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  1. Dietary intake and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Abnet, Christian C; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Though dietary factors are implicated in chronic disease risk, assessment of dietary intake has limitations, including problems with recall of complex food intake patterns over a long period of time. Diet and nutrient biomarkers may provide objective measures of dietary intake and nutritional status, as well as an integrated measure of intake, absorption and metabolism. Thus, the search for an unbiased biomarker of dietary intake and nutritional status is an important aspect of nutritional epidemiology. This chapter reviews types of biomarkers related to dietary intake and nutritional status, such as exposure biomarkers of diet and nutritional status, intermediate endpoints, and susceptibility. Novel biomarkers, such as biomarkers of physical fitness, oxidative DNA damage and tissue concentrations are also discussed.

  2. Dietary intake and nutritional status in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, A C; Akesson, A; Akesson, B

    1992-10-01

    Oesophageal dysmotility and abnormalities of intestinal function are important manifestations in systemic sclerosis and may have a significant effect on nutrient absorption and nutritional status. In this study 30 patients with systemic sclerosis with symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract were compared with matched healthy control subjects with respect to nutrient intake (four day record), anthropometric measurements, and biochemical nutritional status. The intake of energy (8.1 and 8.4 MJ/day) and its distribution among nutrients did not differ between patients and control subjects, but the lower intake of dietary fibre among patients with systemic sclerosis suggests that they avoided food with a coarse structure, such as coarse bread. The intake of vegetables and fruit also tended to be lower among patients with systemic sclerosis. Half of the patients had a subnormal arm muscle circumference, and two patients also had a subnormal triceps skinfold thickness, indicating severe malnutrition. The concentration of ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, carotene, selenium, and also the proportion of linoleic acid (18:2) in serum phosphatidylcholine was lower in patients than in control subjects.

  3. Dietary intake and nutritional status in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, A C; Akesson, A; Akesson, B

    1992-01-01

    Oesophageal dysmotility and abnormalities of intestinal function are important manifestations in systemic sclerosis and may have a significant effect on nutrient absorption and nutritional status. In this study 30 patients with systemic sclerosis with symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract were compared with matched healthy control subjects with respect to nutrient intake (four day record), anthropometric measurements, and biochemical nutritional status. The intake of energy (8.1 and 8.4 MJ/day) and its distribution among nutrients did not differ between patients and control subjects, but the lower intake of dietary fibre among patients with systemic sclerosis suggests that they avoided food with a coarse structure, such as coarse bread. The intake of vegetables and fruit also tended to be lower among patients with systemic sclerosis. Half of the patients had a subnormal arm muscle circumference, and two patients also had a subnormal triceps skinfold thickness, indicating severe malnutrition. The concentration of ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, carotene, selenium, and also the proportion of linoleic acid (18:2) in serum phosphatidylcholine was lower in patients than in control subjects. PMID:1332633

  4. Effects of an individualised nutritional education and support programme on dietary habits, nutritional knowledge, and nutritional status of older adults living alone.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Park, JeeWon; Kim, Chun-Ja

    2017-09-07

    The effects of an individualised nutritional education and support programme on dietary habits, nutritional knowledge, and nutritional status of 71 older adults living alone were examined. Although a regular dietary meal plan is recommended for improving nutritional status of older adults living alone, little research is done in this field in Korea. A pre- and post-test controlled quasi-experimental design was used at public health centres. The intervention group participated in an intensive nutritional education and support programme once a week for 8 weeks with dietary menus provided by home visiting nurses/dieticians; control group received usual care. Dietary habits and nutritional knowledge were assessed using structured questionnaires; nutritional intake status was analysed using Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program 5.0. The mean age of participants was 77.6 years, and 81.7% of the participants were women. At 8 weeks, there were significant interactions of group by time for dietary habits, nutritional knowledge, and selected nutritional status of protein, iron, and vitamins of B2 and C. Changes over time in the mean score of dietary habits and nutritional knowledge were significantly improved in the intervention group compared to the control group. The percentages of normal nutrition intake of protein, iron, and vitamins A and C in the intervention group were significantly higher than the control group at 8 weeks. Nutritional education and support programme positively impacted dietary habits, nutritional knowledge, and selected nutritional status in older adults living alone, and we highlight the need for community-based nutritional education and counselling programmes. Older adults living alone in a community have relatively poor nutritional status and thus require tailored nutritional intervention according to objective nutritional analysis. It is necessary to link visiting nurses with dieticians in the community to manage effective nutritional

  5. Assessment of dietary diversity and nutritional status of pregnant women in Islamabad, Pakistan. .

    PubMed

    Ali, Fatima; Thaver, Inayat; Khan, Shahzad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition is one of the most important causes of maternal morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. Maternal nutrition has direct association with foetal nutrition. This study aimed to identify dietary diversity and determine any relationship of dietary diversity with nutritional status of pregnant women belonging to different socioeconomic conditions in Rawalpindi Islamabad region. It was a cross sectional survey involving 350 pregnant women in their second and third trimesters, conducted in outpatient department of Maternal and Child health centre at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) Islamabad. A semi qualitative questionnaire was used that contained structured questions regarding socio-demographic features, socioeconomic status, nutritional status, and three day dietary recall. A second section comprising of questions regarding dietary perceptions was also Out of total, 47% of pregnant women had normal pre-gestational BMI while, 22% were overweight, 17% obese, and only 12% of pregnant women were under weight. Similarly 28.1% were anaemic. Medium dietary diversity was observed in 89% of pregnant women, while only 5% showed low, and high dietary diversity. Dietary diversity was not associated with sociodemographic, or socioeconomic status of pregnant women. Even though weight gain during second (p=0.2) and third trimesters (p=0.049) had a positive relationship with dietary diversity, more than 74% of pregnant women gained less than recommended level of weight gain. No association could be proven between haemoglobin and dietary diversity (p=0.51). Dietary diversity is a good proxy indicator for micronutrient adequacy in pregnant women, however if quantity of food consumed is added it can give better indication of determinants of nutritional status of pregnant women.

  6. The effect of complex workplace dietary interventions on employees' dietary intakes, nutrition knowledge and health status: a cluster controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Geaney, Fiona; Kelly, Clare; Di Marrazzo, Jessica Scotto; Harrington, Janas M; Fitzgerald, Anthony P; Greiner, Birgit A; Perry, Ivan J

    2016-08-01

    Evidence on effective workplace dietary interventions is limited. The comparative effectiveness of a workplace environmental dietary modification and an educational intervention both alone and in combination was assessed versus a control workplace on employees' dietary intakes, nutrition knowledge and health status. In the Food Choice at Work cluster controlled trial, four large, purposively selected manufacturing workplaces in Ireland were allocated to control (N=111), nutrition education (Education) (N=226), environmental dietary modification (Environment) (N=113) and nutrition education and environmental dietary modification (Combined) (N=400) in 2013. Nutrition education included group presentations, individual consultations and detailed nutrition information. Environmental dietary modification included menu modification, fruit price discounts, strategic positioning of healthier alternatives and portion size control. Data on dietary intakes, nutrition knowledge and health status were obtained at baseline and follow-up at 7-9months. Multivariate analysis of covariance compared changes across the four groups with adjustment for age, gender, educational status and other baseline characteristics. Follow-up data at 7-9months were obtained for 541 employees (64% of 850 recruited) aged 18-64years: control: 70 (63%), Education: 113 (50%), 74 (65%) and Combined: 284 (71%). There were significant positive changes in intakes of saturated fat (p=0.013), salt (p=0.010) and nutrition knowledge (p=0.034) between baseline and follow-up in the combined intervention versus the control. Small but significant changes in BMI (-1.2kg/m(2) (95% CI -2.385, -0.018, p=0.047) were observed in the combined intervention. Effects in the education and environment alone workplaces were smaller and generally non-significant. Combining nutrition education and environmental dietary modification may be an effective approach for promoting a healthy diet and weight loss at work. Copyright © 2016

  7. The effect of nutrition knowledge and dietary iron intake on iron status in young women.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Alecia J; Chalmers, Kerry A; Collins, Clare E; Patterson, Amanda J

    2014-10-01

    Previous research on the relationships between general nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, and dietary iron intake and iron status has produced inconsistent results. Currently, no study has focused on knowledge of dietary iron and its effect on dietary iron intake. This study aimed to determine whether nutrition knowledge of iron is related to dietary iron intake in young women, and subsequently whether greater knowledge and intake translates into better iron status. A cross-sectional assessment of nutrition knowledge of iron, dietary iron intake and iron status was conducted in women aged 18-35 years living in Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Iron status was assessed by serum ferritin, haemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptor and alpha-1-glycoprotein. One hundred and seven women (27.8 ± 4.7 years) completed the nutrition knowledge questionnaire and FFQ. Of these, 74 (70%) also had biomarkers of iron status measured. Mean iron intake was 11.2 ± 3.8 mg/day. There was no association between nutrition knowledge score and whether the women met the RDI for iron (F (1, 102) = .40, P = .53). A positive correlation was shown between nutrition knowledge score and iron intake (mg/day) (r = 0.25, P = .01). Serum ferritin was positively associated with the frequency of flesh food intake (r = .27 P = .02). Vegetarians (including partial vegetarians) had significantly lower serum ferritin levels than non-vegetarians (F (1, 71) = 7.44, P = .01). Significant positive correlations found between higher flesh food intake and biomarkers of iron status suggest that educating non-vegetarians about the benefits of increased flesh food consumption and vegetarians about dietary iron enhancers and inhibitors may have potential for addressing the high rates of iron deficiency among young women. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors associated with nutritional status of 7-10 year-old schoolchildren: sociodemographic variables, dietary and parental nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Carla de O; Pudla, Kátia J; Longo, Giana Z; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de A G

    2012-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of overweight / obesity in schoolchildren, and to investigate its association with parents' nutritional status, socioeconomic factors and food consumption. Cross-sectional study with 1,223 schoolchildren, 7 to 10 years old from Florianópolis, SC. We collected anthropometric measures directly and dietary intake of previous day; parents' data were collected from a socioeconomic and self-reported anthropometric questionnaire. Schoolchildren's nutritional status was defined using the Body Mass Index (BMI) for age and sex according to the reference data of the World Health Organization (2007), and parents' nutritional status was defined according to the World Health Organization BMI cutoff points (1995). We performed bivariate and multivariate analysis using Poisson regression. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 36.2% in boys and 32.7% among girls. The prevalence was 56.3% and 27.5% in fathers and mothers, respectively. In the final model, mother's (p = 0.001) and father's nutritional status (p = 0.050) remained directly associated with schoolchildren's overweight/obesity. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 1.58 times higher in schoolchildren with overweight/obese mothers, and 1.41 times higher in schoolchildren with overweight/obese fathers, compared to mothers and fathers without the condition. There was a high prevalence of overweight/obesity among schoolchildren, which was associated with the nutritional status of mothers and fathers. These results confirm the need to prevent overweight/obesity in schoolchildren with actions that also involve the family environment in order to reduce obesity in this population.

