained the gorgonian's metabolism, except a bleaching (loss of pigments), which did not affect the rates of photosynthesis. At 24°C, rates of respiration, and photosynthesis significantly decreased in all treatments. At 26°C, in addition to a decrease in the lipid content of all treatments, a bleaching was observed after 1 week in the AO treatment, while the AH and AN treatments resisted three weeks before bleaching. These last results suggest that, temperatures above 24°C impair the energetic reserves of this species and might explain the mortality events in the Mediterranean. PMID:23667711

  6. Management of childhood obesity through a school-based programme of general health and nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Angelico, F; Del Ben, M; Fabiani, L; Lentini, P; Pannozzo, F; Urbinati, G C; Ricci, G

    1991-09-01

    A school-based nutrition education programme aimed at the control of coronary risk factor rise during childhood was started in 1983 for 150 boys and girls aged 6-7 years. The study was performed in a rural area of central Italy, where adult obesity represents a major health problem. Preventive treatment was based on general health education in schools towards healthy lifestyles. Nutritional intervention was mainly focused on the adoption of the 'prudent diet'. School-teachers received specific training on how to teach 'good nutrition'. The nutrition curriculum was taught by teachers throughout the school year. Several meetings were organised to actively involve the children's parents. Practical recommendations for changes in food selection and preparation were also given. After a five-year follow up, a strong 'tracking phenomenon' for body mass index was observed, suggesting a great stability over time of lifestyles and dietary habits leading to the development of obesity during childhood. We conclude that a school-delivered programme of general nutrition education for the control of risk factors does not appear to be able to control child obesity.

  7. Pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2014-03-01

    This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed. PMID:24580990

  8. Pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2014-03-01

    This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed.

  9. Review of VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline on management of acute stress and interventions to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Nash, William P; Watson, Patricia J

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the recommendations of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)/Department of Defense (DOD) VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline for Management of Post-Traumatic Stress that pertain to acute stress and the prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder, including screening and early interventions for acute stress states in various settings. Recommended interventions during the first 4 days after a potentially traumatic event include attending to safety and basic needs and providing access to physical, emotional, and social resources. Psychological first aid is recommended for management of acute stress, while psychological debriefing is discouraged. Further medical and psychiatric assessment and provision of brief, trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy are warranted if clinically significant distress or functional impairment persists or worsens after 2 days or if the criteria for a diagnosis of acute stress disorder are met. Follow-up monitoring and rescreening are endorsed for at least 6 months for everyone who experiences significant acute posttraumatic stress. Four interventions that illustrate early intervention principles contained in the VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline are described.

  10. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: standards of practice and standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists (competent, proficient, and expert) in adult weight management.

    PubMed

    Jortberg, Bonnie; Myers, Eileen; Gigliotti, Linda; Ivens, Barbara J; Lebre, Monica; Burke March, Susan; Nogueira, Isadora; Nwankwo, Robin; Parkinson, Meredith R; Paulsen, Barbara; Turner, Tonya

    2015-04-01

    Weight management encompasses the inter-relationship of nutrition, physical activity, and health behavior change. Nutrition is key for the prevention and treatment of obesity and chronic disease and maintenance of overall health. Thus, the Weight Management Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has developed Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (RDNs) in Adult Weight Management as a resource for RDNs working in weight management. This document allows RDNs to assess their current skill levels and to identify areas for further professional development in this expanding practice area. This document describes the current standards for weight management practice for RDNs. The Standards of Practice represent the four steps in the Nutrition Care Process as applied to the care of patients/clients. The Standards of Professional Performance consist of six domains of professionalism: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. Within each standard, specific indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate how the standard can be applied to practice. The indicators describe three skill levels (competent, proficient, and expert) for RDNs working in weight management. The Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance are complementary resources for the Registered Dietitian Nutritionist in weight management.

  11. Stress Management Strategies for Students: The Immediate Effects of Yoga, Humor, and Reading on Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzolo, Denise; Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Stiskal, Doreen; Simpkins, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Health science programs can be demanding and difficult for many students, leading to high levels of stress. High levels of stress can have a negative effect on students and subsequently the practicing clinician. Research suggests that yoga, humor, and reading are simple, effective methods to help reduce stress. To date no research…

  12. Caregiver Stress and Physical Health: The Case for Stress Management Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, C.; Krisztal, E.; Rabinowitz, Y.; Gillispie, Z.; Oportot, M.; Tse, C.; Singer, L.; Gallagher-Thompson, D.

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that providing care for a loved one with memory problems puts a person at risk for both mental and physical health problems. In the last several decades, research on chronic stress suggests that the body's physical response to stress becomes severely dysregulated as a result of chronic stress lifestyles such as caregiving. This…

  13. Stress Management for School Personnel: Stress-Inoculation Training and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Bonita C.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of Stress-Inoculation Training (SIT) with and without exercise component and Minimal exercise treatment (MIN) on trait anxiety, teacher stress, and coping strategies among 66 teachers. Found eight-week SIT with exercise to be more effective than MIN in reducing anxiety and teacher stress. SIT without exercise did not…

  14. Academic Major as a Perceived Stress Indicator: Extending Stress Management Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Ross W.; Casazza, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research that has explored stress differences between "hard" and "soft" academic majors did not provide clear criteria for categorizing "hard" and "soft" majors, used a single item to measure reported stress, and reported contradictory stress differences between academic majors (Myrtek, Hilgenberg, Brugner, & Muller, 1997). With an…

  15. Menorrhagia: A synopsis of management focusing on herbal and nutritional supplements, and chiropractic.

    PubMed Central

    Livdans-Forret, Anna B.; Harvey, Phyllis J.; Larkin-Thier, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction To make chiropractors more aware of menorrhagia and how they can serve a role in their patient’s care and education since women make up 60% of the population seeking chiropractic care. Method A review of the biomedical literature on menorrhagia was conducted. Items that were retrieved were synthesized and interpreted in order to give the best information to practicing chiropractors. Discussion Most of the information available relative to menorrhagia is medically oriented. Other treatment options can include: chiropractic, various types of herbs, and nutritional supplements. Conclusion Knowledge of medical treatment, nutritional supplements, along with chiropractic treatment options may be beneficial to doctors in their practice. PMID:18060009

  16. Teacher Participation in Stress Management through Different Theoretical Lenses: A Study Conducted in the Mahikeng Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelser, A. M. F.; van Wyk, C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the research reported in this article was to place the known facts of the topic of teacher participation in stress management in the context of management and leadership in education. The emphasis in the conceptual and theoretical framework was on showing points of connection between leadership and management on the one hand and…

  17. Association of stress management skills and perceived stress with physical and emotional well-being among advanced prostrate cancer survivors following androgen deprivation treatment.

    PubMed

    Penedo, Frank J; Benedict, Catherine; Zhou, Eric S; Rasheed, Mikal; Traeger, Lara; Kava, Bruce R; Soloway, Mark; Czaja, Sara; Antoni, Michael H

    2013-03-01

    Advanced prostate cancer (APC) is associated with disruptions that compromise health related quality of life (HRQOL). Treatment often includes androgendeprivation therapy (ADT), which results in a range of side effects (e.g., fatigue, urinary dysfunction) that further impact HRQOL. Despite these challenges, there are limited evaluations of the impact of stress and stress management skills on HRQOL among APC survivors on ADT. This study evaluated relationships among stress, stress management skills, and HRQOL, and it was hypothesized that better stress management skills would relate to greater physical and emotional well-being by mitigating perceived stress levels. Participants (N = 77) were 69.7 years old (SD = 9.8), 18.6 months post-treatment (SD = 17.5), and ethnically diverse (65 % Non-Hispanic White, 13 % Hispanic, 21 % African-American). Measures included the Measure of Current Status for stress management skills, the Perceived Stress Scale for perceived stress, and the Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form (MOS SF-36; physical functioning and emotional well-being subscales) for HRQOL. Direct effects and mediation models were evaluated to determine the relationships between perceived stress, stress management skills, and HRQOL domains, controlling for relevant covariates. Stress management skills and perceived stress were significantly associated with physical functioning (β = .24, p < .05 and β = -.43, p < .01, respectively) and emotional well-being (β = .35, p < .01 and β = -.64, p < .01, respectively). Regression analyses supported the hypothesis that reduced perceived stress mediated the relationship between stress management skills and both physical functioning and emotional well-being. These results demonstrate that one way stress management skills may impact HRQOL is by lessening ongoing perceptions of stress.

  18. Stress and reproductive hormones reflect inter-specific social and nutritional conditions mediated by resource availability in a bear-salmon system.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Heather M; Darimont, Chris T; Paquet, Paul C; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Smits, Judit E G

    2014-01-01

    Food availability can influence the nutritional and social dynamics within and among species. Our investigation focused on grizzly and black bears in coastal British Columbia, Canada, where recent and dramatic declines in their primary prey (salmon) raise concerns about potentially negative effects on bear physiology. We examined how salmon availability relates to stress and reproductive hormones in coastal grizzly (n = 69) and black bears (n = 68) using cortisol and testosterone. In hair samples from genotyped individuals, we quantified salmon consumption using stable isotope analysis and hormone levels by enzyme immunoassay. To estimate the salmon biomass available to each bear, we developed a spatially explicit approach based on typical bear home-range sizes. Next, we compared the relative importance of salmon consumption and salmon availability on hormone levels in male bears using an information theoretical approach. Cortisol in grizzly bears was higher in individuals that consumed less salmon, possibly reflecting nutritional stress. In black bears, cortisol was better predicted by salmon availability than salmon consumption; specifically, individuals in areas and years with low salmon availability showed higher cortisol levels. This indicates that cortisol in black bears is more strongly influenced by the socially competitive environment mediated by salmon availability than by nutritional requirements. In both species, testosterone generally decreased with increasing salmon availability, possibly reflecting a less competitive environment when salmon were abundant. Differences between species could relate to different nutritional requirements, social densities and competitive behaviour and/or habitat use. We present a conceptual model to inform further investigations in this and other systems. Our approach, which combines data on multiple hormones with dietary and spatial information corresponding to the year of hair growth, provides a promising tool

  19. Stress and reproductive hormones reflect inter-specific social and nutritional conditions mediated by resource availability in a bear-salmon system.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Heather M; Darimont, Chris T; Paquet, Paul C; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Smits, Judit E G

    2014-01-01

    Food availability can influence the nutritional and social dynamics within and among species. Our investigation focused on grizzly and black bears in coastal British Columbia, Canada, where recent and dramatic declines in their primary prey (salmon) raise concerns about potentially negative effects on bear physiology. We examined how salmon availability relates to stress and reproductive hormones in coastal grizzly (n = 69) and black bears (n = 68) using cortisol and testosterone. In hair samples from genotyped individuals, we quantified salmon consumption using stable isotope analysis and hormone levels by enzyme immunoassay. To estimate the salmon biomass available to each bear, we developed a spatially explicit approach based on typical bear home-range sizes. Next, we compared the relative importance of salmon consumption and salmon availability on hormone levels in male bears using an information theoretical approach. Cortisol in grizzly bears was higher in individuals that consumed less salmon, possibly reflecting nutritional stress. In black bears, cortisol was better predicted by salmon availability than salmon consumption; specifically, individuals in areas and years with low salmon availability showed higher cortisol levels. This indicates that cortisol in black bears is more strongly influenced by the socially competitive environment mediated by salmon availability than by nutritional requirements. In both species, testosterone generally decreased with increasing salmon availability, possibly reflecting a less competitive environment when salmon were abundant. Differences between species could relate to different nutritional requirements, social densities and competitive behaviour and/or habitat use. We present a conceptual model to inform further investigations in this and other systems. Our approach, which combines data on multiple hormones with dietary and spatial information corresponding to the year of hair growth, provides a promising tool

  20. Stress and reproductive hormones reflect inter-specific social and nutritional conditions mediated by resource availability in a bear–salmon system

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Heather M.; Darimont, Chris T.; Paquet, Paul C.; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E.; Smits, Judit E. G.

