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Sample records for nutrition

  1. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    Nutrition Health Education During the 2 years preceding the study: • The percentage of states that provided funding for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health ...

  2. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your diet. These include brightly colored and dark fruits and vegetables. Balance the food you eat ... can also order your free copy of Nutrition Matters and visit our Ask about Nutrition forum. << Back ...

  3. Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

  4. Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Durnin, J V

    1976-07-01

    Nutrition appeared somewhat late on the scene in the I.B.P. projects in the U.K., but eventually it occupied an integral part of many of the H.A. (human adaptability) investigations. The nutritional data obtained in the studies of isolated and nearisolated communities in Tristan da Cunha and in New Guinea provided information of wide nutritional significance. There were also detailed and extensive studies in Israel which, similarly to those in New Guinea, attempted to relate nutritional factors to enviroment, working conditions, and physical fitness. Some extraordinarily low energy intakes found in Ethiopians have induced much speculation on the extent which man can adequately adapt to restricted food supplies. Interesting nutritional observations, of general importance, have also arisen from results obtained on such disparate groups as Glasgow adolescents, Tanzanian and Sudanese students, children in Malawi and vegans in the U.K.

  5. Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Susan

    An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

  6. Diet & Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  7. Nutritional assessment.

    PubMed

    Reilly, H

    Undernutrition and obesity have serious implications for both health and recovery from illness or surgery. These nutritional problems are common in hospital patients but often go unnoticed. This article reviews the means of carrying out nutritional assessment and recommends simple techniques for routine use at ward level to identify patients who need nutritional intervention. Nursing staff are in an ideal position to undertake nutritional screening and simple nutritional assessment should be routinely included as part of patient assessment.

  8. Nutritional Support

    MedlinePlus

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in ...

  9. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  10. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Nutrition education is the theme of this issue of "Children in the Tropics," which emphasizes an analysis of the situation of nutrition education programs, particularly in third world countries. It is noted that in most cases, it is necessary to integrate aspects of nutrition education into broader programs that encompass agricultural…

  11. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  12. Nutritional stunting.

    PubMed

    Hizli, Samil; Abaci, Ayhan; Büyükgebiz, Benal; Büyükgebiz, Atilla

    2007-03-01

    Nutritional stunting is a common problem of the pediatric population especially in developing countries. Although it is a resolvable problem, it continues to be an important health issue. Stunting can be diagnosed when a child's height falls more than two standard deviations below the mean height for age. Stunting may be caused by genetic, hormonal, pharmaceutical, psychosocial and nutritional factors. Before doing extensive laboratory tests, nutritional factors must be searched for at the time of diagnosis. If the etiology is nutritional deficiency, meticulous dietary regulation must be done. The results of treatment must be assessed for guiding the nutritional rehabilitation during follow up. Here we review the interaction of wasting and nutritional stunting; the prevalence of nutritional stunting; diet components and growth; the pathophysiology of stunting; periods of accelerated growth; the diagnosis and clinical assessment of nutritional stunting; the anthropometric and laboratory nutritional indices that can be used at the time of diagnosis and for follow-up purposes during rehabilitation and also the management of nutritional stunting.

  13. Parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Paul; Forbes, Alastair

    2003-03-01

    Parenteral nutrition remains a topic of intense research interest. It has now been shown to offer no advantage over, but to be associated with an increased frequency of complications, compared to enteral nutrition in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Nutritional support administered via an intraportal route, combined with multimodal analgesia, appears to offer certain metabolic and clinical advantages compared with that delivered via systemic veins. Parenteral nutrition, however, does not prevent the decrease in antioxidant capacity seen after major surgery, and feeding lines present an additional risk factor for systemic candidiasis in the intensive care setting. Nonetheless, use of the conventional percutaneous access route is reconfirmed, even in infants, to be a safe technique. Addition of choline to intravenous nutrition admixtures may improve some of the hepatic abnormalities associated with parenteral nutrition, but clodronate has only limited ability to prevent the progression of osteoporosis in patients on long-term treatment.

  14. Integrated nutrition.

    PubMed

    Allison, S P

    2005-08-01

    There is no branch of medicine in which nutritional considerations do not play some part. Overnutrition, undernutrition or unbalanced nutrition are the major causes of ill health in the world. Conversely, illness causes important nutritional and metabolic problems. The spectrum from lack to excess of nutrients is seamless as a clinical and scientific discipline, the two extremes being linked by the Barker effect by which intrauterine malnutrition and low birth weight predispose to obesity, diabetes and CVD in later life. However, the teaching of nutrition in medical and nursing schools remains sparse. Nutritional care cannot be practised satisfactorily in isolation from other aspects of management, since factors such as drugs, surgery and fluid and electrolyte balance affect nutritional status. Nutritional treatment may also have adverse or beneficial effects according to the composition, amount and mode of delivery of the diet and the clinical context in which it is given. Any benefits of nutritional support may also be negated by shortcomings in other aspects of treatment and must therefore be fully integrated into overall care. One example of this approach is the enhanced recovery after a surgery protocol incorporating immediate pre-operative carbohydrate and early post-operative oral intake with strict attention to zero fluid balance, epidural analgesia and early mobilisation. Other examples include the deleterious effect on surgical outcome of salt and water overload or hyperglycaemia, either of which may negate the benefits of nutritional support. There is a need, therefore, to integrate clinical nutrition more closely, not just into medical and surgical practice, but also into the organisation of health services in the hospital and the community, and into the training of doctors and nurses. Societies originally devoted to parenteral and enteral nutrition need to widen their scope to embrace wider aspects of clinical nutrition.

  15. Nutrition Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  16. Geriatric Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Mavis

    1980-01-01

    After an introduction which defines the scope of geriatric nutrition, the current literature dealing with the subject is reviewed. Nutrition is seen as an important aspect of aging and health. The role of the practicing physician in the area of geriatric nutrition is discussed. The author relates personal experiences in this area. The concluding principle is that proper nutrition is an important tool in preventive medicine in the elderly in which the practicing physician can play a vital role. Imagesp803-a PMID:7401189

  17. [Community Nutrition].

    PubMed

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    In the last 20 years, Public Health Nutrition focused mainly on the qualitative aspects which may influence the onset of chronic diseases, quality of life, physical and mental performance and life expectancy. This applied knowledge organised as part of preventive and health promotion programs led to the development of Community Nutrition. The aim of Community Nutrition actions is to adequate lifestyles related to food consumption patterns in order to improve the quality of life and contribute to health promotion of the population in the community where programs and services are delivered. Key functions to develop in a Community Nutrition Unit consist in the identification and assessment of nutrition problems in the community as well as the design, implementation and evaluation of intervention programs by means of appropriate strategies. These should aim at different populations groups and settings, such as work places, schools, high risk groups or the general public. Nowadays, Community Nutrition work efforts should focus on three main aspects: nutrition education in schools and in the community; food safety and food security and the development and reinforcement of food preparation skills across all age groups. Social catering services, either in schools, the work place or at the community level, need to ensure adequate nutritional supply, provide foods contributing to healthy eating practices as well as to enhance culinary traditions and social learning. Food safety and food security have become a top priority in Public Health. The concepts referes to the availability of food safe and adequate as well as in sufficient amount in order to satisfy nutrition requirements of all individuals in the community. Social changes along new scientific developments will introduce new demands in Community Nutrition work and individual dietary counselling will become a key strategy. In order to face new challenges, community nutrition pactitioners require a high quality

  18. Nutritional epigenetics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  19. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christy, Kathy J.; Dawes, Marge

    Included in this booklet are nutrition learning activities intended to help elementary school students acquire knowledge that will enable them to select diets that meet their bodies' needs, both now and in the future. The learning activities correspond to specific nutrition education objectives and are presented separately for students in the…

  20. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…

  1. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtkooper, Linda; And Others

    This kit provides coaches, physical education teachers, and health professionals with current nutrition information and guidelines for applying that information in classes and athletic training programs. The kit contains four components. A "Key Terms" section provides an index to nutrition-fitness terminology and concepts. The instructional…

  2. [Community nutrition].

    PubMed

    Aranceta Bartrina, J; Pérez Rodrigo, C; Serra Majem, L I

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of scientific and epidemiological evidence indicates that diet and health are related: diet may be a risk factor or have potential protective effects. As a consequence, the focus of nutrition research has experienced a shift towards qualitative aspects of diet which could influence chronic disease, longevity, quality of life and physical and cognitive performance, leading to the development of Community Nutrition. The main undertakings in a Community Nutrition Unit are related to the identification, assessment and monitoring of nutrition problems at the community level and to planning, design, implementation and evaluation of nutrition intervention programs. Such programs combine a number of suitable strategies in a whole population approach, a high risk approach or an approach targeted at specific population groups, and are implemented in different settings, such as the work place, schools or community organizations. Community nutrition interventions aim to gradually achieve change in eating patterns towards a healthier profile. Community Nutrition programs require the use of a combination of strategies and a working group of people from different backgrounds. Many factors influence the nutritional status of an individual or a population. In order to gain effective work output, sound understanding of these patterns and a practical surveillance system are required.

  3. Nutrition and Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITIONNutrition and Diet ▶ Diet for the Non-transfused ... Nutrition with Connie Schroepfer, MS, RD: Dec 2016 Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  4. What is Nutrition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the science of nutrition, including: (1) nutrition as a branch of science and social science; (2) nutrition instruction in schools; (3) careers in nutrition; (4) training nutritionists; and (5) current issues in nutrition research. (JN)

  5. Nutritional anemias.

    PubMed

    Oski, F A

    1979-10-01

    The role of the metals, iron and copper, and the vitamins E, folic acid, and B12 in the genesis of nutritional anemias in infancy have been reviewed. All are preventable. The precise requirements for each of these trace elements and vitamins in the small premature infant remain to be defined. The nonhematologic consequences of these nutritional deficiencies require further study. Anemia may prove to be the least important manifestation of the deficiency states.

  6. Space Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  7. Space Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  8. Fetal nutrition.

    PubMed

    Rosa, F W; Turshen, M

    1970-01-01

    The extensive literature on nutrition in pregnancy is reviewed with special reference to international experience, including observations on nutritional trials in pregnancy, pregnancy during famines caused by war, and studies of birth-weight in relation to pregnancy interval, parity and multiple pregnancies. Recent research on the significance of fetal nutrition suggests that "small-for-dates" infants, i.e., those that are developmentally retarded in utero, suffer long-term developmental sequelae. A high world-wide incidence of small-for-dates births was reported by the World Health Organization in 1960.Although a definite correlation has been found between socio-economic status and birth-weight, it is not known to what extent the smaller birth-weights observed in the lower socio-economic groups can be improved by specific nutritional measures. In addition to the general advice given on maternal nutrition and family-planning, further studies are needed to determine the precise means of achieving improvement in fetal nutrition and a better outcome of pregnancy.

  9. Fetal nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Franz W.; Turshen, Meredeth

    1970-01-01

    The extensive literature on nutrition in pregnancy is reviewed with special reference to international experience, including observations on nutritional trials in pregnancy, pregnancy during famines caused by war, and studies of birth-weight in relation to pregnancy interval, parity and multiple pregnancies. Recent research on the significance of fetal nutrition suggests that ”small-for-dates” infants, i.e., those that are developmentally retarded in utero, suffer long-term developmental sequelae. A high world-wide incidence of small-for-dates births was reported by the World Health Organization in 1960. Although a definite correlation has been found between socio-economic status and birth-weight, it is not known to what extent the smaller birth-weights observed in the lower socio-economic groups can be improved by specific nutritional measures. In addition to the general advice given on maternal nutrition and family-planning, further studies are needed to determine the precise means of achieving improvement in fetal nutrition and a better outcome of pregnancy. PMID:5314013

  10. Nutritional Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Lane, Helen W.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutritional status is critical for maintenance of crew health during extended- duration space flight and postflight rehabilitation. Nutrition issues relate to intake of required nutrients, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, psychological adaptation to extreme environments, and countermeasures to ameliorate the negative effects of space flight. Thus, defining the nutrient requirements for space flight and ensuring provision and intake of those nutrients are critical issues for crew health and mission success. Specialized nutritional requirements have only been considered for what are referred to here as extended- duration flights, i.e., those greater than 30 days in length. While adequate nutrition is important on the 1- to 3-week Shuttle flights, intakes of specific nutrients above or below space specific requirements for this period will not produce cause for concern. Thus, Shuttle flights have always used the recognized nutritional requirements for adult men and women. In this chapter, long-duration flights will be further differentiated into orbital missions (e.g., International Space Station) and interplanetary exploration missions.

  11. Nutritional Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Lane, Helen W.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutritional status is critical for maintenance of crew health during extended- duration space flight and postflight rehabilitation. Nutrition issues relate to intake of required nutrients, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, psychological adaptation to extreme environments, and countermeasures to ameliorate the negative effects of space flight. Thus, defining the nutrient requirements for space flight and ensuring provision and intake of those nutrients are critical issues for crew health and mission success. Specialized nutritional requirements have only been considered for what are referred to here as extended- duration flights, i.e., those greater than 30 days in length. While adequate nutrition is important on the 1- to 3-week Shuttle flights, intakes of specific nutrients above or below space specific requirements for this period will not produce cause for concern. Thus, Shuttle flights have always used the recognized nutritional requirements for adult men and women. In this chapter, long-duration flights will be further differentiated into orbital missions (e.g., International Space Station) and interplanetary exploration missions.

  12. Nutritional Therapy.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Julie

    2016-03-01

    This article provides the reader with steps needed to accurately assess patient nutrition behaviors that contribute to weight gain, inability to lose weight, or inability to sustain weight loss. Evidence-based approaches in nutrition therapy that can create the daily energy deficit needed to produce 1/2 to 2 pounds of weight loss per week, and the strategies to create the energy deficit, are presented. To optimize health, long-term weight loss maintenance is needed. The benefits of using a multidisciplinary team approach in treating obesity are highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Medical Issues: Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...

  14. Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources > Diet and Nutrition Go Back Diet and Nutrition Email Print + Share Diet and nutrition concerns of ... you. NEW!! Test your knowledge of diet and nutrition by taking this self-assessment for an opportunity ...

  15. Nutritional Needs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The dramatic growth of infants during the 1st yr of life (a 3-fold increase in weight; a 50% increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from 1 yr of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. The needs for growth are superimposed on relatively high maintenance nee...

  16. Nutritional requirements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The dramatic growth of infants during the first year of life (e.g., a 3-fold increase in weight and a 2-fold increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from a year of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. Moreover, these needs for growth are superimposed on ...

  17. Nutritional epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Niculescu, Mihai D

    2012-01-01

    Within the last two decades, significant progress has been made in understanding the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of gene expression as a consequence of gene-environment interactions. Nutrition, among many other environmental factors, is a key player that can induce epigenetic changes not only in the directly exposed organisms but also in subsequent generations through the transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic traits. This article aims to provide insights into the usefulness of the mouse model for epigenetic studies involving nutrition as well as the inherent limitations when compared with epigenetic phenomena in humans. Mice are one of the most versatile models for nutrition and epigenetic studies because of several features, such as short life-span, relative low cost for generating samples, the existence of well-characterized genetically engineered lines, the detailed sequencing of genomes, and the relative similarity of their metabolic processes to human metabolism. However, several limitations have to be acknowledged, such as the different location of genes on the chromosomes (and hence possibly different consequences of some epigenetic alterations), differences in the epigenetic patterns established during late embryogenesis, and possible epigenetic differences associated with cellular senescence caused by the different structure of telomeres when compared with humans. All these aspects have to be carefully analyzed when deciding whether a mouse model should be considered for a study in nutrition and epigenetics. Consequently, the results obtained from mouse studies should be carefully interpreted regarding their relevance to humans.

  18. [Perioperative nutrition].

    PubMed

    Garretsen, M K; Melis, G C; Richir, M C; Boelens, P G; Vlaanderen, L; van Leeuwen, P A M

    2006-12-16

    Illness is associated with involuntary weight loss, which is often the result of malnutrition. The undernourished surgical patient runs a higher risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality. For this reason, perioperative nutrition is an important part of a patient's therapy. Supplying substrates for wound healing and maintaining existing organic structures are the major goals of nutrition. It is recommended that extremely malnourished patients be fed at least 7 days prior to surgery. It would seem sensible to give a carbohydrate-rich beverage up to 2 hours before surgery, both to decrease preoperative anxiety and to reduce postoperative insulin resistance. The Dutch tradition of fasting patients before surgery is difficult to defend any longer because this policy impairs patients' state of health as a result of which they are not optimally prepared for the surgical induced stress response. The postoperative recovery of all surgical patients can be improved by an early postoperative start of enteric nutrition. When the enteric administration of food turns out to be impossible, total parenteral nutrition can be given to bridge a long period without food.

  19. Nutrition broadcasting.

    PubMed

    Hyland, K M

    1980-02-01

    The use of radio by the dietitians of the Whittington Hospital and their guest speakers to advise and educate hospital patients on varying aspects of human nutrition, reaching a much larger section of the local population than they could in their usual work, is described.

  20. Nutritional amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Lessell, S

    1998-06-01

    A review was conducted to examine the characteristics and pathogenesis of nutritional amblyopia. Published cases of amblyopia among malnourished allied prisoners of the Japanese during World War II and among Cubans malnourished during the recent economic embargo were analyzed. The picture of nutritional amblyopia derived from these publications is somewhat at variance with the conventional image of the disease. Surprising features include premonitory keratopathy, rapid onset of visual loss, a high incidence of hearing loss, and the presence of peripapillary retinopathy in some cases. No single causative factor can be identified. Genetic susceptibility rarely, if ever, plays a role. Vitamin deficiency may not be important. Protein deficiency, antioxidant deficiency, physical labor, and tobacco smoking are likely to contribute to the occurrence of amblyopia.

  1. Untold nutrition.

    PubMed

    Campbell, T Colin

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is generally investigated, and findings interpreted, in reference to the activities of individual nutrients. Nutrient composition of foods, food labeling, food fortification, and nutrient recommendations are mostly founded on this assumption, a practice commonly known as reductionism. While such information on specifics is important and occasionally useful in practice, it ignores the coordinated, integrated and virtually symphonic nutrient activity (wholism) that occurs in vivo. With reductionism providing the framework, public confusion abounds and huge monetary and social costs are incurred. Two examples are briefly presented to illustrate, the long time misunderstandings (1) about saturated and total fat as causes of cancer and heart disease and (2) the emergence of the nutrient supplement industry. A new definition of the science of nutrition is urgently needed.

  2. Nutritional Biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  3. Pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2014-03-01

    This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutrition Advice and Recipes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sign-Up Home Patient Information Nutrition Advice & Recipes Nutrition Advice & Recipes This is a very important section ... information on all aspects of daily life, including nutrition, medical treatments, pain management, and practical tips. For ...

  5. Geriatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Markham, R W; Hodgkins, E M

    1989-01-01

    In recent decades, veterinary medicine has become more successful in prolonging the healthy, useful lives of pets. As a result, the practitioner spends a greater part of each practice day caring for the geriatric animal, both healthy and unhealthy. Because of their longevity, older pets are typically regular family members, with owners who seek the finest health care possible for their pets. The practice of geriatric medicine most properly should begin not when the dog or cat reaches some specific "golden" age, but rather when the wiggly, robust puppy or kitten receives its first examination. Like all parts of a sound preventive program, geriatric nutrition best follows from a well-considered juvenile and adult nutrition program. Furthermore, once it becomes senior, the "well" geriatric is as much a candidate for a diet designed especially to accommodate old age changes as is his unhealthy contemporary. In fact, evidence suggests that appropriate dietary management of the healthy, but often subclinical, patient may help postpone the signs of dysfunction and increase quality and length of life. A knowledge of the most significant nutrients and the impact of each on aging systems is now, and will become increasingly more, important to the progressive, skillful veterinarian.

  6. Nutritional screening and assessment.

    PubMed

    McMahon, K; Brown, J K

    2000-05-01

    To review the components of nutritional screening, screening measures and tools, and the nurses' role in nutritional assessment. Research studies, review articles, and book chapters. Timely and appropriate nutritional interventions require the adoption of routine initial nutritional screening, referral for comprehensive nutritional assessments as needed, and continued re-screening. Oncology nurses should be prepared to contribute to a comprehensive nutritional assessment in their role as patient advocate and expert clinician.

  7. Lead - nutritional considerations

    MedlinePlus

    Lead poisoning - nutritional considerations; Toxic metal - nutritional considerations ... utensils . Old paint poses the greatest danger for lead poisoning , especially in young children. Tap water from lead ...

  8. [Sports nutrition].

    PubMed

    Paquot, N

    2001-04-01

    All nutrition recommendations for athletes must be based on current scientific data and the needs of athletes as individuals. Exercise performance may be improved by adequate food intake. Adequate energy intake needs to be consumed during times of high-intensity training to maintain body weight and maximize the training effect. Carbohydrates are important to maintain blood-glucose and replace muscle glycogen. During exercise, carbohydrates must be provided at the rate of 30 to 60 g per h. Fat intake should not be restricted. No vitamin and mineral supplements should be required if an athlete is consuming adequate energy from a variety of foods. Deshydratation decreases exercise performance. Two hours before exercise 400 to 600 ml of fluid should be consumed and during exercise 150 to 350 ml of fluid every 15 to 20 min. After exercise, the dietary goal is to provide adequate energy and carbohydrate to replace muscle glycogen and ensure rapid recovery.

  9. [Geriatric nutrition].

    PubMed

    Riobó Serván, P; Sánchez-Vilar, O; González de Villar, N

    1999-05-01

    The elderly population is increasing rapidly over the last decades. This population has a high risk for malnutrition due to metabolic and organic changes that occur during the aging process. Malnutrition is especially prevalent in hospitalized elderly patients and those with other disease. Malnutrition in the elderly increases the morbido-mortality as the nutrients influence the immune function, the cognitive function, vision.... Caloric intakes of 30 Kcal/kg/day and protein ingestion of 1-1.25 g/kg/day are recommended. However, almost a third of the population does not meet these macronutrient requirements, and therefore does not meet the micronutrient requirements either. The easiest method for detecting malnutrition in the elderly is the Mini-Nutritional Assessment, which also accurately predicts the 1-year mortality. If malnutrition is detected, attempts should be made to correct this using an adequate and personalized oral diet, and it may be useful to associate energetic protein supplements.

  10. [Infant nutrition].

    PubMed

    Salle, Bernard

    2009-02-01

    Nutritional quality during the first weeks of life can influence health during both infancy and adulthood. Exclusive long-term breast feeding is strongly recommended, particularly for infants at risk of allergy. It protects against gastrointestinal and respiratory infections, and has been shown to enhance cognitive and intellectual development. Breast-feeding is also associated with a lower risk of obesity and type 1 diabetes in infants and of cardiovascular disease in adults. Breast-feeding is rarely contraindicated. Multiple European and French guidelines and regulations govern the composition of infant formulas, which may be given during the first year of life when breast-feeding is unavailable. Hypoallergenic and soy-based formulas are not recommended for healthy infants.

  11. Nutritional treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Shewmake, Roger A; Huntington, Mark K

    2009-06-01

    The focus of this article is nutritional strategies for weight loss. Following a review of general nutritional principles, the evidence behind specific nutritional weight-loss strategies is presented. These strategies include nutritional supplements, nutrient-limited diets, and energy-limited diets. A brief discussion of nutritional considerations relevant to other weight-loss strategies--pharmacologic, surgical, and exercise-based--is included. Specific evidence-based recommendations are presented.

  12. Ferret nutrition.

    PubMed

    Bell, J A

    1999-01-01

    The unusually short intestinal tract of ferrets and closely related mustelids lacks a cecum and ileocolic valve. As a result, the transit time of ingesta in these carnivores is very rapid compared with other animals, and their food is inefficiently digested. Although the precise nutritional requirements of ferrets have not been determined by feeding defined diets, information has been compiled from experience feeding commercial and analyzed homemade diets to breeding ferrets, fitch, and mink at all stages of their lives. The requirements of spayed or neutered pet ferrets are met by allowing them constant access to drinking water and a palatable, pelleted, or extruded, 90% dry matter, premium cat or ferret food that, as fed, contains at least 15% fat and 30% high quality, meat source protein, less than 30% carbohydrates, and approximately 4 Kcal of metabolizable energy per gram. Lower density diets with more carbohydrate and less protein are associated with poor reproductive performance and growth and greater susceptibility to infectious and metabolic diseases.

  13. The Baylor pediatric nutrition handbook for residents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Baylor Pediatric Nutrition Handbook for Residents provides basic resource information about the assessment of growth, the nutritional status assessment and feeding guidelines, biochemical evaluation of nutritional status, infant nutrition, enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition, nutritional man...

  14. [Assessing nutritional status before introducing enteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Leandro-Merhi, Vânia Aparecida; Morete, Juliana Luisi; Oliveira, Maria Rita Marques de

    2009-01-01

    A proper diagnosis of the nutritional status is of the utmost importance for prescribing enteral nutrition therapy in the hospital environment. To assess nutritional status indicators of patients about to receive enteral nutrition therapy in a hospital unit. This cross-sectional study examined the nutritional status of 100 adult patients before they were introduced to enteral nutrition therapy by calculating their body mass index . Their height and weight were estimated by prediction formulas and laboratory indicators of nutritional and metabolic statuses. Almost one-third (29%) of the patients were classified as malnourished according to their body mass index, while 80% of them had low albumin values (<3.2 g/dL). When patients were grouped according to body mass index, the distribution of the reasons for hospitalization did not differ between the groups. Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases prevailed as the main reasons for hospitalization. When patients were grouped according to body mass index and diagnosis upon admission, the rates of low albumin concentration, i.e., concentration below the reference value, did not differ between the groups. The estimated body mass index was a specific indicator of nutritional status but lacked sensitivity. Meanwhile, albumin was more sensitive, demonstrating that it is necessary to use many indicators in combination to diagnose nutritional status properly.

  15. Nutrition for Children with Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children and Cancer When Your Child Has Cancer Nutrition for Children with Cancer Nutrition is an important part of the health of ... help you ensure your child is getting the nutrition he or she needs. Why good nutrition is ...

  16. Diabetes and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ...

  17. Nutrition and athletic performance

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002458.htm Nutrition and athletic performance To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nutrition can help enhance athletic performance. An active lifestyle ...

  18. Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... need to know about Wilson Disease Diet and Nutrition Food . . . . Adherence to a low copper diet is ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Generic Zinc Options Inheritence Diet & Nutrition Kayser-Fleischer Rings Wilson Disease FAQs Definitions Transplantation ...

  19. Nutrition.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gov Sites FAQ Contact Us En Español Search Nutrition.Gov Search all USDA Advanced Search Browse by ... Phytonutrients Food Additives What's in Food FAQs Welcome Nutrition.gov is a USDA-sponsored website that offers ...

  20. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  1. Artificial Hydration and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ...

  2. Nutrition and OI

    MedlinePlus

    Nutrition and OI Introduction To promote bone development and optimal health, children and adults with osteogenesis imperfecta ( ... no foods or supplements that will cure OI. Nutrition Related Problems Difficulties eating solid food have been ...

  3. Living with COPD: Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > COPD > Living With COPD Nutrition Most people are surprised to learn that the ... asking your doctor or visiting the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics at EatRight.org . Be sure to ...

  4. Food and Nutrition Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Demos/Grant Projects FNS Strategic Plan Other Resources Food & Nutrition Information Center National Agriculture Library National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research Nutrition.gov Peer Review Plans and Guidelines ...

  5. Food for nutrition: mainstreaming nutrition in WFP.

    PubMed

    2006-03-01

    Most preventable deaths among hungry people take place outside of emergency contexts. In countries not involved in conflicts or natural disasters malnutrition is directly implicated in the deaths of millions of children and mothers each year. Thus, WFP's great efforts focused on saving lives in emergencies should be mirrored by efforts aimed at tackling malnutrition, and hence saving lives, beyond emergencies as well. While food sufficiency is not the same as good nutrition, food is nevertheless an important part of the nutrition equation. New scientific evidence confirms that it is possible to have positive nutritional impacts with food aid. Consistent with Strategic Priority No. 3, WFP seeks to use food resources to achieve nutritional impacts in three complementary ways: a) enhancing the effectiveness and impact of targeted mother and child health and nutrition interventions (MCHN) that combine food and appropriate nonfood inputs; b) enhancing the nutritional value of WFP food (for instance, through micronutrient fortification); and c) enhancing the nutritional impact of other WFP (non-MCHN) interventions. These approaches represent a mainstreaming of nutrition across WFP's activities. Adoption of evidence-based programming, joint interventions with partners, and new project designs offer the promise of greater WFP effectiveness and impact in the coming years.

  6. Nutrition in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J.; Rice, B. L.; Lane, H. W.

    1997-01-01

    The authors review studies conducted to define nutritional requirements for astronauts during space flight and to assess nutrition before, during, and after space flight. Topics include space food systems, research and limitations on spacecraft, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, energy requirements, dietary intake during space flight, bone demineralization, gastrointestinal function, blood volume, and nutrition requirements for space flight. Benefits of space-related nutrition research are highlighted.

  7. Our Nutrition Education Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, Donald C.

    1976-01-01

    Nutrition educators must find ways to get sound nutrition information to the public through means such as: nutrition education for physicians, the nation's formal education system, public media and work with social and civic groups, and emphasis on world population planning and control of food production and waste. (MS)

  8. Our Nutrition Education Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, Donald C.

    1976-01-01

    Nutrition educators must find ways to get sound nutrition information to the public through means such as: nutrition education for physicians, the nation's formal education system, public media and work with social and civic groups, and emphasis on world population planning and control of food production and waste. (MS)

  9. Nutrition Education for Physicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasswell, Anita B.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A study of three hospitals' family medicine residents' knowledge of and interest in nutrition education revealed large gaps in residents' knowledge of nutritional aspects of certain conditions likely to arise in general practice. Previous medical school nutrition courses had little influence on residents' perceived knowledge. (MSE)

  10. Child Nutrition. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline; Eastman, Wayne; Aird, Laura Dutil; McCrea, Nadine L.

    2002-01-01

    Four workshops focus on nutrition for infants and children in child care settings. Articles are: (1) "Nutrition and Child Development: Global Perspectives" (Jacqueline Hayden); (2) "Working with Families around Nutritional Issues" (Wayne Eastman); (3) "Breastfeeding Promotion in Child Care" (Laura Dutil Aird); and (4) "Food as Shared…

  11. Much Ado About Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deringer, Shirley K.

    1973-01-01

    A school nurse describes her participation in a new school-wide study of nutrition. Purposely choosing to work with young children (kindergarten and first grade) she held discussions on the nutritional need of babies and pets, planned and evaluated menus with the children, and played a nutrition game wherein children played the part of different…

  12. Nutrition for Sport Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

  13. Nutrition and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozoff, Betsy

    1989-01-01

    Addresses nutritional problems associated with developmental problems in infancy and childhood. Nutritional problems are often linked to environmental disadvantage; the possibility exists for long-term developmental effects. Treatment for undernutrition does not appear to reverse all negative effects. Prevention of nutritional disorders is better…

  14. Aging and Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzarre, Terry L.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews nutrition education programs in relation to aging. A summary of nutritional information that constitutes different components of nutrition education programs for the elderly is discussed. A brief review of physiological changes affecting nutrient utilization and food selection and changes in dietary intake and requirements are presented.…

  15. Much Ado About Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deringer, Shirley K.

    1973-01-01

    A school nurse describes her participation in a new school-wide study of nutrition. Purposely choosing to work with young children (kindergarten and first grade) she held discussions on the nutritional need of babies and pets, planned and evaluated menus with the children, and played a nutrition game wherein children played the part of different…

  16. Nutrition and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Mary, Ed.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The special issue of the journal contains 12 articles on nutrition and young children. The following titles and authors are included: "Overview--Nutritional Needs of Young Children" (M. Scialabba); "Nurturance--Mutually Created--Mother and Child" (M. McFarland); "Feeding the Special Needs Child" (E. Croup); "Maternal and Neonatal Nutrition--Long…

  17. Nutrition and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Mary, Ed.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The special issue of the journal contains 12 articles on nutrition and young children. The following titles and authors are included: "Overview--Nutritional Needs of Young Children" (M. Scialabba); "Nurturance--Mutually Created--Mother and Child" (M. McFarland); "Feeding the Special Needs Child" (E. Croup); "Maternal and Neonatal Nutrition--Long…

  18. Nutrition Source Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Dairy Council, Rosemont, IL.

    This booklet presents a nutrient approach to teaching nutrition. It contains basic nutrition information along with suggestions for translating this information to fulfill the needs of families and individuals. Topics discussed are: (1) a nutrient approach to teaching nutrition; (2) functions of nutrients; (3) how food handling affects nutrient…

  19. Nutrition Source Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Dairy Council, Rosemont, IL.

    This booklet presents a nutrient approach to teaching nutrition. It contains basic nutrition information along with suggestions for translating this information to fulfill the needs of families and individuals. Topics discussed are: (1) a nutrient approach to teaching nutrition; (2) functions of nutrients; (3) how food handling affects nutrient…

  20. Nutrition and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. National Advisory Council on Supplementary Centers and Services.

    This two-part report provides a source book of information on (a) federal health and nutrition legislation and programs, and (b) government and commercial agencies with nutrition and health education materials and instructional services available to the public. Part 1 describes the kinds of health and nutrition programs to be funded under ESEA…

  1. Aging and Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzarre, Terry L.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews nutrition education programs in relation to aging. A summary of nutritional information that constitutes different components of nutrition education programs for the elderly is discussed. A brief review of physiological changes affecting nutrient utilization and food selection and changes in dietary intake and requirements are presented.…

  2. Nutritional Status Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts.

  3. Nutritional assessment in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, M R; Zemel, B; Stallings, V A

    1998-01-01

    Nutritional status affects every pediatric patient's response to illness. Good nutrition is important for achieving normal growth and development. Nutritional assessment therefore should be an integral part of the care for every pediatric patient. Routine screening measures for abnormalities of growth should be performed on all pediatric patients. Those patients with chronic illness and those at risk for malnutrition should have detailed nutritional assessments done. Components of a complete nutritional assessment include a medical history, nutritional history including dietary intake, physical examination, anthropometrics (weight, length or stature, head circumference, midarm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness), pubertal staging, skeletal maturity staging, and biochemical tests of nutritional status. Alternative measures for linear growth assessment (e.g., lower leg and upper arm measures) can be performed on patients unable to stand or who have musculoskeletal deformities. Bone densitometry can be used to assess bone mineralization and the risk of fracture. Nutritionally at risk patients may benefit from determination of resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry. The use of age, gender, and disease-specific growth charts is essential in assessing nutritional status and monitoring nutrition interventions. The importance of accurate measurements using trained personnel and appropriate equipment cannot be overemphasized.

  4. Nutrition in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Irtun, Øivind; Olesen, Søren Schou; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Holst, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The pancreas is a major player in nutrient digestion. In chronic pancreatitis both exocrine and endocrine insufficiency may develop leading to malnutrition over time. Maldigestion is often a late complication of chronic pancreatic and depends on the severity of the underlying disease. The severity of malnutrition is correlated with two major factors: (1) malabsorption and depletion of nutrients (e.g., alcoholism and pain) causes impaired nutritional status; and (2) increased metabolic activity due to the severity of the disease. Nutritional deficiencies negatively affect outcome if they are not treated. Nutritional assessment and the clinical severity of the disease are important for planning any nutritional intervention. Good nutritional practice includes screening to identify patients at risk, followed by a thoroughly nutritional assessment and nutrition plan for risk patients. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and the mainstay of treatment is abstinence from alcohol, pain treatment, dietary modifications and pancreatic enzyme supplementation. To achieve energy-end protein requirements, oral supplementation might be beneficial. Enteral nutrition may be used when patients do not have sufficient calorie intake as in pylero-duodenal-stenosis, inflammation or prior to surgery and can be necessary if weight loss continues. Parenteral nutrition is very seldom used in patients with chronic pancreatitis and should only be used in case of GI-tract obstruction or as a supplement to enteral nutrition. PMID:24259957

  5. Nutrition in the adolescent.

    PubMed

    Wahl, R

    1999-02-01

    This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article.

  6. Nutrition policy in Finland.

    PubMed

    Pietinen, Pirjo; Männistö, Satu; Valsta, Liisa M; Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, Sirpa

    2010-06-01

    The present study describes the main actions in Finnish nutrition policy during the past decades. The main actor is the National Nutrition Council, which provides nutritional recommendations and action programmes, and sets up expert groups to solve nutritional problems in the population. The main fortification programmes have been the iodization of table salt, supplementation of selenium to fertilizers and the vitamin D fortification programme. As an example of national legislation, labelling the salt content of foods is described. Finnish nutrition policy is based on a good monitoring system of nutrition and risk factors of chronic diseases, as well as active epidemiological research. However, the authorities have not often taken proposed fiscal measures seriously but have instead considered agricultural and economic policies more important than health policy.

