... into your diet. These include brightly colored and dark fruits and vegetables. Balance the food you eat ... can also order your free copy of Nutrition Matters and visit our Ask about Nutrition forum. << Back ...
Lane, Helen W.
This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.
An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…
Undernutrition and obesity have serious implications for both health and recovery from illness or surgery. These nutritional problems are common in hospital patients but often go unnoticed. This article reviews the means of carrying out nutritional assessment and recommends simple techniques for routine use at ward level to identify patients who need nutritional intervention. Nursing staff are in an ideal position to undertake nutritional screening and simple nutritional assessment should be routinely included as part of patient assessment.
Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in ...
Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.
This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…
Chauliac, Michel; And Others
Nutrition education is the theme of this issue of "Children in the Tropics," which emphasizes an analysis of the situation of nutrition education programs, particularly in third world countries. It is noted that in most cases, it is necessary to integrate aspects of nutrition education into broader programs that encompass agricultural…
Hizli, Samil; Abaci, Ayhan; Büyükgebiz, Benal; Büyükgebiz, Atilla
Nutritional stunting is a common problem of the pediatric population especially in developing countries. Although it is a resolvable problem, it continues to be an important health issue. Stunting can be diagnosed when a child's height falls more than two standard deviations below the mean height for age. Stunting may be caused by genetic, hormonal, pharmaceutical, psychosocial and nutritional factors. Before doing extensive laboratory tests, nutritional factors must be searched for at the time of diagnosis. If the etiology is nutritional deficiency, meticulous dietary regulation must be done. The results of treatment must be assessed for guiding the nutritional rehabilitation during follow up. Here we review the interaction of wasting and nutritional stunting; the prevalence of nutritional stunting; diet components and growth; the pathophysiology of stunting; periods of accelerated growth; the diagnosis and clinical assessment of nutritional stunting; the anthropometric and laboratory nutritional indices that can be used at the time of diagnosis and for follow-up purposes during rehabilitation and also the management of nutritional stunting.
After an introduction which defines the scope of geriatric nutrition, the current literature dealing with the subject is reviewed. Nutrition is seen as an important aspect of aging and health. The role of the practicing physician in the area of geriatric nutrition is discussed. The author relates personal experiences in this area. The concluding principle is that proper nutrition is an important tool in preventive medicine in the elderly in which the practicing physician can play a vital role. Imagesp803-a PMID:7401189
In the last 20 years, Public Health Nutrition focused mainly on the qualitative aspects which may influence the onset of chronic diseases, quality of life, physical and mental performance and life expectancy. This applied knowledge organised as part of preventive and health promotion programs led to the development of Community Nutrition. The aim of Community Nutrition actions is to adequate lifestyles related to food consumption patterns in order to improve the quality of life and contribute to health promotion of the population in the community where programs and services are delivered. Key functions to develop in a Community Nutrition Unit consist in the identification and assessment of nutrition problems in the community as well as the design, implementation and evaluation of intervention programs by means of appropriate strategies. These should aim at different populations groups and settings, such as work places, schools, high risk groups or the general public. Nowadays, Community Nutrition work efforts should focus on three main aspects: nutrition education in schools and in the community; food safety and food security and the development and reinforcement of food preparation skills across all age groups. Social catering services, either in schools, the work place or at the community level, need to ensure adequate nutritional supply, provide foods contributing to healthy eating practices as well as to enhance culinary traditions and social learning. Food safety and food security have become a top priority in Public Health. The concepts referes to the availability of food safe and adequate as well as in sufficient amount in order to satisfy nutrition requirements of all individuals in the community. Social changes along new scientific developments will introduce new demands in Community Nutrition work and individual dietary counselling will become a key strategy. In order to face new challenges, community nutrition pactitioners require a high quality
Aranceta Bartrina, J; Pérez Rodrigo, C; Serra Majem, L I
A growing body of scientific and epidemiological evidence indicates that diet and health are related: diet may be a risk factor or have potential protective effects. As a consequence, the focus of nutrition research has experienced a shift towards qualitative aspects of diet which could influence chronic disease, longevity, quality of life and physical and cognitive performance, leading to the development of Community Nutrition. The main undertakings in a Community Nutrition Unit are related to the identification, assessment and monitoring of nutrition problems at the community level and to planning, design, implementation and evaluation of nutrition intervention programs. Such programs combine a number of suitable strategies in a whole population approach, a high risk approach or an approach targeted at specific population groups, and are implemented in different settings, such as the work place, schools or community organizations. Community nutrition interventions aim to gradually achieve change in eating patterns towards a healthier profile. Community Nutrition programs require the use of a combination of strategies and a working group of people from different backgrounds. Many factors influence the nutritional status of an individual or a population. In order to gain effective work output, sound understanding of these patterns and a practical surveillance system are required.
Houtkooper, Linda; And Others
This kit provides coaches, physical education teachers, and health professionals with current nutrition information and guidelines for applying that information in classes and athletic training programs. The kit contains four components. A "Key Terms" section provides an index to nutrition-fitness terminology and concepts. The instructional…
This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...
Christy, Kathy J.; Dawes, Marge
Included in this booklet are nutrition learning activities intended to help elementary school students acquire knowledge that will enable them to select diets that meet their bodies' needs, both now and in the future. The learning activities correspond to specific nutrition education objectives and are presented separately for students in the…
Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.
This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…
... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION ▶ Nutrition and Diet ▶ Diet for the Non-transfused ... Nutrition with Connie Schroepfer, MS, RD: Dec 2016 Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...
Rosa, Franz W.; Turshen, Meredeth
The extensive literature on nutrition in pregnancy is reviewed with special reference to international experience, including observations on nutritional trials in pregnancy, pregnancy during famines caused by war, and studies of birth-weight in relation to pregnancy interval, parity and multiple pregnancies. Recent research on the significance of fetal nutrition suggests that ”small-for-dates” infants, i.e., those that are developmentally retarded in utero, suffer long-term developmental sequelae. A high world-wide incidence of small-for-dates births was reported by the World Health Organization in 1960. Although a definite correlation has been found between socio-economic status and birth-weight, it is not known to what extent the smaller birth-weights observed in the lower socio-economic groups can be improved by specific nutritional measures. In addition to the general advice given on maternal nutrition and family-planning, further studies are needed to determine the precise means of achieving improvement in fetal nutrition and a better outcome of pregnancy. PMID:5314013
Rosa, F W; Turshen, M
The extensive literature on nutrition in pregnancy is reviewed with special reference to international experience, including observations on nutritional trials in pregnancy, pregnancy during famines caused by war, and studies of birth-weight in relation to pregnancy interval, parity and multiple pregnancies. Recent research on the significance of fetal nutrition suggests that "small-for-dates" infants, i.e., those that are developmentally retarded in utero, suffer long-term developmental sequelae. A high world-wide incidence of small-for-dates births was reported by the World Health Organization in 1960.Although a definite correlation has been found between socio-economic status and birth-weight, it is not known to what extent the smaller birth-weights observed in the lower socio-economic groups can be improved by specific nutritional measures. In addition to the general advice given on maternal nutrition and family-planning, further studies are needed to determine the precise means of achieving improvement in fetal nutrition and a better outcome of pregnancy.
Smith, Scott M.
Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.
Smith, Scott M.; Lane, Helen W.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)
Adequate nutritional status is critical for maintenance of crew health during extended- duration space flight and postflight rehabilitation. Nutrition issues relate to intake of required nutrients, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, psychological adaptation to extreme environments, and countermeasures to ameliorate the negative effects of space flight. Thus, defining the nutrient requirements for space flight and ensuring provision and intake of those nutrients are critical issues for crew health and mission success. Specialized nutritional requirements have only been considered for what are referred to here as extended- duration flights, i.e., those greater than 30 days in length. While adequate nutrition is important on the 1- to 3-week Shuttle flights, intakes of specific nutrients above or below space specific requirements for this period will not produce cause for concern. Thus, Shuttle flights have always used the recognized nutritional requirements for adult men and women. In this chapter, long-duration flights will be further differentiated into orbital missions (e.g., International Space Station) and interplanetary exploration missions.
... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...
The dramatic growth of infants during the first year of life (e.g., a 3-fold increase in weight and a 2-fold increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from a year of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. Moreover, these needs for growth are superimposed on ...
The dramatic growth of infants during the 1st yr of life (a 3-fold increase in weight; a 50% increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from 1 yr of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. The needs for growth are superimposed on relatively high maintenance nee...
Hyland, K M
The use of radio by the dietitians of the Whittington Hospital and their guest speakers to advise and educate hospital patients on varying aspects of human nutrition, reaching a much larger section of the local population than they could in their usual work, is described.
Greco, Deborah S
This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed.
Smith, Scott M.
This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids
... Sign-Up Home Patient Information Nutrition Advice & Recipes Nutrition Advice & Recipes This is a very important section ... information on all aspects of daily life, including nutrition, medical treatments, pain management, and practical tips. For ...
Markham, R W; Hodgkins, E M
In recent decades, veterinary medicine has become more successful in prolonging the healthy, useful lives of pets. As a result, the practitioner spends a greater part of each practice day caring for the geriatric animal, both healthy and unhealthy. Because of their longevity, older pets are typically regular family members, with owners who seek the finest health care possible for their pets. The practice of geriatric medicine most properly should begin not when the dog or cat reaches some specific "golden" age, but rather when the wiggly, robust puppy or kitten receives its first examination. Like all parts of a sound preventive program, geriatric nutrition best follows from a well-considered juvenile and adult nutrition program. Furthermore, once it becomes senior, the "well" geriatric is as much a candidate for a diet designed especially to accommodate old age changes as is his unhealthy contemporary. In fact, evidence suggests that appropriate dietary management of the healthy, but often subclinical, patient may help postpone the signs of dysfunction and increase quality and length of life. A knowledge of the most significant nutrients and the impact of each on aging systems is now, and will become increasingly more, important to the progressive, skillful veterinarian.
Lead poisoning - nutritional considerations; Toxic metal - nutritional considerations ... utensils . Old paint poses the greatest danger for lead poisoning , especially in young children. Tap water from lead ...
Nutritional quality during the first weeks of life can influence health during both infancy and adulthood. Exclusive long-term breast feeding is strongly recommended, particularly for infants at risk of allergy. It protects against gastrointestinal and respiratory infections, and has been shown to enhance cognitive and intellectual development. Breast-feeding is also associated with a lower risk of obesity and type 1 diabetes in infants and of cardiovascular disease in adults. Breast-feeding is rarely contraindicated. Multiple European and French guidelines and regulations govern the composition of infant formulas, which may be given during the first year of life when breast-feeding is unavailable. Hypoallergenic and soy-based formulas are not recommended for healthy infants.
Bell, J A
The unusually short intestinal tract of ferrets and closely related mustelids lacks a cecum and ileocolic valve. As a result, the transit time of ingesta in these carnivores is very rapid compared with other animals, and their food is inefficiently digested. Although the precise nutritional requirements of ferrets have not been determined by feeding defined diets, information has been compiled from experience feeding commercial and analyzed homemade diets to breeding ferrets, fitch, and mink at all stages of their lives. The requirements of spayed or neutered pet ferrets are met by allowing them constant access to drinking water and a palatable, pelleted, or extruded, 90% dry matter, premium cat or ferret food that, as fed, contains at least 15% fat and 30% high quality, meat source protein, less than 30% carbohydrates, and approximately 4 Kcal of metabolizable energy per gram. Lower density diets with more carbohydrate and less protein are associated with poor reproductive performance and growth and greater susceptibility to infectious and metabolic diseases.
The Baylor Pediatric Nutrition Handbook for Residents provides basic resource information about the assessment of growth, the nutritional status assessment and feeding guidelines, biochemical evaluation of nutritional status, infant nutrition, enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition, nutritional man...
... Children and Cancer When Your Child Has Cancer Nutrition for Children with Cancer Nutrition is an important part of the health of ... help you ensure your child is getting the nutrition he or she needs. Why good nutrition is ...
... Demos/Grant Projects FNS Strategic Plan Other Resources Food & Nutrition Information Center National Agriculture Library National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research Nutrition.gov Peer Review Plans and Guidelines ...
Most preventable deaths among hungry people take place outside of emergency contexts. In countries not involved in conflicts or natural disasters malnutrition is directly implicated in the deaths of millions of children and mothers each year. Thus, WFP's great efforts focused on saving lives in emergencies should be mirrored by efforts aimed at tackling malnutrition, and hence saving lives, beyond emergencies as well. While food sufficiency is not the same as good nutrition, food is nevertheless an important part of the nutrition equation. New scientific evidence confirms that it is possible to have positive nutritional impacts with food aid. Consistent with Strategic Priority No. 3, WFP seeks to use food resources to achieve nutritional impacts in three complementary ways: a) enhancing the effectiveness and impact of targeted mother and child health and nutrition interventions (MCHN) that combine food and appropriate nonfood inputs; b) enhancing the nutritional value of WFP food (for instance, through micronutrient fortification); and c) enhancing the nutritional impact of other WFP (non-MCHN) interventions. These approaches represent a mainstreaming of nutrition across WFP's activities. Adoption of evidence-based programming, joint interventions with partners, and new project designs offer the promise of greater WFP effectiveness and impact in the coming years.
Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J.; Rice, B. L.; Lane, H. W.
The authors review studies conducted to define nutritional requirements for astronauts during space flight and to assess nutrition before, during, and after space flight. Topics include space food systems, research and limitations on spacecraft, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, energy requirements, dietary intake during space flight, bone demineralization, gastrointestinal function, blood volume, and nutrition requirements for space flight. Benefits of space-related nutrition research are highlighted.
Frank, Mary, Ed.; And Others
The special issue of the journal contains 12 articles on nutrition and young children. The following titles and authors are included: "Overview--Nutritional Needs of Young Children" (M. Scialabba); "Nurturance--Mutually Created--Mother and Child" (M. McFarland); "Feeding the Special Needs Child" (E. Croup); "Maternal and Neonatal Nutrition--Long…
National Dairy Council, Rosemont, IL.
This booklet presents a nutrient approach to teaching nutrition. It contains basic nutrition information along with suggestions for translating this information to fulfill the needs of families and individuals. Topics discussed are: (1) a nutrient approach to teaching nutrition; (2) functions of nutrients; (3) how food handling affects nutrient…
Lasswell, Anita B.; And Others
A study of three hospitals' family medicine residents' knowledge of and interest in nutrition education revealed large gaps in residents' knowledge of nutritional aspects of certain conditions likely to arise in general practice. Previous medical school nutrition courses had little influence on residents' perceived knowledge. (MSE)
Hayden, Jacqueline; Eastman, Wayne; Aird, Laura Dutil; McCrea, Nadine L.
Four workshops focus on nutrition for infants and children in child care settings. Articles are: (1) "Nutrition and Child Development: Global Perspectives" (Jacqueline Hayden); (2) "Working with Families around Nutritional Issues" (Wayne Eastman); (3) "Breastfeeding Promotion in Child Care" (Laura Dutil Aird); and (4) "Food as Shared…
Deringer, Shirley K.
A school nurse describes her participation in a new school-wide study of nutrition. Purposely choosing to work with young children (kindergarten and first grade) she held discussions on the nutritional need of babies and pets, planned and evaluated menus with the children, and played a nutrition game wherein children played the part of different…
Bazzarre, Terry L.
Reviews nutrition education programs in relation to aging. A summary of nutritional information that constitutes different components of nutrition education programs for the elderly is discussed. A brief review of physiological changes affecting nutrient utilization and food selection and changes in dietary intake and requirements are presented.…
Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.
This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…
Addresses nutritional problems associated with developmental problems in infancy and childhood. Nutritional problems are often linked to environmental disadvantage; the possibility exists for long-term developmental effects. Treatment for undernutrition does not appear to reverse all negative effects. Prevention of nutritional disorders is better…
McAfee, Donald C.
Nutrition educators must find ways to get sound nutrition information to the public through means such as: nutrition education for physicians, the nation's formal education system, public media and work with social and civic groups, and emphasis on world population planning and control of food production and waste. (MS)
Smith, Scott M.
Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts.
This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article.
Mascarenhas, M R; Zemel, B; Stallings, V A
Nutritional status affects every pediatric patient's response to illness. Good nutrition is important for achieving normal growth and development. Nutritional assessment therefore should be an integral part of the care for every pediatric patient. Routine screening measures for abnormalities of growth should be performed on all pediatric patients. Those patients with chronic illness and those at risk for malnutrition should have detailed nutritional assessments done. Components of a complete nutritional assessment include a medical history, nutritional history including dietary intake, physical examination, anthropometrics (weight, length or stature, head circumference, midarm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness), pubertal staging, skeletal maturity staging, and biochemical tests of nutritional status. Alternative measures for linear growth assessment (e.g., lower leg and upper arm measures) can be performed on patients unable to stand or who have musculoskeletal deformities. Bone densitometry can be used to assess bone mineralization and the risk of fracture. Nutritionally at risk patients may benefit from determination of resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry. The use of age, gender, and disease-specific growth charts is essential in assessing nutritional status and monitoring nutrition interventions. The importance of accurate measurements using trained personnel and appropriate equipment cannot be overemphasized.
Virgili, N; Vilarasau, M C
Enteral nutrition in the home is applied to stabilized patients who do not require hospitalization or to chronically ill patients who can stay in their homes. However, ensuring the correct administration of this treatment requires a coordinated, expert multidisciplinary team. This article reviews the conditions for use of enteral nutrition in the home, the means of access, the nutritional formulas, the administrative technique, and the complications enteral nutrition in the home may present. Furthermore, the composition and characteristics of the multidisciplinary team which will be in charge of carrying out this treatment is discussed.
... Farms and Farming Systems Food and Human Nutrition Marketing and Trade Natural Resources and Environment Plants and ... Food Purchasing, and Cooking Nutrition Education Nutrition Research Marketing and Trade Agricultural Subsidies Distribution, Imports, and Exports ...
... and Learn Videos View More Understanding the New Nutrition Facts Label The new Nutrition Facts label features updated information to help consumers ... and Tipsheets for Families and Communities 3 National Nutrition Month 1 10 Common Food Safety Mistakes 2 ...
Reviews changes in United States nutrition since the 1969 White House Conference on Food, Nutrition, and Health and identifies necessary components of public, private and expert contributions towards a policy for ensuring adequate nutrition for all Americans. (AL)
Notes that despite having access to vast nutritional knowledge, Americans today are more malnourished and obese than ever before. Concludes that eating normal, basic, ordinary foods in variety can supply all nutritional needs; gimmicks are not needed, and the search for the "quick-fix" must stop--it is not on any shelf. Includes the United States…
Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.
This packet contains an instructor's manual, instructor's resource package, and student workbook for a competency-based course on nutrition for practical nursing. The course consists of two units of instruction that cover applying principles of basic nutrition and diet therapy. Each unit contains some or all of the following components: objective…
Foster, Florence P.; And Others
This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of…
Hausman, Dorothy B; Fischer, Joan G; Johnson, Mary Ann
The oldest old are among the fastest growing segment of the population and it is important to understand not only the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and nutrition on the achievement of exceptional longevity but also the role, if any, of these factors on maintaining optimal cognitive, mental and physical health into advanced age. This review summarizes studies of dietary intake and patterns of long-lived peoples and presents current knowledge of nutritional status of centenarians as determined with nutritionally relevant biomarkers, providing information on comparative levels of the various biomarkers between centenarians and older adult controls and on the prevalence and predictors of nutritional deficiencies in centenarians. The studies indicate that BMI and nutritional status as indicated by circulating levels of antioxidant vitamins, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and 25(OH) vitamin D of centenarians are quite heterogeneous and influenced by region of residency and many of the demographic, dietary and lifestyle factors that influence nutritional status in other older adults. While many of the studies have been small, convenience samples of relatively healthy community-dwelling centenarians, a few have population-based or included participants of varying cognitive functioning. These and future studies examining associations between nutritional status and cognitive, mental and physical function should be instrumental in determining the role of nutrition in promoting longevity and improving the quality of life in these exceptional survivors.
Goldsmith, Robert H.
Nutritional deficiencies and imbalances can influence learning directly or indirectly. Fatigue, boredom and low motivation may be the result of poor nutrition. Some vision problems, it is known, are related to deficiencies in vitamin A. A number of studies indicate that protein-caloric malnutrition affects intellectual and psychomotor development.…
This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....
Boehnlein, Mary Maher; And Others
The paper reviews literature on the relationship between food, nutrition, and learning with particular emphasis on impairments in cognitive development and learning which result from malnutrition. Considered are means of detecting malnutrition, allergy symptoms, and steps a teacher can take in educating students and families about nutrition. Among…
Boehnlein, Mary Maher
Parents and the extended family are the most influential factors in the child's lifelong eating habits, general health and development, and brain power. Convincing parents of diet components that insure adequate nutrition is of prime importance; if the home does not support the content of the school's nutritional curriculum, the child may feel…
World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).
This book presents nine packages of learning materials for trainers to use in teaching community health workers to carry out the nutrition element of their jobs. Lessons are intended to help health workers acquire skill in presenting to communities the principles and practice of good nutrition. Responding to the most common causes of poor…
Hayes, Daniel P
Nutritional hormesis has the potential to serve as a pro-healthy aging intervention by reducing the susceptibility of the elderly to various chronic degenerative diseases and thereby extending human healthspan. Supportive evidence for nutritional hormesis arising from essential nutrients (vitamins and minerals), dietary pesticides (natural and synthetic), dioxin and other herbicides, and acrylamide will be reviewed and discussed.
Kiraly, Laszlo N; McClave, Stephen A; Neel, Dustin; Evans, David C; Martindale, Robert G; Hurt, Ryan T
Nutrition education for physicians in the United States is limited in scope, quality, and duration due to a variety of factors. As new data and quality improvement initiatives highlight the importance of nutrition and a generation of nutrition experts retire, there is a need for new physician educators and leaders in clinical nutrition. Traditional nutrition fellowships and increased didactic lecture time in school and postgraduate training are not feasible strategies to develop the next generation of physician nutrition specialists in the current environment. One strategy is the development of short immersion courses for advanced trainees and junior attendings. The most promising courses include a combination of close mentorship and adult learning techniques such as lectures, clinical experiences, literature review, curricular development, research and writing, multidisciplinary interactions, and extensive group discussion. These courses also allow the opportunity for advanced discourse, development of long-term collaborative relationships, and continued longitudinal career development for alumni after the course ends. Despite these curricular developments, ultimately the field of nutrition will not mature until the American Board of Medical Specialties recognizes nutrition medicine with specialty board certification.
Studies by Tufts University's Center on Hunger and Poverty show conclusive links between nutrition and children's cognitive development. Cognitive defects can result from complex interactions between malnutrition and "environmental insults" that come from living in poverty. Poor nutrition has longterm consequences. Print and web…
Marshall, Mary W.
Research on the relationship between heredity and nutrition in laboratory animals, particularly rats, points to a similar relationship between human heredity and nutritional requirements. Suggests an experiment which science honor students can undertake to investigate the relationship between strain differences in rats and the utilization of…
Dow, Ruth McNabb
The leader's guide and student activity booklet contain learning activities, ideas, information, games, and resources for nutrition instruction designed to appeal to the interests of teens and pre-teens and to improve their knowledge of nutrition and their eating habits. (MS)
Hayes, Daniel P.
Nutritional hormesis has the potential to serve as a pro-healthy aging intervention by reducing the susceptibility of the elderly to various chronic degenerative diseases and thereby extending human healthspan. Supportive evidence for nutritional hormesis arising from essential nutrients (vitamins and minerals), dietary pesticides (natural and synthetic), dioxin and other herbicides, and acrylamide will be reviewed and discussed. PMID:20221283
Smith, Scott M.; Rice, Barbara L.
Nutrition has played a critical role throughout the history of exploration, and space exploration is no exception. While a one- to two-week flight aboard the Space Shuttle might be analogous to a camping trip, adequate nutrition is absolutely critical while spending several months on the International Space Station (Figure 1) or several years on a mission to another planet. To ensure adequate nutrition, space nutrition specialists must know how much of the individual nutrients astronauts need, and these nutrients must be available in the spaceflight food system. To complicate matters, these spaceflight nutritional requirements are influenced by many of the physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. In this chapter, we describe some of these changes, their impact on crew health, and ways NASA is investigating how to minimize these changes. We also review the space food systems, issues involved in setting up a cafeteria in a weightless environment, and information about dietary intake of nutrients during space missions
Veroux, Massimiliano; Corona, Daniela; Sinagra, Nunziata; Tallarita, Tiziano; Ekser, Burcin; Giaquinta, Alessia; Zerbo, Domenico; Veroux, Pierfrancesco
Organ transplantation has progressively established itself as the preferred therapy for many end-stage organ failures. However, many of these chronic diseases and their treatments can negatively affect nutritional status, leading to malnutrition and mineral deficiencies.Nutritional status is an important determinant of the clinical outcome of kidney transplant recipients.Malnutrition and obesity may represent a contraindication to transplantation in many cases and may increase the risk of postoperative complications after the transplantation. Nutritional support in kidney transplant recipients is challenging, since it must take into account the pre-transplant nutritional status, the side effects of immunosuppression, the function of the transplanted graft, the presence of infection, and the general status of the patient at the time of the transplantation.With these considerations in mind, we reviewed current literature on the impact of nutritional status on the outcome of kidney transplantation.
Young, R C; Blass, J P
This article catalogs the nutritional deficiencies inadvertently introduced by certain treatment regimens. Specifically, the iatrogenic effects on nutrition of surgery, hemodialysis, irradiation, and drugs are reviewed. Nutritional problems are particularly frequent consequences of surgery on the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric surgery can lead to deficiencies of vitamin B12, folate, iron, and thiamine, as well as to metabolic bone disease. The benefits of small bowel bypass are limited by the potentially severe nutritional consequences of this procedure. Following bypass surgery, patients should be monitored for signs of possible nutritional probems such as weight loss, neuropathy, cardiac arrhythmias, loss of stamina, or changes in mental status. Minimal laboratory tests should include hematologic evaluation, B12, folate, iron, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, sodium, potassium, chloride, and carbon dioxide levels. Roentgenologic examination of the bone should also be obtained. Loss of bone substance is a major consequence of many forms of treatment, and dietary supplementation with calcium is warranted. Patients undergoing hemodialysis have shown carnitine and choline deficiencies, potassium depletion, and hypovitaminosis, as well as osteomalacia. Chronic drug use may alter intake, synthesis, absorption, transport, storage, metabolism, or excretion of nutrients. Patients vary markedly in the metabolic effects of drugs, and recommendations for nutrition must be related to age, sex, reproductive status, and genetic endowment. Moreover, the illness being treated can itself alter nutritional requirements and the effect of the treatment on nutrient status. The changes in nutritional levels induced by use of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives (OCs) are obscure; however, the effects on folate matabolism appear to be of less clinical import than previously suggested. Reduction in pyridoxine and serum vitamin B12 levels has been
Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.
The contents of this working paper comprise a series of journal articles focusing on nutrition and special groups. Papers relating to those on the aged are entitled: Nutrition and Health of Older People, and Nutrition for the Aged--A Summation. Those on the American Indian discuss nutrition intake and food patterns, contemporary dietary patterns,…
Sousa, Mónica; Carvalho, Pedro; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor H
Proper nutrition, not simply adequate energetic intake, is needed to achieve optimal dance performance. However, little scientific research exists concerning nutrition in dance, and so, to propose nutritional guidelines for this field, recommendations need to be based mainly on studies done in other physically active groups. To diminish the risk of energy imbalance and associated disorders, dancers must consume at least 30 kcal/kg fat-free mass/day, plus the training energy expenditure. For macronutrients, a daily intake of 3 to 5 g carbohydrates/kg, 1.2 to 1.7 g protein/kg, and 20 to 35% of energy intake from fat can be recommended. Dancers may be at increased risk of poor micronutrient status due to their restricted energy intake; micronutrients that deserve concern are iron, calcium, and vitamin D. During training, dancers should give special attention to fluid and carbohydrate intake in order to maintain optimal cognition, motivation, and motor skill performance. For competition/stage performance preparation, it is also important to ensure that an adequate dietary intake is being achieved. Nutritional supplements that may help in achieving specific nutritional goals when dietary intake is inadequate include multivitamins and mineral, iron, calcium, and vitamin D supplements, sports drinks, sports bars, and liquid meal supplements. Caffeine can also be used as an ergogenic aid. It is important that dancers seek dietary advice from qualified specialists, since the pressure to maintain a low body weight and low body fat levels is high, especially in styles as ballet, and this can lead to an unbalanced diet and health problems if not correctly supervised.
Suttie, J W
When invited by the editors to provide a prefatory article for the Annual Review of Nutrition, I attempted to decide what might be unique about my experiences as a nutritional biochemist. Although a large proportion of contemporary nutritional scientists were trained as biochemists, the impact of the historical research efforts related to nutrition within the Biochemistry Department at the University of Wisconsin 50 to 60 years ago was, I think, unique, and I have tried to summarize that historical focus. My scientific training was rather standard, but I have tried to review the two major, but greatly different, areas of research that I have been involved in over my career: inorganic fluorides as an industrial pollutant and the metabolic role of vitamin K. I have also had the opportunity to become involved with the activities of the societies representing the nutritional sciences (American Society for Nutrition), biochemistry (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology), Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, the Food and Nutrition Board, the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics. These interactions can be productive or frustrating but are always time-consuming.
Axelrod, David; Kazmerski, Kimberly; Iyer, Kishore
Common to all pediatric patients receiving enteral nutrition is the inability to consume calories orally. This is often secondary to issues of inadequate weight gain, inadequate growth, prolonged feeding times, weight loss, a decrease in weight/age or weight/height ratios, or a persistent triceps skinfold thickness <5% for age. Enteral nutrition requires enteral access. In the neonatal period the nasoenteric route is usually used. In pediatric patients requiring long-term enteral access, surgically, endoscopically, or radiologically placed percutaneous feeding tubes are common. Jejunal feeding tubes are used in pediatric patients with gastric feeding intolerance or persistent gastroesophageal reflux. Low-profile enteral access devices are preferred by most pediatric patients because of their cosmetic appearance. For most children, a standard pediatric polypeptide enteral formula is well tolerated. There are specialized pediatric enteral formulas available for patients with decreased intestinal length, altered intestinal absorptive capacity, or altered pancreatic function. Weaning patients from tube feeding to oral nutrition is the ultimate nutrition goal. A multidisciplinary approach to patients with short bowel syndrome will maximize the use of enteral nutrition while preserving parenteral nutrition for patients with true enteral nutrition therapy failure.
Buyse, S; Durand, F; Joly, F
The liver plays a key role in the metabolism of nutrients. Therefore, liver failure is often associated with malnutrition. It is well-established that malnutrition is an independent prognostic factor in patients with cirrhosis and liver failure. Since standard anthropometric and biological indexes are associated with liver dysfunction, nutritional assessment is difficult in patients with cirrhosis. In this review, we explain the various causes and mechanisms leading to malnutrition in cirrhosis. We also describe reliable methods used to assess the nutritional condition of these patients. Finally, we stress the importance of nutritional care in cirrhosis and liver dysfunction, describing its specific characteristics and indications.
Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Sinclair, Alan J
Aging is associated with body composition changes that lead to glucose intolerance and increased risk of diabetes. The incidence of diabetes increases with aging, and the prevalence has increased because of the increased life expectancy of the population. Lifestyle modifications through nutrition and exercise in combination with medications are the main components of diabetes management. The potential benefits of nutrition and exercise intervention in older people with diabetes are enormous. Nutrition and exercise training are feasible even in frail older people living in care homes and should take into consideration individual circumstances, cultural factors, and ethnic preferences.
Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.
This report summarizes information, including selected indices of nutritional status, as reported from 28 states and the District of Columbia to the Nutritional Status Surveillance System. This system has two components, one addressing nutritional status among high-risk pediatric populations, and the other addressing nutritional status among…
Olson, Christine; And Others
This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…
Nutrition Knovledge among Navy Recruits DTIC AELEOI7E flS SEP 2 8 1987 Terry L. Conway Linda K. Hervig D Ross R. Vickers, Jr. Health Psychology Department...5 Participants ............................................................. 5 Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire...Students ............................... 6 Recruits’ Nutrition Knowledge .................................... ...... 8 Correlates of Nutrition Knowledge
Palermo, Karen R.
A description is presented of "Nutrition for Nurses," a prerequisite course for students anticipating entrance into the junior level of a state university registered nursing program. Introductory material highlights the course focus (i.e., the basics of good nutrition; nutrition through the life cycle; nursing process in nutritional care; and…
Weininger, Jean; Briggs, George M.
Reviews current nutrition research areas with important practical applications. Topics include hypertension, preventable birth defects, phenylketonuria and genetic diseases, new molecular genetics techniques, and saccharin and sweetners. Entries are brief and a 65-reference list is given. (MA)
Smith, Scott M.
Adequate nutrition is critical for crew health and safety during spaceflight. To ensure adequate nutrition, the nutrient requirements need to be both accurate and available from the spaceflight food system. The existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration spaceflight have been defined largely by extrapolation from ground-based research. However, nutritional requirements are influenced by most of the physiological consequences of spaceflight, including loss of lean, adipose, and bone tissue; changes in blood composition; and increased risk of renal stone formation. This review focuses on key areas where information has been gained in recent years: dietary intake and energy metabolism, bone health, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and hematological changes. Areas in which specific nutrients have the potential to serve as countermeasures to the negative effects of spaceflight are also reviewed. Dietary Intake
This is an introduction to the Space Food System and Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory. Topics cover food systems of programs past, present and future, and issues surrounding food systems and foo...
... 12 may be required. Folic acid (another B vitamin) deficiency is also quite common in patients who are ... Affecting as many as 68 percent of people, vitamin D deficiency is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies ...
This tutorial presents a systematic approach to nutrition assessment based on a modern appreciation for the contributions of inflammation that serve as the foundation for newly proposed consensus definitions for malnutrition syndromes. Practical indicators of malnutrition and inflammation have been ...