    2014-01-01

    Food availability can influence the nutritional and social dynamics within and among species. Our investigation focused on grizzly and black bears in coastal British Columbia, Canada, where recent and dramatic declines in their primary prey (salmon) raise concerns about potentially negative effects on bear physiology. We examined how salmon availability relates to stress and reproductive hormones in coastal grizzly (n = 69) and black bears (n = 68) using cortisol and testosterone. In hair samples from genotyped individuals, we quantified salmon consumption using stable isotope analysis and hormone levels by enzyme immunoassay. To estimate the salmon biomass available to each bear, we developed a spatially explicit approach based on typical bear home-range sizes. Next, we compared the relative importance of salmon consumption and salmon availability on hormone levels in male bears using an information theoretical approach. Cortisol in grizzly bears was higher in individuals that consumed less salmon, possibly reflecting nutritional stress. In black bears, cortisol was better predicted by salmon availability than salmon consumption; specifically, individuals in areas and years with low salmon availability showed higher cortisol levels. This indicates that cortisol in black bears is more strongly influenced by the socially competitive environment mediated by salmon availability than by nutritional requirements. In both species, testosterone generally decreased with increasing salmon availability, possibly reflecting a less competitive environment when salmon were abundant. Differences between species could relate to different nutritional requirements, social densities and competitive behaviour and/or habitat use. We present a conceptual model to inform further investigations in this and other systems. Our approach, which combines data on multiple hormones with dietary and spatial information corresponding to the year of hair growth, provides a promising tool

  1. Student Well-Being Interventions: The Effects of Stress Management Techniques and Gratitude Journaling in the Management Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinchbaugh, Carol L.; Moore, E. Whitney G.; Chang, Young K.; May, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Student well-being in the management classroom is of concern to both educators and managers. Well-being is conceptualized here as students' reduction in stress, enhanced experienced meaning and engagement in the classroom, and, ultimately, heightened satisfaction with life. The authors investigated whether purposeful semester-long classroom…

  2. A Model of Teacher Stress and Its Implications for Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, David J.

    1984-01-01

    After summarizing research into the sources and correlates of teacher stress, this article defines and proposes a model of work-related stress in school, incorporating current concepts and research findings. Strategies for coping with the buildup of environmental stressors are developed for application at various administrative levels within the…

  3. Managing Stress for College Success through Self-Hypnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrese, Marie A.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the problem of stress and outlines the steps for self-hypnosis as an effective method of teaching inner-city college freshmen ways of coping with the pressures of higher education. The described method can be used in numerous settings with all populations. An appendix provides the Stress Identification and Evaluation Form. (Author/MKA)

  4. Evaluation of Stress Management Education: The University of Maryland Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Roger J.

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the undergraduate service program "Controlling Stress & Tension" at the University of Maryland in terms of improving the health status of participants across biomedical stress reactivity and psychometric variables. Six hundred fifty-three participants were compared to 264 control subjects for pre- to…

  5. Student Stress: A Classroom Management System. Analysis and Action Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.

    This book is concerned with the problem of student stress and the possibility that children and adolescents will internalize ineffective coping strategies used by adult models available to them. The introductory chapter explains a need for an educational plan to promote ways of controlling stress; recommends a systematic approach to managing…

  6. Strategies for the Management of Lecturer Stress in Feedback Tutorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartney, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The process of providing students with individual feedback on assessed work was identified as a source of lecturer stress (Stough and Emmer, 1998). An action research approach was used to address the following research question. What approaches to providing students with feedback minimize lecturer stress? Data were collected using written feedback…

  7. Managing Stress and Burnout among Helpers in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, John C.

    Individuals who work in the helping professions (physicians, counselors, nurses, pastors, and social workers) often work with individuals in stressful crisis situations. In addition to working in high stress situations, helpers in rural areas also suffer from isolation from support networks and peers that are available to urban helpers. This…

  8. Dairy nutrition management: Assessing a comprehensive continuing education program for veterinary practitioners.

    PubMed

    Schuenemann, G M; Eastridge, M L; Weiss, W P; Workman, J D; Bas, S; Rajala-Schultz, P

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a team-based educational program designed to enhance the flow of applied, research-based, nutrition information to dairy veterinarians. A comprehensive dairy cattle nutrition curriculum was developed and participants from 11 veterinary practices located in 5 states (IN, NY, PA, NM, and OH), serving an estimated 186,150 dairy cattle in 469 herds, attended the 2 advanced nutrition modules (∼2.5 d each and ∼40 h of learning) held in 2009. Nutrients, feeding transition cows, calves, and heifers, dry matter intake, feed storage, metabolic diseases, evaluating cows (scoring body condition, manure, and lameness), metabolic blood profiles, and feeding behavior were discussed. Educational materials were delivered through in-class lectures, followed by case-based learning and group discussions. A farm visit and out-of-class assignments were also implemented. Attendees were assessed using pre- and post-tests of knowledge to determine the level of knowledge gained in both nutrition modules. Participants evaluated the program and provided feedback at the conclusion of each module. Veterinarians (100%) reported that the overall program, presentations, and discussions were useful. Attendees found the presented information relevant for their work (agree=60% and strongly agree=40%) and of great immediate use to them (neutral=6.5%, agree=56%, and strongly agree=37.5%). The presented materials and the implemented educational delivery methods substantially increased the knowledge level of the attendees (16.9% points increase from pre-test to post-test scores). Importance of feed particle size, ration evaluation, interpreting feed analysis, balancing carbohydrate components, and metabolic profiling in fresh cows were listed as learned concepts that participants could apply in their practices. Results suggested that both nutrition modules were relevant and effective, offering new information with immediate field

  9. Nutritional Issues in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Missale; Bozic, Molly; Mascarenhas, Maria R

    2016-03-01

    The importance of maintaining adequate nutrition in patients with cystic fibrosis has been well known for the past 3 decades. Achieving normal growth and maintaining optimal nutrition is associated with improved lung function. Comprehensive and consistent nutritional assessments at regular intervals can identify those at risk of nutritional failure and uncover micronutrient deficiencies contributing to malnutrition. Management of malnutrition in cystic fibrosis should follow a stepwise approach to determine the causes and comorbidities and to develop a nutritional plan. Nutritional management is crucial at every stage in a person's life with cystic fibrosis and remains a cornerstone of management.

  10. Effects of 12-week Vegetarian Diet on the Nutritional Status, Stress Status and Bowel Habits in Middle School Students and Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo Ra; Ko, Yu Mi; Cho, Mi Hee; Yoon, Young Ran

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of switching normal diet to vegetarian diet rich in vegetables and fruits for school foodservice and home meal on the nutritional status, bowel habit improvement and stress reduction of teachers and adolescents. A total of 40 research subjects (26 students, 14 teachers) from one middle school voluntarily participated in the research. Questionnaire surveys and blood analysis were conducted before and after a 12-week vegetarian diet period. The participants were asked on their dietary habit, bowel habit and stress measurement. After 12 weeks, reduction of BMI (kg/m2) in the students (p < 0.05) and reduction of TC (mg/dL) in both teachers and students (p < 0.05) were observed. Also reduction of LDL-C (mg/dL) was observed in the teachers (p < 0.05) whereas serum calcium and Vitamin B12 was increased in the students and teachers (p < 0.005). The teacher's stress level was reduced (p < 0.05) after the 12-week vegetarian diet. As for the changes in bowel habit, the number of the students and teachers classified as experiencing functional constipation was decreased respectively from 10 to 7, from 7 to 5. Based on the result, it is considered that the vegetarian diet rich in fruits and vegetables improved general health status of study subjects suggesting that such a dietary habit would substantially contribute to improving nutritional status and bowel habit. PMID:27152300

  11. Effects of 12-week Vegetarian Diet on the Nutritional Status, Stress Status and Bowel Habits in Middle School Students and Teachers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo Ra; Ko, Yu Mi; Cho, Mi Hee; Yoon, Young Ran; Kye, Seung Hee; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of switching normal diet to vegetarian diet rich in vegetables and fruits for school foodservice and home meal on the nutritional status, bowel habit improvement and stress reduction of teachers and adolescents. A total of 40 research subjects (26 students, 14 teachers) from one middle school voluntarily participated in the research. Questionnaire surveys and blood analysis were conducted before and after a 12-week vegetarian diet period. The participants were asked on their dietary habit, bowel habit and stress measurement. After 12 weeks, reduction of BMI (kg/m(2)) in the students (p < 0.05) and reduction of TC (mg/dL) in both teachers and students (p < 0.05) were observed. Also reduction of LDL-C (mg/dL) was observed in the teachers (p < 0.05) whereas serum calcium and Vitamin B12 was increased in the students and teachers (p < 0.005). The teacher's stress level was reduced (p < 0.05) after the 12-week vegetarian diet. As for the changes in bowel habit, the number of the students and teachers classified as experiencing functional constipation was decreased respectively from 10 to 7, from 7 to 5. Based on the result, it is considered that the vegetarian diet rich in fruits and vegetables improved general health status of study subjects suggesting that such a dietary habit would substantially contribute to improving nutritional status and bowel habit.

  12. Effects of 12-week Vegetarian Diet on the Nutritional Status, Stress Status and Bowel Habits in Middle School Students and Teachers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo Ra; Ko, Yu Mi; Cho, Mi Hee; Yoon, Young Ran; Kye, Seung Hee; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of switching normal diet to vegetarian diet rich in vegetables and fruits for school foodservice and home meal on the nutritional status, bowel habit improvement and stress reduction of teachers and adolescents. A total of 40 research subjects (26 students, 14 teachers) from one middle school voluntarily participated in the research. Questionnaire surveys and blood analysis were conducted before and after a 12-week vegetarian diet period. The participants were asked on their dietary habit, bowel habit and stress measurement. After 12 weeks, reduction of BMI (kg/m(2)) in the students (p < 0.05) and reduction of TC (mg/dL) in both teachers and students (p < 0.05) were observed. Also reduction of LDL-C (mg/dL) was observed in the teachers (p < 0.05) whereas serum calcium and Vitamin B12 was increased in the students and teachers (p < 0.005). The teacher's stress level was reduced (p < 0.05) after the 12-week vegetarian diet. As for the changes in bowel habit, the number of the students and teachers classified as experiencing functional constipation was decreased respectively from 10 to 7, from 7 to 5. Based on the result, it is considered that the vegetarian diet rich in fruits and vegetables improved general health status of study subjects suggesting that such a dietary habit would substantially contribute to improving nutritional status and bowel habit. PMID:27152300

  13. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter

    PubMed Central

    Joly, Kyle; Wasser, Samuel K.; Booth, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The winter diet of barren-ground caribou may affect adult survival, timing of parturition, neonatal survival, and postpartum mass. We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress. Lichens, which are highly digestible but contain little protein, dominated the diet (> 68%) but were less prevalent in the diets of pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females and males. The amount of lichens in the diets of pregnant females decreased at higher latitudes and as winter progressed. Pregnancy rates (82.1%, 95% CI = 76.0 – 88.1%) of adult cows were within the expected range for a declining herd, while pregnancy status was not associated with lichen abundance in the diet. Most groups (80%) were of mixed sex. Male: female ratios (62:100) were not skewed enough to affect the decline. Levels of hormones indicating nutritional stress were detected in areas of low habitat quality and at higher latitudes. Levels of hormones indicated that physiological stress was greatest for pregnant cows, which faced the increasing demands of gestation in late winter. These fecal-based measures of diet and stress provided contextual information for the potential mechanisms of the ongoing decline. Non-invasive techniques, such as monitoring diets, pregnancy rates, sex ratios and stress levels from fecal samples, will become increasingly important as monitoring tools as the industrial footprint continues to expand in the Arctic. PMID:26061003

  14. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter.

    PubMed

    Joly, Kyle; Wasser, Samuel K; Booth, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The winter diet of barren-ground caribou may affect adult survival, timing of parturition, neonatal survival, and postpartum mass. We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress. Lichens, which are highly digestible but contain little protein, dominated the diet (> 68%) but were less prevalent in the diets of pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females and males. The amount of lichens in the diets of pregnant females decreased at higher latitudes and as winter progressed. Pregnancy rates (82.1%, 95% CI = 76.0 - 88.1%) of adult cows were within the expected range for a declining herd, while pregnancy status was not associated with lichen abundance in the diet. Most groups (80%) were of mixed sex. Male: female ratios (62:100) were not skewed enough to affect the decline. Levels of hormones indicating nutritional stress were detected in areas of low habitat quality and at higher latitudes. Levels of hormones indicated that physiological stress was greatest for pregnant cows, which faced the increasing demands of gestation in late winter. These fecal-based measures of diet and stress provided contextual information for the potential mechanisms of the ongoing decline. Non-invasive techniques, such as monitoring diets, pregnancy rates, sex ratios and stress levels from fecal samples, will become increasingly important as monitoring tools as the industrial footprint continues to expand in the Arctic. PMID:26061003

  15. Virtually Stress Free: Keeping Online Graduate Management Students Healthy from Afar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinak, M. Linda

    2012-01-01

    This article examines stress experienced by graduate management students in an online learning environment. I use qualitative methodology to examine data collected from 32 students in 2 sections of a graduate online course. Findings identify 6 categories of stressors experienced by the students as well as 6 categories of stress relief agents.…

  16. Healthcare managers' leadership profiles in relation to perceptions of work stressors and stress.

    PubMed

    Lornudd, Caroline; Bergman, David; Sandahl, Christer; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica

    2016-05-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between leadership profiles and differences in managers' own levels of work stress symptoms and perceptions of work stressors causing stress. Design/methodology/approach Cross-sectional data were used. Healthcare managers ( n = 188) rated three dimensions of their leadership behavior and levels of work stressors and stress. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to identify leadership profiles based on leadership behaviors. Differences in stress-related outcomes between profiles were assessed using one-way analysis of variance. Findings Four distinct clusters of leadership profiles were found. They discriminated in perception of work stressors and stress: the profile distinguished by the lowest mean in all behavior dimensions, exhibited a pattern with significantly more negative ratings compared to the other profiles. Practical implications This paper proposes that leadership profile is an individual factor involved in the stress process, including work stressors and stress, which may inform targeted health promoting interventions for healthcare managers. Originality/value This is the first study to investigate the relationship between leadership profiles and work stressors and stress in healthcare managers.