  7. Intradialytic nutritional support.

    PubMed

    Cano, Noël J M; Leverve, Xavier M

    2008-03-01

    Intradialytic nutritional support has been used for more than 30 years both in critically ill patients with acute renal failure and during maintenance hemodialysis. Present knowledge allows better estimation of its metabolic and nutritional efficacy, as well its effect on patient outcome. Recent data showed that intradialytic nutritional support is able to counteract these effects of dialysis on protein metabolism and to improve both nitrogen and energy balance. In maintenance hemodialysis patients, the improvement of nutritional status during nutritional support was shown to improve long-term survival. In critically ill patients with acute renal failure, protein sparing is one of the main therapeutic goals. The effect of nutritional support on patient outcome is not demonstrated. Recent data, however, showed that the improvement of nitrogen balance may be associated with a better outcome. Current information helps to better assess the effects of intradialytic nutritional support, to clarify the nutritional management of renal failure patients and to provide recommendations. Future research should focus on the possible means to improve the efficacy of nutritional support, either by modifying its components of by associating anabolic or anticatabolic agents.

  8. [Home enteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Virgili, N; Vilarasau, M C

    1999-04-01

    Enteral nutrition in the home is applied to stabilized patients who do not require hospitalization or to chronically ill patients who can stay in their homes. However, ensuring the correct administration of this treatment requires a coordinated, expert multidisciplinary team. This article reviews the conditions for use of enteral nutrition in the home, the means of access, the nutritional formulas, the administrative technique, and the complications enteral nutrition in the home may present. Furthermore, the composition and characteristics of the multidisciplinary team which will be in charge of carrying out this treatment is discussed.

  9. Toward a National Nutrition Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Jean

    1972-01-01

    Reviews changes in United States nutrition since the 1969 White House Conference on Food, Nutrition, and Health and identifies necessary components of public, private and expert contributions towards a policy for ensuring adequate nutrition for all Americans. (AL)

  10. Food and Nutrition Information Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... Farming Systems Food and Human Nutrition Invasive Species Marketing and Trade Natural Resources and Environment Plants and ... and Cooking Nutrition Education Nutrition Research Invasive Species Marketing and Trade Agricultural Subsidies Distribution, Imports, and Exports ...

  11. Physician nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Kiraly, Laszlo N; McClave, Stephen A; Neel, Dustin; Evans, David C; Martindale, Robert G; Hurt, Ryan T

    2014-06-01

    Nutrition education for physicians in the United States is limited in scope, quality, and duration due to a variety of factors. As new data and quality improvement initiatives highlight the importance of nutrition and a generation of nutrition experts retire, there is a need for new physician educators and leaders in clinical nutrition. Traditional nutrition fellowships and increased didactic lecture time in school and postgraduate training are not feasible strategies to develop the next generation of physician nutrition specialists in the current environment. One strategy is the development of short immersion courses for advanced trainees and junior attendings. The most promising courses include a combination of close mentorship and adult learning techniques such as lectures, clinical experiences, literature review, curricular development, research and writing, multidisciplinary interactions, and extensive group discussion. These courses also allow the opportunity for advanced discourse, development of long-term collaborative relationships, and continued longitudinal career development for alumni after the course ends. Despite these curricular developments, ultimately the field of nutrition will not mature until the American Board of Medical Specialties recognizes nutrition medicine with specialty board certification.

  12. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Robert H.

    Nutritional deficiencies and imbalances can influence learning directly or indirectly. Fatigue, boredom and low motivation may be the result of poor nutrition. Some vision problems, it is known, are related to deficiencies in vitamin A. A number of studies indicate that protein-caloric malnutrition affects intellectual and psychomotor development.…

  13. Heredity and Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Mary W.

    1970-01-01

    Research on the relationship between heredity and nutrition in laboratory animals, particularly rats, points to a similar relationship between human heredity and nutritional requirements. Suggests an experiment which science honor students can undertake to investigate the relationship between strain differences in rats and the utilization of…

  14. Parents and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehnlein, Mary Maher

    Parents and the extended family are the most influential factors in the child's lifelong eating habits, general health and development, and brain power. Convincing parents of diet components that insure adequate nutrition is of prime importance; if the home does not support the content of the school's nutritional curriculum, the child may feel…

  15. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehnlein, Mary Maher; And Others

    The paper reviews literature on the relationship between food, nutrition, and learning with particular emphasis on impairments in cognitive development and learning which result from malnutrition. Considered are means of detecting malnutrition, allergy symptoms, and steps a teacher can take in educating students and families about nutrition. Among…

  16. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Studies by Tufts University's Center on Hunger and Poverty show conclusive links between nutrition and children's cognitive development. Cognitive defects can result from complex interactions between malnutrition and "environmental insults" that come from living in poverty. Poor nutrition has longterm consequences. Print and web…

  17. Nutrition and Educational Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Ernesto

    1984-01-01

    Research studies concerning how nutrition affects educational performance are examined. From a developmental perspective it seems likely that the earlier the onset and the longer the duration of the nutritional deficiency the higher the probabilities of a cognitive deficit and poor school achievement in childhood and adolescence. (RM)

  18. Geological impacts on nutrition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  19. Nutrition Learning Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This book presents nine packages of learning materials for trainers to use in teaching community health workers to carry out the nutrition element of their jobs. Lessons are intended to help health workers acquire skill in presenting to communities the principles and practice of good nutrition. Responding to the most common causes of poor…

  20. Nutritional hormesis and aging.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Daniel P

    2009-11-16

    Nutritional hormesis has the potential to serve as a pro-healthy aging intervention by reducing the susceptibility of the elderly to various chronic degenerative diseases and thereby extending human healthspan. Supportive evidence for nutritional hormesis arising from essential nutrients (vitamins and minerals), dietary pesticides (natural and synthetic), dioxin and other herbicides, and acrylamide will be reviewed and discussed.

  1. Nutrition Education for Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harker, Charlotte S.; Kupsinel, Penelope E.

    1971-01-01

    To help people understand what constitutes good nutrition, why it is important, and how it can be incorporated in the daily diet, as well as how to recognize false or misleading claims about food is the responsibility in the 1970's, of nutrition educators. (Editor/MU)

  2. Teaching about Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Marylou; Arnold, Anne Jurmu

    1983-01-01

    Concepts, such as nutrition density, that teachers need to understand to teach children good nutrition are explained. Teachers can use food diaries, protein picture charts, and class discussions about health problems related to excessive sugar and fats to instill healthy eating habits in their students. (PP)

  3. You Score With Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Ruth McNabb

    1976-01-01

    The leader's guide and student activity booklet contain learning activities, ideas, information, games, and resources for nutrition instruction designed to appeal to the interests of teens and pre-teens and to improve their knowledge of nutrition and their eating habits. (MS)

  4. Nutrition: Too Many Gimmicks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tommy

    2002-01-01

    Notes that despite having access to vast nutritional knowledge, Americans today are more malnourished and obese than ever before. Concludes that eating normal, basic, ordinary foods in variety can supply all nutritional needs; gimmicks are not needed, and the search for the "quick-fix" must stop--it is not on any shelf. Includes the United States…

  5. Day Care: Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Florence P.; And Others

    This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of…

  6. Nutrition. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This packet contains an instructor's manual, instructor's resource package, and student workbook for a competency-based course on nutrition for practical nursing. The course consists of two units of instruction that cover applying principles of basic nutrition and diet therapy. Each unit contains some or all of the following components: objective…

  7. Day Care: Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Florence P.; And Others

    This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of…

  8. Nutrition in centenarians.

    PubMed

    Hausman, Dorothy B; Fischer, Joan G; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2011-03-01

    The oldest old are among the fastest growing segment of the population and it is important to understand not only the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and nutrition on the achievement of exceptional longevity but also the role, if any, of these factors on maintaining optimal cognitive, mental and physical health into advanced age. This review summarizes studies of dietary intake and patterns of long-lived peoples and presents current knowledge of nutritional status of centenarians as determined with nutritionally relevant biomarkers, providing information on comparative levels of the various biomarkers between centenarians and older adult controls and on the prevalence and predictors of nutritional deficiencies in centenarians. The studies indicate that BMI and nutritional status as indicated by circulating levels of antioxidant vitamins, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and 25(OH) vitamin D of centenarians are quite heterogeneous and influenced by region of residency and many of the demographic, dietary and lifestyle factors that influence nutritional status in other older adults. While many of the studies have been small, convenience samples of relatively healthy community-dwelling centenarians, a few have population-based or included participants of varying cognitive functioning. These and future studies examining associations between nutritional status and cognitive, mental and physical function should be instrumental in determining the role of nutrition in promoting longevity and improving the quality of life in these exceptional survivors.

  9. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Studies by Tufts University's Center on Hunger and Poverty show conclusive links between nutrition and children's cognitive development. Cognitive defects can result from complex interactions between malnutrition and "environmental insults" that come from living in poverty. Poor nutrition has longterm consequences. Print and web…

  10. [Nutrition, weight and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Tore

    2007-09-20

    Nutrition in pregnancy has only been of moderate interest to Scandinavians, probably because under-nutrition has not been a problem in these populations. This attitude has changed recently for two main reasons. First, the prevalence of overweight has increased markedly among women of fertile ages the last decades. Secondly, there is accumulating evidence that nutrition and growth during foetal life may have long-term influence on the new individual's risk of disease. The present overview discusses these two aspects of nutrition in pregnancy, with special emphasis on the impact of overweight. The review is based on a recent literature survey, the authors' own research and 25 years of obstetrical experience. Overweight and obesity in pregnancy is associated with a number of complications during pregnancy and delivery, i.e. preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, foetal macrosomia, intrauterine foetal death and injuries to the mother and infant. More recent data indicate that infants of overweight mothers carry an increased risk of future diabetes, overweight and possibly certain forms of cancer. Differences in nutritional and growth conditions in foetal life seem to "program" the foetus to different predispositions for diseases later in life. Nutrition and nutritional conditions in pregnancy therefore have a transgenerational perspective, and achieving optimal nutrition and levels of physical activity in young women is of special importance.

  11. Nutrition. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This packet contains an instructor's manual, instructor's resource package, and student workbook for a competency-based course on nutrition for practical nursing. The course consists of two units of instruction that cover applying principles of basic nutrition and diet therapy. Each unit contains some or all of the following components: objective…

  12. Nutritional Quality of Lettuce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lettuce is a popular leafy vegetable and plays an important role in American diet and nutrition. Crisphead lettuce has much lower nutrient content than leaf and romaine types. As the synthesis or absorption of many nutrients is light dependent, the lower nutritional value of crisphead lettuce is due...

  13. You Score With Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Ruth McNabb

    1976-01-01

    The leader's guide and student activity booklet contain learning activities, ideas, information, games, and resources for nutrition instruction designed to appeal to the interests of teens and pre-teens and to improve their knowledge of nutrition and their eating habits. (MS)

  14. Nutritional Hormesis and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional hormesis has the potential to serve as a pro-healthy aging intervention by reducing the susceptibility of the elderly to various chronic degenerative diseases and thereby extending human healthspan. Supportive evidence for nutritional hormesis arising from essential nutrients (vitamins and minerals), dietary pesticides (natural and synthetic), dioxin and other herbicides, and acrylamide will be reviewed and discussed. PMID:20221283

  15. Nutritional Concerns of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Rice, Barbara L.

    2002-01-01

    Nutrition has played a critical role throughout the history of exploration, and space exploration is no exception. While a one- to two-week flight aboard the Space Shuttle might be analogous to a camping trip, adequate nutrition is absolutely critical while spending several months on the International Space Station (Figure 1) or several years on a mission to another planet. To ensure adequate nutrition, space nutrition specialists must know how much of the individual nutrients astronauts need, and these nutrients must be available in the spaceflight food system. To complicate matters, these spaceflight nutritional requirements are influenced by many of the physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. In this chapter, we describe some of these changes, their impact on crew health, and ways NASA is investigating how to minimize these changes. We also review the space food systems, issues involved in setting up a cafeteria in a weightless environment, and information about dietary intake of nutrients during space missions

  16. [Perioperatory artificial nutrition].

    PubMed

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O

    2008-06-01

    Malnutrition increases post surgical morbimortality, hospital stance and economical costs. Possibilities of nutritional intervention in surgical patients are important. Early enteral nutrition is better than total parenteral nutrition in patients under surgery. Periroperaoty nutritional support must be administrated to patients with severe or middle undernutrition and will be under surgery, during 7-14 days before surgical intervention, if this intervention could be delayed. Total parenteral nutrition will be not used regularly in patients under mayor digestive surgical procedures. Inmunonutrition has been demonstrated useful in surgical patients. Evidence demonstrates that inmunotritional formulas decrease incidence of infections, hospital stance and time of ventilation in patients in UCI wards. New research areas have been explored in this topic area, carbohydrate utility in presurgical patients and probiotic in enteral formulas.

  17. Nutrition in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Veroux, Massimiliano; Corona, Daniela; Sinagra, Nunziata; Tallarita, Tiziano; Ekser, Burcin; Giaquinta, Alessia; Zerbo, Domenico; Veroux, Pierfrancesco

    2013-10-01

    Organ transplantation has progressively established itself as the preferred therapy for many end-stage organ failures. However, many of these chronic diseases and their treatments can negatively affect nutritional status, leading to malnutrition and mineral deficiencies.Nutritional status is an important determinant of the clinical outcome of kidney transplant recipients.Malnutrition and obesity may represent a contraindication to transplantation in many cases and may increase the risk of postoperative complications after the transplantation. Nutritional support in kidney transplant recipients is challenging, since it must take into account the pre-transplant nutritional status, the side effects of immunosuppression, the function of the transplanted graft, the presence of infection, and the general status of the patient at the time of the transplantation.With these considerations in mind, we reviewed current literature on the impact of nutritional status on the outcome of kidney transplantation.

  18. Oral health and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Pla, G W

    1994-03-01

    The relationships between oral health conditions, dietary practices and nutritional status, and general health status in the older American are complex, with many interrelating factors. Just as inadequate nutrition can affect oral health, poor oral health status affects food choices and, thus, nutritional status. It is clearly essential that the primary care practitioner and/or screening health professionals always include an evaluation of oral status in assessment of an elderly person. Effective care for the elderly dental patient requires knowledge about the disease of aging and the impact of those diseases on oral health and nutrition, pharmacology and drug interactions and their impact on oral health status, the biology of aging including sensory changes, the relationship of general medicine and systemic diseases, and psychology and sociology. The attitudes of empathy and understanding, caring and compassion, respect and a positive attitude toward the older patient, and flexibility in treatment planning are also critical elements. The interdisciplinary team of physicians, nurses, nutrition professionals, dentists, and social service professionals must all work together to ensure that good oral health status and adequate nutrition are maintained in older Americans. Recognizing and treating oral health and nutrition problems are important in improving the health and quality of life for the elderly population. Research that can provide more answers to health care problems in this growing group; educating professionals with respect to the relationships between oral health and nutrition; and public policy changes with regard to provision and funding of nutrition services, especially when provided by registered and/or licensed nutrition professionals, contribute to improving the health and quality of life for elders.

  19. Iatrogenic nutritional deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Young, R C; Blass, J P

    1982-01-01

    This article catalogs the nutritional deficiencies inadvertently introduced by certain treatment regimens. Specifically, the iatrogenic effects on nutrition of surgery, hemodialysis, irradiation, and drugs are reviewed. Nutritional problems are particularly frequent consequences of surgery on the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric surgery can lead to deficiencies of vitamin B12, folate, iron, and thiamine, as well as to metabolic bone disease. The benefits of small bowel bypass are limited by the potentially severe nutritional consequences of this procedure. Following bypass surgery, patients should be monitored for signs of possible nutritional probems such as weight loss, neuropathy, cardiac arrhythmias, loss of stamina, or changes in mental status. Minimal laboratory tests should include hematologic evaluation, B12, folate, iron, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, sodium, potassium, chloride, and carbon dioxide levels. Roentgenologic examination of the bone should also be obtained. Loss of bone substance is a major consequence of many forms of treatment, and dietary supplementation with calcium is warranted. Patients undergoing hemodialysis have shown carnitine and choline deficiencies, potassium depletion, and hypovitaminosis, as well as osteomalacia. Chronic drug use may alter intake, synthesis, absorption, transport, storage, metabolism, or excretion of nutrients. Patients vary markedly in the metabolic effects of drugs, and recommendations for nutrition must be related to age, sex, reproductive status, and genetic endowment. Moreover, the illness being treated can itself alter nutritional requirements and the effect of the treatment on nutrient status. The changes in nutritional levels induced by use of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives (OCs) are obscure; however, the effects on folate matabolism appear to be of less clinical import than previously suggested. Reduction in pyridoxine and serum vitamin B12 levels has been

  20. Nutrition and nutritional issues for dancers.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Mónica; Carvalho, Pedro; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor H

    2013-09-01

    Proper nutrition, not simply adequate energetic intake, is needed to achieve optimal dance performance. However, little scientific research exists concerning nutrition in dance, and so, to propose nutritional guidelines for this field, recommendations need to be based mainly on studies done in other physically active groups. To diminish the risk of energy imbalance and associated disorders, dancers must consume at least 30 kcal/kg fat-free mass/day, plus the training energy expenditure. For macronutrients, a daily intake of 3 to 5 g carbohydrates/kg, 1.2 to 1.7 g protein/kg, and 20 to 35% of energy intake from fat can be recommended. Dancers may be at increased risk of poor micronutrient status due to their restricted energy intake; micronutrients that deserve concern are iron, calcium, and vitamin D. During training, dancers should give special attention to fluid and carbohydrate intake in order to maintain optimal cognition, motivation, and motor skill performance. For competition/stage performance preparation, it is also important to ensure that an adequate dietary intake is being achieved. Nutritional supplements that may help in achieving specific nutritional goals when dietary intake is inadequate include multivitamins and mineral, iron, calcium, and vitamin D supplements, sports drinks, sports bars, and liquid meal supplements. Caffeine can also be used as an ergogenic aid. It is important that dancers seek dietary advice from qualified specialists, since the pressure to maintain a low body weight and low body fat levels is high, especially in styles as ballet, and this can lead to an unbalanced diet and health problems if not correctly supervised.

  1. National Nutrition Policy: National Nutrition Policy Experiences. A Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.

    This document contains the following comprehensive articles which were judged to be useful to the immediate needs of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: "Nutrition and Development: The View of the Planner," A. Berg and R. Muscat; "Criteria for Success in Applied Nutrition Programs," B. Bertlyn; "The Neglect of Nutrition and…

  2. National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition and Special Groups. A Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.

    The contents of this working paper comprise a series of journal articles focusing on nutrition and special groups. Papers relating to those on the aged are entitled: Nutrition and Health of Older People, and Nutrition for the Aged--A Summation. Those on the American Indian discuss nutrition intake and food patterns, contemporary dietary patterns,…

  3. National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition and Special Groups. A Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.

    The contents of this working paper comprise a series of journal articles focusing on nutrition and special groups. Papers relating to those on the aged are entitled: Nutrition and Health of Older People, and Nutrition for the Aged--A Summation. Those on the American Indian discuss nutrition intake and food patterns, contemporary dietary patterns,…

  4. Nutritional scientist or biochemist?

    PubMed

    Suttie, J W

    2011-08-21

    When invited by the editors to provide a prefatory article for the Annual Review of Nutrition, I attempted to decide what might be unique about my experiences as a nutritional biochemist. Although a large proportion of contemporary nutritional scientists were trained as biochemists, the impact of the historical research efforts related to nutrition within the Biochemistry Department at the University of Wisconsin 50 to 60 years ago was, I think, unique, and I have tried to summarize that historical focus. My scientific training was rather standard, but I have tried to review the two major, but greatly different, areas of research that I have been involved in over my career: inorganic fluorides as an industrial pollutant and the metabolic role of vitamin K. I have also had the opportunity to become involved with the activities of the societies representing the nutritional sciences (American Society for Nutrition), biochemistry (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology), Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, the Food and Nutrition Board, the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics. These interactions can be productive or frustrating but are always time-consuming.

  5. Pediatric enteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, David; Kazmerski, Kimberly; Iyer, Kishore

    2006-01-01

    Common to all pediatric patients receiving enteral nutrition is the inability to consume calories orally. This is often secondary to issues of inadequate weight gain, inadequate growth, prolonged feeding times, weight loss, a decrease in weight/age or weight/height ratios, or a persistent triceps skinfold thickness <5% for age. Enteral nutrition requires enteral access. In the neonatal period the nasoenteric route is usually used. In pediatric patients requiring long-term enteral access, surgically, endoscopically, or radiologically placed percutaneous feeding tubes are common. Jejunal feeding tubes are used in pediatric patients with gastric feeding intolerance or persistent gastroesophageal reflux. Low-profile enteral access devices are preferred by most pediatric patients because of their cosmetic appearance. For most children, a standard pediatric polypeptide enteral formula is well tolerated. There are specialized pediatric enteral formulas available for patients with decreased intestinal length, altered intestinal absorptive capacity, or altered pancreatic function. Weaning patients from tube feeding to oral nutrition is the ultimate nutrition goal. A multidisciplinary approach to patients with short bowel syndrome will maximize the use of enteral nutrition while preserving parenteral nutrition for patients with true enteral nutrition therapy failure.

  6. 2011 nutritional assessment guidelines.

    PubMed

    2011-12-01

    Careful assessment of nutritional needs of dogs and cats must be taken into consideration in order to maintain optimum health, be part of a treatment regimen for a diseased state, or to maximise the quality of life in all animals. Therefore, the goal of these WSAVA Guidelines is that a nutritional assessment and specific nutritional recommendation be made on every patient on every visit. This will become known as the 5th Vital Assessment (5VA), following the four vital assessments of temperature, pulse, respiration and pain that are already addressed on each patient interaction. Routinely doing a brief screening evaluation of the nutritional status during history taking and the physical examination can be seamlessly performed as part of every patient exam. Nutrition-related risk factors that can be easily identified from the history and physical examination include age (growing or old), suboptimal body condition score (overweight or thin), muscle loss, atypical or homemade diet, medical conditions, or changes in appetite. An extended evaluation would follow, if one or more risk factors is identified on screening. These guidelines provide criteria to evaluate the animal and the diet, as well as key feeding and environmental factors. In addition, recommendations for interpretation, analysis, and action are included so that a plan for optimising the animal's nutritional status can be instituted. Client compliance with nutritional recommendations requires input from the veterinarian, veterinary technicians/nurses, and the hospital staff. A team approach to continuous nutritional education, implementation of appropriate protocols, and focused client communication, utilising these WSAVA Nutritional Guidelines, are key components to reach this 5VA goal.

  7. Effects of vegetarian nutrition-A nutrition ecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Metz, Martina; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2010-05-01

    Although vegetarian nutrition is a complex issue, the multidimensionality and interrelatedness of its effects are rarely explored. This article aims to demonstrate the complexity of vegetarian nutrition by means of the nutrition ecological modeling technique NutriMod. The integrative qualitative cause-effect model, which is based on scientific literature, provides a comprehensive picture of vegetarian nutrition. The nutrition ecological perspective offers a basis for the assessment of the effects of worldwide developments concerning shifts in diets and the effects of vegetarian nutrition on global problems like climate change. Furthermore, new research areas on the complexity of vegetarian nutrition can be identified.

  8. Studies on Nutrition - USSR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1960-06-24

    and the prevention of diseases associated with the quantitative and qualitative inadequacy of — 6 — nutrition but also for the purpose of propaganda...OTS: 60-11,799 JPRS: 2890 2h June i960 STUDIES ON NUTRITION USSR fr> OFi F 19990305 094 Distributed by: OFFICE OF TECHNICAL SERVICES U. S...N. Y. (Disrri äüfI5Fl5Tl*f5 fX"": improved for public release; Distribution UnKijyted JPRS: 2890 CSO: 3804-N STUDIES ON NUTRITION

  9. Forest nutrition management

    SciTech Connect

    Binkley, D.

    1986-01-01

    This book draws on the fields of silviculture, soil studies, ecology, and economics to provide information on how to enhance the nutritional status of forest soils in order to increase their long-term stand productivity. It covers the use of fertilizers to enhance biological nitrogen fixation and how the nutrition status of forests is affected by other operations, such as harvesting and site preparation. Methods for assessing nutrient status, the economics of nutrition management, and models to aid in decision-making are included.

  10. Diabetes, Nutrition, and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Sinclair, Alan J

    2015-08-01

    Aging is associated with body composition changes that lead to glucose intolerance and increased risk of diabetes. The incidence of diabetes increases with aging, and the prevalence has increased because of the increased life expectancy of the population. Lifestyle modifications through nutrition and exercise in combination with medications are the main components of diabetes management. The potential benefits of nutrition and exercise intervention in older people with diabetes are enormous. Nutrition and exercise training are feasible even in frail older people living in care homes and should take into consideration individual circumstances, cultural factors, and ethnic preferences.

  11. [Nutritional assessment in cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Buyse, S; Durand, F; Joly, F

    2008-03-01

    The liver plays a key role in the metabolism of nutrients. Therefore, liver failure is often associated with malnutrition. It is well-established that malnutrition is an independent prognostic factor in patients with cirrhosis and liver failure. Since standard anthropometric and biological indexes are associated with liver dysfunction, nutritional assessment is difficult in patients with cirrhosis. In this review, we explain the various causes and mechanisms leading to malnutrition in cirrhosis. We also describe reliable methods used to assess the nutritional condition of these patients. Finally, we stress the importance of nutritional care in cirrhosis and liver dysfunction, describing its specific characteristics and indications.

  12. Antioxidants in veterinary nutrition.

    PubMed

    Zicker, Steven C; Wedekind, Karen J; Jewell, Dennis E

    2006-11-01

    Nutritional antioxidants have experienced a surge in research and interest in the past 20 years. this surge may be attributed to the improved methodology for investigation as well as the focus on diseases and aging processes related to oxidative stress that lend themselves to opportunistic outcomes. As such, the field of veterinary nutritional antioxidant research is also beginning to yield some interesting results, albeit, small in number compared with laboratory animals and human beings. Nonetheless, this article updates the practitioner on recent advances in research involving nutritional antioxidant applications in companion animals.

  13. What is Nutrition & Metabolism?

    PubMed

    Feinman, Richard D; Hussain, M Mahmood

    2004-08-17

    A new Open Access journal, Nutrition & Metabolism (N&M) will publish articles that integrate nutrition with biochemistry and molecular biology. The open access process is chosen to provide rapid and accessible dissemination of new results and perspectives in a field that is of great current interest. Manuscripts in all areas of nutritional biochemistry will be considered but three areas of particular interest are lipoprotein metabolism, amino acids as metabolic signals, and the effect of macronutrient composition of diet on health. The need for the journal is identified in the epidemic of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias and related diseases, and a sudden increase in popular diets, as well as renewed interest in intermediary metabolism.

  14. [Modular enteral nutrition in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Murillo Sanchís, S; Prenafeta Ferré, M T; Sempere Luque, M D

    1991-01-01

    Modular Enteral Nutrition may be a substitute for Parenteral Nutrition in children with different pathologies. Study of 4 children with different pathologies selected from a group of 40 admitted to the Maternal-Childrens Hospital "Valle de Hebrón" in Barcelona, who received modular enteral nutrition. They were monitored on a daily basis by the Dietician Service. Modular enteral nutrition consists of modules of proteins, peptides, lipids, glucids and mineral salts-vitamins. 1.--Craneo-encephalic traumatisms with loss of consciousness, Feeding with a combination of parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition for 7 days. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended and modular enteral nutrition alone used up to a total of 43 days. 2.--55% burns with 36 days of hyperproteic modular enteral nutrition together with normal feeding. A more rapid recovery was achieved with an increase in total proteins and albumin. 3.--Persistent diarrhoea with 31 days of modular enteral nutrition, 5 days on parenteral nutrition alone and 8 days on combined parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended. 4.--Mucoviscidosis with a total of 19 days on modular enteral nutrition, 12 of which were exclusively on modular enteral nutrition and 7 as a night supplement to normal feeding. We administered proteic intakes of up to 20% of the total calorific intake and in concentrations of up to 1.2 calories/ml of the final preparation, always with a good tolerance. Modular enteral nutrition can and should be used as a substitute for parenteral nutrition in children with different pathologies, thus preventing the complications inherent in parenteral nutrition.

  15. Nutrition Knowledge among Navy Recruits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-27

    Nutrition Knovledge among Navy Recruits DTIC AELEOI7E flS SEP 2 8 1987 Terry L. Conway Linda K. Hervig D Ross R. Vickers, Jr. Health Psychology Department...5 Participants ............................................................. 5 Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire...Students ............................... 6 Recruits’ Nutrition Knowledge .................................... ...... 8 Correlates of Nutrition Knowledge

  16. Nutrition for Nurses: Nursing 245.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palermo, Karen R.

    A description is presented of "Nutrition for Nurses," a prerequisite course for students anticipating entrance into the junior level of a state university registered nursing program. Introductory material highlights the course focus (i.e., the basics of good nutrition; nutrition through the life cycle; nursing process in nutritional care; and…

  17. Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Christine; And Others

    This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…

  18. Nutrition for Nurses: Nursing 245.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palermo, Karen R.

    A description is presented of "Nutrition for Nurses," a prerequisite course for students anticipating entrance into the junior level of a state university registered nursing program. Introductory material highlights the course focus (i.e., the basics of good nutrition; nutrition through the life cycle; nursing process in nutritional care; and…

  19. Nutrition Surveillance. Annual Summary 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This report summarizes information, including selected indices of nutritional status, as reported from 28 states and the District of Columbia to the Nutritional Status Surveillance System. This system has two components, one addressing nutritional status among high-risk pediatric populations, and the other addressing nutritional status among…

  20. Nutrition Update, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weininger, Jean; Briggs, George M.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews current nutrition research areas with important practical applications. Topics include hypertension, preventable birth defects, phenylketonuria and genetic diseases, new molecular genetics techniques, and saccharin and sweetners. Entries are brief and a 65-reference list is given. (MA)

  1. Personalized nutrition and obesity.

    PubMed

    Qi, Lu

    2014-08-01

    The past few decades have witnessed a rapid rise in nutrition-related disorders such as obesity in the United States and over the world. Traditional nutrition research has associated various foods and nutrients with obesity. Recent advances in genomics have led to identification of the genetic variants determining body weight and related dietary factors such as intakes of energy and macronutrients. In addition, compelling evidence has lent support to interactions between genetic variations and dietary factors in relation to obesity and weight change. Moreover, recently emerging data from other 'omics' studies such as epigenomics and metabolomics suggest that more complex interplays between the global features of human body and dietary factors may exist at multiple tiers in affecting individuals' susceptibility to obesity; and a concept of 'personalized nutrition' has been proposed to integrate this novel knowledge with traditional nutrition research, with the hope ultimately to endorse person-centric diet intervention to mitigate obesity and related disorders.

  2. Papaya nutritional analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Papayas are sweet, flavorful tropical fruit, rich in vitamin C and carotenoids. Multiple interactions among preharvest environmental conditions, genetics, and physiology determine papaya nutritional composition at harvest. Selecting a cultivar with the genetic potential for high nutrient content and...

  3. Nutrition Update, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weininger, Jean; Briggs, George M.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews current nutrition research areas with important practical applications. Topics include hypertension, preventable birth defects, phenylketonuria and genetic diseases, new molecular genetics techniques, and saccharin and sweetners. Entries are brief and a 65-reference list is given. (MA)

  4. Toxic Amblyopia (Nutritional Amblyopia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Finds Additional Content Medical News Toxic Amblyopia (Nutritional Amblyopia) By James Garrity, MD, Whitney and Betty MacMillan ... Neuropathies) Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Optic Neuritis Papilledema Toxic Amblyopia Toxic amblyopia is damage to the optic nerve ...

  5. Nutritional concerns during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Marino, D D; King, J C

    1980-02-01

    Adolescent food habits often run counter to the special nutritional needs of this age group. Suggestions for nutrient supplements are offered, with particular emphasis on fulfilling the unique needs of the obese, athletic, or pregnant teenager.

  6. Nutrition for Older Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Facts Fitness Fitness Find out more Categories Sports and Performance Training and Recovery Exercise Topics Fueling Your Workout Benefits of Physical Activity Exercise Nutrition Top Articles Man running - Protein ...

  7. Nutrition and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hoffer, Abram

    1975-01-01

    Nutrition as a treatment component for schizophrenia is a novel concept. A brief introduction outlines the need for physicians to become nutritionally minded, since the processing of food has deteriorated its quality. The elements of good nutrition are described. There are several etiologies for the schizophrenia syndrome. It is suggested that these include Vitamin B-3 and B-6 dependency, mineral deficiency, particularly zinc, and cerebral reactions (termed allergy). The treatment based upon these ideas includes good nutrition (junk-free diet), megadoses of some vitamins, minerals, attention to certain foods which produce psychosis in a few; all in a judicious combination with standard psychiatric therapy. Such a program will improve the recovery rate over standard therapy alone. PMID:20469184

  8. Food and Nutrition Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources to Individuals and Communities Hit by Recent Hurricanes Secretary Perdue Pledges Support on the Long Road ... nutrition needs of Puerto Rican residents affected by Hurricanes Irma and Maria. 2/9 Florida's 1st Day ...

  9. Cystic fibrosis - nutritional considerations

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002437.htm Cystic fibrosis - nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-threatening disease that causes ...

  10. Space Food and Nutrition

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This is an introduction to the Space Food System and Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory. Topics cover food systems of programs past, present and future, and issues surrounding food systems and foo...

  11. Nutrition for Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... by zip code or Select your state State Lung Cancer www.lung.org > Lung Health and Diseases > ... I Stay Healthy Share this page: Nutrition for Lung Cancer Key Points There is no prescribed diet ...

  12. Nutritional Biochemistry of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical for crew health and safety during spaceflight. To ensure adequate nutrition, the nutrient requirements need to be both accurate and available from the spaceflight food system. The existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration spaceflight have been defined largely by extrapolation from ground-based research. However, nutritional requirements are influenced by most of the physiological consequences of spaceflight, including loss of lean, adipose, and bone tissue; changes in blood composition; and increased risk of renal stone formation. This review focuses on key areas where information has been gained in recent years: dietary intake and energy metabolism, bone health, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and hematological changes. Areas in which specific nutrients have the potential to serve as countermeasures to the negative effects of spaceflight are also reviewed. Dietary Intake

  13. Nutrition and Development Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Joan Allen

    1984-01-01

    There is a need to integrate nutrition and development education when dealing with developing countries to get at the root of hunger and malnutrition. The combination will provide greater possibility of success. (JOW)

  14. Adult nutrition assessment tutorial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This tutorial presents a systematic approach to nutrition assessment based on a modern appreciation for the contributions of inflammation that serve as the foundation for newly proposed consensus definitions for malnutrition syndromes. Practical indicators of malnutrition and inflammation have been ...

  15. School Nutrition Fairness Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Davis, Rodney [R-IL-13

    2013-12-10

    House - 01/07/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Department Operations, Oversight, and Nutrition. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Child Nutrition - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Nutrition URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/childnutrition.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  17. Nutritional Relationships in Schistosomiasis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    Schistosomiasis Schistosoma mansoni Nutritional relationships Parasites Physiology "Perf-O-Suction" Nutrient absorption 20. ABSTRACT (Coatfnue on...1041 "L... EN illllllllhll L .01 Final Comprehensive Report Nutritional Relationships in Schistosomiasis Frank M. Fisher, Jr. for Clark P. Read 0July...RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER - ELIf (an Sbtftie)R4O0T RILd COVERE _UTRITIONAL REIATIONSHIPS IN SCHISTOSOMIASIS .-" Final ’’/ "-=I I Mar 73-28 Feb 74AI

  18. Nutrition: blood sample collection

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-20

    ISS014-E-17550 (20 March 2007) --- Astronaut Michael E. Lopez-Alegria, Expedition 14 commander and NASA space station science officer, prepares to insert a test sample in the Minus Eighty Degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI) as part of the Nutritional Status Assessment (NUTRITION) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. MELFI is a low temperature freezer facility with nominal operating temperatures of -80, -26 and +4 degrees Celsius that will preserve experiment materials over long periods.