The past few decades have witnessed a rapid rise in nutrition-related disorders such as obesity in the United States and over the world. Traditional nutrition research has associated various foods and nutrients with obesity. Recent advances in genomics have led to identification of the genetic variants determining body weight and related dietary factors such as intakes of energy and macronutrients. In addition, compelling evidence has lent support to interactions between genetic variations and dietary factors in relation to obesity and weight change. Moreover, recently emerging data from other 'omics' studies such as epigenomics and metabolomics suggest that more complex interplays between the global features of human body and dietary factors may exist at multiple tiers in affecting individuals' susceptibility to obesity; and a concept of 'personalized nutrition' has been proposed to integrate this novel knowledge with traditional nutrition research, with the hope ultimately to endorse person-centric diet intervention to mitigate obesity and related disorders.
... 19225360 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19225360 . Bird R. Nutrition. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. ... and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other ...
Papayas are sweet, flavorful tropical fruit, rich in vitamin C and carotenoids. Multiple interactions among preharvest environmental conditions, genetics, and physiology determine papaya nutritional composition at harvest. Selecting a cultivar with the genetic potential for high nutrient content and...
Thompson, J S; Burrough, C A; Green, J L; Brown, G L
Routine nutritional screening of patients admitted to the surgical services confirms a substantial prevalence of malnutrition. Identification of the malnourished patient and the patient who is likely to become malnourished should be done as early as possible in the hospital stay and usually requires only simple, readily available parameters. Nutritional screening is only the first step in the optimal nutritional management of surgical patients. This information should be used to determine the need for further nutritional assessment, the appropriate consultation, and nutritional therapy.
Sen, D; Prakash, J
Malnutrition is a common clinical problem in dialysis patients, which is multifactorial in origin. It is most often found in a patient of chronic renal failure (CRF) during the period when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) falls below 10 ml/min, but dialysis is yet to be started. The loss of proteins, aminoacids and other essential nutrients during the procedure of dialysis may further aggravate the malnutrition. Poor nutrition in dialysis patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the form of delayed wound healing, malaise, fatigue, increased susceptibility to infection and poor rehabilitation. In view of the above consequences, all patients on dialysis must undergo nutritional assessment. It is very vital to maintain good nutritional status in-patients on dialysis by adequate protein and calories intake, appropriate supplementation of iron, calcium, minerals and water-soluble vitamins and, of course, the supplementation should be individualised. Nutritional needs are enhanced in presence of stresses like infection or surgery to limit excessive tissue catabolism and therefore, these are the situations, which demand intensive nutrition therapy. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) may be required for patients on dialysis in intensive care unit, using a central venous catheter. However, enteral route is always preferred to parenteral ones, whenever possible. Even after adequate dialysis has been given, dietary counselling is often required for both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients to ensure that they ingest the recommended amount of protein, calories and essential micronutrients.
Molnar, Joseph Andrew; Underdown, Mary Jane; Clark, William Andrew
Significance: Nutrition is one of the most basic of medical issues and is often ignored as a problem in the management of our chronic wound patients. Unfortunately, malnutrition is widespread in our geriatric patients even in nursing homes in developed countries. Attention to basic nutrition and providing appropriate supplements may assist in the healing of our chronic wounds. Recent Advances: Recent research has revealed the epidemiology of malnutrition in developed countries, the similarities to malnutrition in developing countries, and some of the physiologic and sociologic causes for this problem. More information is now available on the biochemical effects of nutrient deficiency and supplementation with macronutrients and micronutrients. In some cases, administration of isolated nutrients beyond recommended amounts for healthy individuals may have a pharmacologic effect to help wounds heal. Critical Issues: Much of the knowledge of the nutritional support of chronic wounds is based on information that has been obtained from trauma management. Due to the demographic differences of the patients and differences in the physiology of acute and chronic wounds, it is not logical to assume that all aspects of nutritional support are identical in these patient groups. Before providing specific nutritional supplements, appropriate assessments of patient general nutritional status and the reasons for malnutrition must be obtained or specific nutrient supplementation will not be utilized. Future Directions: Future research must concentrate on the biochemical and physiologic differences of the acute and chronic wounds and the interaction with specific supplements, such as antioxidants, vitamin A, and vitamin D. PMID:25371850
Pinelli, G; Tagliabue, A
The first studies about fertility and nutrition date back to the 70ies and already showed a strict relation among female fertility, weight and body composition. However, the mechanisms of this connection started to be explained only after leptin's discovery. According to some authors' opinion, leptin could interact with reproductive axis at multiple sites with stimulatory effects at the hypothalamus and pituitary and stimulatory or inhibitory actions at the gonads. Leptin could play a role in other physiologic processes such as menstruation and pregnancy, and could initiate the complex process of puberty. It has been showed that conditions in which nutritional status is suboptimal, such as eating disorders, exercise induced amenhorrea, functional hypothalamic amenhorrea and polycystic ovarian syndrome, are associated with abnormal leptin levels. These conditions, are characterized by severe changes in body composition and dietary habits. Since leptin is regulated by body composition and dietary factors, (such as energy intake and macronutrient composition), a strict connection between nutritional intake and fertility regulated by leptin is confirmed. This review focuses on the current knowledge about nutritional factors that influence leptin levels. Since clinical and subclinical nutritional imbalance can determine the development and the maintenance of neuroendocrine and metabolic aberrations, studies on fertility need a deeper attention about dietary habits and nutritional status.
Brown, C S; Stegman, M R
In order to test the sensitivity and specificity of the East Orange Nutritional Screening Form (EONSF), nutritional assessments were performed on a random sample of 10% of general medical/surgical admissions at a large midwestern veteran's administration hospital. Patients were followed until discharge to determine if they met the standard criteria of additional nutritional support. The tool correctly identified patients at nutritional risk (sensitivity) 95% of the time and patients not at nutritional risk (specificity) 89% of the time. It proved to be an effective, low-cost tool for identifying patients at risk and for planning appropriate nutritional strategies.
Singler, K; Goisser, S; Volkert, D
The prevalence of malnutrition or the risk of malnourishment is high among orthogeriatric patients and a poor nutritional status is associated with a negative outcome. A comprehensive management of preoperative and postoperative nutritional and fluid intake in these patients can help to improve the situation. The management includes identification of patients affected, a thorough assessment of the nutritional status, work-up of possible underlying causes, documentation of nutritional and fluid intake and, most importantly, procedures to improve the preoperative and postoperative nutritional situation. This article gives an overview of the recently updated recommendations on nutritional management in orthogeriatric patients as published by the orthogeriatric working group of the German Geriatric Society.
Solomon, Missale; Bozic, Molly; Mascarenhas, Maria R
The importance of maintaining adequate nutrition in patients with cystic fibrosis has been well known for the past 3 decades. Achieving normal growth and maintaining optimal nutrition is associated with improved lung function. Comprehensive and consistent nutritional assessments at regular intervals can identify those at risk of nutritional failure and uncover micronutrient deficiencies contributing to malnutrition. Management of malnutrition in cystic fibrosis should follow a stepwise approach to determine the causes and comorbidities and to develop a nutritional plan. Nutritional management is crucial at every stage in a person's life with cystic fibrosis and remains a cornerstone of management.
Nutritional support is an integral part of the management of cystic fibrosis patients. It is arguably best provided by a qualified dietitian and nutritional care sister working in conjunction with the rest of the cystic fibrosis team. The patient's nutritional needs should be assessed, regularly reviewed, and nutritional treatment tailored to meet the changing clinical and psychosocial needs of the patient. Nutritional intervention is not without complications, and in particular attention to normal feeding behaviour and vigilance when instituting supplementary nutrition may prevent many feeding difficulties. PMID:8660059
Schütte, Kerstin; Schulz, Christian; Malfertheiner, Peter
Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) significantly contributes to the global burden of cancer. Liver cancer is the third most frequent cause of cancer-related death with HCC representing more than 90% of primary liver cancers. The majority of patients are not only affected by the malignant disease but do also suffer from chronic liver disease. Therefore, several factors impact on the prognosis of patients with HCC, including tumor-related factors, liver function and patient-related factors such as performance status and other comorbidities. The nutritional status is of high significance for the patients' performance status, the tolerance of tumor-targeting therapy and the prognosis of cancer of any type and is specially referenced in HCC. This overview is on current concepts on the role of nutritional factors in hepatocarcinogenesis and the role of nutrition in patients affected by HCC. Summary Nutritional status and composition of diet are relevant factors related to the risk of HCC. They also have an important role concerning the prognosis of patients with HCC. Besides risk factors, several macro- and micronutrient components have been found to be inversely correlated with the risk of HCC. To prevent disease progression to liver cirrhosis or HCC in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, it is crucial to optimize the metabolic state Key Message and Practical Implication Evidence from well-designed prospective interventional trials with the aim to reduce the HCC incidence or to prolong survival in patients with HCC based on nutritional modification is still to be generated. PMID:27403413
Brown, J E; Carlson, M
Largely because of assisted reproduction, the rate of multifetal pregnancy is rising rapidly in the United States. Accordingly, dietitians are increasingly being called upon to provide nutrition services for these high-risk pregnancies. This article gives an overview of the incidence of and risks associated with multifetal pregnancy and reviews studies that contribute to our knowledge of nutrition and multifetal pregnancy. Practice guidelines for promoting healthy outcomes based on the best available scientific data are suggested. Guidelines for weight gain for twin and triplet pregnancy, dietary intake, and supplement use are included. Suggested practice guidelines for multifetal pregnancy include a positive rate of weight gain early in pregnancy, the use of prepregnancy weight status to determine total weight gain goals in twin pregnancy, a 50-lb weight gain goal for triplet pregnancy, and higher minimal number of servings of foods from several of the Food Guide Pyramid groups. The need for additional information on the effects of nutritional status on the course and outcome of multifetal pregnancy is critical. Preliminary evidence of the benefits of nutrition services suggests that both the incorporation of dietetics services into care programs and additional research on nutrition and multifetal gestation are warranted.
Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania
Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development. PMID:25538876
In humans there is evidence that the restriction of total caloric intake appears to be more important than the restriction of any particular macronutrient. Today the mechanism of the effect of caloric restriction is unknown. With advancing age and the occurrence of concomitant illness there is an increased risk of developing nutritional deficiencies. Altered nutritional status is associated with the pathogenesis of a number of common diseases of the elderly, thus it would appear that nutritional modulation and manipulation represents one possible approach to successful aging and a healthy longevity. The conceptual framework of the paper suggests the need of a newer light of the aging processes namely by a holistic human-gero-ecological model and a personality oriented geriatry. There are accentuated the role of the nutrients and vitamins, the food intake and drug-nutrients interactions and the meanings of the differences between the normal and pathological aging.
Nieves, Jeri W
Nutrition is important in promoting bone health and in managing an individual with low bone mass or osteoporosis. In adult women and men, known losses of bone mass and microarchitecture occur, and nutrition can help minimize these losses. In every patient, a healthy diet with adequate protein, fruits, vegetables, calcium, and vitamin D is required to maintain bone health. Recent reports on nutritional remedies for osteoporosis have highlighted the importance of calcium in youth and continued importance in conjunction with vitamin D as the population ages. It is likely that a calcium intake of 1200 mg/d is ideal, and there are some concerns about excessive calcium intakes. However, vitamin D intake needs to be increased in most populations. The ability of soy products, particularly genistein aglycone, to provide skeletal benefit has been recently studied, including some data that support a new medical food marketed as Fosteum (Primus Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, AZ).
Lane, Helen; Stein, T. P.
Nutrition deficiencies affect multiple systems including muscle, bone, cardiovascular, renal, and gastrointestinal. Humans require many nutrients, ranging from the macronutrients (water, protein, energy sources) to micronutrients (minerals, vitamins). The ability to withstand shortfalls in intake of individual nutrients ranges from one or two days (e.g., water) to weeks (energy, protein, potassium) and months (some vitamins, minerals). In addition to putting humans at risk for nutrition deficiencies, space flight may also change the absorption, hence the pharmacodynamics, of several important medications. Papers given in this session dealt with all of these nutritional and pharmacological factors related to space flight: (1) Protein metabolism and muscle formation. (2) Pharmacodynamics. (3) Calcium metabolism and bone formation/resorption. and (4) Fluid and electrolytes.
Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease with a complex pathogenesis due to genetic and environmental factors. The importance of social and health effects of nephrolithiasis is further highlighted by the strong tendency to relapse of the disease. Long-term prospective studies show a peak of disease recurrence within 2–3 years since onset, 40-50% of patients have a recurrence after 5 years and more than 50-60% after 10 years. International nutritional studies demonstrated that nutritional habits are relevant in therapy and prevention approaches of nephrolithiasis. Water, right intake of calcium, low intake of sodium, high levels of urinary citrate are certainly important for the primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. In this review is discussed how the correction of nutritional mistakes can reduce the incidence of recurrent nephrolithiasis. PMID:23634702
Diamond, L S
Studies on the role of nutrition in amebiasis in humans and experimental animals are meager. Some reports suggest that malnutrition of the host increases the incidence of infection and potentiates the severity of the disease. Others suggest that malnutrition protects the host against invasion. A few reports indicate that dietary regimens can alleviate symptoms and even eradicate the parasite. Others doubt a correlation between diet and rate of infection or disease manifestations. The problem is complex because the ameba is influenced by its own diet, which in turn depends on the host's diet, the bacterial flora of the gut, and coexisting infections. The host is variously altered by dietary depletions and supplementations, which affect susceptibility and resistance, and by the presence of other disease conditions. Carefully designed and executed studies of infections in humans and experimental animals, combined with studies in vitro of the nutritional requirements and physiology of the parasite, are needed for definition of the influence of host nutrition in amebiasis.
Pivi, Glaucia Akiko Kamikado; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; Schultz, Rodrigo Rizek
An increasing proportion of older adults with Alzheimer's disease or other dementias are now surviving to more advanced stages of the illness. Advanced dementia is associated with feeding problems, including difficulty in swallowing and respiratory diseases. Patients become incompetent to make decisions. As a result, complex situations may arise in which physicians and families decide whether artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) is likely to be beneficial for the patient. The objective of this paper is to present methods for evaluating the nutritional status of patients with severe dementia as well as measures for the treatment of nutritional disorders, the use of vitamin and mineral supplementation, and indications for ANH and pharmacological therapy. PMID:22645608
The World Health Organization defines health as not only the absence of disease but as a more positive state of physical, mental, and social well-being. 1 of the most important influences on health is nutrition. Millions of people throughout the world either do not get enough to eat or do not get enough of the right kinds of food. Malnutrition is the biggest single contributor to child mortality in developing countries; malnourished children have an impaired ability to fight infection and disease. Children suffering protein-energy or protein-calorie malnutrition may develop nutritional deficiency diseases such as marasmus or kwashiorkor. Some estimates indicate that 2/3 of children in developing countries suffer from protein-calorie malnutrition. Some deficiency diseases caused by a lack of 1 or more nutrients are very widespread, such as anemia, endemic goiter, and xerophthalmia. Contributing factors for malnutrition may include low purchasing power of poor families, poor harvests due to crop failure, bad weather, food spoilage, pests, or a poor distribution system, or cultural practices that prevent the full utilization of available food resources. The decline in the incidence of breastfeeding in recent decades is a major factor in the malnutrition and ill health of children. The quality of nutrition affects the development of human beings in many ways that are sometimes overlooked, such as physical growth and intellectual development. In the long run, only economic development will eliminate malnutrition by eliminating its basic causes of food availability, poverty, ignorance, and overpopulation. Breastfeeding is an important nutritional source for infants and has a contraceptive value for mothers. Improved nutrition should have beneficial effects on the costs of providing education, health services, and housing. Improving the nutritional status of small children may increase their ability to withstand disease, resulting in the survival of greater numbers of
Wahlqvist, M L
There have been varying estimates of the role of nutritional as opposed to other contributors to carcinogenesis. Several considerations probably account for the different estimates: (1) genetic overestimates because of foetal and early life rearing practices and the nutritional modulation of genetic expression (2) errors in food intake methodology (3) the limitations of nutrient carcinogenesis hypotheses, ie models which are too naive and do not allow for non-nutrients in food, food patterns and the overall package which is food culture (4) indirect pathways connecting nutrition and cancer such as that via immunosurveillance. Examples of cancers where rapid change in nutritional thinking is underway are breast, prostatic, colorectal and pancreatic. With breast cancer, weakly oestrogenic compounds from foods may be comparable to tamoxifen. Changing food culture away from that rich in phyto-oestrogens may increase the risk of prostatic cancer in men as well. Colorectal cancer incidence has continued at high rates in urbanized society despite an awareness of dietary contribution comparable to the knowledge of diet and coronary heart disease is the analysis sufficiently stratified for large bowel site or nutritionally sophisticated enough to allow for aggregate food pattern effects? Pancreatic cancer on the rise presents questions about unidentified changes continuing in the diets of industrialized societies, possibly from an early age, and even during infant feeding. Nutritional surveillance with mathematical modelling of food intake at a more sophisticated level will be required to understand present food-cancer relationships, and those which may emerge with newer food technologies, especially those related to designer foods.
... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-- Disaster Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (D-SNAP) AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with...
Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.
The purpose of this manual is to guide users of the nutrition education project produced by Padres Hispanos en Accion por Una Sana Generacion (Hispanic Parents in Action for a Healthy Generation). The project provides nutrition education materials to trainers who provide nutrition counseling to parents of Head Start children. The project has two…
Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others
"Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of…
Illinois State Council on Nutrition, Springfield.
This publication lists information about Illinois state agencies and organizations that participate in feeding programs and/or have nutrition programs and nutrition services available to the public. This nutrition services sourcebook lists where one can go for help and available information and services. Statewide organizations which support…
Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…
Fuhr, Janet E.; Barclay, Kathy H.
Discusses how nutrition education may be implemented in early childhood classrooms. Describes the incidence of malnutrition and obesity, and topics covered--the food pyramid, vegetable growth, and nutritional needs--through several integrated nutrition units including: (1) the bread basket; (2) potatoes; (3) vegetable soup; (4) fruit basket; (5)…
Hoffer, Leonard John
There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness.
Indrei, L L
It is difficult ro assess the role of nutrition in the etiology and progression of periodontal disease because many other factors besides the local effect of plaque affect periodontal tissue metabolism. It is clear that nutrition can affect host response to bacterial plaque and it is also apparent that there may be a need for the intake of greater amounts of certain nutrients (such as ascorbic acid, iron etc.). Inadequate nutrient intake or deficiency is significant because of the number of interactions that occur during the assimilation of foods and the effects of stress and medication. Periodontal health cannot be achieved unless nutrient deficiency is corrected along with the other phases of treatment.
Hamdy, Osama; Barakatun-Nisak, Mohd-Yusof
Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a key component of diabetes management. The importance of balancing macronutrients, reducing carbohydrate load, lowering glycemic index, and implementing an overall healthy dietary pattern are emerging as better approaches for MNT in diabetes. Recent research points to improved glycemic control, reduction in body weight, and improvement in many cardiovascular risk factors when these approaches are provided by registered dietitians or health care providers. This review article discusses the current evidence about the role of sensible nutrition in diabetes management. Specific eating plans for weight reduction and for patients with type 1 diabetes are also discussed.
Bartlett, Robert H; Dechert, Ronald E
Critical care has evolved from a prolonged recovery room stay for cardiac surgery patients to a full medical and nursing specialty in the last 5 decades. The ability to feed patients who cannot eat has evolved from impossible to routine clinical practice in the last 4 decades. Nutrition in critically ill patients based on measurement of metabolism has evolved from a research activity to clinical practice in the last 3 decades. The authors have been involved in this evolution and this article discusses past, present, and likely future practices in nutrition in critically ill patients.
Hoffer, Leonard John
There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness. PMID:28287411
... Features Spokespeople News Archive eNewsletters Calendar Use the Nutrition Facts Label You can help your family eat ... to some of their favorite foods. Use the Nutrition Facts label found on food packages to make ...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...
... Professional Development Webinars Calendar of Events What Is Nutrition Support Therapy All people need food to live. ... patient populations from pediatrics to geriatrics. Key Terms: Nutrition Support Therapy The provision of enteral or parenteral ...
Fowles, Eileen R
The complex relationship between maternal nutritional and birth outcomes emphasizes the need for consistent and thorough assessments of women's diet throughout pregnancy and individualized nutritional education to promote positive birth outcomes. The purpose of this article is to examine the influence of prenatal nutrition on birth outcomes, describe research on the effects of macro- and micronutrients on birth outcomes, and discuss strategies for monitoring diet and implementing nutrition education during pregnancy.
Davies, D J; Baxter, J M; Baxter, J N
A current review of nutritional complications following bariatric procedures is presented, focusing on the most common and clinically important deficiencies. A brief outline of nutritional supplementation protocol is presented, highlighting the need for a standardized, national or international set of guidelines for pre- and postoperative nutritional screening and appropriate supplementation.
DeLegge, Mark Henry; Kelly, Andrea True; Kelley, Andrea True
The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients is relatively high (up to 55%) despite breakthroughs in nutrition support therapies. These patients have increased morbidity and mortality, extended hospital stays, and care that is associated with higher costs. These patients are often poorly managed due to inadequate nutrition assessment and poor medical knowledge and practice in the field of nutrition. Nutrition support teams (NSTs) are interdisciplinary support teams with specialty training in nutrition that are often comprised of physicians, dietitians, nurses, and pharmacists. Their role includes nutrition assessment, determination of nutrition needs, recommendations for appropriate nutrition therapy, and management of nutrition support therapy. Studies have demonstrated significant improvements in patient nutrition status and improved clinical outcomes as well as reductions in costs when patients were appropriately managed by a multispecialty NST vs individual caregivers. Despite this, there has been steady decline in the number of formal NST in recent years (65% of hospitals in 1995 to 42% in 2008) as hospitals and other healthcare organizations look for ways to cut costs. Given the importance of nutrition status on clinical outcomes and overall healthcare costs, a number of institutions have introduced and sustained strong nutrition training and support programs and teams, demonstrating both clinical and economic benefit. The benefits of NST, training and implementation strategies, and tips for justifying these clinically and economically beneficial groups to healthcare organizations and governing bodies are discussed in this review.
... in the Operating Room? Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition KidsHealth > For Kids > Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition A A A What's in this article? CF ... is someone who knows all about food and nutrition. Each kid is different, but most kids with ...
Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon
Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…
AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-99-1-9478 TITLE: COMMITTEE ON MILITARY NUTRITION ...COVERED (From - To) 01 Jun 99 – 31 Dec 06 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE COMMITTEE ON MILITARY NUTRITION RESEARCH 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...report presents the activities of the National Academy of Sciences/Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR) for the
... Getting an X-ray Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition KidsHealth > For Kids > Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition Print A A A What's in this article? ... is someone who knows all about food and nutrition. Each kid is different, but most kids with ...
Powers, Margaret A.
Both the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services conduct research related to food and human nutrition. Several federal programs supporting nutrition research and education are reviewed. Footnotes provide addresses and ways to obtain more detailed information about nutrition related programs. (JN)
Nutritional deficiencies have to be considered as an independent risk factor for postoperative morbidity. Peri-operative nutritional support reduce this risk in elective abdominal surgery for cancer and cardiac surgery. Preoperative nutritional support for 7-10 days reduce postoperative complications in undernourished patients by 10% but is not operant when administered after surgery. Enteral route is as effective. Recent studies using immunonutrients conclude that a short preoperative oral intake is able to reduce complications even in well-nourished patients. Then, a preoperative nutritional screening must be routinely performed leading to a nutritional programme.
Dufour, P. A.
Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.
Johnson, Mary Ann; And Others
Compared dietary patterns of 165 older adults. Compared to younger cohorts, centenarians (n=24) consumed breakfast more regularly, avoided weight loss diets and large fluctuation in body weight, consumed slightly more vegetables, and relied on doctors and family for nutrition information. Centenarians were less likely to consume low-fat diets and…
Tryfiates, G.P. )
This book contains 26 papers. Some of the titles are: Defects in early and late stages of nucleotide excision repair and the origins of cancer; Mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and the metal elements - DNA interaction; An overview of the role of diet and nutrition in carcinogenesis; Dietary modifiers in cancer; and Factors influencing glia growth in culture: Nutrients and cell-secreted factors.
New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Special Education.
The resource guide suggests activities to help special education students make appropriate choices about their nutritional habits. It is explained that the activities can be infused into other curriculum areas. The guide consists of five themes and includes performance objectives for each: foods eaten at school (planning a school lunch, keeping a…
Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.
This publication is one of the courses from the Oklahoma Practical Nursing series of competency-based training programs designed to coordinate the job-related experience and knowledge needed by personnel working in a practical nursing position. The nutrition module includes several concepts that are integrated throughout the Practical Nursing…
Smith, M. C. Jr; Rambaut, P. C.; Stadler, C. R.
Precise nutritional specifications arising from both physiological and experimental requirements necessitated a comprehensive study of the chemical composition of the Skylab food supply. Each of the approximately seventy different food items was analyzed for digestible and non-digestible carbohydrate, and for protein, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. Menus were formulated to provide at least the National Research Council's Recommended Dietary Allowance of all essential nutrients and, in addition, to provide constant daily intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and protein. In general, the crew members adhered to their programmed menus. The ability to swallow and digest food was unaffected by prolonged weightlessness. Taste acuity also appeared to be undiminished in flight. The bone and muscle changes which occurred in previous flights were more pronounced in Skylab. It is concluded that these changes did not develop as a result of nutritional deficit. If such changes are nutritionally related, they point to the existence of nutritional requirements in weightlessness which differ quantitatively from those observed on earth.
Rambaut, P. C.; Smith, M. C., Jr.; Stadler, C. R.
Precise nutritional specifications arising from both physiological and experimental requirements necessitated a comprehensive study of the chemical composition of the Skylab food supply. Each of the approximately 70 different food items was analyzed for digestible and nondigestible carbohydrate, and for protein, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. Menus were formulated to provide at least the National Research Council's Recommended Dietary Allowance of all essential nutrients and, in addition, to provide constant daily intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and protein. In general, the crewmembers adhered to their programmed menus. The ability to swallow and digest food was unaffected by prolonged weightlessness. Taste acuity also appeared to be undiminished inflight. The bone and muscle changes which occurred in previous flights were more pronounced in Skylab. It is concluded that these changes did not develop as a result of nutritional deficit. If such changes are nutritionally related, they point to the existence of nutritional requirements in weightlessness which differ quantitatively from those observed on earth.
Society for Nutrition Education, Berkeley, CA.
Sixteen articles relating to preschool nutrition education programs, food habits and nutrient intake of preschoolers, parent education, and training of day care personnel are included in this monograph. Also included are more than fifty evaluative reviews and abstracts of articles, books, pamphlets, and audiovisuals useful as resources and/or…
Sockut, Joanne; Stumpe, Stephanie
One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials integrate elementary school-level nutrition education into other disciplines--biology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, and art. Contents include four units consisting of twelve activities. Unit 1, Why You Need Food, is a self-examination of what is needed for growth, health,…
Stronck, David R.
This study analyzed the effectiveness of a method for changing the opinions of students toward various issues related to nutrition. The method consisted of twenty-minute lectures with slides. The 219 college biology students completed four questionnaires containing 44 items. Questionnaire data indicated changes were usually in the direction…
Miller, Tracie L.; Neri, Daniela; Extein, Jason; Somarriba, Gabriel; Strickman-Stein, Nancy
Pediatric cardiomyopathies are heterogeneous groups of serious disorders of the heart muscle and are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality among children who have the disease. While enormous improvements have been made in the treatment and survival of children with congenital heart disease, parallel strides have not been made in the outcomes for cardiomyopathies. Thus, ancillary therapies, such as nutrition and nutritional interventions, that may not cure but may potentially improve cardiac function and quality of life, are imperative to consider in children with all types of cardiomyopathy. Growth failure is one of the most significant clinical problems of children with cardiomyopathy with nearly one-third of children with this disorder manifesting some degree of growth failure during the course of their illness. Optimal intake of macronutrients can help improve cardiac function. In addition, several specific nutrients have been shown to correct myocardial abnormalities that often occur with cardiomyopathy and heart failure. In particular, antioxidants that can protect against free radical damage that often occurs in heart failure and nutrients that augment myocardial energy production are important therapies that have been explored more in adults with cardiomyopathy than in the pediatric population. Future research directions should pay particular attention to the effect of overall nutrition and specific nutritional therapies on clinical outcomes and quality of life in children with pediatric cardiomyopathy. PMID:18159216
This article discusses the deficits in food security in India. It is recommended that India commit to nutrition security by direct actions. Programs should provide essential staples and a nutrient distribution system with affordable prices. India should adopt an Employment Guarantee Program. Creches should provide maternal-child health care, nutrition, literacy, and employment. Government must resolve the internal conflicts of interest between overlapping sectors. India should resolve the "dysfunction" between macroeconomic policies and anti-poverty strategies. Interventions should be people oriented, rely on social mobilization, and provide information and financial resources in a nonconflict context. Efforts will require the cooperation between the private sector, voluntary organizations, state agencies, and local self-governing decentralized agencies. There is a need to build capacity and viable institutions. Poverty agencies do not have access to the minimum required cereals for the poor. The Public Distribution System (PDS) does not guarantee a minimum quantity of foodstuffs per household regardless of income level. More high quality varieties of rice are produced due to higher prices in the marketplace. Most state governments do not provide staple cereals to the PDS at affordable prices. The government sets fair prices for sugar, but not cereal. The government sells more cereal in the open market than to PDS. PDS should target poor households; that is, the 29.9% who live below the poverty line. Lack of nutrition security is due to poverty that is enhanced by ignorance and the lack of health and nutrition education.
Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P
Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions.
Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others
The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…
Most girls with Rett syndrome present a challenge when it comes to providing enough nutrition. Even those with healthy appetites are usually quite thin and short, and many meet the definition for protein-energy malnutrition. Girls with RTT have lower dietary energy intakes than unaffected girls. ...
Wolfe, Pat; Burkman, Mary Anne; Streng, Katharina
Nutrition and learning are inextricably connected. Protein, fat, B vitamins, iron, choline, and antioxidants promote brain functions. The USDA's "Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children" (and adaptations for school-age kids) offers guidelines for formulating a child's diet. Breakfast, family meal-sharing, and exercise are essential.…
Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.
This curriculum guide on food and nutrition is one of seven subject area guides developed for use in consumer and homemaking education in Texas. Covered in the individual sections of the guide are the following: program and curriculum planning; teaching handicapped and disadvantaged students (student characteristics and teaching strategies);…
... Providing easy, online access to government information on food and human nutrition for consumers. A service of the National Agricultural Library, USDA. USDA’s NEW (and FREE) #FoodKeeper App Will Help You Save Food Before it Spoils! How many times have you ...
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Dupin, Henri; Guerin, Nicole
The three articles in this issue of a periodical focussed on various aspects of the life and health of children in the tropics concern: (1) immune defenses; (2) interactions between nutrition disorders and infection; and (3) immunity and vaccination. The science of immunology has progressed rapidly in recent years. A brief review of present…
Smith, Nathan J.
Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…
The optimal nutritional support of a mother and her developing fetus begins before conception. This poses a challenge for pediatricians caring for pregnant adolescents. Approximately 1 million teenagers become pregnant in the United States each year. Of these pregnancies, 51% end in live births, 35%...
Huenemann, Ruth L.; And Others
Body size, composition, and conformation in a teen-age population, and associated factors were studied to obtain useful data for planning programs in public health nutrition. This book describes the purpose, methods, and findings of this four-year longitudinal and cross-sectional study conducted in Berkeley, California, during the years 1961 to…
Nickolai, Beate; Kiss, Caroline
Nutrition and nutritional behaviours have been found to play a major role in the development of gout. Studies show that body mass index (BMI), as well as excessive intake of alcoholic beverages, meat, soft drinks and fruit juices increase the risk of developing gout. Similarly, dairy products and coffee have been seen to decrease the risk of hyperuricemia and gout, as they increase the excretion of uric acid. Flares of gout are often caused by large meals and high alcohol consumption. Each additional intake of meat portion per day increases the risk of gout by 21 %. Taking total alcohol consumption into account, the risk of gout increases after one to two standard drinks. In contrast to previous assumptions purine-rich plant foods like legumes and vegetables do not increase the risk of gout. The current dietary guidelines take into account nutritional factors, which not only consider purine intake, but also their endogenous production and their influence on renal excretion. A balanced diet based on the Swiss healthy eating guideline pyramid as well as the Mediterranean diet is appropriate for this patient population. The treatment of gout is multi-faceted, since this patient population presents other comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Collectively, these risk factors are diet dependent and require a treatment strategy that is centered on modifying one's nutrition and nutritional behaviours. The aim of such therapy is to educate the patient as well as treat the accompanying comorbidities with the goal of decreasing serum uric acid values. Motivated patients require consultation and follow-up care in order to be able to actively decrease the serum uric acid.
Village women have adopted techniques set down by UNICEF in achieving higher food production and, ultimately, self sufficiency. Women's cooperatives integrate kitchen gardening and irrigated agriculture in an effort to combat the complex nutritional problems in Africa. Projects also offered training in a variety of areas including management of plots, labor-saving technology--diesel-driven grinding mills, rice husking, machines, wells with hand pumps, motor pumps for irrigation, all geared towards women benefitting themselves by growing their own food and furthering their children's health and development. Projects such as the one in Senegal were undertaken in other regions of Africa, like the Sahel and the Wadis--low-lying areas. From these projects, aid agencies and governments have suggested a number of recommendations in seeking a solution to Africa's nutritional problems. 1st, a balance between production of cash crops and food for consumption is called for. 2nd, research is necessary to improve the quality of locally grown food as much as livestock. 3rd, governments should extend surface area cultivation, 4th, more research on the advantage of indigenous food plants, 5th, women should be in on all levels of decision making in food production, 6th, governments should increase women farmer's efficiency, and further women's access to land and credit and 7th, women should be provided with increased educational opportunities. Nutrition in developing countries cannot be viewed as an isolated phenomenon--solutions to nutritional development should include all aspects of the problem including health and nutrition education, growth monitoring, water supply, literacy, technological know-how, and agricultural and plant and soil conservation.