  17. Healthcare managers' leadership profiles in relation to perceptions of work stressors and stress.

    PubMed

    Lornudd, Caroline; Bergman, David; Sandahl, Christer; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica

    2016-05-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between leadership profiles and differences in managers' own levels of work stress symptoms and perceptions of work stressors causing stress. Design/methodology/approach Cross-sectional data were used. Healthcare managers ( n = 188) rated three dimensions of their leadership behavior and levels of work stressors and stress. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to identify leadership profiles based on leadership behaviors. Differences in stress-related outcomes between profiles were assessed using one-way analysis of variance. Findings Four distinct clusters of leadership profiles were found. They discriminated in perception of work stressors and stress: the profile distinguished by the lowest mean in all behavior dimensions, exhibited a pattern with significantly more negative ratings compared to the other profiles. Practical implications This paper proposes that leadership profile is an individual factor involved in the stress process, including work stressors and stress, which may inform targeted health promoting interventions for healthcare managers. Originality/value This is the first study to investigate the relationship between leadership profiles and work stressors and stress in healthcare managers. PMID:27198706

  18. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Alternative Stress Management Interventions in Persons with HIV Infection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Nancy L.; Gray, D. Patricia; Elswick, R. K., Jr.; Robins, Jolynne W.; Tuck, Inez; Walter, Jeanne M.; Rausch, Sarah M.; Ketchum, Jessica McKinney

    2008-01-01

    Research in psychoneuroimmunology suggests that immunosuppression associated with perceived stress may contribute to disease progression in persons with HIV infection. While stress management interventions may enhance immune function, few alternative approaches have yet been tested. This randomized clinical trial was conducted to test effects of…

  19. The Effects of a Stress Management Course on Counselors-in-Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Holly; Abel, Annette; Smith, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of a stress management course on the stress knowledge and coping techniques of 101 graduate students in counseling were examined. Participants, drawn from various racial groups, were typically female (79%) and 21 to 55 years of age. Seven of the 8 null hypotheses were rejected. There were significant differences on 6 of the 7 dependent…

  20. A Case Study: An ACT Stress Management Group in a University Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daltry, Rachel M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) stress management group in a college counseling center setting. This study explored (a) the effectiveness of ACT in increasing participants' ability to tolerate distress, which directly affects their ability to function in a stressful college…

  1. TechTuning: Stress Management For 3D Through-Silicon-Via Stacking Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radojcic, Riko; Nowak, Matt; Nakamoto, Mark

    2011-09-01

    The concerns with managing mechanical stress distributions and the consequent effects on device performance and material integrity, for advanced TSV based technologies 3D are outlined. A model and simulation based Design For Manufacturability (DFM) type of a flow for managing the mechanical stresses throughout Si die, stack and package design is proposed. The key attributes of the models and simulators required to fuel the proposed flow are summarized. Finally, some of the essential infrastructure and the Supply Chain support items are described.

  2. Taking a holistic approach to managing difficult stress fractures.

    PubMed

    Miller, Timothy L; Best, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Stress fractures and other bony stress injuries occur along a spectrum of severity which can impact treatment and prognosis. When treating these injuries, it should be borne in mind that no two stress fractures behave exactly alike. Given that they are not a consistent injury, standardized treatment protocols can be challenging to develop. Treatment should be individualized to the patient or athlete, the causative activity, the anatomical site, and the severity of the injury. A holistic approach to the treatment of the most difficult stress fractures should be taken by orthopedists and sports medicine specialists. This approach is necessary to obtain optimal outcomes, minimize loss of fitness and time away from sports participation, and decrease the risk of recurrence. PMID:27608681

  3. Update on the management of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Duncan; Cooper, John

    2015-04-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in people exposed to life-threatening trauma. GPs may be seeing more patients with post-traumatic stress disorder as military personnel return from overseas deployments. The condition can present in various ways. To reduce the likelihood of missed or delayed diagnosis GPs can screen at-risk populations. A comprehensive assessment is recommended. Specialist referral may be required, particularly if there are other mental health problems. Trauma-focused psychological therapies should be offered as the first line of treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Usually 8-12 sessions are needed for a therapeutic effect. If drug treatment is needed, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first line. Other drugs used in post-traumatic stress disorder include antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and prazosin.

  4. Taking a holistic approach to managing difficult stress fractures.

    PubMed

    Miller, Timothy L; Best, Thomas M

    2016-09-09

    Stress fractures and other bony stress injuries occur along a spectrum of severity which can impact treatment and prognosis. When treating these injuries, it should be borne in mind that no two stress fractures behave exactly alike. Given that they are not a consistent injury, standardized treatment protocols can be challenging to develop. Treatment should be individualized to the patient or athlete, the causative activity, the anatomical site, and the severity of the injury. A holistic approach to the treatment of the most difficult stress fractures should be taken by orthopedists and sports medicine specialists. This approach is necessary to obtain optimal outcomes, minimize loss of fitness and time away from sports participation, and decrease the risk of recurrence.

  5. Update on the management of post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Duncan; Cooper, John

    2015-01-01

    Summary Post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in people exposed to life-threatening trauma. GPs may be seeing more patients with post-traumatic stress disorder as military personnel return from overseas deployments. The condition can present in various ways. To reduce the likelihood of missed or delayed diagnosis GPs can screen at-risk populations. A comprehensive assessment is recommended. Specialist referral may be required, particularly if there are other mental health problems. Trauma-focused psychological therapies should be offered as the first line of treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Usually 8–12 sessions are needed for a therapeutic effect. If drug treatment is needed, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first line. Other drugs used in post-traumatic stress disorder include antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and prazosin. PMID:26648617

  6. Update on the management of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Duncan; Cooper, John

    2015-04-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in people exposed to life-threatening trauma. GPs may be seeing more patients with post-traumatic stress disorder as military personnel return from overseas deployments. The condition can present in various ways. To reduce the likelihood of missed or delayed diagnosis GPs can screen at-risk populations. A comprehensive assessment is recommended. Specialist referral may be required, particularly if there are other mental health problems. Trauma-focused psychological therapies should be offered as the first line of treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Usually 8-12 sessions are needed for a therapeutic effect. If drug treatment is needed, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first line. Other drugs used in post-traumatic stress disorder include antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and prazosin. PMID:26648617

  7. An overview of the diagnosis and management of nutrition in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Afghani, Elham; Sinha, Amitasha; Singh, Vikesh K

    2014-06-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas, which results in fibrosis and the gradual loss of pancreatic function. The loss of islets and acinar cells results in diabetes and exocrine insufficiency, respectively. Exocrine insufficiency can result in maldigestion of fat, protein, and carbohydrate as well as vitamins and minerals. Patients may present with variable severity of disease, from mild to severe. The diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis can be challenging, especially in patients with early or mild disease who have few to no morphologic abnormalities on standard abdominal imaging studies. A number of imaging modalities and tests have evolved to aid in the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis based on changes in structure or function. Clinicians typically focus on treating pain in chronic pancreatitis as opposed to exocrine insufficiency, despite the fact that maldigestion and malabsorption can result in nutrition deficiencies. The aims of this review are to describe the various modalities used to diagnose chronic pancreatitis, to illustrate the nutrition deficiencies associated with exocrine insufficiency, and to provide an overview of nutrition assessment and treatment in these patients.

  8. Sociodemographic Factors, Acculturation, and Nutrition Management among Hispanic American Adults with Self-reported Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yilin Xu; Simonsen, Neal; Chen, Liwei; Zhang, L U; Scribner, Richard; Tseng, Tung-Sung

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether sociodemographic factors and acculturation affect achievement of selected American Diabetes Association (ADA) nutrition therapy recommendations among Hispanics with diabetes. Cross-sectional data for Hispanics with diabetes in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2010 were used. Achievements of the ADA recommendation for five nutrition components were examined (i.e., daily intake of saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, and fiber, and daily servings of alcohol). Acculturation measurement derived from language use, country of birth, and length of residence in the U.S. Logistic regressions were performed. Only 49% of Hispanics with diabetes met three or more recommended criteria. Male gender and younger age (≤45) predicted poor recommendation adherence. More acculturated individuals had around 50% lower odds to achieve saturated fat [OR 0.5, CI 0.2-0.7], fiber [OR 0.5, CI 0.2-0.9], sodium [OR 0.5, CI 0.3-0.9] and cholesterol intake [OR 0.5, CI 0.3-0.8] recommendations than their less acculturated counterparts.

  9. [Non-pregnant women's nutrition and its impact in life quality].

    PubMed

    Casanueva, E

    1999-03-01

    Emphasis is made in the nutrition aspects related to women at reproductive age that are not pregnant or lactating and that includes the variations that happen throughout the menstrual cycle, fluctuations in energy expenditure, body composition and mood. Nutrition role in some premenstrual syndrome alterations as premenstrual stress (serotonin, magnesium, calcium and vitamin E), anemia, gynecological cancers (antioxidants, alcohol, folic acid, lipids, fiber and phytosterols) and osteoporosis (exercise and diet) are also described, as well as the impact on nutrition of the use of contraceptive methods (hormonal and intrauterine devices). Practical recommendations directed toward the evaluation and management of the main nutrition needs of adult women are included.

  10. Chronic Stress, Cortisol Dysfunction, and Pain: A Psychoneuroendocrine Rationale for Stress Management in Pain Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Pain is a primary symptom driving patients to seek physical therapy, and its attenuation commonly defines a successful outcome. A large body of evidence is dedicated to elucidating the relationship between chronic stress and pain; however, stress is rarely addressed in pain rehabilitation. A physiologic stress response may be evoked by fear or perceived threat to safety, status, or well-being and elicits the secretion of sympathetic catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinepherine) and neuroendocrine hormones (cortisol) to promote survival and motivate success. Cortisol is a potent anti-inflammatory that functions to mobilize glucose reserves for energy and modulate inflammation. Cortisol also may facilitate the consolidation of fear-based memories for future survival and avoidance of danger. Although short-term stress may be adaptive, maladaptive responses (eg, magnification, rumination, helplessness) to pain or non–pain-related stressors may intensify cortisol secretion and condition a sensitized physiologic stress response that is readily recruited. Ultimately, a prolonged or exaggerated stress response may perpetuate cortisol dysfunction, widespread inflammation, and pain. Stress may be unavoidable in life, and challenges are inherent to success; however, humans have the capability to modify what they perceive as stressful and how they respond to it. Exaggerated psychological responses (eg, catastrophizing) following maladaptive cognitive appraisals of potential stressors as threatening may exacerbate cortisol secretion and facilitate the consolidation of fear-based memories of pain or non–pain-related stressors; however, coping, cognitive reappraisal, or confrontation of stressors may minimize cortisol secretion and prevent chronic, recurrent pain. Given the parallel mechanisms underlying the physiologic effects of a maladaptive response to pain and non–pain-related stressors, physical therapists should consider screening for non–pain-related stress to

  11. Chronic stress, cortisol dysfunction, and pain: a psychoneuroendocrine rationale for stress management in pain rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Kara E; Bishop, Mark D

    2014-12-01

    Pain is a primary symptom driving patients to seek physical therapy, and its attenuation commonly defines a successful outcome. A large body of evidence is dedicated to elucidating the relationship between chronic stress and pain; however, stress is rarely addressed in pain rehabilitation. A physiologic stress response may be evoked by fear or perceived threat to safety, status, or well-being and elicits the secretion of sympathetic catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinepherine) and neuroendocrine hormones (cortisol) to promote survival and motivate success. Cortisol is a potent anti-inflammatory that functions to mobilize glucose reserves for energy and modulate inflammation. Cortisol also may facilitate the consolidation of fear-based memories for future survival and avoidance of danger. Although short-term stress may be adaptive, maladaptive responses (eg, magnification, rumination, helplessness) to pain or non-pain-related stressors may intensify cortisol secretion and condition a sensitized physiologic stress response that is readily recruited. Ultimately, a prolonged or exaggerated stress response may perpetuate cortisol dysfunction, widespread inflammation, and pain. Stress may be unavoidable in life, and challenges are inherent to success; however, humans have the capability to modify what they perceive as stressful and how they respond to it. Exaggerated psychological responses (eg, catastrophizing) following maladaptive cognitive appraisals of potential stressors as threatening may exacerbate cortisol secretion and facilitate the consolidation of fear-based memories of pain or non-pain-related stressors; however, coping, cognitive reappraisal, or confrontation of stressors may minimize cortisol secretion and prevent chronic, recurrent pain. Given the parallel mechanisms underlying the physiologic effects of a maladaptive response to pain and non-pain-related stressors, physical therapists should consider screening for non-pain-related stress to

  12. Chronic stress, cortisol dysfunction, and pain: a psychoneuroendocrine rationale for stress management in pain rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Kara E; Bishop, Mark D