  9. [Evaluation of dietary pattern and nutritional status of residents in southeast coastal area].

    PubMed

    Lü, Na; Shen, Minghao; Huang, Yixiang; Lu, Lijuan; Zheng, Shangpin; Chen, Kai

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the dietary pattern and nutritional status of urban residents in southeast coastal area. A dietary survey concerning 1332 persons aged 18 and over was carried out with dietary inquiry and 24-hour recall methods from August to December in 2009. The intakes of cereal, meat, eggs, seafood were enough. The consumption of milk and dairy products, vegetables, fruits was insufficient while the amount of oil was too high. Among them, the intake of milk and dairy products was only 1/3 of suggested values in Dietary Guideline and Balanced Diet Pagoda for Chinese Residents. The intakes of protein, retinol, iron and selenium were sufficient, while those of calcium, thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid were too less than the dietary reference intakes (DRIs). The dietary pattern of urban residents in Ningbo was not reasonable. Nutrition education should be strengthened to guide residents for planning reasonable and balanced diets.

  10. Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status in Mentally Retarded Children and Adolescents: A Study from North Western India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, Manju; Bhargava, Rachna; Benipal, Ramandeep; Luthra, Neena; Basu, Sabita; Kaur, Jasbinder; Chavan, B. S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the dietary habits and nutritional status of mentally retarded (MR) and normal (NG) subjects and to examine the relationship between the dietary habits and nutritional status and the level of mental retardation in the MR group. Method: A case control design was utilized: 117 MR (random sampling) and 100 NG (quota sampling)…

  11. Effect of dietary counselling on the nutritional status of end-stage renal disease patients.

    PubMed

    Hajira, Bibi; Manzoor, Maryam; Samiullah, Muhammad; Chawla, Rattan Kaur

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of dietary counselling on the nutritional status of end-stage renal disease patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis. This study was conducted at the Institute of Kidney Diseases, Peshawar, Pakistan, from November to December 2015, and comprised patients of either gender with protein energy wasting. The nutritional status assessment was based on four categories, including biochemical indicators (haemoglobin, serum albumin and cholesterol), measure of body mass index, reduced body fatness, decreased muscle mass and low protein or energy intake. Energy and nutrients intake of patients before and after counselling were estimated by 24-hour dietary recall method. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Of the 100 patients, 74(74%) were males and 26(26%) were females. The overall mean age was 41.45±17.44 years. Dietary counselling was significantly effective in increasing the intake of energy (p=0.010), protein (p=0.003) and fats (p=0.002). There was significant improvement in mid-upper arm circumference (p<0.0001) and tricep fat fold (p<0.0001) after counselling. Statistically significant effect was seen in improving serum cholesterol levels (p=0.039). Dietary counselling was found to be effective in improving the nutritional status and dietary intake of end-stage renal disease patients.

  12. Individually Tailored Dietary Counseling among Old Home Care Clients - Effects on Nutritional Status.

    PubMed

    Pölönen, S; Tiihonen, M; Hartikainen, S; Nykänen, I

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of individually tailored dietary counseling on nutritional status among home care clients aged 75 years or older. Non-randomised controlled study. The study sample consisted of 224 home care clients (≥ 75 years) (intervention group, n = 127; control group, n = 100) who were at protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) or risk of PEM (MNA score <24 and plasma albumin <35 g/L). Individually tailored dietary counseling; the persons were instructed to increase their food intake with energy-dense food items, the number of meals they ate and their consumption of energy-, protein- and nutrient-rich snacks for six months. The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Body Mass Index (BMI) and plasma albumin were used to determine nutritional status at the baseline and after the six-month intervention. The mean age of the home care clients was 84.3 (SD 5.5) in the intervention group and 84.4 (SD 5.3) in the control group, and 70 percent were women in both groups. After the six-month nutritional intervention, the MNA score increased 2.3 points and plasma albumin 1.6 g/L in the intervention group, against MNA score decreased -0.2 points and plasma albumin -0.1 g/L in the control group. Individually tailored dietary counseling may improve nutritional status among older home care clients.

  13. Anthropometry, nutritional status, and dietary intake in pediatric patients with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Marina B; Brizola, Evelise S; Refosco, Lilia; Giugliani, Roberto; Félix, Têmis M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess anthropometric measurements, nutritional status, dietary intake, and body fat percentage of pediatric patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). A cross-sectional study evaluated 63 OI patients from 0 to 19 years of age. We analyzed anthropometric measurements, mobility, bisphosphonate treatment, body fat percentage (by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DEXA] and sum of skinfold thickness), nutritional status, and dietary intake (using World Health Organization [WHO] and dietary reference intake recommendations for macronutrients and calcium intake, respectively). Participants' energy requirements were calculated using both kilocalorie per centimeter measurements and WHO methods. Patients with different types of OI had different anthropometric measurements (p < 0.05), where OI type III had severely limited stature and poor mobility. Nutritional status was correlated with measurements of arm circumference and body fat. We also found a strong correlation between the 2 methods used to calculate percentage of body fat (r = 0.803). OI type III had a higher percentage of energy intake. We observed that 75% of subjects had a calcium intake below 95% of recommended daily value and there was an inverse correlation between age and calcium intake. This study showed that stature was compromised mainly in OI type III. Skinfold thickness and arm circumference correlated to nutritional status and also to body fat calculated by DEXA. Daily calcium intake was below the recommended levels in pediatric patients with OI. These findings are important for the management of OI subjects.

  14. Assessment of weight status, dietary habits and beliefs, physical activity, and nutritional knowledge among university students.

    PubMed

    Yahia, Najat; Wang, Daniel; Rapley, Melyssa; Dey, Rajarshi

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess weight status, dietary habits, physical activity, dietary beliefs, and nutrition knowledge among a sample of students from Central Michigan University. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of undergraduate students in Fall 2011 and Spring 2012 at Central Michigan University. Participating students completed an online questionnaire that included questions related to their eating habits, physical activity and lifestyle, dietary beliefs, and nutritional knowledge. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Percentage body fat and visceral fat score were determined using a Tanita body composition analyser (SC-331S). Outcomes of this study indicated that 78% of female students were within the healthy weight range compared to 52% of male students. Visceral body fat and waist circumference scores were higher in males than in females. Most students showed 'satisfactory' dietary habits. Almost half of the students reported drinking two glasses of milk and consuming two cups of fruits and vegetables daily. Physical activity and lifestyle score indicated that most of the students were not physically active. Only 7% of students reported having a very active lifestyle, and 4% had quite good nutritional knowledge. The majority of students, particularly females, were within the healthy body weight range. Students' dietary habits were satisfactory. However, physical activity, students' knowledge of healthy and unhealthy diet habits, and nutritional knowledge needed improvement. Developing gender-specific programmes for promoting healthy lifestyle behaviours among students is recommended. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  15. Dietary habits and nutritional status of school aged children in Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernández San Juan, P M

    2006-01-01

    The different dietary habits and nutritional status of Spanish schoolchildren have been analyzed. Nutrition affects health throughout the life cycle, and it is best to begin to prevent harm early on. Habits are formed early in life, and habits are a major determinant of food choice in later life. Two trends in particular are worthy of mention in this regard: the progressive globalisation of the food supply and the increase of food intake such as snacks, soft drinks and fast food, wich tipically apport a significant part of daily diet. In Spain, young people are abandoning the "Mediterranean Diet" in favour of industrial products, full of calories and saturated fatty acids but low in nutritional components, wich is contributing to obesity and rising cholesterol levels. Also, breakfast consumption has been identified as an important factor in the nutritional status of children and in Spain we are observing that an increasing percentage of children are omitting breakfast.

  16. Dietary practices and nutritional status of 0-24-month-old children from Brazilian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Castro, T G; Baraldi, L G; Muniz, P T; Cardoso, M A

    2009-12-01

    To assess the nutritional status and dietary practices of 0-24-month-old children living in Brazilian Amazonia. Cross-sectional study. Information on children's dietary intakes was obtained from diet history data. Weight and length were measured for anthropometric evaluation. Fe status was assessed using fasting venous blood samples; Hb, serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor concentrations were measured. The towns of Assis Brasil and Acrelândia in the state of Acre, north-west Brazil. A total of sixty-nine randomly selected 0-24-month-old children. Of these children, 40.3 % were anaemic, 63.1 % were Fe-deficient, 28.1 % had Fe-deficiency anaemia and 11.6 % were stunted. Breast-feeding was initiated by 97.1 % of mothers, followed by early feeding with complementary foods. The dietary pattern reflected a high intake of carbohydrate-rich foods and cow's milk, with irregular intakes of fruit, vegetables and meat. All infants and 92.3 % of toddlers were at risk of inadequate Fe intakes. Fe from animal foods contributed on average 0.5 % and 14.3 % to total dietary Fe intake among infants and toddlers, respectively. Poor nutritional status and inadequate feeding practices in this study population reinforce the importance of exclusive breast-feeding during the first 6 months of life. Greater emphasis is required to improve the bioavailability of dietary Fe during complementary feeding practices.

  17. Dietary intake, nutritional status and rehabilitation outcomes of stroke patients in hospital.

    PubMed

    Nip, W F R; Perry, L; McLaren, S; Mackenzie, A

    2011-10-01

    Nutrition affects rehabilitation through its influence on physical and mental functioning, although little attention has been paid to effects on rehabilitation outcomes. The present study aimed to describe nutritional status and food consumption in stroke patients within 2 weeks of hospital admission and before discharge, as well as to investigate the effects of nutritional and dietary factors on rehabilitation outcomes. One hundred patients from a consecutive cohort admitted to a metropolitan hospital with acute stroke were recruited and assessed by a single researcher, with 38 reassessed at discharge. Nutritional status was assessed using Mini-Nutritional Assessment and anthropometric indices and dietary intake was assessed by 1-day weighed dietary records. Rehabilitation outcomes were changes in Barthel index scores and the rehabilitation efficiency index. Few (n = 9; 10%) consumed ≥100% of the estimated average requirement (EAR) for energy within 2 weeks of admission and 13 (33%) had energy intakes <50% of EAR before discharge. A small but increasing proportion (7% at admission, 13% at discharge) were identified as being malnourished across the inpatient stay. Younger age, lower Barthel index and a higher energy intake in the early stages of admission predicted the extent and rate of restoration of functional abilities by discharge (F = 7.503, P = 0.001; F = 14.558, P < 0.001). Given a general finding of nutritional deterioration identified for these patients, as well as the identification of energy intake as a modifiable influence on the extent and rate of recovery, there is clearly scope for the multidisciplinary development of nutritional support for stroke patients to improve rehabilitation outcomes. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  18. Nutritional status and dietary intake of urban residents in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Amare, Bemnet; Moges, Beyene; Moges, Feleke; Fantahun, Bereket; Admassu, Mengesha; Mulu, Andargachew; Kassu, Afework