Moyes, L H; McKee, R F
Malnutrition remains a common problem in surgical patients and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It is imperative that all surgical patients undergo nutritional screening on admission to highlight malnourished or at risk patients and implement a nutritional plan. Nutrition can be delivered by oral supplements, enteral or parenteral feeding, the route depending on an individual's requirements and surgical condition. Enteral feeding has largely been regarded as superior to parenteral feeding, as it is cheaper, safer and "more physiological" but studies show this is not always the case. This article reviews the basics of surgical nutrition and assesses the evidence supporting enteral versus parenteral nutrition.
Smith, Scott; Zwart, Sara R.
Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crew members begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes in status during a mission, and to assess changes after landing to facilitate return of the crew to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. Nutritional assessment provides the basis for intervention, if it is necessary, to maintain optimal status throughout the mission. We report here our nutritional assessment of the US astronauts who participated in the first twelve International Space Station missions.
Smith, Scott M.
Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle
Rucker, Robert B; Rucker, Michael R
For nutrition and its associated disciplines, ethical considerations related to research are often complicated by factors that range from the use of experimental research designs that are overly holistic to inextricable links between nutrition research and marketing. As a consequence, there is the need for constant vigilance to assess and deal with apparent conflicts of interest. Also, there are few scientific disciplines that are defined by cultural, religious, or political codifications as is nutrition. Accordingly, examples of historical, cultural, and political events are described that have influenced ethical approaches related to nutrition research. Furthermore, nutrition research questions are often multifaceted and require dealing with complex variables. In this regard, ethical principles and perspectives that have relevance to data acquisition, the publication and translation of nutrition research, and the marketing of nutritional products and concepts are highlighted.
Huhmann, Maureen B; August, David A
This review article, the second in a series of articles to examine the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) Guidelines for the Use of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition in Adult and Pediatric Patients, evaluates the evidence related to the use of nutrition support in surgical oncology patients. Cancer patients develop complex nutrition issues. Nutrition support may be indicated in malnourished cancer patients undergoing surgery, depending on individual patient characteristics. As with the first article in this series, this article provides background concerning nutrition issues in cancer patients, as well as discusses the role of nutrition support in the care of surgical cancer patients. The goal of this review is to enrich the discussion contained in the clinical guidelines as they relate to recommendations made for surgical patients, cite the primary literature more completely, and suggest updates to the guideline statements in light of subsequently published studies.
Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J
In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. We next introduce the field of nutritional ecology and show how its ecological-evolutionary foundations can enrich human nutrition science by providing the theory to help address its limitations. We end by introducing a modeling approach from nutritional ecology, termed nutritional geometry, and demonstrate how it can help to implement ecological and evolutionary theory in human nutrition to provide new direction and to better understand and manage OACD.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, systemic, inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. The severity of the disease process adversely affects nutritional status. Articular changes, such as small joint deformities and temporomandibular joint syndrome, alter the ability to self-feed. The inflammatory process may increase metabolic rate. Ingestion, digestion, absorption, and excretion may be compromised by secondary manifestations of the disease. Comprehensive nutrition assessment incorporates evaluation of disease and treatment-specific factors, along with the usual assessment parameters. Abnormal values for certain assessment parameters do not necessarily reflect nutritional status. Treatment methods, including medications, may have an impact on nutritional status, assessment tools, and self-feeding. Nutrition management goals focus on identification and implementation of feeding strategies. Evaluation of the ability to feed oneself includes consideration of functional status, secondary manifestations, and medical treatment. Multiple feeding modalities may be required. Oral supplements, tube feedings, and parenteral nutrition may be employed to meet the nutrition needs of the individual with rheumatoid arthritis.
Andrien, M; Beghin, I
Seven years ago Hygie published an article on the limits of conventional nutrition education in urban Africa. Strategies and methods in communication for nutrition have since evolved, incorporating results of international research to develop innovative, highly participative approaches. In this article the authors provide an extensive analysis of the different methodologies used in nutrition education programmes, in particular the KAB, social marketing, and community participation models, indicating main areas where each method used separately has failed. Members of the African Nutritional Education Network (RENA) have studied the above mentioned approaches, modifying them or integrating certain elements to adopt a more effective approach, which they consider somewhat as the management of social communication for nutrition education. Needs assessments and programme planning are largely enhanced by a causal analysis component specific to nutrition education in a community setting which has been developed by the authors. Other classic elements of programme implementation such as community participation, diversity of methods and intervention, are then combined with a multi-level/multi-actor evaluation processes to produce what the authors esteem to be a more effective nutrition education programme. They conclude, however, with the warning that although behavioural modifications brought about by nutrition communication and education might be beneficial for public health, they could have different, possibly adverse effects on other aspects of society. Effective nutrition education must therefore be included in a more extensive field of health promotion by acting on the multiple factors which influence the nutrition and health state of vulnerable groups.
Domínguez-Cherit, Guillermo; Borunda, Delia; Rivero-Sigarroa, Eduardo
In recent months, numerous reports concerning total parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients have been published, including the guidelines and recommendations of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. The old controversy regarding the use of the enteral versus parenteral route still exists. Although the enteral route is indicated in those patients with normal gastrointestinal function, the parenteral route is obviously beneficial in several clinical conditions and appears to be associated with few procedure-related complications when performed by experienced clinicians. There is also continued interest in the supplementation of parenteral formulas with nutrients that were previously considered nonessential, such as arginine, glutamine, and omega-3 fatty acids, but that may become essential in the setting of critical illness.
Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R
As we approach the end of the first 50 years of human space travel, much has been learned about adaptation to microgravity and the risks associated with extended-duration space exploration. As the frequency and duration of flights grew, nutrition issues became more critical and the questions to be answered became more complex: What are the nutrient requirements for space travelers? Can nutrients be used as tools to mitigate the negative effects of space travel on humans? How does nutrition interrelate with other physiological systems (such as muscle, bone, and cardiovascular system) and their adaptation to microgravity? Much research has been done over the decades in both actual spaceflight and ground-based analogs. We review here much of what is known, and highlight areas of ongoing research and concerns for future exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond.
Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J; Kiesswetter, Eva; Drey, Michael; Sieber, Cornel C
Frailty and sarcopenia are important concepts in the quest to prevent physical dependence, as geriatrics are shifting towards identifications of early stages of disability. Definitions of both sarcopenia and frailty are still developing, and both concepts clearly overlap in their physical aspects. Malnutrition (both undernutrition and obesity) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of frailty and sarcopenia. The quality of the diet along the lifespan has a close relation with the incidence of both entities, and nutritional interventions may be able to reduce the incidence or revert either of them. This brief review explores the role of energy and protein intake and other key nutrients on muscle function. Nutrition may be a key element of multimodal interventions for frailty and sarcopenia. The results of the "Sarcopenia and Physical fRailty IN older people: multi-componenT Treatment strategies" (SPRINTT) trial will offer key insights on the effect of such interventions in frail, sarcopenic older individuals.
Armstrong, P J; Hand, M S; Frederick, G S
When oral intake is unsatisfactory or contraindicated, maintenance of nutrition by tube feeding is an alternative to the parenteral route. A large volume of research data supports the decision to use the enteral route whenever possible. Entry of food into the alimentary tract is a stimulus to structural and functional maintenance of that tract. Enteral nutrition can be given via indwelling nasoesophageal, pharyngostomy, esophagostomy, percutaneous or surgical gastrostomy, or enterostomy tube. Use of an appropriate catheter, familiarity with the technique used, and careful patient selection and monitoring are important factors in successful tube feeding. Blenderized pet food diets should be fed whenever possible; commercially available liquid diets provide an alternative when tube caliber or patient factors preclude the use of blenderized foods.
Giusti, V; Clarisse, M; Di Vetta, V
The gastric pacemaker is a new obesity treatment, which pleases by its simplicity and obvious lack of complications on the nutritional level. Its long-term efficacy is however to be confirmed and the criterions of the patients' selection to be defined. The rimonabant is a selective antagonist of the cannabinoid CBI receptor, able to reduce the quantity of the total food intake, and especially the greasy one. The first results on the short term look promising. The multiplication of food pyramids is the consequence of the scientific knowledge development in the nutritional field. On this basis, new pyramids are adapted, depending on the therapeutic objectives (weight loss, cardiovascular risk) and allowing either quantity or quality food. The taking charge of patients in group and according to the therapeutic education criterions makes easy a relation between the medical team and patients and allows these latters a better awareness of their disease and its long term treatment.
Increasing epidemiological evidence suggests that maternal nutrition and environmental exposure early in development play an important role in susceptibility to disease in later life. In addition, these disease outcomes seem to pass through subsequent generations. Epigenetic modifications provide a potential link between the nutrition status during critical periods in development and changes in gene expression that may lead to disease phenotypes. An increasing body of evidence from experimental animal studies supports the role of epigenetics in disease susceptibility during critical developmental periods, including periconceptional period, gestation, and early postnatal period. The rapid improvements in genetic and epigenetic technologies will allow comprehensive investigations of the relevance of these epigenetic phenomena in human diseases. PMID:24527414
Morán López, Jesús Manuel; Piedra León, María; García Unzueta, María Teresa; Ortiz Espejo, María; Hernández González, Miriam; Morán López, Ruth; Amado Señaris, José Antonio
The relationship between preoperative malnutrition and morbi-mortality has been documented for years. Despite the existence of tools that allow its detection, and therefore treat this entity, their introduction into clinical practice is not wide-spread. Both perioperative insulin resistance and hyperglycemia are associated with increased perioperative morbidity and length of hospital stay. The intake of carbohydrate-rich drinks 2-4h prior to surgery reduces insulin resistance. In the immediate postoperative period, the enteral route is safe and well tolerated and its early use reduces hospital stay and postoperative complications compared with parenteral nutritional support. Inmunonutrition has been proven effective to decrease postoperative complications and hospital stay. In view of these data we opted for the adoption of these measures replacing bowel rest and the indiscriminate use of postoperative parenteral nutrition.
Evidence to support the essentiality of vanadium is inconclusive. Thus, it cannot be unequivocally stated that vanadium is an essential nutrient. The basis for this statement can be appreciated more fully if the following definitions are accepted. In this section, a substance is considered nutritionally essential if a dietary deficiency consistently results in a suboptimal biological function that is preventable or reversible by physiological amounts of the element. In this definition, physiological is construed as those quantities usually found in biological material. For vanadium, the usual amounts are measured in nanograms per gram, or parts per billion. The other term that should be defined is pharmacologic action. Here it means the effect of a relatively high dietary intake of a substance that alleviates an abnormality caused by something other than a nutritional deficiency.
Palacios Gil-Antuñano, N
The principles of a good diet and proper nutrition are the same for people practising sports and for non-athletes. The main difference lies in the amount of energy that sportsmen and women need to carry out a more intense physical activity and to keep an appropriate weight to allow greater performance. The relationship between nutrition and physical exercise has often been shrouded in confusion and conjecture, so certain products or supplements turn into real myths through attempts to achieve better athletic results, despite the fact the information available on the true effect of a particular substance or food on athletic performance is, quite limited and disputed. This paper attempts to clarify the scientific information available on this subject.
Raven, John A; Andrews, Mitchell
Using a broad definition of trees, the evolutionary origins of trees in a nutritional context is considered using data from the fossil record and molecular phylogeny. Trees are first known from the Late Devonian about 380 million years ago, originated polyphyletically at the pteridophyte grade of organization; the earliest gymnosperms were trees, and trees are polyphyletic in the angiosperms. Nutrient transporters, assimilatory pathways, homoiohydry (cuticle, intercellular gas spaces, stomata, endohydric water transport systems including xylem and phloem-like tissue) and arbuscular mycorrhizas preceded the origin of trees. Nutritional innovations that began uniquely in trees were the seed habit and, certainly (but not necessarily uniquely) in trees, ectomycorrhizas, cyanobacterial, actinorhizal and rhizobial (Parasponia, some legumes) diazotrophic symbioses and cluster roots.
Eckerson, Joan M.
Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.
Ranchordas, Mayur K
Adventure racing requires competitors to perform various disciplines ranging from, but not limited to, mountain biking, running, kayaking, climbing, mountaineering, flat- and white-water boating and orienteering over a rugged, often remote and wilderness terrain. Races can vary from 6 hours to expedition-length events that can last up to 10-consecutive days or more. The purpose of this article is to provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for adventure racing competitors. Energy expenditures of 365-750 kcal/hour have been reported with total energy expenditures of 18 000-80 000 kcal required to complete adventure races, and large negative energy balances during competitions have been reported. Nutrition, therefore, plays a major role in the successful completion of such ultra-endurance events. Conducting research in these events is challenging and the limited studies investigating dietary surveys and nutritional status of adventure racers indicate that competitors do not meet nutrition recommendations for ultra-endurance exercise. Carbohydrate intakes of 7-12 g/kg are needed during periods of prolonged training to meet requirements and replenish glycogen stores. Protein intakes of 1.4-1.7 g/kg are recommended to build and repair tissue. Adequate replacement of fluid and electrolytes are crucial, particularly during extreme temperatures; however, sweat rates can vary greatly between competitors. There is considerable evidence to support the use of sports drinks, gels and bars, as they are a convenient and portable source of carbohydrate that can be consumed during exercise, in training and in competition. Similarly, protein and amino acid supplements can be useful to help meet periods of increased protein requirements. Caffeine can be used as an ergogenic aid to help competitors stay awake during prolonged periods, enhance glycogen resynthesis and enhance endurance performance.
Freeman, Andrew M; Morris, Pamela B; Barnard, Neal; Esselstyn, Caldwell B; Ros, Emilio; Agatston, Arthur; Devries, Stephen; O'Keefe, James; Miller, Michael; Ornish, Dean; Williams, Kim; Kris-Etherton, Penny
The potential cardiovascular benefits of several trending foods and dietary patterns are still incompletely understood, and nutritional science continues to evolve. However, in the meantime, a number of controversial dietary patterns, foods, and nutrients have received significant media exposure and are mired by hype. This review addresses some of the more popular foods and dietary patterns that are promoted for cardiovascular health to provide clinicians with accurate information for patient discussions in the clinical setting.
The Philippine Food and Nutrition Program deliver priority short, simple, clear, and action filled nutrition messages in different languages and dialects to different audiences. Its 1st priority task is to promote breast feeding. It informs mothers that breast milk is the most nutritious food for infants and that it protects them from infectious diseases. The program also encourages breast feeding as long as possible. If mothers cannot breast feed, they should talk to an infant nutrition expert to help them choose the best formula and learn about proper preparation. A 4-6 month infant needs to begin eating small amounts of semisolid nutritious foods. Moreover these foods must include body building foods, such as meat and eggs, and energy providing foods, such as corn and rice. Mothers must 1st attend to food needs of infants and preschoolers since they are more likely to suffer malnutrition than older children and adults. This is especially important when they suffer from an infection. Specifically, the very young need a variety of foods each day including the vitamin and mineral rich vegetables and fruits. In fact, families should grow their own fruits and vegetables to ensure an adequate supply. Hands must be cleaned with soap and water after defecation and before preparing foods. Mothers should add fats and oils when preparing foods because they provide concentrated energy, fatty acids, and fat soluble vitamins. Pregnant mothers must consume increased amounts of fish, beans, and other body building foods as well as regulating foods (vegetables and fruits). Mothers must also space births. They should weigh children each month to monitor nutritional levels. Moreover they must pay attention to signs indicating inadequate and insufficient food intake e.g., underweight and night blindness.
Gavidia, Valentín; Talavera, Marta; Asensi, Alejandro
Children and youths who are well-educated run a lower risk of developing eating disorders; therefore teaching these topics in schools is very important. Nonetheless, disorders such as obesity, anorexia and bulimia occur more frequently all the time among children and youths. What is happening? If students are offered a correct nutritional basis, why do these disorders not decrease? What can be done in schools about these disorders?
Johnson, L W
An understanding and appreciation of the New World Camelids' unique gastric anatomy and physiology, including rapid motility, prolonged digesta retention, rapid liquid passage rate, low protein maintenance requirements, low metabolized energy requirements, and low basal metabolism are imperative. Using this background, feeding recommendations for growing male llamas are proposed, and some suggestions are made concerning nutritional considerations of NWCs during the neonatal period, lactation, pregnancy, and work.
MacLeod, Erin L.; Ney, Denise M.
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by deficient activity of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, needed to convert the essential amino acid (AA) phenylalanine (phe) to tyrosine. In order to prevent neurological damage, lifelong adherence to a low-phe diet that is restricted in natural foods and requires ingestion of a phe-free AA formula to meet protein needs is required. The goal of nutritional management for those with PKU is to maintain plasma phe concentrations that support optimal growth, development, and mental functioning while providing a nutritionally complete diet. This paper reviews developing a lifelong dietary prescription for those with PKU, outcomes of nutritional management, compliance with the low-phe diet across the life cycle, and new options for nutritional management. An individualized dietary prescription is needed to meet nutrient requirements, and the adequacy of phe intake is monitored with assessment of blood phe levels. Elevated phe concentrations may occur due to illness, excessive or inadequate phe intake, or inadequate intake of AA formula. Although normal growth and development occurs with adherence to the low-phe diet, it is important to monitor vitamin, mineral and essential fatty acid status, especially in those who do not consume sufficient AA formula. Given the growing population of adults with PKU, further research is needed to understand the risks for developing osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. There are promising new options to liberalize the diet and improve metabolic control such as tetrahydrobiopterin therapy or supplementation with large neutral AAs. Moreover, foods made with glycomacropeptide, an intact protein that contains minimal phe, improves the PKU diet by offering a palatable alternative to AA formula. In summary, continued efforts are needed to overcome the biggest challenge to living with PKU – lifelong adherence to the low-phe diet. PMID:22475869
Coop, R L; Holmes, P H
This overview focuses on the interaction between nutritional status and gastrointestinal nematode infection in ruminants and considers: (i) the influence of the parasite on host metabolism; and (ii) the effect of host nutrition on the establishment and survival of parasite populations, the development of the host-immune response and the pathophysiology of infection. Gastrointestinal nematodes reduce voluntary feed intake and efficiency of feed utilisation, a key feature being an increased endogenous loss of protein into the gastrointestinal tract. Overall there is movement of protein from productive processes into repair of the gastrointestinal tract, synthesis of plasma proteins and mucoprotein production. Although reduction in feed intake is a major factor contributing to the reduced performance of parasitised ruminants, the underlying mechanisms of the anorexia are poorly understood. Supplementation of the diet with additional protein does not appear to affect initial establishment of nematode infections but the pathophysiological consequences are generally more severe on lower planes of protein nutrition. The main effect of protein supplementation is to increase the rate of acquisition of immunity and increase resistance to reinfection and this has been associated with an enhanced cellular immune response in the gastrointestinal mucosa. The unresponsiveness of the young lamb can be improved by dietary protein supplementation. Recent trials have shown that growing sheep offered a free choice between a low and a high protein ration are able to modify their diet selection in order to alleviate the increase in protein requirements which result from gastrointestinal nematode infection. Studies on the influence of nutrition on the expression of genotype have shown that the benefits of a superior genotype are not lost on a low protein diet whereas a high protein diet can partially emeliorate the disadvantages of an inferior genotype. In addition to dietary protein
The past few decades have witnessed a rapid rise in nutrition-related disorders such as obesity in the United States and over the world. Traditional nutrition research has associated various foods and nutrients with obesity. Recent advances in genomics have led to identification of the genetic variants determining body weight and related dietary factors such as intakes of energy and macronutrients. In addition, compelling evidence has lent support to interactions between genetic variations and dietary factors in relation to obesity and weight change. Moreover, recently emerging data from other ‘omics’ studies such as epigenomics and metabolomics suggest that more complex interplays between the global features of human body and dietary factors may exist at multiple tiers in affecting individuals’ susceptibility to obesity; and a concept of ‘personalized nutrition’ has been proposed to integrate this novel knowledge with traditional nutrition research, with the hope ultimately to endorse person-centric diet intervention to mitigate obesity and related disorders. PMID:24716734
Patel, Chirag; Omer, Endashaw; Diamond, Sarah J; McClave, Stephen A
Traditional tools and scoring systems for nutritional assessment have focused solely on parameters of poor nutritional status in the past, in an effort to define the elusive concept of malnutrition. Such tools fail to account for the contribution of disease severity to overall nutritional risk. High nutritional risk, caused by either deterioration of nutritional status or greater disease severity (or a combination of both factors), puts the patient in a metabolic stress state characterized by adverse outcome and increased complications. Newer scoring systems for determining nutritional risk, such as the Nutric Score and the Nutritional Risk Score-2002 have created a paradigm shift connecting assessment and treatment with quality outcome measures of success. Clinicians now have the opportunity to identify high risk patients through their initial assessment, provide adequate or sufficient nutrition therapy, and expect improved patient outcomes as a result. These concepts are supported by observational and prospective interventional trials. Greater clinical experience and refinement in these scoring systems are needed in the future to optimize patient response to nutrition therapy.
Döring, Frank; Ströhle, Alexander
On the basis of a scientific-philosophical analysis, this paper tries to show that the approaches in current nutritional science-including its subdisciplines which focus on molecular aspects-are predominantly application-oriented. This becomes particularly evident through a number of conceptual problems characterized by the triad of 'dearth of theoretical foundation,' 'particularist research questions,' and 'reductionist understanding of nutrition.' The thesis presented here is that an interpretive framework based on nutritional biology is able to shed constructive light on the fundamental problems of nutritional science. In this context, the establishment of 'nutritional biology' as a basic discipline in research and education would be a first step toward recognizing the phenomenon of 'nutrition' as an oecic process as a special case of an organism-environment interaction. Modern nutritional science should be substantively grounded on ecological-and therefore systems biology as well as organismic-principles. The aim of nutritional biology, then, should be to develop near-universal 'law statements' in nutritional science-a task which presents a major challenge for the current science system.
Fox, Vicki J; Miller, Julie; McClung, Meredith
Nutritional support must be an integral part of the management of trauma victims. This article compares the stress response, a maladaptive response, and starvation, an adaptive process, examines the clinical research regarding total parenteral nutrition and total enteral nutrition, provides an evidence-based approach to initiating nutritional support in critically injured patients, and discusses considerations in selecting nutritional formulas.
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section 1326.15 Public... INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Indians, a tribal organization may: (1) Provide nutrition services...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section 1326.15 Public... INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Indians, a tribal organization may: (1) Provide nutrition services...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section 1326.15 Public... INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Indians, a tribal organization may: (1) Provide nutrition services...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section 1326.15 Public... INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Indians, a tribal organization may: (1) Provide nutrition services...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section 1326.15 Public... INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Indians, a tribal organization may: (1) Provide nutrition services...
Although weight loss is a frequent, though not invariable, component of the cancer syndrome, the associated malnutrition is a poor prognostic sign among both children and adults. This article describes the possible mechanisms of cancer cachexia; reviews the present state of nutritional support in cancer patients; identifies nutritional problems and workable approaches during the pre- and post-treatment periods; discusses the unconventional nutritional practices commonly encountered and lists resource materials for patients and families. PMID:21274086
The Surgeon General’s Office over a period of years has undertaken an extensive research program into the chemistry, nutrition , and wholesomeness of...Research and Nutrition Laboratory has undertaken the studies of the wholesomeness of food preserved by ionizing radiation. Work on radiated food has been...physiological, metabolic, and nutritional research in normal young adult men has been going on making use of volunteer human test subjects.
MILITARY RESEARCH, * NUTRITION , MILITARY PERSONNEL, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), METABOLISM, NUTRIENTS, HIGH ENERGY, MEDICAL RESEARCH, FOOD, DIET, MENTAL ABILITY, WORKSHOPS, BIOMEDICINE, CAFFEINE, SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE.
De Voe, Ryan S
Providing nutritional support to reptile patients is a challenging and often misunderstood task. Ill reptiles are frequently anorexic and can benefit greatly from appropriate nutrition delivered via a variety of assist-feeding techniques. Neonatal reptiles can also be very challenging patients because many fail to thrive without significant efforts to establish normal feeding behaviors. This article presents ideas supporting the benefit of timely nutritional support as well as specific recommendations for implementation of assist feeding. Also discussed are a few nutritional issues that affect captive reptile species.
Pitkin, R M
Maternal nutrition represents one of the important influences on the course and outcome of pregnancy and attention to nutritional factors (i.e., assessment of nutritional status, dietary advice, and follow-up evaluation) properly constitute an essential component of prenatal care. Nearly all nutrients are required in increased amounts during gestation but the magnitude of the increase varies from nutrient to nutrient. Caloric needs increase by 300 kcal per day, representing an addition of 15 per cent, and should be sufficient to support a weight gain averaging 350 to 400 gm per week during the last two trimesters. Total protein intake during pregnancy should be 1.3 gm per kg for the mature woman and somewhat higher for the adolescent. Gestational needs for iron cannot be met by diet and supplementation (in the form of simple ferrous salts, 30 to 60 mg daily) should be provided. Folate requirements are doubled during pregnancy and, while these can be met by diet, supplementation may be considered as an option. Provision of the gestational calcium allowance from food sources is readily possible if (and only if) daily products are consumed. The generally increased need for other nutrients can be provided readily by the properly selected diet. Thus, with respect to supplements, iron and perhaps folate should be advised routinely while other vitamin-mineral supplements are probably neither helpful nor harmful. Prescription of vitamin-mineral supplements cannot be expected to compensate for poor dietary habits. Dietary restriction of nutrients in general, and energy and sodium in particular, has the potential for impairing the maternal capacity to make the required physiologic adjustments of pregnancy and interfering with fetal development. Restriction of any nutrient to levels below the guidelines provided by the Recommended Dietary Allowances is rarely if ever advisable.
Silk, D B
The recent launch of a number of fibre enriched polymeric diet in the United States and Europe has stimulated considerable interest in the topic of fibre and enteral nutrition, and several commercial concerns appear to be under considerable pressures from their consumers to produce similar products. As a means of identifying areas of potential application of fibre to enteral nutrition some of the recent knowledge gained about the physical properties of dietary fibre and the processes involved in the intestinal assimilation of fibre has been reviewed. Two areas of interest are identifiable. The first relates to the bulking properties of fibre and the application of this to the regulation of bowel function in enterally fed patients. It is clear from the clinical studies that have been reviewed that there remains a paucity of controlled data, and a great deal more research is needed before widespread use of fibre supplemented diets can be supported. Perhaps of greater interest academically is the potentially beneficial effects that appear to be exerted by the VFA's, liberated as a consequence of colonic bacterial fermentation of fibre, on morphology and function of ileal and colonic mucosa. Although there are a number of potential applications of fibre supplemented enteral diets in this area, more research is required before any firm recommendations can be made about recommending their use. The one exception concerns patients with the nutritionally inadequate short bowel syndrome. There does seem to be sufficient experimental evidence to suggest that clinical studies should be commenced using a pectin supplemented predigested 'elemental' diet in these patients. Overall therefore, one is forced to conclude that the increasing interest and use of fibre supplemented enteral diets is being driven more by market than scientific forces. Nevertheless, the promotion of these diets has already provided a powerful stimulus to the scientific community, and it remains entirely
One in three children in Britain lives in poverty (households whose income was less than 50% average earnings). Low income is associated with poor nutrition at all stages of life, from lower rates of breast-feeding to higher intakes of saturated fatty acids and lower intakes of antioxidant nutrients. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that poor nutrition in childhood is associated with both short-term and long-term adverse consequences such as poorer immune status, higher caries rates and poorer cognitive function and learning ability. These problems arise primarily because parents do not have enough money to spend on food, not because money is being spent unwisely. Policy options to improve the dietary health of poor children include: giving more money to the parents by increasing Income Support (social security) payments, providing food stamps or vouchers, and using food budget standards to inform the levels of income needed to purchase an adequate diet; feeding children directly at school (not only at lunchtime but also at breakfast or homework clubs), by providing free fruit at school, and by increasing entitlement to free food amongst children living in households with low incomes; improving access to a healthy and affordable diet by first identifying 'food deserts' and then considering with retailers and local planners how best to provide food in an economical and sustainable way. The value of using food budget standards is illustrated with data relating expenditure on food to growth in children from 'at-risk' families (on low income, overcrowded, headed by a lone parent or with four or more children under 16 years of age) living in a poor area in London. Lower levels of expenditure are strongly associated with poorer growth and health, independent of factors such as birth weight, mother's height, or risk score. The present paper provides evidence that supports the need to review Government legislation in light of nutrition-related inequalities in the
Dudrick, Stanley J
The concept of feeding patients entirely parenterally by injecting nutrient substances or fluids intravenously was advocated and attempted long before the successful practical development of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) four decades ago. Realization of this 400 year old seemingly fanciful dream initially required centuries of fundamental investigation coupled with basic technological advances and judicious clinical applications. Most clinicians in the 1950's were aware of the negative impact of starvation on morbidity, mortality, and outcomes, but only few understood the necessity for providing adequate nutritional support to malnourished patients if optimal clinical results were to be achieved. The prevailing dogma in the 1960's was that, "Feeding entirely by vein is impossible; even if it were possible, it would be impractical; and even if it were practical, it would be unaffordable." Major challenges to the development of TPN included: (1) formulate complete parenteral nutrient solutions (did not exist), (2) concentrate substrate components to 5-6 times isotonicity without precipitation (not easily done), (3) demonstrate utility and safety of long-term central venous catheterization (not looked upon with favor by the medical hierarchy), (4) demonstrate efficacy and safety of long-term infusion of hypertonic nutrient solutions (contrary to clinical practices at the time), (5) maintain asepsis and antisepsis throughout solution preparation and delivery (required a major culture change), and (6) anticipate, avoid, and correct metabolic imbalances or derangements (a monumental challenge and undertaking). This presentation recounts approaches to, and solution of, some of the daunting problems as really occurred in a comprehensive, concise and candid history of parenteral nutrition.
Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan
Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.
Moncrieff, M. W.; Lunt, H. R. W.; Arthur, L. J. H.
Four adolescent Asians with vitamin D deficiency rickets were seen in Derby in the 5 years 1967 to 1971. They had an extremely low intake of vitamin D, and this, combined with the extra metabolic demands of puberty, was judged to be the main cause of the rickets. However, since investigation of their sibs revealed 4 further cases of rickets, it is possible that some of these children had an inherited disability in the metabolism of vitamin D. 2 cases of iron deficiency anaemia were found among their sibs. We suspect that nutritional deficiencies may be widespread in the Asian community in Britain and that prevention depends on dietary education. PMID:4693463
Ard, Jamy D; Miller, Gary; Kahan, Scott
Obesity is a common disorder with complex causes. The epidemic has spurred significant advances in the understanding of nutritional approaches to treating obesity. Although the primary challenge is to introduce a dietary intake that creates an energy deficit, clinicians should also consider targeted risk factor modification with manipulation of the nutrient profile of the weight-reducing diet. These strategies produce significant weight loss and improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors. Future research is needed to better understand how to personalize nutrient prescriptions further to promote optimal risk modification and maintenance of long-term energy balance in the weight-reduced state.
Beyer, John L; Payne, Martha E
As with physical conditions, bipolar disorder is likely to be impacted by diet and nutrition. Patients with bipolar disorder have been noted to have relatively unhealthy diets, which may in part be the reason they also have an elevated risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. An improvement in the quality of the diet should improve a bipolar patient's overall health risk profile, but it may also improve their psychiatric outcomes. New insights into biological dysfunctions that may be present in bipolar disorder have presented new theoretic frameworks for understanding the relationship between diet and bipolar disorder.
Pao, Eleanor M.; Hill, Mary M.
Nutrition labeling regulations introduce United States-Recommended Daily Allowances (RDAs) or higher values than current NRC-RDAs for elderly people. Since few elderly diets met the lower recommendations ways to use the new nutrition information are suggested. (Author/RH)
Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Dapoigny, M; Dubois, D; van Ganse, E; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I; Hutton, J; Jones, P; Mittendorf, T; Poley, M J; Salminen, S; Nuijten, M J C
There is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to estimate the absolute and relative monetary impact of health measures. For this purpose, an expert meeting assessed questions aimed at clarifying the scope and identifying the key issues that should be taken into consideration in developing nutrition economics as a discipline that could potentially address important questions. We propose a first multidisciplinary outline for understanding the principles and particular characteristics of this emerging field. We summarise here the concepts and the observations of workshop participants and propose a basic setting for nutrition economics and health outcomes research as a novel discipline to support nutrition, health economics and health policy development in an evidence and health-benefit-based manner.
Arnold, Justine; Grogan, Jane, Ed.
This instructional handbook is one of a series of ten packets designed to form a comprehensive course in nutrition for secondary students. This booklet examines some of the more common myths associated with sport nutrition and provides basic guidelines for sound dietary habits for both athletes and nonathletes. It contains a page of teaching…
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.