    2014-12-01

    Pain is a primary symptom driving patients to seek physical therapy, and its attenuation commonly defines a successful outcome. A large body of evidence is dedicated to elucidating the relationship between chronic stress and pain; however, stress is rarely addressed in pain rehabilitation. A physiologic stress response may be evoked by fear or perceived threat to safety, status, or well-being and elicits the secretion of sympathetic catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinepherine) and neuroendocrine hormones (cortisol) to promote survival and motivate success. Cortisol is a potent anti-inflammatory that functions to mobilize glucose reserves for energy and modulate inflammation. Cortisol also may facilitate the consolidation of fear-based memories for future survival and avoidance of danger. Although short-term stress may be adaptive, maladaptive responses (eg, magnification, rumination, helplessness) to pain or non-pain-related stressors may intensify cortisol secretion and condition a sensitized physiologic stress response that is readily recruited. Ultimately, a prolonged or exaggerated stress response may perpetuate cortisol dysfunction, widespread inflammation, and pain. Stress may be unavoidable in life, and challenges are inherent to success; however, humans have the capability to modify what they perceive as stressful and how they respond to it. Exaggerated psychological responses (eg, catastrophizing) following maladaptive cognitive appraisals of potential stressors as threatening may exacerbate cortisol secretion and facilitate the consolidation of fear-based memories of pain or non-pain-related stressors; however, coping, cognitive reappraisal, or confrontation of stressors may minimize cortisol secretion and prevent chronic, recurrent pain. Given the parallel mechanisms underlying the physiologic effects of a maladaptive response to pain and non-pain-related stressors, physical therapists should consider screening for non-pain-related stress to

  13. Membrane-Bound CYB5R3 Is a Common Effector of Nutritional and Oxidative Stress Response Through FOXO3a and Nrf2

    PubMed Central

    Siendones, Emilio; SantaCruz-Calvo, Sara; Martín-Montalvo, Alejandro; Cascajo, María V.; Ariza, Julia; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Villalba, José M.; Acquaviva-Bourdain, Cécile; Roze, Emmanuel; Bernier, Michel; de Cabo, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Membrane-bound CYB5R3 deficiency in humans causes recessive hereditary methaemoglobinaemia (RHM), an incurable disease that is characterized by severe neurological disorders. CYB5R3 encodes for NADH-dependent redox enzyme that contributes to metabolic homeostasis and stress protection; however, how it is involved in the neurological pathology of RHM remains unknown. Here, the role and transcriptional regulation of CYB5R3 was studied under nutritional and oxidative stress. Results: CYB5R3-deficient cells exhibited a decrease of the NAD+/NADH ratio, mitochondrial respiration rate, ATP production, and mitochondrial electron transport chain activities, which were associated with higher sensitivity to oxidative stress, and an increase in senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. Overexpression of either forkhead box class O 3a (FOXO3a) or nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like2 (Nrf2) was associated with increased CYB5R3 levels, and genetic ablation of Nrf2 resulted in lower CYB5R3 expression. The presence of two antioxidant response element sequences in the CYB5R3 promoter led to chromatin immunoprecipitation studies, which showed that cellular stressors enhanced the binding of Nrf2 and FOXO3a to the CYB5R3 promoter. Innovation: Our findings demonstrate that CYB5R3 contributes to regulate redox homeostasis, aerobic metabolism, and cellular senescence, suggesting that CYB5R3 might be a key effector of oxidative and nutritional stress pathways. The expression of CYB5R3 is regulated by the cooperation of Nrf2 and FOXO3a. Conclusion: CYB5R3 is an essential gene that appears as a final effector for both nutritional and oxidative stress responses through FOXO3a and Nrf2, respectively, and their interaction promotes CYB5R3 expression. These results unveil a potential mechanism of action by which CYB5R3 deficiency contributes to the pathophysiological underpinnings of neurological disorders in RHM patients. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1708–1725. PMID

  14. Global Gradients of Coral Exposure to Environmental Stresses and Implications for Local Management

    PubMed Central

    Maina, Joseph; McClanahan, Tim R.; Venus, Valentijn; Ateweberhan, Mebrahtu; Madin, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Background The decline of coral reefs globally underscores the need for a spatial assessment of their exposure to multiple environmental stressors to estimate vulnerability and evaluate potential counter-measures. Methodology/Principal Findings This study combined global spatial gradients of coral exposure to radiation stress factors (temperature, UV light and doldrums), stress-reinforcing factors (sedimentation and eutrophication), and stress-reducing factors (temperature variability and tidal amplitude) to produce a global map of coral exposure and identify areas where exposure depends on factors that can be locally managed. A systems analytical approach was used to define interactions between radiation stress variables, stress reinforcing variables and stress reducing variables. Fuzzy logic and spatial ordinations were employed to quantify coral exposure to these stressors. Globally, corals are exposed to radiation and reinforcing stress, albeit with high spatial variability within regions. Based on ordination of exposure grades, regions group into two clusters. The first cluster was composed of severely exposed regions with high radiation and low reducing stress scores (South East Asia, Micronesia, Eastern Pacific and the central Indian Ocean) or alternatively high reinforcing stress scores (the Middle East and the Western Australia). The second cluster was composed of moderately to highly exposed regions with moderate to high scores in both radiation and reducing factors (Caribbean, Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Central Pacific, Polynesia and the western Indian Ocean) where the GBR was strongly associated with reinforcing stress. Conclusions/Significance Despite radiation stress being the most dominant stressor, the exposure of coral reefs could be reduced by locally managing chronic human impacts that act to reinforce radiation stress. Future research and management efforts should focus on incorporating the factors that mitigate the effect of coral stressors

  15. Managing psychological stress in the multiple sclerosis medical visit: Patient perspectives and unmet needs.

    PubMed

    Senders, Angela; Sando, Kelsi; Wahbeh, Helané; Peterson Hiller, Amie; Shinto, Lynne

    2016-08-01

    Psychological stress can negatively impact multiple sclerosis. To further understand how stress is addressed in the multiple sclerosis medical visit, 34 people with multiple sclerosis participated in focus groups. Transcripts were analyzed by inductive thematic analysis. The majority of participants did not discuss stress with their provider, citing barriers to communication such as lack of time, poor coordination between specialties, physician reliance on pharmaceutical prescription, and patient lack of self-advocacy. Participants recommended several ways to better manage psychological well-being in the clinical setting. These findings provide a foundation for future studies aimed at minimizing the detrimental effect of stress in multiple sclerosis.

  16. The evaluation of stress management strategies in general practice: an evidence-led approach.

    PubMed Central

    Sims, J

    1997-01-01

    Recent surveys have highlighted sources of stress for UK general practitioners (GPs). Interventions to reduce stress in general practice have been introduced at both an individual and an organizational level, but there is little published evidence of their effectiveness. This paper systematically reviews the literature and reports that the research evidence from stress management programmes employed with other workforces is equivocal. Results so far suggest that relaxation and cognitive behavioural skills are helpful and that group methods are both more cost-effective and more beneficial than individual counselling. It is important for scientific, practical, and financial reasons that stress management programmes be properly evaluated. This paper suggests possible avenues for future interventions to alleviate stress. PMID:9406495

  17. Real-life setting in data collection. The role of nutrition knowledge whilst selecting food products for weight management purposes in a supermarket environment.

    PubMed

    Saarela, Anna-Maria; Lapveteläinen, Anja T; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Kantanen, Teuvo T; Rissanen, Riitta L

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to explore the role of consumers' nutrition knowledge while selecting foods for weight management and the predominating food selection factors by combining quantitative and qualitative methodology in a real-life setting during two consecutive shopping tasks given in a supermarket. Thirty-six consumers were given a list of 11 products and asked to think-aloud while selecting (i) a product they usually buy and (ii) a product they use for weight management. After the consecutive shopping tasks, the subjects were interviewed and asked to answer a nutrition knowledge questionnaire. The subjects were categorized by the difference in the energy contents of their selections and the food selection criteria. The energy contents of the selections for weight management were reduced by 10-46%. Ten subjects with the greatest difference between the energy contents of their selections had higher level in nutrition knowledge and mentioned less nutritional issues during the selections than ten subjects with the smallest such differences. Taste was an important product selection criterion by the former group, while the latter focused primarily on price. Nutrition knowledge is interrelated with personal factors and selection goals. It is not necessarily utilized consistently when selecting food products.

  18. Real-life setting in data collection. The role of nutrition knowledge whilst selecting food products for weight management purposes in a supermarket environment.

    PubMed

    Saarela, Anna-Maria; Lapveteläinen, Anja T; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Kantanen, Teuvo T; Rissanen, Riitta L

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to explore the role of consumers' nutrition knowledge while selecting foods for weight management and the predominating food selection factors by combining quantitative and qualitative methodology in a real-life setting during two consecutive shopping tasks given in a supermarket. Thirty-six consumers were given a list of 11 products and asked to think-aloud while selecting (i) a product they usually buy and (ii) a product they use for weight management. After the consecutive shopping tasks, the subjects were interviewed and asked to answer a nutrition knowledge questionnaire. The subjects were categorized by the difference in the energy contents of their selections and the food selection criteria. The energy contents of the selections for weight management were reduced by 10-46%. Ten subjects with the greatest difference between the energy contents of their selections had higher level in nutrition knowledge and mentioned less nutritional issues during the selections than ten subjects with the smallest such differences. Taste was an important product selection criterion by the former group, while the latter focused primarily on price. Nutrition knowledge is interrelated with personal factors and selection goals. It is not necessarily utilized consistently when selecting food products. PMID:23994504

  19. Stress Prevention through a Time Management Training Intervention: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Pinneker, Lydia; Ströhle, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a short-term time management training programme on perceived control of time and perceived stress. The sample of 177 freshmen was randomly assigned to a time management training (n?=?89) and an active control group (CG) (n?=?88). We expected that an increase in external demands during the…

  20. The influence of maternal prenatal and early childhood nutrition and maternal prenatal stress on offspring immune system development and neurodevelopmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Roth, Christine; Susser, Ezra; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

    2013-01-01

    The developing immune system and central nervous system in the fetus and child are extremely sensitive to both exogenous and endogenous signals. Early immune system programming, leading to changes that can persist over the life course, has been suggested, and other evidence suggests that immune dysregulation in the early developing brain may play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The timing of immune dysregulation with respect to gestational age and neurologic development of the fetus may shape the elicited response. This creates a possible sensitive window of programming or vulnerability. This review will explore the effects of maternal prenatal and infant nutritional status (from conception until early childhood) as well as maternal prenatal stress and anxiety on early programming of immune function, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. We will describe fetal immune system development and maternal-fetal immune interactions to provide a better context for understanding the influence of nutrition and stress on the immune system. Finally, we will discuss the implications for prevention of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a focus on nutrition. Although certain micronutrient supplements have shown to both reduce the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and enhance fetal immune development, we do not know whether their impact on immune development contributes to the preventive effect on neurodevelopmental disorders. Future studies are needed to elucidate this relationship, which may contribute to a better understanding of preventative mechanisms. Integrating studies of neurodevelopmental disorders and prenatal exposures with the simultaneous evaluation of neural and immune systems will shed light on mechanisms that underlie individual vulnerability or resilience to neurodevelopmental disorders and ultimately contribute to the development of primary preventions and early interventions. PMID:23914151

  1. Managing Environmental Stress: An Evaluation of Environmental Management of the Long Point Sandy Barrier, Lake Erie, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kreutzwiser; Gabriel

    2000-01-01

    / This paper assesses the extent to which key geomorphic components, processes, and stresses have been reflected in the management of a coastal sandy barrier environment. The management policies and practices of selected agencies responsible for Long Point, a World Biosphere Reserve along Lake Erie, Canada, were evaluated for consistency with these principles of environmental management for sandy barriers: maintaining natural stresses essential to sandy barrier development and maintenance;protecting sediment sources, transfers, and storage; recognizing spatial variability and cyclicity of natural stresses, such as barrier overwash events; and accepting and planning for long-term evolutionary changes in the sandy barrier environment. Generally, management policies and practices have not respected the dynamic and sensitive environment of Long Point because of limited mandates of the agencies involved, inconsistent policies, and failure to apply or enforce existing policies. This is particularly evident with local municipalities and less so for the Canadian Wildlife Service, the federal agency responsible for managing National Wildlife Areas at the point. In the developed areas of Long Point, landward sediment transfers and sediment storage in dunes have been impacted by cottage development, shore protection, and maintenance of roads and parking lots. Additionally, agencies responsible for managing Long Point have no jurisdiction over sediment sources as far as 95 km away. Evolutionary change of sandy barriers poses the greatest challenge to environmental managers.

  2. 'People-Work': Emotion Management, Stress and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Sandi

    2004-01-01

    Workers involved in 'people-work' are expected to engage in a great deal of emotion management as they attempt to convey the appropriate emotions (which they may not genuinely feel) to their clients or customers whilst perhaps suppressing inappropriate ones. Should this emotion management be unsuccessful within some industries, a customer may be…

  3. [Nutritional management of neonates and infants with cystic fibrosis of the pancreas detected at birth].