  19. Nutrition: blood sample collection

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-20

    ISS014-E-17547 (20 March 2007) --- Astronaut Michael E. Lopez-Alegria, Expedition 14 commander and NASA space station science officer, prepares to insert a test sample in the Minus Eighty Degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI) as part of the Nutritional Status Assessment (NUTRITION) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. MELFI is a low temperature freezer facility with nominal operating temperatures of -80, -26 and +4 degrees Celsius that will preserve experiment materials over long periods.

  20. NUTRITION w/Repository

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-06

    ISS020-E-007566 (6 June 2009) --- European Space Agency astronaut Frank De Winne, Expedition 20 flight engineer, prepares to put samples in the Minus Eighty Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI) in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station. Samples were taken as part of the Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) with Repository experiment, a study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration spaceflight.

  1. NUTRITION w/Repository

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-06

    ISS020-E-007603 (7 June 2009) --- European Space Agency astronaut Frank De Winne, Expedition 20 flight engineer, removes a dewar tray from the Minus Eighty Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI) in order to insert biological samples into the trays in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station. Samples were taken as part of the Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) with Repository experiment, a study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration spaceflight.

  2. NUTRITION w/Repository

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-06

    ISS020-E-007577 (6 June 2009) --- European Space Agency astronaut Frank De Winne, Expedition 20 flight engineer, returns a dewar tray to the Minus Eighty Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI) after inserting biological samples into the trays in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station. Samples were taken as part of the Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) with Repository experiment, a study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration spaceflight.

  3. Nutritional screening in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J S; Burrough, C A; Green, J L; Brown, G L

    1984-03-01

    Routine nutritional screening of patients admitted to the surgical services confirms a substantial prevalence of malnutrition. Identification of the malnourished patient and the patient who is likely to become malnourished should be done as early as possible in the hospital stay and usually requires only simple, readily available parameters. Nutritional screening is only the first step in the optimal nutritional management of surgical patients. This information should be used to determine the need for further nutritional assessment, the appropriate consultation, and nutritional therapy.

  4. Nutrition and Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Joseph Andrew; Underdown, Mary Jane; Clark, William Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nutrition is one of the most basic of medical issues and is often ignored as a problem in the management of our chronic wound patients. Unfortunately, malnutrition is widespread in our geriatric patients even in nursing homes in developed countries. Attention to basic nutrition and providing appropriate supplements may assist in the healing of our chronic wounds. Recent Advances: Recent research has revealed the epidemiology of malnutrition in developed countries, the similarities to malnutrition in developing countries, and some of the physiologic and sociologic causes for this problem. More information is now available on the biochemical effects of nutrient deficiency and supplementation with macronutrients and micronutrients. In some cases, administration of isolated nutrients beyond recommended amounts for healthy individuals may have a pharmacologic effect to help wounds heal. Critical Issues: Much of the knowledge of the nutritional support of chronic wounds is based on information that has been obtained from trauma management. Due to the demographic differences of the patients and differences in the physiology of acute and chronic wounds, it is not logical to assume that all aspects of nutritional support are identical in these patient groups. Before providing specific nutritional supplements, appropriate assessments of patient general nutritional status and the reasons for malnutrition must be obtained or specific nutrient supplementation will not be utilized. Future Directions: Future research must concentrate on the biochemical and physiologic differences of the acute and chronic wounds and the interaction with specific supplements, such as antioxidants, vitamin A, and vitamin D. PMID:25371850

  5. Nutrition in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sen, D; Prakash, J

    2000-07-01

    Malnutrition is a common clinical problem in dialysis patients, which is multifactorial in origin. It is most often found in a patient of chronic renal failure (CRF) during the period when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) falls below 10 ml/min, but dialysis is yet to be started. The loss of proteins, aminoacids and other essential nutrients during the procedure of dialysis may further aggravate the malnutrition. Poor nutrition in dialysis patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the form of delayed wound healing, malaise, fatigue, increased susceptibility to infection and poor rehabilitation. In view of the above consequences, all patients on dialysis must undergo nutritional assessment. It is very vital to maintain good nutritional status in-patients on dialysis by adequate protein and calories intake, appropriate supplementation of iron, calcium, minerals and water-soluble vitamins and, of course, the supplementation should be individualised. Nutritional needs are enhanced in presence of stresses like infection or surgery to limit excessive tissue catabolism and therefore, these are the situations, which demand intensive nutrition therapy. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) may be required for patients on dialysis in intensive care unit, using a central venous catheter. However, enteral route is always preferred to parenteral ones, whenever possible. Even after adequate dialysis has been given, dietary counselling is often required for both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients to ensure that they ingest the recommended amount of protein, calories and essential micronutrients.

  6. Nutrition and fertility.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, G; Tagliabue, A

    2007-12-01

    The first studies about fertility and nutrition date back to the 70ies and already showed a strict relation among female fertility, weight and body composition. However, the mechanisms of this connection started to be explained only after leptin's discovery. According to some authors' opinion, leptin could interact with reproductive axis at multiple sites with stimulatory effects at the hypothalamus and pituitary and stimulatory or inhibitory actions at the gonads. Leptin could play a role in other physiologic processes such as menstruation and pregnancy, and could initiate the complex process of puberty. It has been showed that conditions in which nutritional status is suboptimal, such as eating disorders, exercise induced amenhorrea, functional hypothalamic amenhorrea and polycystic ovarian syndrome, are associated with abnormal leptin levels. These conditions, are characterized by severe changes in body composition and dietary habits. Since leptin is regulated by body composition and dietary factors, (such as energy intake and macronutrient composition), a strict connection between nutritional intake and fertility regulated by leptin is confirmed. This review focuses on the current knowledge about nutritional factors that influence leptin levels. Since clinical and subclinical nutritional imbalance can determine the development and the maintenance of neuroendocrine and metabolic aberrations, studies on fertility need a deeper attention about dietary habits and nutritional status.

  7. Evaluation of nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, H F

    1983-01-01

    The assessment of nutritional status has become very popular, especially for patients undergoing stress (surgery) or potential parenteral nutrition. Evaluation of cancer patients is essentially the same as for other patients. Body fat reserves are approximated by subcutaneous skinfold measurements. Somatic protein (skeletal muscle) mass is decreased in marasmus (protein-calorie malnutrition) and is evaluated by anthropometric determinations, based upon age and sex or both. Instead of using relatively inadequate standards such as the 1959 Metropolitan Life Insurance tables for ideal weight, it is advocated to use the population percentiles derived from the Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (HANES) published in 1979. The visceral protein mass is decreased in kwashiorkor and is approximated by study of the liver transport proteins. A mixed-type of protein-calorie malnutrition may exist, e.g., cancer cachexia, with marked decrease of immunocompetence. A prognostic nutritional index, based on biologic measurements rather than true nutritional assessment, can predict the probability of complications and survival in severely ill patients. All such studies should be used to substantiate good clinical judgement, based on adequate history and physical examination with emphasis on the nutritional aspects.

  8. Recipes and nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Hertzler, A A

    1983-10-01

    Since the beginning of the science of nutrition in the 1800s, nutritionists have been concerned about the use of recipes in nutrition programs. Although research indicates that recipes may be most used by those with a high school education and with food preparation experiences, recipes appear to be valuable in providing many forms of food and nutrition information to individuals with varying education levels. Factors that should be considered in selecting recipes are: clients' nutritional and dietary status, money, equipment, literacy, information and knowledge, and life-style. Subsequently, evaluation is needed to document impact on clients' food habits and to justify the approach in nutrition education programs. This project reviewed procedures used by nutritionists to assess clientele needs and evaluated the tools they use in education programs. Although it focused on recipes, the same information could have been obtained for handouts, posters, slide series, comic books, storybooks, and demonstrations. Research is needed in nutrition education to identify standards for the use of tools, such as recipes, and to study their impact on improving dietary adequacy of clientele. Such standards should be tested within a theoretical framework so that they will be useful in other situations.

  9. Nutrition of burned patients.

    PubMed

    Gudaviciene, Daiva; Rimdeika, Rytis; Adamonis, Kestutis

    2004-01-01

    Burns form 5-12% of all traumas. About 2,200 of patients are annually hospitalized in Lithuania. In most cases people of the employable age get burned. The treatment is often long-lasting, and afterwards recovered patients often have invalidity from burn sequels. The mortality of hospitalized burned patients is about 10%. The most common causes of death are pulmonary edema, pneumonia, sepsis and multiorgan failure. All these complications are related with insufficient nutrition. These complications are extremely frequent and dangerous for patients with more than 20% of body burned. The nutritional support of burned patient gives a possibility to increase the survival probability, to decrease complication rate and hospitalization time. Currently in Lithuania there are no standards for burned patient nutrition. More attention is given to strategy of surgical strategy and techniques, as well as antibiotic therapy. This article is the review of the different aspects of artificial nutrition of burned patient: indications, modes of nutrition, mixtures and terms of nutritional support.

  10. From Nutrition Plus to Nutrition Driven: how to realize the elusive potential of agriculture for nutrition?

    PubMed

    Haddad, Lawrence

    2013-03-01

    Agriculture has the potential to have a bigger impact on nutrition status than it currently does. The pathways between agriculture and nutrition are well known. Yet the evidence on how to increase the impact of agriculture on nutrition is weak. To outline some of the possible reasons for the weak evidentiary link between agriculture and income and to highlight some approaches to incentivizing agriculture to give nutrition a greater priority. A review of literature reviews and other studies. Agriculture does not have a strong poverty and nutrition impact culture, the statistical links between aggregate agriculture and nutrition data are weak, literature reviews to date have not been sufficiently clear on the quality of evidence admitted, and the evidence for the impact of biofortification on nutrition status is positive, but small. Some tools are proposed and described that may be helpful in raising the profile of nutrition outcomes, building nutrition outcomes into impact assessments of agriculture, measuring the commitment to undernutrition reduction, and helping to prioritize nutrition-relevant actions within agriculture. Leadership in agriculture and nutrition is also an understudied issue. Agriculture has a vast potential to increase its impact on nutrition outcomes. We don't know if this potential is being fully realized as yet. I suspect it is not. Tools that help promote the visibility of nutrition within agriculture and the accountability of agriculture toward nutrition can possibly contribute to moving "from Nutrition Plus to Nutrition Driven" agriculture.

  11. Nutrition and multifetal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Brown, J E; Carlson, M

    2000-03-01

    Largely because of assisted reproduction, the rate of multifetal pregnancy is rising rapidly in the United States. Accordingly, dietitians are increasingly being called upon to provide nutrition services for these high-risk pregnancies. This article gives an overview of the incidence of and risks associated with multifetal pregnancy and reviews studies that contribute to our knowledge of nutrition and multifetal pregnancy. Practice guidelines for promoting healthy outcomes based on the best available scientific data are suggested. Guidelines for weight gain for twin and triplet pregnancy, dietary intake, and supplement use are included. Suggested practice guidelines for multifetal pregnancy include a positive rate of weight gain early in pregnancy, the use of prepregnancy weight status to determine total weight gain goals in twin pregnancy, a 50-lb weight gain goal for triplet pregnancy, and higher minimal number of servings of foods from several of the Food Guide Pyramid groups. The need for additional information on the effects of nutritional status on the course and outcome of multifetal pregnancy is critical. Preliminary evidence of the benefits of nutrition services suggests that both the incorporation of dietetics services into care programs and additional research on nutrition and multifetal gestation are warranted.

  12. Nutrition and Hepatocellular Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schütte, Kerstin; Schulz, Christian; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) significantly contributes to the global burden of cancer. Liver cancer is the third most frequent cause of cancer-related death with HCC representing more than 90% of primary liver cancers. The majority of patients are not only affected by the malignant disease but do also suffer from chronic liver disease. Therefore, several factors impact on the prognosis of patients with HCC, including tumor-related factors, liver function and patient-related factors such as performance status and other comorbidities. The nutritional status is of high significance for the patients' performance status, the tolerance of tumor-targeting therapy and the prognosis of cancer of any type and is specially referenced in HCC. This overview is on current concepts on the role of nutritional factors in hepatocarcinogenesis and the role of nutrition in patients affected by HCC. Summary Nutritional status and composition of diet are relevant factors related to the risk of HCC. They also have an important role concerning the prognosis of patients with HCC. Besides risk factors, several macro- and micronutrient components have been found to be inversely correlated with the risk of HCC. To prevent disease progression to liver cirrhosis or HCC in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, it is crucial to optimize the metabolic state Key Message and Practical Implication Evidence from well-designed prospective interventional trials with the aim to reduce the HCC incidence or to prolong survival in patients with HCC based on nutritional modification is still to be generated. PMID:27403413

  13. Nutrition and pubertal development

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development. PMID:25538876

  14. [Nutritional management in geriatric traumatology].

    PubMed

    Singler, K; Goisser, S; Volkert, D

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of malnutrition or the risk of malnourishment is high among orthogeriatric patients and a poor nutritional status is associated with a negative outcome. A comprehensive management of preoperative and postoperative nutritional and fluid intake in these patients can help to improve the situation. The management includes identification of patients affected, a thorough assessment of the nutritional status, work-up of possible underlying causes, documentation of nutritional and fluid intake and, most importantly, procedures to improve the preoperative and postoperative nutritional situation. This article gives an overview of the recently updated recommendations on nutritional management in orthogeriatric patients as published by the orthogeriatric working group of the German Geriatric Society.

  15. Nutritional assessment of surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Brown, C S; Stegman, M R

    1988-10-01

    In order to test the sensitivity and specificity of the East Orange Nutritional Screening Form (EONSF), nutritional assessments were performed on a random sample of 10% of general medical/surgical admissions at a large midwestern veteran's administration hospital. Patients were followed until discharge to determine if they met the standard criteria of additional nutritional support. The tool correctly identified patients at nutritional risk (sensitivity) 95% of the time and patients not at nutritional risk (specificity) 89% of the time. It proved to be an effective, low-cost tool for identifying patients at risk and for planning appropriate nutritional strategies.

  16. Nutritional Assessment in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Ryan T; McClave, Stephen A

    2016-11-01

    Alterations in nutritional status are common and can be associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, for healthcare providers, the definition of malnutrition is vague, insensitive, and poorly standardized. In contrast, nutrition risk is more easily defined, and recognizes that both poor nutritional status and disease severity contribute to increased morbidity and mortality. Clinicians need to identify patients who may already have evidence of nutrient deficiencies or have disease processes that affect nutrition risk. This article reviews risk assessment tools and provides practical tips to screen patients and identify those whose nutrition risk warrants specialized nutrition therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutritional Issues in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Missale; Bozic, Molly; Mascarenhas, Maria R

    2016-03-01

    The importance of maintaining adequate nutrition in patients with cystic fibrosis has been well known for the past 3 decades. Achieving normal growth and maintaining optimal nutrition is associated with improved lung function. Comprehensive and consistent nutritional assessments at regular intervals can identify those at risk of nutritional failure and uncover micronutrient deficiencies contributing to malnutrition. Management of malnutrition in cystic fibrosis should follow a stepwise approach to determine the causes and comorbidities and to develop a nutritional plan. Nutritional management is crucial at every stage in a person's life with cystic fibrosis and remains a cornerstone of management.

  18. Nutritional management of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, A

    1996-01-01

    Nutritional support is an integral part of the management of cystic fibrosis patients. It is arguably best provided by a qualified dietitian and nutritional care sister working in conjunction with the rest of the cystic fibrosis team. The patient's nutritional needs should be assessed, regularly reviewed, and nutritional treatment tailored to meet the changing clinical and psychosocial needs of the patient. Nutritional intervention is not without complications, and in particular attention to normal feeding behaviour and vigilance when instituting supplementary nutrition may prevent many feeding difficulties. PMID:8660059

  19. Nutrition Session Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen; Stein, T. P.

    1999-01-01

    Nutrition deficiencies affect multiple systems including muscle, bone, cardiovascular, renal, and gastrointestinal. Humans require many nutrients, ranging from the macronutrients (water, protein, energy sources) to micronutrients (minerals, vitamins). The ability to withstand shortfalls in intake of individual nutrients ranges from one or two days (e.g., water) to weeks (energy, protein, potassium) and months (some vitamins, minerals). In addition to putting humans at risk for nutrition deficiencies, space flight may also change the absorption, hence the pharmacodynamics, of several important medications. Papers given in this session dealt with all of these nutritional and pharmacological factors related to space flight: (1) Protein metabolism and muscle formation. (2) Pharmacodynamics. (3) Calcium metabolism and bone formation/resorption. and (4) Fluid and electrolytes.

  20. Nutritional therapies (including fosteum).

    PubMed

    Nieves, Jeri W

    2009-03-01

    Nutrition is important in promoting bone health and in managing an individual with low bone mass or osteoporosis. In adult women and men, known losses of bone mass and microarchitecture occur, and nutrition can help minimize these losses. In every patient, a healthy diet with adequate protein, fruits, vegetables, calcium, and vitamin D is required to maintain bone health. Recent reports on nutritional remedies for osteoporosis have highlighted the importance of calcium in youth and continued importance in conjunction with vitamin D as the population ages. It is likely that a calcium intake of 1200 mg/d is ideal, and there are some concerns about excessive calcium intakes. However, vitamin D intake needs to be increased in most populations. The ability of soy products, particularly genistein aglycone, to provide skeletal benefit has been recently studied, including some data that support a new medical food marketed as Fosteum (Primus Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, AZ).

  1. Amebiasis: nutritional implications.

    PubMed

    Diamond, L S

    1982-01-01

    Studies on the role of nutrition in amebiasis in humans and experimental animals are meager. Some reports suggest that malnutrition of the host increases the incidence of infection and potentiates the severity of the disease. Others suggest that malnutrition protects the host against invasion. A few reports indicate that dietary regimens can alleviate symptoms and even eradicate the parasite. Others doubt a correlation between diet and rate of infection or disease manifestations. The problem is complex because the ameba is influenced by its own diet, which in turn depends on the host's diet, the bacterial flora of the gut, and coexisting infections. The host is variously altered by dietary depletions and supplementations, which affect susceptibility and resistance, and by the presence of other disease conditions. Carefully designed and executed studies of infections in humans and experimental animals, combined with studies in vitro of the nutritional requirements and physiology of the parasite, are needed for definition of the influence of host nutrition in amebiasis.

  2. [Nutrition, aging, old age].

    PubMed

    Iván, L

    1998-12-06

    In humans there is evidence that the restriction of total caloric intake appears to be more important than the restriction of any particular macronutrient. Today the mechanism of the effect of caloric restriction is unknown. With advancing age and the occurrence of concomitant illness there is an increased risk of developing nutritional deficiencies. Altered nutritional status is associated with the pathogenesis of a number of common diseases of the elderly, thus it would appear that nutritional modulation and manipulation represents one possible approach to successful aging and a healthy longevity. The conceptual framework of the paper suggests the need of a newer light of the aging processes namely by a holistic human-gero-ecological model and a personality oriented geriatry. There are accentuated the role of the nutrients and vitamins, the food intake and drug-nutrients interactions and the meanings of the differences between the normal and pathological aging.

  3. Nutritional role of folate.

    PubMed

    Ebara, Shuhei

    2017-09-01

    Folate functions as a coenzyme to transfer one-carbon units that are necessary for deoxythymidylate synthesis, purine synthesis, and various methylation reactions. Ingested folate becomes a functional molecule through intestinal absorption, circulation, transport to cells, and various modifications to its structure. Associations between nutritional folate status and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cognitive dysfunction have been reported. It has also been reported that maternal folate nutritional status is related to the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in the offspring. It has also been recommended that folate be consumed in the diet to promote the maintenance of good health. To reduce the risk of NTDs, supplementation with folic acid (a synthetic form of folate) during the periconceptional period has also been recommended. This paper describes the basic features and nutritional role of folate. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  4. Nutrition in calcium nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease with a complex pathogenesis due to genetic and environmental factors. The importance of social and health effects of nephrolithiasis is further highlighted by the strong tendency to relapse of the disease. Long-term prospective studies show a peak of disease recurrence within 2–3 years since onset, 40-50% of patients have a recurrence after 5 years and more than 50-60% after 10 years. International nutritional studies demonstrated that nutritional habits are relevant in therapy and prevention approaches of nephrolithiasis. Water, right intake of calcium, low intake of sodium, high levels of urinary citrate are certainly important for the primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. In this review is discussed how the correction of nutritional mistakes can reduce the incidence of recurrent nephrolithiasis. PMID:23634702

  5. What is Nutrition & Metabolism?

    PubMed Central

    Feinman, Richard D; Hussain, M Mahmood

    2004-01-01

    A new Open Access journal, Nutrition & Metabolism (N&M) will publish articles that integrate nutrition with biochemistry and molecular biology. The open access process is chosen to provide rapid and accessible dissemination of new results and perspectives in a field that is of great current interest. Manuscripts in all areas of nutritional biochemistry will be considered but three areas of particular interest are lipoprotein metabolism, amino acids as metabolic signals, and the effect of macronutrient composition of diet on health. The need for the journal is identified in the epidemic of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias and related diseases, and a sudden increase in popular diets, as well as renewed interest in intermediary metabolism. PMID:15507146

  6. Nutrition in Severe Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Pivi, Glaucia Akiko Kamikado; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; Schultz, Rodrigo Rizek

    2012-01-01

    An increasing proportion of older adults with Alzheimer's disease or other dementias are now surviving to more advanced stages of the illness. Advanced dementia is associated with feeding problems, including difficulty in swallowing and respiratory diseases. Patients become incompetent to make decisions. As a result, complex situations may arise in which physicians and families decide whether artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) is likely to be beneficial for the patient. The objective of this paper is to present methods for evaluating the nutritional status of patients with severe dementia as well as measures for the treatment of nutritional disorders, the use of vitamin and mineral supplementation, and indications for ANH and pharmacological therapy. PMID:22645608

  7. Nutrition Session Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen; Stein, T. P.

    1999-01-01

    Nutrition deficiencies affect multiple systems including muscle, bone, cardiovascular, renal, and gastrointestinal. Humans require many nutrients, ranging from the macronutrients (water, protein, energy sources) to micronutrients (minerals, vitamins). The ability to withstand shortfalls in intake of individual nutrients ranges from one or two days (e.g., water) to weeks (energy, protein, potassium) and months (some vitamins, minerals). In addition to putting humans at risk for nutrition deficiencies, space flight may also change the absorption, hence the pharmacodynamics, of several important medications. Papers given in this session dealt with all of these nutritional and pharmacological factors related to space flight: (1) Protein metabolism and muscle formation. (2) Pharmacodynamics. (3) Calcium metabolism and bone formation/resorption. and (4) Fluid and electrolytes.

  8. Population, nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    1982-06-01

    The World Health Organization defines health as not only the absence of disease but as a more positive state of physical, mental, and social well-being. 1 of the most important influences on health is nutrition. Millions of people throughout the world either do not get enough to eat or do not get enough of the right kinds of food. Malnutrition is the biggest single contributor to child mortality in developing countries; malnourished children have an impaired ability to fight infection and disease. Children suffering protein-energy or protein-calorie malnutrition may develop nutritional deficiency diseases such as marasmus or kwashiorkor. Some estimates indicate that 2/3 of children in developing countries suffer from protein-calorie malnutrition. Some deficiency diseases caused by a lack of 1 or more nutrients are very widespread, such as anemia, endemic goiter, and xerophthalmia. Contributing factors for malnutrition may include low purchasing power of poor families, poor harvests due to crop failure, bad weather, food spoilage, pests, or a poor distribution system, or cultural practices that prevent the full utilization of available food resources. The decline in the incidence of breastfeeding in recent decades is a major factor in the malnutrition and ill health of children. The quality of nutrition affects the development of human beings in many ways that are sometimes overlooked, such as physical growth and intellectual development. In the long run, only economic development will eliminate malnutrition by eliminating its basic causes of food availability, poverty, ignorance, and overpopulation. Breastfeeding is an important nutritional source for infants and has a contraceptive value for mothers. Improved nutrition should have beneficial effects on the costs of providing education, health services, and housing. Improving the nutritional status of small children may increase their ability to withstand disease, resulting in the survival of greater numbers of

  9. Nutritional factors in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, M L

    1993-09-01

    There have been varying estimates of the role of nutritional as opposed to other contributors to carcinogenesis. Several considerations probably account for the different estimates: (1) genetic overestimates because of foetal and early life rearing practices and the nutritional modulation of genetic expression (2) errors in food intake methodology (3) the limitations of nutrient carcinogenesis hypotheses, ie models which are too naive and do not allow for non-nutrients in food, food patterns and the overall package which is food culture (4) indirect pathways connecting nutrition and cancer such as that via immunosurveillance. Examples of cancers where rapid change in nutritional thinking is underway are breast, prostatic, colorectal and pancreatic. With breast cancer, weakly oestrogenic compounds from foods may be comparable to tamoxifen. Changing food culture away from that rich in phyto-oestrogens may increase the risk of prostatic cancer in men as well. Colorectal cancer incidence has continued at high rates in urbanized society despite an awareness of dietary contribution comparable to the knowledge of diet and coronary heart disease is the analysis sufficiently stratified for large bowel site or nutritionally sophisticated enough to allow for aggregate food pattern effects? Pancreatic cancer on the rise presents questions about unidentified changes continuing in the diets of industrialized societies, possibly from an early age, and even during infant feeding. Nutritional surveillance with mathematical modelling of food intake at a more sophisticated level will be required to understand present food-cancer relationships, and those which may emerge with newer food technologies, especially those related to designer foods.

  10. Nutrition in Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Osama; Barakatun-Nisak, Mohd-Yusof

    2016-12-01

    Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a key component of diabetes management. The importance of balancing macronutrients, reducing carbohydrate load, lowering glycemic index, and implementing an overall healthy dietary pattern are emerging as better approaches for MNT in diabetes. Recent research points to improved glycemic control, reduction in body weight, and improvement in many cardiovascular risk factors when these approaches are provided by registered dietitians or health care providers. This review article discusses the current evidence about the role of sensible nutrition in diabetes management. Specific eating plans for weight reduction and for patients with type 1 diabetes are also discussed.

  11. Nutrition in critical care.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Robert H; Dechert, Ronald E

    2011-06-01

    Critical care has evolved from a prolonged recovery room stay for cardiac surgery patients to a full medical and nursing specialty in the last 5 decades. The ability to feed patients who cannot eat has evolved from impossible to routine clinical practice in the last 4 decades. Nutrition in critically ill patients based on measurement of metabolism has evolved from a research activity to clinical practice in the last 3 decades. The authors have been involved in this evolution and this article discusses past, present, and likely future practices in nutrition in critically ill patients.

  12. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-03-10

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness.

  13. Advances in surgical nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Juan B; Caba, David

    2006-12-01

    Dr. Stanley Dudrick invented total parenteral nutrition in 1968, providing a desperately needed therapy to those patients who could not eat. It has since saved thousands of patients worldwide. Nutrition interventions (NI) in surgical/trauma and critically ill patients have evolved dramatically during the last 20 years from a supportive therapy to a clear therapeutic role. Like any other form of therapy, NI will benefit patients when adequately indicated and prescribed. NI, however, may cause significant side effects and harm when poorly ordered. This article reviews the indications for the prescription of the different forms of NI available to the clinician caring for the surgical patient.

  14. [Nutrition and periodontal disease].

    PubMed

    Indrei, L L

    2006-01-01

    It is difficult ro assess the role of nutrition in the etiology and progression of periodontal disease because many other factors besides the local effect of plaque affect periodontal tissue metabolism. It is clear that nutrition can affect host response to bacterial plaque and it is also apparent that there may be a need for the intake of greater amounts of certain nutrients (such as ascorbic acid, iron etc.). Inadequate nutrient intake or deficiency is significant because of the number of interactions that occur during the assimilation of foods and the effects of stress and medication. Periodontal health cannot be achieved unless nutrient deficiency is corrected along with the other phases of treatment.

  15. Adult nutrition assessment tutorial.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Gordon L; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Wheeler, Dara

    2012-05-01

    This tutorial presents a systematic approach to nutrition assessment based on a modern appreciation for the contributions of inflammation that serve as the foundation for newly proposed consensus definitions for malnutrition syndromes. Practical indicators of malnutrition and inflammation have been selected to guide diagnosis that include medical/surgical history and clinical diagnosis, clinical signs and physical examination, anthropometric data, laboratories, dietary assessment, and functional outcomes. Knowledge of systematic nutrition assessment and appropriate diagnosis of malnutrition will help to guide proper interventions and expected outcomes.

  16. Nutrition and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Farber, Emmanuel

    1984-01-01

    Nutrition has a close association with cancer. Carcinogens in foods, macronutrients, micronutrients such as vitamins A, C and E and selenium, dietary fiber, the modulation of metabolism by diet, food additives and anticarcinogens in foods all affect the development of cancer. In particular, macronutrients (especially meat and animal fat) appear to have a significant effect on the development of cancer of the colon, breast and uterus. This article discusses research on the links between nutrition and cancer, and describes current dietary recommendations to decrease the likelihood of cancer. PMID:21278974

  17. Clinical avian nutrition.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Susan E

    2014-09-01

    Psittacine birds eat plant-based foods. Birds in the wild seem to be able to balance their energy needs, amino acids, and calcium. Companion birds in captivity do not do as well when self-selecting, and balanced diets are needed to improve their general health. A nutritional history is important to determine whether the avian patient is in balance nutritionally. Understanding the various sources of the fat-soluble vitamins, calcium, and protein will help guide clients to provide nutritious foods for their birds. Owners need to learn to use foraging as a major source of their bird's diet and techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness. PMID:28287411

  19. Impact of nutrition behaviour research on nutrition programmes and nutrition policy.

    PubMed

    Oltersdorf, Ulrich

    2003-12-01

    Development of a society is interrelated with research. Innovation in food and nutritional sciences enable citizens to live in conditions of food security. Current dietary goals can be reached by understanding the biopsychosocial background of human nutrition behaviour. Examples of diffusion of such findings into practice are presented with emphasis on Germany and the activities of AGEV (the Working Association of Nutritional Behaviour), which was founded 25 years ago. Nutrition behaviour research should strengthen the focus on practical applications of its findings, since the prevalence of nutrition-related problems, like obesity in children and the estrangement on food and nutrition, is increasing.

  20. Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

    "Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of…

  1. The Importance of Appropriate Nutrition and Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhr, Janet E.; Barclay, Kathy H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how nutrition education may be implemented in early childhood classrooms. Describes the incidence of malnutrition and obesity, and topics covered--the food pyramid, vegetable growth, and nutritional needs--through several integrated nutrition units including: (1) the bread basket; (2) potatoes; (3) vegetable soup; (4) fruit basket; (5)…

  2. Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

  3. Nutrition Services in Illinois. Feeding Programs and Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Council on Nutrition, Springfield.

    This publication lists information about Illinois state agencies and organizations that participate in feeding programs and/or have nutrition programs and nutrition services available to the public. This nutrition services sourcebook lists where one can go for help and available information and services. Statewide organizations which support…

  4. Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

    "Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of…

  5. Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

  6. Nutrition Education for Native Americans: A Guide for Nutrition Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Written for professionals working with food assistance and other programs with a nutrition component, this guide is intended to aid in understanding the cultural characteristics and basic health and diet-related problems of Native Americans and to promote more effective nutrition counseling and community nutrition education. The background section…

  7. The Importance of Appropriate Nutrition and Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhr, Janet E.; Barclay, Kathy H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how nutrition education may be implemented in early childhood classrooms. Describes the incidence of malnutrition and obesity, and topics covered--the food pyramid, vegetable growth, and nutritional needs--through several integrated nutrition units including: (1) the bread basket; (2) potatoes; (3) vegetable soup; (4) fruit basket; (5)…

  8. Good Nutrition Promotes Health: Guide for Parent Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    The purpose of this manual is to guide users of the nutrition education project produced by Padres Hispanos en Accion por Una Sana Generacion (Hispanic Parents in Action for a Healthy Generation). The project provides nutrition education materials to trainers who provide nutrition counseling to parents of Head Start children. The project has two…

  9. Nutrition Services in Illinois. Feeding Programs and Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Council on Nutrition, Springfield.

    This publication lists information about Illinois state agencies and organizations that participate in feeding programs and/or have nutrition programs and nutrition services available to the public. This nutrition services sourcebook lists where one can go for help and available information and services. Statewide organizations which support…

  10. 77 FR 25127 - Food and Nutrition Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-- Disaster Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (D-SNAP) AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with the...

  11. Use the Nutrition Facts Label

    MedlinePlus

    ... Features Spokespeople News Archive eNewsletters Calendar Use the Nutrition Facts Label You can help your family eat ... to some of their favorite foods. Use the Nutrition Facts label found on food packages to make ...

  12. Nutrition: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Nutrition Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... teeth that are needed for grinding up food, nutrition suffers. If you are unable to chew and ...

  13. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  14. What Is Nutrition Support Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center Professional Development Calendar of Events What Is Nutrition Support Therapy All people need food to live. ... patient populations from pediatrics to geriatrics. Key Terms: Nutrition Support Therapy The provision of enteral or parenteral ...

  15. Diet and Nutrition in Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Porphyria Research You are here Home Diet and Nutrition A proper diet is important to all individuals, ... alter food intake. Therefore, attention to diet and nutrition is important in almost any disease. Porphyrias are ...

  16. Diet and Nutrition With Lupus

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Diet and nutrition with lupus Lupus Foundation of America September 26, ... Living with Lupus I Have Lupus Exercise and Nutrition Site Footer Need to talk to someone? Our ...

  17. Health: Nutrition Ed through Cooking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Orvis A.

    1973-01-01

    Elementary school students can learn about nutrition by preparing foods themselves; author quotes research linking malnutrition to developmental difficulties in school as reason for starting nutrition education in the early grades. (SP)

  18. Prenatal nutrition and birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fowles, Eileen R

    2004-01-01

    The complex relationship between maternal nutritional and birth outcomes emphasizes the need for consistent and thorough assessments of women's diet throughout pregnancy and individualized nutritional education to promote positive birth outcomes. The purpose of this article is to examine the influence of prenatal nutrition on birth outcomes, describe research on the effects of macro- and micronutrients on birth outcomes, and discuss strategies for monitoring diet and implementing nutrition education during pregnancy.

  19. The Federal Government and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Margaret A.

    1980-01-01

    Both the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services conduct research related to food and human nutrition. Several federal programs supporting nutrition research and education are reviewed. Footnotes provide addresses and ways to obtain more detailed information about nutrition related programs. (JN)

  20. Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Getting an X-ray Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition KidsHealth > For Kids > Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition Print A A A What's in this article? ... is someone who knows all about food and nutrition. Each kid is different, but most kids with ...

  1. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  2. Nutritional deficiencies after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Davies, D J; Baxter, J M; Baxter, J N

    2007-09-01

    A current review of nutritional complications following bariatric procedures is presented, focusing on the most common and clinically important deficiencies. A brief outline of nutritional supplementation protocol is presented, highlighting the need for a standardized, national or international set of guidelines for pre- and postoperative nutritional screening and appropriate supplementation.

  3. The Federal Government and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Margaret A.

    1980-01-01

    Both the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services conduct research related to food and human nutrition. Several federal programs supporting nutrition research and education are reviewed. Footnotes provide addresses and ways to obtain more detailed information about nutrition related programs. (JN)

  4. State of nutrition support teams.

    PubMed

    DeLegge, Mark Henry; Kelly, Andrea True; Kelley, Andrea True

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients is relatively high (up to 55%) despite breakthroughs in nutrition support therapies. These patients have increased morbidity and mortality, extended hospital stays, and care that is associated with higher costs. These patients are often poorly managed due to inadequate nutrition assessment and poor medical knowledge and practice in the field of nutrition. Nutrition support teams (NSTs) are interdisciplinary support teams with specialty training in nutrition that are often comprised of physicians, dietitians, nurses, and pharmacists. Their role includes nutrition assessment, determination of nutrition needs, recommendations for appropriate nutrition therapy, and management of nutrition support therapy. Studies have demonstrated significant improvements in patient nutrition status and improved clinical outcomes as well as reductions in costs when patients were appropriately managed by a multispecialty NST vs individual caregivers. Despite this, there has been steady decline in the number of formal NST in recent years (65% of hospitals in 1995 to 42% in 2008) as hospitals and other healthcare organizations look for ways to cut costs. Given the importance of nutrition status on clinical outcomes and overall healthcare costs, a number of institutions have introduced and sustained strong nutrition training and support programs and teams, demonstrating both clinical and economic benefit. The benefits of NST, training and implementation strategies, and tips for justifying these clinically and economically beneficial groups to healthcare organizations and governing bodies are discussed in this review.