Experts testifying at the National Nutrition Policy study hearings on June 19-21, 1974 in Washington, at the invitation of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, recommended several steps which the committee staff feel merit a prompt Congressional response. This report prepared by staff incorporates those recommendations,…
Ekincioğlu, Aygin Bayraktar; Demirkan, Kutay
A drug’s plasma level, pharmacological effects or side effects, elimination, physicochemical properties or stability could be changed by interactions of drug-drug or drug-nutrition products in patients who receive enteral or parenteral nutritional support. As a result, patients might experience ineffective outcomes or unexpected effects of therapy (such as drug toxicity, embolism). Stability or incompatibility problems between parenteral nutrition admixtures and drugs might lead to alterations in expected therapeutic responses from drug and/or parenteral nutrition, occlusion in venous catheter or symptoms or mortality due to infusion of composed particles. Compatibilities between parenteral nutrition and drugs are not always guaranteed in clinical practice. Although the list of compatibility or incompatibilities of drugs are published for the use of clinicians in their practices, factors such as composition of parenteral nutrition admixture, drug concentration, contact time in catheter, temperature of the environment and exposure to light could change the status of compatibilities between drugs and nutrition admixtures. There could be substantial clinical changes occurring in the patient’s nutritional status and pharmacological effects of drugs due to interactions between enteral nutrition and drugs. Drug toxicity and ineffective nutritional support might occur as a result of those predictable interactions. Although administration of drugs via feeding tube is a complex and problematic route for drug usage, it is possible to minimise the risk of tube occlusion, decreased effects of drug and drug toxicity by using an appropriate technique. Therefore, it is important to consider pharmacological dosage forms of drugs while administering drugs via a feeding tube. In conclusion, since the pharmacists are well-experienced and more knowledgeable professionals in drugs and drug usage compared to other healthcare providers, it is suggested that provision of information
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Meyer, Nanna L; Manore, Melinda M; Helle, Christine
Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sport athletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter sports, however, vary greatly regarding their nutritional requirements due to variable physiological and physique characteristics, energy and substrate demands, and environmental training and competition conditions. What most winter sport athletes have in common is a relatively lean physique and high-intensity training periods, thus they require greater energy and nutrient intakes, along with adequate food and fluid before, during, and after training. Event fuelling is most challenging for cross-country skiers competing in long events, ski jumpers aiming to reduce their body weight, and those winter sport athletes incurring repeated qualification rounds and heats. These athletes need to ensure carbohydrate availability throughout competition. Finally, winter sport athletes may benefit from dietary and sport supplements; however, attention should be paid to safety and efficacy if supplementation is considered.
Bach, A C
The oxidation of long-chain fatty acids is carnitine-dependent. Indeed, only when they are bound to carnitine, in the form of acyl-carnitines, do fatty acids penetrate into the mitochondria to be oxidized. To meet the need for carnitine, animals depend on both endogenous synthesis and an exogenous supply. A diet rich in meat supplies a lot of carnitine, while vegetables, fruits, and grains furnish relatively little. Although it has a low molecular weight and acts at low doses in a vital metabolic pathway, carnitine should not be considered a vitamin, but rather a nutritive substance. Indeed, it seems that the diet of the adult human need not necessarily furnish carnitine: the healthy organism, given a balanced nutrition (sufficiently rich in lysine and methionine), may well be able to meet all its needs. Furthermore, it seems that a reduction of the exogenous supply of carnitine results in a lowering of its elimination in the urine. However, dietary carnitine is more important during the neonatal period. The transition from fetal to extrauterine life is accompanied by an increased role of lipids in meeting energy needs. This change is accompanied by a rise in the body of the levels of carnitine, which is mainly supplied in the maternal milk. Finally, this review briefly surveys the illnesses in which a dietary carnitine supplement proves useful.
Torres, Nimbe; Guevara-Cruz, Martha; Velázquez-Villegas, Laura A; Tovar, Armando R
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a universal problem in modern society. Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of CVD resulting in high rate of mortality in the population. Nutrition science has focused on the role of essential nutrients in preventing deficiencies, at the present time, the nutritional strategies are crucial to promote health and intervene with these global noncommunicable diseases. In many cases, diet is a major driving force, which is much easier to change and follow than other factors. It is important to establish that the first strategy to treat atherosclerosis is to modify lifestyle habits, focusing on the beneficial properties of specific nutrients. In the last decades, epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that diet plays a central role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. In this review we will focus on the effect of specific foods, nutrients and bioactive compounds, including epidemiological facts, potential mechanisms of action and dietary recommendations to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis. In particular, we include information about fiber, plant sterols and stanols, niacin, taurine, olive oil, omega 3 fatty acids, antioxidants, minerals, methyl nutrients and soy. In addition, we also show that dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota associated with a consumption of certain animal food sources can generate some metabolites that are involved in the development of atherosclerosis and its consequences on CVD. According to the epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies we suggest a recommendation for some dietary foods, nutrients and bioactive compounds to support the complementary clinical management of patients with atherosclerosis.
Schultz, M G
Ascaris lumbricoides, the roundworm, is one of the largest parasites of man and probably infects one in four persons in the world. Despite its prevalence, ascariasis is a largely neglected public health problem that has attracted relatively little scientific inquiry. Frequently, a number of biases contribute to the uncritical conclusion that infection with A. lumbricoides adversely affects the nutritional status of the host. This situation is exacerbated by number of studies that have confirmed these biases but have employed questionable methods, such as the use of small samples and indistinct categories, the neglect of the double-blind safeguard, the selection of inadequate controls, and the performance of experiments that are not reproducible in a variety of circumstances. It is interesting to note that studies claiming positive correlation between ascariasis and protein energy malnutrition have not found a significant difference in weight between infected and uninfected children before intervention. Furthermore, several recent studies have shown no significant improvement in nutritional status after intervention. Thus, the causal relationship between ascariasis and protein energy malnutrition is not clearly proved, and it is premature to advocate mass treatment of children in ascariasis-endemic areas as a method to enhance their growth and development.
Tarasuk, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Sandra; Ward, Heather
In Canada, increased morbidity and shorter life expectancy have been found among those with lower incomes and lower levels of education, but there has been little examination of socioeconomic variation in food and nutrient intake. Using data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examined the relationship between household income and education level and adults' and children's intakes of energy, fibre, micronutrients, and number of servings consumed of food groups from Canada's Food Guide. To explore the public health significance of observed associations, we estimated the prevalence of inadequacy for selected nutrients for adults, stratifying by household income, education level, and sex. We found that a higher household income adequacy and (or) higher levels of education were associated with increased consumption of milk and alternatives, and vegetables and fruit, and significantly higher vitamin, mineral, and fibre intakes among both adults and children. The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes among adults was higher among adults with the lowest level of income adequacy or educational attainment, compared with others. Our results suggest that the nutritional quality of Canadians' food intakes is, in part, a function of their social position. The impact of policy and program interventions needs to be examined across socioeconomic strata to ensure that actions reduce rather than exacerbate nutrition inequities.
Primrose, Sandy; Draper, John; Elsom, Rachel; Kirkpatrick, Verity; Mathers, John C; Seal, Chris; Beckmann, Manfred; Haldar, Sumanto; Beattie, John H; Lodge, John K; Jenab, Mazda; Keun, Hector; Scalbert, Augustin
The present report summarises a workshop convened by the UK Food Standards Agency (Agency) on 25 March 2010 to discuss the current Agency's funded research on the use of metabolomics technologies in human nutrition research. The objectives of this workshop were to review progress to date, to identify technical challenges and ways of overcoming them, and to discuss future research priorities and the application of metabolomics in public health nutrition research and surveys. Results from studies nearing completion showed that by using carefully designed dietary and sampling regimens, it is possible to identify novel biomarkers of food intake that could not have been predicted from current knowledge of food composition. These findings provide proof-of-principle that the metabolomics approach can be used to develop new putative biomarkers of dietary intake. The next steps will be to validate these putative biomarkers, to develop rapid and inexpensive assays for biomarkers of food intake of high public health relevance, and to test their utility in population cohort studies and dietary surveys.
The National Nutrition Survey (NNS) in Japan has been undertaken annually since 1946. It was originally intended to provide information on the food and nutrient intake of the Japanese people, with a view to acquiring emergency food supplies from other countries when food shortages caused malnutrition in many Japanese. The food balance sheet (FBS) has been drawn up since 1949 to show the food supply available to the Japanese people. The trends and figures shown by both approaches were similar until the mid-1970s. Since then, however, the disparity between the food supply and the intake of foods and nutrients has been getting larger. National food security means that a country has enough food for everyone. This does not mean, however, that every family has enough food, because the food may not be evenly distributed. In fact, marginal deficiencies in iron and calcium are thought to still exist and there is considerable variation among households in energy intake. In Japan, nutrition and diet are now considered to play important roles in the emerging problems of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension etc., because of excessive energy intake and deficiency or excessive intake of certain nutrients.
Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) are forerunners of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and are now recognised as prediabetes states. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is associated with these conditions and there are many studies such as the Da Quin IGT and DM study; Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study(DPS); The Diabetes Prevention Program(DPP) which have clearly shown the efficacy and supremacy of diet intervention in controlling progression of the prediabetes state to type 2 DM. Weight reduction, increasing physical activity and restricting not only total calories but also deriving them from more healthy sources by reducing the total intake of fat, changing n-6 PUFA to n-3 PUFA, increasing the intake of fibre rich carbohydrates and the use of antioxidants have not only long-term health benefits but also can be a very useful cost-effective tool to overcome the burden of type 2 DM in our country. Prevention of type 2 DM is not a dream but a reality and this can be achieved from a path through our kitchen. Faulty nutrition seems to be the main culprit in this wide-spread epidemic of diabetes and nutritional therapy in prediabetes state appears to be the only option in our hands.
Mujika, Iñigo; Burke, Louise M
Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of the training program. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise. Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to 2-3 games over a weekend road trip in others, and a tournament fixture usually involves 1-3 days between matches. Recovery between events is a major priority, involving rehydration, refuelling and repair/adaptation activities. Some sports supplements may be of value to the team athlete. Sports drinks, gels and liquid meals may be valuable in allowing nutritional goals to be met, while caffeine, creatine and buffering agents may directly enhance performance.
Mesías, Marta; Seiquer, Isabel; Navarro, M Pilar
Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development. Iron needs are elevated as a result of intensive growth and muscular development, which implies an increase in blood volume; thus, it is extremely important for the adolescent's iron requirements to be met. Diet, therefore, must provide enough iron and, moreover, nutrients producing adequate iron bioavailability to favor element utilization and thus be sufficient for needs at this stage of life. Currently, many adolescents consume monotonous and unbalanced diets which may limit mineral intake and/or bioavailability, leading to iron deficiency and, consequently, to ferropenic anemia, a nutritional deficit of worldwide prevalence. Iron deficiency, apart from provoking important physiological repercussions, can adversely affect adolescents' cognitive ability and behavior. Accordingly, promoting the consumption of a varied, adjusted, and balanced diet by adolescents will facilitate iron utilization, benefiting their health both at present and in adulthood. This review discusses how physiological changes during adolescence can cause iron requirements to increase. Consequently, it is important that diet should contribute an appropriate amount of this mineral and, moreover, with an adequate bioavailability to satisfy needs during this special period of life.
Burke, Louise M; Millet, Gregoire; Tarnopolsky, Mark A
The goal of training is to prepare the distance athlete to perform at his or her best during major competitions. Whatever the event, nutrition plays a major role in the achievement of various factors that will see a runner or walker take the starting line in the best possible form. Everyday eating patterns must supply fuel and nutrients needed to optimize their performance during training sessions and to recover quickly afterwards. Carbohydrate and fluid intake before, during, and after a workout may help to reduce fatigue and enhance performance. Recovery eating should also consider issues for adaptation and the immune system that may involve intakes of protein and some micronutrients. Race preparation strategies should include preparation of adequate fuel stores, including carbohydrate loading for prolonged events such as the marathon or 50-km walk. Fluid and carbohydrate intake during races lasting an hour or more should also be considered. Sports foods and supplements of value to distance athletes include sports drinks and liquid meal supplements to allow nutrition goals to be achieved when normal foods are not practical. While caffeine is an ergogenic aid of possible value to distance athletes, most other supplements are of minimal benefit.
In 1990, the Unicef conceptual framework for nutrition recognised the role of care, along with household food security and health services and environment, as one of the three underlying factors of child survival, growth, and development. This model has been adopted at a policy level at the International Conference on Nutrition (Rome, 1992) and over the past ten years the concept of care has been refined through literature reviews, consultative meetings and empirical works. "Care is the provision in the household and the community of time, attention, and support to meet the physical, mental, and social needs of the growing child and other household members". Basically, care refers to the actions of caregivers (mainly, but not only mothers) that translate food and health resources into positive outcomes for the child's nutrition. Even under circumstances of poverty, enhanced caregiving can optimise the use of resources to promote good nutrition. Care practices have been grouped into six categories: care for women, breastfeeding and child feeding practices, psychosocial care, food preparation, hygiene practices, household health practices. They cover a wide range of behaviours, are often culturally specific and are daily, repetitive, and time-consuming activities. It must be underlined that the way care practices are performed (i.e., quality of care) is as important as the practices themselves. It has also been emphasised that children play a significant role in determining the quality of care that they receive, through an interactive process: an active child elicits more care from the caregiver, who is in turn more responsive. Care resources at household level have been described according to three categories: human (knowledge, beliefs, education, physical and mental health of the caregiver), economic (control on income, workload and time), and organisational (alternate caregivers, community support). But the availability of care also depends on support at the
Corish, C A
Protein-energy undernutrition, or the possibility of its development, has been documented to occur frequently in surgical patients admitted to hospital. Nutritional status is known to deteriorate over the course of the hospital stay, with poor awareness by medical and nursing staff as to the deleterious effects of impaired nutritional status on clinical outcome and hospital costs. While there is no consensus on the best method for assessment of the nutritional status of surgical patients pre-operatively, there are a number of techniques available. These techniques can be divided into two types, those suitable for screening for nutrition risk on admission to hospital and those used to fully assess nutritional status. Both techniques have their limitations, but if used correctly, and their limitations recognized, should identify the appropriate degree of nutritional intervention for an individual patient in a timely and cost-effective manner. The techniques currently available for nutritional screening and nutritional assessment are reviewed, and their applicability to the Irish setting are discussed in the present paper.
Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix. Div. of Vocational Education.
The curriculum guide is designed to serve as a resource for local teachers and community members to design their own special curriculum around the unique nutritional needs of individuals and families making up the population. The guide is organized around six major topics: the individual's involvement in nutrition and food, factors involved in…
Rhea, Harold C.
Intended chiefly for nutrition instructors in elementary, secondary, and college classes, this bibliography can supplement the reading lists of other nutrition fields, such as food science and diet therapy. Separate sections of the document are devoted to books, documents and journal articles culled from the ERIC data base, films, multimedia…
In California non-commercial "commercials" short spots of pantomime and bilingual messages fitted into and around television's entertainment programs, are used as a means of providing nutrition education to urban and rural low-income people. As revealed by audience requests for nutritional information offered, the commercials are popular…
Hawaii Dietetic Association, Honolulu.
This is an annotated bibliography listing books, resources, and films and filmstrips on the subject of nutrition. Sections include: Food Sense; Controlling Your Weight; Feeding Your Family; Food for Teens; Learning and Teaching Nutrition; Other Sources; and Films and Filmstrips. The material is in pamphlet form. (LK)
Peanuts are an important source of nutrition worldwide. They are used as food, as an ingredient and as an important source of cooking oil. They are usually roasted before consumption which results in changes in nutrition, texture and flavor. The flavor is important for repeat purchases. This cha...
Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.
Six major concepts form the framework for this kindergarten nutrition education curriculum: (1) Food is essential for all living things (learning to identify foods and food sources); (2) Nutrition is the food you eat and how the body uses it (recognizing the relationship between body growth and the ingestion of food); (3) Food is made up of…
Pearson, Judith E.; Long, Thomas J.
Discusses current nutritional trends and the ways our bodies convert foods into chemicals that may affect thought, mood, perception, and behavior. A review of current literature suggests that nutritional deficits and food allergies may adversely alter emotional adjustment. Examines implications for counseling and suggests training and program…
Wood, Dolores K.; Shultz, Jill Armstrong; Edlefsen, Miriam; Butkus, Sue N.
Two food pantries were surveyed for nutrition education (NE) interests and experiences. One site provided nutrition education classes; the comparison site was utilized to assess client interest in class topics. "Fixing low cost meals," "fixing quick and easy recipes," and "stretching food and food dollars" were topics…
The "Nutritional Regulation of Epigenetic Changes" Symposium was held in San Diego on April 25 in conjunction with the 2012 Annual Meetings of the American Society of Nutrition. The symposium was co-chaired by Drs. Romagnoo and Ziegler. In his opening remarks, Dr. Zeigler highlighted salient aspec...
Evans, T. N.
Text of an affidavit in the case, Kennedy v. Detroit Board of Education. Reports on a study which established that prenatal nutrition is directly related to brain size and volume determined at 48 hours of infancy and at eight months of age. Pinpoints the relationship between inadequate nutrition in pregnancy, infant brain size, and intellectual…
Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing.
Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.
This student guide on nutrition contains activities categorized according to the seven dietary guidelines for Americans developed by the United States Department of Health and Human Services and Department of Agriculture. The seven goals for which activities are provided are (1) to eat a variety of foods (daily nutrition guide, nutrients,…
Pomeranz, S; Gimmon, Z; Ben Zvi, A; Katz, S
A case report of a 4-yr-old child who developed an anaphylactic reaction to parenteral nutrition is presented. Dermal allergy tests demonstrated a sensitivity to Travasol solution and Armour multivitamin 2 solution. This is the first reported case known to us of such a response to elemental parenteral nutrition.
Patients who become critically ill can have problems maintaining nutritional intake and it can be challenging for nurses to provide nutritional support. No one assessment method can identify each patient's risk of malnutrition, so nurses need to look at different aspects in their nutritional assessment and refer for specialist help from dietitians and nutrition support teams when needed. This article focuses on how severe physiological stress affects patients who are critically ill and impacts on their nutritional requirements. A nursing nutritional assessment is explored, as are nutritional support methods that may be used to manage these patients' nutritional needs.
Miranda, Talita Muniz Maloni; Ferraresi, Andressa de Abreu
ABSTRACT Objective Standardization and systematization of data to provide quick access to compatibility of leading injectable drugs used in hospitals for parenteral nutrition. Methods We selected 55 injectable drugs analyzed individually with two types of parenteral nutrition: 2-in-1 and 3-in-1. The following variables were considered: active ingredient, compatibility of drugs with the parenteral nutrition with or without lipids, and maximum drug concentration after dilution for the drugs compatible with parenteral nutrition. Drugs were classified as compatible, incompatible and untested. Results After analysis, relevant information to the product’s compatibility with parental nutrition was summarized in a table. Conclusion Systematization of compatibility data provided quick and easy access, and enabled standardizing pharmacists work. PMID:27074235
Huse, Scott M.; Shyne, Scott S.
The Nutrition Advisor Expert System (NAES) is an expert system written in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS). NAES provides expert knowledge and guidance into the complex world of nutrition management by capturing the knowledge of an expert and placing it at the user's fingertips. Specifically, NAES enables the user to: (1) obtain precise nutrition information for food items; (2) perform nutritional analysis of meal(s), flagging deficiencies based upon the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances; (3) predict possible ailments based upon observed nutritional deficiency trends; (4) obtain a top ten listing of food items for a given nutrient; and (5) conveniently upgrade the data base. An explanation facility for the ailment prediction feature is also provided to document the reasoning process.
Merli, Manuela; Giusto, Michela; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Riggio, Oliviero
Chronic liver disease has a profound effect on nutritional status and undernourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. In the last decades, due to epidemiological changes, a trend showing an increase in patients with end-stage liver disease and associated obesity has also been reported in developed countries. Nutrition abnormalities may influence the outcome after transplantation therefore, the importance to carefully assess the nutritional status in the work-up of patients candidates for liver transplantation is widely accepted. More attention has been given to malnourished patients as they represent the greater number. The subjective global nutritional assessment and anthropometric measurements are recognized in current guidelines to be adequate in identifying those patients at risk of malnutrition. Cirrhotic patients with a depletion in lean body mass and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk and malnutrition may impact on morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. For this reason an adequate calorie and protein intake should always be ensured to malnourished cirrhotic patient either through the diet, or using oral nutritional supplements or by enteral or parenteral nutrition although studies supporting the efficacy of nutritional supplementation in improving the clinical outcomes after transplantation are still scarce. When liver function is restored, an amelioration in the nutritional status is expected. After liver transplantation in fact dietary intake rapidly normalizes and fat mass is progressively regained while the recovery of muscle mass can be slower. In some patients unregulated weight gain may lead to over-nutrition and may favor metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia). This condition, defined as 'metabolic syndrome', may play a negative role on the overall survival of liver transplant patients. In this report we review
Seo, Kyung Won; Yoon, Ki Young
Weight loss and malnutrition are common in cancer patients. Although weight loss is predominantly due to loss of fat mass, the morbidity risk is given by the decrease in muscle mass. The assessment of nutritional status is essential for a diagnosis of nutritional compromise and required for the multidisciplinary approach. Subjective global assessment (SGA) is made by the patients nutritional symptoms and weight loss. The objective assessment, a significant weight loss (>10%) for 6 months is considered an indicator of nutritional deficiency. The mean body index, body fat mass and body protein mass are decreased as cancer stage increases. The biochemical data of albumin, cholesterol, triglyceride, Zn, transferrin, total lymphocyte count are decreased in advanced cancer stage. Daily energy intake, cabohyderate and Vit B1 intake is decreased according to cancer stage. The patients are divided into three groups according to SGA. The three groups showed a significant difference in body weight, 1 month weight loss%, 6 month weight loss%, body mass index, mid arm circumference, albumin, energy intake, as well as carbohyderate intake protein and energy malnutrition. Nutritional assessment is of great importance because undernutrition has been shown to be associated with increase in stomach cancer associated morbidity and mortality. The authors concluded that nutritional assessment should be done in cancer patients preoperatively, and with adequate nutritional support, the morbidity and mortality would be decreased.
Gómez Candela, C; de Cos Blanco, A I; Iglesias Rosado, C
Dietary fibre is a mixture of various substances and is essential for maintaining appropriate intestinal functionality and it is currently considered to be a necessary part of a healthy diet. Current recommendations for fibre consumption by adults range from 20 to 35 g/day. Enteral nutrition is an emerging therapeutic variation in both hospital and domestic settings. To a great extent, this development has been made possible thanks to the design of new formulas that adapt better and better to the clinicla conditions or our patients. The type of fibre used in these preparations varies greatly. Some have only one source of fibre while others use differnet combinations. There are currently 32 formulas available on the Spanish market, without counting the modules or specific preparations of individual types of fibre. Despite the enormous advances in the knowledge of the beneficial effects of fibre, the fact of the matter is that enteral nutrition that we routinely prescribe in normal clinical practice does not contain fibre. The are several explanations for this, perhaps the most plausible is that these formulas may lead to problems in their administration and tolerance. It is necessary to choose the correct calibre of catheter and define the best infusion method and timing. Another difficulty may be the gastrointestinal tolerance of the formulas containing fibre. No large-scale problems of intolerance have however been described in healthy volunteers nor in patients with acute or chronic pathologies, although it is of fundamental importance to monitor the rhythm of depositions in all patients with enteral nutrition (EN) and ensure proper intake of liquids, which would also be useful to prevent occlusion of the catheter. The theoretical benefits of EN with fibre with a view to maintaining or improving normal intestinal structure and function are very varied. Nonetheless, it has noit yet been possible to prove many of these effects in controlled clinical trials. At the
Briley, Margaret E.; Grey, Cynthia R.
Presents information on standards for American child care and early education programs participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. Topics discussed include meal plans, nutritional requirements, food preparation and food service, cultural diversity, food safety and sanitation, nutrition education, and emotional climate at mealtimes. (KB)
... Food and Nutrition Service Child Nutrition Programs--Income Eligibility Guidelines AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces the Department's annual adjustments..., School Programs Section, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA,...
... Food and Nutrition Service Child Nutrition Programs; Income Eligibility Guidelines AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This Notice announces the Department's annual adjustments..., School Programs Section, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA,...
...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Child Nutrition Programs--Income Eligibility Guidelines AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces the Department's..., Supervisory Program Analyst, School Programs Section, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition...
Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.
Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.
Critically ill patients are often unable to eat by themselves over a long period of time, sometimes for weeks. In the acute phase, serious protein-energy malnutrition may develop with progressive muscle weakness, which may result in assisted respiration of longer duration as well as longer stay in intensive care unit and hospital. In view of the metabolic processes, energy and protein intake targets should be defined and the performance of metabolism should be monitored. Enteral nutrition is primarily recommended. However, parenteral supplementation is often necessary because of the disrupted tolerance levels of the gastrointestinal system. Apparently, an early parenteral supplementation started within a week would be of no benefit. Some experts believe that muscle loss can be reduced by increased target levels of protein. Further studies are needed on the effect of immune system feeding, fatty acids and micronutrients.
Briggs, Marilyn; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Mueller, Constance G.
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health,…
Rasmussen, Henrik H; Holst, Mette; Kondrup, Jens
About 20%–50% of patients in hospitals are undernourished. The number varies depending on the screening tool amended and clinical setting. A large number of these patients are undernourished when admitted to the hospital, and in most of these patients, undernutrition develops further during hospital stay. The nutrition course of the patient starts by nutritional screening and is linked to the prescription of a nutrition plan and monitoring. The purpose of nutritional screening is to predict the probability of a better or worse outcome due to nutritional factors and whether nutritional treatment is likely to influence this. Most screening tools address four basic questions: recent weight loss, recent food intake, current body mass index, and disease severity. Some screening tools, moreover, include other measurements for predicting the risk of malnutrition. The usefulness of screening methods recommended is based on the aspects of predictive validity, content validity, reliability, and practicability. Various tools are recommended depending on the setting, ie, in the community, in the hospital, and among elderly in institutions. The Nutrition Risk Screening (NRS) 2002 seems to be the best validated screening tool, in terms of predictive validity ie, the clinical outcome improves when patients identified to be at risk are treated. For adult patients in hospital, thus, the NRS 2002 is recommended. PMID:21042553
Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny
Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05). In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.
Russell, Mary Krystofiak
Functional status assessment has been recommended as a part of a complete nutrition assessment for decades, but the specific components of this assessment have eluded a consensus definition. The recent Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition consensus criteria for identification of malnutrition include functional assessment determined by handgrip dynamometry, with the understanding that this technique is not practical for use in some patient populations. Other techniques for functional assessment include physical performance measures such as timed gait and chair stands, as well as activities of daily living tools such as the Katz Index, Lawton Scale, and Karnofsky Scale Index. Manual muscle testing and computed tomography scan assessment of lean tissue are other tools that show promise in correlating functional and nutrition assessments. Functional assessment parameters may be least well correlated with nutrition status in older individuals. Despite a number of scientific studies of a variety of tools for functional assessment, there is to date no definitive tool for use in all individuals in all settings. Nutrition scientists and clinicians must continue to collaborate with colleagues in physical and occupational therapy, geriatrics, and nursing to refine current functional assessment tools to more effectively correlate with nutrition and malnutrition assessment parameters.
Newton, Alyce F; DeLegge, Mark H
Parenteral nutrition (PN) has been successfully initiated in the home since the early 1990s. The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) Standards for Specialized Nutrition Support: Home Care Patients, Safe Practices for Parenteral Nutrition, and Guidelines for the Use of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition in Adult and Pediatric Patients do not contain specific information on the initiation of home PN (HPN). Peer-reviewed, published guidelines are necessary to provide safe and appropriate initiation of HPN. Certain patients should not have PN initiated in the home, such as those with organ failure, uncontrolled diabetes, or uncorrectable electrolyte abnormalities. Excellent candidates for initiation of HPN include patients who have failed enteral feedings, have gastrointestinal (GI) diseases without excessive GI losses, or those with an oncology diagnosis and inability to tube feed. One concern of initiation of HPN is the potential for refeeding syndrome. Refeeding syndrome can be prevented when patients are properly evaluated and managed before initiation of PN. Refeeding syndrome can be avoided by rehydration with fluid and electrolytes before initiation of HPN to normalize blood chemistry when necessary and by starting with a moderate-volume, low-carbohydrate HPN solution compounded with optimal potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium content, and slowly advanced to goal. The "start low and go slow" motto of nutrition support should continue to be followed, but more specific guidelines are needed to assist nutrition support clinicians with safe and appropriate initiation of HPN.
Schofield, Heather; Mullainathan, Sendhil
The purpose of this paper is to explore consumer thinking about nutrition decisions and how firms can use consumers' awareness of the links between nutrients and health generated by public health messages to market products, including ones, which have little nutritional value. We approach this issue by tracking the development of public health messages based on scientific research, dissemination of those messages in the popular press, and use of nutrition claims in food advertisements to assess whether firms are timing the use of nutrition claims to take advantage of heuristic-based decision-making. Our findings suggest that the timing of the development of nutrition information, its dissemination in the press, and use in advertising accords well with a heuristic processing model in which firms take advantage of associations between nutrient information and health in their advertisements. However, the demonstrated relationships may not be causal. Further research will be needed to provide stronger and more comprehensive evidence regarding the proposed message hijacking process. If the message hijacking framework is borne out: (1) simple overall health rating scales could significantly improve consumer decision-making, (2) the impact of misleading advertisements could be mitigated by encouraging a multidimensional view of nutrition, and (3) more intensive regulation of product labeling could limit the impact of hijacked messages. Overall, this paper considers a novel hypothesis about the impact of public health messages on nutrition and health.
Murgia, Chiara; Adamski, Melissa M
Genetics is an important piece of every individual health puzzle. The completion of the Human Genome Project sequence has deeply changed the research of life sciences including nutrition. The analysis of the genome is already part of clinical care in oncology, pharmacology, infectious disease and, rare and undiagnosed diseases. The implications of genetic variations in shaping individual nutritional requirements have been recognised and conclusively proven, yet routine use of genetic information in nutrition and dietetics practice is still far from being implemented. This article sets out the path that needs to be taken to build a framework to translate gene-nutrient interaction studies into best-practice guidelines, providing tools that health professionals can use to understand whether genetic variation affects nutritional requirements in their daily clinical practice.
Nutritionally-related dermatoses of dogs have received considerable attention in the veterinary community in the past few years and most of this attention has centered on the role of vitamin E, vitamin A, zinc, and the essential fatty acids. Nutritional supplements for dogs abound in the marketplace yet few actually meet the requirements of a pet with a skin problem. Many more are not formulated strictly for dermatological cases but rather as general supplements to augment the nutritional needs of pets. The potential actions of these different nutrients are discussed and comparisons made of the different commercial supplements. PMID:17422880
Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rapp, R. M.; Smith, M. C., Jr.
Nutrition systems were successfully developed in the Apollo Program for astronauts wearing pressure suits during emergency decompression situations and during lunar surface explorations. These nutrition systems consisted of unique dispensers, water, flavored beverages, nutrient-fortified beverages, and intermediate moisture food bars. The emergency decompression system dispensed the nutrition from outside the pressure suit by interfacing with a suit helmet penetration port. The lunar exploration system utilized dispensers stowed within the interior layers of the pressure suit. These systems could be adapted for provision of nutrients in other situations requiring the use of pressure suits.
Van Saun, Robert J
It has been nearly 30 years since the first imported llamas and alpacas have been commercially raised in the United States. Nutritional requirements for these animals have not been well understood and most feeding practices were based on extrapolated and experiential information. Only recently has a National Research Council committee reviewed the available published information relative to nutrient requirements of llamas and alpacas. This article summarizes current nutrient requirement recommendations and provides some practical feeding recommendations and methods to assess nutritional status.
Meckler, Terry Anne; Vogler, James D.
The Nutrition and Gerontology Services Project attempted to affect basal nutrition knowledge and address dietary changes for 478 California senior citizens who were live-in residents in homes for the aged. Two instruments were employed to measure study variables. Knowledge of nutrition was measured by the Nutritional Learning Scale, an orally…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.
Nutrition Education Today is a state-funded curriculum project that addresses the behavioral aspects of nutrition as well as the nutritional knowledge of secondary school students in California. The curriculum design for the Nutrition Education Today project is a result of the efforts of a statewide task force of specialists in the area of…
Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.
This publication presents success stories and actual activities from Team Nutrition Days 1997 to serve as a starting point for other schools wanting to create their own nutrition education activities. Team Nutrition Days was a 1-week celebration that used innovative, interactive activities to teach children that nutrition is the link between…
Narins, Dorice M.; Hill, Virginia R.
Because of the importance of nutrition during teenage pregnancies, the Illinois State Council on Nutrition held public hearings in Chicago and in Carbondale, areas having a high incidence of infant mortality. Several issues were identified: (1) effects on nutrition of low income, poor nutrition habits, and lack of understanding of the increased…
... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1328.15 Section 1328.15 Public... SUPPORTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL SERVICES TO OLDER HAWAIIAN NATIVES § 1328.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Hawaiian Natives, a grantee may: (1) Provide...
... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2012 Through June 30, 2013 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service... Program Development Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Recipient Benefits §...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Recipient Benefits §...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1328.15 Section 1328.15 Public... SUPPORTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL SERVICES TO OLDER HAWAIIAN NATIVES § 1328.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Hawaiian Natives, a grantee may: (1) Provide...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1328.15 Section 1328.15 Public... SUPPORTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL SERVICES TO OLDER HAWAIIAN NATIVES § 1328.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Hawaiian Natives, a grantee may: (1) Provide...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Participant Benefits §...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Recipient Benefits §...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Participant Benefits §...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Recipient Benefits §...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Recipient Benefits §...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1328.15 Section 1328.15 Public... SUPPORTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL SERVICES TO OLDER HAWAIIAN NATIVES § 1328.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Hawaiian Natives, a grantee may: (1) Provide...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1328.15 Section 1328.15 Public... SUPPORTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL SERVICES TO OLDER HAWAIIAN NATIVES § 1328.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Hawaiian Natives, a grantee may: (1) Provide...
Ozturk, Mehmet Ertugrul
The aim of the study was to determine sport and nutrition education interaction on stress. Three groups were selected for the study: control, single treatment and social treatment under nutrition treatment, too. The groups that were under nutrition treatments should have information about the nutrition resources. This experiment was done for two…
... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Participant Benefits §...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Participant Benefits §...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Participant Benefits §...