    PubMed

    Duhamel, J F; Travert, G; Briere, S; Wysocki, E; Laniece, M; Bureau, F; Delmas, P; Venezia, R

    1986-04-01

    From a systematic neonatal screening for cystic fibrosis in the Basse-Normandie area and to prevent disorders of the intestinal transit related to malabsorption, neonates then infants were given a semi-elemental hypercaloric diet, with supplements in nitrogen, MCT, minerals, vitamins and low in LCT. Diets were adjusted every month during a consultation using clinical and biological parameters. Results in the first 14 children showed that clinically as well as biologically, these children may remain within the normal range, avoiding the previously reported growth retardation and mineral or vitamin deficiencies. This procedure should allow an improvement in the quality of life and prognosis of such children, by maintaining adequate nutritional status.

  4. Stress management as an enabling technology for high-field superconducting dipole magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holik, Eddie Frank, III

    This dissertation examines stress management and other construction techniques as means to meet future accelerator requirement demands by planning, fabricating, and analyzing a high-field, Nb3Sn dipole. In order to enable future fundamental research and discovery in high energy accelerator physics, bending magnets must access the highest fields possible. Stress management is a novel, propitious path to attain higher fields and preserve the maximum current capacity of advanced superconductors by managing the Lorentz stress so that strain induced current degradation is mitigated. Stress management is accomplished through several innovative design features. A block-coil geometry enables an Inconel pier and beam matrix to be incorporated in the windings for Lorentz Stress support and reduced AC loss. A laminar spring between windings and mica paper surrounding each winding inhibit any stress transferral through the support structure and has been simulated with ALGORRTM. Wood's metal filled, stainless steel bladders apply isostatic, surface-conforming preload to the pier and beam support structure. Sufficient preload along with mica paper sheer release reduces magnet training by inhibiting stick-slip motion. The effectiveness of stress management is tested with high-precision capacitive stress transducers and strain gauges. In addition to stress management, there are several technologies developed to assist in the successful construction of a high-field dipole. Quench protection has been designed and simulated along with full 3D magnetic simulation with OPERARTM. Rutherford cable was constructed, and cable thermal expansion data was analysed after heat treatment. Pre-impregnation analysis techniques were developed due to elemental tin leakage in varying quantities during heat treatment from each coil. Robust splicing techniques were developed with measured resistivites consistent with nO joints. Stress management has not been incorporated by any other high field dipole

  5. Management Practices: A Major Cause of Stress among Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mersky, Ronald

    This research studies task-based stress among teachers in a rural setting. A 51-item instrument was administered to teachers in 12 schools to determine (1) the extent of differential reactions to a wide range of task-based teaching events, as correlated with situational characteristics (sex, age, elementary or secondary affiliation, school size);…

  6. [Nutrition therapy in enterocutaneous fistula; from physiology to individualized treatment].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Cano, Ameyalli Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Enterocutaneous fistula is the most common of all intestinal fistulas. Is a condition that requires prolonged hospital stay due to complications such as electrolyte imbalance, malnutrition, metabolic disorders and sepsis. Nutritional support is an essential part of the management; it favors intestinal and immune function, promotes wound healing and decreases catabolism. Despite the recognition of the importance of nutrition support, there is no strong evidence on its comprehensive management, which can be limiting when establishing specific strategies. The metabolic imbalance that a fistula causes is unknown. For low-output fistulas, energy needs should be based on resting energy expenditure, and provide 1.0 to 1.5 g/kg/d of protein, while in high-output fistulas energy requirement may increase up to 1.5 times, and provide 1.5 to 2.5 g/kg of protein. It is suggested to provide twice the requirement of vitamins and trace elements, and between 5 and 10 times that of Vitamin C and Zinc, especially for high-output fistulas. A complete nutritional assessment, including type and location of the fistula, are factors to consider when selecting nutrition support, whether is enteral or parenteral nutrition. The enteral route should be preferred whenever possible, and combined with parenteral nutrition when the requirements cannot be met. Nutritional treatment strategies in fistulas may include the use of immunomodulators and even stress management.

  7. Tolerating Uncertainty: The Exploration of a 10-Week Stress Management Course which Supports a Process of Recovery, Personal Change and Educational Development for People Experiencing Stress and Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sue

    2002-01-01

    A 10-week stress management and relaxation course helped anxious students develop skills and strategies derived from self-awareness. Course included stress theory, organizational skills (time management, goal setting), personal transformation, tolerance for uncertainty, and metacognition, with an emphasis on self-efficacy and autonomy. (Contains…

  8. Human rights in nutrition and nutrition in human rights.

    PubMed

    Florencio, C A

    1996-03-01

    Many countries around the world are involved in nutrition planning and nutrition program implementation. This concern and activity with regard to nutrition, however, has failed to give the issue proper and adequate consideration in development plans and programs of action. The author proposes a two-pronged approach to promote nutrition as a human right. One approach is to include nutrition as a human right in educational and training programs in nutrition. Another approach is to include nutrition as a human right in educational and training programs on human rights. These approaches are described using examples from experiences in the Philippines. Families, universities, and other training institutions have roles to play in making sure that individuals and groups receive the nutrition they need. It should be stressed that nutrition is both a right and an input for development.

  9. The identification, impact and management of missing values and outlier data in nutritional epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Abellana Sangra, Rosa; Farran Codina, Andreu

    2015-02-26

    When performing nutritional epidemiology studies, missing values and outliers inevitably appear. Missing values appear, for example, because of the difficulty in collecting data in dietary surveys, leading to a lack of data on the amounts of foods consumed or a poor description of these foods. Inadequate treatment during the data processing stage can create biases and loss of accuracy and, consequently, misinterpretation of the results. The objective of this article is to provide some recommendations about the treatment of missing and outlier data, and orientation regarding existing software for the determination of sample sizes and for performing statistical analysis. Some recommendations about data collection are provided as an important previous step in any nutritional research. We discuss methods used for dealing with missing values, especially the case deletion method, simple imputation and multiple imputation, with indications and examples. Identification, impact on statistical analysis and options available for adequate treatment of outlier values are explained, including some illustrative examples. Finally, the current software that totally or partially addresses the questions treated is mentioned, especially the free software available.

  10. Impact of proline application on cadmium accumulation, mineral nutrition and enzymatic antioxidant defense system of Olea europaea L. cv Chemlali exposed to cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Zouari, Mohamed; Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Elloumi, Nada; Bellassoued, Khaled; Delmail, David; Labrousse, Pascal; Ben Abdallah, Ferjani; Ben Rouina, Bechir

    2016-06-01

    Proline plays an important role in plant response to various environmental stresses. However, its involvement in mitigation of heavy metal stress in plants remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of exogenous proline (10 and 20 mM) in alleviating cadmium induced inhibitory effects in young olive plants (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) exposed to two Cd levels (10 and 30 mg CdCl2 kg(-1) soil). The Cd treatment induced substantial accumulation of Cd in both root and leaf tissues and a decrease in gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments contents, uptake of essential elements (Ca, Mg and K) and plant biomass. Furthermore, an elevation of antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxydase) and proline content in association with relatively high amounts of hydrogen peroxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and electrolyte leakage were observed. Interestingly, the application of exogenous proline alleviated the oxidative damage induced by Cd accumulation. In fact, Cd-stressed olive plants treated with proline showed an increase of antioxidant enzymes activities, photosynthetic activity, nutritional status, plant growth and oil content of olive fruit. Generally, it seems that proline supplementation alleviated the deleterious effects of young olive plants exposed to Cd stress. PMID:26946284

  11. Early-life adversity programs emotional functions and the neuroendocrine stress system: the contribution of nutrition, metabolic hormones and epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yam, Kit-Yi; Naninck, Eva F G; Schmidt, Mathias V; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown that early-life adversities, such as abuse or neglect, can increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. Remarkably, the lasting consequences of stress during this sensitive period on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and emotional function closely resemble the long-term effects of early malnutrition and suggest a possible common pathway mediating these effects. During early-life, brain development is affected by both exogenous factors, like nutrition and maternal care as well as by endogenous modulators including stress hormones. These elements, while mostly considered for their independent actions, clearly do not act alone but rather in a synergistic manner. In order to better understand how the programming by early-life stress takes place, it is important to gain further insight into the exact interplay of these key elements, the possible common pathways as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate their effects. We here review evidence that exposure to both early-life stress and early-life under-/malnutrition similarly lead to life-long alterations on the neuroendocrine stress system and modify emotional functions. We further discuss how the different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and next suggest a possible role for the early-life adversity induced alterations in metabolic hormones and nutrient availability in shaping later stress responses and emotional function throughout life, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms. Such knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies, which gives the advantage of viewing the synergistic action of a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:26260665

  12. Early-life adversity programs emotional functions and the neuroendocrine stress system: the contribution of nutrition, metabolic hormones and epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yam, Kit-Yi; Naninck, Eva F G; Schmidt, Mathias V; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown that early-life adversities, such as abuse or neglect, can increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. Remarkably, the lasting consequences of stress during this sensitive period on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and emotional function closely resemble the long-term effects of early malnutrition and suggest a possible common pathway mediating these effects. During early-life, brain development is affected by both exogenous factors, like nutrition and maternal care as well as by endogenous modulators including stress hormones. These elements, while mostly considered for their independent actions, clearly do not act alone but rather in a synergistic manner. In order to better understand how the programming by early-life stress takes place, it is important to gain further insight into the exact interplay of these key elements, the possible common pathways as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate their effects. We here review evidence that exposure to both early-life stress and early-life under-/malnutrition similarly lead to life-long alterations on the neuroendocrine stress system and modify emotional functions. We further discuss how the different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and next suggest a possible role for the early-life adversity induced alterations in metabolic hormones and nutrient availability in shaping later stress responses and emotional function throughout life, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms. Such knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies, which gives the advantage of viewing the synergistic action of a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity.

  13. Under Pressure: Mechanical Stress Management in the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Belaadi, Néjma; Aureille, Julien; Guilluy, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Cells are constantly adjusting to the mechanical properties of their surroundings, operating a complex mechanochemical feedback, which hinges on mechanotransduction mechanisms. Whereas adhesion structures have been shown to play a central role in mechanotransduction, it now emerges that the nucleus may act as a mechanosensitive structure. Here, we review recent advances demonstrating that mechanical stress emanating from the cytoskeleton can activate pathways in the nucleus which eventually impact both its structure and the transcriptional machinery. PMID:27314389

  14. Case report: comprehensive management of medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Krenner, Bernard John

    2002-01-01

    Activity or exercise-induced leg pain is a common complication among competitive and "weekend warrior" athletes. Shin splints is a term that has been used to describe all lower leg pain as a result of activity. There are many different causes of "shin splints," one of which is medial tibial stress syndrome, and the treating clinician must be aware of potentially serious causes of activity related leg pain. Restoring proper biomechanics to the entire kinetic chain and rehabilitation of the injured area should be the primary aim of treatment to optimize shock absorption. The role inflammation plays in medial tibial stress syndrome is controversial, but in this case, seemed to be a causative factor as symptomatology was dramatically decreased with the addition of proteolytic enzymes. Medial tibial stress syndrome can be quite difficult to treat and keeping athletes away from activities that will slow healing or aggravate the condition can be challenging. "Active" rest is the best way in which to allow proper healing while allowing the athlete to maintain their fitness.

  15. Resistance and resilience: the final frontier in traumatic stress management.

    PubMed

    Everly, George S; Welzant, Victor; Jacobson, Jodi M

    2008-01-01

    This paper asserts that the constructs of resistance and resilience represent a domain rich in potential for a wide variety of applications in the field of traumatic stress. Resilience holds great potential for those working in applied settings such as public health planning and preparedness, Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) and business continuity, as well as transportation, law enforcement, fire suppression, emergency medical services, pre-deployment training for military and other high risk professional groups. Additionally, its application to "the war on terrorism" cannot be denied. Finally, the construct of resilience may have direct applicability to businesses and organizations wherein there is perceived value in preparing a workforce to effectively function under adverse or high stress conditions. The putative value of resistance and resiliency in such applied settings resides in their ability to protect against stress-related behavioral morbidity, as well as counterproductive behavioral reactions. Given its importance, the question arises as to whether resilience is an innate trait or an acquired skill. This paper will report on preliminary data suggesting resiliency may be an attribute that can be acquired through participation in a relatively brief training program. PMID:19278142

  16. Economic analysis of alternative nutritional management of dual-purpose cow herds in central coastal Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Absalón-Medina, Victor Antonio; Nicholson, Charles F; Blake, Robert W; Fox, Danny Gene; Juárez-Lagunes, Francisco I; Canudas-Lara, Eduardo G; Rueda-Maldonado, Bertha L

    2012-08-01

    Market information was combined with predicted input-output relationships in an economic analysis of alternative nutritional management for dual-purpose member herds of the Genesis farmer organization of central coastal Veracruz, Mexico. Cow productivity outcomes for typical management and alternative feeding scenarios were obtained from structured sets of simulations in a companion study of productivity limitations and potentials using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System model (Version 6.0). Partial budgeting methods and sensitivity analysis were used to identify economically viable alternatives based on expected change in milk income over feed cost (change in revenues from milk sales less change in feed costs). Herd owners in coastal Veracruz have large economic incentives, from $584 to $1,131 in predicted net margin, to increase milk sales by up to 74% across a three-lactation cow lifetime by improving diets based on good quality grass and legume forages. This increment is equal to, or exceeds, in value the total yield from at least one additional lactation per cow lifetime. Furthermore, marginal rates of return (change in milk income over feed costs divided by change in variable costs when alternative practices are used) of 3.3 ± 0.8 indicate clear economic incentives to remove fundamental productivity vulnerabilities due to chronic energy deficits and impeded growth of immature cows under typical management. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the economic outcomes are robust for a variety of market conditions. PMID:22193940

  17. Macronutrient Composition and Management of Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM): A New Paradigm for Individualized Nutritional Therapy in Diabetes Patients.