  5. Committee on Military Nutrition Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-99-1-9478 TITLE: COMMITTEE ON MILITARY NUTRITION ...COVERED (From - To) 01 Jun 99 – 31 Dec 06 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE COMMITTEE ON MILITARY NUTRITION RESEARCH 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...report presents the activities of the National Academy of Sciences/Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR) for the

  6. Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the Operating Room? Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition KidsHealth > For Kids > Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition A A A What's in this article? CF ... is someone who knows all about food and nutrition. Each kid is different, but most kids with ...

  7. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  8. Nutrition Education: A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This guide for teachers, supervisors and administrators offers a conceptual framework and resources for developing a complete nutrition education program. Included are: (1) a statement of need for nutrition education, (2) definition of what nutrition education should encompass; (3) goals identified by teachers, curriculum specialists and nutrition…

  9. [Preoperative screening and nutritional support of nutritional deficiencies].

    PubMed

    Zazzo, J-F

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional deficiencies have to be considered as an independent risk factor for postoperative morbidity. Peri-operative nutritional support reduce this risk in elective abdominal surgery for cancer and cardiac surgery. Preoperative nutritional support for 7-10 days reduce postoperative complications in undernourished patients by 10% but is not operant when administered after surgery. Enteral route is as effective. Recent studies using immunonutrients conclude that a short preoperative oral intake is able to reduce complications even in well-nourished patients. Then, a preoperative nutritional screening must be routinely performed leading to a nutritional programme.

  10. Food and nutrition security.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the deficits in food security in India. It is recommended that India commit to nutrition security by direct actions. Programs should provide essential staples and a nutrient distribution system with affordable prices. India should adopt an Employment Guarantee Program. Creches should provide maternal-child health care, nutrition, literacy, and employment. Government must resolve the internal conflicts of interest between overlapping sectors. India should resolve the "dysfunction" between macroeconomic policies and anti-poverty strategies. Interventions should be people oriented, rely on social mobilization, and provide information and financial resources in a nonconflict context. Efforts will require the cooperation between the private sector, voluntary organizations, state agencies, and local self-governing decentralized agencies. There is a need to build capacity and viable institutions. Poverty agencies do not have access to the minimum required cereals for the poor. The Public Distribution System (PDS) does not guarantee a minimum quantity of foodstuffs per household regardless of income level. More high quality varieties of rice are produced due to higher prices in the marketplace. Most state governments do not provide staple cereals to the PDS at affordable prices. The government sets fair prices for sugar, but not cereal. The government sells more cereal in the open market than to PDS. PDS should target poor households; that is, the 29.9% who live below the poverty line. Lack of nutrition security is due to poverty that is enhanced by ignorance and the lack of health and nutrition education.

  11. Nutrition in Children's Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…

  12. Insects: A nutritional alternative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

  13. Nutritional Patterns of Centenarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mary Ann; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared dietary patterns of 165 older adults. Compared to younger cohorts, centenarians (n=24) consumed breakfast more regularly, avoided weight loss diets and large fluctuation in body weight, consumed slightly more vegetables, and relied on doctors and family for nutrition information. Centenarians were less likely to consume low-fat diets and…

  14. NUTRITION AND FEEDING

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Most girls with Rett syndrome present a challenge when it comes to providing enough nutrition. Even those with healthy appetites are usually quite thin and short, and many meet the definition for protein-energy malnutrition. Girls with RTT have lower dietary energy intakes than unaffected girls. ...

  15. Nutrition during pregnancy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The optimal nutritional support of a mother and her developing fetus begins before conception. This poses a challenge for pediatricians caring for pregnant adolescents. Approximately 1 million teenagers become pregnant in the United States each year. Of these pregnancies, 51% end in live births, 35%...

  16. Nutrition - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Japanese (日本語) Kirundi (Rundi) Korean (한국어) Malay (Bahasa Malaysia) Nepali (नेपाली) Pashto (Pax̌tō / پښتو ) Portuguese (português) ... Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion Malay (Bahasa Malaysia) Expand Section Choose MyPlate: 10 Tips to a ...

  17. Interdisciplinary Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumslag, Naomi; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Describes and evaluates a successful one-quarter 26-curriculum hour course in clinical nutrition, which focuses on practical aspects of diet prescriptions, dietary customs, attitudes, and behavior modifications. Required for sophomore medical students and dietetic interns, the course in taught by faculty from several disciplines and includes…

  18. Nutrition in Children's Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…

  19. The Science of Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Pat; Burkman, Mary Anne; Streng, Katharina

    2000-01-01

    Nutrition and learning are inextricably connected. Protein, fat, B vitamins, iron, choline, and antioxidants promote brain functions. The USDA's "Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children" (and adaptations for school-age kids) offers guidelines for formulating a child's diet. Breakfast, family meal-sharing, and exercise are essential.…

  20. The Science of Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Pat; Burkman, Mary Anne; Streng, Katharina

    2000-01-01

    Nutrition and learning are inextricably connected. Protein, fat, B vitamins, iron, choline, and antioxidants promote brain functions. The USDA's "Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children" (and adaptations for school-age kids) offers guidelines for formulating a child's diet. Breakfast, family meal-sharing, and exercise are essential.…

  1. Foodomics for healthy nutrition.

    PubMed

    Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    To understand how the principles of foodomics could improve the assessment of the nutritional status and needs. The knowledge that metabolic pathways may be altered in individuals with genetic variants in the presence of certain dietary exposures offers great potential for personalized nutrition advice, and epigenetics and nutrigenetics have been used to assess the need and status of specific nutrients. MicroRNAs profiling and genome-wide association studies have also contributed. Since nutritional effects of complex diets emerge only if dietary assessments are validated, nutrimetabolomics offers the validation tools on the basis of food intake biomarkers. Apart from the provision, via a high-throughput approach, of objective measurable parameters to be used as biomarkers, a consensus must be reached on the definition of health and wellness. Health (and wellness) can be considered a position having specific coordinates in a multiple-dimension space, and many factors contribute to our movements in this space. Foodomics is the science aiming at studying, through the evaluation of different biomarkers, the entity and the direction of the movements across the healthy or unhealthy space, developing models that are able to explain how food components, food, diet and lifestyle can influence our trajectory toward the healthy condition. Only considering the 'health space' as a multidimensional one, we have the possibility of understanding the complex relationship linking nutrition and health, and of reaching healthier conditions by personalized balanced diets in a foodomics vision.

  2. Nutrition Activities Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Special Education.

    The resource guide suggests activities to help special education students make appropriate choices about their nutritional habits. It is explained that the activities can be infused into other curriculum areas. The guide consists of five themes and includes performance objectives for each: foods eaten at school (planning a school lunch, keeping a…

  3. Nutrition in Pediatric Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Tracie L.; Neri, Daniela; Extein, Jason; Somarriba, Gabriel; Strickman-Stein, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Pediatric cardiomyopathies are heterogeneous groups of serious disorders of the heart muscle and are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality among children who have the disease. While enormous improvements have been made in the treatment and survival of children with congenital heart disease, parallel strides have not been made in the outcomes for cardiomyopathies. Thus, ancillary therapies, such as nutrition and nutritional interventions, that may not cure but may potentially improve cardiac function and quality of life, are imperative to consider in children with all types of cardiomyopathy. Growth failure is one of the most significant clinical problems of children with cardiomyopathy with nearly one-third of children with this disorder manifesting some degree of growth failure during the course of their illness. Optimal intake of macronutrients can help improve cardiac function. In addition, several specific nutrients have been shown to correct myocardial abnormalities that often occur with cardiomyopathy and heart failure. In particular, antioxidants that can protect against free radical damage that often occurs in heart failure and nutrients that augment myocardial energy production are important therapies that have been explored more in adults with cardiomyopathy than in the pediatric population. Future research directions should pay particular attention to the effect of overall nutrition and specific nutritional therapies on clinical outcomes and quality of life in children with pediatric cardiomyopathy. PMID:18159216

  4. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

    PubMed

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sports nutrition: an overview.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ron

    2002-03-01

    Nutritional interventions have the potential to influence the outcome of athletic competition where opponents are closely matched. Sound dietary habits can also influence the adaptations that occur in response to training. This article summarizes some of the strategies that the athlete can use to enhance performance.

  6. Food and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide on food and nutrition is one of seven subject area guides developed for use in consumer and homemaking education in Texas. Covered in the individual sections of the guide are the following: program and curriculum planning; teaching handicapped and disadvantaged students (student characteristics and teaching strategies);…

  7. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  8. Preschool Nutrition Education Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society for Nutrition Education, Berkeley, CA.

    Sixteen articles relating to preschool nutrition education programs, food habits and nutrient intake of preschoolers, parent education, and training of day care personnel are included in this monograph. Also included are more than fifty evaluative reviews and abstracts of articles, books, pamphlets, and audiovisuals useful as resources and/or…

  9. Nutritional Patterns of Centenarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mary Ann; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared dietary patterns of 165 older adults. Compared to younger cohorts, centenarians (n=24) consumed breakfast more regularly, avoided weight loss diets and large fluctuation in body weight, consumed slightly more vegetables, and relied on doctors and family for nutrition information. Centenarians were less likely to consume low-fat diets and…

  10. Nutrition Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockut, Joanne; Stumpe, Stephanie

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials integrate elementary school-level nutrition education into other disciplines--biology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, and art. Contents include four units consisting of twelve activities. Unit 1, Why You Need Food, is a self-examination of what is needed for growth, health,…

  11. Changing Attitudes Toward Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronck, David R.

    This study analyzed the effectiveness of a method for changing the opinions of students toward various issues related to nutrition. The method consisted of twenty-minute lectures with slides. The 219 college biology students completed four questionnaires containing 44 items. Questionnaire data indicated changes were usually in the direction…

  12. Nutrition. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This publication is one of the courses from the Oklahoma Practical Nursing series of competency-based training programs designed to coordinate the job-related experience and knowledge needed by personnel working in a practical nursing position. The nutrition module includes several concepts that are integrated throughout the Practical Nursing…

  13. Immunity and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupin, Henri; Guerin, Nicole

    1990-01-01

    The three articles in this issue of a periodical focussed on various aspects of the life and health of children in the tropics concern: (1) immune defenses; (2) interactions between nutrition disorders and infection; and (3) immunity and vaccination. The science of immunology has progressed rapidly in recent years. A brief review of present…

  14. Teenage Nutrition and Physique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huenemann, Ruth L.; And Others

    Body size, composition, and conformation in a teen-age population, and associated factors were studied to obtain useful data for planning programs in public health nutrition. This book describes the purpose, methods, and findings of this four-year longitudinal and cross-sectional study conducted in Berkeley, California, during the years 1961 to…

  15. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  16. Somatotype, nutrition, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Koleva, M; Nacheva, A; Boev, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the somatotype characteristics of the studied group and search for a relation between somatotype, obesity, and particular features of nutrition. Somatotype after Health & Carter (1990), nutritional status according to Body mass index (BMI), and nutrition determined by food-frequency questionnaires. Over 94% of the subjects in this study were distributed into five somatotype categories: 51.6% endomorphic mesomorphs, 17.1% mesomorph-endomorphs, 16.7% mesomorphic endomorphs, 6.1% balanced mesomorphs, and 3.0% ectomorphic mesomorphs, with a pronounced sexual dimorphism. Males were distributed into five categories: over 65% were endomorphic mesomorphs, and above 40 years of age the mesomorphy increased. Females were distributed into three somatotype categories: up to and above 40 years of age over 44% were mesomorphic endomorphs. In the most common somatotype categories, 1 of 5 subjects (from 21.4% to 19.9%) had normal body mass (< 25 kg/m2), 4 of 5 subjects (from 34.2% to 52.6%) were overweight (> 25 kg/m2) or obese (> 30 kg/m2) kg/m2 (from 44.4% to 27.5%). In the remaining eight categories, all subjects had normal body mass. Hyperenergetic, sodium- and fat-excess nutrition had an especially unfavorable influence.

  17. Nutrition Activities Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Special Education.

    The resource guide suggests activities to help special education students make appropriate choices about their nutritional habits. It is explained that the activities can be infused into other curriculum areas. The guide consists of five themes and includes performance objectives for each: foods eaten at school (planning a school lunch, keeping a…

  18. Skylab nutritional studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Smith, M. C., Jr.; Stadler, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    Precise nutritional specifications arising from both physiological and experimental requirements necessitated a comprehensive study of the chemical composition of the Skylab food supply. Each of the approximately 70 different food items was analyzed for digestible and nondigestible carbohydrate, and for protein, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. Menus were formulated to provide at least the National Research Council's Recommended Dietary Allowance of all essential nutrients and, in addition, to provide constant daily intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and protein. In general, the crewmembers adhered to their programmed menus. The ability to swallow and digest food was unaffected by prolonged weightlessness. Taste acuity also appeared to be undiminished inflight. The bone and muscle changes which occurred in previous flights were more pronounced in Skylab. It is concluded that these changes did not develop as a result of nutritional deficit. If such changes are nutritionally related, they point to the existence of nutritional requirements in weightlessness which differ quantitatively from those observed on earth.

  19. Skylab nutritional studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C. Jr; Rambaut, P. C.; Stadler, C. R.

    1977-01-01

    Precise nutritional specifications arising from both physiological and experimental requirements necessitated a comprehensive study of the chemical composition of the Skylab food supply. Each of the approximately seventy different food items was analyzed for digestible and non-digestible carbohydrate, and for protein, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. Menus were formulated to provide at least the National Research Council's Recommended Dietary Allowance of all essential nutrients and, in addition, to provide constant daily intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and protein. In general, the crew members adhered to their programmed menus. The ability to swallow and digest food was unaffected by prolonged weightlessness. Taste acuity also appeared to be undiminished in flight. The bone and muscle changes which occurred in previous flights were more pronounced in Skylab. It is concluded that these changes did not develop as a result of nutritional deficit. If such changes are nutritionally related, they point to the existence of nutritional requirements in weightlessness which differ quantitatively from those observed on earth.

  20. Nutrition Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockut, Joanne; Stumpe, Stephanie

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials integrate elementary school-level nutrition education into other disciplines--biology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, and art. Contents include four units consisting of twelve activities. Unit 1, Why You Need Food, is a self-examination of what is needed for growth, health,…

  1. Immunity and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupin, Henri; Guerin, Nicole

    1990-01-01

    The three articles in this issue of a periodical focussed on various aspects of the life and health of children in the tropics concern: (1) immune defenses; (2) interactions between nutrition disorders and infection; and (3) immunity and vaccination. The science of immunology has progressed rapidly in recent years. A brief review of present…

  2. Nutritional optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Sawicka-Pierko, Anna; Obuchowska, Iwona; Mariak, Zofia

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional optic neuropathy (aka deficiency optic neuropathy) is a dysfunction of the optic nerve resulting from improper dietary content of certain nutrients essential for normal functioning of the nerve fibers. Most commonly, it results from folic acid and vitamin B complex deficiency associated with malnutrition or poor dietary habits, incorrectly applied vegetarian diet, or chronic alcohol abuse. Obese patients after bariatric surgery constitute another risk group of optic neuropathy. Nutritional optic neuropathy is characterized by painless, gradually progressing, bilateral and symmetrical decrease in visual acuity, which can be accompanied by the color vision dysfunction. Progression of the neuropathy is associated with optic nerve atrophy, manifesting as complete disc pallor. Treatment of nutritional neuropathy includes dietary supplementation, aimed at compensating for the deficient nutrients. The treatment is mostly based on folic acid, vitamin B complex, and protein replacement, as well as eliminating risk factors of neuropathy. Early treatment commencement, prior to irreversible optic nerve atrophy, is a prerequisite of effective treatment. We would like to highlight this problem by presenting the case of a young woman in whom chronic use "water-based" diet resulted in anemia and bilateral nutritional optic neuropathy.

  3. Teenage Nutrition and Physique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huenemann, Ruth L.; And Others

    Body size, composition, and conformation in a teen-age population, and associated factors were studied to obtain useful data for planning programs in public health nutrition. This book describes the purpose, methods, and findings of this four-year longitudinal and cross-sectional study conducted in Berkeley, California, during the years 1961 to…

  4. Preschool Nutrition Education Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society for Nutrition Education, Berkeley, CA.

    Sixteen articles relating to preschool nutrition education programs, food habits and nutrient intake of preschoolers, parent education, and training of day care personnel are included in this monograph. Also included are more than fifty evaluative reviews and abstracts of articles, books, pamphlets, and audiovisuals useful as resources and/or…

  5. Nutrition, growth, and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tryfiates, G.P. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 26 papers. Some of the titles are: Defects in early and late stages of nucleotide excision repair and the origins of cancer; Mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and the metal elements - DNA interaction; An overview of the role of diet and nutrition in carcinogenesis; Dietary modifiers in cancer; and Factors influencing glia growth in culture: Nutrients and cell-secreted factors.

  6. Skylab nutritional studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Smith, M. C., Jr.; Stadler, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    Precise nutritional specifications arising from both physiological and experimental requirements necessitated a comprehensive study of the chemical composition of the Skylab food supply. Each of the approximately 70 different food items was analyzed for digestible and nondigestible carbohydrate, and for protein, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. Menus were formulated to provide at least the National Research Council's Recommended Dietary Allowance of all essential nutrients and, in addition, to provide constant daily intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and protein. In general, the crewmembers adhered to their programmed menus. The ability to swallow and digest food was unaffected by prolonged weightlessness. Taste acuity also appeared to be undiminished inflight. The bone and muscle changes which occurred in previous flights were more pronounced in Skylab. It is concluded that these changes did not develop as a result of nutritional deficit. If such changes are nutritionally related, they point to the existence of nutritional requirements in weightlessness which differ quantitatively from those observed on earth.

  7. Skylab nutritional studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C. Jr; Rambaut, P. C.; Stadler, C. R.

    1977-01-01

    Precise nutritional specifications arising from both physiological and experimental requirements necessitated a comprehensive study of the chemical composition of the Skylab food supply. Each of the approximately seventy different food items was analyzed for digestible and non-digestible carbohydrate, and for protein, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. Menus were formulated to provide at least the National Research Council's Recommended Dietary Allowance of all essential nutrients and, in addition, to provide constant daily intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and protein. In general, the crew members adhered to their programmed menus. The ability to swallow and digest food was unaffected by prolonged weightlessness. Taste acuity also appeared to be undiminished in flight. The bone and muscle changes which occurred in previous flights were more pronounced in Skylab. It is concluded that these changes did not develop as a result of nutritional deficit. If such changes are nutritionally related, they point to the existence of nutritional requirements in weightlessness which differ quantitatively from those observed on earth.

  8. Periodized Nutrition for Athletes.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2017-03-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptations, initiated by exercise, can be amplified or reduced by nutrition. Various methods have been discussed to optimize training adaptations and some of these methods have been subject to extensive study. To date, most methods have focused on skeletal muscle, but it is important to note that training effects also include adaptations in other tissues (e.g., brain, vasculature), improvements in the absorptive capacity of the intestine, increases in tolerance to dehydration, and other effects that have received less attention in the literature. The purpose of this review is to define the concept of periodized nutrition (also referred to as nutritional training) and summarize the wide variety of methods available to athletes. The reader is referred to several other recent review articles that have discussed aspects of periodized nutrition in much more detail with primarily a focus on adaptations in the muscle. The purpose of this review is not to discuss the literature in great detail but to clearly define the concept and to give a complete overview of the methods available, with an emphasis on adaptations that are not in the muscle. Whilst there is good evidence for some methods, other proposed methods are mere theories that remain to be tested. 'Periodized nutrition' refers to the strategic combined use of exercise training and nutrition, or nutrition only, with the overall aim to obtain adaptations that support exercise performance. The term nutritional training is sometimes used to describe the same methods and these terms can be used interchangeably. In this review, an overview is given of some of the most common methods of periodized nutrition including 'training low' and 'training high', and training with low- and high-carbohydrate availability, respectively. 'Training low' in particular has received considerable attention and several variations of 'train low' have been proposed. 'Training-low' studies have generally

  9. [Nutritional therapy of gout].

    PubMed

    Nickolai, Beate; Kiss, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition and nutritional behaviours have been found to play a major role in the development of gout. Studies show that body mass index (BMI), as well as excessive intake of alcoholic beverages, meat, soft drinks and fruit juices increase the risk of developing gout. Similarly, dairy products and coffee have been seen to decrease the risk of hyperuricemia and gout, as they increase the excretion of uric acid. Flares of gout are often caused by large meals and high alcohol consumption. Each additional intake of meat portion per day increases the risk of gout by 21 %. Taking total alcohol consumption into account, the risk of gout increases after one to two standard drinks. In contrast to previous assumptions purine-rich plant foods like legumes and vegetables do not increase the risk of gout. The current dietary guidelines take into account nutritional factors, which not only consider purine intake, but also their endogenous production and their influence on renal excretion. A balanced diet based on the Swiss healthy eating guideline pyramid as well as the Mediterranean diet is appropriate for this patient population. The treatment of gout is multi-faceted, since this patient population presents other comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Collectively, these risk factors are diet dependent and require a treatment strategy that is centered on modifying one's nutrition and nutritional behaviours. The aim of such therapy is to educate the patient as well as treat the accompanying comorbidities with the goal of decreasing serum uric acid values. Motivated patients require consultation and follow-up care in order to be able to actively decrease the serum uric acid.

  10. Nutrition in Africa.

    PubMed

    Murray-lee, M

    1989-07-01

    Village women have adopted techniques set down by UNICEF in achieving higher food production and, ultimately, self sufficiency. Women's cooperatives integrate kitchen gardening and irrigated agriculture in an effort to combat the complex nutritional problems in Africa. Projects also offered training in a variety of areas including management of plots, labor-saving technology--diesel-driven grinding mills, rice husking, machines, wells with hand pumps, motor pumps for irrigation, all geared towards women benefitting themselves by growing their own food and furthering their children's health and development. Projects such as the one in Senegal were undertaken in other regions of Africa, like the Sahel and the Wadis--low-lying areas. From these projects, aid agencies and governments have suggested a number of recommendations in seeking a solution to Africa's nutritional problems. 1st, a balance between production of cash crops and food for consumption is called for. 2nd, research is necessary to improve the quality of locally grown food as much as livestock. 3rd, governments should extend surface area cultivation, 4th, more research on the advantage of indigenous food plants, 5th, women should be in on all levels of decision making in food production, 6th, governments should increase women farmer's efficiency, and further women's access to land and credit and 7th, women should be provided with increased educational opportunities. Nutrition in developing countries cannot be viewed as an isolated phenomenon--solutions to nutritional development should include all aspects of the problem including health and nutrition education, growth monitoring, water supply, literacy, technological know-how, and agricultural and plant and soil conservation.

  11. Nutrition Issues for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott; Zwart, Sara R.

    2006-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crew members begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes in status during a mission, and to assess changes after landing to facilitate return of the crew to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. Nutritional assessment provides the basis for intervention, if it is necessary, to maintain optimal status throughout the mission. We report here our nutritional assessment of the US astronauts who participated in the first twelve International Space Station missions.

  12. Compatibility: drugs and parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Talita Muniz Maloni; Ferraresi, Andressa de Abreu

    2016-01-01

    Standardization and systematization of data to provide quick access to compatibility of leading injectable drugs used in hospitals for parenteral nutrition. We selected 55 injectable drugs analyzed individually with two types of parenteral nutrition: 2-in-1 and 3-in-1. The following variables were considered: active ingredient, compatibility of drugs with the parenteral nutrition with or without lipids, and maximum drug concentration after dilution for the drugs compatible with parenteral nutrition. Drugs were classified as compatible, incompatible and untested. After analysis, relevant information to the product's compatibility with parental nutrition was summarized in a table. Systematization of compatibility data provided quick and easy access, and enabled standardizing pharmacists work.

  13. A review of surgical nutrition.

    PubMed

    Moyes, L H; McKee, R F

    2008-02-01

    Malnutrition remains a common problem in surgical patients and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It is imperative that all surgical patients undergo nutritional screening on admission to highlight malnourished or at risk patients and implement a nutritional plan. Nutrition can be delivered by oral supplements, enteral or parenteral feeding, the route depending on an individual's requirements and surgical condition. Enteral feeding has largely been regarded as superior to parenteral feeding, as it is cheaper, safer and "more physiological" but studies show this is not always the case. This article reviews the basics of surgical nutrition and assesses the evidence supporting enteral versus parenteral nutrition.

  14. Nutrition issues for space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2008-09-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crew members begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes in status during a mission, and to assess changes after landing to facilitate return of the crew to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. Nutritional assessment provides the basis for intervention, if it is necessary, to maintain optimal status throughout the mission. We report here our nutritional assessment of the US astronauts who participated in the first 12 International Space Station missions.

  15. Nutrition for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle

  16. Nutritional Ecology and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-07-17

    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. We next introduce the field of nutritional ecology and show how its ecological-evolutionary foundations can enrich human nutrition science by providing the theory to help address its limitations. We end by introducing a modeling approach from nutritional ecology, termed nutritional geometry, and demonstrate how it can help to implement ecological and evolutionary theory in human nutrition to provide new direction and to better understand and manage OACD.

  17. Nutrition: ethical issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Rucker, Robert B; Rucker, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    For nutrition and its associated disciplines, ethical considerations related to research are often complicated by factors that range from the use of experimental research designs that are overly holistic to inextricable links between nutrition research and marketing. As a consequence, there is the need for constant vigilance to assess and deal with apparent conflicts of interest. Also, there are few scientific disciplines that are defined by cultural, religious, or political codifications as is nutrition. Accordingly, examples of historical, cultural, and political events are described that have influenced ethical approaches related to nutrition research. Furthermore, nutrition research questions are often multifaceted and require dealing with complex variables. In this regard, ethical principles and perspectives that have relevance to data acquisition, the publication and translation of nutrition research, and the marketing of nutritional products and concepts are highlighted.

  18. Nutrition support in surgical oncology.

    PubMed

    Huhmann, Maureen B; August, David A

    2009-01-01

    This review article, the second in a series of articles to examine the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) Guidelines for the Use of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition in Adult and Pediatric Patients, evaluates the evidence related to the use of nutrition support in surgical oncology patients. Cancer patients develop complex nutrition issues. Nutrition support may be indicated in malnourished cancer patients undergoing surgery, depending on individual patient characteristics. As with the first article in this series, this article provides background concerning nutrition issues in cancer patients, as well as discusses the role of nutrition support in the care of surgical cancer patients. The goal of this review is to enrich the discussion contained in the clinical guidelines as they relate to recommendations made for surgical patients, cite the primary literature more completely, and suggest updates to the guideline statements in light of subsequently published studies.

  19. Nutritional considerations in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Touger-Decker, R

    1988-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, systemic, inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. The severity of the disease process adversely affects nutritional status. Articular changes, such as small joint deformities and temporomandibular joint syndrome, alter the ability to self-feed. The inflammatory process may increase metabolic rate. Ingestion, digestion, absorption, and excretion may be compromised by secondary manifestations of the disease. Comprehensive nutrition assessment incorporates evaluation of disease and treatment-specific factors, along with the usual assessment parameters. Abnormal values for certain assessment parameters do not necessarily reflect nutritional status. Treatment methods, including medications, may have an impact on nutritional status, assessment tools, and self-feeding. Nutrition management goals focus on identification and implementation of feeding strategies. Evaluation of the ability to feed oneself includes consideration of functional status, secondary manifestations, and medical treatment. Multiple feeding modalities may be required. Oral supplements, tube feedings, and parenteral nutrition may be employed to meet the nutrition needs of the individual with rheumatoid arthritis.

  20. Nutrition and sports performance.

    PubMed

    Brotherhood, J R

    1984-01-01

    During the past 20 years there have been great developments in the scientific understanding of the role of nutrition in health and physical performance. Epidemiological and physiological studies have provided evidence that certain forms of dietary behaviour may be linked with an increased risk of developing disorders such as high blood pressure, coronary artery disease and some cancers. This has resulted in dietary recommendations that are intended to reduce the incidence of these disorders in the community. The science of nutrition in relation to sports performance has progressed from empirical studies investigating the effects of dietary manipulations, such as restriction and supplementation, to the direct investigation of the physiological basis of the specific nutritional demands of hard physical exercise. This review is based on the premise that it is "what comes out' rather than "what goes in', which provides the clues to ideal nutrition for athletic performance. Various aspects of the physical demands of athletic exercise are viewed as stresses that induce specific biochemical, and hence nutritional, strains in the athlete. Training is the predominant demand in the athletic lifestyle. This is characterised by acute bouts of high power output. During one hour of hard training an athlete may expend 30% of his or her total 24-hour energy output. These high power outputs have important implications for energy substrate and water requirements. Carbohydrate, specifically muscle glycogen, is an obligatory fuel for the high power outputs demanded by athletic sports. Muscle glycogen is a limiting factor in hard exercise because it is held in limited amounts, utilised rapidly by intense exercise, and fatigue occurs when it is depleted to low levels in the active muscles. Liver glycogen may also be exhausted by hard exercise and low blood glucose contributes to fatigue. High sweat rates are demanded during severe exercise and large water deficits commensurate with

  1. Early adolescent nutritional rickets.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Gulati, Divesh

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate early adolescents with nutritional rickets and their responses to treatment. 203 adolescents (aged 10 to 13 years) presenting with clinical features of lower-limb deformity, carpopedal spasm, joint swelling, a significant limp, or non-traumatic joint pain were screened for nutritional rickets. Multi-specialty examinations were performed. Family size, number of earning members, number and gender of children, preference for vegetarian food, composition of the meals, and the amount of milk consumed in a day were recorded. Radiographs of wrists, knees, ankles, and pelvis, as well as serum calcium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase levels were evaluated. The diagnosis of nutritional rickets was made based on a combination of clinical, radiological, and biochemical criteria, and confirmed by the responses to treatment. Children with nutritional rickets were treated by a single large intramuscular dose of vitamin D (600,000 IU) along with oral calcium and supplementary vitamin D as well as advice on diet and sunlight exposure. 40 females and 11 males were diagnosed as having nutritional rickets. 65% presented with bilateral knee pain with aggravation at night, 37% presented with lower-limb deformity, 24% had joint swelling especially at the wrist and ankle, 6% had a significant limp and walked with an antalgic gait secondary to pathological fractures. No patient reported carpopedal spasm. All patients had rachitic changes on radiographs in some but not all bones (100% in the ulna, 45% in the radius, 37% in the upper tibia, 37% in the lower fibula and 22% in the lower tibia). Three patients had pathological fractures. 55% had hypocalcaemia, 41% had hypophosphataemia and 100% had raised serum alkaline phosphatase levels. The mean time for biochemical resolution was 12 (range, 3-24) weeks. For radiological resolution it was 5 (range, 2-6) months, with the lower end of ulna being last to resolve. Radiographs of the lower end of ulna and serum alkaline

  2. [Nutrition education or managing social communication for nutrition?].

    PubMed

    Andrien, M; Beghin, I

    1993-12-01

    Seven years ago Hygie published an article on the limits of conventional nutrition education in urban Africa. Strategies and methods in communication for nutrition have since evolved, incorporating results of international research to develop innovative, highly participative approaches. In this article the authors provide an extensive analysis of the different methodologies used in nutrition education programmes, in particular the KAB, social marketing, and community participation models, indicating main areas where each method used separately has failed. Members of the African Nutritional Education Network (RENA) have studied the above mentioned approaches, modifying them or integrating certain elements to adopt a more effective approach, which they consider somewhat as the management of social communication for nutrition education. Needs assessments and programme planning are largely enhanced by a causal analysis component specific to nutrition education in a community setting which has been developed by the authors. Other classic elements of programme implementation such as community participation, diversity of methods and intervention, are then combined with a multi-level/multi-actor evaluation processes to produce what the authors esteem to be a more effective nutrition education programme. They conclude, however, with the warning that although behavioural modifications brought about by nutrition communication and education might be beneficial for public health, they could have different, possibly adverse effects on other aspects of society. Effective nutrition education must therefore be included in a more extensive field of health promotion by acting on the multiple factors which influence the nutrition and health state of vulnerable groups.

  3. Nutrition and hair.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Lynne J; Lenzy, Yolanda

    2010-01-01

    Healthy-appearing hair is a sign of excellent general health, as well as good hair care practices. Most healthy individuals have adequate nutrients in their diet; however, many people do not have access to good nutrition, and others have medical illnesses that predispose them to nutritional deficiency. This is often reflected in changes of scalp and, at times, body hair. Malnutrition, congenital heart disease, neuromuscular disease, chronic illnesses, malignancy, alcoholism, and advanced age can cause hair to change color, be weakened, or lost. Recognition of the populations at risk for vitamin deficiency is the first step to their detection. Changes in skin and hair can provide clues to the presence of an underlying vitamin deficiency. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Nutrition and physical exercise].

    PubMed

    Palacios Gil-Antuñano, N

    2000-01-01

    The principles of a good diet and proper nutrition are the same for people practising sports and for non-athletes. The main difference lies in the amount of energy that sportsmen and women need to carry out a more intense physical activity and to keep an appropriate weight to allow greater performance. The relationship between nutrition and physical exercise has often been shrouded in confusion and conjecture, so certain products or supplements turn into real myths through attempts to achieve better athletic results, despite the fact the information available on the true effect of a particular substance or food on athletic performance is, quite limited and disputed. This paper attempts to clarify the scientific information available on this subject.

  5. Evolution of tree nutrition.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A; Andrews, Mitchell

    2010-09-01

    Using a broad definition of trees, the evolutionary origins of trees in a nutritional context is considered using data from the fossil record and molecular phylogeny. Trees are first known from the Late Devonian about 380 million years ago, originated polyphyletically at the pteridophyte grade of organization; the earliest gymnosperms were trees, and trees are polyphyletic in the angiosperms. Nutrient transporters, assimilatory pathways, homoiohydry (cuticle, intercellular gas spaces, stomata, endohydric water transport systems including xylem and phloem-like tissue) and arbuscular mycorrhizas preceded the origin of trees. Nutritional innovations that began uniquely in trees were the seed habit and, certainly (but not necessarily uniquely) in trees, ectomycorrhizas, cyanobacterial, actinorhizal and rhizobial (Parasponia, some legumes) diazotrophic symbioses and cluster roots.

  6. Nutrition, Epigenetics, and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Increasing epidemiological evidence suggests that maternal nutrition and environmental exposure early in development play an important role in susceptibility to disease in later life. In addition, these disease outcomes seem to pass through subsequent generations. Epigenetic modifications provide a potential link between the nutrition status during critical periods in development and changes in gene expression that may lead to disease phenotypes. An increasing body of evidence from experimental animal studies supports the role of epigenetics in disease susceptibility during critical developmental periods, including periconceptional period, gestation, and early postnatal period. The rapid improvements in genetic and epigenetic technologies will allow comprehensive investigations of the relevance of these epigenetic phenomena in human diseases. PMID:24527414

  7. Nutritional essentiality of vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, F.H.

    1986-02-01

    Evidence to support the essentiality of vanadium is inconclusive. Thus, it cannot be unequivocally stated that vanadium is an essential nutrient. The basis for this statement can be appreciated more fully if the following definitions are accepted. In this section, a substance is considered nutritionally essential if a dietary deficiency consistently results in a suboptimal biological function that is preventable or reversible by physiological amounts of the element. In this definition, physiological is construed as those quantities usually found in biological material. For vanadium, the usual amounts are measured in nanograms per gram, or parts per billion. The other term that should be defined is pharmacologic action. Here it means the effect of a relatively high dietary intake of a substance that alleviates an abnormality caused by something other than a nutritional deficiency.

  8. Nutrition know-how.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, E

    1998-01-01

    The changes in nutritional needs of the body as HIV progresses are discussed. Nutrition, food preparation, and supplements are areas where one can meet those changing needs. For instance, as HIV progresses, the body needs more calories and subsequently needs more protein to build lean body mass. Supplements of the amino acid L-glutamine can help with this. Resistance exercise and anabolic steroids also help to reverse wasting. One side effect of protease inhibitors is a surplus of fat in the blood. A list of vitamin supplements that lessen the cardiovascular risk from this excess fat is provided. Tips are provided for combating low energy and lack of appetite. Ideas for managing lactose intolerance are given and vegetarians are reminded to get enough vitamin B-12. Recommendations for maintaining food safety and water safety are provided. The importance of vitamin and mineral supplements is discussed and a chart provides recommended doses.