Norheim, Frode; Gjelstad, Ingrid Merethe Fange; Hjorth, Marit; Vinknes, Kathrine J; Langleite, Torgrim M; Holen, Torgeir; Jensen, Jørgen; Dalen, Knut Tomas; Karlsen, Anette S; Kielland, Anders; Rustan, Arild C; Drevon, Christian A
In spite of amazing progress in food supply and nutritional science, and a striking increase in life expectancy of approximately 2.5 months per year in many countries during the previous 150 years, modern nutritional research has a great potential of still contributing to improved health for future generations, granted that the revolutions in molecular and systems technologies are applied to nutritional questions. Descriptive and mechanistic studies using state of the art epidemiology, food intake registration, genomics with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, advanced biostatistics, imaging, calorimetry, cell biology, challenge tests (meals, exercise, etc.), and integration of all data by systems biology, will provide insight on a much higher level than today in a field we may name molecular nutrition research. To take advantage of all the new technologies scientists should develop international collaboration and gather data in large open access databases like the suggested Nutritional Phenotype database (dbNP). This collaboration will promote standardization of procedures (SOP), and provide a possibility to use collected data in future research projects. The ultimate goals of future nutritional research are to understand the detailed mechanisms of action for how nutrients/foods interact with the body and thereby enhance health and treat diet-related diseases.
Kostanjevec, Stojan; Jerman, Janez; Koch, Verena
In Slovenia, nutrition education is included in the compulsory education curriculum of the nine-year elementary school. The aim of nutrition education is for schoolchildren to acquire knowledge on nutrition to help them form healthy nutritional habits. This research aims at establishing whether the formal nutrition education carried out at schools…
At the time of independence majority of Indians were poor. In spite of spending over 80 per cent of their income on food, they could not get adequate food. Living in areas of poor environmental sanitation they had high morbidity due to infections; nutrition toll due to infections was high because of poor access to health care. As a result, majority of Indians especially children were undernourished. The country initiated programmes to improve economic growth, reduce poverty, improve household food security and nutritional status of its citizens, especially women and children. India defined poverty on the basis of calorie requirement and focused its attention on providing subsidized food and essential services to people below poverty line. After a period of slow but steady economic growth, the last decade witnessed acceleration of economic growth. India is now one of the fastest growing economies in the world with gross domestic product (GDP) growth over 8 per cent. There has been a steady but slow decline in poverty; but last decade's rapid economic growth did not translate in to rapid decline in poverty. In 1970s, country became self sufficient in food production; adequate buffer stocks have been built up. Poor had access to subsidized food through the public distribution system. As a result, famines have been eliminated, though pockets of food scarcity still existed. Over the years there has been a decline in household expenditure on food due to availability of food grains at low cost but energy intake has declined except among for the poor. In spite of unaltered/declining energy intake there has been some reduction in undernutrition and increase in overnutrition in adults. This is most probably due to reduction in physical activity. Under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme food supplements are being provided to children, pregnant and lactating women in the entire country. In spite of these, low birth weight rates are still over 30 per
Lim, So Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Arang; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Hyun Jin
Dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals are important factors affecting mental health and the development of psychiatric disorders. Majority of scientific evidence relating to mental health focuses on depression, cognitive function, and dementia, and limited evidence is available about other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As life span of human being is increasing, the more the prevalence of mental disorders is, the more attention rises. Lists of suggested nutritional components that may be beneficial for mental health are omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Saturated fat and simple sugar are considered detrimental to cognitive function. Evidence on the effect of cholesterol is conflicting; however, in general, blood cholesterol levels are negatively associated with the risk of depression. Collectively, the aims of this review are to introduce known nutritional factors for mental health, and to discuss recent issues of the nutritional impact on cognitive function and healthy brain aging. PMID:27482518
Reber, Robert J.
Any process or event that disrupts the flow of nutrients and energy becomes a nutrition problem. Nutritionists should promote practices that protect the integrity, stability, and beauty of the land community (soil, water, air, all biological species). (Author)
Isaak, Cara K; Siow, Yaw L
"The doctor of the future will no longer treat the human frame with drugs, but will rather cure and prevent disease with nutrition". Thomas Edison's contemplation may come to fruition if the nutritional revolution continues in its current course. Two realizations have propelled the world into a new age of personalized nutrition: (i) food can provide benefits beyond its intrinsic nutrient content, and (ii) we are not all created equal in our ability to realize to these benefits. Nutrigenomics is concerned with delineating genomic propensities to respond to various nutritional stimuli and the resulting impact on individual health. This review will examine the current technologies utilized by nutrigeneticists, the available literature regarding nutrient-gene interactions, and the translation of this new awareness into public health.
Rodriguez, Noe A; Jeschke, Marc G; Williams, Felicia N; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Herndon, David N
Aggressive nutrition support is recommended following severe burn injury. Initially, such injury results in a prolonged and persistent hypermetabolic response mediated by a 10- to 20-fold elevation in plasma catecholamines, cortisol, and inflammatory mediators. This response leads to twice-normal metabolic rates, whole-body catabolism, muscle wasting, and severe cachexia. Thus, it is relevant to review the literature on nutrition in burns to adjust/update treatment. Failure to meet the increased substrate requirements may result in impaired wound healing, multiorgan dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infection, and death. Therefore, aggressive nutrition support is essential to ensure adequate burn care, attenuate the hypermetabolic response, optimize wound healing, minimize devastating catabolism, and reduce morbidity and mortality. Here, the authors provide nutrition recommendations gained from prospective trials, retrospective analyses, and expert opinions based on the authors' practices in Galveston, Texas, and Vienna, Austria.
Burgos Peláez, Rosa; Segurola Gurrutxaga, Hegoi; Bretón Lesmes, Irene
Stroke is a public health problem of the first order. In developed countries is one of the leading causes of death, along with cardiovascular disease and cancer. In addition, stroke is the leading cause of permanent disability in adulthood. Many of the patients who survive do so with significant sequelae that limit them in their activities of daily living. Most strokes (80-85%) are due to ischemia, while the rest are hemorrhagic. We have identified many modifiable risk factors, some with an important relationship with dietary factors or comorbidities in wich the diet has a significant impact. The incidence of malnutrition in stroke patients is not well known, but most likely impacts on patient prognosis. Furthermore, the nutritional status of patients admitted for stroke often deteriorates during hospitalization. It is necessary to perform a nutritional assessment of the patient in the early hours of admission, to determine both the nutritional status and the presence of dysphagia. Dysphagia, through alteration of the safety and efficacy of swallowing, is a complication that has an implication for nutritional support, and must be treated to prevent aspiration pneumonia, which is the leading cause of mortality in the stroke patient. Nutritional support should begin in the early hours. In patients with no or mild dysphagia that can be controlled by modifying the texture of the diet, they will start oral diet and oral nutritional supplementation will be used if the patient does not meet their nutritional requirements. There is no evidence to support the use of nutritional supplements routinely. Patients with severe dysphagia, or decreased level of consciousness will require enteral nutrition. Current evidence indicates that early nutrition should be initiated through a nasogastric tube, with any advantages of early feeding gastrostomy. Gastrostomy will be planned when the enteral nutrition support will be expected for long-term (4 weeks). Much evidence points to the
Grant, John P
Nutritional support can have a significant beneficial impact on the course of moderate to severe acute pancreatitis. Enteral nutrition is preferred, with emphasis on establishment of jejunal access; however, parenteral nutrition can also be of value if intestinal failure is present. Early initiation of nutritional support is critical, with benefits decreasing rapidly if begun after 48 hours from admission. Severe malnutrition in chronic pancreatitis can be avoided or treated with dietary modifications or enteral nutrition.
Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:24490104
Nutritional anemias are important because they are easily reversed and because their underlying causes, most often unrelated to dietary intake, require individualized assessment. Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) usually results from iron losses accompanying chronic bleeding, including loss to intestinal parasites, or from gastric disorders or malabsorption in the elderly. Cobalamin-deficiency anemia, the only nutritional anemia with predilection for the elderly, nearly always stems from failure of intrinsic factor (IF)-related absorption. Folate-deficiency anemia, the only nutritional anemia usually caused by poor intake, has nearly disappeared in countries that fortify food with folic acid. Copper-deficiency anemia, which usually results from malabsorptive disorders or from medical or nutritional interventions that provide inadequate copper or excess zinc, is uncommon but increasingly recognized. The prevalences of nutritional anemias, which are not always distinguished from non-anemic deficiency, are uncertain. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) provides an essential diagnostic tool leading to judicious matching of relevant biochemical changes with relevant anemia. Nutritional anemias usually feature abnormal MCV, whereas the predominant anemias in the aged, especially the anemias of chronic disease/chronic inflammation (ACD/ACI), of renal failure, and of unknown causes, are typically normocytic.
Meier, Rémy F; Forbes, Alastair
Nutrition is a basic requirement for life and plays an important role in health and in disease prevention, but malnutrition is a common event and a cause of increased morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with disease-related malnutrition showing inflammation and a catabolic state. Malnutrition is often overlooked, and deterioration in the nutritional status following admission to hospital is common. It should be actively pursued by a ubiquitous system of nutrition screening, and full nutritional assessment is required for those found to be at risk. There are simple screening tools which can be used by all health care professionals. Assessment considers body composition, inflammatory status and other aspects of underlying diseases and their functional consequences; it is a more specialist process. It is important to determine the energy and protein needs of each individual patient. Appropriate nutritional intervention can often be offered by the oral route, using food with or without special supplements. When this is insufficient, enteral tube feeding will normally be sufficient, but there is an important subgroup of patients in whom enteral feeding is contraindicated or unsuccessful, and in these patients parenteral nutrition (either total or supplemental) is required. A number of immunonutrients and other special substrates have been shown to be helpful in specific circumstances, but their use is not without potential hazards, and therefore adherence to international guidelines is recommended.
Gorospe, Emmanuel C; Oxentenko, Amy S
There is an undeniable link between gastrointestinal disorders and malnutrition. Chronic diarrhoea is one of the most common gastrointestinal conditions that can impact a patient's nutritional status. The nutritional consequences will depend on the cause of the diarrhoea as well as the location and extent of gastrointestinal involvement. In general, malabsorption plays a central role in the interaction between malnutrition and chronic diarrhoea. Malabsorption can result in both nutritional deficits and diarrhoea. With severe malnutrition, chronic diarrhoea can persist due to impaired immune function and poor mucosal recovery. Food intolerance and an inappropriate diet in the setting of malabsorption may also contribute to chronic diarrhoea. Patients may attribute their gastrointestinal symptoms to specific dietary intake, which can lead to self-imposed indiscriminate dietary restrictions. Therefore, disease-specific treatment in conjunction with appropriate nutritional counselling and intervention is recommended in the prevention and treatment of malnutrition in patients with chronic diarrhoea. Specialized nutritional support through enteral or parenteral administration may be required to treat severe caloric and micronutrient deficiencies. In this review, we aim to summarize the mechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of the nutritional consequences of chronic diarrhoea.
Fredickson, Leigh H.; Reid, Fredric A.
wetland habitats throughout their annual cycles. Survival, reproduction, and growth are dependent on the availability of foods that meet nutritional requirements for recurring biological events. These requirements occur among a wide variety of environmental conditions that also influence nutritional demands. Recent work on nesting waterfowl has identified the female’s general nutrient needs for egg laying and incubation. Far less is known about nutritional requirements for molt and other portions of the life cycle, particularly those during the nonbreeding season. Although information on specific requirements for amino acids and micronutrients of wild birds is meager, the available information on waterfowl requirements can be used to develop waterfowl management strategies. For example, nutrient content of foods, nutritional requirements of waterfowl, and the cues waterfowl use in locating and selecting foods are all kinds of information that managers need to encourage use of habitats by feeding waterfowl. Waterfowl nutritional needs during the annual cycle and the nutritional values of natural foods and crops will be discussed below.
Laviano, Alessandro; Gori, Chiara; Rianda, Serena
Preserving or restoring adequate nutritional status is a key factor to delay the onset of chronic diseases and to accelerate recovery from acute illnesses. In particular, consistent and robust data show the loss of muscle mass, that is, sarcopenia, is clinically relevant since it is closely related to increased morbidity and mortality in healthy individuals and patients. Sarcopenia is defined as the age-related loss of muscle mass and function. International study groups have recently proposed separate definitions and diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia. Unfortunately, the rate of agreement in assessing the prevalence of sarcopenia is just fair, which highlights the need for a common effort to harmonize definitions and diagnostic criteria. Sarcopenia should be distinct from myopenia, which is the disease-associated loss of muscle mass, although in clinical practice it may be impossible to separate them (i.e., in old cancer patients). The pathogenesis of sarcopenia is complex and multifactorial. Consequently, its treatment should target the different factors involved, including quantitatively and qualitatively inappropriate food intake and reduced physical activity.
Muñoz-Calvo, M Teresa; Argente, Jesús
Caloric-protein malnutrition can slow growth and cause pubertal delay. This chapter focuses on endocrine abnormalities and pubertal alterations in patients with eating disorders, childhood obesity, the female athlete triad and children cancer survivors. Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) exhibit multiple endocrine abnormalities, including isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The delay in pubertal development and reduction in growth seen in AN patients may be a direct result of malnutrition. Appropriate psychiatric, nutritional and hormonal therapy is necessary. It is suggested that obesity during childhood can accelerate pubertal onset and these children usually exhibit accelerated linear growth during puberty. In girls the relationship between childhood obesity and early pubertal onset could be related to their insulin resistance and/or hyperinsulinemia. The female athlete triad is often observed in physically active girls and women in whom low energy availability with or without disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction and low bone mineral density can be present. In prepubertal girls excess exercise can cause delayed menarche with no effects on adult height, while in postpubertal females it results in menstrual cycle irregularities. The consequences of childhood cancer depend on the type of cancer, its location, the age at which the disease was diagnosed, the dose of radiotherapy, and the type and dose of chemotherapy.
Lau, E M; Woo, J
Nutritional factors have a significant influence on the cause of osteoporosis. Calcium supplementation may be particularly effective in populations with a low calcium diet. Supplementations of 500 mg/d may produce about 4% gain in skeletal calcium in adolescents. Supplementations of 800 mg/d may prevent bone loss in postmenopausal women. The results of clinical trials also suggested that such supplementation may prevent hip and vertebral fractures in the elderly. The largest effect of calcium supplementation occurs in the first year of treatment, whereas sustained effects are not proven. Vitamin D supplementation may be particularly useful in vitamin D-deficient elderly. In this group, hip fractures may be prevented by vitamin D administration. Urinary sodium excretion is correlated with urinary calcium excretion in humans, and a direct effect of high sodium intake on loss at the hip has been demonstrated. Observational epidemiologic studies suggested a negative effect of a high protein intake on bone density, although there are no results from clinical trials to support this view. Dietary fiber, phytate, oxalate, and caffeine intake may have a small negative effect on calcium absorption.
Asawa, Kailash; Bhat, Nagesh; Tak, Mridula; Gupta, Vivek V; Chaturvedi, Pulkit; Daryani, Hemasha; Shinde, Kushal
Introduction Diet and nutrition plays an important role in signifying the health of an individual. Oral health is the most important aspect of the body when it comes to food intake and its health benefits. It is important for the nutrition/dietetics students to be aware of the health modalities related to oral aspect. Aim The aim of the present study was to assess knowledge towards the effect of diet and nutrition on oral health among nutrition/dietetics students of Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among all the nutrition and dietetics students of Udaipur city. A self-administered, pretested 14 item questionnaire was given to 180 students to assess their knowledge about dietary factors related to caries, anti-cariogenic foods, frequency and duration of sugar intake etc. One-way analysis of variance and independent sample t-test were utilized for statistical analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5%, respectively. Results The mean score for knowledge was 28.92±1.72. Mean knowledge scores for III, II and I year students were 29.91±1.94, 29.56±1.27 and 27.30±1.66 respectively. When post-hoc Bonferroni test was applied, mean knowledge score was found to be at a higher end among III year as compared to I year (p=0.03) students. Conclusion This study highlights about low dental nutrition knowledge among nutrition/dietetics students. Health profess-ionals should have more information outside their immediate fields. Inter-professional team members should work in collaboration with each other to improve patient outcomes. PMID:28050501
Smith, Scott M.
Adequate nutrition is critical for maintenance of crew health during and after extended-duration space flight. The impact of weightlessness on human physiology is profound, with effects on many systems related to nutrition, including bone, muscle, hematology, fluid and electrolyte regulation. Additionally, we have much to learn regarding the impact of weightlessness on absorption, mtabolism , and excretion of nutrients, and this will ultimately determine the nutrient requirements for extended-duration space flight. Existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration space flight have been formulated based on limited flight research, and extrapolation from ground-based research. NASA's Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory is charged with defining the nutritional requirements for space flight. This is accomplished through both operational and research projects. A nutritional status assessment program is included operationally for all International Space Station astronauts. This medical requirement includes biochemical and dietary assessments, and is completed before, during, and after the missions. This program will provide information about crew health and nutritional status, and will also provide assessments of countermeasure efficacy. Ongoing research projects include studies of calcium and bone metabolism, and iron absorption and metabolism. The calcium studies include measurements of endocrine regulation of calcium homeostasis, biochemical marker of bone metabolism, and tracer kinetic studies of calcium movement in the body. These calcium kinetic studies allow for estimation of intestinal absorption, urinary excretion, and perhaps most importantly - deposition and resorption of calcium from bone. The Calcium Kinetics experiment is currently being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle in 2001, and potentially for subsequent Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The iron study is intended to assess whether iron absorption is down-regulated dUl1ng
Early human food cultures were plant-based. Major religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism have recommended a vegetarian way of life since their conception. The recorded history of vegetarian nutrition started in the sixth century bc by followers of the Orphic mysteries. The Greek philosopher Pythagoras is considered the father of ethical vegetarianism. The Pythagorean way of life was followed by a number of important personalities and influenced vegetarian nutrition until the 19th century. In Europe, vegetarian nutrition more or less disappeared during the Middle Ages. In the Renaissance era and in the Age of Enlightenment, various personalities practiced vegetarianism. The first vegetarian society was started in England in 1847. The International Vegetarian Society was founded in 1908 and the first vegan society began in 1944. Prominent vegetarians during this time included Sylvester Graham, John Harvey Kellogg, and Maximilian Bircher-Benner. A paradigm shift occurred at the turn of the 21st century. The former prejudices that vegetarianism leads to malnutrition were replaced by scientific evidence showing that vegetarian nutrition reduces the risk of most contemporary diseases. Today, vegetarian nutrition has a growing international following and is increasingly accepted. The main reasons for this trend are health concerns and ethical, ecologic, and social issues. The future of vegetarian nutrition is promising because sustainable nutrition is crucial for the well-being of humankind. An increasing number of people do not want animals to suffer nor do they want climate change; they want to avoid preventable diseases and to secure a livable future for generations to come.
Evatt, Marian L
Advise patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) to consume a balanced diet, with special attention to adequate intake of dietary fiber, fluids, and macro- and micronutrients. Regularly reassess patients' nutritional history and anthropomorphic measures (height and weight), particularly in patients with advanced disease. PD-related psychosocial as well as physical and cognitive limitations increase susceptibility to subacute and chronic malnutrition. Nutritional requirements may change with PD progression or after surgical therapy for PD. Patients and caregivers may benefit from counseling by a dietician who is knowledgeable about the nutritional risks and needs of PD. Regularly inquire about dysphagia symptoms, and consider speech therapy consultation for clinical and modified barium-swallowing evaluations and management recommendations. Although non-oral delivery options of dopaminergic therapy are increasing, severe dysphagia may warrant percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement for nutritional support and more reliable PD medication dosing. Analyze vitamin B(12) and D concentrations at regular intervals. Both vitamins are frequently deficient in elderly persons but may not be routinely checked by primary care physicians. Record over-the-counter and nutritional supplement medications at each visit, and assist patients in periodically re-evaluating their potential benefits, side effects, drug interactions, and costs. To date, clinical trials of antioxidant vitamins and nutritional supplements have provided insufficient evidence to support routine use for PD in the clinic. Data from several clinical trials of antioxidant vitamins/nutritional supplements are expected in the near future. Consider altering medication dosing in relation to meals to help with mild to moderate motor fluctuations. Patients with severe motor fluctuations may benefit from adapting the 5:1 carbohydrate-to-protein ratio in their daily meals and snacks. Following a "protein
Papadopoulou, A; MacDonald, A; Williams, M; Darbyshire, P; Booth, I
Accepted 16 April 1997 Nutritional insult after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is complex and its nutritional management challenging. Enteral nutrition is cheaper and easier to provide than parenteral nutrition, but its tolerance and effectiveness in reversing nutritional depletion after BMT is poorly defined. Nutritional status, wellbeing, and nutritional biochemistry were prospectively assessed in 21 children (mean age 7.5 years; 14 boys) who received nasogastric feeding after BMT (mean duration 17 days) and in eight children (mean age 8 years, four boys) who refused enteral nutrition and who received dietetic advice only. Enteral nutrition was stopped prematurely in eight patients. Greater changes in weight and mid upper arm circumference were observed in the enteral nutrition group, while positive correlations were found between the duration of feeds and increase in weight and in mid upper arm circumference. Vomiting and diarrhoea had a similar incidence in the two groups, while fever and positive blood cultures occurred more frequently in the dietetic advice group. Diarrhoea occurring during enteral nutrition was not associated with fat malabsorption, while carbohydrate malabsorption was associated with rotavirus infection only. Enteral feeding did not, however, affect bone marrow recovery, hospital stay, general wellbeing, or serum albumin concentrations. Hypomagnesaemia, hypophosphataemia, zinc and selenium deficiency were common in both groups. In conclusion, enteral nutrition, when tolerated, is effective in limiting nutritional insult after BMT. With existing regimens nutritional biochemistry should be closely monitored in order to provide supplements when required. PMID:9301351
Benardot, Dan; Zimmermann, Wes; Cox, Gregory R; Marks, Saul
Competitive diving involves grace, power, balance, and flexibility, which all require satisfying daily energy and nutrient needs. Divers are short, well-muscled, and lean, giving them a distinct biomechanical advantage. Although little diving-specific nutrition research on performance and health outcomes exists, there is concern that divers are excessively focused on body weight and composition, which may result in reduced dietary intake to achieve desired physique goals. This will result in low energy availability, which may have a negative impact on their power-to-weight ratio and health risks. Evidence is increasing that restrictive dietary practices leading to low energy availability also result in micronutrient deficiencies, premature fatigue, frequent injuries, and poor athletic performance. On the basis of daily training demands, estimated energy requirements for male and female divers are 3,500 kcal and 2,650 kcal, respectively. Divers should consume a diet that provides 3-8 g/kg/day of carbohydrate, with the higher values accommodating growth and development. Total daily protein intake (1.2-1.7 g/kg) should be spread evenly throughout the day in 20 to 30 g amounts and timed appropriately after training sessions. Divers should consume nutrient-dense foods and fluids and, with medical supervision, certain dietary supplements (i.e., calcium and iron) may be advisable. Although sweat loss during indoor training is relatively low, divers should follow appropriate fluid-intake strategies to accommodate anticipated sweat losses in hot and humid outdoor settings. A multidisciplinary sports medicine team should be integral to the daily training environment, and suitable foods and fluids should be made available during prolonged practices and competitions.
Shaw, Gregory; Boyd, Kevin T; Burke, Louise M; Koivisto, Anu
Swimming is a sport that requires considerable training commitment to reach individual performance goals. Nutrition requirements are specific to the macrocycle, microcycle, and individual session. Swimmers should ensure suitable energy availability to support training while maintaining long term health. Carbohydrate intake, both over the day and in relation to a workout, should be manipulated (3-10 g/kg of body mass/day) according to the fuel demands of training and the varying importance of undertaking these sessions with high carbohydrate availability. Swimmers should aim to consume 0.3 g of high-biological-value protein per kilogram of body mass immediately after key sessions and at regular intervals throughout the day to promote tissue adaptation. A mixed diet consisting of a variety of nutrient-dense food choices should be sufficient to meet the micronutrient requirements of most swimmers. Specific dietary supplements may prove beneficial to swimmers in unique situations, but should be tried only with the support of trained professionals. All swimmers, particularly adolescent and youth swimmers, are encouraged to focus on a well-planned diet to maximize training performance, which ensures sufficient energy availability especially during periods of growth and development. Swimmers are encouraged to avoid rapid weight fluctuations; rather, optimal body composition should be achieved over longer periods by modest dietary modifications that improve their food choices. During periods of reduced energy expenditure (taper, injury, off season) swimmers are encouraged to match energy intake to requirement. Swimmers undertaking demanding competition programs should ensure suitable recovery practices are used to maintain adequate glycogen stores over the entirety of the competition period.
de Luis, Daniel A; Izaola, Olatz; de la Fuente, Beatriz; Muñoz-Calero, Paloma; Franco-Lopez, Angeles
Introducción: las enfermedades neurodegenerativas producen alteraciones en el nivel de conciencia o en los mecanismos de la deglución que con frecuencia hacen necesario un soporte nutricional especializado. Objetivo: revisar el riesgo de desnutrición, así como su tratamiento, en pacientes con enfermedad cerebral vascular, enfermedad de Parkinson, demencia y esclerosis lateral amiotrófica. Desarrollo: las enfermedades neurológicas degenerativas son una de las principales indicaciones de soporte nutricional en nuestro país. En los procesos agudos (enfermedad vascular cerebral), el correcto manejo nutricional se relaciona con una mejor evolución y con una disminución de las complicaciones. En los procesos neurodegenerativos crónicos (esclerosis lateral amiatrófica y demencia), la malnutrición es un problema importante que empeora el pronóstico de estos pacientes siendo, necesario un correcto manejo de la disfagia y sus complicaciones, así como la utilización de diferentes etapas de soporte nutricional. Una correcta valoración nutricional de estos pacientes, así como un claro esquema de intervención nutricional, es imprescindible en el seguimiento de su enfermedad. Por último, en la enfermedad de Parkinson avanzada, el soporte nutricional, como en las enfermedades neurodegenerativas anteriores, es de vital importancia, sin olvidarnos de la carga proteica y su distribución en la dieta de estos pacientes. Las sociedades científicas internacionales (American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition ASPEN) recomiendan, con un grado de evidencia B, realizar un cribaje de malnutrición a los pacientes con enfermedades neurológicas. Conclusiones: una correcta valoración nutricional, así como un adecuado soporte nutricional deben formar parte del proceso diagnóstico y terapéutico de estas enfermedades.
Shephard, R J
Specific nutritional benefits of regular exercise include the control of obesity and its complications, the improvement of blood lipid profile, the optimization of micro-nutrient intake and the assurance of a maximum quality-adjusted life-expectancy. While epidemiologists interpret various weight for height ratios in terms of obesity, such data can be misleading, particularly in older people (where an accumulation of fat is masked by lean tissue loss). Skinfold calipers provide a more unequivocal index of the amount and distribution of subcutaneous fat. Arguments against the treatment of obesity by exercise include the large energy yield of fat, the potential for compensating changes of resting metabolism, and an inherently high "set-point" of fat stores in the obese. Exercise cannot achieve rapid fat loss, but it has several advantages over other types of treatment, including the positive nature of the prescription, the associated elevation of mood and suppression of appetite, the conservation of lean tissue, and the establishment of an improved lifestyle. Moreover, blood pressure is reduced, insulin needs are decreased in the diabetic, and favourable changes of lipid profile are observed. Total cholesterol levels are not affected by exercise if body mass is held constant, but (provided a weekly threshold of exercise is exceeded) there is an increase of HDL cholesterol, particularly HDL-2 cholesterol. The intake of vitamins and most other micronutrients is increased by a high daily energy expenditure. Frank anaemia is not common in athletes, but a low iron saturation may be an indication for dietary supplements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Lane, Helen W.; Smith, Scott M.; Leach, Carolyn S.; Rice, Barbara L.
Studies of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis have been completed since the early human space flight programs, with comprehensive research completed on the Spacelab Life Sciences missions SLS-1 and SLS-2 flights, and more recently on the Mir 18 mission. This work documented the known shifts in fluids, the decrease in total blood volume, and indications of reduced thirst. Data from these flights was used to evaluate the nutritional needs for water, sodium, and potassium. Interpretations of the data are confounded by the inadequate energy intakes routinely observed during space flight. This in turn results in reduced fluid intake, as food provides approximately 70% water intake. Subsequently, body weight, lean body mass, total body water, and total body potassium may decrease. Given these issues, there is evidence to support a minimum required water intake of 2 L per day. Data from previous Shuttle flights indicated that water intake is 2285 +/- 715 ml/day (mean +/- SD, n=26). There are no indications that sodium intake or homeostasis is compromised during space flight. The normal or low aldosterone and urinary sodium levels suggest adequate sodium intake (4047 +/- 902 mg/day, n=26). Because excessive sodium intake is associated with hypercalciuria, the recommended maximum amount of sodium intake during flight is 3500 mg/day (i.e., similar to the Recommended Dietary Allowance, RDA). Potassium metabolism appears to be more complex. Data indicate loss of body potassium related to muscle atrophy and low dietary intake (2407 +/- 548 mg/day, n=26). Although possibly related to measurement error, the elevations in blood potassium suggest alterations in potassium homeostasis. The space RDA for minimum potassium intake is 3500 mg/day. With the documented inadequate intakes, efforts are being made to increase dietary consumption of potassium.
Harnisch, Jean M; Harnisch, Patricia H; Harnisch, David R
This article discusses pregnancy and nutrition in 3 main timeframes, the prepregnancy nutritional health evaluation, nutrition during pregnancy, and nutrition during the puerperium, and also includes comments on nutrition and lactation. This article begins with a brief review of the risks of obesity (increased body mass index [BMI]) and anorexia (decreased BMI), with special attention to these undesired conditions during pregnancy, followed by a section on nutrients other than calories. Information on body weight, minerals, and vitamins during pregnancy is reviewed. This article ends with information on nutrition in the postpartum period.
Juakiem, Wassem; Torres, Dawn M; Harrison, Stephen A
Nutrition has not been a primary focus of many medical conditions despite its importance in the development and the severity of these diseases. This is certainly the case with nutrition and end-stage liver disease despite the well-established association of nutritional deficiencies and increased rates of complications and mortality in cirrhosis. This review provides an overview of nutrition in chronic liver disease with an emphasis on its pathogenesis as well as ways to assess nutritional status and intervene in an effort to improve nutrition.
Krawinkel, Michael B
In pediatric nutrition the most important overall theme is breastfeeding. While there is no alternative in most mammals--and offspring would die if the mother had no milk or could not feed the newborn--human mothers were offered alternative ways of infant feeding. Today restoring breastfeeding is a major goal for pediatricians, midwifes, and lactation advisers. Feeding the premature baby and adding long chain fatty acids and prebiotics to formula is an area of growing interest. Undernutrition is a special challenge for nutritional care because even in recent years severely undernourished children die of inadequate management with too much volume and too much protein in the initial phase. Much knowledge has been gained about parenteral nutrition for children with gut failure. Even children with very short bowel length at birth have a good prognosis and can often achieve enteral adaptation. New solutions for parenteral nutrition, new materials, and new care concepts have been identified. Problems considered inherent to parenteral nutrition are widely preventable.
Midorikawa, Y.; Fujii, T.; Ohira, A.; Nitta, K.
At the 40th IAF Congress in Malaga, a nutrition system for a lunar base CELSS was presented. A lunar base with a total of eight crew members was envisaged. In this paper, four species of plants—rice, soybean, lettuce and strawberry—were introduced to the system. These plants were sufficient to satisfy fundamental nutritional needs of the crew members. The supply of nutrition from plants and the human nutritional requirements could almost be balanced. Our study revealed that the necessary plant cultivation area per crew member would be nearly 40 m 3 in the lunar base. The sources of nutrition considered in the study were energy, sugar, fat, amino acids, inorganic salt and vitamins; however, calcium, vitamin B 2, vitamin A and sodium were found to be lacking. Therefore, a subsystem to supply these elements is of considerable value. In this paper, we report on a study for breeding snails and utilizing meat as food. Nutrients supplied from snails are shown to compensate for the abovementioned lacking elements. We evaluate the snail breeder and the associated food supply system as a subsystem of closed ecological life support system.
The map of nutrition, evident in the structure of any course or textbook, derives from theses that framed a science begun in the 1840s, developed until the 1940s, and consolidated until now. Nutritionists now are as perplexed as the explorers of half a millennium ago, who continued to use maps that did not fit the wider world they found. Until the 1600s, alternatives to Ptolemaic cosmology remained unthinkable despite its obvious inadequacy, because it was of a universe with the earth, and man made in the divine image, at its centre. Nutritionists now are inhibited for similar reasons. Two determining principles of nutrition science, the identification of health with growth and the belief that animal food is superior to plant food, have a deep origin; they derive from the materialist ideology that asserts a manifest destiny of humans to exploit and consume the living and natural world. In response, a new nutrition is emerging, with a global perspective, whose ideology places humans within nature, and whose theses make a wider frame, able to fit the world as we can discern it now. The new nutrition gives equal value to personal, population and planetary health, with all that implies, including the concept that the world is best perceived as a whole. The Copernican revolution changed the meaning of movement on earth. The new nutrition can change the meaning of life on earth. Now is the time to draw its map.