    PubMed

    Koloverou, Efi; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2016-01-01

    Medical nutrition therapy constitutes an important lifestyle intervention in diabetes management. Several nutrition patterns have been effective in improving diabetes control, but there has been a debate about the optimal macronutrient composition in diabetes meal planning. For many years, the recommended diets for persons with and without diabetes were similar, i.e. heart-healthy and low in fat. For almost three decades, carbohydrates have been lauded, lipids demonized, and proteins considered of little importance. However, in the past few years, this concept has been questioned and reassessed. Modern nutritional recommendations for people with diabetes are headed towards individualization, but lack specific guidelines. Nutritional algorithms may help nutritionists in diabetes meal planning. This review aims to discuss: 1) the effects of the three major macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids) on glucose levels, 2) current recommendations for macronutrient intake for people with diabetes, and 3) specific parameters that need to be taken into consideration when determining the macronutrient composition for a person with diabetes, for example body mass index, degree of insulin resistance, HbA1c value, and lipid profile (especially triglycerides and HDL cholesterol). These aspects are analyzed in the context of the results of recent studies, especially randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Finally, we introduce an individualized nutritional concept that proposes carbohydrate over lipid restriction, substitution of SFAs with MUFAs and PUFAs, and adequate intake of dietary fiber, which are key factors in optimizing diabetes management.

  18. Macronutrient Composition and Management of Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM): A New Paradigm for Individualized Nutritional Therapy in Diabetes Patients.

    PubMed

    Koloverou, Efi; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2016-01-01

    Medical nutrition therapy constitutes an important lifestyle intervention in diabetes management. Several nutrition patterns have been effective in improving diabetes control, but there has been a debate about the optimal macronutrient composition in diabetes meal planning. For many years, the recommended diets for persons with and without diabetes were similar, i.e. heart-healthy and low in fat. For almost three decades, carbohydrates have been lauded, lipids demonized, and proteins considered of little importance. However, in the past few years, this concept has been questioned and reassessed. Modern nutritional recommendations for people with diabetes are headed towards individualization, but lack specific guidelines. Nutritional algorithms may help nutritionists in diabetes meal planning. This review aims to discuss: 1) the effects of the three major macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids) on glucose levels, 2) current recommendations for macronutrient intake for people with diabetes, and 3) specific parameters that need to be taken into consideration when determining the macronutrient composition for a person with diabetes, for example body mass index, degree of insulin resistance, HbA1c value, and lipid profile (especially triglycerides and HDL cholesterol). These aspects are analyzed in the context of the results of recent studies, especially randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Finally, we introduce an individualized nutritional concept that proposes carbohydrate over lipid restriction, substitution of SFAs with MUFAs and PUFAs, and adequate intake of dietary fiber, which are key factors in optimizing diabetes management. PMID:27563693

  19. Reproductive and nutritional management on ovarian response and embryo quality on rabbit does.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, P L; García-García, R M; Árias-Álvarez, M; Rebollar, P G

    2014-10-01

    Rabbit does in modern rabbitries are under intensive reproductive rhythms. Females are high milk producers with high energetic expenses due to the extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. This situation leads to a negative energy balance with a mobilization of body fat especially in primiparous rabbit does. Poor body condition and poor health status severely affect the reproductive features (fertility rate and lifespan of the doe as well as ovarian physiology). This paper reviews some reproductive and nutritional approaches used in the last years to improve the reproductive performance of rabbit females, mainly focusing on the influence on ovarian response and embryo quality and with emphasis on epigenetic modifications in pre-implantation embryos and offspring consequences. PMID:25277432

  20. Successful management of congenital chylous ascites with early octreotide and total parenteral nutrition in a newborn

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Claudio; Nanni, Lorenzo; Masini, Lucia; Pintus, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Congenital chylous ascites (CCA) is a rare disease that results from maldevelopment of the intra-abdominal lymphatic system. Few cases have been described and no gold standard treatment has been defined so far. Octreotide, a somatostatin analogue, has been used for the treatment of CCA, but always after a failed conservative approach with fasting, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or medium chain triglyceride (MCT) feeds. We report the case of a newborn with CCA treated by fasting, TPN and octreotide for a period of 15 days until the abdominal distension was successfully reduced at which point treatment was switched to an MCT formula. On day 25 the patient was breastfed and was discharged on day 33. No recurrence of chylous ascites was noted. Our experience highlights the successful treatment with TPN and octreotide as the first step for the conservative approach of CCA in a newborn, reducing the length of treatment and hospitalisation. PMID:23010459

  1. Bicarbonate supplementation enhanced biofuel production potential as well as nutritional stress mitigation in the microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077.

    PubMed

    Pancha, Imran; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Paliwal, Chetan; Maurya, Rahulkumar; Mishra, Sandhya

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out the optimum sodium bicarbonate concentration to produce higher biomass with higher lipid and carbohydrate contents in microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. The role of bicarbonate supplementation under different nutritional starvation conditions was also evaluated. The results clearly indicate that 0.6 g/L sodium bicarbonate was optimum concentration resulting in 20.91% total lipid and 25.56% carbohydrate along with 23% increase in biomass production compared to normal growth condition. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased the activity of nutrient assimilatory enzymes, biomass, lipid and carbohydrate contents under different nutritional starvation conditions. Nitrogen starvation with bicarbonate supplementation resulted in 54.03% carbohydrate and 34.44% total lipid content in microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. These findings show application of bicarbonate grown microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 as a promising feedstock for biodiesel and bioethanol production.

  2. A Web-Based Mindfulness Stress Management Program in a Corporate Call Center

    PubMed Central

    Allexandre, Didier; Bernstein, Adam M.; Walker, Esteban; Hunter, Jennifer; Roizen, Michael F.; Morledge, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of an 8-week web-based, mindfulness stress management program (WSM) in a corporate call center and added benefit of group support. Methods: One hundred sixty-one participants were randomized to WSM, WSM with group support, WSM with group and expert clinical support, or wait-list control. Perceived stress, burnout, emotional and psychological well-being, mindfulness, and productivity were measured at baseline, weeks 8 and 16, and 1 year. Results: Online usage was low with participants favoring CD use and group practice. All active groups demonstrated significant reductions in perceived stress and increases in emotional and psychological well-being compared with control. Group support improved participation, engagement, and outcomes. Conclusion: A self-directed mindfulness program with group practice and support can provide an affordable, effective, and scalable workplace stress management solution. Engagement may also benefit from combining web-based and traditional CD delivery. PMID:26949875

  3. Nutritional armor for the warfighter: can omega-3 fatty acids enhance stress resilience, wellness, and military performance?

    PubMed

    Deuster, Patricia

    2014-11-01

    This panel discussion, moderated by Dr. Deuster, illustrates the thinking of selected military leaders on the approach that must be taken to ensure the relationship between nutrition and performance. Insights and challenges these leaders face are provided, with consideration of the complex issues relating to sufficient scientific evidence, timing for Department of Defense policy, and the unique needs of service members. The discussion resulted in several recommendations. First, more nutritionists in uniform should be placed in/on the battlefield on every base and camp in Afghanistan and Iraq. Second, nutritionists/dietitians need to be working in the preventive arena, using the health promotion model and marketing to help shift behavior. Third, contract dietitians should be hired to work primarily in tertiary care. Dietitians must forward-deploy to implement preventive medicine and human performance optimization as it relates to nutrition and dietary supplementation. Unfortunately, almost all military dietitians are constrained within the medical model and we think of them just as "hospital providers." Finally, line units need to decide that dietitians are a requisite part of their force structure. Putting many dieticians in line units will allow our active duty members to believe diet and nutrition are important for performance.

  4. Nutritional armor for the warfighter: can omega-3 fatty acids enhance stress resilience, wellness, and military performance?

    PubMed

    Deuster, Patricia

    2014-11-01

    This panel discussion, moderated by Dr. Deuster, illustrates the thinking of selected military leaders on the approach that must be taken to ensure the relationship between nutrition and performance. Insights and challenges these leaders face are provided, with consideration of the complex issues relating to sufficient scientific evidence, timing for Department of Defense policy, and the unique needs of service members. The discussion resulted in several recommendations. First, more nutritionists in uniform should be placed in/on the battlefield on every base and camp in Afghanistan and Iraq. Second, nutritionists/dietitians need to be working in the preventive arena, using the health promotion model and marketing to help shift behavior. Third, contract dietitians should be hired to work primarily in tertiary care. Dietitians must forward-deploy to implement preventive medicine and human performance optimization as it relates to nutrition and dietary supplementation. Unfortunately, almost all military dietitians are constrained within the medical model and we think of them just as "hospital providers." Finally, line units need to decide that dietitians are a requisite part of their force structure. Putting many dieticians in line units will allow our active duty members to believe diet and nutrition are important for performance. PMID:25373105

  5. Skilled Work in an Era of Management-by-Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Mike

    1998-01-01

    If the labor movement is to survive technological change and lean-work reorganization schemes, it must address the issues of skilled work, particularly training; how management organizes work; and the relationship between skilled workers and the rest of the labor movement. (Author)

  6. Aquaculture and stress management: a review of probiotic intervention.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, S; Chakraborty, T; Kumar, V; DeBoeck, G; Mohanta, K N

    2013-06-01

    To meet the ever-increasing demand for animal protein, aquaculture continuously requires new techniques to increase the production yield. However, with every step towards intensification of aquaculture practices, there is an increase in stress level on the animal as well as on the environment. Feeding practices in aqua farming usually plays an important role, and the addition of various additives to a balanced feed formula to achieve better growth is a common practice among the fish and shrimp culturists. Probiotics, also known as 'bio-friendly agents', such as LAB (Lactobacillus), yeasts and Bacillus sp., can be introduced into the culture environment to control and compete with pathogenic bacteria as well as to promote the growth of the cultured organisms. In addition, probiotics are non-pathogenic and non-toxic micro-organisms, having no undesirable side effects when administered to aquatic organisms. Probiotics are also known to play an important role in developing innate immunity among the fishes, and hence help them to fight against any pathogenic bacterias as well as against environmental stressors. The present review is a brief but informative compilation of the different essential and desirable traits of probiotics, their mode of action and their useful effects on fishes. The review also highlights the role of probiotics in helping the fishes to combat against the different physical, chemical and biological stress.

  7. Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

  8. Effects of physical and nutritional stress conditions during mycelial growth on conidial germination speed, adhesion to host cuticle, and virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae, an entomopathogenic fungus.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Drauzio E N; Alston, Diane G; Roberts, Donald W

    2008-11-01

    Growth under stress may influence pathogen virulence and other phenotypic traits. Conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (isolate ARSEF 2575) were produced under different stress conditions and then examined for influences on in vitro conidial germination speed, adhesion to the insect cuticle, and virulence to an insect host, Tenebrio molitor. Conidia were produced under non-stress conditions [on potato-dextrose agar plus 1gl(-1) yeast extract (PDAY; control)], or under the following stress conditions: osmotic (PDAY+sodium chloride or potassium chloride, 0.6 or 0.8m); oxidative [(PDAY+hydrogen peroxide, 5mm) or UV-A (irradiation of mycelium on PDAY)]; heat shock (heat treatment of mycelium on PDAY at 45 degrees C, 40min); and nutritive [minimal medium (MM) with no carbon source, or on MM plus 3gl(-1) lactose (MML)]. Conidia were most virulent (based on mortality at 3d) and had the fastest germination rates when produced on MML, followed by MM. In addition, conidial adhesion to host cuticle was greatest when the conidia were produced on MML. Media with high osmolarity (0.8m) produced conidia with slightly elevated virulence and faster germination rates than conidia produced on the control medium (PDAY), but this trend did not hold for media with the lower osmolarity, (0.6m). Conidia produced from mycelium irradiated with UV-A while growing on PDAY had somewhat elevated virulence levels similar to that of conidia produced on MM, but their germination rate was not increased. Hydrogen peroxide and heat shock treatments did not alter virulence. These results demonstrate that the germination, adhesion and virulence of M. anisopliae conidia can be strongly influenced by culture conditions (including stresses) during production of the conidia. PMID:18947989

  9. Is there a role for stress management in reducing hypertension in African Americans?

    PubMed

    Kondwani, K A; Lollis, C M

    2001-01-01

    When stress is considered as any demand placed on the body, the focus is shifted away from the stressor to how the body responds to the stress. There are psychological, physiological, and behavioral responses to excessive stress. Left unaddressed, cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases may occur. The goal of meditation is to decrease mental activity while simultaneously resting and rejuvenating the body. There are internal and external approaches to meditation. The most researched internal form of meditation is the Transcendental Meditation technique, which has been found to reduce stress, depression, anxiety, and blood pressure in hypertensive African Americans. Clinical use of stress management approaches, particularly Transcendental Meditation to reduce hypertension, is supported by randomized clinical trials. Studies with larger numbers of participants and more diverse ethnic groups should continue.