    2012-09-07

    There is paucity of data on the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban Ethiopians which necessitates comprehensive nutritional assessments. Therefore, the present study was aimed at evaluating the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban residents in Northwest Ethiopia. This cross-sectional community based nutrition survey was conducted by involving 356 participants (71.3% female and 28.7% male with mean age of 37.3 years). Subjects were selected by random sampling. Socio demographic data was collected by questionnaire. Height, weight, hip circumference and waist circumference were measured following standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h dietary recall. The recommended dietary allowance was taken as the cut-off point for the assessment of the adequacy of individual nutrient intake. Undernourished, overweight and obese subjects composed 12.9%, 21.3% and 5.9% of the participants, respectively. Men were taller, heavier and had higher waist to hip ratio compared to women (P < 0.05). Fish, fruits and vegetables were consumed less frequently or never at all by a large proportion of the subjects. Oil and butter were eaten daily by most of the participants. Mean energy intakes fell below the estimated energy requirements in women (1929 vs 2031 kcal/day, P = 0.05) while it was significantly higher in men participants (3001 vs 2510 kcal/day, P = 0.007). Protein intake was inadequate (<0.8 g/kg/day) in 11.2% of the participants whereas only 2.8% reported carbohydrate intake below the recommended dietary allowances (130 g/day). Inadequate intakes of calcium, retinol, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and ascorbic acid were seen in 90.4%, 100%, 73%, 92.4%, 86.2% and 95.5% of the participants. The overall risk of nutritional inadequacy among the study participants was high along with their poor dietary intake. Hence, more stress should be made on planning and implementing nutritional programmes

  19. Nutritional status and dietary intake of urban residents in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is paucity of data on the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban Ethiopians which necessitates comprehensive nutritional assessments. Therefore, the present study was aimed at evaluating the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban residents in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods This cross-sectional community based nutrition survey was conducted by involving 356 participants (71.3% female and 28.7% male with mean age of 37.3 years). Subjects were selected by random sampling. Socio demographic data was collected by questionnaire. Height, weight, hip circumference and waist circumference were measured following standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h dietary recall. The recommended dietary allowance was taken as the cut-off point for the assessment of the adequacy of individual nutrient intake. Results Undernourished, overweight and obese subjects composed 12.9%, 21.3% and 5.9% of the participants, respectively. Men were taller, heavier and had higher waist to hip ratio compared to women (P < 0.05). Fish, fruits and vegetables were consumed less frequently or never at all by a large proportion of the subjects. Oil and butter were eaten daily by most of the participants. Mean energy intakes fell below the estimated energy requirements in women (1929 vs 2031 kcal/day, P = 0.05) while it was significantly higher in men participants (3001 vs 2510 kcal/day, P = 0.007). Protein intake was inadequate (<0.8 g/kg/day) in 11.2% of the participants whereas only 2.8% reported carbohydrate intake below the recommended dietary allowances (130 g/day). Inadequate intakes of calcium, retinol, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and ascorbic acid were seen in 90.4%, 100%, 73%, 92.4%, 86.2% and 95.5% of the participants. Conclusions The overall risk of nutritional inadequacy among the study participants was high along with their poor dietary intake. Hence, more stress should be made on planning

  20. A Study on the Dietary Intake and the Nutritional Status among the Pancreatic Cancer Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon Seong; Yoon, Dong Sup; Kim, Woo Jeong; Chung, Hae-yun

    2016-01-01

    The adequate dietary intake is important to maintain the nutritional status of the patients after pancreatic cancer surgery. This prospective study was designed to investigate the dietary intake and the nutritional status of the patients who had pancreatic cancer surgery. Thirty-one patients (15 men, 16 women) were enrolled and measured body weight, body mass index (BMI), nutritional risk index (NRI), and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). Actual oral intake with nutritional impact symptoms recorded on the clinical research foam at every meal and medical information were collected from electronic medical charts. The rates of malnutrition at admission were 45.1% (14/31) and 28.9% (9/31) by NRI and MUST method, respectively, but those were increased to 87% (27/31) and 86.6% (26/31) after operation on discharge. The median values of daily intake of energy, carbohydrates, fat, and protein were 588.1 kcal, 96.0 g, 11.8 g, and 27.0 g, respectively. Most patients (n = 20, 64.5%) experienced two or more symptoms such as anorexia, abdominal bloating and early satiety. There were negative correlations between C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the intake of total energy, protein, fat, and zinc. The rates of malnutrition were increased sharply after surgery and the dietary intake also influenced the inflammatory indicators. The results suggested that need of considering special therapeutic diets for the patients who received pancreatic surgery. PMID:27812517

  1. Dentition, nutritional status and adequacy of dietary intake among older residents in assisted living facilities.

    PubMed

    Saarela, Riitta K T; Lindroos, Eeva; Soini, Helena; Hiltunen, Kaija; Muurinen, Seija; Suominen, Merja H; Pitkälä, Kaisu H

    2016-06-01

    We examined the relationships between dentition, nutritional status and dietary intakes of energy, protein and micronutrients among older people in assisted living facilities in Helsinki. Poor dentition is associated with malnutrition. Less is known about how dentition is associated with detailed nutrient intakes in institutionalised older people. This cross-sectional study assessed 343 participants (mean age 83 years). Dentition was assessed by trained ward nurses and divided into edentulous participants without dentures (group 1), edentulous participants with removable dentures (group 2) and those with any natural teeth (group 3). Nutritional status was assessed by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). The energy, protein and nutrient intakes were calculated from detailed 1-day food diaries and compared with the recommendations of the Finnish National Nutrition Council as a measure of dietary adequacy. Assessment included also participants' cognitive and functional status. Of the participants, 8.2, 39.1 and 52.8% were in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Altogether 22% were malnourished according to MNA. Group 1 had the poorest nutritional status. A large proportion of participants consumed less than the recommended amounts of energy, protein or micronutrients. Half of the participants consumed <60 g/day of protein. The intake of protein was significantly lower in group 1 than in other two groups. Malnutrition and inadequate protein intake were very common and associated with dentition among older people with multiple disabilities in assisted living facilities. Assessment of dental status should be part of good nutritional care in long-term care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Dietary intake and nutritional status of young vegans and omnivores in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Christel L; Johansson, Gunnar K

    2002-07-01

    Adolescents sometimes become vegetarian for ethical rather than health reasons. This may result in health problems caused by lack of interest in and knowledge of nutrition. We compared the dietary intake and nutritional status of young Swedish vegans and omnivores. The dietary intakes of 30 vegans (15 males and 15 females; mean age: 17.5 +/- 1.0 y) and 30 sex-, age-, and height-matched omnivores were assessed with the use of a diet-history interview and validated by the doubly labeled water method and by measuring nitrogen, sodium, and potassium excretion in urine. Iron status and serum vitamin B-12 and folate concentrations were measured in blood samples. The diet-history method underestimated energy intake by 13% and potassium intake by 7% compared with the doubly labeled water method and 24-h urine excretion, respectively. Reported dietary nitrogen and sodium intakes agreed with the 24-h urinary excretion measure. Vegans had higher intakes of vegetables, legumes, and dietary supplements and lower intakes of cake and cookies and candy and chocolate than did omnivores. Vegans had dietary intakes lower than the average requirements of riboflavin, vitamin B-12, vitamin D, calcium, and selenium. Intakes of calcium and selenium remained low even with the inclusion of dietary supplements. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of low iron status among vegans (20%) and omnivores (23%). Two vegans with low intakes of vitamin B-12 had low serum concentrations. The dietary habits of the vegans varied considerably and did not comply with the average requirements for some essential nutrients.

  3. Dietary intake and nutritional status of US adult marijuana users: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Smit, E; Crespo, C J

    2001-06-01

    This study examined dietary intakes and nutritional status of marijuana users and non-current marijuana users in US adults aged 20 to 59 years. We used data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994. Information on self-reported drug use, including marijuana, was obtained as part of the NHANES III physical examination component. Nutritional status was assessed using height and weight, and blood biochemistries. Dietary intake was assessed using a 24-hour recall and a food-frequency questionnaire. Among adults 20-59 years of age, 45% reported ever having used marijuana in their lifetime. A total of 8.7% reported using marijuana in the past month. Current marijuana users had higher intakes of energy and nutrients than non-current marijuana users; however, body mass index (BMI) was slightly lower. We found higher cigarette-smoking rates and higher consumption of sodas and alcohol, specifically beer, among marijuana users than among non-current marijuana users. Marijuana users also consumed more sodium, fewer fruits, and more pork, cheese, and salty snacks. Nutritional status, using indicators of serum nutrients, serum albumin, haematocrit and haemoglobin, was similar between marijuana users and non-current marijuana users. Serum carotenoid levels were lower among marijuana users, independent of cigarette smoking. Dietary intake was different among marijuana users than among non-current marijuana users. Although overall nutritional status was similar, serum carotenoid levels were lower in marijuana users. The long-term health effects of these differences in marijuana users deserve careful consideration in future research.

  4. How nutritional status, diet and dietary supplements can affect autism. A review.

    PubMed

    Kawicka, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bozena

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with symptoms arising that are apparent throughout the patient's lifespan. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterised by impaired social and communication interactions as well as restricted, repetitive interests and behaviour. Currently in Poland, about 50 000 people suffer from autism, of which 1/5 are children. Epidemiological studies show that the incidence of autism is increasing, which may be due to the diagnostic category of ASD having been developed. Of vital importance in the treatment of autism, is early diagnosis which is conducive to more rapidly improving the quality of patients' health. It is believed that both genetic and environmental factors may affect the development of the disease. Moreover, expert opinion emphasises the importance of making an adequate diagnosis when the first symptoms of autism start appearing which can be both psychological, gastro-intestinal and metabolic ones. Conventional treatment is based on the combination of behavioural and dietary therapy together with pharmacotherapy. For example, adapting an appropriate diet could help alleviate the disease severity, as well as the psychological and gastrointestinal symptoms. Much scientific research has indicated that pathogenesis of autism may have a beginning already in foetal life. During pregnancy, specialists should take special heed of metabolic disorders, which can increase the risk ofASD in children. One of the dietician's tasks are to properly assess the nutritional status of mothers before and during pregnancy, thereby allowing changes in nutrition to be made wherever necessary in order that metabolic indicators be improved. Thus an important part of autism therapy is the improving patient's nutritional status to prevent the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms. Adopting diets and tailored to individual disease symptoms, is linked to the nutritional requirements and food preferences of the patient. Specialists also emphasise that

  5. Effect of tailored dietary guidance for pregnant women on nutritional status: a double-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Haruna, Megumi; Shiraishi, Mie; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Yatsuki, Yuko; Yeo, SeonAe

    2016-11-29

    This double cohort study aimed to evaluate the effect of tailored dietary guidance for pregnant women on dietary intake, nutritional status, and infant birth weight. Healthy pregnant women were recruited at an antenatal clinic during two phases over 2 years. The historical controls were analyzed a year prior to the intervention group. In both groups, data were collected at 19-26 gestational weeks (baseline) and at 34-37 gestational weeks (outcome measurement). The intervention included the following: (a) assessments of maternal dietary nutritional intake using the brief self-administered diet history questionnaire, (b) individual feedback based on the assessments of maternal nutritional status, (c) tailored guidance for a healthy diet, (d) original cooking recipes, and (e) goal sharing. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the outcome data between the groups. Of the 378 eligible women, 309 women had follow-up questionnaire data. Blood samples were obtained from 202 women. Despite a lack of improvement in reported dietary intake, plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (p = .002), docosahexaenoic acid (p < .001), arachidonic acid (p < .001), and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (p < .001) concentrations as well as maternal weight gain (p = .019) were significantly higher in the intervention group. However, serum folate (p = .031) concentration was significantly lower in the intervention group, and there were no significant differences between the groups in 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, blood count, average birth weight, and rate of low birth weight infants. Assessment-based tailored guidance individualized to maternal dietary intake might partially contribute to improved nutrition in pregnant women.