  9. Total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Cherit, Guillermo; Borunda, Delia; Rivero-Sigarroa, Eduardo

    2002-08-01

    In recent months, numerous reports concerning total parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients have been published, including the guidelines and recommendations of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. The old controversy regarding the use of the enteral versus parenteral route still exists. Although the enteral route is indicated in those patients with normal gastrointestinal function, the parenteral route is obviously beneficial in several clinical conditions and appears to be associated with few procedure-related complications when performed by experienced clinicians. There is also continued interest in the supplementation of parenteral formulas with nutrients that were previously considered nonessential, such as arginine, glutamine, and omega-3 fatty acids, but that may become essential in the setting of critical illness.

  10. Nutritional biochemistry of spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R

    2008-01-01

    As we approach the end of the first 50 years of human space travel, much has been learned about adaptation to microgravity and the risks associated with extended-duration space exploration. As the frequency and duration of flights grew, nutrition issues became more critical and the questions to be answered became more complex: What are the nutrient requirements for space travelers? Can nutrients be used as tools to mitigate the negative effects of space travel on humans? How does nutrition interrelate with other physiological systems (such as muscle, bone, and cardiovascular system) and their adaptation to microgravity? Much research has been done over the decades in both actual spaceflight and ground-based analogs. We review here much of what is known, and highlight areas of ongoing research and concerns for future exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond.

  11. Nutrition, frailty, and sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J; Kiesswetter, Eva; Drey, Michael; Sieber, Cornel C

    2017-02-01

    Frailty and sarcopenia are important concepts in the quest to prevent physical dependence, as geriatrics are shifting towards identifications of early stages of disability. Definitions of both sarcopenia and frailty are still developing, and both concepts clearly overlap in their physical aspects. Malnutrition (both undernutrition and obesity) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of frailty and sarcopenia. The quality of the diet along the lifespan has a close relation with the incidence of both entities, and nutritional interventions may be able to reduce the incidence or revert either of them. This brief review explores the role of energy and protein intake and other key nutrients on muscle function. Nutrition may be a key element of multimodal interventions for frailty and sarcopenia. The results of the "Sarcopenia and Physical fRailty IN older people: multi-componenT Treatment strategies" (SPRINTT) trial will offer key insights on the effect of such interventions in frail, sarcopenic older individuals.

  12. [Nutrition--obesity].

    PubMed

    Giusti, V; Clarisse, M; Di Vetta, V

    2005-01-05

    The gastric pacemaker is a new obesity treatment, which pleases by its simplicity and obvious lack of complications on the nutritional level. Its long-term efficacy is however to be confirmed and the criterions of the patients' selection to be defined. The rimonabant is a selective antagonist of the cannabinoid CBI receptor, able to reduce the quantity of the total food intake, and especially the greasy one. The first results on the short term look promising. The multiplication of food pyramids is the consequence of the scientific knowledge development in the nutritional field. On this basis, new pyramids are adapted, depending on the therapeutic objectives (weight loss, cardiovascular risk) and allowing either quantity or quality food. The taking charge of patients in group and according to the therapeutic education criterions makes easy a relation between the medical team and patients and allows these latters a better awareness of their disease and its long term treatment.

  13. Enteral nutrition by tube.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, P J; Hand, M S; Frederick, G S

    1990-01-01

    When oral intake is unsatisfactory or contraindicated, maintenance of nutrition by tube feeding is an alternative to the parenteral route. A large volume of research data supports the decision to use the enteral route whenever possible. Entry of food into the alimentary tract is a stimulus to structural and functional maintenance of that tract. Enteral nutrition can be given via indwelling nasoesophageal, pharyngostomy, esophagostomy, percutaneous or surgical gastrostomy, or enterostomy tube. Use of an appropriate catheter, familiarity with the technique used, and careful patient selection and monitoring are important factors in successful tube feeding. Blenderized pet food diets should be fed whenever possible; commercially available liquid diets provide an alternative when tube caliber or patient factors preclude the use of blenderized foods.

  14. Parenteral Nutrition and Lipids.

    PubMed

    Raman, Maitreyi; Almutairdi, Abdulelah; Mulesa, Leanne; Alberda, Cathy; Beattie, Colleen; Gramlich, Leah

    2017-04-14

    Lipids have multiple physiological roles that are biologically vital. Soybean oil lipid emulsions have been the mainstay of parenteral nutrition lipid formulations for decades in North America. Utilizing intravenous lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition has minimized the dependence on dextrose as a major source of nonprotein calories and prevents the clinical consequences of essential fatty acid deficiency. Emerging literature has indicated that there are benefits to utilizing alternative lipids such as olive/soy-based formulations, and combination lipids such as soy/MCT/olive/fish oil, compared with soybean based lipids, as they have less inflammatory properties, are immune modulating, have higher antioxidant content, decrease risk of cholestasis, and improve clinical outcomes in certain subgroups of patients. The objective of this article is to review the history of IVLE, their composition, the different generations of widely available IVLE, the variables to consider when selecting lipids, and the complications of IVLE and how to minimize them.

  15. Priority nutrition messages.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The Philippine Food and Nutrition Program deliver priority short, simple, clear, and action filled nutrition messages in different languages and dialects to different audiences. Its 1st priority task is to promote breast feeding. It informs mothers that breast milk is the most nutritious food for infants and that it protects them from infectious diseases. The program also encourages breast feeding as long as possible. If mothers cannot breast feed, they should talk to an infant nutrition expert to help them choose the best formula and learn about proper preparation. A 4-6 month infant needs to begin eating small amounts of semisolid nutritious foods. Moreover these foods must include body building foods, such as meat and eggs, and energy providing foods, such as corn and rice. Mothers must 1st attend to food needs of infants and preschoolers since they are more likely to suffer malnutrition than older children and adults. This is especially important when they suffer from an infection. Specifically, the very young need a variety of foods each day including the vitamin and mineral rich vegetables and fruits. In fact, families should grow their own fruits and vegetables to ensure an adequate supply. Hands must be cleaned with soap and water after defecation and before preparing foods. Mothers should add fats and oils when preparing foods because they provide concentrated energy, fatty acids, and fat soluble vitamins. Pregnant mothers must consume increased amounts of fish, beans, and other body building foods as well as regulating foods (vegetables and fruits). Mothers must also space births. They should weigh children each month to monitor nutritional levels. Moreover they must pay attention to signs indicating inadequate and insufficient food intake e.g., underweight and night blindness.

  16. [Nutritional education at school].

    PubMed

    Gavidia, Valentín; Talavera, Marta; Asensi, Alejandro

    2004-02-01

    Children and youths who are well-educated run a lower risk of developing eating disorders; therefore teaching these topics in schools is very important. Nonetheless, disorders such as obesity, anorexia and bulimia occur more frequently all the time among children and youths. What is happening? If students are offered a correct nutritional basis, why do these disorders not decrease? What can be done in schools about these disorders?

  17. Update. Llama nutrition.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L W

    1994-07-01

    An understanding and appreciation of the New World Camelids' unique gastric anatomy and physiology, including rapid motility, prolonged digesta retention, rapid liquid passage rate, low protein maintenance requirements, low metabolized energy requirements, and low basal metabolism are imperative. Using this background, feeding recommendations for growing male llamas are proposed, and some suggestions are made concerning nutritional considerations of NWCs during the neonatal period, lactation, pregnancy, and work.

  18. Trending Cardiovascular Nutrition Controversies.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Andrew M; Morris, Pamela B; Barnard, Neal; Esselstyn, Caldwell B; Ros, Emilio; Agatston, Arthur; Devries, Stephen; O'Keefe, James; Miller, Michael; Ornish, Dean; Williams, Kim; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2017-03-07

    The potential cardiovascular benefits of several trending foods and dietary patterns are still incompletely understood, and nutritional science continues to evolve. However, in the meantime, a number of controversial dietary patterns, foods, and nutrients have received significant media exposure and are mired by hype. This review addresses some of the more popular foods and dietary patterns that are promoted for cardiovascular health to provide clinicians with accurate information for patient discussions in the clinical setting.

  19. [Micronutrients in parenteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    García de Lorenzo, A; Alvarez, J; Bermejo, T; Gomis, P; Piñeiro, G

    2009-01-01

    At a multidisciplinary debate, and after reviewing the evidence available as well as experts' opinion, the IV Baxter-SENPE Working Panel established the indications and managemente guidelines for micronutrients (water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins, and oligoelements or trace elements) in parenteral nutrition. It was concluded about the convenience of daily intake of micronutrients with diferent options regarding deficiente or excessive dosages, administration systems, interactions, monitoring, and cots-effectiveness.

  20. Nutrition for adventure racing.

    PubMed

    Ranchordas, Mayur K

    2012-11-01

    Adventure racing requires competitors to perform various disciplines ranging from, but not limited to, mountain biking, running, kayaking, climbing, mountaineering, flat- and white-water boating and orienteering over a rugged, often remote and wilderness terrain. Races can vary from 6 hours to expedition-length events that can last up to 10-consecutive days or more. The purpose of this article is to provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for adventure racing competitors. Energy expenditures of 365-750 kcal/hour have been reported with total energy expenditures of 18 000-80 000 kcal required to complete adventure races, and large negative energy balances during competitions have been reported. Nutrition, therefore, plays a major role in the successful completion of such ultra-endurance events. Conducting research in these events is challenging and the limited studies investigating dietary surveys and nutritional status of adventure racers indicate that competitors do not meet nutrition recommendations for ultra-endurance exercise. Carbohydrate intakes of 7-12 g/kg are needed during periods of prolonged training to meet requirements and replenish glycogen stores. Protein intakes of 1.4-1.7 g/kg are recommended to build and repair tissue. Adequate replacement of fluid and electrolytes are crucial, particularly during extreme temperatures; however, sweat rates can vary greatly between competitors. There is considerable evidence to support the use of sports drinks, gels and bars, as they are a convenient and portable source of carbohydrate that can be consumed during exercise, in training and in competition. Similarly, protein and amino acid supplements can be useful to help meet periods of increased protein requirements. Caffeine can be used as an ergogenic aid to help competitors stay awake during prolonged periods, enhance glycogen resynthesis and enhance endurance performance.

  1. Nutritional Management of Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, Erin L.; Ney, Denise M.

    2010-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by deficient activity of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, needed to convert the essential amino acid (AA) phenylalanine (phe) to tyrosine. In order to prevent neurological damage, lifelong adherence to a low-phe diet that is restricted in natural foods and requires ingestion of a phe-free AA formula to meet protein needs is required. The goal of nutritional management for those with PKU is to maintain plasma phe concentrations that support optimal growth, development, and mental functioning while providing a nutritionally complete diet. This paper reviews developing a lifelong dietary prescription for those with PKU, outcomes of nutritional management, compliance with the low-phe diet across the life cycle, and new options for nutritional management. An individualized dietary prescription is needed to meet nutrient requirements, and the adequacy of phe intake is monitored with assessment of blood phe levels. Elevated phe concentrations may occur due to illness, excessive or inadequate phe intake, or inadequate intake of AA formula. Although normal growth and development occurs with adherence to the low-phe diet, it is important to monitor vitamin, mineral and essential fatty acid status, especially in those who do not consume sufficient AA formula. Given the growing population of adults with PKU, further research is needed to understand the risks for developing osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. There are promising new options to liberalize the diet and improve metabolic control such as tetrahydrobiopterin therapy or supplementation with large neutral AAs. Moreover, foods made with glycomacropeptide, an intact protein that contains minimal phe, improves the PKU diet by offering a palatable alternative to AA formula. In summary, continued efforts are needed to overcome the biggest challenge to living with PKU – lifelong adherence to the low-phe diet. PMID:22475869

  2. Nutrition and parasite interaction.

    PubMed

    Coop, R L; Holmes, P H

    1996-01-01

    This overview focuses on the interaction between nutritional status and gastrointestinal nematode infection in ruminants and considers: (i) the influence of the parasite on host metabolism; and (ii) the effect of host nutrition on the establishment and survival of parasite populations, the development of the host-immune response and the pathophysiology of infection. Gastrointestinal nematodes reduce voluntary feed intake and efficiency of feed utilisation, a key feature being an increased endogenous loss of protein into the gastrointestinal tract. Overall there is movement of protein from productive processes into repair of the gastrointestinal tract, synthesis of plasma proteins and mucoprotein production. Although reduction in feed intake is a major factor contributing to the reduced performance of parasitised ruminants, the underlying mechanisms of the anorexia are poorly understood. Supplementation of the diet with additional protein does not appear to affect initial establishment of nematode infections but the pathophysiological consequences are generally more severe on lower planes of protein nutrition. The main effect of protein supplementation is to increase the rate of acquisition of immunity and increase resistance to reinfection and this has been associated with an enhanced cellular immune response in the gastrointestinal mucosa. The unresponsiveness of the young lamb can be improved by dietary protein supplementation. Recent trials have shown that growing sheep offered a free choice between a low and a high protein ration are able to modify their diet selection in order to alleviate the increase in protein requirements which result from gastrointestinal nematode infection. Studies on the influence of nutrition on the expression of genotype have shown that the benefits of a superior genotype are not lost on a low protein diet whereas a high protein diet can partially emeliorate the disadvantages of an inferior genotype. In addition to dietary protein

  3. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  4. Personalized nutrition and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Lu

    2017-01-01

    The past few decades have witnessed a rapid rise in nutrition-related disorders such as obesity in the United States and over the world. Traditional nutrition research has associated various foods and nutrients with obesity. Recent advances in genomics have led to identification of the genetic variants determining body weight and related dietary factors such as intakes of energy and macronutrients. In addition, compelling evidence has lent support to interactions between genetic variations and dietary factors in relation to obesity and weight change. Moreover, recently emerging data from other ‘omics’ studies such as epigenomics and metabolomics suggest that more complex interplays between the global features of human body and dietary factors may exist at multiple tiers in affecting individuals’ susceptibility to obesity; and a concept of ‘personalized nutrition’ has been proposed to integrate this novel knowledge with traditional nutrition research, with the hope ultimately to endorse person-centric diet intervention to mitigate obesity and related disorders. PMID:24716734

  5. Political economy challenges in nutrition.

    PubMed

    Balarajan, Yarlini; Reich, Michael R

    2016-11-05

    Historically, implementing nutrition policy has confronted persistent obstacles, with many of these obstacles arising from political economy sources. While there has been increased global policy attention to improving nutrition in recent years, the difficulty of translating this policy momentum into results remains. We present key political economy themes emanating from the political economy of nutrition literature. Together, these interrelated themes create a complex web of obstacles to moving nutrition policy forward. From these themes, we frame six political economy challenges facing the implementation of nutrition policy today. Building awareness of the broader political and economic issues that shape nutrition actions and adopting a more systematic approach to political economy analysis may help to mitigate these challenges. Improving nutrition will require managing the political economy challenges that persist in the nutrition field at global, national and subnational levels. We argue that a "mindshift" is required to build greater awareness of the broader political economy factors shaping the global nutrition landscape; and to embed systematic political economy analysis into the work of stakeholders navigating this field. This mindshift may help to improve the political feasibility of efforts to reform nutrition policy and implementation-and ensure that historical legacies do not continue to shape the future.

  6. Review of nutrition labeling formats.

    PubMed

    Geiger, C J; Wyse, B W; Parent, C R; Hansen, R G

    1991-07-01

    This article examines nutrition labeling history as well as the findings of nine research studies of nutrition labeling formats. Nutrition labeling regulations were announced in 1973 and have been periodically amended since then. In response to requests from consumers and health care professionals for revision of the labeling system, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a three-phase plan for reform of nutrition labeling in 1990. President Bush signed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act in November 1990. Literature analysis revealed that only nine studies with an experimental design have focused on nutrition labeling since 1971. Four were conducted before 1975, which was the year that nutrition labeling was officially implemented, two were conducted in 1980, and three were conducted after 1986. Only two of the nine studies supported the traditional label format mandated by the Code of Federal Regulations, and one study partially supported it. Four of the nine studies that evaluated graphic presentations of nutrition information found that consumer comprehension of nutrition information was improved with a graphic format for nutrition labeling: three studies supported the use of bar graphs and one study supported the use of a pie chart. Full disclosure (ie, complete nutrient and ingredient labeling) was preferred by consumers in two of the three studies that examined this variable. The third study supported three types of information disclosure dependent upon socioeconomic class. In those studies that tested graphics, a bar graph format was significantly preferred and showed better consumer comprehension than the traditional format.

  7. [Nutrition therapy of cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Lövey, József

    2017-09-20

    The majority of cancer patients becomes malnourished during the course of their disease. Malnutrition deteriorates the efficiency of all kinds of oncologic interventions. As a consequence of it, treatment-related toxicity increases, hospital stay is lengthened, chances of cure and survival as well as the quality of life of the patients worsen. Nutritional status therefore influences all aspects of outcome of oncology care. In spite of this the use of nutritional therapy varies across health care providers but its application is far from being sufficient during active oncology interventions as well as rehabilitation and supportive care. It threatens not only the outcome and quality of life of cancer patients but also the success of oncologic treatments which often demand high input of human and financial resources. Meanwhile application of nutritional therapy is legally regulated in Hungary and a very recent update of the European guideline on cancer patient nutrition published in 2017 is available. Moreover, cost effectiveness of nutritional therapy has been proven in a number of studies. In this review we present the basics of nutritional therapy including nutritional screening and evaluation, nutritional plan, the role of nutrition support teams, oral, enteral and parenteral nutrition, the use of different drugs and special nutrients and the follow-up of the patients.

  8. An unexpected life in nutrition.

    PubMed

    Nesheim, Malden C

    2012-08-21

    In this biographical article, I describe the evolution of my career in nutrition from an early period as an animal nutritionist interested in amino acid metabolism and genetic variation in nutrient requirements to an involvement in human nutrition and international public health. The career changes were in some respects a mirror of the evolution of nutritional science in my lifetime. I spent my entire career at Cornell University in what I think of as three distinct phases. As a researcher and teacher in the Poultry Science Department, I was able to do research in animal nutrition and witness the rapid industrialization of the production of poultry meat and eggs, helped by the findings of the era of nutrient discovery in nutritional science. Later I had the opportunity to lead the reorganization of human nutrition at Cornell during a period when research in nutritional science turned away from identifying new nutrients and became increasingly concerned with the roles of diet and chronic disease. During this period my research focus evolved as I became interested in aspects of international nutrition problems, particularly the influence of parasitic infections on child health and nutrition. I also became involved nationally in nutrition issues through participation in organizations such as the National Nutrition Consortium, the Food and Nutrition Board, and National Institutes of Health study sections at a time of great ferment in nutrition about the relationship of dietary patterns to health. Finally, I became provost of Cornell University and involved in the administration of a major research university. I describe my career in the context of my origins and early education springing from life on a sustainable family farm in rural Illinois.

  9. Nutritional biology: a neglected basic discipline of nutritional science.

    PubMed

    Döring, Frank; Ströhle, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    On the basis of a scientific-philosophical analysis, this paper tries to show that the approaches in current nutritional science-including its subdisciplines which focus on molecular aspects-are predominantly application-oriented. This becomes particularly evident through a number of conceptual problems characterized by the triad of 'dearth of theoretical foundation,' 'particularist research questions,' and 'reductionist understanding of nutrition.' The thesis presented here is that an interpretive framework based on nutritional biology is able to shed constructive light on the fundamental problems of nutritional science. In this context, the establishment of 'nutritional biology' as a basic discipline in research and education would be a first step toward recognizing the phenomenon of 'nutrition' as an oecic process as a special case of an organism-environment interaction. Modern nutritional science should be substantively grounded on ecological-and therefore systems biology as well as organismic-principles. The aim of nutritional biology, then, should be to develop near-universal 'law statements' in nutritional science-a task which presents a major challenge for the current science system.

  10. Can Nutritional Assessment Tools Predict Response to Nutritional Therapy?

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag; Omer, Endashaw; Diamond, Sarah J; McClave, Stephen A

    2016-04-01

    Traditional tools and scoring systems for nutritional assessment have focused solely on parameters of poor nutritional status in the past, in an effort to define the elusive concept of malnutrition. Such tools fail to account for the contribution of disease severity to overall nutritional risk. High nutritional risk, caused by either deterioration of nutritional status or greater disease severity (or a combination of both factors), puts the patient in a metabolic stress state characterized by adverse outcome and increased complications. Newer scoring systems for determining nutritional risk, such as the Nutric Score and the Nutritional Risk Score-2002 have created a paradigm shift connecting assessment and treatment with quality outcome measures of success. Clinicians now have the opportunity to identify high risk patients through their initial assessment, provide adequate or sufficient nutrition therapy, and expect improved patient outcomes as a result. These concepts are supported by observational and prospective interventional trials. Greater clinical experience and refinement in these scoring systems are needed in the future to optimize patient response to nutrition therapy.

  11. Nutrition and the open abdomen.

    PubMed

    Powell, Nathan J; Collier, Bryan

    2012-08-01

    Adequate nutrition support is critical in the management of patients with an open abdomen. Despite the literature supporting its use in trauma patients, provider concerns and clinical controversies remain regarding the early administration and long-term sequelae of enteral nutrition (EN) therapy in these patients. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical concepts behind the use of the open abdomen, as well as examine the altered nutrition requirements associated with the maintenance of a temporary laparostomy. The rationale for early EN is described, as well as the pros and cons surrounding the use of supplemental parenteral nutrition in those patients unable to meet nutrition goals enterally in a reasonable time frame. Finally, an open abdomen nutrition support algorithm is provided as part of the critical care plan in these patients who represent the sickest of surgical patients.

  12. Nutritional considerations after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Malnutrition is a risk that is associated with all bariatric surgeries. Malnutrition is largely preventable after these surgeries if proper patient selection, thorough preoperative nutrition education, and postoperative nutritional follow-up take place along with patient compliance. Bariatric surgery is divided into 2 major categories: restrictive or malabsorptive (with or without the restrictive aspect). The more dramatic weight loss is generally associated with procedures that are malabsorptive in nature. There is an increased risk of specific nutritional deficiencies associated with these surgeries. With proper supplementation these deficiencies are largely avoidable. This article reviews the more common bariatric surgeries and the nutritional considerations associated specifically with each surgery. The article then summarizes the typical diet advancement schedule and reviews critical care nutrition in regards to total parenteral nutrition administration for the morbidly obese individual, following bariatric surgery.

  13. Nutritional management of enterocutaneous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Slater, Rebecca

    Enterocutaneous fistulas (ECF) may be challenging to manage due to the large volume of fluid losses, that may result in severe dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, malnutrition and sepsis. It is imperative that this group of patients receive adequate nutrition, as malnutrition and sepsis are the leading cause of death. ECF treatment is complex and based on various assessments, treatment can be medical/conservative management or surgical. Depending on the site of the fistula and the nutritional status of the patient, clinicians have to decide whether parenteral nutrition or enteral nutrition should be established. Fistuloclysis is a relatively novel procedure in which nutrition is provided via an enteral feeding tube placed directly into the distal lumen of a high output fistula. Although fistuloclysis is not feasible for all patients with ECF, for those that are eligible, the method appears to be an acceptable and safe method of maintaining and improving nutritional status.

  14. Nutritional Considerations for Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Angela

    1985-01-01

    Although weight loss is a frequent, though not invariable, component of the cancer syndrome, the associated malnutrition is a poor prognostic sign among both children and adults. This article describes the possible mechanisms of cancer cachexia; reviews the present state of nutritional support in cancer patients; identifies nutritional problems and workable approaches during the pre- and post-treatment periods; discusses the unconventional nutritional practices commonly encountered and lists resource materials for patients and families. PMID:21274086

  15. Metabolic Studies in Military Nutrition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    The Surgeon General’s Office over a period of years has undertaken an extensive research program into the chemistry, nutrition , and wholesomeness of...Research and Nutrition Laboratory has undertaken the studies of the wholesomeness of food preserved by ionizing radiation. Work on radiated food has been...physiological, metabolic, and nutritional research in normal young adult men has been going on making use of volunteer human test subjects.

  16. Nutritional support in the critically injured.

    PubMed

    Fox, Vicki J; Miller, Julie; McClung, Meredith

    2004-12-01

    Nutritional support must be an integral part of the management of trauma victims. This article compares the stress response, a maladaptive response, and starvation, an adaptive process, examines the clinical research regarding total parenteral nutrition and total enteral nutrition, provides an evidence-based approach to initiating nutritional support in critically injured patients, and discusses considerations in selecting nutritional formulas.

  17. 45 CFR 1326.15 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section 1326.15 Public... INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Indians, a tribal organization may: (1) Provide nutrition services to...

  18. 45 CFR 1328.15 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1328.15 Section 1328.15 Public... SUPPORTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL SERVICES TO OLDER HAWAIIAN NATIVES § 1328.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Hawaiian Natives, a grantee may: (1) Provide nutrition...

  19. 45 CFR 1328.15 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1328.15 Section 1328.15 Public... SUPPORTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL SERVICES TO OLDER HAWAIIAN NATIVES § 1328.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Hawaiian Natives, a grantee may: (1) Provide nutrition...

  20. 45 CFR 1328.15 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1328.15 Section 1328.15 Public... SUPPORTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL SERVICES TO OLDER HAWAIIAN NATIVES § 1328.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Hawaiian Natives, a grantee may: (1) Provide nutrition...

  1. 45 CFR 1326.15 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section 1326.15 Public... INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Indians, a tribal organization may: (1) Provide nutrition services to...

  2. 45 CFR 1326.15 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section 1326.15 Public... INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Indians, a tribal organization may: (1) Provide nutrition services to...

  3. 45 CFR 1326.15 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section 1326.15 Public... INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Indians, a tribal organization may: (1) Provide nutrition services to...

  4. 45 CFR 1328.15 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1328.15 Section 1328.15 Public... SUPPORTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL SERVICES TO OLDER HAWAIIAN NATIVES § 1328.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Hawaiian Natives, a grantee may: (1) Provide nutrition...

  5. 45 CFR 1328.15 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1328.15 Section 1328.15 Public... SUPPORTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL SERVICES TO OLDER HAWAIIAN NATIVES § 1328.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Hawaiian Natives, a grantee may: (1) Provide nutrition...

  6. 45 CFR 1326.15 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section 1326.15 Public... INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Indians, a tribal organization may: (1) Provide nutrition services to...

  7. Committee on Military Nutrition Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    MILITARY RESEARCH, * NUTRITION , MILITARY PERSONNEL, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), METABOLISM, NUTRIENTS, HIGH ENERGY, MEDICAL RESEARCH, FOOD, DIET, MENTAL ABILITY, WORKSHOPS, BIOMEDICINE, CAFFEINE, SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE.

  8. Nutritional support of reptile patients.

    PubMed

    De Voe, Ryan S

    2014-05-01

    Providing nutritional support to reptile patients is a challenging and often misunderstood task. Ill reptiles are frequently anorexic and can benefit greatly from appropriate nutrition delivered via a variety of assist-feeding techniques. Neonatal reptiles can also be very challenging patients because many fail to thrive without significant efforts to establish normal feeding behaviors. This article presents ideas supporting the benefit of timely nutritional support as well as specific recommendations for implementation of assist feeding. Also discussed are a few nutritional issues that affect captive reptile species.

  9. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    PubMed

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.

  10. History of parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Dudrick, Stanley J

    2009-06-01

    The concept of feeding patients entirely parenterally by injecting nutrient substances or fluids intravenously was advocated and attempted long before the successful practical development of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) four decades ago. Realization of this 400 year old seemingly fanciful dream initially required centuries of fundamental investigation coupled with basic technological advances and judicious clinical applications. Most clinicians in the 1950's were aware of the negative impact of starvation on morbidity, mortality, and outcomes, but only few understood the necessity for providing adequate nutritional support to malnourished patients if optimal clinical results were to be achieved. The prevailing dogma in the 1960's was that, "Feeding entirely by vein is impossible; even if it were possible, it would be impractical; and even if it were practical, it would be unaffordable." Major challenges to the development of TPN included: (1) formulate complete parenteral nutrient solutions (did not exist), (2) concentrate substrate components to 5-6 times isotonicity without precipitation (not easily done), (3) demonstrate utility and safety of long-term central venous catheterization (not looked upon with favor by the medical hierarchy), (4) demonstrate efficacy and safety of long-term infusion of hypertonic nutrient solutions (contrary to clinical practices at the time), (5) maintain asepsis and antisepsis throughout solution preparation and delivery (required a major culture change), and (6) anticipate, avoid, and correct metabolic imbalances or derangements (a monumental challenge and undertaking). This presentation recounts approaches to, and solution of, some of the daunting problems as really occurred in a comprehensive, concise and candid history of parenteral nutrition.

  11. Childhood nutrition and poverty.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M

    2000-05-01

    One in three children in Britain lives in poverty (households whose income was less than 50% average earnings). Low income is associated with poor nutrition at all stages of life, from lower rates of breast-feeding to higher intakes of saturated fatty acids and lower intakes of antioxidant nutrients. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that poor nutrition in childhood is associated with both short-term and long-term adverse consequences such as poorer immune status, higher caries rates and poorer cognitive function and learning ability. These problems arise primarily because parents do not have enough money to spend on food, not because money is being spent unwisely. Policy options to improve the dietary health of poor children include: giving more money to the parents by increasing Income Support (social security) payments, providing food stamps or vouchers, and using food budget standards to inform the levels of income needed to purchase an adequate diet; feeding children directly at school (not only at lunchtime but also at breakfast or homework clubs), by providing free fruit at school, and by increasing entitlement to free food amongst children living in households with low incomes; improving access to a healthy and affordable diet by first identifying 'food deserts' and then considering with retailers and local planners how best to provide food in an economical and sustainable way. The value of using food budget standards is illustrated with data relating expenditure on food to growth in children from 'at-risk' families (on low income, overcrowded, headed by a lone parent or with four or more children under 16 years of age) living in a poor area in London. Lower levels of expenditure are strongly associated with poorer growth and health, independent of factors such as birth weight, mother's height, or risk score. The present paper provides evidence that supports the need to review Government legislation in light of nutrition-related inequalities in the

  12. Fibre and enteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Silk, D B

    1989-01-01

    The recent launch of a number of fibre enriched polymeric diet in the United States and Europe has stimulated considerable interest in the topic of fibre and enteral nutrition, and several commercial concerns appear to be under considerable pressures from their consumers to produce similar products. As a means of identifying areas of potential application of fibre to enteral nutrition some of the recent knowledge gained about the physical properties of dietary fibre and the processes involved in the intestinal assimilation of fibre has been reviewed. Two areas of interest are identifiable. The first relates to the bulking properties of fibre and the application of this to the regulation of bowel function in enterally fed patients. It is clear from the clinical studies that have been reviewed that there remains a paucity of controlled data, and a great deal more research is needed before widespread use of fibre supplemented diets can be supported. Perhaps of greater interest academically is the potentially beneficial effects that appear to be exerted by the VFA's, liberated as a consequence of colonic bacterial fermentation of fibre, on morphology and function of ileal and colonic mucosa. Although there are a number of potential applications of fibre supplemented enteral diets in this area, more research is required before any firm recommendations can be made about recommending their use. The one exception concerns patients with the nutritionally inadequate short bowel syndrome. There does seem to be sufficient experimental evidence to suggest that clinical studies should be commenced using a pectin supplemented predigested 'elemental' diet in these patients. Overall therefore, one is forced to conclude that the increasing interest and use of fibre supplemented enteral diets is being driven more by market than scientific forces. Nevertheless, the promotion of these diets has already provided a powerful stimulus to the scientific community, and it remains entirely

  13. Nutritional rickets at puberty

    PubMed Central

    Moncrieff, M. W.; Lunt, H. R. W.; Arthur, L. J. H.

    1973-01-01

    Four adolescent Asians with vitamin D deficiency rickets were seen in Derby in the 5 years 1967 to 1971. They had an extremely low intake of vitamin D, and this, combined with the extra metabolic demands of puberty, was judged to be the main cause of the rickets. However, since investigation of their sibs revealed 4 further cases of rickets, it is possible that some of these children had an inherited disability in the metabolism of vitamin D. 2 cases of iron deficiency anaemia were found among their sibs. We suspect that nutritional deficiencies may be widespread in the Asian community in Britain and that prevention depends on dietary education. PMID:4693463

  14. Nutrition Interventions for Obesity.

    PubMed

    Ard, Jamy D; Miller, Gary; Kahan, Scott

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a common disorder with complex causes. The epidemic has spurred significant advances in the understanding of nutritional approaches to treating obesity. Although the primary challenge is to introduce a dietary intake that creates an energy deficit, clinicians should also consider targeted risk factor modification with manipulation of the nutrient profile of the weight-reducing diet. These strategies produce significant weight loss and improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors. Future research is needed to better understand how to personalize nutrient prescriptions further to promote optimal risk modification and maintenance of long-term energy balance in the weight-reduced state.

  15. Standardised parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Simmer, Karen; Rakshasbhuvankar, Abhijeet; Deshpande, Girish

    2013-03-28

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) has become an integral part of clinical management of very low birth weight premature neonates. Traditionally different components of PN are prescribed individually considering requirements of an individual neonate (IPN). More recently, standardised PN formulations (SPN) for preterm neonates have been assessed and may have advantages including better provision of nutrients, less prescription and administration errors, decreased risk of infection, and cost savings. The recent introduction of triple-chamber bag that provides total nutrient admixture for neonates may have additional advantage of decreased risk of contamination and ease of administration.

  16. Nutrition and Bipolar Depression.

    PubMed

    Beyer, John L; Payne, Martha E

    2016-03-01

    As with physical conditions, bipolar disorder is likely to be impacted by diet and nutrition. Patients with bipolar disorder have been noted to have relatively unhealthy diets, which may in part be the reason they also have an elevated risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. An improvement in the quality of the diet should improve a bipolar patient's overall health risk profile, but it may also improve their psychiatric outcomes. New insights into biological dysfunctions that may be present in bipolar disorder have presented new theoretic frameworks for understanding the relationship between diet and bipolar disorder.

  17. [Nutrition integrators in sports].

    PubMed

    Candela, R G; Lettieri, L A; De Lellis Laterza, C

    1997-11-01

    The use or abuse of many preparations, available in the gymnasium or as top-bench drugs, used as nutritive integrators, determines both toxicological and deontological and especially sport medicine problems, because these products are also involved in the antidoping control. Therefore, this article cover the needs for providing a consultation and information manual for all sport operators in the delicate phase of drug-food integration of the athlete, not only to prevent and restrict the doping phenomenon, but also for health-preservation of the athlete.

  18. Towards a National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition and Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    Experts testifying at the National Nutrition Policy study hearings on June 19-21, 1974 in Washington, at the invitation of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, recommended several steps which the committee staff feel merit a prompt Congressional response. This report prepared by staff incorporates those recommendations,…

  19. Nutrition and the Athlete. New Horizons in Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Justine; Grogan, Jane, Ed.

    This instructional handbook is one of a series of ten packets designed to form a comprehensive course in nutrition for secondary students. This booklet examines some of the more common myths associated with sport nutrition and provides basic guidelines for sound dietary habits for both athletes and nonathletes. It contains a page of teaching…

  20. Nutrition and the Athlete. New Horizons in Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Justine; Grogan, Jane, Ed.

    This instructional handbook is one of a series of ten packets designed to form a comprehensive course in nutrition for secondary students. This booklet examines some of the more common myths associated with sport nutrition and provides basic guidelines for sound dietary habits for both athletes and nonathletes. It contains a page of teaching…

  1. Diets of the Elderly, Nutrition Labeling and Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pao, Eleanor M.; Hill, Mary M.

    1974-01-01

    Nutrition labeling regulations introduce United States-Recommended Daily Allowances (RDAs) or higher values than current NRC-RDAs for elderly people. Since few elderly diets met the lower recommendations ways to use the new nutrition information are suggested. (Author/RH)

  2. Nutrition and Educational Achievement. Nutrition Education Series. Issue 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Ernesto

    A selective review of literature on the effects of nutrition and malnutrition on educational achievement is presented. Interpretive critiques of studies focus on three areas: (1) the effects of early undernutrition and subsequent intellectual function and school progress; (2) the relationship between the nutritional status of the student and…

  3. Nutrition economics - characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition.

    PubMed

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Dapoigny, M; Dubois, D; van Ganse, E; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I; Hutton, J; Jones, P; Mittendorf, T; Poley, M J; Salminen, S; Nuijten, M J C

    2011-01-01

    There is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to estimate the absolute and relative monetary impact of health measures. For this purpose, an expert meeting assessed questions aimed at clarifying the scope and identifying the key issues that should be taken into consideration in developing nutrition economics as a discipline that could potentially address important questions. We propose a first multidisciplinary outline for understanding the principles and particular characteristics of this emerging field. We summarise here the concepts and the observations of workshop participants and propose a basic setting for nutrition economics and health outcomes research as a novel discipline to support nutrition, health economics and health policy development in an evidence and health-benefit-based manner.