  10. [Assessing work-related stress: an Italian adaptation of the HSE Management Standards Work-Related Stress Indicator Tool].

    PubMed

    Marcatto, Francesco; D'Errico, Giuseppe; Di Blas, Lisa; Ferrante, Donatella

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a preliminary validation of an Italian adaptation of the HSE Management Standards Work-Related Stress Indicator Tool (IT), an instrument for assessing work-related stress at the organizational level, originally developed in Britain by the Health and Safety Executive. A scale that assesses the physical work environment has been added to the original version of the IT. 190 employees of the University of Trieste have been enrolled in the study. A confirmatory analysis showed a satisfactory fit of the eight-factors structure of the instrument. Further psychometric analysis showed adequate internal consistency of the IT scales and good criterion validity, as evidenced by the correlations with self-perception of stress, work satisfaction and motivation. In conclusion, the Indicator Tool proved to be a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of work-related stress at the organizational level, and it is also compatible with the instructions provided by the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy (Circular letter 18/11/2010).

  11. Tackling stress management, addiction, and suicide prevention in a predoctoral dental curriculum.

    PubMed

    Brondani, Mario A; Ramanula, Dhorea; Pattanaporn, Komkhamn

    2014-09-01

    Health care professionals, particularly dentists, are subject to high levels of stress. Without proper stress management, problems related to mental health and addiction and, to a lesser extent, deliberate self-harm such as suicide may arise. There is a lack of information on teaching methodologies employed to discuss stress management and suicide prevention in dental education. The purpose of this article is to describe a University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry module designed to address stress management and suicide prevention, using students' personal reflections to illustrate the impact of the pedagogies used. The module enrolls more than 200 students per year and has sessions tailored to the discussion of stress management and suicide prevention. The pedagogies include standardized patients, invited guest lectures, in-class activities, video presentation, and self-reflections. More than 500 students' self-reflections collected over the past five years illustrate the seriousness of the issues discussed and the level of discomfort students experience when pondering such issues. The instructors hope to have increased students' awareness of the stressors in their profession. Further studies are needed to unravel the extent to which such pedagogy influences a balanced practice of dentistry.

  12. A review of heat stress and its management in the power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Waner, N.S.

    1986-06-01

    The effects of heat stress on plant operator performance is discussed. Sources of heat stress are reviewed, in particular, those unique to the Nuclear Power Industry. Measurement techniques correlating environmental conditions with physiological responses are covered, along with suggested assessment indices to establish criteria for worker health and safety. Available major countermeasures are described and include those categorized as, procedural, personal support systems, and plant betterment/engineering programs. Data, recommended standards, and industry practices are presented as viable guidelines along with references and information resources to assist the reader in establishing and implementing programs for managing heat stress.

  13. Atmospheric application of trace amounts of nitric oxide enhances tolerance to salt stress and improves nutritional quality in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.).

    PubMed

    Du, Shao-Ting; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Ran-Ran

    2015-04-15

    The increased salinity in greenhouses has become a problem of great concern. In this study, it was observed that the salt-induced oxidative damages (indicated by MDA, H2O2 and antioxidant enzymes, including POD, SOD and CAT) could be alleviated by application of NO gas. Consequently, although both photosynthesis and growth in plants were inhibited by NaCl stress, they were restored by NO gas application, and the fresh and dry biomasses of edible parts increased by 60% and 27% over NaCl stress treatment, respectively. Furthermore, gaseous NO application also significantly elevated the levels of several antioxidation-associated compounds such as proline, ascorbate, glutathione, total phenolics and flavonoids, as well as the total antioxidant capacity (indicated by DPPH scavenging activity) in NaCl-treated plants. Keeping in mind all of the above, we concluded that atmospheric application of trace amounts of nitric oxide gas could be an effective strategy for improving both biomass production and nutrition quality in spinach under salt stress.

  14. Enhanced biofuel production potential with nutritional stress amelioration through optimization of carbon source and light intensity in Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077.

    PubMed

    Pancha, Imran; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Mishra, Sandhya

    2015-03-01

    Microalgal mixotrophic cultivation is one of the most potential ways to enhance biomass and biofuel production. In the present study, first of all ability of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 to utilize various carbon sources under mixotrophic growth condition was evaluated followed by optimization of glucose concentration and light intensity to obtain higher biomass, lipid and carbohydrate contents. Under optimized condition i.e. 4 g/L glucose and 150 μmol m(-2) s(-1) light intensity, Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 produced 1.2g/L dry cell weight containing 23.62% total lipid and 42.68% carbohydrate. Addition of glucose shown nutritional stress ameliorating effects and around 70% carbohydrate and 25% total lipid content was found with only 21% reduction in dry cell weight under nitrogen starved condition. This study shows potential application of mixotrophically grown Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 for bioethanol and biodiesel production feed stock.

  15. Comparison of two percutaneous radiological gastrostomy tubes in the nutritional management of ALS patients.

    PubMed

    Rio, Alan; Ampong, Mary Ann; Turner, Martin R; Shaw, Ashley S; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shaw, Chris E; Leigh, P Nigel; Sidhu, Paul S

    2005-09-01

    Patient care and minimizing complications post gastrostomy have to date received little attention in ALS patients. We compare the complications associated with pigtail and mushroom type percutaneous radiological gastrostomy tubes in this patient group. Patients requiring PRG received either Wills-Oglesby or the skin level Entristar. Retrospective review of the clinical notes was performed capturing demographic data, peristomal infection, tube displacement, tube failure, nutritional status, site of disease onset, and survival. Thirty-five patients (Group 1) had the Wills-Oglesby tube of which 14 (40%) tubes required replacement. The Entristar tube was inserted in 29 patients (Group 2) where 8 (28%) required replacement (NS). The incidence of infection was significantly lower with the Entristar tube, (p<0.001). The mean time to tube removal in Group 2 was 223 days (SD 147; range 71-494 days) due to 'buried bumper syndrome'. We conclude that the Entristar skin level gastrostomy tube is associated with a reduction in peristomal infection, tube failure and blockage compared with the Wills-Oglesby tube.

  16. Role of diet and nutritional management in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jian-Gao; Cao, Hai-Xia

    2013-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which causes an increased risk of cirrhosis, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular complications. With the worldwide growing incidence of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and unhealthy dietary pattern, NAFLD has currently been recognized as a major health burden. Dietary patterns and nutrients are the important contributors to the development, progression, and treatment of NAFLD and associated metabolic comorbidities. Generally, hypercaloric diet, especially rich in trans/saturated fat and cholesterol, and fructose-sweetened beverages seem to increase visceral adiposity and stimulate hepatic lipid accumulation and progression into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, whereas reducing caloric intake, increasing soy protein and whey consumption, and supplement of monounsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and probiotics have preventive and therapeutic effects. In addition, choline, fiber, coffee, green tea, and light alcohol drinking might be protective factors for NAFLD. Based on available data, at least 3-5% of weight loss, achieved by hypocaloric diet alone or in conjunction with exercise and behavioral modification, generally reduces hepatic steatosis, and up to 10% weight loss may be needed to improve hepatic necroinflammation. A sustained adherence to diet rather than the actual diet type is a major predictor of successful weight loss. Moreover, a healthy diet has benefits beyond weight reduction on NAFLD patients whether obese or of normal weight. Therefore, nutrition serves as a major route of prevention and treatment of NAFLD, and patients with NAFLD should have an individualized diet recommendation.

  17. The effectiveness of a stress-management intervention program in the management of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Stavrou, Stavroula; Nicolaides, Nicolas C.; Papageorgiou, Ifigenia; Papadopoulou, Pinelopi; Terzioglou, Elena; Chrousos, George P; Darviri, Christina; Charmandari, Evangelia

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity in childhood and adolescence represents a major health problem of our century, and accounts for a significant increase in morbidity and mortality in adulthood. In addition to the increased consumption of calories and lack of exercise, accumulating evidence suggests that childhood obesity is strongly associated with prolonged and excessive activation of the stress system. Aim The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of a stress-management intervention program, which included progressive muscle relaxation, diaphragmatic breathing, guided imagery and cognitive restructuring, in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods Forty-nine children and adolescents (mean age ± SEM: 11.15 ± 1.48 years) were prospectively recruited to participate in this randomized controlled study. Of those, 23 participants were assigned into the intervention group, while 26 participants represented the control group. Anthropometric measurements were recorded at the beginning and at the end of the study, and participants were asked to complete the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders (S.C.A.R.E.D.), the Child Depression Inventory (C.D.I.), the Child Behavior Checklist (C.B.C.L.) and the Youth Self Report (Y.S.R.). Results The applied stress-management methods resulted in a significant reduction in the body mass index (BMI) in the intervention group compared with the control group [ΔBMI=1.18 vs 0.10 kg/m2 (p<0.001)]. In addition to BMI, these methods ameliorated depression and anxiety, and reduced the internalizing and externalizing problems in the intervention group. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that the application of an 8-week stress management program could facilitate weight loss in Greek overweight and obese children and adolescents. Further larger studies are required to evaluate the effectiveness of stress-management methods in overweight and obese subjects. PMID:27570747

  18. Responses of nitrogen metabolism and seed nutrition to drought stress in soybean genotypes differing in slow-wilting phenotype1

    PubMed Central

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Gillen, Anne M.; Mengistu, Alemu; Kebede, Hirut; Fisher, Daniel K.; Smith, James R.; Reddy, Krishna N.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in soybean breeding have resulted in genotypes that express the slow-wilting phenotype (trait) under drought stress conditions. The physiological mechanisms of this trait remain unknown due to the complexity of trait × environment interactions. The objective of this research was to investigate nitrogen metabolism and leaf and seed nutrients composition of the slow-wilting soybean genotypes under drought stress conditions. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted using check genotypes: NC-Roy (fast wilting), Boggs (intermediate in wilting); and NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 (slow-wilting, SLW) genotypes. Plants were either well-watered or drought stressed. Results showed that under well-watered conditions, nitrogen fixation (NF), nitrogen assimilation (NA), and leaf and seed composition differed between genotypes. Under drought stress, NF and NA were higher in NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 than in NC-Roy and Boggs. Under severe water stress, however, NA was low in all genotypes. Leaf water potential was significantly lower in checks (−2.00 MPa) than in the SLW genotypes (−1.68 MPa). Leaf and seed concentrations of K, P, Ca, Cu, Na, B were higher in SLW genotypes than in the checks under drought stress conditions. Seed protein, oleic acid, and sugars were higher in SLW genotypes, and oil, linoleic and linolenic acids were lower in SLW genotypes. This research demonstrated that K, P, Ca, Cu, Na, and B may be involved in SLW trait by maintaining homeostasis and osmotic regulation. Maintaining higher leaf water potential in NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 under drought stress could be a possible water conservation mechanism to maintain leaf turgor pressure. The increase in osmoregulators such as minerals, raffinose, and stachyose, and oleic acid could be beneficial for soybean breeders in selecting for drought stress tolerance. PMID:24339829

  19. Coenzyme Q10 prevents hepatic fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in a male rat model of poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth1

    PubMed Central

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Hargreaves, Iain P; Neergheen, Viruna; Aiken, Catherine E; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; McConnell, Josie M; Ozanne, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is well established that low birth weight and accelerated postnatal growth increase the risk of liver dysfunction in later life. However, molecular mechanisms underlying such developmental programming are not well characterized, and potential intervention strategies are poorly defined. Objectives: We tested the hypotheses that poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth would lead to increased hepatic fibrosis (a pathological marker of liver dysfunction) and that postnatal supplementation with the antioxidant coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) would prevent this programmed phenotype. Design: A rat model of maternal protein restriction was used to generate low-birth-weight offspring that underwent accelerated postnatal growth (termed “recuperated”). These were compared with control rats. Offspring were weaned onto standard feed pellets with or without dietary CoQ10 (1 mg/kg body weight per day) supplementation. At 12 mo, hepatic fibrosis, indexes of inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin signaling were measured by histology, Western blot, ELISA, and reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. Results: Hepatic collagen deposition (diameter of deposit) was greater in recuperated offspring (mean ± SEM: 12 ± 2 μm) than in controls (5 ± 0.5 μm) (P < 0.001). This was associated with greater inflammation (interleukin 6: 38% ± 24% increase; P < 0.05; tumor necrosis factor α: 64% ± 24% increase; P < 0.05), lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxynonenal, measured by ELISA: 0.30 ± 0.02 compared with 0.19 ± 0.05 μg/mL per μg protein; P < 0.05), and hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.05). CoQ10 supplementation increased (P < 0.01) hepatic CoQ10 concentrations and ameliorated liver fibrosis (P < 0.001), inflammation (P < 0.001), some measures of oxidative stress (P < 0.001), and hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Suboptimal in utero nutrition combined with accelerated postnatal catch-up growth caused more hepatic fibrosis in adulthood, which was

  20. Public health nutrition: the accord of dietitian providers in managing medicare chronic care outpatients in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cant, Robyn P

    2010-04-01

    Medicare Australia: Chronic Disease Management program subsidizes allied health consultations for eligible outpatients with chronic disease or complex needs. In an evaluation study, private practice dietitians (n = 9) were interviewed to explore their patient management strategies including consultation time-allocation and fees. Time allocation was fee-based. Short first consultations were seen as meeting patients' needs for low-cost services but were regarded by dietitians as ineffective, however longer initial consultations increased cost to patients. No strategy in use was optimal. There is a need for change in Medicare policy to meet the needs of both dietitians and patients in achieving the behaviour change goals of patients.