  6. STATE-LEVEL DIETARY DIVERSITY AS A CONTEXTUAL DETERMINANT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CHILDREN IN INDIA: A MULTILEVEL APPROACH.

    PubMed

    Borkotoky, Kakoli; Unisa, Sayeed; Gupta, Ashish Kumar

    2017-02-20

    This study aimed to identify the determinants of nutritional status of children in India with a special focus on dietary diversity at the state level. Household-level consumption data from three rounds of the Consumer Expenditure Survey of the National Sample Survey Organization (1993-2012) were used. Information on the nutritional status of children was taken from the National Family Health Survey (2005-06). Dietary diversity indices were constructed at the state level to examine diversity in quantity of food consumed and food expenditure. Multilevel regression analysis was applied to examine the association of state-level dietary diversity and other socioeconomic factors with the nutritional status of children. It was observed that significant variation in childhood stunting, wasting and underweight could be explained by community- and state-level factors. The results indicate that dietary diversity has increased in India over time, and that dietary diversity at the state level is significantly associated with the nutritional status of children. Moreover, percentage of households with a regular salaried income in a state, percentage of educated mothers and mothers receiving antenatal care in a community are important factors for improving the nutritional status of children. Diversity in complementary child feeding is another significant determinant of nutritional status of children. The study thus concludes that increasing dietary diversity at the state level is an effective measure to reduce childhood malnutrition in India.

  7. Impact of nutritional status and dietary quality on stroke: do we need specific recommendations?

    PubMed

    Lim, H; Choue, R

    2013-05-01

    Stroke, one of the most prevalent geriatric diseases, is a leading cause of death worldwide that often results in permanent physical disability and decreased quality of life, and can have a negative impact on families both financially and emotionally. Although many previous studies have shown relationships between the risk of stroke and nutritional factors, clear dietary recommendations for the prevention and reduction of stroke recurrence have not been established. Several factors should be considered to control and manage stroke. For example, a considerable number of patients with stroke are poorly nourished, have several comorbidities and undesirable health-related behaviors may be present. Stroke patients are less likely to consume beneficial foods, have poorer eating habits and have impoverished dietary quality. In addition, psychological factors such as depression must also be considered in stroke management. Given these factors, dietary recommendations for stroke patients should be established. In this article, we summarized the nutritional status and dietary quality of stroke patients. We also suggested some nutritional guidelines for stroke patients and for those who are at risk for stroke.

  8. Nutritional status and dietary habits in Parkinson's disease patients in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Barichella, Michela; Akpalu, Albert; Cham, Momodou; Privitera, Giulia; Cassani, Erica; Cereda, Emanuele; Iorio, Laura; Cilia, Roberto; Bonetti, Alba; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2013-02-01

    Dietary treatment is important for the management of Parkinson's disease (PD). Our objective was to describe the dietary habits and assess the nutritional status of Ghanaian patients with PD. This study is part of a larger project, for which Ghana has been selected as a pilot country. Fifty-five Ghanaian patients with PD and 12 healthy Ghanaian controls were recruited. We assessed nutritional status, investigated dietary habits, and assessed the prevalence of the nutritional complications of PD (e.g., constipation and dysphagia). The mean daily caloric intake was about 1200 kcal/d in patients with PD and in controls. The typical diet was based on semisolid foods, usually vegetable soups accompanied by cereal flour or root starch or sometimes chicken or fish. The intake of milk and its derivatives was low. The prevalences of constipation and dysphagia in patients with PD were 49% and 21%, respectively. This study has yielded information that could be useful for the study of the management of PD and for the assessment of response to therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Assessment of dietary habits in students of the Medical University of Bialystok with differentiated nutritional status].

    PubMed

    Stefańiska, Ewa; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Sajewicz, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The research was conducted into 360 students of Medical University in Bialystok with differentiated nutritional status. The study involved 251 female students (46 with underweight, 186 with normal weight, 19 with excessive body weight) and 69 male students (7 with underweight, 47 with normal weight, 15 with excessive body weight). The quantity analyze of daily food rations was conducted on the base of the previous day 24 h dietary recall method. The computer program Diet 2.0 designed in the Institute of Food and Nutrition in Warsaw was used for calculations. Energetic value and basic nutrients supply was estimated and also the average content of dietary fiber and cholesterol. The results of the conducted research indicate lack ofbalanced content ofessential nutrients in daily food rations of the tested students of both sexes, irrespective of nutritional status. Energy supply was far too low comparing to recommended standards. It was proved that carbohydrate and fat supply was definitely lower than recommended standards. The research also showed low consumption of dietary fiber in all investigated groups and high consumption of cholesterol in men.

  10. Adequate dietary intake and nutritional status in patients with nephrolithiasis: new targets and objectives.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Larissa Marques Tondin de; Hauschild, Daniela Barbieri; Leite, Christiane de Mesquita Barros Almeida; Baptista, Deise Regina; Carvalho, Mauricio

    2014-11-01

    Modifiable risk factors for kidney stones, such as diet and nutritional status, are targets in the treatment and prevention of nephrolithiasis. The aim of the present study was to assess the nutritional state and energy and nutrient adequacy of patients with nephrolithiasis via anthropometric evaluation, dietary inquiry, and urine biochemistry. The present observational cross-sectional study. An outpatient, nephrolithiasis clinic of a tertiary care, university hospital. A total of 31 patients with nephrolithiasis and 25 controls were assessed. All patients were subjected to nutritional evaluation, including dietary inquiry and chemical tests of blood and 24-hour urine samples. Nutritional state and nutrient ingestion adequacy. The group of patients with nephrolithiasis exhibited high body mass index, abdominal circumference, and body fat percentage values. The protein, sodium, calcium, potassium, and oxalate intakes differed significantly from the recommended values in both the nephrolithiasis and control groups. The nephrolithiasis and control groups differed only in terms of oxalate intake (159 ± 119.27 vs. 112 ± 47.9, respectively, P = .042). Regarding urine biochemistry, 30% of the patients with nephrolithiasis exhibited hypercalciuria, versus 12% of the control group. The prevalence of individuals with overweight/obesity was high in both the nephrolithiasis and control groups. This finding indicates that in addition to orientation regarding nonlithogenic dietary habits, continuous education by a multidisciplinary staff must also address the prevention and treatment of obesity. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of dietary intake changes on nutritional status in acute leukaemia patients after first induction chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Malihi, Z; Kandiah, M; Chan, Y M; Esfandbod, M; Vakili, M; Hosseinzadeh, M; Zarif Yeganeh, M

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate how changes in dietary intake among acute lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukaemia (ALL and AML) patients affect nutritional status after the first induction chemotherapy. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-h recall and a 136-item food frequency questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed by Patients Subjective Global Assessment questionnaire before starting induction therapy and again after 1 month. All newly diagnosed acute leukaemia patients aged 15 years old and older who attended three referral hospitals for initiation of their induction chemotherapy were included in the sample selection provided that they gave informed consent. A total of 30 AML and 33 ALL patients participated in the study. Dietary intake and nutritional status worsened after the chemotherapy treatment. Dietary intake in terms of macronutrients, micronutrients, food variety and diet diversity score changed significantly after the induction chemotherapy. No significant relationship was found between the changes in dietary indices and nutritional status. Chemotherapy-related side effects as an additional factor to cancer itself could affect dietary intake of leukaemia patients. The effectiveness of an early assessment of nutritional status and dietary intake should be further investigated in order to deter further deterioration. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Cancer Care Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Nutritional status among adolescent girls in children's homes: Anthropometry and dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Berg, Tone; Magala-Nyago, Christine; Iversen, Per Ole

    2017-03-25

    Malnutrition is widespread among disadvantaged people in low-income countries like Uganda. Children and adolescents living in children's homes are considered an especially vulnerable group, and malnutrition among girls is of particular concern since it has intergenerational consequences. Virtually no information exists about the nutritional status of adolescent girls living in children's homes in Uganda. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the nutritional status by evaluating anthropometric indicators, body composition and dietary patterns. Forty-four girls aged 10-19 years living in five children's homes participated in addition to a reference group of 27 adolescent girls from three boarding schools; both in the Ugandan capital Kampala. Height and weight were measured to assess anthropometry. Body composition data was obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Dietary intake was evaluated with a food frequency questionnaire, calculation of dietary diversity score, and a 24-h dietary recall. The adolescent girls living in children's homes suffered from stunting (18.6%), overweight or obesity (18.6%), and were at risk of insufficient intakes of multiple micronutrients, especially of vitamins A, B12, C, D, E and calcium. They also had a low intake of essential fatty acids. Dietary diversity was low with a median score of 3 out of 9 food groups. Animal products were rarely consumed. The majority of girls in children's homes consumed a less adequate diet compared to the reference group, thus being at risk of nutrient deficiency-related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary diversity is associated with nutritional status of Orang Asli children in Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang.

    PubMed

    Ey Chua, E Y; Zalilah, M S; Ys Chin, Y S; Norhasmah, S

    2012-04-01

    It is known that dietary diversity improves diet quality and nutritional status of young children. This study aimed to determine the relationship between dietary diversity and nutritional status of Orang Asli children in Krau Wildlife Reserve. A total of 216 children from three Orang Asli sub-tribes (Jah Hut, Temuan and Che Wong) aged 1 to 6 years from 162 households in 16 villages participated in this cross-sectional study. Children and mothers were measured for body weight and height. Mothers were interviewed for household socio-demographic information and diet diversity of children in the last 7 days. Diet diversity score (DDS) was calculated based on 15 food groups. There was a high prevalence of underweight (50.9%) and stunting (61.6%) in Orang Asli children. For mothers, 11.1%, 27.8% and 7.4% were underweight, overweight and obese, respectively. Mean DDS of children was 6.38 [95% CI-6.10, 6.65] of the possible 15. Higher DDS of children was significantly related to older age (p < 0.05), the non Jahut sub-tribe (p < 0.01) and longer maternal years of schooling (p < 0.05). DDS was also positively related to weight-for-age z-scores (p < 0.001) and height-for-age z-scores (p < 0.05). Undernutrition remains a major nutrition problem among Orang Asli children living within the forest reserve. Efforts to promote dietary diversity should emphasise traditional and nutritious foods that could improve health and nutritional status of the Orang Asli children.