Ladefoged, Karin; Jarnum, Stig
Nineteen patients (11 women and eight men) aged 20-68 received long-term parenteral nutrition, mostly at home, for six to 63 months (mean 19 months). Indications for LTPN were extensive, active Crohn's disease in three patients, intestinocutaneous fistulas in three, and short-bowel syndrome in the remaining 13 patients. Subclavian or intra-atrial (Broviac) catheters were most commonly used, for which the average life was four and seven months respectively. Complications of long-term parenteral nutrition included pneumothorax in four out of 48 subclavian vein punctures. Catheter-induced thrombosis of central veins was shown by phlebography 17 times in nine patients, and eight episodes of total occlusion occurred. Two of these patients had pulmonary infarction. Nineteen episodes of catheter sepsis occurred in 11 patients, but only one was fatal. Complications related to intestinal disease included intra-abdominal abscesses and intestinal fistulas, and disturbances of liver function. Five patients died, though in only two was death related to long-term parenteral nutrition. One of these patients died from catheter sepsis, the other had subdural haematoma possibly caused by anticoagulant treatment. Eight of the 14 surviving patients still needed parenteral nutrition. All received a disability pension, but six had an acceptable quality of life with almost normal social activities. Despite problems such as difficulties in maintaining standardised infusion programmes, it was concluded that long-term parenteral nutrition at home is practicable and consistent with an acceptable quality of life. ImagesFIG 2 PMID:98199
Midorikawa, Y; Fujii, T; Ohira, A; Nitta, K
At the 40th IAF Congress in Malaga, a nutrition system for a lunar base CELSS was presented. A lunar base with a total of eight crew members was envisaged. In this paper, four species of plants--rice, soybean, lettuce and strawberry--were introduced to the system. These plants were sufficient to satisfy fundamental nutritional needs of the crew members. The supply of nutrition from plants and the human nutritional requirements could almost be balanced. Our study revealed that the necessary plant cultivation area per crew member would be nearly 40 m3 in the lunar base. The sources of nutrition considered in the study were energy, sugar, fat, amino acids, inorganic salt and vitamins; however, calcium, vitamin B2, vitamin A and sodium were found to be lacking. Therefore, a subsystem to supply these elements is of considerable value. In this paper, we report on a study for breeding snails and utilizing meat as food. Nutrients supplied from snails are shown to compensate for the above mentioned lacking elements. We evaluate the snail breeder and the associated food supply system as a subsystem of closed ecological life support system.
Gaynor, Edward P T; Sullivan, Peter B
Malnutrition is often seen at the point of diagnosis in childhood malignancy or may develop during the course of treatment. Strategies for optimal diagnosis and management of nutritional problems in children with cancer are limited in the published literature. Identification of children who may be malnourished or at nutritional risk can be achieved through improved approaches for risk stratification and classification. Once recognised, various strategies have been demonstrated to reduce malnutrition, minimise side effects of treatment and improve survival. Novel approaches in vivo and adult oncology populations provide future avenues for investigation.
Wilson, P D; Dainty, J R
The purpose of the present paper is to provide an introduction to modelling, particularly mathematical modelling, for nutritional researchers with little or no experience of the modelling process. It aims to outline the function of modelling, and to give some guidance on factors to consider when designing protocols to generate data as part of the modelling process. It is not intended in any way to be a comprehensive guide to mathematical modelling. The paper discusses the uses of modelling, and presents a 'hydrodynamic analogy' to compartmental modelling, to explain the process to the non-mathematically-minded and to examine some of the pitfalls to be avoided when using stable-isotope tracers. Examples of the use of modelling in nutrition are presented, including methods for determining absorption, as well as a discussion of possible future avenues for nutritional modelling.
Rasmussen, Christopher J.
Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.
Fernandes, Maria F; Sharma, Sandeep; Hryhorczuk, Cecile; Auguste, Stephanie; Fulton, Stephanie
The propensity to select and consume palatable nutrients is strongly influenced by the rewarding effects of food. Neural processes integrating reward, emotional states and decision-making can supersede satiety signals to promote excessive caloric intake and weight gain. While nutritional habits are influenced by reward-based neural mechanisms, nutrition and its impact on energy metabolism, in turn, plays an important role in the control of food reward. Feeding modulates the release of metabolic hormones that have an important influence on central controls of appetite. Nutrients themselves are also an essential source of energy fuel, while serving as key metabolites and acting as signalling molecules in the neural pathways that control feeding and food reward. Along these lines, this review discusses the impact of nutritionally regulated hormones and select macronutrients on the behavioural and neural processes underlying the rewarding effects of food.
The economical conditions remarkably influence through food supply the nutrition although it is an a priori biological category. These determine the implementation of nutritional habits, conscious nutritional intentions, and limit the chances of individual decisions. The influence of economical conditions could be measured by use of "income elasticity" and "dietary efficiency". The latter serves as background for the elaboration of diets of different price but approaching the nutritional physiological optimum. The households have an important economical role because of value of time used for food purchasing and preparation of meals. In general the GNP/capita values determine the proportion of nutrients in diet and by this means the risk and frequency of diet-related diseases. Some of Central and Eastern European countries, among them Hungary as well, take place in groups higher by one-two categories, than appropriate to their GNP/capita. In Hungary the price of foodstuffs increased vigorously and the food consumption decreased by 3 per cent between 1994 and 1980 or 1992. Mainly the consumption of meat, milk and dairy products has diminished. The meat consumption has been shifted towards the consumption of poultry showing lower rise in prices. The consumption of vegetable oil and margarine has increased essentially because the lard became more expensive than the vegetable oil. The changes in prices touch more strongly the people of low income, their diet is combined chiefly from cheap foodstuffs and therefore it is monotonous, the qualitative starvation appears. Sociological surveys showed poverty in 17-31 percent of population in 1992. The inequality in income shows a strong association with the health status of population, furthermore with the lifestyle and the features of nutrition. Also in Hungary we should reckon with the unfavourable consequences of economical factors in the scope of health status and nutrition.
Ramel, Sara E; Georgieff, Michael K
The brain is the most highly metabolic organ in the preterm neonate and consumes the greatest amount of nutrient resources for its function and growth. As preterm infants survive at greater rates, neurodevelopment has become the primary morbidity outcome of interest. While many factors influence neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants, nutrition is of particular importance because the healthcare team has a great deal of control over its provision. Studies over the past 30 years have emphasized the negative neurodevelopmental consequences of poor nutrition and growth in the preterm infant. While all nutrients are important for brain development, certain ones including glucose, protein, fats (including long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids), iron, zinc, copper, iodine, folate and choline have particularly large roles in the preterm infant. They affect major brain processes such as neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation, myelination and synaptogenesis, all of which are proceeding at a rapid pace between 22 and 42 weeks' post-conception. At the macronutrient level, weight gain, linear growth (independent of weight gain) and head circumference growth are markers of nutritional status. Each has been associated with long-term neurodevelopment. The relationship of micronutrients to neurodevelopment in preterm infants is understudied in spite of the large effect these nutrients have in other young populations. Nutrients do not function alone to stimulate brain development, but rather in concert with growth factors, which in turn are dependent on adequate nutrient status (e.g. protein, zinc) as well as on physiologic status. Non-nutritional factors such as infection, corticosteroids, and inflammation alter how nutrients are accreted and distributed, and also suppress growth factor synthesis. Thus, nutritional strategies to optimize brain growth and development include assessment of status at birth, aggressive provision of nutrients that are critical in this time
Ziegenfuss, Tim N.; Landis, Jamie; Greenwood, Mike
The ability to recover from intense exercise often separates good athletes from great ones. In the past, "recovery" often simply included rest, physical modalities (e.g., massage, hydration therapy) and meeting basic nutritional needs for fluid and energy intake. Today, athletes have a number of additional options to help them recover from high intensity training, one of which includes the judicious use of dietary supplements. This chapter briefly reviews nutritional strategies that have a strong theoretical background for enhancing rehydration/electrolyte balance, replenishing energy reserves, minimizing oxidative damage, and stimulating muscle repair.
Linder, Deborah; Mueller, Megan
Excess weight has been associated with many clinical and subclinical conditions that put a pet's health at risk. Successful weight management programs extend beyond standard nutritional management and incorporate an understanding of human-animal interaction. Understanding the processes and dynamics of human-animal relationships can be a useful tool for practitioners in developing successful treatment plans for their clients. Obesity is a nutritional disorder requiring lifelong management; however, when veterinarians go beyond standard treatment to include an understanding of human-animal interaction, it is also one of the few conditions in veterinary medicine that is completely preventable and curable.
McCutcheon, Malcolm L.
A discussion of nutrition's role in athletics is presented in this article. The effects of good day-to-day nutrition, the pregame meal, fluid intake, and dietary supplements on the athletes endurance and performance are discussed. (DF)
Wagner, Nicole D; Hillebrand, Helmut; Wacker, Alexander; Frost, Paul C
The nutrition of animal consumers is an important regulator of ecological processes due to its effects on their physiology, life-history and behaviour. Understanding the ecological effects of poor nutrition depends on correctly diagnosing the nature and strength of nutritional limitation. Despite the need to assess nutritional limitation, current approaches to delineating nutritional constraints can be non-specific and imprecise. Here, we consider the need and potential to develop new complementary approaches to the study of nutritional constraints on animal consumers by studying and using a suite of established and emerging biochemical and molecular responses. These nutritional indicators include gene expression, transcript regulators, protein profiling and activity, and gross biochemical and elemental composition. The potential applications of nutritional indicators to ecological studies are highlighted to demonstrate the value that this approach would have to future studies in community and ecosystem ecology.
Hathcock, J N
Nutritional toxicology is a specialty that combines the backgrounds and research approaches of nutrition and toxicology. Many problems of substantial importance to health and food safety involve interactions of nutrition process and requirement with the effects of toxicological impact. Solution of these problems requires research that meets the procedural and design criteria of experimental nutrition and these of experimental toxicology. The relationships may be described in three basic categories: (1) influence of nutrition on toxicities; (2) influence of toxicants on nutrition; and (3) toxicities of nutrients. Trypsin inhibitor research, an example of diet impacting on toxicological response, illustrates the necessity of controlling nutritional composition aspects that can confound the results. Prolonged acetaminophen administration provides an example of the effects of toxicants on nutritional requirement and function which could be important for persons with marginal sulphur amino acid intake.
Verma, Meghna; Hontecillas, Raquel; Abedi, Vida; Leber, Andrew; Tubau-Juni, Nuria; Philipson, Casandra; Carbo, Adria; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep
This review highlights the fundamental role of nutrition in the maintenance of health, the immune response, and disease prevention. Emerging global mechanistic insights in the field of nutritional immunology cannot be gained through reductionist methods alone or by analyzing a single nutrient at a time. We propose to investigate nutritional immunology as a massively interacting system of interconnected multistage and multiscale networks that encompass hidden mechanisms by which nutrition, microbiome, metabolism, genetic predisposition, and the immune system interact to delineate health and disease. The review sets an unconventional path to apply complex science methodologies to nutritional immunology research, discovery, and development through “use cases” centered around the impact of nutrition on the gut microbiome and immune responses. Our systems nutritional immunology analyses, which include modeling and informatics methodologies in combination with pre-clinical and clinical studies, have the potential to discover emerging systems-wide properties at the interface of the immune system, nutrition, microbiome, and metabolism. PMID:26909350
... A Print Share President's Council on Fitness, Sports & Nutrition (PCFSN) Fitness Homepage Intro Tile PCFSN engages, educates, ... lifestyle that includes regular physical activity and good nutrition. Since 1956, the Council has created and promoted ...
... of Food Expenditures on Children by Families USDA's Nutrition Evidence Library (projects column 2) Know Your Farmer, ... Food Supply Pregnancy and Birth to 24 Months Nutrition Insights Internship Program Health and Medicine Division Study ...
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Augsburg Coll., Minneapolis, Minn.
This publication reports the Student Parent Educator Administrator Children (SPEAC) for Nutrition Program evaluation of the effectiveness of a child care food service personnel training curriculum and a model curriculum package for preschool children. Evaluation of the food service curriculum package was accomplished in part by a pre- and…
Gibney, Michael J; McNulty, Breige A; Ryan, Miriam F; Walsh, Marianne C
In recent years, there has been a great expansion in the nature of new technologies for the study of all biologic subjects at the molecular and genomic level and these have been applied to the field of human nutrition. The latter has traditionally relied on a mix of epidemiologic studies to generate hypotheses, dietary intervention studies to test these hypotheses, and a variety of experimental approaches to understand the underlying explanatory mechanisms. Both the novel and traditional approaches have begun to carve out separate identities vís-a-vís their own journals, their own international societies, and their own national and international symposia. The present review draws on the advent of large national nutritional phenotype databases and related technological developments to argue the case that there needs to be far more integration of molecular and public health nutrition. This is required to address new joint approaches to such areas as the measurement of food intake, biomarker discovery, and the genetic determinants of nutrient-sensitive genotypes and other areas such as personalized nutrition and the use of new technologies with mass application, such as in dried blood spots to replace venipuncture or portable electronic devices to monitor food intake and phenotype. Future development requires the full integration of these 2 disciplines, which will provide a challenge to both funding agencies and to university training of nutritionists.
Smith, Scott M.
Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and , if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of the US astronauts who participated in the first eight International Space Station (ISS) missions. Bone loss during space flight remains one of the most critical challenges to astronaut health on space exploration missions. An increase in bone resorption of ISS crew members after flight was indicated by several markers. Vitamin D status also remains a challenge for long-duration space travelers, who lack ultraviolet light exposure in the shielded craft. Many nutrients affect bone, including calcium, protein, fatty acids, sodium, and others. Data supporting their potential as countermeasures for space flight, as published in many papers, will be reviewed in this presentation. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health. Please note, this abstract is not required for the meeting. A presentation on the topics described above will be given. This abstract is for travel documentation only.
Waihenya, E W; Kogi-Makau, W; Muita, J W
Most nutrition education programmes in Kenya operate on the premise that nutritional knowledge can have an impact on children's nutritional status. It has, however, been argued that nutritional knowledge among low income groups is unlikely to have an impact, hence, the need to establish whether there is a relationship between nutritional status and maternal nutritional knowledge. In a cross-sectional survey carried out in a Nairobi slum (Kibera), nutritional status of 363 children aged six to 24 months was measured and nutritional knowledge of their mothers assessed. Makina village was randomly selected as the study site and all consenting households were involved in the study. The study established that most mothers (97.5%) have access to nutrition education. Prevalence of stunting (86.2%) and underweight (58.4%) was high but that of wasting (1.9%) was low. There was no significant relationship between the nutritional status of children and overall nutritional knowledge. Unexpectedly, a negative relationship was found between nutritional status and mothers' ability to recognise clinical signs of malnutrition, knowledge in the weaning process and dietary management during sickness. Knowledge on frequency of feeding was, however, positively related to nutritional states. In conclusion, nutritional knowledge alone is inadequate in ensuring young children's nutrition security and, hence, for nutrition education programmes to have a positive impact, facilitational strategies must be incorporated.
A study of the literature dealing with past and present food and nutrition problems in Indonesia reveals that the problems remain serious. The major nutrition problems are: (1) Protein-Calorie Malnutrition; (2) Vitamin A Deficiency; (3) Nutritional Anemia; and (4) Goitre. These nutrition problems afflict people of all ages, males and females.…
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.
Focusing on America's self-knowledge about its nutritional health, this report deals with the availability of nutrition evaluation and counseling to individuals and the adequacy of the national nutrition monitoring system. Bureaucratic and political problems of applying nutritional health considerations to food policy are also examined. Nutrition…
Zoellner, Jamie; Carr, Deborah
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this national study was to describe nutrition literacy levels and nutrition knowledge among school nutrition (SN) managers, and explore if barriers to seeking SN information, perceived role in school wellness, and confidence in SN decision making varied by nutrition literacy and knowledge scores. Methods: An…
O'Neill, Peggy Schafer; Wellman, Nancy S.; Himburg, Susan P.; Johnson, Paulette; Elfenbein, Pamela
Using content analysis, this study evaluated the aging content and context in 11 nutrition sub-specialty textbooks: community nutrition (n = 3), diet therapy (n = 4), and nutrition and aging (n = 4). Pages with paragraphs on aging were identified in community nutrition and diet therapy textbooks, and 10% random samples of pages were evaluated in…
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.
This document is organized in four parts. Part One is a "State on the Needs for Nutrition Education" submitted by the Board of Directors, Society for Nutrition Education in connection with The Panel on Consumer Programs and Public Education, The National Nutrition Policy Study, to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs. Part Two…
Kominiarek, Michelle A; Rajan, Priya
The nutritional status of a woman during pregnancy and lactation is not only critical for her health but for future generations. Although a nutritionist or registered dietitian can help facilitate dietary counseling and interventions, physicians also need to be cognizant of nutritional needs during pregnancy because they differ significantly compared with nonpregnant populations. Furthermore, an individualized approach to nutritional counseling that considers a woman's nutritional status and body mass index is recommended.
Quigley, Kimberly K.; Hermann, Janice R.; Warde, William D.
Objective: To determine if there were differences by demographic variables in response rates to Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI) Checklist statements reported by over 50% of Oklahoma Older Americans Act Nutrition Program (OAANP) congregate meal participants categorized at high nutritional risk based on cumulative NSI Checklist scores. Design:…
Bowles, Dorothy, Ed.
Objectives of this state survey of school food service programs in Wisconsin public schools focused on (1) nutrition education in the schools, (2) students' food selection practices, (3) improving nutrition education and (4) increasing awareness of nutritional considerations. Four questionnaires were administered to stratified, randomly selected,…
Atkinson, Jeanette; Black, Sara; Capdeville, Elsie; Grover, Janice; Killion, Marlene; Martin, Jan; Mathews, Carol; Moen, Julie; Reynolds, Penny; Chessell, Karen
The mission of Foods and Nutrition Education is to prepare students for family life, community life and careers in the foods and nutrition fields by creating opportunities to develop the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors needed to: (1) Analyze career paths within the foods and nutrition industry; (2) Examine factors that influence food…
School nutrition directors face challenges on many fronts, from changing nutrition standards to addressing community interest in sustainability and local food sourcing. Programs are constantly changing to meet these new demands. How does a school business administrator know which changes will affect his/her school nutrition program positively? The…
ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.
Despite recognition of the importance of good nutrition for children's cognitive development, many children in America are poorly nourished. This digest reviews programs designed to address this problem and suggests ways to improve child nutrition and school meal programs. Federal programs administered by the Food and Nutrition Service of the…
ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.
This digest reviews research on the link between children's nutrition and their ability to learn from the prenatal through school years. It also discusses the importance of nutrition education for children. The need for adequate nutrition during pregnancy and the preschool years is highlighted by research that indicates that low birthweight…
The USDA Food and Nutrition Summer Institute was sponsored by the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center in partnership with several USDA and non-USDA agencies between 1999 and 2007. Partners included the USDA Food and Nutrition Service, USDA Cooperative State Research and Extension Service, US...
Skinner, Jean D.; Woodburn, Margy J.
Nutrition knowledge tests were administered to 1,193 adolescents in Oregon prior to instructional units on nutrition in health and home economics classes. Mean scores on the tests were low. Guidelines for nutrition educators of adolescents are presented. (Author/CJB)
Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.
Nutrition concepts, school food service guidelines, and related materials (such as nutrition charts, menu planning worksheets, and student survey forms) are provided in this nutrition handbook. Prepared by the Oklahoma State Department of Education's School Lunch Section, the handbook consists of nine sections that are organized in outline format.…
75th Ranger Regiment Nutrition Program LTC Russ Kotwal CPT Nick Barringer Medical Director Dietician SFC Cesar Veliz SFC Justin...Siple Medical Training Culinary Advisor Warfighter Nutrition Conference USUHS, Bethesda, MD 15 JULY 2008 Report Documentation Page Form...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 75th Ranger Regiment Nutrition Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT
... to 2-Year-Old How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of ...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1308.20 Section 1308.20 Public... PROGRAM HEAD START PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS ON SERVICES FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Nutrition Performance Standards § 1308.20 Nutrition services. (a) The disabilities coordinator must work with staff...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1308.20 Section 1308.20 Public... PROGRAM HEAD START PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS ON SERVICES FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Nutrition Performance Standards § 1308.20 Nutrition services. (a) The disabilities coordinator must work with staff...
... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Nutrition education. 1150.116 Section 1150.116 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Order Definitions § 1150.116 Nutrition education. Nutrition education means those activities intended...
... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 1150.116 Section 1150.116 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Order Definitions § 1150.116 Nutrition education. Nutrition education means those activities intended...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1308.20 Section 1308.20 Public... PROGRAM HEAD START PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS ON SERVICES FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Nutrition Performance Standards § 1308.20 Nutrition services. (a) The disabilities coordinator must work with staff...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1308.20 Section 1308.20 Public... PROGRAM HEAD START PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS ON SERVICES FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Nutrition Performance Standards § 1308.20 Nutrition services. (a) The disabilities coordinator must work with staff...
... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 1150.116 Section 1150.116 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Order Definitions § 1150.116 Nutrition education. Nutrition education means those activities intended...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Child nutrition. 1304.23 Section 1304.23 Public... AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.23 Child nutrition. (a) Identification of... into account staff and family discussions concerning: (1) Any relevant nutrition-related...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Child nutrition. 1304.23 Section 1304.23 Public... AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.23 Child nutrition. (a) Identification of... into account staff and family discussions concerning: (1) Any relevant nutrition-related...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Child nutrition. 1304.23 Section 1304.23 Public... AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.23 Child nutrition. (a) Identification of... into account staff and family discussions concerning: (1) Any relevant nutrition-related...
... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 1150.116 Section 1150.116 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Order Definitions § 1150.116 Nutrition education. Nutrition education means those activities intended...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Child nutrition. 1304.23 Section 1304.23 Public... AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.23 Child nutrition. (a) Identification of... into account staff and family discussions concerning: (1) Any relevant nutrition-related...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1308.20 Section 1308.20 Public... PROGRAM HEAD START PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS ON SERVICES FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Nutrition Performance Standards § 1308.20 Nutrition services. (a) The disabilities coordinator must work with staff...
Neyman, Michelle R.; Block, Gladys; Morris, Jennifer L.; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri
Nutrition knowledge and dietary intake among 184 Hispanic teenage girls were assessed before and after a nutrition education intervention involving five weekly lessons. Intervention participants increased their nutrition knowledge by 50 percent and showed modest improvement in dietary behavior. Contains 16 references and data on subjects' dietary…
Banks, Mary Alice; Dunham, Margaret A.
This teaching manual is divided into three sections: (1) basic information on nutrition for teachers, (2) activities for learning about nutrition, suitable for first through third grades and fourth through sixth, and (3) sources of teaching aids and information on nutrition. Subjects include the four food groups, nutrients and principal food…
Hix, Cathy L.
Describes a teaching kit for use in the K-6 school cafeteria to teach about food and nutrition. The kit (consisting of a 56-page instruction booklet and 60 colorful nutrition cards) is meant to supplement nutrition education provided in the classroom by providing relevant food information at the point-of-purchase. (JN)
Swanson, Kelly S; Carter, Rebecca A; Yount, Tracy P; Aretz, Jan; Buff, Preston R
Sustainable practices meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Applying these concepts to food and feed production, nutritional sustainability is the ability of a food system to provide sufficient energy and essential nutrients required to maintain good health in a population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their nutritional needs. Ecological, social, and economic aspects must be balanced to support the sustainability of the overall food system. The nutritional sustainability of a food system can be influenced by several factors, including the ingredient selection, nutrient composition, digestibility, and consumption rates of a diet. Carbon and water footprints vary greatly among plant- and animal-based ingredients, production strategy, and geographical location. Because the pet food industry is based largely on by-products and is tightly interlinked with livestock production and the human food system, however, it is quite unique with regard to sustainability. Often based on consumer demand rather than nutritional requirements, many commercial pet foods are formulated to provide nutrients in excess of current minimum recommendations, use ingredients that compete directly with the human food system, or are overconsumed by pets, resulting in food wastage and obesity. Pet food professionals have the opportunity to address these challenges and influence the sustainability of pet ownership through product design, manufacturing processes, public education, and policy change. A coordinated effort across the industry that includes ingredient buyers, formulators, and nutritionists may result in a more sustainable pet food system.
Pannell, Dorothy VanEgmond
This publication is designed to help superintendents, local facilities coordinators, and food-service directors in planning the remodeling of an outdated food-service facility or the building of a new one. The introduction describes the roles of the local facility coordinator, the local child-nutrition director, the architect, the food-service…
Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.
This document was compiled by the Specialist, Life Sciences, Science Policy Research Division and the Analyst, Biological Sciences, Science Policy Research Division of the Library of Congress in response to a request of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs. Submitted under the general title, "A Compilation of Key Papers for Use…
It is still an important duty for pediatricians to inform parents about infant nutrition. An effort to insure successful breastfeeding in newborns is particularly necessary in order to avoid the introduction of foreign proteins, especially in high risk children. Allergy prevention is thus instigated early on. If necessary, a hypoallergenic milk may be used. Recently, there has been great concern that a high content of dioxine in breast milk exists, higher than in infant formulas. However, no evidence of toxicity has been noticed to date in breast fed children due to dioxine. Therefore, because of the many advantages, breast feeding should still be recommended for the first 4-6 months. In the last few years infant formulas have been adapted to simulate breastmilk by supplementation with taurine, carnitine and nucleotides. Most recently, Omega-3-fatty acids, which are important constituents of membrane phospholipids in the nervous system and the retina, have been added. In infant nutrition there is a trend nowadays toward unconventional forms of nutrition. An exclusive "lactoovo-vegetable" diet is able to meet all the requirements of a growing child. The critical components of a vegetarian diet are iron, calcium, vitamin B12 and vitamin D. These few examples demonstrate how important a nutrition-committee could be in elaborating basic information for the pediatrician, which would be useful in his daily work.
Rossi, Alessandra; Di Lollo, Anna Chiara; Guzzo, Maria Paola; Giacomelli, Camillo; Atzeni, Fabiola; Bazzichi, Laura; Di Franco, Manuela
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) is a chronic, generalised pain condition usually accompanied by several associated symptoms, such as fatigue, sleep disturbance, headache, irritable bowel syndrome and mood disorders. Different medical treatments are used to treat fibromyalgia and the recent guidelines suggest that the optimal treatment consists in a multidisciplinary approach with a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment modalities. Among non-pharmacological treatment, nutrition is a promising tool for FM patients. The aim of this review is to update the present knowledge about fibromyalgia and nutrition by means of a systematic search performed on Medline from January 2000 to December 2014. Nutritional deficiencies have been described in FM patients and the benefits of specific diet and nutritional supplementation are shown. Obesity and overweight, often present in FM patients, are related to the severity of FM worsening the quality of life in terms of higher pain, fatigue, worsened sleep quality and higher incidence of mood disorders. Weight control is thus an effective tool to improve the symptoms. Moreover, it seems reasonable to eliminate some foods from the diet of FM patients, for example excitotoxins. Non-coeliac gluten sensitivity is increasingly recognised as a frequent condition with similar manifestations which overlap with those of FM. The elimination of gluten from the diet of FM patients is recently becoming a potential dietary intervention for clinical improvement. In summary, this review reveals the potential benefit of specific dietary interventions as non-pharmacological tools as part of a multidisciplinary treatment for FM patients.
This article presents case studies of two athletes who wanted to affect a change in their body weight in order to enhance athletic performance. Each athlete's problem and the nutrition approach used to solve it are discussed. Caloric values of fast foods are listed. (JL)
James, Vicki; McCamey, Jody
This illustrated guide for pregnant teenagers discusses the nutritional needs of the mother and her unborn child in a month-by-month format. The information presented for each of the 9 months typically includes a sample daily menu; a checklist of recommended servings per day for each of four food groups; a description of the usual emotional and…
Brundtland, G H
This paper presents the speech delivered by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, on issues related to nutrition from a health and a human rights perspective. According to Brundtland, nutrition is a universal factor that both affects and defines the health of all people. It affects not only growth and physical development of a child, but also his cognitive and social development. However, inequity, poverty, underdevelopment, as well as inadequate access to food, health and care still exist which have resulted to the deaths of millions of children and left many more suffering from diseases. Poverty has also been identified as the main obstacle to the attainment of health. The existence of structural poverty and ill health eventually leads to poor development, which includes poor nutrition, poor health, and poor human rights. The impact of poverty on health is further worsened by discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, or religion. To address this issue, the WHO will renew their focus on the political and legal links between health and human rights. A human rights perspective provides the international community with an opportunity to support the development of public health policies and practices that promote healthy nutrition as a center of all social and economic development.
Montclair State Coll., Upper Montclair, NJ.
This multidisciplinary preschool nutrition education curriculum was written for use in the instruction of 3- to 5-year-olds in the National Head Start program. Introductory notes on cooking experiences for Head Start children and suggested menus for young children are followed by nine units. The curriculum incorporates a variety of teaching…
Arnold, Justine; Grogan, Jane, Ed.
This instructional handbook is one of series of ten packets designed to form a comprehensive course in nutrition for secondary students. This unit uses advertisements for products low in cholesterol as a link to a discussion of the nutrient, fat. It contains a page of teaching suggestions, a pre-test for the students, and factual nutrition…
Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita
Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…
The nutritional requirements of infants and children reflect this population's unique needs for growth and developmental changes in organ function and body composition as well as their maintenance needs. Moreover, since the metabolic rate of infants and children is greater and the turnover of nutri...
Feillet, François; Agostoni, Carlo
A phenylalanine (Phe)-restricted diet is the mainstay of phenylketonuria (PKU) treatment, and, in recent years, the nutritional management of PKU has become more complex in order to optimize patients' growth, development and diet compliance. Dietary restriction of Phe creates a diet similar to a vegan diet, and many of the nutritional concerns and questions applicable to vegans who wish to avoid animal products are also relevant to patients with PKU. Owing to their nutritional characteristics, breast milk and breastfeeding should be given greater consideration as a useful food in patients with PKU and in those with other inborn errors of metabolism. Further key issues for consideration include the quality of the available amino acid substitutes, the neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of added long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g. docosahexaenoic acid), micronutrient deficiencies, bone disease and antioxidant status. Long-term dietary guidance and monitoring of the nutritional status of patients with PKU should be part of a follow-up programme that continues for life.
Pomeranz, Jennifer L.; Chriqui, Jamie F.
Under the current version of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), participants can purchase virtually any food or beverage (collectively, food). Research indicates that SNAP recipients may have worse dietary quality than income-eligible nonparticipants. Policymakers have urged the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to pilot SNAP purchasing restrictions intended to support a healthier diet, and state legislators have proposed similar bills. The USDA rejected these invitations, stating that it would be administratively and logistically difficult to differentiate among products, amid other concerns. However, the USDA’s Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) do just that. Further, state governments define and differentiate among foods and beverages for tax purposes. This paper reviews several factors intended to inform future policy decisions: the science indicating that SNAP recipients have poorer diet quality than income-eligible nonparticipants; the public’s support for revising the SNAP program; federal, state, and city legislators’ formal proposals to amend SNAP based on nutrition criteria and the USDA’s public position in opposition to these proposals; state bills to amend eligible foods purchasable with SNAP benefits; state retail food tax laws; and the retail administration and program requirements for both WIC and SNAP. The paper finds that the government has a clear ability to align SNAP benefits with nutrition science and operationalize this into law. PMID:26091926
Dairy cow protein and amino acid nutrition have a significant role in sustainable dairying. Protein, amino acids, and nitrogen are inextricably linked through effects in the rumen, metabolism of the cow, and environmental nutrient management. Feeding systems have been making progress toward emphasiz...
Tilapia are an important species to global aquaculture production. Their adaptability to a wide range of environmental and nutritional conditions and their ability to grow and reproduce make them a prime species for aquaculture. Nonetheless, to achieve maximum performance in culture, tilapia requir...
Managing the health of captive fishes requires broad knowledge of environmental, physiological, and nutritional requirements for life in an aquatic realm, something no human being can fully appreciate. In spite of our lack of experience living in an aquatic environment, we can successfully manage th...
This discussion addresses several nutrition issues considered important to schools, students, and educators in the United States. Contents consist of a review of malnutrition and learning research and discussions of food additives and allergies, diet and hyperkinesia, the effects of caffeine and sugar on children's behavior, and the National…
Arnold, Justine; Grogan, Jane, Ed.
This instructional handbook is one of a series of ten packets designed to form a comprehensive course in nutrition for secondary students. This unit examines the vegetarian diet as a viable alternative, and at the same time, it introduces the topics of protein and vitamin B12. It contains a page of teaching suggestions, a pre-test for the…
Laitsch, Daniel A.
This review examined 117 research articles using a policy framework generated in previous research. Findings include: students are experiencing both food insecurity and an "epidemic of obesity"; policymakers remain focused on achievement; provinces address nutrition in isolation; poverty is a significant contributor; restriction of food…
Thomson, A. M.; Black, A. E.
This paper reviews the literature on the incidence and duration of breast-feeding in various countries, the volume and composition of breast milk, the health and nutrition of breast-fed babies as judged by growth and morbidity, maternal nutritional requirements during lactation, and the effect of prolonged lactation on maternal health. It appears that lactation can be as well sustained by impoverished as by affluent mothers, and that even in communities where malnutrition is common the average growth of infants is satisfactory up to the age of about 3 months on a diet of breast milk alone. Breast milk appears to have specific anti-infective properties, but prolonged breast-feeding will not prevent infections among older infants reared in a poor environment. The authors believe that breast-feeding is the best form of nutrition for the young infant and deplore its decline in modern industrial societies. The recommendations of various FAO/WHO Expert Groups on nutritional intakes during lactation are summarized. The need for an increased daily energy intake of 4.2 MJ (1 000 kcal) is questioned, and an increase of 2.5 MJ (600 kcal) is suggested. Data on the effect of prolonged lactation on the health of the mother are scanty; body weight appears to be maintained even among poorly nourished mothers. The authors stress the need for well-planned and technically adequate studies of the material and psychological factors involved in breast feeding. PMID:816479
d'Agostino, Micheline; And Others
This guide, which is intended for educators interested in implementing preschool programs in developing nations, aims to sustain the working hypothesis that preschool education can be organized entirely around the themes of health and nutrition. Part 1 presents an approach to program development and discusses characteristics and use of the guide.…
The two articles in this issue of the journal provide some definitive answers to questions relating to folic acid exposure and folate nutritional status of the US population in the post-fortification era, and, by implication, pose other questions. Most convincingly, these reports, which are based la...
Kreps, Alice Roelofs; Dreith, Rita Vallero
One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Nutrition I. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized persons to…
Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.