  4. Diets of the Elderly, Nutrition Labeling and Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pao, Eleanor M.; Hill, Mary M.

    1974-01-01

    Nutrition labeling regulations introduce United States-Recommended Daily Allowances (RDAs) or higher values than current NRC-RDAs for elderly people. Since few elderly diets met the lower recommendations ways to use the new nutrition information are suggested. (Author/RH)

  5. Clinical nutrition and drug interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ekincioğlu, Aygin Bayraktar; Demirkan, Kutay

    2013-01-01

    A drug’s plasma level, pharmacological effects or side effects, elimination, physicochemical properties or stability could be changed by interactions of drug-drug or drug-nutrition products in patients who receive enteral or parenteral nutritional support. As a result, patients might experience ineffective outcomes or unexpected effects of therapy (such as drug toxicity, embolism). Stability or incompatibility problems between parenteral nutrition admixtures and drugs might lead to alterations in expected therapeutic responses from drug and/or parenteral nutrition, occlusion in venous catheter or symptoms or mortality due to infusion of composed particles. Compatibilities between parenteral nutrition and drugs are not always guaranteed in clinical practice. Although the list of compatibility or incompatibilities of drugs are published for the use of clinicians in their practices, factors such as composition of parenteral nutrition admixture, drug concentration, contact time in catheter, temperature of the environment and exposure to light could change the status of compatibilities between drugs and nutrition admixtures. There could be substantial clinical changes occurring in the patient’s nutritional status and pharmacological effects of drugs due to interactions between enteral nutrition and drugs. Drug toxicity and ineffective nutritional support might occur as a result of those predictable interactions. Although administration of drugs via feeding tube is a complex and problematic route for drug usage, it is possible to minimise the risk of tube occlusion, decreased effects of drug and drug toxicity by using an appropriate technique. Therefore, it is important to consider pharmacological dosage forms of drugs while administering drugs via a feeding tube. In conclusion, since the pharmacists are well-experienced and more knowledgeable professionals in drugs and drug usage compared to other healthcare providers, it is suggested that provision of information

  6. The new nutrition science project.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Geoffrey; Leitzmann, Claus

    2005-09-01

    To show that nutrition science, with its application to food and nutrition policy, now needs a new conceptual framework. This will incorporate nutrition in its current definition as principally a biological science, now including nutritional aspects of genomics. It will also create new governing and guiding principles; specify a new definition; and add social and environmental dimensions and domains. A narrative review of nutrition science, its successes and achievements, and its dilemmas, paradoxes, shortcomings, dissonances and challenges. Reference is made to 16 associated papers. Equal use is made of continuous text and of boxed texts that extend the review and give salient examples. Recent and current interrelated electronic and genomic discoveries and linked sequential demographic, nutritional and epidemiological shifts, in the context of associated and interlinked global social, cultural, environmental, economic, political and other developments, altogether amount to a world in revolution, requiring all disciplines including that of nutrition science to make comparably radical responses. Nutrition in principle and practice should be a biological and also an environmental and social science. This new broad integrated structure brings much recent and current progressive work into the centre of nutrition science, and in some ways is a renewal of the period when nutrition science had its greatest impact. It amounts to a map charting well-known and also new worlds. The new nutrition science is concerned with personal and population health, and also with planetary health--the welfare and future of the whole physical and living world of which humans are a part. In this way the discipline will make a greater contribution to the preservation, maintenance, development and sustenance of life on Earth, appropriate for the twenty-first century.

  7. Nutrition economics: towards comprehensive understanding of the benefits of nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Koponen, Aki; Sandell, Mari; Salminen, Seppo; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene

    2012-01-01

    There has been an increase in the knowledge and interest on nutrition, and functional foods have gained popularity over the last few decades, and the trend is increasing. Probiotics and prebiotics are among the most studied functional foods. Nutrition economics has been defined as the discipline dedicated to researching and characterising health and economic outcomes in nutrition for the benefit of society. The concept and its application to probiotics and prebiotics will be discussed in terms of health and economic benefits and their evaluation. Health economics and concrete applications showing how to maximise long-term nutritional benefits will contribute to motivate consumers in making food choices based on a rational understanding of their own interest. We present a model that shows that nutrition economics can be used as an analytical tool for product and service network development. PMID:23990809

  8. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition for Constipation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Eating, Diet, & Nutrition for Constipation How can my diet help prevent ... Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información de la ...

  9. American Society for Parenteral & Enteral Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preliminary Program Now Available! View Now ASPEN Enteral Nutrition by the Numbers ASPEN’s new report is a ... large, complex Enteral Nutrition Market. Learn More Parenteral Nutrition: Back to the Basics Join us October 10 ...

  10. Zinc and infant nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ackland, M Leigh; Michalczyk, Agnes A

    2016-12-01

    Zinc is essential for a wide variety of cellular processes in all cells. It is a critical dietary nutrient, particularly in the early stages of life. In the early neonatal period, adequate sources of zinc can be obtained from breast milk. In rare circumstances, the mammary gland produces zinc deficient milk that is potentially lethal for exclusively breast-fed infants. This can be overcome by zinc supplementation to the infant. Alterations to key zinc transporters provide insights into the mechanisms of cellular zinc homeostasis. The bioavailability of zinc in food depends on the presence of constituents that may complex zinc. In many countries, zinc deficiency is a major health issue due to poor nourishment. Young children are particularly affected. Zinc deficiency can impair immune function and contributes to the global burden of infectious diseases including diarrhoea, pneumonia and malaria. Furthermore, zinc deficiency may extend its influence across generations by inducing epigenetic effects that alter the expression of genes. This review discusses the significance of adequate zinc nutrition in infants, factors that influence zinc nutrition, the consequences of zinc deficiency, including its contribution to the global burden of disease, and addresses some of the knowledge gaps in zinc biology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutrition in team sports.

    PubMed

    Mujika, Iñigo; Burke, Louise M

    2010-01-01

    Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of the training program. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise. Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to 2-3 games over a weekend road trip in others, and a tournament fixture usually involves 1-3 days between matches. Recovery between events is a major priority, involving rehydration, refuelling and repair/adaptation activities. Some sports supplements may be of value to the team athlete. Sports drinks, gels and liquid meals may be valuable in allowing nutritional goals to be met, while caffeine, creatine and buffering agents may directly enhance performance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Iron nutrition in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mesías, Marta; Seiquer, Isabel; Navarro, M Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development. Iron needs are elevated as a result of intensive growth and muscular development, which implies an increase in blood volume; thus, it is extremely important for the adolescent's iron requirements to be met. Diet, therefore, must provide enough iron and, moreover, nutrients producing adequate iron bioavailability to favor element utilization and thus be sufficient for needs at this stage of life. Currently, many adolescents consume monotonous and unbalanced diets which may limit mineral intake and/or bioavailability, leading to iron deficiency and, consequently, to ferropenic anemia, a nutritional deficit of worldwide prevalence. Iron deficiency, apart from provoking important physiological repercussions, can adversely affect adolescents' cognitive ability and behavior. Accordingly, promoting the consumption of a varied, adjusted, and balanced diet by adolescents will facilitate iron utilization, benefiting their health both at present and in adulthood. This review discusses how physiological changes during adolescence can cause iron requirements to increase. Consequently, it is important that diet should contribute an appropriate amount of this mineral and, moreover, with an adequate bioavailability to satisfy needs during this special period of life.

  13. School nutrition survey.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, M; Kiely, D; Mulvihill, M; Winters, A; Bollard, C; Hamilton, A; Corrigan, C; Moore, E

    1993-05-01

    Food we eat has an important influence on health and well-being. Many eating habits are established in childhood. 456 children aged eight to 12 years participated in this survey of food eaten at school. Of all the food items eaten as a snack, 48.6% were categorised as junk. 75.8% of the sandwiches brought to school for lunch were made with white bread. Of the remaining food items brought for lunch 63.5% were of the junk variety. Compared with those who brought a snack or lunch from home, those given money to buy their own were more likely to eat junk (p < 0.01). Food eaten at school reflects approximately one third of a child's daily food intake but health food practises for even a third of food intake may be of a value for health and long term eating habits. Nutritional education with the reinforcement of high nutritional standards in schools could improve the situation.

  14. Ascariasis: nutritional implications.

    PubMed

    Schultz, M G

    1982-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides, the roundworm, is one of the largest parasites of man and probably infects one in four persons in the world. Despite its prevalence, ascariasis is a largely neglected public health problem that has attracted relatively little scientific inquiry. Frequently, a number of biases contribute to the uncritical conclusion that infection with A. lumbricoides adversely affects the nutritional status of the host. This situation is exacerbated by number of studies that have confirmed these biases but have employed questionable methods, such as the use of small samples and indistinct categories, the neglect of the double-blind safeguard, the selection of inadequate controls, and the performance of experiments that are not reproducible in a variety of circumstances. It is interesting to note that studies claiming positive correlation between ascariasis and protein energy malnutrition have not found a significant difference in weight between infected and uninfected children before intervention. Furthermore, several recent studies have shown no significant improvement in nutritional status after intervention. Thus, the causal relationship between ascariasis and protein energy malnutrition is not clearly proved, and it is premature to advocate mass treatment of children in ascariasis-endemic areas as a method to enhance their growth and development.

  15. Carnitine in human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Bach, A C

    1982-12-01

    The oxidation of long-chain fatty acids is carnitine-dependent. Indeed, only when they are bound to carnitine, in the form of acyl-carnitines, do fatty acids penetrate into the mitochondria to be oxidized. To meet the need for carnitine, animals depend on both endogenous synthesis and an exogenous supply. A diet rich in meat supplies a lot of carnitine, while vegetables, fruits, and grains furnish relatively little. Although it has a low molecular weight and acts at low doses in a vital metabolic pathway, carnitine should not be considered a vitamin, but rather a nutritive substance. Indeed, it seems that the diet of the adult human need not necessarily furnish carnitine: the healthy organism, given a balanced nutrition (sufficiently rich in lysine and methionine), may well be able to meet all its needs. Furthermore, it seems that a reduction of the exogenous supply of carnitine results in a lowering of its elimination in the urine. However, dietary carnitine is more important during the neonatal period. The transition from fetal to extrauterine life is accompanied by an increased role of lipids in meeting energy needs. This change is accompanied by a rise in the body of the levels of carnitine, which is mainly supplied in the maternal milk. Finally, this review briefly surveys the illnesses in which a dietary carnitine supplement proves useful.

  16. Nutrition in prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Bhoraskar, Anil

    2005-11-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) are forerunners of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and are now recognised as prediabetes states. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is associated with these conditions and there are many studies such as the Da Quin IGT and DM study; Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study(DPS); The Diabetes Prevention Program(DPP) which have clearly shown the efficacy and supremacy of diet intervention in controlling progression of the prediabetes state to type 2 DM. Weight reduction, increasing physical activity and restricting not only total calories but also deriving them from more healthy sources by reducing the total intake of fat, changing n-6 PUFA to n-3 PUFA, increasing the intake of fibre rich carbohydrates and the use of antioxidants have not only long-term health benefits but also can be a very useful cost-effective tool to overcome the burden of type 2 DM in our country. Prevention of type 2 DM is not a dream but a reality and this can be achieved from a path through our kitchen. Faulty nutrition seems to be the main culprit in this wide-spread epidemic of diabetes and nutritional therapy in prediabetes state appears to be the only option in our hands.

  17. Nutrition for winter sports.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Nanna L; Manore, Melinda M; Helle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sport athletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter sports, however, vary greatly regarding their nutritional requirements due to variable physiological and physique characteristics, energy and substrate demands, and environmental training and competition conditions. What most winter sport athletes have in common is a relatively lean physique and high-intensity training periods, thus they require greater energy and nutrient intakes, along with adequate food and fluid before, during, and after training. Event fuelling is most challenging for cross-country skiers competing in long events, ski jumpers aiming to reduce their body weight, and those winter sport athletes incurring repeated qualification rounds and heats. These athletes need to ensure carbohydrate availability throughout competition. Finally, winter sport athletes may benefit from dietary and sport supplements; however, attention should be paid to safety and efficacy if supplementation is considered.

  18. Nutrition inequities in Canada.

    PubMed

    Tarasuk, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Sandra; Ward, Heather

    2010-04-01

    In Canada, increased morbidity and shorter life expectancy have been found among those with lower incomes and lower levels of education, but there has been little examination of socioeconomic variation in food and nutrient intake. Using data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examined the relationship between household income and education level and adults' and children's intakes of energy, fibre, micronutrients, and number of servings consumed of food groups from Canada's Food Guide. To explore the public health significance of observed associations, we estimated the prevalence of inadequacy for selected nutrients for adults, stratifying by household income, education level, and sex. We found that a higher household income adequacy and (or) higher levels of education were associated with increased consumption of milk and alternatives, and vegetables and fruit, and significantly higher vitamin, mineral, and fibre intakes among both adults and children. The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes among adults was higher among adults with the lowest level of income adequacy or educational attainment, compared with others. Our results suggest that the nutritional quality of Canadians' food intakes is, in part, a function of their social position. The impact of policy and program interventions needs to be examined across socioeconomic strata to ensure that actions reduce rather than exacerbate nutrition inequities.

  19. Nutrition and Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Torres, Nimbe; Guevara-Cruz, Martha; Velázquez-Villegas, Laura A; Tovar, Armando R

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a universal problem in modern society. Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of CVD resulting in high rate of mortality in the population. Nutrition science has focused on the role of essential nutrients in preventing deficiencies, at the present time, the nutritional strategies are crucial to promote health and intervene with these global noncommunicable diseases. In many cases, diet is a major driving force, which is much easier to change and follow than other factors. It is important to establish that the first strategy to treat atherosclerosis is to modify lifestyle habits, focusing on the beneficial properties of specific nutrients. In the last decades, epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that diet plays a central role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. In this review we will focus on the effect of specific foods, nutrients and bioactive compounds, including epidemiological facts, potential mechanisms of action and dietary recommendations to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis. In particular, we include information about fiber, plant sterols and stanols, niacin, taurine, olive oil, omega 3 fatty acids, antioxidants, minerals, methyl nutrients and soy. In addition, we also show that dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota associated with a consumption of certain animal food sources can generate some metabolites that are involved in the development of atherosclerosis and its consequences on CVD. According to the epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies we suggest a recommendation for some dietary foods, nutrients and bioactive compounds to support the complementary clinical management of patients with atherosclerosis.

  20. [Atherosclerosis and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Daubresse, J C

    2000-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is the main cause of mortality in industrialized countries and even in poorly developed ones. It is linked to age and gender and also to a number of well identified risk factors: lipids anomalies, arterial hypertension, diabetes, smoking and weight excess among others. Risk factors improvement significantly reduces cardiovascular events. It is evident that nutrition plays an important role as it can modulate the evolution of body weight and blood pressure. Nutrition is also able to reduce the prevalence and severity of hyperlipidemias and diabetes. Saturated fatty acids (excepted stearic acid), trans poly-unsaturated acids as well as cholesterol increase serum LDL-cholesterol. Mono- and poly-unsaturated and classical cis-mono-unsaturated acids do the opposite. N-3 poly-unsaturated acids reduce serum triglyceride levels and cardiovascular events. Carbohydrates with a low glycemic index are important determinants of serum HDL-cholesterol levels and reduce cardiovascular risk. Animal proteins bring essential amino-acids to the body but also saturated fats. It seems interesting to eat vegetal proteins among which those derived from soya look promising. Our diet will include enough fiber and phytosterols-containing margarines look interesting as well. Modest alcohol consumption improves cardiovascular mortality in the majority of the prospective studies.

  1. Nutrition and nail disease.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Michael W; Sloan, Steven Brett

    2010-01-01

    The nail is a specialized keratinous skin appendage that grows approximately 2 to 3 mm per month, with complete replacement achieved in 6 to 9 months. Although this structure can be easily overlooked, nail disorders comprise approximately 10% of all dermatologic conditions. This contribution first provides an overview on the basic anatomy of the nail that will delineate between the nail unit (eg, hyponychium, nail bed, proximal nail fold, and matrix) and anatomic components not part of the nail unit (eg, lateral nail folds, nail plate, and eponychium). The function of each nail structure will also be presented. The chemical profile of the normal nail plate is reviewed with a discussion of its keratin content (hair type keratin vs epithelial type keratin), sulfur content, and mineral composition, including magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, sodium, and copper. The remainder will focus on nail manifestations seen in states of malnutrition. Virtually every nutritional deficiency can affect the growth of the nail in some manner. Finally, the discussion will include anecdotal use of nutritional and dietary supplements in the setting of brittle nail syndrome as well as a brief overview of biotin and its promising utility in the treatment of nail disorders. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolomics and human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Primrose, Sandy; Draper, John; Elsom, Rachel; Kirkpatrick, Verity; Mathers, John C; Seal, Chris; Beckmann, Manfred; Haldar, Sumanto; Beattie, John H; Lodge, John K; Jenab, Mazda; Keun, Hector; Scalbert, Augustin

    2011-04-01

    The present report summarises a workshop convened by the UK Food Standards Agency (Agency) on 25 March 2010 to discuss the current Agency's funded research on the use of metabolomics technologies in human nutrition research. The objectives of this workshop were to review progress to date, to identify technical challenges and ways of overcoming them, and to discuss future research priorities and the application of metabolomics in public health nutrition research and surveys. Results from studies nearing completion showed that by using carefully designed dietary and sampling regimens, it is possible to identify novel biomarkers of food intake that could not have been predicted from current knowledge of food composition. These findings provide proof-of-principle that the metabolomics approach can be used to develop new putative biomarkers of dietary intake. The next steps will be to validate these putative biomarkers, to develop rapid and inexpensive assays for biomarkers of food intake of high public health relevance, and to test their utility in population cohort studies and dietary surveys.

  3. Nutrition for distance events.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M; Millet, Gregoire; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    The goal of training is to prepare the distance athlete to perform at his or her best during major competitions. Whatever the event, nutrition plays a major role in the achievement of various factors that will see a runner or walker take the starting line in the best possible form. Everyday eating patterns must supply fuel and nutrients needed to optimize their performance during training sessions and to recover quickly afterwards. Carbohydrate and fluid intake before, during, and after a workout may help to reduce fatigue and enhance performance. Recovery eating should also consider issues for adaptation and the immune system that may involve intakes of protein and some micronutrients. Race preparation strategies should include preparation of adequate fuel stores, including carbohydrate loading for prolonged events such as the marathon or 50-km walk. Fluid and carbohydrate intake during races lasting an hour or more should also be considered. Sports foods and supplements of value to distance athletes include sports drinks and liquid meal supplements to allow nutrition goals to be achieved when normal foods are not practical. While caffeine is an ergogenic aid of possible value to distance athletes, most other supplements are of minimal benefit.

  4. ["Care" and public nutrition].

    PubMed

    Martin-Prével, Yves

    2002-01-01

    In 1990, the Unicef conceptual framework for nutrition recognised the role of care, along with household food security and health services and environment, as one of the three underlying factors of child survival, growth, and development. This model has been adopted at a policy level at the International Conference on Nutrition (Rome, 1992) and over the past ten years the concept of care has been refined through literature reviews, consultative meetings and empirical works. "Care is the provision in the household and the community of time, attention, and support to meet the physical, mental, and social needs of the growing child and other household members". Basically, care refers to the actions of caregivers (mainly, but not only mothers) that translate food and health resources into positive outcomes for the child's nutrition. Even under circumstances of poverty, enhanced caregiving can optimise the use of resources to promote good nutrition. Care practices have been grouped into six categories: care for women, breastfeeding and child feeding practices, psychosocial care, food preparation, hygiene practices, household health practices. They cover a wide range of behaviours, are often culturally specific and are daily, repetitive, and time-consuming activities. It must be underlined that the way care practices are performed (i.e., quality of care) is as important as the practices themselves. It has also been emphasised that children play a significant role in determining the quality of care that they receive, through an interactive process: an active child elicits more care from the caregiver, who is in turn more responsive. Care resources at household level have been described according to three categories: human (knowledge, beliefs, education, physical and mental health of the caregiver), economic (control on income, workload and time), and organisational (alternate caregivers, community support). But the availability of care also depends on support at the

  5. Nutritional clinical studies in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Liakou, Aikaterini I; Theodorakis, Michael J; Melnik, Bodo C; Pappas, Apostolos; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2013-10-01

    Nutrition has long been associated with skin health, beauty, integrity and aging through multiple pathways and cofactors implicated in skin biology. The onset and clinical course of various common skin diseases, especially acne, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and hair loss, have been suggested to be critically affected by nutrition patterns and habits. The relationship between acne and diet, predominantly the role of high glycemic load diets and dairy consumption have recently gained increased interest. Abnormal nutritional conditions such as obesity or malnutrition often manifest themselves by specific cutaneous features and altered skin function. Skin photoprotection, rendered by various nutrients, is well documented and appropriate nutritional supplementation has been shown to exert beneficial effects upon impaired skin integrity, restore its appearance and promote skin health. It is our intention to provide a comprehensive review of the most recent information on the role of nutrition for common skin diseases and regulation of skin biology. Nutritional clinical studies in dermatology have been reviewed using the MedLine literature source and the terms "diet" or "nutrition" and "skin". The data on the relationship between nutrition and skin are until now controversial and much more work is needed to be done to clarify possible etiological correlations.

  6. Parenteral nutrition-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, S; Gimmon, Z; Ben Zvi, A; Katz, S

    1987-01-01

    A case report of a 4-yr-old child who developed an anaphylactic reaction to parenteral nutrition is presented. Dermal allergy tests demonstrated a sensitivity to Travasol solution and Armour multivitamin 2 solution. This is the first reported case known to us of such a response to elemental parenteral nutrition.

  7. Nutrition and Food: Curriculum Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix. Div. of Vocational Education.

    The curriculum guide is designed to serve as a resource for local teachers and community members to design their own special curriculum around the unique nutritional needs of individuals and families making up the population. The guide is organized around six major topics: the individual's involvement in nutrition and food, factors involved in…

  8. Nutrition policy in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing.

  9. The New Nutrition: Student's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.

    This student guide on nutrition contains activities categorized according to the seven dietary guidelines for Americans developed by the United States Department of Health and Human Services and Department of Agriculture. The seven goals for which activities are provided are (1) to eat a variety of foods (daily nutrition guide, nutrients,…

  10. Nutritional regulation of epigenetic changes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The "Nutritional Regulation of Epigenetic Changes" Symposium was held in San Diego on April 25 in conjunction with the 2012 Annual Meetings of the American Society of Nutrition. The symposium was co-chaired by Drs. Romagnoo and Ziegler. In his opening remarks, Dr. Zeigler highlighted salient aspec...

  11. Prenatal Nutrition and Later Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, T. N.

    1972-01-01

    Text of an affidavit in the case, Kennedy v. Detroit Board of Education. Reports on a study which established that prenatal nutrition is directly related to brain size and volume determined at 48 hours of infancy and at eight months of age. Pinpoints the relationship between inadequate nutrition in pregnancy, infant brain size, and intellectual…

  12. Counselors, Nutrition, and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Judith E.; Long, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses current nutritional trends and the ways our bodies convert foods into chemicals that may affect thought, mood, perception, and behavior. A review of current literature suggests that nutritional deficits and food allergies may adversely alter emotional adjustment. Examines implications for counseling and suggests training and program…

  13. Nutrition Education Needs Pantry Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Dolores K.; Shultz, Jill Armstrong; Edlefsen, Miriam; Butkus, Sue N.

    2007-01-01

    Two food pantries were surveyed for nutrition education (NE) interests and experiences. One site provided nutrition education classes; the comparison site was utilized to assess client interest in class topics. "Fixing low cost meals," "fixing quick and easy recipes," and "stretching food and food dollars" were topics…

  14. Pre-operative nutritional assessment.

    PubMed

    Corish, C A

    1999-11-01

    Protein-energy undernutrition, or the possibility of its development, has been documented to occur frequently in surgical patients admitted to hospital. Nutritional status is known to deteriorate over the course of the hospital stay, with poor awareness by medical and nursing staff as to the deleterious effects of impaired nutritional status on clinical outcome and hospital costs. While there is no consensus on the best method for assessment of the nutritional status of surgical patients pre-operatively, there are a number of techniques available. These techniques can be divided into two types, those suitable for screening for nutrition risk on admission to hospital and those used to fully assess nutritional status. Both techniques have their limitations, but if used correctly, and their limitations recognized, should identify the appropriate degree of nutritional intervention for an individual patient in a timely and cost-effective manner. The techniques currently available for nutritional screening and nutritional assessment are reviewed, and their applicability to the Irish setting are discussed in the present paper.

  15. Nutrition Education Needs Pantry Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Dolores K.; Shultz, Jill Armstrong; Edlefsen, Miriam; Butkus, Sue N.

    2007-01-01

    Two food pantries were surveyed for nutrition education (NE) interests and experiences. One site provided nutrition education classes; the comparison site was utilized to assess client interest in class topics. "Fixing low cost meals," "fixing quick and easy recipes," and "stretching food and food dollars" were topics…

  16. Nutrition Education Curriculum. Kindergarten Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    Six major concepts form the framework for this kindergarten nutrition education curriculum: (1) Food is essential for all living things (learning to identify foods and food sources); (2) Nutrition is the food you eat and how the body uses it (recognizing the relationship between body growth and the ingestion of food); (3) Food is made up of…

  17. Peanut composition, flavor, and nutrition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peanuts are an important source of nutrition worldwide. They are used as food, as an ingredient and as an important source of cooking oil. They are usually roasted before consumption which results in changes in nutrition, texture and flavor. The flavor is important for repeat purchases. This cha...

  18. Prenatal Nutrition and Later Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, T. N.

    1972-01-01

    Text of an affidavit in the case, Kennedy v. Detroit Board of Education. Reports on a study which established that prenatal nutrition is directly related to brain size and volume determined at 48 hours of infancy and at eight months of age. Pinpoints the relationship between inadequate nutrition in pregnancy, infant brain size, and intellectual…

  19. Counselors, Nutrition, and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Judith E.; Long, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses current nutritional trends and the ways our bodies convert foods into chemicals that may affect thought, mood, perception, and behavior. A review of current literature suggests that nutritional deficits and food allergies may adversely alter emotional adjustment. Examines implications for counseling and suggests training and program…

  20. TV Commercials Can Teach Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, Catherine

    1974-01-01

    In California non-commercial "commercials" short spots of pantomime and bilingual messages fitted into and around television's entertainment programs, are used as a means of providing nutrition education to urban and rural low-income people. As revealed by audience requests for nutritional information offered, the commercials are popular…

  1. The New Nutrition: Student's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.

    This student guide on nutrition contains activities categorized according to the seven dietary guidelines for Americans developed by the United States Department of Health and Human Services and Department of Agriculture. The seven goals for which activities are provided are (1) to eat a variety of foods (daily nutrition guide, nutrients,…

  2. Nutrition, Weight Control, and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Frank I.; McArdle, William D.

    This book contains information on nutrition, weight control, and exercise. Some basic information from the biological sciences is included but a specialized background is not necessary to understand the text. The content is appropriate for nutrition, weight control, exercise, and physical fitness courses at the university level, for the various…

  3. Nutrition Education: Selected Resources. Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Harold C.

    Intended chiefly for nutrition instructors in elementary, secondary, and college classes, this bibliography can supplement the reading lists of other nutrition fields, such as food science and diet therapy. Separate sections of the document are devoted to books, documents and journal articles culled from the ERIC data base, films, multimedia…

  4. Nutrition Books and Resources 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Dietetic Association, Honolulu.

    This is an annotated bibliography listing books, resources, and films and filmstrips on the subject of nutrition. Sections include: Food Sense; Controlling Your Weight; Feeding Your Family; Food for Teens; Learning and Teaching Nutrition; Other Sources; and Films and Filmstrips. The material is in pamphlet form. (LK)

  5. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Pre- and Post-Workout Nutrition Timing Your Pre- and Post-Workout Nutrition weights and fruits Building Muscle on a Vegetarian Diet For Kids For Parents For Men For Women For Seniors Egg Essentials Hard-boiled, dyed and decorated eggs are a beloved ...

  6. Climate change and nutrition: creating a climate for nutrition security.

    PubMed

    Tirado, M C; Crahay, P; Mahy, L; Zanev, C; Neira, M; Msangi, S; Brown, R; Scaramella, C; Costa Coitinho, D; Müller, A

    2013-12-01

    Climate change further exacerbates the enormous existing burden of undernutrition. It affects food and nutrition security and undermines current efforts to reduce hunger and promote nutrition. Undernutrition in turn undermines climate resilience and the coping strategies of vulnerable populations. The objectives of this paper are to identify and undertake a cross-sectoral analysis of the impacts of climate change on nutrition security and the existing mechanisms, strategies, and policies to address them. A cross-sectoral analysis of the impacts of climate change on nutrition security and the mechanisms and policies to address them was guided by an analytical framework focused on the three 'underlying causes' of undernutrition: 1) household food access, 2) maternal and child care and feeding practices, 3) environmental health and health access. The analytical framework includes the interactions of the three underlying causes of undernutrition with climate change,vulnerability, adaptation and mitigation. Within broad efforts on climate change mitigation and adaptation and climate-resilient development, a combination of nutrition-sensitive adaptation and mitigation measures, climate-resilient and nutrition-sensitive agricultural development, social protection, improved maternal and child care and health, nutrition-sensitive risk reduction and management, community development measures, nutrition-smart investments, increased policy coherence, and institutional and cross-sectoral collaboration are proposed as a means to address the impacts of climate change to food and nutrition security. This paper proposes policy directions to address nutrition in the climate change agenda and recommendations for consideration by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Nutrition and health stakeholders need to be engaged in key climate change adaptation and mitigation initiatives, including science-based assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC

  7. The nutrition advisor expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huse, Scott M.; Shyne, Scott S.

    1991-01-01

    The Nutrition Advisor Expert System (NAES) is an expert system written in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS). NAES provides expert knowledge and guidance into the complex world of nutrition management by capturing the knowledge of an expert and placing it at the user's fingertips. Specifically, NAES enables the user to: (1) obtain precise nutrition information for food items; (2) perform nutritional analysis of meal(s), flagging deficiencies based upon the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances; (3) predict possible ailments based upon observed nutritional deficiency trends; (4) obtain a top ten listing of food items for a given nutrient; and (5) conveniently upgrade the data base. An explanation facility for the ailment prediction feature is also provided to document the reasoning process.

  8. Compatibility: drugs and parenteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Talita Muniz Maloni; Ferraresi, Andressa de Abreu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Standardization and systematization of data to provide quick access to compatibility of leading injectable drugs used in hospitals for parenteral nutrition. Methods We selected 55 injectable drugs analyzed individually with two types of parenteral nutrition: 2-in-1 and 3-in-1. The following variables were considered: active ingredient, compatibility of drugs with the parenteral nutrition with or without lipids, and maximum drug concentration after dilution for the drugs compatible with parenteral nutrition. Drugs were classified as compatible, incompatible and untested. Results After analysis, relevant information to the product’s compatibility with parental nutrition was summarized in a table. Conclusion Systematization of compatibility data provided quick and easy access, and enabled standardizing pharmacists work. PMID:27074235

  9. Nutritional Alert in hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Brieux, Humberto Fernán Mandirola; Kaminker, Diego; Campos, Fernando; Guillen, Sebastian; Alejandris, Javier; Luna, Daniel; Baum, Analia; de Quirós, Fernán Gonzalez Bernaldo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess a nutritional risk alert using an Informatics System in hospitalized patients versus the conventional methodology. We studied 400 medical patients at the Belgrano Hospital Critical Care Unit. We considered two groups of 200 patients. In the first the group (Control Group), nutritional risk was diagnosed in a traditional way. In the second group (Alarm Group), nutritional risk was diagnosed with an alert system. The alert was triggered when a patient showed low levels of, at least, two of the following variables: albumin, cholesterol, triglyceride, lymphocyte or low body mass index (BMI). Nutritional risk was detected in 20.3% of the Control Group patients while, in the Alert Group, nutritional risk was detected in 34.3% of the patients; the difference between the two groups was significant (p<0.001), with a sensitivity rate of 99% and a specificity rate of 98%. Malnutrition is more easily detected when using an alert system.

  10. Dietary intake and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Abnet, Christian C; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Though dietary factors are implicated in chronic disease risk, assessment of dietary intake has limitations, including problems with recall of complex food intake patterns over a long period of time. Diet and nutrient biomarkers may provide objective measures of dietary intake and nutritional status, as well as an integrated measure of intake, absorption and metabolism. Thus, the search for an unbiased biomarker of dietary intake and nutritional status is an important aspect of nutritional epidemiology. This chapter reviews types of biomarkers related to dietary intake and nutritional status, such as exposure biomarkers of diet and nutritional status, intermediate endpoints, and susceptibility. Novel biomarkers, such as biomarkers of physical fitness, oxidative DNA damage and tissue concentrations are also discussed.

  11. Giving nutrition support to critically ill adults.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jane

    Patients who become critically ill can have problems maintaining nutritional intake and it can be challenging for nurses to provide nutritional support. No one assessment method can identify each patient's risk of malnutrition, so nurses need to look at different aspects in their nutritional assessment and refer for specialist help from dietitians and nutrition support teams when needed. This article focuses on how severe physiological stress affects patients who are critically ill and impacts on their nutritional requirements. A nursing nutritional assessment is explored, as are nutritional support methods that may be used to manage these patients' nutritional needs.

  12. Nutrition: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ingredients, Additives and Colors (Food and Drug Administration) Plants: Partners in Health? ... Nutrition Status Predicts Severity of Vascular Calcification in Non-Dialyzed Chronic... Nutrition -- see more ...

  13. Nutritional status and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Merli, Manuela; Giusto, Michela; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Riggio, Oliviero

    2011-12-01

    Chronic liver disease has a profound effect on nutritional status and undernourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. In the last decades, due to epidemiological changes, a trend showing an increase in patients with end-stage liver disease and associated obesity has also been reported in developed countries. Nutrition abnormalities may influence the outcome after transplantation therefore, the importance to carefully assess the nutritional status in the work-up of patients candidates for liver transplantation is widely accepted. More attention has been given to malnourished patients as they represent the greater number. The subjective global nutritional assessment and anthropometric measurements are recognized in current guidelines to be adequate in identifying those patients at risk of malnutrition. Cirrhotic patients with a depletion in lean body mass and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk and malnutrition may impact on morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. For this reason an adequate calorie and protein intake should always be ensured to malnourished cirrhotic patient either through the diet, or using oral nutritional supplements or by enteral or parenteral nutrition although studies supporting the efficacy of nutritional supplementation in improving the clinical outcomes after transplantation are still scarce. When liver function is restored, an amelioration in the nutritional status is expected. After liver transplantation in fact dietary intake rapidly normalizes and fat mass is progressively regained while the recovery of muscle mass can be slower. In some patients unregulated weight gain may lead to over-nutrition and may favor metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia). This condition, defined as 'metabolic syndrome', may play a negative role on the overall survival of liver transplant patients. In this report we review

  14. New nutrition science in practice.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2008-01-01

    A number of imperatives require a re-think of science in general and of nutrition science in particular. Nutrition science has never been a body of knowledge in its own right and many other sciences have been nutritional in their orientation. At its best "nutrition science" has been integrative as well as reductionist. It has worked across disciplines. The IUNS, (International Union of Nutritional Sciences) undertook to re-examine nutrition science from a policy point of view and to do so with knowledge-makers in general and with the International Science Council. There is now a Sciences for Health and Wellbeing (SHWB) initiative involving all branches of science. It is expected that innovative, integrative, sustainable, and cost-effective approaches to human well-being and health will emerge. Some of the pressing needs for such collaboration have been in the areas of sustainable food systems, potable water, more nutritious crops, food and human behaviour, to reduce the burden of nutritionally-related disease (NRD) and make health care affordable. An IUNS Task Force met in Giessen in 2005. It concluded that nutrition science should develop on 3 fronts, the biomedical, societal and environmental. This will encourage new and more effective initiatives for nutrition and its partners to address local, regional and global concerns about planetary and personal health and well-being. Some important and critical areas already require collective attention. Unlike our predecessors in nutrition science, we will be unable to fulfil the expectations of us unless we progress this wider and less anthropocentric form of our science.