  14. Nutritional status and dietary pattern of male athletes in Ibadan, South Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oladunni, M O; Sanusi, R A

    2013-12-20

    Several factors, including nutritional status and dietary pattern are paramount to optimum performance among athletes. Notwithstanding, risky behaviours that limit or impair athletic performance are widely prevalent among athletes; these include excessive weight reduction and inappropriate dietary practices. This study was conducted to provide information on the nutritional status and dietary pattern of athletes in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. This was a cross sectional descriptive study, involving 207 athletes aged 17 to 40 years in Ibadan. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric indices: Body Mass Index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF). BMI was calculated from weight and height measurements and %BF was estimated from the sum of skin-fold thickness at 4 sites (triceps, biceps, sub-scapular and supra-iliac skin-folds). Dietary pattern was assessed by food habits and food frequency questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were conducted to describe and examine relationships between variables. Mean (SD) for variables were: age; 26.09(±4.77) years, weight; 72.13(±0.45) kg, height; 1.74(±0.06)m, and BMI; 23.89(±3.34)kg/m2. Only 4(1.93%) of the participants were underweight, 39(18.84%) were overweight and 8(3.86%) obese. Mean (SD) of %BF among overweight athletes was 14.25(±3.12) and maximum %BF among overweight athletes was 21.2. A strong and positive correlation was observed between BMI and %BF and %BF increased with age among overweight athletes. About 72% of the athletes skipped meals, 77% drank water or sports drinks during sporting activities, about 11% spent less than #40.00 for each meal. About 49% ate before sports. Foods most frequently consumed by athletes in this study were meat, fish, roots/tubers, cereals, vegetables and fruits. Milk and legumes were less frequently consumed by these athletes. Most of these athletes had nutritional status adequate for their sport activity. With regards to food habits, most of these athletes

  15. Dietary intake, physical activity and nutritional status in adults: the French nutrition and health survey (ENNS, 2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Castetbon, Katia; Vernay, Michel; Malon, Aurélie; Salanave, Benoit; Deschamps, Valérie; Roudier, Candice; Oleko, Amivi; Szego, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge

    2009-09-01

    The French National Programme on Nutrition and Health (Programme national nutrition santé (PNNS)), the aim of which is to reduce nutrition-related chronic diseases, necessitates monitoring of nutritional characteristics. Our objective was to describe dietary intake, physical activity and nutritional status in a national sample of adults, especially according to current French recommendations. The study is based on a cross-sectional population-based survey using a multistage sampling design (Etude nationale nutrition santé (ENNS)). Between February 2006 and March 2007, 3115 18-74-year-old adults were included (participation rate 59.7 %). Energy, macronutrient and food consumption were estimated through three randomly distributed 24 h recalls, and compared to PNNS recommendations; physical activity was described using International Physical Activity Questionnaire guidelines; anthropometry, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were assessed according to national and international references. When compared to current recommendations, intake of carbohydrates (>50 % energy intake without alcohol: 26.4 %), SFA ( < 35 % total lipids: 18.5 %) and total fibre (>25 g/d: 13.7 %) was frequently unsatisfactory. While overall consumption of 'meat, seafood and eggs' was satisfactory, that of fruits and vegetables ( > or = 400 g/d: 43.8 %) and seafood (two or more servings per week: 29.9 %) was frequently too low. The physical activity level was satisfactory at 63.2 %. Overweight was observed in 49.3 % of adults, while 30.9 % were hypertensive and 44.1 % had dyslipidaemia. Vitamin and iron-poor status was found to affect less than 10 % of the population. Based on the ENNS survey, overall nutrition remains a problem in France. Comparison of these data with those of other countries could contribute to a better understanding of variations in nutrition-related diseases.

  16. Dietary patterns of rural older adults are associated with weight and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Ledikwe, Jenny H; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Mitchell, Diane C; Miller, Carla K; Jensen, Gordon L

    2004-04-01

    To characterize dietary patterns of rural older adults and relate patterns to weight and nutritional status. Cross-sectional. Rural Pennsylvania. One hundred seventy-nine community-dwelling adults aged 66 to 87 years. A home visit was conducted to collect demographic, health behavior, and anthropometric data and a blood sample. Five 24-hour dietary recall were administered. Cluster analysis classified participants into dietary patterns using food subgroup servings. Chi-square, analysis of covariance, and logistic regression were used to assess differences across clusters. A low-nutrient-dense cluster (n=107), with higher intake of breads, sweet breads/desserts, dairy desserts, processed meats, eggs, and fats/oils, and a high-nutrient-dense cluster (n=72) with higher intake of cereals, dark green/yellow vegetables, other vegetables, citrus/melons/berries, fruit juices, other fruits, milks, poultry, fish, and beans, were identified. Those in the high-nutrient-dense cluster had lower energy intake; higher energy-adjusted intake of fiber, iron, zinc, folate, and vitamins B(6), B(12), and D; higher Healthy Eating Index scores; higher plasma vitamin B(12) levels; and a lower waist circumference. Those with a low-nutrient-dense dietary pattern were twice as likely to be obese, twice as likely to have low plasma vitamin B(12) levels, and three to 17 times more likely to have low nutrient intake. This study provides support for recommending a high-nutrient-dense dietary pattern for older adults. Behavioral interventions encouraging diets characterized by high-nutrient-dense foods may improve weight and nutritional status of older adults.

  17. Dietary intake and nutritional status of HIV-1-infected children and adolescents in Florianopolis, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hillesheim, Elaine; Lima, Luiz R A; Silva, Rosane C R; Trindade, Erasmo B S M

    2014-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the nutritional status and dietary intake of HIV-infected children and adolescents and the relationship between nutritional status and dietary intake and CD4(+) T-cell count and viral load. The sample was composed of 49 subjects aged 7-17 years and living in Florianópolis, Brazil. Nutritional status was assessed by height-for-age and body mass index-for-age. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Spearman correlations and multiple linear regressions were used to determine the relationship between energy, nutrient intake and body mass index-for-age and CD4(+) T-cell count and viral load. The mean body mass index-for-age and height-for-age values were -0.26 ± 0.86 and -0.56 ± 0.92, respectively. The energy intake was 50.8% above the estimated energy requirement and inadequate intake of polyunsaturated fat, cholesterol, fibre, calcium and vitamin C was present in 100%, 57.1%, 40.8%, 61.2% and 26.5% of the sample, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that energy intake was correlated with CD4+ T-cell count (r = 0.33; p = 0.028) and viral load (r = -0.35; p = 0.019). These data showed low body mass index-for-age and height-for-age z-scores, high energy intake and inadequate intake of important nutrients for immune function, growth and control of chronic diseases. A lower energy intake was correlated with viral suppression and immune preservation.

  18. Physical activity, nutritional status, and dietary habits of students of a medical university.

    PubMed

    Grygiel-Górniak, Bogna; Tomczak, Andrzej; Krulikowska, Natalia; Przysławski, Juliusz; Seraszek-Jaros, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta

    Nutritional habits and physical activity influence the health status of young adults. In this study, we engaged a group of 151 students from a medical university (90 female and 61 male subjects). Anthropometric parameters, dietary habits (a 7-day dietary recall), and level of physical activity were measured. It was found that the daily food rations of female (F) and male (M) students were improperly balanced and characterized by high amount of total and animal protein, phosphorus, vitamin A, cholesterol, and insufficient intake of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and vitamin C. Female subjects consumed low amounts of total fat and calcium. The intake of protein (total and animal), fat, phosphorus, and cholesterol correlated with higher body mass. The physical activity of the students was found to be higher than the average physical activity of the European Union populations, and a general tendency of lowering level of physical activity with age was observed. Students with the highest level of physical activity (MET > 1500) consumed lower amounts of simple carbohydrates (galactose and saccharose) when compared to students with lower physical activity (MET < 600, p < 0.05). Therefore, this study concluded that the dietary habits should be modified to prevent the development of diet-dependent diseases. Various forms of physical activity should be proposed to students and they should be encouraged to participate in high level of physical activity so as to promote good health status.

  19. Dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chin-En; Yen, Chi-Hua; Huang, Men-Chung; Cheng, Chien-Hsiang; Huang, Yi-Chia

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and compare dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents. Fifty-six omnivores (28 children and 28 parents) and 42 vegetarians (21 preschool children with 18 lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 3 ovo-vegetarians; 21 parents with 16 lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 2 ovo-vegetarians, 1 lacto-vegetarian, and 2 vegans) were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were taken; body mass index and weight-for-height index (WHI) were calculated. Nutrient intake was recorded using 3-day dietary records. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained to estimate hematologic and vitamin status parameters. Height, weight, body mass index, WHI, and triceps skinfold thickness value differences between omnivores and vegetarians in both parent and child groups were not found. Both omnivorous parents and their children had significantly higher fat and lower fiber intakes than vegetarian parents and children. Omnivorous children had significantly higher protein and lower vitamin C intakes than vegetarian children, whereas omnivorous parents had significantly lower vitamin A and iron intakes than vegetarian parents. Vegetarians and omnivores in both parent and child groups had mean calcium consumption less than 75% of the Taiwan dietary intakes. All mean hematologic and biochemical nutrient status indices were within the reference range in any groups. However, both vegetarian parents and children had significantly lower mean total cholesterol and serum ferritin concentrations than those of omnivorous parents and children. Our vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children had normal growth and adequate nutritional status. However, both parents and children had inadequate calcium intakes, which may potentially affect bone health, especially for preschool children in the growing stage.

  20. Adequacy of usual dietary intake and nutritional status among pregnant women in the context of nutrition transition: the DEPOSIT Study.

    PubMed

    Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Shahar, Danit R; Fraser, Drora; Vardi, Hillel; Friger, Michael; Bolotin, Arkardy; Freedman, Laurence S

    2012-11-28

    Bedouin Arabs in southern Israel are a traditionally semi-nomadic population undergoing the nutrition transition in a context of urbanisation. The effect of these changes on the nutritional status of pregnant women is unknown. The Dietary Exposures and Pregnancy Outcomes in a Society In Transition (DEPOSIT) study evaluated the adequacy of pregnant Bedouin women's usual dietary intake and their nutritional status. Dietary intake was assessed in a cross-sectional study design using repeat 24 h recall (24HR) questionnaires. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the usual intake of selected nutrients. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was used to evaluate nutrient intake adequacy. Measured weight and height data were used to calculate the participants' BMI. A total of 1109 24HR were obtained from 683 participants, of which 8 % contained no animal-source protein and an additional 43 % contained no haeme-Fe. Animal-source protein intake reached less than half of the EAR for most participants (71 %). Over 90 % had inadequate intakes of Ca, Fe, animal-source Zn, vitamin A and folate. The probability of consuming haeme-source Fe was higher among urban than rural participants (OR 1·68, 95 % CI 1·17, 2·41), and among those with employed v. unemployed husbands (OR 1·81, 95 % CI 1·27, 2·58). Only 14 % reported consuming home-produced animal products. According to pre-pregnancy BMI, 42 % were overweight or obese. The DEPOSIT study findings suggest that Bedouin Arab women are in need of interventions that address the co-existing problems of inadequate nutrient intakes and increased risk of obesity.