This teacher's guide is designed for use by consumer and homemaking education teachers in classes emphasizing nutrition. The guide is organized into 19 topics and is based on the 7 Dietary Guidelines for Americans: (1) to eat a variety of food; (2) to maintain ideal weight; (3) to avoid too much fat; (4) to eat foods with adequate starch and…
A Chicago elementary school has been integrating health and nutrition concepts into its curriculum for several years. Teachers in early childhood classes have developed creative, hands-on units (such as preparing and devouring apple concoctions) and field trips to the grocery store. Lessons are often reinforced with free information resources,…
Dillon, J. C.
The purpose of this theme issue is to review the basic physiological, nutritional, and pathological facts pertaining to the liver. It is an educational tool through which university teachers and people in charge of training may enhance their teaching programs. The main liver diseases seen in young children and pregnant women in tropical regions is…
Association of Farmworker Opportunity Programs, Raleigh, NC.
This guide describes publications and other resources suitable for use in a nutrition-related health education program for migrant farmworkers and their families. Materials were selected to serve farmworker populations with low literacy levels or limited knowledge of English. Included are pamphlets, manuals, videos, fact sheets, and booklets…
Purcell, Laura K
Nutrition is an important part of sport performance for young athletes, in addition to allowing for optimal growth and development. Macronutrients, micronutrients and fluids in the proper amounts are essential to provide energy for growth and activity. To optimize performance, young athletes need to learn what, when and how to eat and drink before, during and after activity.
Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.
Designed for implementation across the school year in existing curriculum areas, 18 nutrition activity units for high school students are provided. Each activity unit consists of a list of coordinated curriculum areas, a statement of objectives, guidelines for teachers, a list of learning activities, and bibliographic citations. Various…
Goodchild, M C
Cystic fibrosis patients have an increased requirement for calories and probably for all the major nutrients. The newer, enteric-coated granular preparations of pancreatic enzyme are more effective than preceding preparations and should permit a normal fat intake. Recent work has emphasized the interdependence of respiratory disease and nutrition.
Goshtaei, Massomeh; Ravaghi, Hamid; Sari, Ali Akbari; Abdollahi, Zahra
Introduction Nutrition transition is occurring rapidly in the world, especially in developing countries. The nutrition transition occurred in Iran very fast due to urbanization and changes in the lifestyle of people, leading to overweight and obesity. However, nutritional deficiencies are still detected due to economic factors and low nutritional knowledge. Nutrition policies do not adequately respond to the nutrition challenges in Iran. This study was conducted to evaluate and analyze the nutrition policy process challenges in Iran. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted with 59 policy makers and nutrition experts of medical universities across Iran. Interviews were continued until data saturation was achieved. Data were supplemented with surveys and documentary analysis. Thematic analysis was guided by the propositions of the stages heuristic framework. Results The results were categorized into four main themes and eight sub-themes. The main themes were 1) nutrition problem definition, 2) policy formulation, 3) implementation of the policies, and 4) evaluation of the policies. However, the multi-faceted nature of the nutritional problem makes it difficult to deal with, so a multi-sectoral approach is needed. Conclusion Nutrition policies have been implemented in Iran with varying degrees of success and with different levels of cross-sectoral collaboration. The nutrition policies sometimes have not been able to respond to the nutritional problems. One of the important reasons is that nutrition is not a priority for policy makers. Many policies suffer from a lack of adequate and appropriate resource allocation. Cooperation mechanisms to resolve nutritional problems are sometimes ineffective and inefficient. PMID:27053992
Bozkurt, Selen; Zayim, Neşe; Gülkesen, Kemal Hakan; Samur, Mehmet Kemal
Internet is being used increasingly as a resource for accessing health-related information because of its several advantages. Therefore, Internet tailoring becomes quite preferable in health education and personal health management recently. Today, there are many web based health programs de-signed for individuals. Among these studies nutrition and weight management is popular because, obesity has become a heavy burden for populations worldwide. In this study, we designed a web based personal nutrition education and management tool, The Nutrition Web Portal, in order to enhance patients’ nutrition knowledge, and provide behavioral change against obesity. The present paper reports analysis, design and development processes of The Nutrition Web Portal.
Eaton, Charles B; McBride, Patrick E; Gans, Kim A; Underbakke, Gail L
Primary care physicians have the potential to decrease morbidity and mortality for many chronic diseases if they provide effective nutrition counseling. Given the time constraints of primary care practice, nutrition counseling needs to be brief, be part of an organized office system and refer appropriate patients to qualified nutrition professionals to be effective. This paper reviews a system of primary care nutrition counseling using the 5A's of patient-centered counseling, the elements necessary to develop an office-based system and some successful tools developed by nutrition researchers for the primary care setting to be used in an office-based system.
Wakshlag, Joseph; Shmalberg, Justin
Conformation, genetics, and behavioral drive are the major determinants of success in canine athletes, although controllable variables, such as training and nutrition, play an important role. The scope and breadth of canine athletic events has expanded dramatically in the past 30 years, but with limited research on performance nutrition. There are considerable data examining nutritional physiology in endurance dogs and in sprinting dogs; however, nutritional studies for agility, field trial, and detection are rare. This article highlights basic nutritional physiology and interventions for exercise, and reviews newer investigations regarding aging working and service dogs, and canine detection activities.
Francon, D; Chambrier, C; Sztark, F
The identification of nutritional status is one of the objectives of the anaesthesia consultation often difficult to achieve routinely. It usually requires the use of multiple indicators, which are complex for a non-nutrition specialist. In preoperative period, nutritional assessment should be easy to do in order to identify patients who are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition and relevant information about nutritional risk should be registered in the patient chart. To facilitate this evaluation, we propose a stratification of nutritional risk in four grades (NG) using three types of simple and validated parameters: preoperative nutritional status (BMI, weight loss, eventually serum albumin), comorbidities and kind of surgery. This stratification can develop a tailored nutritional care for each patient.
Spanier, B. W. M.; Bruno, M. J.; Mathus-Vliegen, E. M. H.
Introduction. In patients with acute pancreatitis (AP), nutritional support is required if normal food cannot be tolerated within several days. Enteral nutrition is preferred over parenteral nutrition. We reviewed the literature about enteral nutrition in AP. Methods. A MEDLINE search of the English language literature between 1999–2009. Results. Nasogastric tube feeding appears to be safe and well tolerated in the majority of patients with severe AP, rendering the concept of pancreatic rest less probable. Enteral nutrition has a beneficial influence on the outcome of AP and should probably be initiated as early as possible (within 48 hours). Supplementation of enteral formulas with glutamine or prebiotics and probiotics cannot routinely be recommended. Conclusions. Nutrition therapy in patients with AP emerged from supportive adjunctive therapy to a proactive primary intervention. Large multicentre studies are needed to confirm the safety and effectiveness of nasogastric feeding and to investigate the role of early nutrition support. PMID:20811543
Daigle, Karen A; Logan, Christi M; Kotwal, Russ S
Special Operations Forces (SOF) training, combat, and contingency operations are unique and demanding. Performance nutrition within the Department of Defense has emphasized that nutrition is relative to factors related to the desired outcome, which includes successful performance of mentally and physically demanding operations and missions of tactical and strategic importance, as well as nonoperational assignments. Discussed are operational, nonoperational, and patient categories that require different nutrition strategies to facilitate category-specific performance outcomes. Also presented are 10 major guidelines for a SOF comprehensive performance nutrition program, practical nutrition recommendations for Special Operators and medical providers, as well as resources for dietary supplement evaluation. Foundational health concepts, medical treatment, and task-specific performance factors should be considered when developing and systematically implementing a comprehensive SOF performance nutrition program. When tailored to organizational requirements, SOF unit- and culture-specific nutrition education and services can optimize individual Special Operator performance, overall unit readiness, and ultimately, mission success.
Shaw, Clare; Eldridge, Lucy
Many palliative care patients experience nutritional problems as their conditions progress. This includes those with progressive neurological conditions, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as well as advanced cancer. Nutritional issues not only impact patients physically but also psychologically and can also have an effect on those caring for them. It is important that patients are screened appropriately and that one identifies what symptoms are potentially affecting their intake. Decisions should always be patient-centred. Nutritional interventions range from food modification and nutritional supplements, to more intense methods such as enteral or parenteral nutrition, and these may have ethical and legal considerations. This article explores the nutritional issues faced by palliative patients, the ethical issues supporting decision-making and the methods of nutritional support available.
Benoist, S; Brouquet, A
Malnutrition can be detected in up to 50% of patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Although malnutrition reflects the severity of cancer, it is important to underline that anticancer treatments including surgery likely increase the severity of malnutrition. Additionally, malnutrition is associated with an increased risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Nutritional assessment should be a part of pre-treatment work up of gastrointestinal cancer patients because nutritional support has been shown to limit the negative impact of malnutrition on perioperative outcome. The objective of these practice guidelines is to address the following questions regarding nutritional screening in gastrointestinal cancer patients: who should benefit from nutritional assessment, when nutritional assessment should be proposed, how nutritional assessment should be carried out and why nutritional assessment is indicated.
Pereira, Paula Manuela de Castro Cardoso; Vicente, Ana Filipa dos Reis Baltazar
Meat has exerted a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well balanced diet due to its nutritional richness. The present review attempts to sum up meats role and importance in human nutrition as well as examine some pejorative beliefs about meat consumption. Meat is a valuable source of high biological value protein, iron, vitamin B12 as well as other B complex vitamins, zinc, selenium and phosphorus. Fat content and fatty acid profile, a constant matter of concern when referring to meat consumption, is highly dependent on species, feeding system as well as the cut used. Pork meat can have the highest fat content but poultry skin is not far behind. It is also crucial to distinguish meat cuts from other meat products especially regarding its association with disease risk. As in other dietary components, moderation is advisable but meat has been shown to be an important component of a balanced diet.
Popkin, B M
The rapid shift in the stage of nutrition towards a pattern of degenerative disease is accelerating in the developing world. Data from China, as shown by the China Health and Nutrition Survey, between 1989 and 1993, are illustrative of these shifts. For example, an increase from 22.8 to 66.6% in the proportion of adults consuming a higher-fat diet, rapid shifts in the structure of diet as income changes, and important price relationships are examples that are presented. There appears to reflect a basic shift in eating preferences, induced mainly by shifts in income, prices and food availability, but also by the modern food industry and the mass media. Furthermore, the remarkable shift in the occupations structure in lower-income countries from agricultural labour towards employment in manufacturing and services implies a reduction in energy expenditure. One consequence of the nutrition transition has been a decline in undernutrition accompanied by a rapid increase in obesity. There are marked differences between urban and rural eating patterns, particularly regarding the consumption of food prepared away from home. Other issues considered are the fetal origins hypothesis, whereby the metabolic efficiencies that served well in conditions of fetal undernutrition become maladaptive with overnutrition, leading to the development of abnormal lipid profiles, altered glucose and insulin metabolism and obesity. Furthermore, obesity and activity are closely linked with adult-onset diabetes. The shift towards a diet higher in fat and meat and lower in carbohydrates and fibre, together with the shift towards less onerous physical activity, carries unwanted nutritional and health effects. It is also clear that the causes of obesity must be viewed as environmental rather than personal or genetic.
Seres, David S
Surrogate nutrition markers are used to assess adequacy of nourishment and to define malnutrition despite evidence that fails to link nourishment, surrogate markers, and outcomes. Markers such as serum levels of albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, and IGF-1 and delayed hypersensitivity and total lymphocyte count may be valid to help stratify risk. However, it is not appropriate to consider these as markers of adequacy of nourishment in the sick patient.
Collins, Ann M; Klerman, Jacob A
The diets of Americans fall far short of recommended dietary guidelines, and those who live in low-income households have even poorer diets than higher-income households. Many low-income Americans rely on the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). The program's dual goals are to improve food security and nutrition. Among the possible strategies to address dietary shortfalls among low-income Americans is to increase the SNAP benefit. This article uses data from the random assignment evaluation of the Summer Electronic Benefit Transfer for Children demonstration to add new insights on the impact of SNAP on diet quality for households receiving SNAP who also received SNAP-like benefits through Summer Electronic Benefit Transfer for Children. Households received $60 each month per eligible school-aged child. The objective of the evaluation was to see if Summer Electronic Benefit Transfer for Children improved children's food security and nutrition. The evaluation surveyed these households to collect information about food expenditures, food security, and children's diets. For households receiving SNAP in sites that used the SNAP Electronic Benefit Transfer delivery system, the analysis showed increases in food expenditures and decreases in levels of food insecurity. The analysis also indicates improvements in dietary quality among school-aged children, but the impacts were modest.
Briggs, Marilyn; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Mueller, Constance G
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health, and academic performance of our nation's children. Local school wellness policies may strengthen comprehensive nutrition services by encouraging multidisciplinary wellness teams, composed of school and community members, to work together in identifying local school needs, developing feasible strategies to address priority areas, and integrating comprehensive nutrition services with a coordinated school health program. This joint position paper affirms schools as an important partner in health promotion. To maximize the impact of school wellness policies on strengthening comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools nationwide, ADA, SNA, and SNE recommend specific strategies in the following key areas: nutrition education and promotion, food and nutrition programs available on the school campus, school-home-community partnerships, and nutrition-related health services.
Briggs, Marilyn; Mueller, Constance G; Fleischhacker, Sheila
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health, and academic performance of our nation's children. Local school wellness policies may strengthen comprehensive nutrition services by encouraging multidisciplinary wellness teams, composed of school and community members, to work together in identifying local school needs, developing feasible strategies to address priority areas, and integrating comprehensive nutrition services with a coordinated school health program. This joint position paper affirms schools as an important partner in health promotion. To maximize the impact of school wellness policies on strengthening comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools nationwide, ADA, SNA, and SNE recommend specific strategies in the following key areas: nutrition education and promotion, food and nutrition programs available on the school campus, school-home-community partnerships, and nutrition-related health services.
Buckman, Sara A; Heise, Charles P
Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis has become the surgical treatment of choice for patients with ulcerative colitis and familial polyposis coli syndromes. Pouch construction uses the distal 30-40 cm of ileum, and there exists a potential for postoperative nutrition consequences. These include vitamin B(12) deficiency, iron deficiency, bile acid malabsorption, and abnormalities of trace elements, fluids, and electrolytes. Patients who have undergone an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis procedure often describe specific food sensitivities that may require diet alteration, even more so than do patients with permanent ileostomy. There may be roles for postoperative probiotic supplementation in an attempt to decrease the rate of "pouchitis" and appropriate preoperative nutrition support to minimize the risk of perioperative complications.
Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; González Iglesias, María José; Gimeno Pita, Patricia; Ortega, Rosa M
Feeding in infancy is necessary to allow proper growth and development. Health of these early stages of life may influence the development of many diseases in the future (atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, hypertension, obesity ...). Furthermore habits set in childhood will endure throughout life. Therefore, getting adequate dietary and health patterns in childhood is vital. In adolescence occur a number of changes: rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, changes in body composition, ... that will be a challenge when getting or keeping that adequate feeding and habits. In female population requirements of different micronutrients are increased (mainly iron) and also higher energy requirement than in later stages of life occurs. However, adolescents are the main population at risk for developing eating disorders, which can pose serious problems to meet these nutritional requirements to achieve optimal development. These features and others, such as pregnant adolescents, are what make them a population that should be taken special care from nutritional point of view.
Shah, K P
In deprived populations, a large proportion of women are chronically undernourished, the chances being therefore great that their infants will be undernourished in utero and present a low birth weight. Their children thus have a poor start in life, for which even breastmilk with its special protective and nutritive qualities cannot completely compensate, especially if the mothers continue to be chronically malnourished while subject to heavy workloads and repeated pregnancies. The supplementary feeding of pregnant and lactating women can to some extent offset these negative effects on both mother and child, but constitute a late intervention. Current literature on these issues is reviewed, and areas of action to improve women's nutritional status are indicated. In order to ensure that those most in need are reached at the grass roots level, the actions undertaken should be based on community participation, within the context of a multisectoral approach and a primary health care strategy.
Schneider, Katja; Hoffmann, Ingrid
Many nutrition-related problems (e.g., obesity) are complex and thus characterized by a multitude of components, interrelatedness, associated feedbacks, and dynamics. Nutrition ecology is an innovative concept to deal with complexity and multidimensionality in nutrition science and practice. Along the food supply chain the dimensions health, environment, society, and economy are taken into account simultaneously and coequally. By combining special disciplinary knowledge with methods and principles of research on complexity and knowledge integration, nutrition ecology offers a concept to develop approaches to solving complex nutrition-related problems. Accordingly, the conceptual background and methodological elements of nutrition ecology are presented and discussed.
Heidegger, Claudia-Paula; Thibault, Ronan; Berger, Mette M; Pichard, Claude
Undernutrition is a widespread problem in the intensive care and is associated with a worse clinical outcome. Enteral nutrition is the recommended nutritional support in ICU patients. However, enteral nutrition is frequently insufficient to cover protein-energy needs. The initiation of supplemental parenteral nutrition, when enteral nutrition is insufficient, could optimize the nutritional therapy. Such a combination could allow reducing morbidity, length of stay and recovery, as well as improving quality of life and health care costs. Prospective studies are currently underway to test this hypothesis.
Yukawa S, Honda H, Hirai K, Igura T, Hayashi N, Maeda K, Kitagawa T, Kondo K: Reduction of adverse effects by a mushroom product , active hexose...in nutrition during the past century have helped untold numbers of people around the world enjoy healthier and longer lives and be more productive ...environmental damage limit the scaling up of these crops to large commercial production . The debate over GM rice and bananas, as well as other crops
Serraj, Khalid; Federici, Laure; Kaltenbach, Georges; Andrès, Emmanuel
Nutritional deficiencies cause one third of the cases of anemia in the elderly. The urgency of anemia management in elderly patients depends on tolerance and repercussions, rather than only on the hemoglobin level. Iron, vitamin B12 and folate are the most common deficiencies, and their levels should be tested. Chronic gastrointestinal bleeding is the principal cause of iron-deficiency anemia. Management is based on supplementation combined with effective etiological treatment.
Gat-Yablonski, Galia; Pando, Rakefet; Phillip, Moshe
Malnutrition, marked by variant nutrient deficiencies, is considered a leading cause of stunted growth worldwide. In developing countries, malnutrition is caused mainly by food shortage and infectious diseases. Malnutrition may also be found in the developed world, where it is due mostly to prematurity, chronic diseases, and anorexia nervosa. In most cases, when food consumption is corrected, spontaneous catch-up (CU) growth occurs. However, CU growth is not always complete, leading to growth deficits. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms that govern this process. Using a rat model of food restriction followed by refeeding, we established a nutrition-induced CU growth model. Levels of leptin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were found to significantly decrease when food was restricted and to increase already 1 day after refeeding. Gene expression analysis of the growth plate revealed that food restriction specifically affects transcription factors such as the hypoxia inducible factor-1 and its downstream targets on the one hand, and global gene expression, indicating epigenetic regulation, on the other. Food restriction also reduced the level of several microRNAs, including the chondrocyte-specific miR-140, which led to an increase in its target, SIRT1, a class III histone deacetylase. These findings may explain the global changes in gene expression observed under nutritional manipulation. We suggest that multiple levels of regulation, including transcription factors, epigenetic mechanisms, and microRNAs respond to nutritional cues and offer a possible explanation for some of the effects of food restriction on epiphyseal growth plate growth. The means whereby these components sense changes in nutritional status are still unknown. Deciphering the role of epigenetic regulation in growth may pave the way for the development of new treatments for children with growth disorders.
The aim of the present paper is to review nutrition transition (NT) ongoing in low and middle income countries and the associated dietary changes. NT is accompanied by demographic and epidemiological transition associated with economic development and urbanisation. In these countries, while the problems of hunger and undernourishment persist, there is an escalation of diet-related non-communicable diseases; making them face both problems of malnutrition, under and overnutrition. Indeed, in addition to protein energy malnutrition underweight and micronutrient deficiencies affect a high proportion of children and women. Conversely, changes in dietary habits and physical activity patterns have led to emergence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, hyperlipidaemia, CHD and cancer. One possible explanation of weight gain and its associated health consequences is the trend of the consumption of already prepared meals and the restaurants that are in continuous development leading to high consumption of foods rich in sugar and fat. The health problems associated with NT have not spared populations in the Mediterranean area where the type of diet is reported to be healthy and to protect against cardiovascular risks. This is seen in North Africa that belongs also to the Mediterranean basin, where the nutritional situation raises the problem of traditional foods sustainability. Accurate nutritional policy and education are needed to redress the effects of malnutrition related to NT on health.
James, W P
New nutritional analyses suggest that current trends in the production of food are inappropriate for the health of most of the world's populations. Four deficiency problems now dominate analyses of the nutritional disorders of developing countries: the risks from iodine, vitamin A and iron deficiencies and protein energy malnutrition now affect over two billion children and adults. Chronic energy deficiency affects half of Indian adults, with similar rates in Pakistan and Ethiopia. India will need to increase food production two- to three-fold by 2020 to cope with the predicted population explosion and desirable increases in food consumption. As erosion, salination and environmental degradation further limit land availability, current problems will overwhelm agricultural demand. Societies increase their meat, milk and fat consumption as they become affluent, and suffer from heart disease, diabetes, obesity, cancers and a variety of other 'Western' public health problems. Agricultural production is then regeared inappropriately. The Second World has an agriculture system geared to 1940s Western concepts of high animal production. Russia now vies with Scotland and Northern Ireland for the highest heart disease rates in the world and has the fattest adults in Europe. Most major non-infective public health issues throughout the world are nutritionally related. Global warming will exacerbate these problems, but effective dietary change with less animal production could release land which could be used more efficiently.
Mizock, B A
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a syndrome of global cerebral dysfunction resulting from underlying liver disease or portal-systemic shunting. HE can present as one of four syndromes, depending on the rapidity of onset of hepatic failure and the presence or absence of preexisting liver disease. The precise pathogenesis is unknown but likely involves impaired hepatic detoxification of ammonia as well as alterations in brain transport and metabolism of amino acids and amines. The etiology of malnutrition in hepatic failure is multifactorial. Nutritional deficits may be clinically manifest as marasmus or kwashiorkor, or both. Nutritional support in HE is directed toward reducing morbidity related to underlying malnutrition and concurrent disease. However, reaching nutritional goals is often complicated by protein and carbohydrate intolerance. The use of protein restriction in HE is controversial. Modified formulas that are supplemented in branched chain amino acids may be of value in patients who exhibit protein intolerance with standard feeding solutions or in patients who present with advanced degrees of encephalopathy.
Wiskin, A E; Davies, J H; Wootton, S A; Beattie, R M
Fundamental to appropriate nutritional prescription is an understanding of the conditions necessary for growth that include the requirements for energy in health and illness. Energy requirements need to be met by the dietary intake to prevent weight loss. A positive energy balance will result in weight gain. Energy requirement includes several components; the largest is the basal metabolic rate, although physical activity level and the energy needs of growth are important components. All aspects of energy metabolism are likely to be influenced by illness and impact on energy balance. Changes in dietary intake and physical activity are observed clinically but poorly described in most childhood illnesses. Changes in metabolic rate are poorly described in part owing to methodological problems. This review explores changes in energy expenditure associated with health and disease, highlights the lack of evidence underpinning this aspect of practical nutritional support and provides the clinician with a guide to the factors involved in estimating energy requirements, emphasising the importance of measuring the child's response to nutritional support.
MacKay, Douglas; Miller, Alan L
Healing of wounds, whether from accidental injury or surgical intervention, involves the activity of an intricate network of blood cells, tissue types, cytokines, and growth factors. This results in increased cellular activity, which causes an intensified metabolic demand for nutrients. Nutritional deficiencies can impede wound healing, and several nutritional factors required for wound repair may improve healing time and wound outcome. Vitamin A is required for epithelial and bone formation, cellular differentiation, and immune function. Vitamin C is necessary for collagen formation, proper immune function, and as a tissue antioxidant. Vitamin E is the major lipid-soluble antioxidant in the skin; however, the effect of vitamin E on surgical wounds is inconclusive. Bromelain reduces edema, bruising, pain, and healing time following trauma and surgical procedures. Glucosamine appears to be the rate-limiting substrate for hyaluronic acid production in the wound. Adequate dietary protein is absolutely essential for proper wound healing, and tissue levels of the amino acids arginine and glutamine may influence wound repair and immune function. The botanical medicines Centella asiatica and Aloe vera have been used for decades, both topically and internally, to enhance wound repair, and scientific studies are now beginning to validate efficacy and explore mechanisms of action for these botanicals. To promote wound healing in the shortest time possible, with minimal pain, discomfort, and scarring to the patient, it is important to explore nutritional and botanical influences on wound outcome.
Frusciante, Luigi; Carli, Paola; Ercolano, Maria R; Pernice, Rita; Di Matteo, Antonio; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta
Regular consumption of tomatoes has been associated with decreased risk of chronic degenerative diseases. Epidemiological findings confirm the observed health effects are due to the presence of different antioxidant molecules such as carotenoids, particularly lycopene, ascorbic acid, vitamin E and phenol compounds, particularly flavonoids. In this work, eight components contributing to the healthy quality of tomato (i. e. lycopene, beta-carotene, other carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, vitamins C and E, dry residue) were studied in the framework of breeding programs aiming to develop nutritional superior genotypes. Twelve tomato advanced breeding lines and six open pollinated cultivars were grown in strictly controlled conditions and analysed for their content of antioxidants. Among the 18 genotypes analysed, 10 showed a high level of total carotenoids, 6 high level of beta-carotene, 9 high lycopene levels, 15 high flavonoids and 2 relevant concentration of vitamin E. Based on such data and on a literature survey on tomato composition, an index, called index of antioxidant nutritional quality (I(QUAN)), was proposed as a tool to address the breeding programs in selecting tomato genotypes with antioxidant nutritional qualities.
Ogilvie, G K; Vail, D M
Cancer cachexia is a complex syndrome that results in involuntary weight loss, even in the face of adequate nutritional intake. The profound metabolic abnormalities associated with cancer cachexia affect a large percentage of animals with cancer even before any clinical signs are seen. This paraneoplastic syndrome results in alterations in carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism that, if left untreated, decrease the animal's quality of life and lead to a poor response to cancer therapy. An understanding of the metabolic abnormalities associated with cancer cachexia is of paramount importance to the practicing veterinarian to determine an accurate prognosis and to choose the optimal type of intravenous fluids and nutritional therapy for each patient. Although research identifying the optimal diet for cancer-bearing dogs and cats is still underway, some general principles apply. The first is that the patient should receive nutritional elements orally whenever possible. When oral feeding is not possible, nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tube feeding are viable options. When feeding by the gastrointestinal tract is not possible, parenteral feeding is a practical alternative.
Cranganu, Andreea; Camporeale, Jayne
Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer, and is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Notable carcinogens involved in the development of lung cancer include smoking, secondhand smoke, and radon. Lung cancer is divided into 2 major types: non-small-cell lung cancer, the most prevalent, and small-cell lung cancer. Treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, or a combination of the same. Medical nutrition therapy is often required for nutrition-related side effects of cancer treatment, which include but are not limited to anorexia, nausea and vomiting, and esophagitis. The best protection against lung cancer is avoidance of airborne carcinogens and increased consumption of fruits and vegetables. Studies have shown that smokers taking large amounts of beta-carotene and vitamin A supplements had increased lung cancer incidence and mortality. However, ingestion of beta-carotene from foods, along with a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, has a protective role against lung disease. The use of complementary and alternative medicine by lung cancer patients is prevalent; therefore, clinicians should investigate whether complementary and alternative therapies are used by patients and advise them on the use of these therapies to avoid any potential side effects and interactions with conventional therapies. The article concludes with a case study of a patient with non-small-cell lung cancer and illustrates the use of medical nutrition therapy in relation to cancer treatment side effects.
Cashman, Kevin D
Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease that affects many older people. Fragility fractures are the hallmark of osteoporosis. Although nutrition is only 1 of many factors that influence bone mass and fragility fractures, there is an urgent need to develop and implement nutritional approaches and policies for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis that could, with time, offer a foundation for population-based preventive strategies. However, to develop efficient and precocious strategies in the prevention of osteoporosis, it is important to determine which modifiable factors, especially nutritional factors, are able to improve bone health throughout life. There are potentially numerous nutrients and dietary components that can influence bone health, and these range from the macronutrients to micronutrients as well as bioactive food ingredients. The evidence-base to support the role of nutrients and food components in bone health ranges from very firm to scant, depending on the nutrient/component. This article initially overviews osteoporosis, including its definition, etiology, and incidence, and then provides some information on possible dietary strategies for optimizing bone health and preventing osteoporosis. The potential benefits of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K(1), phytoestrogens, and nondigestible oligosaccharides are briefly discussed, with particular emphasis on the evidence base for their benefits to bone. It also briefly considers some of the recent findings that highlight the importance of some dietary factors for bone health in childhood and adolescence.
Appoh, Lily Yaa; Krekling, Sturla
The relationship between mother's nutritional knowledge, maternal education, and child nutritional status (weight-for-age) was the subject of investigation in this study. The data were collected in Ghana on 55 well nourished and 55 malnourished mother-child pairs. A questionnaire designed to collect data on mother's knowledge and practices related to child care and nutrition was administered to the mothers. Data on mother's demographic and socio-economic characteristics as well as child anthropometric data were also collected. A nutrition knowledge score was calculated based on mother's responses to the nutrition related items. Bivariate analysis gave significant associations between child nutritional status and the following variables: time of initiating of breastfeeding, mother's knowledge of importance of colostrum and whether colostrum was given to child, age of introduction of supplementary food, and mother's knowledge about causes of kwashiorkor. The two groups also showed significant differences in their nutrition knowledge scores. Maternal formal education, and marital status were also found to be associated with child nutritional status in bivariate analyses. Further analysis with logistic regression revealed that maternal nutrition knowledge was independently associated with nutritional status after the effects of other significant variables were controlled for. Maternal education on the other hand was not found to be independently associated with nutritional status. These results imply that mother's practical knowledge about nutrition may be more important than formal maternal education for child nutrition outcome.
Nutritional problems and deficiencies are widespread in geriatric institutions. On the other hand, benefits of different interventions to improve the nutritional situation of elderly people--from amelioration of mealtime ambience to the use of artificial nutrition--have been shown in many studies. In recent years, several guidelines and standards have been developed to facilitate the transfer of this scientific knowledge into practice. These are in particular the medical Guidelines for Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition in Geriatrics (DGEM/DGG and ESPEN), the DNQP Expert Standard for qualified nurses, the DGE Quality Standards for dietetic personnel, and the interdisciplinary BUKO-QS Standard. These guidelines and standards provide recommendations for adequate nutritional care and assistance for the institutionalized elderly person based on the scientific state of the art. They should be used as the basis for the development of local instructions for the management of nutritional problems and malnutrition. Elderly people will only profit, if these guidelines are used in daily routine.
This article examines nutrition recommendations in relation to developments in nutrition science. Combining data on the genome, metabolome and microbiota is likely to open possibilities for personalized nutrition planning, but we are still far from practical applications. However, even these new steps are unlikely to challenge the role and importance of population-based nutrition recommendations as a tool to promote dietary patterns, policies and public health. Developments in science could help in deriving more benefits from nutrition recommendations. For instance, improved accuracy of dietary intake assessment is needed both for surveillance and for understanding the quantitative interplay between diet and health. Applying metabolomics together with food diaries or questionnaires, and also modern technologies such as digital photography, are potentially interesting methods in this respect. Research on consumer behaviour, attitudes and policy interventions, such as taxation of unhealthy foods and nutrition labelling, are needed to gain more insight into how to change eating behaviour for better health at the population level.
Bakshi, Neha; Singh, Kalyani
Liver transplantation (LT) is a major surgery performed on patients with end stage liver disease. Nutrition is an integral part of patient care, and protein-energy malnutrition is almost universally present in patients suffering from liver disease undergoing LT. Nutrition assessment of preliver transplant phase helps to make a good nutrition care plan for the patients. Nutrition status has been associated with various factors which are related to the success of liver transplant such as morbidity, mortality, and length of hospital stay. To assess the nutritional status of preliver transplant patients, combinations of nutrition assessment methods should be used like subjective global assessment, Anthropometry mid arm-muscle circumference, Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and handgrip strength. PMID:25316978
Israelite, Jill C
Pediatric parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is typically defined as a decrease in bile flow that is independent of a mechanical obstruction and of any other underlying liver disease. It is most often seen in pediatric patients receiving parenteral nutrition support. Up to 50% to 66% of children receiving long-term parenteral nutrition are reported to be diagnosed with PNALD. The goal of treatment for PNALD is advancement to full enteral nutrition and elimination of dependence on parenteral nutrition support. Achieving this goal is not always possible, especially in patients with short bowel syndrome. The following review article highlights some of the current treatment strategies focused on prevention or correction of PNALD as noted in current American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition guidelines.
Smith, Scott M.; Heer, M. A.; Zwart, S. R.
The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective was an experiment initiated to expand nominal pre- and postflight clinical nutrition testing, and to gain a better understanding of the time course of changes during flight. The primary activity of this effort was collecting blood and urine samples 5 times during flight for analysis after return to Earth. Samples were subjected to a battery of tests, including nutritional, physiological, general chemistry, and endocrinology indices. These data provide a comprehensive survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by 4-6 months of space flight. Analyzing the data will help us to define nutritional requirements for long-duration missions, and better understand human adaptation to microgravity. This expanded set of measurements will also aid in the identification of nutritional countermeasures to counteract, for example, the deleterious effects of microgravity on bone and muscle and the effects of space radiation.