  1. Parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Ronan; Pichard, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a technique of nutritional support, which consists of intravenous administration of macronutrients (glucose, amino acids, and triglycerides), micronutrients (vitamins and trace elements), water, and electrolytes. Early studies indicate that the use of total PN was associated with increased mortality and infectious morbidity. These detrimental effects of PN were related to hyperglycemia and overfeeding at a period when PN was administered according to the principle that the higher calories the patients received, the better their outcome would be. Enteral nutrition (EN) then replaced PN as the gold standard of nutritional care in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, EN alone is frequently associated with insufficient energy coverage, and subsequent protein-energy deficit is correlated with a worse clinical outcome. Infectious and metabolic complications of PN could be prevented if PN is used by a trained team using a validated protocol, only when indicated, not within the first 2 days following ICU admission, and limited through the time. In addition, energy delivery has to be matched to the energy target, and adapted glucose control should be obtained. In patients with significant energy deficit (>40%), the combination of PN and EN, i.e. supplemental PN, from day 4 of the ICU stay, could improve the clinical outcome of ICU patients as compared with EN alone. Therefore, PN should be integrated in the management of ICU patients with the aim of prevent the worsening of energy deficits, allowing the preservation of lean body mass loss, and reducing the risk of undernutrition-related complications. PMID:23075587

  2. The Endosymbiont Hamiltonella Increases the Growth Rate of Its Host Bemisia tabaci during Periods of Nutritional Stress

    PubMed Central

    Su, Qi; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Liu, Baiming; Fang, Yong; Xu, Baoyun; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) harbors several bacterial symbionts. Among the secondary (facultative) symbionts, Hamiltonella has high prevalence and high infection frequencies, suggesting that it may be important for the biology and ecology of its hosts. Previous reports indicated that Hamiltonella increases whitefly fitness and, based on the complete sequencing of its genome, may have the ability to synthesize cofactors and amino acids that are required by its host but that are not sufficiently synthesized by the host or by the primary endosymbiont, Portiera. Here, we assessed the effects of Hamiltonella infection on the growth of B. tabaci reared on low-, standard-, or high-nitrogen diets. When B. tabaci was reared on a standard-nitrogen diet, no cost or benefit was associated with Hamiltonella infection. But, if we reared whiteflies on low-nitrogen diets, Hamiltonella-infected whiteflies often grew better than uninfected whiteflies. Furthermore, nitrogen levels in field-collected whiteflies indicated that the nutritional conditions in the field were comparable to the low-nitrogen diet in our laboratory experiment. These data suggest that Hamiltonella may play a previously unrecognized role as a nutritional mutualist in B. tabaci. PMID:24558462

  3. Role of diet and nutritional management in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jian-Gao; Cao, Hai-Xia

    2013-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which causes an increased risk of cirrhosis, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular complications. With the worldwide growing incidence of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and unhealthy dietary pattern, NAFLD has currently been recognized as a major health burden. Dietary patterns and nutrients are the important contributors to the development, progression, and treatment of NAFLD and associated metabolic comorbidities. Generally, hypercaloric diet, especially rich in trans/saturated fat and cholesterol, and fructose-sweetened beverages seem to increase visceral adiposity and stimulate hepatic lipid accumulation and progression into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, whereas reducing caloric intake, increasing soy protein and whey consumption, and supplement of monounsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and probiotics have preventive and therapeutic effects. In addition, choline, fiber, coffee, green tea, and light alcohol drinking might be protective factors for NAFLD. Based on available data, at least 3-5% of weight loss, achieved by hypocaloric diet alone or in conjunction with exercise and behavioral modification, generally reduces hepatic steatosis, and up to 10% weight loss may be needed to improve hepatic necroinflammation. A sustained adherence to diet rather than the actual diet type is a major predictor of successful weight loss. Moreover, a healthy diet has benefits beyond weight reduction on NAFLD patients whether obese or of normal weight. Therefore, nutrition serves as a major route of prevention and treatment of NAFLD, and patients with NAFLD should have an individualized diet recommendation. PMID:24251710

  4. Organic blueberry production systems: management of plant nutrition, irrigation requirements, and weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A long-term systems trial was established to evaluate factorial management practices for organic production of highbush blueberry. The practices include: flat and raised planting beds; feather meal and fish emulsion fertilizer applied at 29 and 57 kg/ha N; sawdust mulch, compost topped with sawdust ...

  5. Organic blueberry production systems: management of plant nutrition, irrigation requirements, and weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A long-term systems trial was established to evaluate management practices for organic production of northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). The factorial experiment included two planting bed treatments (flat and raised beds), source and rate of fertilizer (feather meal and fish emuls...

  6. Organic Highbush Blueberry Production Systems Research – Management of Plant Nutrition, Irrigation Requirements, and Weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 0.4 ha planting of blueberry was established in October 2006 to evaluate the effects of cultivar (Duke and Liberty), bed type (flat versus raised beds), weed management (sawdust mulch and hand-weed control; sawdust+compost mulch with acetic acid, flaming, and hand control used as needed; and weed ...

  7. Stress Management in Thin-Film Gas-Permeation Barriers.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Andreas; Meyer, Jens; van de Weijer, Peter; Gahlmann, Tobias; Heiderhoff, Ralf; Riedl, Thomas

    2016-02-17

    Gas diffusion barriers (GDB) are essential building blocks for the protection of sensitive materials or devices against ambient gases, like oxygen and moisture. In this work, we study the mechanics of GDBs processed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). We demonstrate that a wide range of ALD grown barrier layers carry intrinsic mechanical tensile stress in the range of 400-500 MPa. In the application of these GDBs on top of organic electronic devices, we derive a critical membrane force (σ · h)crit = 1200 GPaÅ (corresponding to a layer thickness of about 300 nm) for the onset of cracking and delamination. At the same time, we evidence that thicker GDBs would be more favorable for the efficient encapsulation of statistically occurring particle defects. Thus, to reduce the overall membrane force in this case to levels below (σ · h)crit, we introduce additional compressively strained layers, e.g., metals or SiNx. Thereby, highly robust GDBs are prepared on top of organic light emitting diodes, which do not crack/delaminate even under damp heat conditions 85 °C/85% rh. PMID:26790836

  8. [Cigarette smoking and psychosocial work stress in middle-management employees].

    PubMed

    Peter, R; Siegrist, J; Stork, J; Mann, H; Labrot, B

    1991-01-01

    The association between psychosocial work stress and cigarette smoking is analyzed in a socioeconomically and professionally homogeneous group of 163 middle managers (40-55 years; 48.4 +/- 4.5) in a large industrial company. Psychosocial stress is defined in terms of an imbalance between effort spent and reward obtained at work. The relative risk of regular smoking is 4.34 (odds ratio after controlling for age; 95% CI 1.50-12.54) in those middle managers who suffer from a marked imbalance between effort and reward, compared to those who are free from this type of psychosocial stress at work. This effect persists in the older age group although the proportion of smokers decreases with age. Within the group of regular smokers, every second middle manager suffering from a marked imbalance between effort and reward is a heavy smoker (greater than or equal to 20 cigarettes/day) whereas in the group experiencing less stress at work, only 28% heavy smokers are found. However, due to small numbers this difference is not statistically significant. In conclusion, the data reported in this study demonstrate an association between psychosocial stress at work in terms of high effort and low reward and the risk of regular smoking. This association is not confounded by age, socio-economic status or type of occupation. PMID:1763568

  9. Size matters: management of stress responses and chronic stress in beaked whales and other marine mammals may require larger exclusion zones.

    PubMed

    Wright, Andrew J; Deak, Terrence; Parsons, E C M

    2011-01-01

    Marine mammal management traditionally focuses on lethal takes, but non-lethal (or not immediately lethal) impacts of human disturbance, such as prolonged or repeated activation of the stress response, can also have serious conservation implications. The physiological stress response is a life-saving combination of systems and events that maximises the ability of an animal to kill or avoid being killed. However, "chronic stress" is linked to numerous conditions in humans, including coronary disease and infertility. Through examples, including beaked whales and sonar exposure, we discuss increasing human disturbance, mal-adaptive stress responses and chronic stress. Deep-diving and coastal species, and those targeted by whalewatching, may be particularly vulnerable. The various conditions linked with chronic stress in humans would have troubling implications for conservation efforts in endangered species, demands management attention, and may partly explain why some species have not recovered after protective measures (e.g., smaller protected areas) have been put into place.

  10. The Frazzled Principal's Wellness Plan: Reclaiming Time, Managing Stress, and Creating a Healthy Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queen, J. Allen; Queen, Patsy S.

    2004-01-01

    This wellness guide for today's busy principals, school leaders, supervisors, and administrators has been custom crafted by the authors to address the stresses of managing workplace environments, juggling time and competing priorities, learning to delegate, balancing personal and professional agendas, and creating win-win situations. Special…

  11. Yoga for Stress Management Program as a Complementary Alternative Counseling Resource in a University Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Colleen K.

    2006-01-01

    A Yoga for Stress Management Program (YSMP) that served as a complementary alternative therapy resource was successfully implemented at a midsize, predominantly undergraduate university. It was offered in addition to traditional treatments for student mental health. Counselors, Residence Life staff, and faculty found that the program was useful…

  12. Principal Time Management Skills: Explaining Patterns in Principals' Time Use, Job Stress, and Perceived Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissom, Jason A.; Loeb, Susanna; Mitani, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Time demands faced by school principals make principals' work increasingly difficult. Research outside education suggests that effective time management skills may help principals meet job demands, reduce job stress, and improve their performance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate these hypotheses. Design/methodology/approach:…

  13. On the Horizon. Biofeedback and Self-Management of Stress in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Edward W.; Walton, Wilbur T.

    1979-01-01

    The use of biofeedback in the self management of stress in school children is discussed. Educational research on biofeedback suggests that biofeedback training can help children to learn relaxation skills, reduce school-related anxiety, and gain a measure of self-discipline and confidence. (PHR)

  14. Occupational Stress and Management Strategies of Secondary School Principals in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyanwu, Joy; Ezenwaji, Ifeyinwa; Okenjom, Godian; Enyi, Chinwe

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at finding out sources and symptoms of occupational stress and management strategies of principals in secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study with a population of 420 principals (304 males and 116 females) in secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. Three…

  15. Developing and Implementing a Stress Management Program for Special Educators in a Juvenile Detention Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Joan R.

    This paper describes a practicum designed to increase the stress management skills of 10 special educators working in a juvenile detention center. Teachers at the juvenile detention center were taking an inordinate amount of sick leave and engaging in behaviors that were counter-productive to their delivery of educational services to detained…

  16. Family Ranching and Farming: A Consensus Management Model to Improve Family Functioning and Decrease Work Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Toni Schindler; Fetsch, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that internal and external threats could squeeze ranch and farm families out of business. Offers six-step Consensus Management Model that combines strategic planning with psychoeducation/family therapy. Describes pilot test with intergenerational ranch family that indicated improvements in family functioning, including reduced stress and…

  17. Stress Management in the Health Care Setting: Matching Interventions with Patient Coping Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martelli, Michael F.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Prospective preprosthetic oral surgery patients were presented with a problem-focused, emotion-focused, or mixed-focus stress management intervention. The mixed-focus intervention produced the best overall response to surgery; the emotion-focused intervention produced the lowest adjustment levels. Better adjustment and satisfaction and lower…

  18. School Programs Targeting Stress Management in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraag, Gerda; Zeegers, Maurice P.; Kok, Gerjo; Hosman, Clemens; Abu-Saad, Huda Huijer

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This meta-analysis evaluates the effect of school programs targeting stress management or coping skills in school children. Methods: Articles were selected through a systematic literature search. Only randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental studies were included. The standardized mean differences (SMDs) between baseline…

  19. Adapting Critical Incident Stress Management to the Schools: A Multi-Agency Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortorici, Joanne; Johnson, Luna Kendall

    2004-01-01

    The need for school-appropriate applications of critical incident stress management (CISM) is noted in the literature on school crisis response. This paper presents preliminary data suggesting a School Crisis Response Team's (SCRT) usage and team needs. The SCRT was dispatched for a variety of critical incidents. Self-dispatch, followed by…

  20. Family Stress Management Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: An Educational and Skills Training Intervention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David V.; Cleveland, Sidney E.; Baer, Paul E.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a conceptual background for specific behavioral-therapy approach to family stress management in dealing with the sequelae of acute myocardial infarction for all family members with the goal of reducing morbidity for all family members as they cope with ongoing survivorship issues. Describes the program and discusses its pilot…