  1. Changes in nutritional status and dietary intake during and after head and neck cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Vissink, Arjan; Langendijk, Johannes A; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Pruim, Jan; Roodenburg, Jan L N

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether nutritional status of patients with head and neck cancer changes during and after treatment. Nutritional status (including body weight, lean mass, and fat mass) and dietary intake were assessed in 29 patients with head and neck cancer. Patients were assessed 1 week before, and 1 and 4 months after treatment (radiotherapy, either alone or combined with chemotherapy or surgery). During treatment, body weight (-3.6 ± 5.3 kg; p = .019) and lean mass (-2.43 ± 2.81 kg; p = .001) significantly declined. Patients with sufficient intake (≥35 kcal and ≥1.5 grams protein/kg body weight) lost less body weight and lean mass than patients with insufficient intake (mean difference, -4.0 ± 1.9 kg; p = 0.048 and -2.1 ± 1.0 kg; p = .054, respectively). After treatment, only patients with sufficient intake gained body weight (2.3 ± 2.3 kg) and lean mass (1.2 ± 1.3 kg). Patients with head and neck cancer fail to maintain or improve nutritional status during treatment, despite sufficient intake. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Nutritional status of Iranian women with rheumatoid arthritis: an assessment of dietary intake and disease activity.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Jalal; Mohtadinia, Javad; Kolahi, Soasan; Bakhtiyari, Mahmood; Delpisheh, Ali

    2011-09-01

    Long-standing chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis are known to be associated with impairment of nutritional status to some degree. The present study aimed to assess nutritional status of women with rheumatoid arthritis and compare their ingestion of certain micronutrients with dietary reference intakes. In this cross-sectional study, 90 eligible women were recruited. After examination, all patients were evaluated on the basis of disease activity score, calculated using the number of tender and swollen joints, patient global assessment of pain and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP). A three-day 24 h recall was completed and a 10 ml fasting blood sample was obtained to assess the plasma levels of malondialdehyde, total antioxidant and CRP. Despite normal BMI, intake of energy and micronutrients including calcium, folic acid, zinc, magnesium and vitamin B6 were considerably lower compared with the dietary reference intakes. There was no significant relationship between intake of different nutrients or food groups and disease activity score and the biochemical markers including malondialdehyde, CRP and total antioxidant. Intake of energy and some micronutrients were significantly lower than the recommended values. However, no relationship was found between intake of different food groups or nutrients with disease activity or serum antioxidant capacity.

  3. Dietary intake and nutritional status in cancer patients; comparing adults and older adults.

    PubMed

    Gómez Valiente da Silva, Henyse; Fonseca de Andrade, Camila; Bello Moreira, Annie Seixas

    2014-04-01

    Evaluate the nutrient intake and nutritional status of food in cancer patients admitted to a university hospital, with comparison of adult and older adult age category. Cross-sectional study. This study involved cancer patients admitted to a hospital in 2010. Dietary habits were collected using a Brazilian food frequency questionnaire. Participants were divided in two groups: adults or older adults and in 4-cancer category: hematologic, lung, gastrointestinal and others. Body Mass Index evaluated nutritional status. A total of 86 patients with a mean age of 56.5 years, with 55% males and 42% older adults were evaluated. The older adult category had a higher frequency of being underweight (24.4% vs 16.3%, p < 0.01) and a lower frequency of being overweight (7% vs. 15.1%, p < 0.01) than adults. Both, adult and older adults had a high frequency of smoking, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity. The older adults had lower consumption of calories, intake of iron and folic acid. Inadequacy of vitamin intake was observed in both groups; respectively, 52%, 43%, 95%, 76% and 88% for Vitamin A, C, D, E and folic acid. The older adults had a higher folic acid and calcium inadequacy than the adults (97% vs 82%, p <0.01; 88% vs 72%, p < 0.01). There was no association of micronutrient intake with cancer, nor with nutritional status. The food intake, macro and micronutrients ingestion is insufficient among cancer individuals. Food intake of older adults was inferior, when compared to the adult category. There was a high prevalence of BMI excess in the adult group and a worst nutritional status in the older adult category. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutritional status, dietary intake, and relevant knowledge of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan Kumar; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, A M Shamsir

    2010-02-01

    This study estimated the levels and differentials in nutritional status and dietary intake and relevant knowledge of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh using data from the Baseline Survey 2004 of the National Nutrition Programme. A stratified two-stage random cluster-sampling was used for selecting 4,993 unmarried adolescent girls aged 13-18 years in 708 rural clusters. Female interviewers visited girls at home to record their education, occupation, dietary knowledge, seven-day food-frequency, intake of iron and folic acid, morbidity, weight, and height. They inquired mothers about age of their daughters and possessions of durable assets to divide households into asset quintiles. Results revealed that 26% of the girls were thin, with body mass index (BMI)-for-age <15th percentile), 0.3% obese (BMI-for-age >95th percentile), and 32% stunted (height-for-age < or = 2SD). Risks of being thin and stunted were higher if girls had general morbidity in the last fortnight and foul-smelling vaginal discharge than their peers. Consumptions of non-staple good-quality food items in the last week were less frequent and correlated well positively with the household asset quintile. Girls of the highest asset quintile ate fish/meat 2.1 (55%) days more and egg/milk two (91%) days more than the girls in the lowest asset quintile. The overall dietary knowledge was low. More than half could not name the main food sources of energy and protein, and 36% were not aware of the importance of taking extra nutrients during adolescence for growth spurt. The use of iron supplement was 21% in nutrition-intervention areas compared to 8% in non-intervention areas. Factors associated with the increased use of iron supplements were related to awareness of the girls about extra nutrients and their access to mass media and education. Community-based adolescent-friendly health and nutrition education and services and economic development may improve the overall health and nutritional knowledge and

  5. Dietary pattern among schoolchildren with normal nutritional status in Navarre, Spain.

    PubMed

    Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel

    2014-04-11

    A nutrition survey was carried out (food intake registration of three consecutive school days) in a randomly selected group of 353 schoolchildren (188 males and 165 females) with normal nutritional status. The average age of the surveyed students was 10.5 years (CI 95%: 10.3-11.7). There were no significant differences between both sexes in mean values for calorie intake (males: 2072.7 ± 261.7 and females: 2060.9 ± 250.6) and intake of macronutrients, minerals and vitamins. Cereals (34%), dairy products (19%) and meats (17%) were responsible for approximately 70% of total calorie intake. Protein accounted for 20.3% of energy intake, carbohydrates for 48.8%, total fat for 30.9%, and saturated fat for 12.6%. Cholesterol intake was excessive and over two-thirds of protein intake was from animal sources. The mean intakes of calcium, iodine and Vitamins A, D and E were below recommended levels. The dietary patterns of the schoolchildren with normal nutritional status differed from the Mediterranean diet. Intakes of meat were too high and dairy products and cereals consumption was relatively limited; while that of vegetables; legumes; fruits and fish were insufficient; leading to excessive protein and fat intake from animal sources and insufficient mineral (calcium and iodine) and Vitamins A; D and E intake.

  6. Dietary behaviour and nutritional status in underprivileged people using food aid (ABENA study, 2004-2005).

    PubMed

    Castetbon, K; Méjean, C; Deschamps, V; Bellin-Lestienne, C; Oleko, A; Darmon, N; Hercberg, S

    2011-12-01

    Although initiatives are setting up to improve the nutritional status of deprived people, few studies have described the food aid user profile and evaluated their nutritional needs. The contributions of food aid to the food supply, dietary behaviour and nutritional status of food aid users were evaluated in the ABENA study. A cross-sectional study was conducted among food aid users in four urban French zones (n = 1664, age ≥18 years). Sociodemographic and economic characteristics, food insufficiency, food supply and diet behaviours were assessed using standardised questionnaires. A subsample of participants underwent clinical and biochemical examinations. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed taking into account sample weights. Over 70% of participants used food aid as the only source of supply among numerous food groups, and one-quarter of them (27.2%) were using food aid for 3 years or more. The mean food budget was €70.0 per person per month, and 46.0% of subjects were classified as 'food-insufficient'. Half of the subjects fulfilled the French recommendations for starchy foods (48.7%) and 'meat, fish and eggs' (49.4%); 27.3% met the requirements for seafood. Only a very small proportion of participants met the recommendations for fruits and vegetables (1.2%) and dairy products (9.2%). In addition, 16.7% of subjects were obese, 29.4% had high blood pressure, 14.8% were anaemic, 67.9% were at risk of folate deficiency and 85.6% had vitamin D deficiency. These results provide evidence of an unhealthy diet and poor health profiles in severely disadvantaged persons and highlight the importance of food aid in this population. Thus, this study points to the necessity of improving the nutritional quality of currently distributed food aid. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. Dietary habits and nutritional status in adolescents in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Parízková, J

    2000-03-01

    The overall situation as regards dietary intake and nutritional status in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe has varied considerably during previous decades; however, after the political, social and economic changes during the nineties these differences have increased further, especially in the areas with low GDP and war, and in the regions affected by radionuclides etc. No systematic surveillance systems in representative samples of adolescents were in effect at the beginning of the nineties in Central and Eastern Europe. There exists relatively more data on nutritional status characterized by body mass index (BMI) and skinfold thickness measurements. Food intake has mainly been followed in smaller samples of adolescents, and or in special groups (athletes, obese, vegetarians, allergies, Romanies, pupils of special schools etc.). In the countries and/or areas with sufficient GDP and income the food intake has most often been too abundant when considering the real needs of the growing organism, especially from the point of view of energy output. The composition of the diet is not adequate, i.e. too much protein, fats, sugar etc. This situation is similar to that in Western countries, USA etc. On the other hand, adolescents in Central and Eastern Europe consume too few vegetables, fruit and milk products in their diet (i.e. low intakes of Ca, fibre and vitamin C), which is less apparent in Western countries. This is mainly due to bad eating habits and nutritional traditions in the families, but also due to the changes of the prices of the mentioned foodstuffs after political and economic changes in this part of the world. Certain nutritional deficiencies were also shown as factors increasing the health risks from the Chernobyl disaster, mainly in the Ukraine, Belorussia and certain parts of Poland.

  8. [Comparative study of dietary intake and nutritional status in elderly women with and without hip fracture].