Neibergs, H L; Johnson, K A
It has long been appreciated that animals fed the same diet may perform differently. This is due to the ability of nutrients to interact with and affect molecular pathways that result in differences in BW gain, production performance, or disease resistance. To understand these effects, studies are being undertaken to discover how the differential expression and function of genes occur with different diets. These studies are using new technologies, genomic resources, and analysis techniques that have recently become available for domestic animals. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics are new research approaches that strive to optimize health by looking beyond the diet to understand the effects of food at the genetic and epigenetic levels. Nutrigenomics is focused on the effects of diet on health through an understanding of how bioactive chemicals in foods and supplements alter gene expression or the structure of the genome of an animal. Nutrigenetics focuses on how the genetic composition (i.e., genetic variation) of an animal influences their response to a given diet. Results from these studies will aid in formulating nutritionally appropriate diets that may be optimized for animals based on their genomic underpinnings. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics unite many fields: nutrition, bioinformatics, molecular biology, genomics, functional genomics, epidemiology, and epigenomics. The use of multi-disciplinary tools promises new opportunities to investigate the complex interactions of the genome and the diet of an animal. Through these new approaches, the partnerships of the genome and nutrition will be revealed resulting in improved efficiency of diets, enhanced sustainability of animals as a protein source, and improved methods for preventing illnesses.
Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Charleston, Michael A; Sword, Gregory A; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J
Over recent years, modelling approaches from nutritional ecology (known as Nutritional Geometry) have been increasingly used to describe how animals and some other organisms select foods and eat them in appropriate amounts in order to maintain a balanced nutritional state maximising fitness. These nutritional strategies profoundly affect the physiology, behaviour and performance of individuals, which in turn impact their social interactions within groups and societies. Here, we present a conceptual framework to study the role of nutrition as a major ecological factor influencing the development and maintenance of social life. We first illustrate some of the mechanisms by which nutritional differences among individuals mediate social interactions in a broad range of species and ecological contexts. We then explain how studying individual- and collective-level nutrition in a common conceptual framework derived from Nutritional Geometry can bring new fundamental insights into the mechanisms and evolution of social interactions, using a combination of simulation models and manipulative experiments.
Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Charleston, Michael A; Sword, Gregory A; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J
Over recent years, modelling approaches from nutritional ecology (known as Nutritional Geometry) have been increasingly used to describe how animals and some other organisms select foods and eat them in appropriate amounts in order to maintain a balanced nutritional state maximising fitness. These nutritional strategies profoundly affect the physiology, behaviour and performance of individuals, which in turn impact their social interactions within groups and societies. Here, we present a conceptual framework to study the role of nutrition as a major ecological factor influencing the development and maintenance of social life. We first illustrate some of the mechanisms by which nutritional differences among individuals mediate social interactions in a broad range of species and ecological contexts. We then explain how studying individual- and collective-level nutrition in a common conceptual framework derived from Nutritional Geometry can bring new fundamental insights into the mechanisms and evolution of social interactions, using a combination of simulation models and manipulative experiments. PMID:25586099
NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Scott Smith, Manager of Nutritional Biochemistry at Johnson Space Center, about the children's book he co-authored called "Space Nutrition." T...
Kim, Seunghyeon; Sung, Jaeyun; Foo, Mathias; Jin, Yong-Su; Kim, Pan-Jun
Recent progresses in data-driven analysis methods, including network-based approaches, are revolutionizing many classical disciplines. These techniques can also be applied to food and nutrition, which must be studied to design healthy diets. Using nutritional information from over 1,000 raw foods, we systematically evaluated the nutrient composition of each food in regards to satisfying daily nutritional requirements. The nutrient balance of a food was quantified and termed nutritional fitness; this measure was based on the food's frequency of occurrence in nutritionally adequate food combinations. Nutritional fitness offers a way to prioritize recommendable foods within a global network of foods, in which foods are connected based on the similarities of their nutrient compositions. We identified a number of key nutrients, such as choline and α-linolenic acid, whose levels in foods can critically affect the nutritional fitness of the foods. Analogously, pairs of nutrients can have the same effect. In fact, two nutrients can synergistically affect the nutritional fitness, although the individual nutrients alone may not have an impact. This result, involving the tendency among nutrients to exhibit correlations in their abundances across foods, implies a hidden layer of complexity when exploring for foods whose balance of nutrients within pairs holistically helps meet nutritional requirements. Interestingly, foods with high nutritional fitness successfully maintain this nutrient balance. This effect expands our scope to a diverse repertoire of nutrient-nutrient correlations, which are integrated under a common network framework that yields unexpected yet coherent associations between nutrients. Our nutrient-profiling approach combined with a network-based analysis provides a more unbiased, global view of the relationships between foods and nutrients, and can be extended towards nutritional policies, food marketing, and personalized nutrition.
Lane, Helen W.; Schulz, Leslie O.
This historical review of nutritionally related research in the U.S. and Soviet space programs discusses the uses of nutrition as a countermeasure to the effects of microgravity, with respect to body composition and to exercise. Available information is reviewed from space and ground research in the nutritional requirements for energy, protein, fluids, electrolytes, vitamins, and minerals. Past, present, and future systems for nutrient delivery in space are described, and finally, future directions and challenges are presented.
Hallay, Judit; Nagy, Dániel; Fülesdi, Béla
Malnutrition in hospitalised patients has a significant and disadvantageous impact on treatment outcome. If possible, enteral nutrition with an energy/protein-balanced nutrient should be preferred depending on the patient's condition, type of illness and risk factors. The aim of the nutrition therapy is to increase the efficacy of treatment and shorten the length of hospital stay in order to ensure rapid rehabilitation. In the present review the authors summarize the most important clinical and practical aspects of enteral nutrition therapy.
Campos, Fábio Guilherme; Waitzberg, Dan L; Teixeira, Magaly Gemio; Mucerino, Donato Roberto; Habr-Gama, Angelita; Kiss, Desidério R
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases - ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease- are chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases of unknown etiology. Decreased oral intake, malabsorption, accelerated nutrient losses, increased requirements, and drug-nutrient interactions cause nutritional and functional deficiencies that require proper correction by nutritional therapy. The goals of the different forms of nutritional therapy are to correct nutritional disturbances and to modulate inflammatory response, thus influencing disease activity. Total parenteral nutrition has been used to correct and to prevent nutritional disturbances and to promote bowel rest during active disease, mainly in cases of digestive fistulae with high output. Its use should be reserved for patients who cannot tolerate enteral nutrition. Enteral nutrition is effective in inducing clinical remission in adults and promoting growth in children. Due to its low complication rate and lower costs, enteral nutrition should be preferred over total parenteral nutrition whenever possible. Both present equal effectiveness in primary therapy for remission of active Crohn's disease. Nutritional intervention may improve outcome in certain individuals; however, because of the costs and complications of such therapy, careful selection is warranted, especially in patients presumed to need total parenteral nutrition. Recent research has focused on the use of nutrients as primary treatment agents. Immunonutrition is an important therapeutic alternative in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases, modulating the inflammation and changing the eicosanoid synthesis profile. However, beneficial reported effects have yet to be translated into the clinical practice. The real efficacy of these and other nutrients (glutamine, short-chain fatty acids, antioxidants) still need further evaluation through prospective and randomized trials.
Army Regulation 40–25 BUMEDINST 10110.6 AFI 44-141 Medical Services Nutrition Standards and Education Headquarters Departments of the Army, Navy, and...YYYY) 15-06-2001 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (FROM - TO) xx-xx-2001 to xx-xx-2001 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nutrition Standards and Education...AFI 44–141 Nutrition Standards and Education This revision-- o Renames the recommended nutrient standards, changing the term from Military Recommended
Coley, Nicola; Vaurs, Charlotte; Andrieu, Sandrine
Numerous longitudinal observational studies have suggested that nutrients, such as antioxidants, B vitamins, and ω-3 fatty acids, may prevent cognitive decline or dementia. There is very little evidence from well-sized randomized controlled trials that nutritional interventions can benefit cognition in later life. Nutritional interventions may be more effective in individuals with poorer nutritional status or as part of multidomain interventions simultaneously targeting multiple lifestyle factors. Further evidence, notably from randomized controlled trials, is required to prove or refute these hypotheses.
Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0209 TITLE: Collaborative Research to Optimize Warfighter Nutrition PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jennifer C. Rood, Ph.D...Collaborative Research to Optimize Warfighter Nutrition (CROWN) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0209 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Collaborative Research to Optimize Warfighter Nutrition (CROWN) project supports communication and interaction between USARIEM and PBRC scientists
This review article discusses some ethical issues of clinical nutrition according to the Beauchamp and Childress principles of bioethics: "respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice".
Kreider, Richard B; Almada, Anthony L; Antonio, Jose; Broeder, Craig; Earnest, Conrad; Greenwood, Mike; Incledon, Thomas; Kalman, Douglas S; Kleiner, Susan M; Leutholtz, Brian; Lowery, Lonnie M; Mendel, Ron; Stout, Jeffrey R; Willoughby, Darryn S; Ziegenfuss, Tim N
Sport nutrition is a constantly evolving field with literally thousands of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training through nutrition. More specifically, this article discusses: 1.) how to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 2.) general nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 3.) our current understanding of the available science behind weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement supplements. Our hope is that ISSN members find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients.
Van Saun, Robert J
Limited published reports of nutritional diseases affecting llamas and alpacas were found in a detailed review of relevant literature sources. Anecdotal clinical experiences and nutritional diseases that have been reported range from those diagnosed in common with other species to diseases having a presentation unique to camelids. Vitamin D-associated rickets and greater susceptibility to hepatic lipidosis and zinc deficiency are distinctive nutritional problems for llamas and alpacas. This article will review commonly encountered nutritional diseases, based on literature reports and clinical experience, in llamas and alpacas.
The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease is still unknown. Several potential mechanisms are discussed. The etiological and therapeutic importance of nutrition is controversial. Though changes in dietary habits and incidence of inflammatory bowel disease during the last century were in parallel, no specific nutritional factor has been isolated. No dietary prophylaxis of inflammatory bowel disease is yet known; all dietary therapies in inflammatory bowel disease aim to improve nutritional support and to diminish inflammation by bowel rest. Children and adolescents gain in weight and height. Total parenteral nutrition will not substantially reduce disease activity and operation rates. Total parenteral nutrition can only be recommended in ulcerative colitis patients with severe disease in the initial phase and in Crohn's patients with severe malnutrition and intestinal complications. Enteral nutrition support is less effective in ulcerative colitis than in Crohn's disease. Reported remission rates on enteral nutrition are 25% for ulcerative colitis and up to 80% for Crohn. However, in active Crohn's disease enteral nutrition is less effective than standard therapy with methylprednisolone and sulfasalizine. It is generally believed that nutrition therapy in combination with drugs is the best treatment modality. There is no evidence to support the importance of any combination of the formula diets such as elemental, oligopeptide, or polymeric formulations. Administration of formula diets by nasogastric tubes all show similar remission rates. Whether newer diets supplemented with arginine, glutamine, omega-3-fatty acids or short chain fatty acids increase remission rates is not known. Further studies in this field are warranted.
Campos, F G; Waitzberg, D L; Teixeira, M G; Mucerino, D R; Kiss, D R; Habr-Gama, A
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases--ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease--are chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases of unknown etiology. Decreased oral intake, malabsorption, accelerated nutrient losses, increased requirements, and drug-nutrient interactions cause nutritional and functional deficiencies that require proper correction by nutritional therapy. The goals of the different forms of nutritional therapy are to correct nutritional disturbances and to modulate inflammatory response, thus influencing disease activity. Nutritional intervention may improve outcome in certain individuals; however, because of the costs and complications of such therapy, careful selection is warranted. Total parenteral nutrition has been used to correct and prevent nutritional disturbances and to promote bowel rest during active disease, mainly in cases of digestive fistulae with a high output. Its use should be reserved for patients who cannot tolerate enteral nutrition. Enteral nutrition is effective in inducing clinical remission of disease in adults and promoting growth in children. Recent research has focused on the use of specific nutrients as primary treatment agents. Although some reports have indicated that glutamine, short-chain fatty acids, antioxidants and immunonutrition with omega-3 fatty acids are an important therapeutic alternative in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases, the beneficial reported effects have yet to be translated into the clinical practice. The real efficacy of these nutrients still need further evaluation through prospective and randomized trials.
Kant, Surya; Gupta, Harshita; Ahluwalia, Savita
Malnutrition and tuberculosis are both problems mostly of the developing countries. Tuberculosis can lead to malnutrition and malnutrition may predispose to tuberculosis. Poor nutrition leads to protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrients deficiencies which lead to immunodeficiency. This secondary immunodeficiency increases the host's susceptibility to infection and hence increase the risk for developing tuberculosis. Tuberculosis itself leads to reduction in appetite, nutrient malabsorption, micronutrient malabsorption, and altered metabolism leading to wasting and poor nutritional status. Nutritional status and dietary intake and hence nutritional status of patients get improved during antituberculosis treatment.
... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research... broaden the understanding of sound nutritional principles, including the role of milk and dairy...
NUTRITION , THERMAL ANALYSIS), HEAT, BIOMETRY, BODY TEMPERATURE, ENERGY, LABORATORY ANIMALS, HUMANS, FOOD, CALORIMETRY, BIOCHEMISTRY, PROTEINS...DIET, METABOLISM, LOW TEMPERATURE, AGING(PHYSIOLOGY), STARVATION, MIXTURES, CLOTHING , COOLING.
Burke, N. Peggy
Information on the nutritional needs of female athletes is presented. Among the topics discussed are proper eating habits, carbohydrate loading, amenorrhea, osteoporosis, anemia, vitamins, and minerals. (MT)
Patel, Jayshil J; Hurt, Ryan T; McClave, Stephen A; Martindale, Robert G
The surgical critically ill patient is subject to a variable and complex metabolic response, which has detrimental effects on immunity, wound healing, and preservation of lean body muscle. The concept of nutrition support has evolved into nutrition therapy, whereby the primary objectives are to prevent oxidative cell injury, modulate the immune response, and attenuate the metabolic response. This review outlines the metabolic response to critical illness, describes nutritional risk; reviews the evidence for the role, dose, and timing of enteral and parenteral nutrition, and reviews the evidence for immunonutrition in the surgical intensive care unit.
Ducorps, M; Cuisinier-Raynal, J C; Jean, P
A display of the different nutritional problems in Mauritania, such as they could be studied under the working medical conditions in this country. This study shows the coexistence, into a low life level country, of nutritional deficiency diseases, and obesity induced diseases, especially frequent among the mature women. This reality emphasizes the complexity of the mechanisms responsible for the nutritional diseases, and advocates for a global action to improve the nutritional status of a population. This supposes to integrate all the known data, including social and cultural knowledges.
San Mateo City Elementary School District, CA.
This inservice guide for elementary school teachers provides a competency based nutrition course to be used to increase parent/community participation in nutrition education activities and to lead parents toward providing better nutrition for themselves and their children. The curriculum is presented in six lessons which cover the following…
Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn.
Developed by the United States Department of Agriculture's SPEAC (Student Parent Educator Administrator Children) for Nutrition Demonstration Project, these four nutrition education curriculum components are designed to promote health and beneficial nutrition practices among preschool children. The SPEAC Preschool Unit is divided into three…
Masuda, Syuzo; Oka, Ryusho; Uwai, Koji; Matsuda, Yumi; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Nakagawa, Yoshito; Shoji, Tohru; Mihara, Chie; Takeshita, Mitsuhiro; Ozawa, Koichiro
One of the important roles of pharmacists as members of a nutrition support team is nutritional prescription support. We developed a nutritional prescription support system (NPSS) that facilitates prescription support and analysis and evaluated its usefulness in nutritional therapy. An NPSS for prescription support and the management of patient information was created. With this NPSS, the nutritional status was assessed, and, on the basis of the results, such variables as the total energy expenditure were calculated. This system allows prescription support for parenteral nutrition (PN) therapy, enteral nutrition (EN) therapy, and the transition period between them. This system was used for 2 representative patients and evaluated. In a malnourished patient receiving oral warfarin, EN solutions were compared by means of the NPSS, and an appropriate EN solution was selected. In addition, the prothrombin time-international normalized ratio was monitored, and favorable results were obtained regarding the adjustment of the warfarin dose and nutritional management. In a patient with aspiration pneumonia, continuous nutritional management to EN from PN therapy was straightforwardly performed with the NPSS. This NPSS allows rapid, comprehensive nutritional management during the transition period to EN from PN therapy, despite these therapies being considered separately in conventional nutritional management. The NPSS is useful for simplifying prescription support and facilitating information sharing among members of a nutrition support team.
Kratky, Patricia; Haigh, Lois
This curriculum guide for nutrition education grade 4, was designed to incorporate knowledge of thirteen concepts into the child's decision-making processes as a food consumer. These concepts, as covered by the guide, are: affecting bodily well-being through nutrition; affecting dental health through nutrition; models for diet selection;…
Kratky, Patricia; Haigh, Lois
This curriculum guide for nutrition education grade 1, was designed to incorporate knowledge of thirteen concepts into the child's decision-making processes as a food consumer. These concepts, as covered by the guide, are: affecting bodily well-being through nutrition; affecting dental health through nutrition; models for diet selection;…
Kratky, Patricia; Haigh, Lois
This curriculum guide for nutrition education grade 6, was designed to incorporate knowledge of thirteen concepts into the child's decision-making processes as a food consumer. These concepts, as covered by the guide, are: affecting bodily well-being through nutrition; affecting dental health through nutrition; models for diet selection;…
Kratky, Patricia; Haigh, Lois
This curriculum guide for nutrition education grade 2, was designed to incorporate knowledge of thirteen concepts into the child's decision-making processes as a food consumer. These concepts, as covered by the guide, are: affecting bodily well-being through nutrition; affecting dental health through nutrition; models for diet selection;…
Kratky, Patricia; Haigh, Lois
This curriculum guide for nutrition education grade 3, was designed to incorporate knowledge of thirteen concepts into the child's decision-making processes as a food consumer. These concepts, as covered by the guide, are: affecting bodily well-being through nutrition; affecting dental health through nutrition; models for diet selection;…
Kratky, Patricia; Haigh, Lois
This curriculum guide for nutrition education grade 5, was designed to incorporate knowledge of thirteen concepts into the child's decision-making processes as a food consumer. These concepts, as covered by the guide, are: affecting bodily well-being through nutrition; affecting dental health through nutrition; models for diet selection;…
This monograph discusses policies designed to deal with food and nutrition problems in Tanzania. Available information on food supplies and nutritional conditions in Tanzania clearly shows that the country faces nutritional problems; protein energy malnutrition is the most serious and requires priority action. Iron deficiency anemia, goiter, and…
Food and Consumer Service (USDA), Washington, DC.
This guide booklet helps parents teach their children about healthy nutrition at home. It is part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Team Nutrition, which is designed to improve the health and education of children and which actively involves children and their families in nutrition education activities in the school, community, and home. The…
Food and Consumer Service (USDA), Washington, DC.
This "how-to" guide for Team Nutrition fairs and tasting activities helps Team Nutrition supporters and schools understand how to work together to improve the health and education of children. Team Nutrition is the implementation tool for the U.S. Department of Agriculture's School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children. Section 1 of the guide…
... demonstrated impact. Nutrition Education State Plans Prior regulation required that SNAP-Ed Plans include... Service 7 CFR Part 272 RIN 0584-AE07 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Nutrition Education and... education and obesity prevention programs. These programs will provide services for eligible...
Mitchell, Roger E.; Ash, Sarah L.; McClelland, Jacquelyn W.
Nutritional well-being among older adults is critical for maintaining health, increasing longevity, and decreasing the impact of chronic illness. However, few well-controlled studies have examined nutritional behavior change among low-income older adults. A prospective, controlled, randomized design examined a five session nutrition education…
Place, Patricia M. O'Brien
Through discussion and a test of theoretical models, the need to consider nutrition in development planning for rural areas is addressed, and the complex interaction of agricultural and food policies on family nutrition is described. Chapter I indicates the extent and types of malnutrition and discusses both the relationship of nutrition to…
Barclay, Ellen J., Comp.; Van der Vynckt, Susan
This issue of the UNESCO Nutrition Education Series presents a sampling of ideas for teaching aids created from experiences in developing countries and is representative of materials currently Being compiled for Volume IV of the UNESCO Resource Pack for Nutrition Teaching-Learning, "Easy to Make Teaching Aids for Nutrition Teaching-Learning." The…
Stosich, Marie C.; LeBlanc, Heidi; Kudin, Janette S.; Christofferson, Debra
Internet-based nutrition education is becoming an important tool in serving the rural, low-income community, yet the task of creating such programming can be daunting. The authors describe the key resources used in developing an Internet-based nutrition education program for those participating in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program…
This review emphasizes the benefits of parenteral nutrition (PN) in critically ill patients, when prescribed for relevant indications, in adequate quantities, and in due time. Critically ill patients are at risk of energy deficit during their ICU stay, a condition which leads to unfavorable outcomes, due to hypercatabolism secondary to the stress response and the difficulty to optimize feeding. Indirect calorimetry is recommended to define the energy target, since no single predictive equation accurately estimates energy expenditure. Energy metabolism is intimately associated with protein metabolism. Recent evidence calls for adequate protein provision, but there is no accurate method to estimate the protein requirements, and recommendations are probably suboptimal. Enteral nutrition (EN) is the preferred route of feeding, but gastrointestinal intolerance limits its efficacy and PN allows for full coverage of energy needs. Seven recent articles concerning PN for critically ill patients were identified and carefully reviewed for the clinical and scientific relevance of their conclusions. One article addressed the unfavorable effects of early PN, although this result should be more correctly regarded as a consequence of glucose load and hypercaloric feeding. The six other articles were either in favor of PN or concluded that there was no difference in the outcome compared with EN. Hypercaloric feeding was not observed in these studies. Hypocaloric feeding led to unfavorable outcomes. This further demonstrates the beneficial effects of an early and adequate feeding with full EN, or in case of failure of EN with exclusive or supplemental PN. EN is the first choice for critically ill patients, but difficulties providing optimal nutrition through exclusive EN are frequently encountered. In cases of insufficient EN, individualized supplemental PN should be administered to reduce the infection rate and the duration of mechanical ventilation. PN is a safe therapeutic option
Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David
Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers.
Despite the appearance of new treatment, dietary approach remains the mainstay of PKU therapy. The nutritional management has become complex to optimize PKU patients' growth, development and diet compliance. This paper review critically new advances and challenges that have recently focused attention on potential relevant of LCPUFA supplementation, progress in protein substitutes and new protein sources, large neutral amino acids and sapropterin. Given the functional effects, DHA is conditionally essential substrates that should be supplied with PKU diet in infancy but even beyond. An European Commission Programme is going on to establish quantitative DHA requirements in this population. Improvements in the palatability, presentation, convenience and nutritional composition of protein substitutes have helped to improve long-term compliance with PKU diet, although it can be expected for further improvement in this area. Glycomacropeptide, a new protein source, may help to support dietary compliance of PKU subject but further studies are needed to evaluate this metabolic and nutritional issues. The PKU diet is difficult to maintain in adolescence and adult life. Treatment with large neutral amino acids or sapropterin in selected cases can be helpful. However, more studies are necessary to investigate the potential role, dose, and composition of large neutral amino acids in PKU treatment and to show long-term efficacy and tolerance. Ideally treatment with sapropterin would lead to acceptable blood Phe control without dietary treatment but this is uncommon and sapropterin will usually be given in combination with dietary treatment, but clinical protocol evaluating adjustment of PKU diet and sapropterin dosage are needed. In conclusion PKU diet and the new existing treatments, that need to be optimized, may be a complete and combined strategy possibly positive impacting on the psychological, social, and neurocognitive life of PKU patients. PMID:22305125
The reductionist approach has traditionally been and continues today as the dominant approach in nutrition research. This means that parts of diet rather than the whole, or single food components rather than food habits, are studied. Even though much progress has been made with this approach, the relationship between diet and health is not yet fully understood. With the recognition about the whole being more than the sum of its parts, the limitations on the applicability of the reductionist approach, and the growing knowledge about parts of diet, another epistemological approach, such as holism, and new research strategies, such as transdisciplinarity, are needed to reveal more about the relationship between diet and health.
Martinchik, A N
Literature data on the nutritional value of sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.), their use in feeding the world population and food production are presented. Sesame seeds contain up to 55% oil and 20% protein. Sesame proteins are limited by lysine but rich in tryptophan and methionine. Sesame oil is rich in linoleic and oleic acids, the predominance of gamma-tocopherol over the other isomers of vitamin E and high content of fat-soluble lignans (sesamin and sesamolin). Thanks to recent sesame oil has a phytoestrogen activity; it has a cholesterol-lowering effect.
Koike, Haruki; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Ikeda, Shohei; Takahashi, Mie; Kawagashira, Yuichi; Iijima, Masahiro; Katsuno, Masahisa; Sobue, Gen
A patient with chronic alcoholism presented with myelopathy and low serum folate and cobalamin levels. A 42-year-old alcoholic man had gait disturbance for 4 months. A neurological examination revealed marked spasticity with increased deep tendon reflexes and extensor plantar responses of the lower limbs. His cobalamin level was decreased and his serum folate level was particularly low. His plasma ammonia level was not increased. Abstinence and folic acid and cobalamin supplementation stopped the progression of his neurological deficits. This case indicates that nutritional deficiency should be monitored closely in patients with chronic alcoholism who present with myelopathy. PMID:28049986
For the competitive athlete and the serious recreational athlete, nutritional supplementation can have a positive effect on training and on performance. There are many fad supplements on the market, and many that have come and gone. However, two nutrients have withstood the test of time and many tests in research laboratories around the world, and they continue to have positive training- and performance-enhancing effects. Carbohydrates are commonly supplemented to improve energy availability and to replace valuable muscle and liver glycogen stores. Protein supplementation usually is associated with building muscle tissue.
Halpern, Gabriela; Schor, Eduardo; Kopelman, Alexander
This literature review analyzed the evidence on nutritional aspects related to the pathogenesis and progression of endometriosis. Diets deficient in nutrients result in changes in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and promote epigenetic abnormalities, that may be involved in the genesis and progression of the disease. Foods rich in omega 3 with anti-inflammatory effects, supplementation with N-acetylcysteine, vitamin D and resveratrol, in addition to the increased consumption of fruits, vegetables (preferably organic) and whole grains exert a protective effect, reducing the risk of development and possible regression of disease. Dietary re-education seems to be a promising tool in the prevention and treatment of endometriosis.
... Labeling & Nutrition How to Understand and Use the Nutrition Facts Label Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... FDA has issued final changes to update the Nutrition Facts label for packaged foods. For more information, ...
... A healthy weight for girls Eating healthy at restaurants Special food issues Vegetarian eating Eating for strong ... Healthy weight goals How to eat healthy at restaurants Lactose intolerance and other special food issues What ...
... Services • 68.6% of schools offered breakfast to students and 63.0% participated in the USDA reimbursable ... Program. • 99.3% of schools offered lunch to students and 84.2% participated in the USDA reimbursable ...
Nutritional risk and malnutrition was significantly higher in patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery as compared to patients in other surgical departments, especially in elder patients, which would directly impact on the efficacy, cost and prognosis. Nutritional screening and assessment should be performed within 24-48 hours after admission. Patients at high risk of malnutrition should be planned with early nutrition support. The best nutrition route should be determined to improve the outcomes of surgery and nutritional support, reduce the complications, length of hospital stay and healthcare costs, and improve the quality of life in patients.
VOMERO, Nathália Dalcin; COLPO, Elisângela
Introduction Peptic ulcer is a lesion of the mucosal lining of the upper gastrointestinal tract characterized by an imbalance between aggressive and protective factors of the mucosa, having H. pylori as the main etiologic factor. Dietotherapy is important in the prevention and treatment of this disease. Aim To update nutritional therapy in adults' peptic ulcer. Methods Exploratory review without restrictions with primary sources indexed in Scielo, PubMed, Medline, ISI, and Scopus databases. Results Dietotherapy, as well as caloric distribution, should be adjusted to the patient's needs aiming to normalize the nutritional status and promote healing. Recommended nutrients can be different in the acute phase and in the recovery phase, and there is a greater need of protein and some micronutrients, such as vitamin A, zinc, selenium, and vitamin C in the recovery phase. In addition, some studies have shown that vitamin C has a beneficial effect in eradication of H. pylori. Fibers and probiotics also play a important role in the treatment of peptic ulcer, because they reduce the side effects of antibiotics and help reduce treatment time. Conclusion A balanced diet is vital in the treatment of peptic ulcer, once food can prevent, treat or even alleviate the symptoms involving this pathology. However, there are few papers that innovate dietotherapy; so additional studies addressing more specifically the dietotherapy for treatment of peptic ulcer are necessary. PMID:25626944
The main aim of obesity surgery is to change the dietary habits of morbidly obese patients. These are patients whose dietary habits nutritionists and psychologists have not been able to change during previous decades. The history of this surgery can teach us many important lessons. For example, procedures that have focused on effecting a malabsorptive state, but without addressing any behavioural mechanism for weight control, such as jejunoileal bypass, have failed. On the other hand, those that have centered on only addressing behavioural issues, the purely restrictive, are also difficult for patients to comply with and also have a high failure rate. To facilitate a change in the nutritional behaviour of morbidly obese patients which can lead to the loss of an adequate amount of weight, and which could be maintained in the long term is difficult. We need to stimulate changes that can be easily followed by the patient, and at the same time, provoke minimal medium and long term alterations in their nutritional state. To achieve and maintain this aim efficiently, it is necessary that the patients have confidence in and respect the physician, so that they can follow strictly their medical advice.
Potter, Gregory D M; Cade, Janet E; Grant, Peter J; Hardie, Laura J
The human circadian system anticipates and adapts to daily environmental changes to optimise behaviour according to time of day and temporally partition incompatible physiological processes. At the helm of this system is a master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus. The SCN are primarily synchronised to the 24 hour day by the light/dark cycle; however, feeding/fasting cycles are the primary time cues for clocks in peripheral tissues. Aligning feeding/fasting cycles with clock-regulated metabolic changes optimises metabolism, and studies of other animals suggest that feeding at inappropriate times disrupts circadian system organisation and thereby contributes to adverse metabolic consequences and chronic disease development. ‘High-fat diets’ (HFDs) produce particularly deleterious effects on circadian system organisation in rodents by blunting feeding/fasting cycles. Time-of-day-restricted feeding, where food availability is restricted to a period of several hours, offsets many adverse consequences of HFDs in these animals; however, further evidence is required to assess whether the same is true in humans. Several nutritional compounds have robust effects on the circadian system. Caffeine, for example, can speed synchronisation to new time zones after jetlag. An appreciation of the circadian system has many implications for nutritional science and may ultimately help reduce the burden of chronic diseases. PMID:27221157
Quinto, Grace (University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington). Nutrition of five Bacteroides strains. J. Bacteriol. 84:559–562. 1962.—Some of the nutritional requirements of five gram-negative anaerobic bacilli, including Ristella perfoetens, Zuberella clostridiformis, and three Bacteroides strains freshly isolated from clinical exudates, were investigated. A fluid maintenance medium was developed in which the three freshly isolated strains, C-4, C-7, and C-2795, grew maximally in 12 to 24 hr. The maintenance medium contained 2.0% Trypticase and Proteose Peptone, 0.5% glucose, and 0.1% sodium thioglycolate; it was adjusted to pH 7.2 and supplemented with 0.1 μg of hemin/ml. Strains C-4, C-7, and C-2795 were cultivated through 14 serial cultures in fluid maintenance medium containing 0.1 μg of hemin/ml. The most satisfactory inoculum was a 1:100 or 1:1,000 dilution of a 24-hr seed culture. All the strains except Z. clostridiformis grew serially in a defined medium. R. perfoetens required pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, and the following amino acids: histidine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine, phenylalanine, cystine, and probably arginine, glutamic acid, methionine, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, and lysine. The C-4, C-7, and C-2795 strains required the hemin supplement in defined medium, but not vitamins, purines, or pyrimidines. PMID:13972793
Herschbach, Cornelia; Rennenberg, Heinz
Sulfur in its reduced form (-II) is an essential nutrient for growth and development, but is mainly available to plants in its oxidised form as sulfate. Deciduous trees take up sulfate by the roots from the soil solution and reduce sulfate to sulfide via assimilatory sulfate reduction in both roots and leaves. For reduction in the leaves, sulfate is loaded into the xylem and transported to the shoot. The surplus of sulfate not reduced in the chloroplast or stored in the vacuole and the surplus of reduced S not used for protein synthesis in the leaves is loaded into the phloem and transported back to the roots. Along the transport path, sulfate and glutathione (GSH) is unloaded from the phloem for storage in xylem and phloem parenchyma as well as in pit and ray cells. Re-mobilised S from storage tissues is loaded into the xylem during spring, but a phloem to xylem exchange does not appear to exist later in the season. As a consequence, a cycling pool of S was only found during the change of the seasons. The sulfate:glutathione ratio in the phloem seems to be involved in the regulation of S nutrition. This picture of S nutrition is discussed in relation to the different growth patterns of deciduous trees from the temperate climate zone, i.e. (1) terminated, (2) periodic and (3) indeterminate growth patterns, and in relation to environmental changes.
Barger, Mary K
Diet and patterns of eating during pregnancy can affect perinatal outcomes through direct physiologic effects or by stressing the fetus in ways that permanently affect phenotype. Supplements are not a magic nutritional remedy, and evidence of profound benefit for most supplements remains inconclusive. However, research supports calcium supplements to decrease preeclampsia. Following a low glycemic, Mediterranean-type diet appears to improve ovulatory infertility, decrease preterm birth, and decrease the risk of gestational diabetes. Although women in the United States have adequate levels of most nutrients, subpopulations are low in vitamin D, folate, and iodine. Vitamin D has increasingly been shown to be important not only for bone health, but also for glucose regulation, immune function, and good uterine contractility in labor. To ensure adequate vitamin and micronutrient intake, especially of folate before conception, all reproductive age women should take a multivitamin daily. In pregnancy, health care providers need to assess women's diets, give them weight gain recommendations based on their body mass index measurement, and advise them to eat a Mediterranean diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids (ingested as low-mercury risk fatty fish or supplements), ingest adequate calcium, and achieve adequate vitamin D levels through sun exposure or supplements. Health care providers should continue to spend time on nutrition assessment and counseling.