  15. [Fiber and enteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Gómez Candela, C; de Cos Blanco, A I; Iglesias Rosado, C

    2002-01-01

    Dietary fibre is a mixture of various substances and is essential for maintaining appropriate intestinal functionality and it is currently considered to be a necessary part of a healthy diet. Current recommendations for fibre consumption by adults range from 20 to 35 g/day. Enteral nutrition is an emerging therapeutic variation in both hospital and domestic settings. To a great extent, this development has been made possible thanks to the design of new formulas that adapt better and better to the clinicla conditions or our patients. The type of fibre used in these preparations varies greatly. Some have only one source of fibre while others use differnet combinations. There are currently 32 formulas available on the Spanish market, without counting the modules or specific preparations of individual types of fibre. Despite the enormous advances in the knowledge of the beneficial effects of fibre, the fact of the matter is that enteral nutrition that we routinely prescribe in normal clinical practice does not contain fibre. The are several explanations for this, perhaps the most plausible is that these formulas may lead to problems in their administration and tolerance. It is necessary to choose the correct calibre of catheter and define the best infusion method and timing. Another difficulty may be the gastrointestinal tolerance of the formulas containing fibre. No large-scale problems of intolerance have however been described in healthy volunteers nor in patients with acute or chronic pathologies, although it is of fundamental importance to monitor the rhythm of depositions in all patients with enteral nutrition (EN) and ensure proper intake of liquids, which would also be useful to prevent occlusion of the catheter. The theoretical benefits of EN with fibre with a view to maintaining or improving normal intestinal structure and function are very varied. Nonetheless, it has noit yet been possible to prove many of these effects in controlled clinical trials. At the

  16. [Nutritional assessment and perioperative nutritional support in gastric cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Seo, Kyung Won; Yoon, Ki Young

    2013-04-01

    Weight loss and malnutrition are common in cancer patients. Although weight loss is predominantly due to loss of fat mass, the morbidity risk is given by the decrease in muscle mass. The assessment of nutritional status is essential for a diagnosis of nutritional compromise and required for the multidisciplinary approach. Subjective global assessment (SGA) is made by the patients nutritional symptoms and weight loss. The objective assessment, a significant weight loss (>10%) for 6 months is considered an indicator of nutritional deficiency. The mean body index, body fat mass and body protein mass are decreased as cancer stage increases. The biochemical data of albumin, cholesterol, triglyceride, Zn, transferrin, total lymphocyte count are decreased in advanced cancer stage. Daily energy intake, cabohyderate and Vit B1 intake is decreased according to cancer stage. The patients are divided into three groups according to SGA. The three groups showed a significant difference in body weight, 1 month weight loss%, 6 month weight loss%, body mass index, mid arm circumference, albumin, energy intake, as well as carbohyderate intake protein and energy malnutrition. Nutritional assessment is of great importance because undernutrition has been shown to be associated with increase in stomach cancer associated morbidity and mortality. The authors concluded that nutritional assessment should be done in cancer patients preoperatively, and with adequate nutritional support, the morbidity and mortality would be decreased.

  17. [ENTERAL NUTRITION ON THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CANCER].

    PubMed

    Escortell Sánchez, Raquel; Reig García-Galbis, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    to identify what effect causes enteral nutrition on nutritional status of cancer. a search was performed using the keywords "Cancer" AND "Enteral Nutrition" AND "Supplementation" in four document databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, ProQuest, and Web of Science. age of the sample, major than 18 years; submitted to surgery for cancer; that the intervention program was including diet and employment or not of nutritional Supplementation; clinical trials published between January 2004 and December 2014, in scientific journals indexed. we analyzed 660 articles, of which only 2% has been included. 58% of intervention programs are applied outside Spain; 84% of the interventions was carried out in a hospitable ambient; 58% of the sample is formed by adults older than 54 years; 33% of the interventions were multidisciplinary and its duration ranges between 1 and 4 years. we found just a few national interventions in cancer participants and there two types of interventions: by exclusive polymeric enteral formula or mixed with immunonutrition. enteral nutrition shows against the parenteral and its introduction at an early stage, it helps to improve nutritional status of the patient; polymeric formulas next immunonutrition, it helps to reduce the time of hospitalization; the analytical parameters are shown as a measurement pattern when assessing the improvement in nutritional status in cancer. It is recommended to increase the research in this field, especially in children. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutritional genomics.

    PubMed

    Camp, Kathryn M; Trujillo, Elaine

    2014-02-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that nutritional genomics provides insight into how diet and genotype interactions affect phenotype. The practical application of nutritional genomics for complex chronic disease is an emerging science and the use of nutrigenetic testing to provide dietary advice is not ready for routine dietetics practice. Registered dietitian nutritionists need basic competency in genetics as a foundation for understanding nutritional genomics; proficiency requires advanced knowledge and skills. Unlike single-gene defects in which a mutation in a single gene results in a specific disorder, most chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer are multigenetic and multifactorial and therefore genetic mutations are only partially predictive of disease risk. Family history, biochemical parameters, and the presence of risk factors in individuals are relevant tools for personalizing dietary interventions. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing is not closely regulated in the United States and may not be accompanied by access to health care practitioners. Applying nutritional genomics in clinical practice through the use of genetic testing requires that registered dietitian nutritionists understand, interpret, and communicate complex test results in which the actual risk of developing a disease may not be known. The practical application of nutritional genomics in dietetics practice will require an evidence-based approach to validate that personalized recommendations result in health benefits to individuals and do not cause harm. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutrition Standards for Child Care Programs: Meeting Children's Nutrition and Education Needs. Nutrition, Health and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Margaret E.; Grey, Cynthia R.

    2000-01-01

    Presents information on standards for American child care and early education programs participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. Topics discussed include meal plans, nutritional requirements, food preparation and food service, cultural diversity, food safety and sanitation, nutrition education, and emotional climate at mealtimes. (KB)

  20. [Nutrition in critical illness].

    PubMed

    Ökrös, Ilona

    2014-12-21

    Critically ill patients are often unable to eat by themselves over a long period of time, sometimes for weeks. In the acute phase, serious protein-energy malnutrition may develop with progressive muscle weakness, which may result in assisted respiration of longer duration as well as longer stay in intensive care unit and hospital. In view of the metabolic processes, energy and protein intake targets should be defined and the performance of metabolism should be monitored. Enteral nutrition is primarily recommended. However, parenteral supplementation is often necessary because of the disrupted tolerance levels of the gastrointestinal system. Apparently, an early parenteral supplementation started within a week would be of no benefit. Some experts believe that muscle loss can be reduced by increased target levels of protein. Further studies are needed on the effect of immune system feeding, fatty acids and micronutrients.

  1. Giardiasis: nutritional implications.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W

    1982-01-01

    The debate about the pathogenicity of Giardia lamblia in man has ended, and th issues regarding the prevalence of clinical and subclinical infections and their nutritonal impact have become the foremost considerations. Giardiasis can produce steatorrhea, maldigestion, and malabsorption of carbohydrates and of vitamins A and B12. The mechanisms of the absorptive dysfunction are not clear, but morphological abnormalities of the intestinal mucosa and/or bacterial overgrowth might play a role. Severe clinical giardiasis can cause "failure to thrive" in young children, but the impact, if any, of subclinical giardiasis on growth in general populations is not well defined. Protein-energy malnutrition appears to predispose to giardial infection, perhaps because of the accompanying hypochlorhydria, immunosuppression, and altered gastrointestinal flora. The lack of a sensitive and noninvasive diagnostic test for human giardial infection limits the investigation of the nutritional correlates of giardiasis.

  2. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  3. Nutrition, diet and immunosenescence.

    PubMed

    Maijó, Mònica; Clements, Sarah J; Ivory, Kamal; Nicoletti, Claudio; Carding, Simon R

    2014-01-01

    Ageing is characterized by immunosenescence and the progressive decline in immunity in association with an increased frequency of infections and chronic disease. This complex process affects both the innate and adaptive immune systems with a progressive decline in most immune cell populations and defects in activation resulting in loss of function. Although host genetics and environmental factors, such as stress, exercise and diet can impact on the onset or course of immunosenescence, the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. This review focusses on identifying the most significant aspects of immunosenescence and on the evidence that nutritional intervention might delay this process, and consequently improve the quality of life of the elderly. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Exercise, aging, and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Z V; Nelson-Steen, S; Scafidi, K

    1994-05-01

    Age-associated declines in resting energy expenditure and the thermogenesis of activity result in lower energy requirements in older adults. Regular aerobic exercise programs and strength or resistive training may increase the daily energy expenditure and/or may preserve or increase the lean body mass, which decreases with increasing age. Regular strength training exercise programs may improve bone mineral density and ambulation in older adults. Nutritional assessments suggest that older adults' protein intake should be at least 1 g per kilogram of body weight, and that calcium intake should be between 1,200 and 1,500 mg/day. Regular strenuous physical activity may require subtle changes in vitamin and mineral intake to compensate for loss of minerals in sweat and for exercise-induced increases in metabolism. Older adults may have a decreased thirst response to fluid deprivation. Fluid intake must be closely monitored with exercise activity to prevent dehydration.

  5. [Bone and Nutrition. Nutrition care of renal osteodystrophy].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Sarasa; Ito, Mikiko

    2015-07-01

    Renal osteodystrophy is the damage of bone morphology by CKD and treatment and occurred abnormal bone metabolism through renal dysfunction. It demonstrated that the control of P and Ca improves to normalization of mineral metabolism. Protein energy wasting and malnutrition are common in patients with CKD stage 5 and has been associated with life prognosis. In CKD patients, nutritional management is a critical role of treatment. Also it may be important of nutritional management that control P and Ca and improve nutritional status in renal osteodystrophy patients.

  6. 78 FR 17628 - Child Nutrition Programs; Income Eligibility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child Nutrition Programs; Income Eligibility Guidelines AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This Notice announces the Department's annual adjustments..., School Programs Section, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA, Alexandria...

  7. 77 FR 17004 - Child Nutrition Programs-Income Eligibility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child Nutrition Programs--Income Eligibility Guidelines AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces the Department's annual adjustments..., School Programs Section, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA, Alexandria...

  8. Nutritional Knowledge of UK Coaches

    PubMed Central

    Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05). In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice. PMID:24727434

  9. Functional assessment of nutrition status.

    PubMed

    Russell, Mary Krystofiak

    2015-04-01

    Functional status assessment has been recommended as a part of a complete nutrition assessment for decades, but the specific components of this assessment have eluded a consensus definition. The recent Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition consensus criteria for identification of malnutrition include functional assessment determined by handgrip dynamometry, with the understanding that this technique is not practical for use in some patient populations. Other techniques for functional assessment include physical performance measures such as timed gait and chair stands, as well as activities of daily living tools such as the Katz Index, Lawton Scale, and Karnofsky Scale Index. Manual muscle testing and computed tomography scan assessment of lean tissue are other tools that show promise in correlating functional and nutrition assessments. Functional assessment parameters may be least well correlated with nutrition status in older individuals. Despite a number of scientific studies of a variety of tools for functional assessment, there is to date no definitive tool for use in all individuals in all settings. Nutrition scientists and clinicians must continue to collaborate with colleagues in physical and occupational therapy, geriatrics, and nursing to refine current functional assessment tools to more effectively correlate with nutrition and malnutrition assessment parameters.

  10. Meat-based enteral nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derevitskay, O. K.; Dydykin, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Enteral nutrition is widely used in hospitals as a means of nutritional support and therapy for different diseases. Enteral nutrition must fulfil the energy needs of the body, be balanced by the nutrient composition and meet patient’s nutritional needs. Meat is a source of full-value animal protein, vitamins and minerals. On the basis of this research, recipes and technology for a meat-based enteral nutrition product were developed. The product is a ready-to-eat sterilised mixture in the form of a liquid homogeneous mass, which is of full value in terms of composition and enriched with vitamins and minerals, consists of particles with a size of not more than 0.3 mm and has the modified fat composition and rheological characteristics that are necessary for passage through enteral feeding tubes. The study presents experimental data on the content of the main macro- and micro-nutrients in the developed product. The new product is characterised by a balanced fatty acid composition, which plays an important role in correction of lipid metabolism disorders and protein-energy deficiency, and it is capable of satisfying patients’ daily requirements for vitamins and the main macro- and microelements when consuming 1500-2000 ml. Meat-based enteral nutrition can be used in diets as a standard mixture for effective correction of the energy and anabolic requirements of the body and support of the nutritional status of patients, including those with operated stomach syndrome.

  11. Nutritional knowledge of UK coaches.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny

    2014-04-10

    Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05). In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.

  12. Home initiation of parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Newton, Alyce F; DeLegge, Mark H

    2007-02-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) has been successfully initiated in the home since the early 1990s. The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) Standards for Specialized Nutrition Support: Home Care Patients, Safe Practices for Parenteral Nutrition, and Guidelines for the Use of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition in Adult and Pediatric Patients do not contain specific information on the initiation of home PN (HPN). Peer-reviewed, published guidelines are necessary to provide safe and appropriate initiation of HPN. Certain patients should not have PN initiated in the home, such as those with organ failure, uncontrolled diabetes, or uncorrectable electrolyte abnormalities. Excellent candidates for initiation of HPN include patients who have failed enteral feedings, have gastrointestinal (GI) diseases without excessive GI losses, or those with an oncology diagnosis and inability to tube feed. One concern of initiation of HPN is the potential for refeeding syndrome. Refeeding syndrome can be prevented when patients are properly evaluated and managed before initiation of PN. Refeeding syndrome can be avoided by rehydration with fluid and electrolytes before initiation of HPN to normalize blood chemistry when necessary and by starting with a moderate-volume, low-carbohydrate HPN solution compounded with optimal potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium content, and slowly advanced to goal. The "start low and go slow" motto of nutrition support should continue to be followed, but more specific guidelines are needed to assist nutrition support clinicians with safe and appropriate initiation of HPN.

  13. Measuring nutritional risk in hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Henrik H; Holst, Mette; Kondrup, Jens

    2010-01-01

    About 20%–50% of patients in hospitals are undernourished. The number varies depending on the screening tool amended and clinical setting. A large number of these patients are undernourished when admitted to the hospital, and in most of these patients, undernutrition develops further during hospital stay. The nutrition course of the patient starts by nutritional screening and is linked to the prescription of a nutrition plan and monitoring. The purpose of nutritional screening is to predict the probability of a better or worse outcome due to nutritional factors and whether nutritional treatment is likely to influence this. Most screening tools address four basic questions: recent weight loss, recent food intake, current body mass index, and disease severity. Some screening tools, moreover, include other measurements for predicting the risk of malnutrition. The usefulness of screening methods recommended is based on the aspects of predictive validity, content validity, reliability, and practicability. Various tools are recommended depending on the setting, ie, in the community, in the hospital, and among elderly in institutions. The Nutrition Risk Screening (NRS) 2002 seems to be the best validated screening tool, in terms of predictive validity ie, the clinical outcome improves when patients identified to be at risk are treated. For adult patients in hospital, thus, the NRS 2002 is recommended. PMID:21042553

  14. Nutrition knowledge and food intake.

    PubMed

    Wardle, J; Parmenter, K; Waller, J

    2000-06-01

    In many studies, correlations between nutrition knowledge and dietary behaviour have failed to reach statistical significance, leading researchers to question the relevance of nutrition knowledge to food choice, and the value of nutrition education campaigns. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between knowledge and intake of fat, fruit and vegetables using a well-validated measure of nutrition knowledge. The study was a postal survey, using 1040 adult participants selected at random from General Practitioners' lists in England. Nutrition knowledge and food intake followed the expected demographic patterns. Knowledge was significantly associated with healthy eating, and the effect persisted after controlling for demographic variables. Logistic regression showed that respondents in the highest quintile for knowledge were almost 25 times more likely to meet current recommendations for fruit, vegetable and fat intake than those in the lowest quintile. Nutrition knowledge was shown to be a partial mediator of the socio-demographic variation in intake, especially for fruit and vegetables. This demonstrates the value of using more sophisticated statistical techniques to investigate associations between knowledge and food intake and indicates that knowledge is an important factor in explaining variations in food choice. The results support the likely value of including nutrition knowledge as a target for health education campaigns aimed at promoting healthy eating.

  15. The psychology of nutrition messages.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Heather; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore consumer thinking about nutrition decisions and how firms can use consumers' awareness of the links between nutrients and health generated by public health messages to market products, including ones, which have little nutritional value. We approach this issue by tracking the development of public health messages based on scientific research, dissemination of those messages in the popular press, and use of nutrition claims in food advertisements to assess whether firms are timing the use of nutrition claims to take advantage of heuristic-based decision-making. Our findings suggest that the timing of the development of nutrition information, its dissemination in the press, and use in advertising accords well with a heuristic processing model in which firms take advantage of associations between nutrient information and health in their advertisements. However, the demonstrated relationships may not be causal. Further research will be needed to provide stronger and more comprehensive evidence regarding the proposed message hijacking process. If the message hijacking framework is borne out: (1) simple overall health rating scales could significantly improve consumer decision-making, (2) the impact of misleading advertisements could be mitigated by encouraging a multidimensional view of nutrition, and (3) more intensive regulation of product labeling could limit the impact of hijacked messages. Overall, this paper considers a novel hypothesis about the impact of public health messages on nutrition and health.

  16. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: Comprehensive School Nutrition Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Marilyn; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Mueller, Constance G.

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health,…

  17. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: Comprehensive School Nutrition Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Marilyn; Mueller, Constance G.; Fleischhacker, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health,…

  18. Translation of Nutritional Genomics into Nutrition Practice: The Next Step

    PubMed Central

    Murgia, Chiara; Adamski, Melissa M.

    2017-01-01

    Genetics is an important piece of every individual health puzzle. The completion of the Human Genome Project sequence has deeply changed the research of life sciences including nutrition. The analysis of the genome is already part of clinical care in oncology, pharmacology, infectious disease and, rare and undiagnosed diseases. The implications of genetic variations in shaping individual nutritional requirements have been recognised and conclusively proven, yet routine use of genetic information in nutrition and dietetics practice is still far from being implemented. This article sets out the path that needs to be taken to build a framework to translate gene–nutrient interaction studies into best-practice guidelines, providing tools that health professionals can use to understand whether genetic variation affects nutritional requirements in their daily clinical practice. PMID:28383492

  19. Translation of Nutritional Genomics into Nutrition Practice: The Next Step.

    PubMed

    Murgia, Chiara; Adamski, Melissa M

    2017-04-06

    Genetics is an important piece of every individual health puzzle. The completion of the Human Genome Project sequence has deeply changed the research of life sciences including nutrition. The analysis of the genome is already part of clinical care in oncology, pharmacology, infectious disease and, rare and undiagnosed diseases. The implications of genetic variations in shaping individual nutritional requirements have been recognised and conclusively proven, yet routine use of genetic information in nutrition and dietetics practice is still far from being implemented. This article sets out the path that needs to be taken to build a framework to translate gene-nutrient interaction studies into best-practice guidelines, providing tools that health professionals can use to understand whether genetic variation affects nutritional requirements in their daily clinical practice.

  20. Forecasting Nutrition Research in 2020

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    numerous areas of expertise, rather than focus on a single nutrient to define one’s career. The importance of nutrition in treating and preventing acute...JUL 2014 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Forecasting Nutrition Research in 2020. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...0 4 Se pt em be r 20 14 Commentary Forecasting Nutrition Research in 2020 Robert M. Hackman, PhD, Bharat B. Aggarwal, PhD, Rhona S. Applebaum, PhD

  1. Nutrition systems for pressure suits.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rapp, R. M.; Smith, M. C., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Nutrition systems were successfully developed in the Apollo Program for astronauts wearing pressure suits during emergency decompression situations and during lunar surface explorations. These nutrition systems consisted of unique dispensers, water, flavored beverages, nutrient-fortified beverages, and intermediate moisture food bars. The emergency decompression system dispensed the nutrition from outside the pressure suit by interfacing with a suit helmet penetration port. The lunar exploration system utilized dispensers stowed within the interior layers of the pressure suit. These systems could be adapted for provision of nutrients in other situations requiring the use of pressure suits.

  2. PLACE OF NUTRITION IN YOGA

    PubMed Central

    Desai, B.P.

    1990-01-01

    Nutrition plays a very vital role in our life. Yoga and Ayurveda had laid down the foundations of dietetics. The valuable guidelines regarding various food articles and diet for Yoga Sadhaka, to achieve maximum benefits, are given in traditional yoga texts like Hatha Pradipika and Gheranda Samhitha. Now is the time to evaluate the place of nutrition in Yoga and to study how the dietetic principles in yoga will help to eradicate the national problem of Mal-nutrition and poverty which is the pressing need of the moment. PMID:22557690

  3. Nutritional Supplements in Canine Dermatoses

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Lowell

    1987-01-01

    Nutritionally-related dermatoses of dogs have received considerable attention in the veterinary community in the past few years and most of this attention has centered on the role of vitamin E, vitamin A, zinc, and the essential fatty acids. Nutritional supplements for dogs abound in the marketplace yet few actually meet the requirements of a pet with a skin problem. Many more are not formulated strictly for dermatological cases but rather as general supplements to augment the nutritional needs of pets. The potential actions of these different nutrients are discussed and comparisons made of the different commercial supplements. PMID:17422880

  4. Nutrition of critically ill horses.

    PubMed

    Carr, Elizabeth A; Holcombe, Susan J

    2009-04-01

    Nutritional supplementation is becoming the standard of practice in equine medicine, although there are minimal data on nutritional support in critically ill horses and its association or effect on morbidity and mortality or length of hospital stay. Horses can be fed orally and when that is not possible, intravenously or parenterally. Enteral feeding is less expensive, more physiologic, improves immunity, and is easier and safer. This article reviews available information on the development of a nutritional plan for critically ill horses, and describes methods for and complications of enteral and parenteral feeding.

  5. Promoting nutrition in breastfeeding women.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patty R; Pugh, Linda C

    2005-01-01

    Nurses have a vital role in providing nutritional education to breastfeeding women. In this article, the authors discuss the nutritional requirements for breast-feeding women in terms of micronutrients, macronutrients, and minerals. They provide recommendations for women with vegetarian diets and low-income women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children program who may have dietary deficiencies, and they present a directed case study to provide an example of how to perform a dietary assessment and the educational support that may be offered by nurses to breastfeeding women.

  6. Nutrition basics in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Christie, L

    2001-01-01

    Strict elimination of foods because of food allergies can interfere with good nutrition. It is essential that the diagnosis of a food allergy be proven thoroughly to avoid unnecessary food restrictions. Comprehensive education should show where allergenic foods are found, how to find appropriate substitutes for the eliminated foods and corresponding nutrients, and how to avoid accidental ingestion of allergenic foods. A nutrition assessment is an essential part of the clinical follow-up. Identifying nutrition-related problems early can correct difficult situations and prevent long-term health consequences.

  7. Iron Nutrition, Immunity and Infection,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-28

    AO-AO91 476 ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH INST OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES FR--ETC F/6 6/5 IRON NUTRITION , IMMUN ITY AND I NFECTION(U) OC T AO0 R BEISEL...CATALOG NUMBER * j177 __ _____ ____ 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED 6(: Iron Nutrition , Immiunity and Infection 9... Nutrition , Immunity and Infection By William R. Beisel, M.D., F.A.C.P. Deputy for Science US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases

  8. Nutritional requirements and assessing nutritional status in camelids.

    PubMed

    Van Saun, Robert J

    2009-07-01

    It has been nearly 30 years since the first imported llamas and alpacas have been commercially raised in the United States. Nutritional requirements for these animals have not been well understood and most feeding practices were based on extrapolated and experiential information. Only recently has a National Research Council committee reviewed the available published information relative to nutrient requirements of llamas and alpacas. This article summarizes current nutrient requirement recommendations and provides some practical feeding recommendations and methods to assess nutritional status.

  9. [Nutritional risk screening and nutrition assessment for gastrointestinal cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Du, Yan-ping; Li, Ling-ling; He, Qing; Li, Yun; Song, Hu; Lin, Yi-jia; Peng, Jun-sheng

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the nutritional status, and provide evidence for nutritional treatment option. A total of 452 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were selected, including 156 gastric cancer,117 colon cancer, and 180 rectal cancer. The nutritional risk screening 2002(NRS2002) was applied to grade the nutritional risk. A multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure the patients' body composition. Albumin (Alb), prealbumin(PA), transferring(Tf), retinol binding protein(RBP), red blood cell(RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit(Hct) were measured after fasting. The rate of patients with NRS2002 score more than 3 was 70.5%(110/156) for gastric cancer, 53.8%(63/117) for colon cancer, and 46.7%(86/180) for rectal cancer. The score for impaired nutritional status more than 1 for gastric cancer was higher than that for colorectal cancer(P<0.05), while patients with disease score more than 2 was less for gastric cancer(P<0.05). Body mass index(BMI), obesity degree, fat content, fat percentage, and arm circumference were lower in gastric cancer patients as compared to colorectal cancer patients(P<0.05); but protein percentage, muscle percentage, ratio of muscles of arm, and cell mass percentage were higher in gastric cancer patients(P<0.05). The proportions of patients with low Alb, PA, Tf, BC, Hb, Hct were higher for gastric cancer and colon cancer(P<0.05). Patients with gastric cancer are prone to fat loss and therefore have a higher nutritional risk and malnutrition than those with colorectal cancer. Combination of body composition analysis and laboratory examination may achieve comprehensive evaluation of the nutritional status of patients, and provide the evidence of nutritional therapy by being combined with NRS2002 score.

  10. Molecular nutrition research: the modern way of performing nutritional science.

    PubMed

    Norheim, Frode; Gjelstad, Ingrid Merethe Fange; Hjorth, Marit; Vinknes, Kathrine J; Langleite, Torgrim M; Holen, Torgeir; Jensen, Jørgen; Dalen, Knut Tomas; Karlsen, Anette S; Kielland, Anders; Rustan, Arild C; Drevon, Christian A

    2012-12-03

    In spite of amazing progress in food supply and nutritional science, and a striking increase in life expectancy of approximately 2.5 months per year in many countries during the previous 150 years, modern nutritional research has a great potential of still contributing to improved health for future generations, granted that the revolutions in molecular and systems technologies are applied to nutritional questions. Descriptive and mechanistic studies using state of the art epidemiology, food intake registration, genomics with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, advanced biostatistics, imaging, calorimetry, cell biology, challenge tests (meals, exercise, etc.), and integration of all data by systems biology, will provide insight on a much higher level than today in a field we may name molecular nutrition research. To take advantage of all the new technologies scientists should develop international collaboration and gather data in large open access databases like the suggested Nutritional Phenotype database (dbNP). This collaboration will promote standardization of procedures (SOP), and provide a possibility to use collected data in future research projects. The ultimate goals of future nutritional research are to understand the detailed mechanisms of action for how nutrients/foods interact with the body and thereby enhance health and treat diet-related diseases.

  11. 77 FR 43229 - Food and Nutrition Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2012 Through June 30, 2013 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service... Program Development Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of...

  12. Sport and Nutrition Education Interaction on Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Mehmet Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine sport and nutrition education interaction on stress. Three groups were selected for the study: control, single treatment and social treatment under nutrition treatment, too. The groups that were under nutrition treatments should have information about the nutrition resources. This experiment was done for two…

  13. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Participant Benefits §...

  14. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Recipient Benefits §...

  15. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND...

  16. Sport and Nutrition Education Interaction on Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Mehmet Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine sport and nutrition education interaction on stress. Three groups were selected for the study: control, single treatment and social treatment under nutrition treatment, too. The groups that were under nutrition treatments should have information about the nutrition resources. This experiment was done for two…

  17. 7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What...

  18. Serving up Success! Team Nutrition Days, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This publication presents success stories and actual activities from Team Nutrition Days 1997 to serve as a starting point for other schools wanting to create their own nutrition education activities. Team Nutrition Days was a 1-week celebration that used innovative, interactive activities to teach children that nutrition is the link between…

  19. Report on Nutrition and Teenage Pregnancy Hearings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narins, Dorice M.; Hill, Virginia R.

    Because of the importance of nutrition during teenage pregnancies, the Illinois State Council on Nutrition held public hearings in Chicago and in Carbondale, areas having a high incidence of infant mortality. Several issues were identified: (1) effects on nutrition of low income, poor nutrition habits, and lack of understanding of the increased…

  20. Nutrition Education and Gerontology Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckler, Terry Anne; Vogler, James D.

    The Nutrition and Gerontology Services Project attempted to affect basal nutrition knowledge and address dietary changes for 478 California senior citizens who were live-in residents in homes for the aged. Two instruments were employed to measure study variables. Knowledge of nutrition was measured by the Nutritional Learning Scale, an orally…

  1. Nutrition Education Today. A Curriculum Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Nutrition Education Today is a state-funded curriculum project that addresses the behavioral aspects of nutrition as well as the nutritional knowledge of secondary school students in California. The curriculum design for the Nutrition Education Today project is a result of the efforts of a statewide task force of specialists in the area of…

  2. 7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What are...

  3. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Participant Benefits § 249.9...

  4. 7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What are...

  5. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Participant Benefits § 249.9...

  6. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN...

  7. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Participant Benefits § 249.9...

  8. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN...

  9. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Recipient Benefits § 248.9...

  10. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Participant Benefits § 249.9...

  11. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Recipient Benefits § 248.9...

  12. 7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What are...

  13. 7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What are...

  14. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN...

  15. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Recipient Benefits § 248.9...

  16. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN...

  17. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Recipient Benefits § 248.9...

  18. Report on Nutrition and Teenage Pregnancy Hearings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narins, Dorice M.; Hill, Virginia R.

    Because of the importance of nutrition during teenage pregnancies, the Illinois State Council on Nutrition held public hearings in Chicago and in Carbondale, areas having a high incidence of infant mortality. Several issues were identified: (1) effects on nutrition of low income, poor nutrition habits, and lack of understanding of the increased…

  19. Poverty nutrition linkages.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Prema

    2007-10-01

    At the time of independence majority of Indians were poor. In spite of spending over 80 per cent of their income on food, they could not get adequate food. Living in areas of poor environmental sanitation they had high morbidity due to infections; nutrition toll due to infections was high because of poor access to health care. As a result, majority of Indians especially children were undernourished. The country initiated programmes to improve economic growth, reduce poverty, improve household food security and nutritional status of its citizens, especially women and children. India defined poverty on the basis of calorie requirement and focused its attention on providing subsidized food and essential services to people below poverty line. After a period of slow but steady economic growth, the last decade witnessed acceleration of economic growth. India is now one of the fastest growing economies in the world with gross domestic product (GDP) growth over 8 per cent. There has been a steady but slow decline in poverty; but last decade's rapid economic growth did not translate in to rapid decline in poverty. In 1970s, country became self sufficient in food production; adequate buffer stocks have been built up. Poor had access to subsidized food through the public distribution system. As a result, famines have been eliminated, though pockets of food scarcity still existed. Over the years there has been a decline in household expenditure on food due to availability of food grains at low cost but energy intake has declined except among for the poor. In spite of unaltered/declining energy intake there has been some reduction in undernutrition and increase in overnutrition in adults. This is most probably due to reduction in physical activity. Under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme food supplements are being provided to children, pregnant and lactating women in the entire country. In spite of these, low birth weight rates are still over 30 per

  20. Evolution of infant nutrition.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, W F

    1999-05-01

    Homo sapiens has developed during the course of over two million years. The social and physical conditions of life, the availability of milk and infant foods as well as the presence of diseases have all undergone radical transformations from the Stone Age, at first without and then with fire, to the hunter-gatherer, farmer-herder, agricultural and, now, developed societies. These changes in the human environment may have induced modifications in the length of pregnancy, the development of the neonate at birth, the duration of lactation, the composition of breast milk and use of weaning foods and milk substitutes. Darwinian selection for the nutrient, anti-infective and other components of breast milk may have been determined by the effects of nutrition, through genetic variations in milk composition, on the survival of infants and perhaps also on fecundity and disease resistance in later adult life. Today Darwinian selection may no longer be effective in maintaining or modifying human mammary function, because modern hygienic environments, together with the availability of nutritionally adequate breast-milk substitutes, permit infant survival even under conditions of total lactational failure. National and international promulgations strictly control the composition of infant formulas offered as breast-milk substitutes or as weaning foods. These recommendations are modified as beliefs suggest, and research indicates, the effects of nutrients and other factors on the health and well-being of the child. Preliminary observations on child health have often proved valuable in furthering research. Unquestioning acceptance of apparently desirable, but untested, epidemiological associations have led to unexpected but dangerous iatrogenic problems. Recommendations for change cannot safely be made without proper comparisons with present products and procedures under practical conditions. Such tests are time consuming and require protocols of appropriate statistical design

  1. The Influence of Nutrition Education on the Food Consumption and Nutrition Attitude of Schoolchildren in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostanjevec, Stojan; Jerman, Janez; Koch, Verena

    2012-01-01

    In Slovenia, nutrition education is included in the compulsory education curriculum of the nine-year elementary school. The aim of nutrition education is for schoolchildren to acquire knowledge on nutrition to help them form healthy nutritional habits. This research aims at establishing whether the formal nutrition education carried out at schools…

  2. Progress in nutritional immunology.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    Optimum but balanced food intake maintains healthy growth and disease-free lifespan. However, imbalanced and over-nutrition promotes obesity, diabetes, malignancy, osteoporosis, infectious diseases, etc. In 1936, McCay reported that calorie restriction prevents weight gain and extend lifespan in rodents. In early 1970, Dr. Good at University of Minnesota and Dr. Walford at UCLA began studies in mice by reducing protein and calorie intake and studying their impact on immune function. Dr. Good's group (Jose, Fernandes, Kramer, Cooper, Day, etc.) reported changes in humoral and cellular immunity at present known as innate and adaptive immune function. Later, much interest was devoted by late Dr. Good on studying the role of calorie restriction (CR) and the role of zinc on immunity, particularly their role on aging, autoimmunity, and malignancy. Both functional role of T-cells, NK-cells and B-cells and their interaction during CR was studied extensively. We recently decided to pursue the beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids (fish oil) with and without CR on controlling autoimmune-disease in NZB x NZW F1 mice. Our results indicated that n-3 FA when fed ad-libitum prolongs lifespan higher than commonly consumed n-6 FA (corn oil) in these mice. Moreover, n-3 FA + CR is found to be more effective than n-6 FA + CR. Some of the beneficial changes by n-3 FA include enhancing antioxidant enzymes and lowering Th-1/Th-2 cytokines, adhesion molecules, COX-2/PGE(2) levels, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha etc. The decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines were also found to protect against bone loss in OVX mice. Further, Fat-1 transgenic mice (which make n-3 FA endogenously in vivo from n-6 FA) when fed CR revealed decreased NF-kappaB and AP-1 activity and increased expression of life-prolonging gene SIRT1. Also CR and n-3 FA decreases body weight and increases insulin sensitivity, as well. Thus, to prevent obesity decreased calorie intake with n-3 FA

  3. Role of School Meal Service in Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    School meal service programs are essential for children's long-term nutrition and health promotion. The programs vary in content, depending on the economic condition, health condition and the food supply situation in each country. Children are encouraged to improve their nutrition, and choose healthy foods and learn good dietary habits through school meals and nutrition education. In Japan, the school lunch program started in 1889. The percentage of elementary schools serving school lunches had reached 99.2% in 2014, and the Nutrition Teacher system started in 2004. Nutrition teachers are to play the roles of teachers on food and nutrition education in addition to managers of foodservice operations in schools. Nutrition teachers are expected to have effects on school nutrition programs by providing meal service together with nutrition education. And so, significant effort is needed from both academia and the field to raise the related nutritional issues.

  4. Nutrition in Pancreatic Cancer: A Review.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Simone; Krüger, Janine; Aghdassi, Ali A; Steveling, Antje; Simon, Peter; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality in both genders. More than 80% of patients suffer from significant weight loss at diagnosis and over time develop severe cachexia. Early nutritional support is therefore essential. This review evaluates the different nutritional therapies, such as enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition and special nutritional supplements, on nutritional status, quality of life and survival. Due to the high prevalence of malnutrition and the rapid development of anorexia-cachexia-syndrome, early nutritional intervention is crucial and supported by clinical data. Enteral nutrition should be preferred over parenteral nutrition. Omega-3 fatty acids and l-carnitine are promising substances for the prevention of severe cachexia, but further randomized controlled trials are needed to establish generally accepted guidelines on nutrition in pancreatic cancer.