    PubMed

    Pérez Durillo, Francisco Tomás; Torío Durántez, Jesús; Villarejo Villar, Ana Belén; Sánchez Vico, Ana Belén; Cueto Camarero, María del Mar; Durillo, Josefa Pérez

    2011-07-01

    To compare the nutritional status and dietary intake of elderly women admitted with hip fracture (HF) versus a control group without fracture and without known abnormalities of bone mineral density. Descriptive and observational study. Hospital Neurotraumatológico in Jaen (Spain) and three urban Primary Health Care centers in Jaen city (San Felipe, Virgen de la Capilla and El Valle). A total of 44 women with HF, which was considered osteoporotic, and a control group composed of 42 women with a similar age range, selected randomly from the medical outpatients who visit their Primary Health Care centers. We record sociodemographic data. Dietary intake before the fracture and anthropometric variables in the first 72hours after admission were assessed. Patients with HF had lower weight (67.2±10.1kg versus 72.0±10.1kg, P<.05), BMI (27.6±3.7kg/m(2) versus 31.3±4.6kg/m(2), P<.001), as well as lower arm and leg circumferences than the control patients. A significantly higher intake, in terms of macronutrients and energy consumption, was detected in the control group, as well as lower than recommended intake of calcium and vitamin D in both groups, which was more marked in patients with HF. Logistic regression found that the HF was associated with a lower BMI as well as lower intakes of protein, carbohydrates and calcium. Adequate nutritional status and adequate intake of essential macro- and micronutrients seem to prevent osteoporotic HF. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Nutritional status and dietary intake of children with acute leukaemia during induction or consolidation chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tan, S Y; Poh, B K; Nadrah, M H; Jannah, N A; Rahman, J; Ismail, M N

    2013-07-01

    The assessment of nutritional status among paediatric patients is important for the planning and execution of nutritional strategies that strive to optimise the quality of life and growth among sick children. The present study aimed to evaluate the nutritional status and dietary intake among children with acute leukaemia. This cross-sectional study included 53 paediatric patients aged 3-12 years old, who were diagnosed with either acute lymphoblastic leukaemia or acute myelogenous leukaemia and were undergoing chemotherapy treatments (induction or consolidation phase). Patients were matched for sex, age (±6 months) and ethnicity with healthy children as controls. Weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, mid-upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, mid-upper arm muscle area and fat area were determined. Dietary intake was assessed using 3-day food records. Anthropometric variables were generally higher among patients compared to controls, although the differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The prevalence of overnutrition among patients according to body mass index-for-age, waist circumference-for-age, mid-upper arm circumference-for-age and triceps skinfold-for-age were 24.5%, 29.1%, 17.0% and 30.2%, respectively. Mean energy [5732 ± 1958 kJ (1370 ± 468 kcal) versus 6945 ± 1970 kJ (1660 ± 471 kcal), P < 0.01], protein (50.0 ± 19.7 g versus 62.3 ± 22.3 g, P < 0.01) and fat (43.6 ± 18.9 g versus 58.3 ± 16.7, P < 0.001) intakes of patients were significantly lower than controls. The prevalence of being overweight and obesity in children with acute leukaemia was higher despite lower energy intake compared to controls. Studies assessing physical activity, the complex interaction and the effects of treatment drugs are warranted to better manage malnutrition among paediatric patients. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association

  10. Nutritional status and dietary diversity of Kamea in Gulf Province, Papua New Guineas.

    PubMed

    Goris, Janny M; Zomerdijk, Nienke; Temple, Victor J

    To assess the nutritional status of infants, children and non-pregnant women and underlying factors, dietary diversity and community food security, in the Kamea community in Gulf Province, Papua New Guinea. Prospective cross sectional study. Study population 69 infants (0-59 months), 151 children (6-12 years) and 79 non-pregnant women from 10 villages in Kotidanga Local Level Government, Kerema District, Gulf Province, Papua New Guinea. Among infants prevalence of moderate stunting, wasting and underweight were 38.9%, 8.3% and 44.4%, respectively; after adjusting Hb concentration for altitude, the anaemia prevalence was 53.8%. Among children prevalence of severe stunting was 21.2%; moderate stunting, wasting and underweight were 57.6%, 12.2% and 48.5%, respectively; anaemia was 30.3%; median urinary iodine concentration was 32.0 μg/L and iodine deficiency was prevalent among 88.1%. Among women, mean height, weight and BMI were 1.46±0.04 m, 43.9±5.91 kg and 20.4±2.32 kg/m2, respectively; low BMI (<18.5 kg/m2) and anaemia were prevalent among 22.8% and 35.4%, respectively; median urinary iodine concentration was 36.0 μg/L and iodine deficiency was prevalent among 80.3%. Exclusive breastfeeding was universal for young infants; complementary foods were limited in variety and frequency. Dietary diversity was limited, implementation of the universal salt iodisation strategy restricted and community food security was inadequate. The high prevalence of malnutrition and anaemia among the three age groups, including moderate status of iodine deficiency among women and children, are significant public health concerns. Improvements in dietary diversity, adequate use of iodised salt and community food security are needed.

  11. The nutritional status of asymptomatic HIV-infected Africans: directions for dietary intervention?

    PubMed

    Vorster, Hester H; Kruger, Annamarie; Margetts, Barrie M; Venter, Christina S; Kruger, H Salomé; Veldman, Frederick J; Macintyre, Una E

    2004-12-01

    HIV-infected subjects who followed a diet rich in animal foods had smaller decreases in serum albumin, haemoglobin and lipid variables, and smaller increases in liver enzymes, than those who consumed a diet based on staple foods. This suggests that animal foods are associated with improved nutritional status in HIV-infected persons. These results should be confirmed with intervention studies before dietary recommendations for asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals can be made.

  12. Nutritional status and dietary intake of institutionalized elderly in Turkey: a cross-sectional, multi-center, country representative study.

    PubMed

    Ongan, Dilek; Rakıcıoğlu, Neslişah

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the nutritional status and dietary intake of institutionalized elderly in Turkey. Cross-sectional study. 25 institutions in 19 cities throughout Turkey. Elderly residents aged 65 years and older (n=554). Nutritional status using Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), food consumption with 24-h dietary recall and anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, waist/hip ratio, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC)). The mean age of the elderly was 76.1±7.3 years. BMI of elderly men and women were found to be 26.59±4.58kg/m(2) and 30.07±6.32kg/m(2), respectively. WC of elderly men and women were found to be 98.90±1.33cm and 100.62±1.34cm, respectively. Most of the elderly were overweight based on BMI and at risk of metabolic diseases based on WC. According to MNA, 44.2% had normal nutritional status, 49.1% were at risk of malnutrition, 6.7% had malnutrition. All nutrients intake was favorable according to requirements, except for calcium and magnesium. Energy, protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamins A, E, B1, B2, B6, C folat, iron, zinc intake of elderly who had normal nutritional status, who were at risk of malnutrition and malnourished were significantly different. Energy and nutrients intake of elderly who had normal nutritional status was found to be better than the others. Nutritional status should be periodically screened in the institutionalized elderly to prevent malnutrition. Also, it was noted that adequate energy and nutrients intake of the elderly played a crucial role in maintaining nutritional status and preventing malnutrition within residential homes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quality of life, dietary intake and nutritional status assessment in hospital admitted cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Trabal, J; Leyes, P; Forga, M T; Hervás, S

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the quality of life (QoL), nutritional status, and quantitative food intakes of non-terminal admitted cancer patients receiving oral feeding. As well as to evaluate what kind of relation exists between the quality of life, and the nutritional status and current intake. Medical Oncology and Radiotherapy Service ward at the Hospital Clinic de Barcelona. Fifty admitted patients in the Service ward. There was a follow-up of the dietary intake during 3 working days through direct observation, as well as an assessment of anthropometrical and biochemical parameters, a record of symptomatology related data, and a QoL assessment through the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Our data show that 32.6% of the patients did not reach 25 kcal/kg/day, and 23.3% did not even fulfill 1 g protein/kg/day. Concerning QoL, mean score for global health status and overall QoL for all patients was 46.2. Compared to the general population, there were important deficits among cancer patients regarding physical, role and social functioning. The most pronounced differences in the symptom scales were for fatigue, and in single items for appetite loss and constipation. A low protein intake was associated to a poorer perception on physical functioning (p = 0.01), and fatigue was close to significance (p = 0.058). No significant differences were found regarding caloric intake and QoL. A significant percentage of patients who received exclusive oral feeding did not cover a minimum acceptable quantity of their protein-energy requirements. Our results point-out that poor food intakes can affect QoL by themselves.

  14. Dietary intake and nutrition-related knowledge in a sample of Lebanese adolescents of contrasting socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Nabhani-Zeidan, Maya; Naja, Farah; Nasreddine, Lara

    2011-06-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is postulated to be a major predictor of dietary intake and nutrition-related knowledge in adults. To date, very few studies have addressed this effect among adolescents. To explore differences in nutrient intake and nutrition-related knowledge among adolescents of contrasting SES in Lebanon. In a cross-sectional survey, 209 males and females, aged 17 to 19 years, were recruited from a private university with high tuition and a free public university in Beirut. The participants completed a multicomponent, self-administered questionnaire that inquired about demographic characteristics and nutrition-related knowledge. Three nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were obtained through interviews. Energy-adjusted means of dietary intake and age-adjusted nutrition-related knowledge were compared between groups using a general linear model. Adolescents in the high-SES group consumed more vegetables, meats, and fats and oils (p < .05). Energy and nutrient intake analysis showed that adolescents in the high-SES group consumed significantly higher amounts of calories, protein, fat, vitamin A, vitamin C, and iron (p < .001) and significantly lower amounts of carbohydrates (p < .05). Nutritional knowledge, although high among all participants, was higher in the high-SES group (p < .05). Although both groups showed good nutrition-related knowledge, SES significantly affected dietary intake in a sample of Lebanese adolescents. This warrants consideration of other factors, such as cost and environment, that may modulate eating behavior among adolescents from different socioeconomic strata.