  5. Nutrition in Burns: Galveston Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Noe A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Williams, Felicia N.; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive nutrition support is recommended following severe burn injury. Initially, such injury results in a prolonged and persistent hypermetabolic response mediated by a 10- to 20-fold elevation in plasma catecholamines, cortisol, and inflammatory mediators. This response leads to twice-normal metabolic rates, whole-body catabolism, muscle wasting, and severe cachexia. Thus, it is relevant to review the literature on nutrition in burns to adjust/update treatment. Failure to meet the increased substrate requirements may result in impaired wound healing, multiorgan dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infection, and death. Therefore, aggressive nutrition support is essential to ensure adequate burn care, attenuate the hypermetabolic response, optimize wound healing, minimize devastating catabolism, and reduce morbidity and mortality. Here, the authors provide nutrition recommendations gained from prospective trials, retrospective analyses, and expert opinions based on the authors' practices in Galveston, Texas, and Vienna, Austria. PMID:21975669

  6. Nutrition in burns: Galveston contributions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Noe A; Jeschke, Marc G; Williams, Felicia N; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Herndon, David N

    2011-11-01

    Aggressive nutrition support is recommended following severe burn injury. Initially, such injury results in a prolonged and persistent hypermetabolic response mediated by a 10- to 20-fold elevation in plasma catecholamines, cortisol, and inflammatory mediators. This response leads to twice-normal metabolic rates, whole-body catabolism, muscle wasting, and severe cachexia. Thus, it is relevant to review the literature on nutrition in burns to adjust/update treatment. Failure to meet the increased substrate requirements may result in impaired wound healing, multiorgan dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infection, and death. Therefore, aggressive nutrition support is essential to ensure adequate burn care, attenuate the hypermetabolic response, optimize wound healing, minimize devastating catabolism, and reduce morbidity and mortality. Here, the authors provide nutrition recommendations gained from prospective trials, retrospective analyses, and expert opinions based on the authors' practices in Galveston, Texas, and Vienna, Austria.

  7. Nutritional Factors Affecting Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Lim, So Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Arang; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals are important factors affecting mental health and the development of psychiatric disorders. Majority of scientific evidence relating to mental health focuses on depression, cognitive function, and dementia, and limited evidence is available about other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As life span of human being is increasing, the more the prevalence of mental disorders is, the more attention rises. Lists of suggested nutritional components that may be beneficial for mental health are omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Saturated fat and simple sugar are considered detrimental to cognitive function. Evidence on the effect of cholesterol is conflicting; however, in general, blood cholesterol levels are negatively associated with the risk of depression. Collectively, the aims of this review are to introduce known nutritional factors for mental health, and to discuss recent issues of the nutritional impact on cognitive function and healthy brain aging. PMID:27482518

  8. Clinical nutrition of exotic pets.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, S; Langenberg, J

    1994-10-01

    Successful nutritional management requires knowledge of the natural history of exotic pets, nutrient contents of foods, and roles of water, calories, and nutrients in optimal health. Unestablished dietary requirements, lack of balanced commercial diets and mismanagement by owners cause nutritional problems that affect health and recovery from illness and trauma. When presented with a sick exotic pet, veterinarians should check for provision of appropriate wholesome water and food in optimal amounts. Malnutrition and dehydration are common in exotic pets and often result from mismanagement. Starvation is common in carnivores eating whole vertebrate prey, whereas specific nutrient deficiencies are more common in herbivores and insectivores. The more common nutritional deficiencies are calcium and vitamin D3, vitamin A, thiamin, and vitamin E. When treating sick exotic pets, nutrition and fluid support may be critical to recovery.

  9. Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Right Sport for You Healthy School Lunch Planner Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition KidsHealth > For Teens > Cystic Fibrosis: ... Food Enzyme Supplements Beating the Frustration What Is Cystic Fibrosis? At lunch, Lindsay often gets bored with having ...

  10. Nutritional Recommendation Should Promote Sustainability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reber, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Any process or event that disrupts the flow of nutrients and energy becomes a nutrition problem. Nutritionists should promote practices that protect the integrity, stability, and beauty of the land community (soil, water, air, all biological species). (Author)

  11. Enteral Nutrition in Critical Care

    PubMed Central

    Seron-Arbeloa, Carlos; Zamora-Elson, Monica; Labarta-Monzon, Lorenzo; Mallor-Bonet, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    There is a consensus that nutritional support, which must be provided to patients in intensive care, influences their clinical outcome. Malnutrition is associated in critically ill patients with impaired immune function and impaired ventilator drive, leading to prolonged ventilator dependence and increased infectious morbidity and mortality. Enteral nutrition is an active therapy that attenuates the metabolic response of the organism to stress and favorably modulates the immune system. It is less expensive than parenteral nutrition and is preferred in most cases because of less severe complications and better patient outcomes, including infections, and hospital cost and length of stay. The aim of this work was to perform a review of the use of enteral nutrition in critically ill patients. PMID:23390469

  12. The evolution of nutrition research.

    PubMed

    Isaak, Cara K; Siow, Yaw L

    2013-04-01

    "The doctor of the future will no longer treat the human frame with drugs, but will rather cure and prevent disease with nutrition". Thomas Edison's contemplation may come to fruition if the nutritional revolution continues in its current course. Two realizations have propelled the world into a new age of personalized nutrition: (i) food can provide benefits beyond its intrinsic nutrient content, and (ii) we are not all created equal in our ability to realize to these benefits. Nutrigenomics is concerned with delineating genomic propensities to respond to various nutritional stimuli and the resulting impact on individual health. This review will examine the current technologies utilized by nutrigeneticists, the available literature regarding nutrient-gene interactions, and the translation of this new awareness into public health.

  13. [Nutritional support in stroke patients].

    PubMed

    Burgos Peláez, Rosa; Segurola Gurrutxaga, Hegoi; Bretón Lesmes, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a public health problem of the first order. In developed countries is one of the leading causes of death, along with cardiovascular disease and cancer. In addition, stroke is the leading cause of permanent disability in adulthood. Many of the patients who survive do so with significant sequelae that limit them in their activities of daily living. Most strokes (80-85%) are due to ischemia, while the rest are hemorrhagic. We have identified many modifiable risk factors, some with an important relationship with dietary factors or comorbidities in wich the diet has a significant impact. The incidence of malnutrition in stroke patients is not well known, but most likely impacts on patient prognosis. Furthermore, the nutritional status of patients admitted for stroke often deteriorates during hospitalization. It is necessary to perform a nutritional assessment of the patient in the early hours of admission, to determine both the nutritional status and the presence of dysphagia. Dysphagia, through alteration of the safety and efficacy of swallowing, is a complication that has an implication for nutritional support, and must be treated to prevent aspiration pneumonia, which is the leading cause of mortality in the stroke patient. Nutritional support should begin in the early hours. In patients with no or mild dysphagia that can be controlled by modifying the texture of the diet, they will start oral diet and oral nutritional supplementation will be used if the patient does not meet their nutritional requirements. There is no evidence to support the use of nutritional supplements routinely. Patients with severe dysphagia, or decreased level of consciousness will require enteral nutrition. Current evidence indicates that early nutrition should be initiated through a nasogastric tube, with any advantages of early feeding gastrostomy. Gastrostomy will be planned when the enteral nutrition support will be expected for long-term (4 weeks). Much evidence points to the

  14. Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Max

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:24490104

  15. Nutritional considerations in project planning.

    PubMed

    Mason, J; Garcia, M; Mitchell, J; Test, K; Henderson, C; Tabatabai, H

    1985-05-01

    This paper discusses procedures for "ex ante" assessment of likely nutritional effects of development projects. Reported are results of 1 field trial in the Philippines of the "ex ante" assessment procedure in terms of: its feasibility and timeliness and the recommendations for project design that can be made and their influence. In the procedure described, emphasis is placed on assessing likely direct effects--through income, environmental changes and access to services. Indirect effects through food output and prices are assessed qualitatievly. 2 primary questions are addressed in the "ex ante" assessment: 1) who is to benefit directly from the project, in relation to their need (measured in terms of nutrition) and 2) is there reason to suppose that these benefits will not improve their nutrition? The procedure began with an initial assessment to identify the main issues based on reviewing existing data and a short field visit; since there was insufficient information, a rapid nutrition survey was conducted and analyzed; recommendations for project design were made within the necessary time for inclusion. The assessment of the large-scale development project in the Philippines indicates priority to remote areas, small farmers and subsistence fishermen. It is concluded that production-oriented components (e.g., agricultural and infrastructure development) of the project appear likely to improve nutrition insofar as they reach the priority groups defiend above. There is little reason to believe that increased income will not improve nutrition. Finally, there is evidence that an intervention to improve water supply is likely to be effective. Limitations of the procedure are that the assessment is limitied to direct, microlevel effects; long-term influences on nutrition, through changes in the overall economy of the area, are not assessed. Also, the data used cannot easily quantify expected effects on nutrition of project participants. Future application of such

  16. Nutritional support in acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Grant, John P

    2011-08-01

    Nutritional support can have a significant beneficial impact on the course of moderate to severe acute pancreatitis. Enteral nutrition is preferred, with emphasis on establishment of jejunal access; however, parenteral nutrition can also be of value if intestinal failure is present. Early initiation of nutritional support is critical, with benefits decreasing rapidly if begun after 48 hours from admission. Severe malnutrition in chronic pancreatitis can be avoided or treated with dietary modifications or enteral nutrition.

  17. Nutrition support in hospitalised adults at nutritional risk.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Joshua; Nielsen, Emil Eik; Korang, Steven Kwasi; Halberg Engell, Kirstine; Nielsen, Marie Skøtt; Zhang, Kang; Didriksen, Maria; Lund, Lisbeth; Lindahl, Niklas; Hallum, Sara; Liang, Ning; Xiong, Wenjing; Yang, Xuemei; Brunsgaard, Pernille; Garioud, Alexandre; Safi, Sanam; Lindschou, Jane; Kondrup, Jens; Gluud, Christian; Jakobsen, Janus C

    2017-05-19

    The prevalence of disease-related malnutrition in Western European hospitals is estimated to be about 30%. There is no consensus whether poor nutritional status causes poorer clinical outcome or if it is merely associated with it. The intention with all forms of nutrition support is to increase uptake of essential nutrients and improve clinical outcome. Previous reviews have shown conflicting results with regard to the effects of nutrition support. To assess the benefits and harms of nutrition support versus no intervention, treatment as usual, or placebo in hospitalised adults at nutritional risk. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (Ovid SP), Embase (Ovid SP), LILACS (BIREME), and Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science). We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (www.who.int/ictrp); ClinicalTrials.gov; Turning Research Into Practice (TRIP); Google Scholar; and BIOSIS, as well as relevant bibliographies of review articles and personal files. All searches are current to February 2016. We include randomised clinical trials, irrespective of publication type, publication date, and language, comparing nutrition support versus control in hospitalised adults at nutritional risk. We exclude trials assessing non-standard nutrition support. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane and the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group. We used trial domains to assess the risks of systematic error (bias). We conducted Trial Sequential Analyses to control for the risks of random errors. We considered a P value of 0.025 or less as statistically significant. We used GRADE methodology. Our primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, serious adverse events, and health-related quality of life. We included 244 randomised clinical trials with 28,619 participants that met our inclusion criteria. We considered all trials to be at high risk of bias. Two

  18. Nutritional aspects of selenium

    SciTech Connect

    Choe, M.

    1987-01-01

    The overall objective of this project was to investigate the effect of protein and/or dietary fiber supplementation on selenium absorption and metabolism. These relationships might be of importance in determining either minimum selenium nutritional requirements or levels of intake at which this mineral becomes toxic. Three studies compose the project. The first study involved the controlled feeding of fifteen young adults mice. Subjects were fed a laboratory-controlled diet with and without supplements of selenium or selenium plus guar gum. Selenium supplementation resulted in increased selenium excretion in urine and feces. Supplementation of guar gum, as a dietary fiber, tended to increase fecal selenium excretion and to decrease selenium balance and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity regardless of dietary selenium levels. In study II, seventy two weanling mice were fed varied levels of dietary selenium and protein. Numerically, urinary selenium excretion increased and fecal selenium excretion and selenium balance decreased with increased dietary protein level within the same level of dietary selenium; however, selenium absorption rate tended to decrease with increased dietary protein level. Whole blood and brain tissue glutathione peroxidase activities were higher in animals fed moderate protein level than those fed the other two protein levels. In study III, a survey was conducted to investigate the correlation between dietary fiber or protein intake and urinary selenium excretion. There was a negative correlation between dietary fiber and urinary selenium excretion levels while dietary protein and urinary selenium excretion were positively correlated.

  19. Nutritional and Pubertal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Calvo, M Teresa; Argente, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Caloric-protein malnutrition can slow growth and cause pubertal delay. This chapter focuses on endocrine abnormalities and pubertal alterations in patients with eating disorders, childhood obesity, the female athlete triad and children cancer survivors. Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) exhibit multiple endocrine abnormalities, including isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The delay in pubertal development and reduction in growth seen in AN patients may be a direct result of malnutrition. Appropriate psychiatric, nutritional and hormonal therapy is necessary. It is suggested that obesity during childhood can accelerate pubertal onset and these children usually exhibit accelerated linear growth during puberty. In girls the relationship between childhood obesity and early pubertal onset could be related to their insulin resistance and/or hyperinsulinemia. The female athlete triad is often observed in physically active girls and women in whom low energy availability with or without disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction and low bone mineral density can be present. In prepubertal girls excess exercise can cause delayed menarche with no effects on adult height, while in postpubertal females it results in menstrual cycle irregularities. The consequences of childhood cancer depend on the type of cancer, its location, the age at which the disease was diagnosed, the dose of radiotherapy, and the type and dose of chemotherapy.

  20. Sarcopenia and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Laviano, Alessandro; Gori, Chiara; Rianda, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Preserving or restoring adequate nutritional status is a key factor to delay the onset of chronic diseases and to accelerate recovery from acute illnesses. In particular, consistent and robust data show the loss of muscle mass, that is, sarcopenia, is clinically relevant since it is closely related to increased morbidity and mortality in healthy individuals and patients. Sarcopenia is defined as the age-related loss of muscle mass and function. International study groups have recently proposed separate definitions and diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia. Unfortunately, the rate of agreement in assessing the prevalence of sarcopenia is just fair, which highlights the need for a common effort to harmonize definitions and diagnostic criteria. Sarcopenia should be distinct from myopenia, which is the disease-associated loss of muscle mass, although in clinical practice it may be impossible to separate them (i.e., in old cancer patients). The pathogenesis of sarcopenia is complex and multifactorial. Consequently, its treatment should target the different factors involved, including quantitatively and qualitatively inappropriate food intake and reduced physical activity. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutritional aspects of leprosy.

    PubMed

    Mester de Parajd, L; Garnier, J P

    1984-01-01

    Desoxyfructo-serotonin (DFS) being a naturally occurring metabolite, which, like serotonin, has its origin in tryptophane in the food, one can ask about the role of nutrition in leprosy. The unique situation, that a human metabolite shows antileprosy activity, confirmed in vitro and in vivo, makes it possible to develop a "build in" antileprosy therapy. This is now realised through a so-called "Anti-Leprosy Nutriment" (NAL). The effectiveness of this diet was confirmed by the fact, that a daily dose of 0.5 g NAL per mouse has a similar effect, like 20 mg/kg body weight Dapsone per day in the conventionnal mouse foot-pad test. The biosynthesis of DFS in man has been demonstrated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), spectrofluorometry and mass spectrometry. The activity of NAL (rich in tryptophane, unsaturated fatty acids and glucose) is due to an increased biosynthesis of DSF. The latter may be considered as a "physiological protecting agent" against leprosy. This type of food may play a role in the prevention of leprosy in endemic area.

  2. Nutrition and cardiac cachexia.

    PubMed

    Azhar, Gohar; Wei, Jeanne Y

    2006-01-01

    Congestive heart failure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in older persons. In advanced stages of the disease, congestive heart failure can be associated with serious complications such as cardiac cachexia (defined here as weight loss of more than 6% in 6 months). This review will discuss recent insights into the pathophysiology, anthropometric predictors and potential management of cardiac cachexia. Cardiac cachexia and the associated progressive weight loss are sometimes overlooked by care providers. A delay in diagnosis often results in further loss of vital tissues, progressive weakness, fall-related injuries and potentially long-term care institutionalization and/or death. Emerging data suggest that congestive heart failure is a dynamic disorder of many organ systems, including the myocardial, neurohormonal, immune, vascular, gastrointestinal, renal and musculoskeletal systems. It is becoming more widely appreciated that it is the deterioration of this interactive multisystem complex that results in the systemic inflammation and progressive wasting and atrophy of muscle and other organ tissues, which is the hallmark of cardiac cachexia. Cardiac cachexia in congestive heart failure patients may be associated with a low level of physical activity. A high systemic inflammatory state is another marker of cardiac cachexia. Prudent anti-inflammatory nutrition, dietary supplements and exercise can serve to ameliorate and/or potentially prevent progressive wasting. A better understanding of factors contributing to the development of cardiac cachexia will enable us to design preventive strategies and provide improved care for individuals with this debilitating condition.

  3. Biotin in swine nutrition.

    PubMed

    Kornegay, E T

    1985-01-01

    For many years, it was believed that supplemental biotin was not needed in swine diets because of the wide distribution of biotin in feedstuffs used in the formulation of swine diets, and because of the known synthesis of biotin by the animal's intestinal microflora. However, interest in biotin nutrition for swine was rekindled in the mid-1970s when several field reports indicated a biotin deficiency in swine that was responsive to biotin supplementation in many cases. Results from university research are accumulating, especially from long-term sow studies (three to four parities), which suggest that supplemental biotin will improve litter size, conception rate, weaning-to-estrus interval, toe lesions, and haircoat condition. Milk biotin concentration and plasma biotin concentration of sows and piglets were also elevated when supplemental biotin was fed. Using presently available feedstuffs and under modern swine production conditions, a marginal biotin deficiency is possible. Swine producers experiencing poor reproductive performance in their sow herds, associated with excessive loss of hair and severe foot lesions, should evaluate the biotin content of their sow diet and consider supplemental biotin.

  4. NUTRITION OF VIBRIO FETUS

    PubMed Central

    Smibert, Robert M.

    1963-01-01

    Smibert, Robert M. (Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, Va.). Nutrition of Vibrio fetus. J. Bacteriol. 85:394–398. 1963.—A chemically defined medium has been developed for the cultivation of both catalase-positive H2S-negative and catalase-positive H2S-positive strains of Vibrio fetus. A total of 87 strains of V. fetus, representing bovine, ovine, porcine, human, and chicken isolates, were grown in both semisolid and liquid defined media. The medium was also used to isolate V. fetus from the stomach contents of aborted bovine fetuses. The strains investigated did not require purines or pyrimidines. They required nicotinic acid, and were stimulated by other B vitamins. There was considerable variation in the amino acid requirements of V. fetus. Some strains required only one amino acid, and others required many more. The final complete medium contained 18 amino acids and supported growth of all 87 strains. There was no significant correlation between amino acid requirements and source of isolation or biochemical characteristics of V. fetus. PMID:13989353

  5. Nutrition for travel.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Thomas; Waterhouse, Jim; Burke, Louise M; Alonso, Juan Manuel

    2007-01-01

    The training and competitive programmes of elite athletes incorporate travel schedules, often long journeys, across multiple time zones. In such cases, travel causes both transient fatigue and a malaise known as "jet-lag" that persists for some days. Jet-lag is due to the disturbance of the body's circadian rhythms: diurnal and performance rhythms are displaced, depending on the direction of travel and the number of time zones crossed in flight. Attention to diet and hydration is relevant during the flight and following disembarkation until adjustment to the new meridian is complete. The consequences of jet-lag on rhythms in digestion may be compounded if food preparation and hygiene are inadequate in training camps or competitive venues overseas. The irony of travel is that it often places athletes at a greater risk of failing to meet their specific nutrition goals or succumbing to illness, at a time when the demands or outcomes of performance are of greatest importance. In addition, gastrointestinal infections related to travelling are frequent among athletes. Fastidious planning and organization among the support staff is recommended before the journey to prevent any such problems arising. Equally, athletes often need special education initiatives to assist them to cope with the challenges of a new and unusual food supply, or altered access to food.

  6. Nutrition and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Lau, E M; Woo, J

    1998-07-01

    Nutritional factors have a significant influence on the cause of osteoporosis. Calcium supplementation may be particularly effective in populations with a low calcium diet. Supplementations of 500 mg/d may produce about 4% gain in skeletal calcium in adolescents. Supplementations of 800 mg/d may prevent bone loss in postmenopausal women. The results of clinical trials also suggested that such supplementation may prevent hip and vertebral fractures in the elderly. The largest effect of calcium supplementation occurs in the first year of treatment, whereas sustained effects are not proven. Vitamin D supplementation may be particularly useful in vitamin D-deficient elderly. In this group, hip fractures may be prevented by vitamin D administration. Urinary sodium excretion is correlated with urinary calcium excretion in humans, and a direct effect of high sodium intake on loss at the hip has been demonstrated. Observational epidemiologic studies suggested a negative effect of a high protein intake on bone density, although there are no results from clinical trials to support this view. Dietary fiber, phytate, oxalate, and caffeine intake may have a small negative effect on calcium absorption.

  7. Nutritional values of waterfowl foods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredickson, Leigh H.; Reid, Fredric A.

    1988-01-01

    wetland habitats throughout their annual cycles. Survival, reproduction, and growth are dependent on the availability of foods that meet nutritional requirements for recurring biological events. These requirements occur among a wide variety of environmental conditions that also influence nutritional demands. Recent work on nesting waterfowl has identified the female’s general nutrient needs for egg laying and incubation. Far less is known about nutritional requirements for molt and other portions of the life cycle, particularly those during the nonbreeding season. Although information on specific requirements for amino acids and micronutrients of wild birds is meager, the available information on waterfowl requirements can be used to develop waterfowl management strategies. For example, nutrient content of foods, nutritional requirements of waterfowl, and the cues waterfowl use in locating and selecting foods are all kinds of information that managers need to encourage use of habitats by feeding waterfowl. Waterfowl nutritional needs during the annual cycle and the nutritional values of natural foods and crops will be discussed below.

  8. Nutritional support in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ong, Jeannie P L; Fock, Kwong Ming

    2012-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis can present as a mild or severe disease. Most patients have a mild disease and recover without requiring nutritional support. Patients with severe acute pancreatitis may develop systemic inflammatory response syndrome and progress to multi-organ failure. These ill patients have high metabolism and protein catabolism. Hence, the nutritional management of these patients can be challenging. The aim of nutritional support is to meet the elevated metabolic demands as far as possible without stimulating pancreatic secretion and yet maintaining the gut integrity. The concept of pancreatic rest has evolved over the years. To date, there is a substantial scientific proof that enteral nutrition (EN) in comparison to parenteral nutrition significantly reduces infectious complications, surgical interventions and mortality in predicted severe acute pancreatitis. EN may be able to improve outcome in these patients if given early. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge on nutrition in acute pancreatitis and shared our local experience. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Digestive Diseases © 2012 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Basics in Clinical Medical Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Meier, Rémy F; Forbes, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition is a basic requirement for life and plays an important role in health and in disease prevention, but malnutrition is a common event and a cause of increased morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with disease-related malnutrition showing inflammation and a catabolic state. Malnutrition is often overlooked, and deterioration in the nutritional status following admission to hospital is common. It should be actively pursued by a ubiquitous system of nutrition screening, and full nutritional assessment is required for those found to be at risk. There are simple screening tools which can be used by all health care professionals. Assessment considers body composition, inflammatory status and other aspects of underlying diseases and their functional consequences; it is a more specialist process. It is important to determine the energy and protein needs of each individual patient. Appropriate nutritional intervention can often be offered by the oral route, using food with or without special supplements. When this is insufficient, enteral tube feeding will normally be sufficient, but there is an important subgroup of patients in whom enteral feeding is contraindicated or unsuccessful, and in these patients parenteral nutrition (either total or supplemental) is required. A number of immunonutrients and other special substrates have been shown to be helpful in specific circumstances, but their use is not without potential hazards, and therefore adherence to international guidelines is recommended.

  10. Nutritional anemias and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Carmel, Ralph

    2008-10-01

    Nutritional anemias are important because they are easily reversed and because their underlying causes, most often unrelated to dietary intake, require individualized assessment. Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) usually results from iron losses accompanying chronic bleeding, including loss to intestinal parasites, or from gastric disorders or malabsorption in the elderly. Cobalamin-deficiency anemia, the only nutritional anemia with predilection for the elderly, nearly always stems from failure of intrinsic factor (IF)-related absorption. Folate-deficiency anemia, the only nutritional anemia usually caused by poor intake, has nearly disappeared in countries that fortify food with folic acid. Copper-deficiency anemia, which usually results from malabsorptive disorders or from medical or nutritional interventions that provide inadequate copper or excess zinc, is uncommon but increasingly recognized. The prevalences of nutritional anemias, which are not always distinguished from non-anemic deficiency, are uncertain. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) provides an essential diagnostic tool leading to judicious matching of relevant biochemical changes with relevant anemia. Nutritional anemias usually feature abnormal MCV, whereas the predominant anemias in the aged, especially the anemias of chronic disease/chronic inflammation (ACD/ACI), of renal failure, and of unknown causes, are typically normocytic.

  11. Nutritional consequences of chronic diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Gorospe, Emmanuel C; Oxentenko, Amy S

    2012-10-01

    There is an undeniable link between gastrointestinal disorders and malnutrition. Chronic diarrhoea is one of the most common gastrointestinal conditions that can impact a patient's nutritional status. The nutritional consequences will depend on the cause of the diarrhoea as well as the location and extent of gastrointestinal involvement. In general, malabsorption plays a central role in the interaction between malnutrition and chronic diarrhoea. Malabsorption can result in both nutritional deficits and diarrhoea. With severe malnutrition, chronic diarrhoea can persist due to impaired immune function and poor mucosal recovery. Food intolerance and an inappropriate diet in the setting of malabsorption may also contribute to chronic diarrhoea. Patients may attribute their gastrointestinal symptoms to specific dietary intake, which can lead to self-imposed indiscriminate dietary restrictions. Therefore, disease-specific treatment in conjunction with appropriate nutritional counselling and intervention is recommended in the prevention and treatment of malnutrition in patients with chronic diarrhoea. Specialized nutritional support through enteral or parenteral administration may be required to treat severe caloric and micronutrient deficiencies. In this review, we aim to summarize the mechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of the nutritional consequences of chronic diarrhoea.

  12. Nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Alastair, Forbes; Emma, Goldesgeyme; Emma, Paulon

    2011-09-01

    The diet of industrialized nations may contribute to the pathogenesis of both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease (CD). Malnutrition is relatively unusual in UC, but in CD, which often affects the small intestine, it is frequent and may be severe. Nutrition support is therefore frequently indicated. First principles of artificial nutrition can be applied effectively using the gut whenever possible. Parenteral nutrition is generally required only in those with short bowel syndrome. An increasing literature (especially in pediatrics) favors the use of defined exclusive enteral nutrition (EN) in the primary treatment of active CD. Controlled trials are, however, lacking, and recommendations are accordingly not of the highest rank. It appears that in this context, simple polymeric regimens are usually sufficient, and there is currently insufficient evidence to make a strong recommendation for disease-specific feeds. In the maintenance of remission in CD, controlled data demonstrate that defined EN reduces the risk of relapse requiring steroid treatment. There are no data in support of primary nutrition therapy in UC either in management of the acute flare or in maintenance. In conclusion, nutrition therapy in adults with inflammatory bowel disease is probably both undervalued and underused, but the evidence base needs to be strengthened to confirm its efficacy, determine better those patients most likely to benefit, and optimize the regimens to be employed.

  13. Nutritional consequences of bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Xanthakos, Stavra A; Inge, Thomas H

    2006-07-01

    Bariatric surgery is being increasingly used to help treat morbidly obese adults and adolescents. As a greater percentage of this population faces a lifetime of living with surgically altered gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology, increased awareness of the nutritional consequences is critical for all health care practitioners, as many of these patients may be lost to follow-up and can present with significant nutritional complications years after surgery. Nutritional deficiencies can occur after bariatric surgery, although to a lesser degree after restrictive procedures. Risk may increase over time, perhaps due to poor compliance with supplementation, continued inadequate intake and/or ongoing malabsorption. Adolescent patients may be at greater risk due to poor compliance and longer life span. Nutritional monitoring and supplementation among bariatric programs has been widely variable and few prospective studies of outcomes exist. Bariatric surgery can carry significant risk of nutritional complications. Compliance with dietary recommendations should be monitored and encouraged, with annual screening for selected deficiencies. Prospective longitudinal research is needed to identify the true prevalence and significance of nutritional deficiency in these patients and to determine optimum dietary recommendations.

  14. The challenges of nutrition policymaking.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Joanne L

    2015-02-07

    In my over three decades of work in the field of food and nutrition, I have participated in many efforts that seek new policy initiatives in the hopes that these programs can curb rates of obesity and chronic disease and help consumers make healthier dietary choices. Because of the profound effect that many of these policies have on consumers, the food environment, federal nutrition assistance programs and subsequent policy and regulatory recommendations, it is imperative that only the strongest, best available evidence is used to set policy. This review evaluates methods by which current nutrition policies use scientific research as well as provides recommendations for how best to ensure future nutrition policies are truly science-based and likely to have a meaningful impact on public health. Specifically, this review will: Describe the current food and nutrition policy environment in the US Examine how science is used in federal food and nutrition policymaking efforts, using the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) as an example Describe strong versus weak science as well as what types of studies are most appropriate for use in policymaking Discuss the potential effects and consequences of making policy recommendations in the absence of scientific consensus or agreement Make recommendations to support the present and ongoing development of science-based policy likely to positively impact public health.

  15. Nutrition marketing on food labels.

    PubMed

    Colby, Sarah E; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Marketing strategy, nutrient label information, if the product was fruit/or milk based, and target age. Frequency distributions were computed. Forty-nine percent of all products contained nutrition marketing and of those, 48% had both nutrition marketing and were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar (11%, 17%, and 31% respectively). Seventy-one percent of products marketed to children had nutrition marketing. Of those, 59% were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar content, with more than half being high in sugar. The most commonly used nutrition marketing statements were "good source of calcium", "reduced/low/fat free", and "food company's health symbol". Nutrition marketing is commonly used on products high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar and is more often used on products marketed toward children than products marketed toward adults. Current food industry symbols may not be helping consumers select foods low in saturated fat, sodium or sugar. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Assessment of Dental Nutrition Knowledge among Nutrition/Dietetics Students

    PubMed Central

    Asawa, Kailash; Bhat, Nagesh; Tak, Mridula; Gupta, Vivek V; Chaturvedi, Pulkit; Daryani, Hemasha; Shinde, Kushal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diet and nutrition plays an important role in signifying the health of an individual. Oral health is the most important aspect of the body when it comes to food intake and its health benefits. It is important for the nutrition/dietetics students to be aware of the health modalities related to oral aspect. Aim The aim of the present study was to assess knowledge towards the effect of diet and nutrition on oral health among nutrition/dietetics students of Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among all the nutrition and dietetics students of Udaipur city. A self-administered, pretested 14 item questionnaire was given to 180 students to assess their knowledge about dietary factors related to caries, anti-cariogenic foods, frequency and duration of sugar intake etc. One-way analysis of variance and independent sample t-test were utilized for statistical analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5%, respectively. Results The mean score for knowledge was 28.92±1.72. Mean knowledge scores for III, II and I year students were 29.91±1.94, 29.56±1.27 and 27.30±1.66 respectively. When post-hoc Bonferroni test was applied, mean knowledge score was found to be at a higher end among III year as compared to I year (p=0.03) students. Conclusion This study highlights about low dental nutrition knowledge among nutrition/dietetics students. Health profess-ionals should have more information outside their immediate fields. Inter-professional team members should work in collaboration with each other to improve patient outcomes. PMID:28050501

  17. Early postoperative enteral nutrition is useful for recovering gastrointestinal motility and maintaining the nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Naruo; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakayoshi, Tomoko; Hanyu, Nobuyoshi; Nakao, Masatoshi; Takeda, Akihiro; Furukawa, Yoshiyuki; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of enteral nutrition in postoperative nutritional management is known, but the effects on gastrointestinal motility and nutrition have not yet been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of enteral and parenteral nutrition soon after open abdominal surgery on gastrointestinal motility and nutritional status. A partial resection of rectum models was prepared to compare two types of nutrient administration: enteral nutrition and total parenteral nutrition. The differences between the effects of nutrition types in terms of gastrointestinal motility and nutritional status were investigated. Enteral nutrition contributed to recovery of gastrointestinal motility and maintenance of nutritional status. Enteral nutrition should therefore be initiated soon after surgery if the gastrointestinal tract is available.

  18. [Enteral nutrition in burn patients].

    PubMed

    Pereira, J L; Garrido, M; Gómez-Cía, T; Serrera, J L; Franco, A; Pumar, A; Relimpio, F; Astorga, R; García-Luna, P P

    1992-01-01

    Nutritional support plays an important role in the treatment of patients with burns. Due to the severe hypercatabolism that develops in these patients, oral support is insufficient in most cases, and this makes it essential to initiate artificial nutritional support (either enteral or parenteral). Enteral nutrition is more physiological than parenteral, and data exist which show that in patients with burns, enteral nutrition exercises a protective effect on the intestine and may even reduce the hypermetabolic response in these patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of enteral nutritional support with a hypercaloric, hyperproteic diet with a high content of branched amino acids in the nutritional support of patients suffering from burns. The study included 12 patients (8 males and 4 females), admitted to the Burns Unit. Average age was 35 +/- 17 years (range: 21-85 years). The percentage of body surface affected by the burns was 10% in two cases, between 10-30% in three cases, between 30-50% in five cases and over 50% in two cases. Initiation of the enteral nutrition was between twenty-four hours and seven days after the burn. The patients were kept in the unit until they were discharged, and the average time spent in the unit was 31.5 days (range: 17-63 days). Total energetic requirements were calculated based on Harris-Benedict, with a variable aggression factor depending on the body surface burned, which varied from 2,000 and 4,000 cal day. Nitrogenous balance was determined on a daily basis, and plasmatic levels of total proteins, albumin and prealbumin on a weekly basis. There was a significant difference between the prealbumin values at the initiation and finalization of the enteral nutrition (9.6 +/- 2.24 mg/dl compared with 19.75 +/- 5.48 mg/dl; p < 0.001). The nitrogenous balance improved, changing from -5.4 in the second week to positive values by the fourth and fifth weeks of treatment. Tolerance to the enteral

  19. [Esthetic nutrition: body and beauty enhancement through nutritional care].

    PubMed

    Witt, Juliana da Silveira Gonçalves Zanini; Schnider, Aline Petter

    2011-09-01

    Nowadays, there is an increasing quest for beauty and the models proposed by fashion goods and service segments, to achieve the perfect body. The standard of beauty corresponds to a thin body, without considering health aspects. The number of women who go on diets to control weight is increasing; and taking this into consideration the objective of this study is to conduct a bibliographical review and extract data on esthetics and body image to support the practice of nutritional care. Socio-cultural aspects, which motivate the quest for the perfect body, as well as body, beauty, esthetics, nutritional counseling and cognitive behavior therapy were examined in this survey. On the basis of this work, it is possible to conclude that the continuing obsession with the body may lead the person to go on diets and other drastic methods to control weight, such as surgical procedures. In this respect, nutritional care is far more than merely recommending a standard diet or giving information, as it represents providing an effective model for nutritional reeducation, prioritizing improvement in the style and quality of life. This article provides data about enhancing esthetics and beauty by means of appropriate nutrition.

  20. Nutrition in adolescents: physiology, metabolism, and nutritional needs.

    PubMed

    Das, Jai K; Salam, Rehana A; Thornburg, Kent L; Prentice, Andrew M; Campisi, Susan; Lassi, Zohra S; Koletzko, Berthold; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-04-01

    Adolescence is the period of development that begins at puberty and ends in early adulthood. Most commonly, adolescence is divided into three developmental periods: early adolescence (10-14 years of age), late adolescence (15-19 years of age), and young adulthood (20-24 years of age). Adolescence is marked by physical and sexual maturation, social and economic independence, development of identity, acquisition of skills needed to carry out adult relationships and roles, and the capacity for abstract reasoning. Adolescence is characterized by a rapid pace of growth that is second only to that of infancy. Nutrition and the adolescent transition are closely intertwined, since eating patterns and behaviors are influenced by many factors, including peer influences, parental modeling, food availability, food preferences, cost, convenience, personal and cultural beliefs, mass media, and body image. Here, we describe the physiology, metabolism, and nutritional requirements for adolescents and pregnant adolescents, as well as nutrition-related behavior and current trends in adolescent nutrition. We conclude with thoughts on the implications for nutrition interventions and priority areas that would require further investigation. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.