  15. Taste sensitivity, nutritional status and metabolic syndrome: Implication in weight loss dietary interventions

    PubMed Central

    Bertoli, Simona; Laureati, Monica; Battezzati, Alberto; Bergamaschi, Valentina; Cereda, Emanuele; Spadafranca, Angela; Vignati, Laila; Pagliarini, Ella

    2014-01-01

    AIM: We investigated the relationship between taste sensitivity, nutritional status and metabolic syndrome and possible implications on weight loss dietary program. METHODS: Sensitivity for bitter, sweet, salty and sour tastes was assessed by the three-Alternative-Forced-Choice method in 41 overweight (OW), 52 obese (OB) patients and 56 normal-weight matched controls. OW and OB were assessed also for body composition (by impedence), resting energy expenditure (by indirect calorimetry) and presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and were prescribed a weight loss diet. Compliance to the weight loss dietary program was defined as adherence to control visits and weight loss ≥ 5% in 3 mo. RESULTS: Sex and age-adjusted multiple regression models revealed a significant association between body mass index (BMI) and both sour taste (P < 0.05) and global taste acuity score (GTAS) (P < 0.05), with lower sensitivity with increasing BMI. This trend in sensitivity for sour taste was also confirmed by the model refitted on the OW/OB group while the association with GTAS was marginally significant (P = 0.06). MetS+ subjects presented higher thresholds for salty taste when compared to MetS- patients while no significant difference was detected for the other tastes and GTAS. As assessed by multiple regression model, the association between salty taste and MetS appeared to be independent of sex, age and BMI. Patients continuing the program (n = 37) did not show any difference in baseline taste sensitivity when compared to drop-outs (n = 29). Similarly, no significant difference was detected between patients reporting and not reporting a weight loss ≥ 5% of the initial body weight. No significant difference in taste sensitivity was detected even after dividing patients on the basis of nutritional (OW and OB) or metabolic status (MetS+ and MetS-). CONCLUSION: There is no cause-effect relationship between overweight and metabolic derangements. Taste thresholds assessment is not useful

  16. Dietary intake and nutritional status of children and adolescents in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Janet; Agostoni, Carlo; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Hulshof, Karin; Krause, Edburga; Livingstone, Barbara; Socha, Piotr; Pannemans, Daphne; Samartín, Sonia

    2004-10-01

    other trends between countries were noted, but there were also wide variations within countries. A number of validation studies have shown that misreporting is a major problem in dietary surveys of children and adolescents and so all the dietary data collected for this project should be interpreted and evaluated with caution. In addition, dietary studies rely on food composition tables for the conversion of food intake data to estimated nutrient intakes and each country uses a different set of food composition data which differ in definitions, analytical methods, units and modes of expression. This can make comparisons between countries difficult and inaccurate. Methods of measuring food intake are not standardised across Europe and intake data are generally poor, so there are uncertainties over the true nutrient intakes of children and adolescents across Europe. There are insufficient data on status to be able to be able to draw any conclusions about the nutritional quality of the diets of European children and adolescents.

  17. [Effects of the nutritional education and dietary intervention on nutritional status and bone mineral density of middle-aged and senile patients with osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunyan; Zhou, Ruihua; Tian, Yongzhi; Tang, Yongmei; Ning, Hongzhen; Liu, Haiyan

    2016-03-01

    To study the effect of the nutritional education and dietary intervention on nutritional status and bone mineral density (BMD) of middle-aged and senile patients with osteoporosis. Ninty middle-aged and senile osteoporosis patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups (intervention and control group) with 45 cases each. The control group was received conventional therapy and the intervention group added with nutritional education and dietary intervention for six months on the basis of conventional therapy. The methods of education and intervention included seminars, brochures distribution, dietary survey and individual guidance. The nutritional status and BMD were analyzed at the beginning and the end of the intervention respectively. After the intervention, the ratios of subjects whose intake of grain, vegetables, fruits, eggs, milk and beans in line with recommended intake of the intervention group were higher than those of the control group (P < 0.05). After the intervention, frequencies of coarse grain, dairy, beans and seafood consumption of the intervention group were higher than those of the control group (P < 0.05). After the intervention, the daily intakes of protein, VA, VC, calcium, zinc, magnesium, dietary fiber of the intervention group were significantly superior to the control group (P < 0.05). BMDs of lumbar spine and femoral neck in the intervention group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). The nutritional education and dietary intervention could promote middle-aged and senile patients' reasonable diet, improve their nutritional status, enhance bone mineral density and improve the effect of conventional therapy for osteoporosis.

  18. Usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Block, Gladys; Jensen, Christopher D; Norkus, Edward P; Dalvi, Tapashi B; Wong, Les G; McManus, Jamie F; Hudes, Mark L

    2007-01-01

    Background Dietary supplement use in the United States is prevalent and represents an important source of nutrition. However, little is known about individuals who routinely consume multiple dietary supplements. This study describes the dietary supplement usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users, and where possible makes comparisons to non-users and multivitamin/mineral supplement users. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, information was obtained by online questionnaires and physical examination (fasting blood, blood pressure, body weight) from a convenience sample of long-term users of multiple dietary supplements manufactured by Shaklee Corporation (Multiple Supp users, n = 278). Data for non-users (No Supp users, n = 602) and multivitamin/mineral supplement users (Single Supp users, n = 176) were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2002 and NHANES III 1988–1994. Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results Dietary supplements consumed on a daily basis by more than 50% of Multiple Supp users included a multivitamin/mineral, B-complex, vitamin C, carotenoids, vitamin E, calcium with vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, flavonoids, lecithin, alfalfa, coenzyme Q10 with resveratrol, glucosamine, and a herbal immune supplement. The majority of women also consumed gamma linolenic acid and a probiotic supplement, whereas men also consumed zinc, garlic, saw palmetto, and a soy protein supplement. Serum nutrient concentrations generally increased with increasing dietary supplement use. After adjustment for age, gender, income, education and body mass index, greater degree of supplement use was associated with more favorable concentrations of serum homocysteine, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as lower risk of prevalent elevated blood pressure and diabetes

  19. Assessment of dietary intake and nutritional status (MNA) in Polish free-living elderly people from rural environments.

    PubMed

    Wyka, Joanna; Biernat, Jadwiga; Mikołajczak, Jolanta; Piotrowska, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of elderly people in the global population is rapidly increasing. Their nutritional status indicates many deficiencies that are risky to health. The aim of this paper was to assess the nutrition and nutritional status in elderly individuals above 60 years old living in their family houses in rural areas. Dietary intake and nutritional status were measured in 174 elderly women and 64 men living in the rural areas of Oleśnica (near Wrocław, SW Poland). Energy intake, consumption of nutrients, selected anthropometric and biochemical indicators, were measured in two groups: one at risk of malnutrition and one with adequate nutrition. Using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) questionnaire, 238 persons over 60 years of age were qualified according to their nutritional status. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. The group of women at risk of malnutrition (n=30) showed a statistically significantly lower energy intake in their diet (1,127 kcal) compared to women with adequate nutrition (1,351 kcal). The entire group of examined individuals showed a too low consumption of fiber, calcium, vitamins C and D, and folates. Most of the examined women had a too high body mass index (BMI) (on average 28.8), waist circumference was 96.3 cm, and the triceps skinfold (TSF) was 25.2mm thick. Women at a risk of malnutrition had statistically significantly lower lipid parameters than those with adequate nutrition (respectively: TC 191.1 vs. 219.1m/dl, p<0.001, LDL-cholesterol 107.1 vs. 125.1m/dl, p<0.008, TG 129 vs. 143 mg/dl). Men with a risk of malnutrition had a statistically significantly lower BMI (26.0 vs. 28.7, p<0.04), and also lower waist and arm perimeters compared to men with correct nutrition. According to the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), 8.2% of person with adequate nutrition had poor prognostic indicator for overall survival. All the examined individuals showed many significant nutritional deficiencies. The group with

  20. Dietary, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical assessment of the nutritional status of centenarians and elderly people in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y C; Suzuki, M; Yamamoto, S

    1997-06-01

    The population of old people has increased and nutritional disorders are common among them. The assessment of nutritional status and dietary intakes of this population is necessary in order to improve their nutritional status and reduce risk to infection and mortality. In the present study, data on the nutritional status of healthy elderly and centenarians is provided. Participants were free-living healthy volunteers (39 centenarians; 11 male and 28 female and 44 elderly in their 70s; 13 male and 31 female). Their nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric measurements, hematological and biochemical variables. Activities of daily living (ADL) of 11 items were scored depending upon their activities with a maximum score of 5.0. Dietary survey by food recording was done for 2 days and food models were used to obtain the best estimate of food intake. Energy and nutrient intakes were compared with Japanese recommended dietary allowances (RDAs). The elderly had complete independence of physical activities, good sensory function and cognitive abilities. The physical activities of male centenarians were between the category of completely independent and independent but slow. In female centenarian participants, their physical activities were independent but slow or independent with difficulty. The functions of auditory acuity and eyesight of the centenarians were poor but their cognitive abilities were still good. The elderly subjects had short stature whereas their body weight and body mass index (BMI) were not low, especially among the women, compelling female elderly to reduce their food intake to control the weight. Energy intake of female centenarians was low. The ADL in the female centenarians was positively related to energy, suggesting that the low energy intake of the female centenarians was mainly due to their low ADL. Anthropometric, hematological and biochemical variables of the centenarians were lower or near the lower reference limit except serum lipids

  1. Nutritional status of cancer patients in chemotherapy; dietary intake, nitrogen balance and screening

    PubMed Central

    Gudny Geirsdottir, Olof; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a short screening sheet (SSM) for malnutrition and to investigate the nutritional status of patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer of the lungs, colon or breast at an outpatient clinic. Design Full nutritional assessment was conducted to define malnutrition and validate the SSM. Additionally, weight change from earlier healthy weight was evaluated, and calculations for intake of energy-giving nutrients (three-day-weighed food records) and protein balance were performed. After the evaluation study, the SSM was tested in clinical routine and data collected about patients’ need for nutritional counseling. Subjects Patients at the outpatient clinic of the Department of Oncology at Landspitali-University Hospital (n=30 with lung-, colon- or breast cancer in the study population, n=93 with all cancer type in clinical routine screening). Results Malnutrition was defined by full nutritional assessment in 20% of the participating patients and SSM had high sensitivity and specificity. Declining nutritional status of the patients was seen as a negative nitrogen balance and unintentional weight loss from healthy weight, but not as total energy intake, recent weight loss or underweight. The test of SSM in clinical routine showed that 40% were malnourished. According to the patients, 80% needed nutritional counseling but only 17% had such counseling. Conclusion Screening (SSM) for malnutrition in cancer patients is a valid simple approach to define cancer patients for nutritional care. More patients regard themselves in need for nutritional counseling than the number of patients really achieving any. PMID:19158940

  2. Investigation into the nutritional status, dietary intake and smoking habits of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, W J; Afolabi, O A

    2004-02-01

    Weight loss and reduced fat-free mass are prevalent amongst patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the causes of this weight loss are not clear. The aims of this study are to investigate the factors affecting body weight and dietary intake in a group of outpatients with COPD, and to investigate any differences between adequately nourished and malnourished patients. In 103 stable outpatients, nutritional status was assessed using Body Mass Index (BMI) and upper arm anthropometry. Lung function, smoking status, exercise tolerance, dietary intake, dietary problems and health-related quality of life were assessed. Patients were classed as either adequately nourished or malnourished. Twenty-three per cent of subjects were classed as malnourished. The malnourished subjects had lower lung function measurements, suffered more dietary problems and had lower nutritional intake compared with the adequately nourished subjects. They also had poorer fatigue scores. In linear regression analysis, the factors that had the most effect on BMI were a low transfer factor, presence of early satiety, and being a current smoker. Important differences were found between adequately nourished and malnourished subjects. These differences move us closer to understanding how best to screen and treat this group of patients.

  3. Quantitative estimates of dietary intake with special emphasis on snacking pattern and nutritional status of free living adults in urban slums of Delhi: impact of nutrition transition

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Archna; Gupta, Vidhu; Ghosh, Arpita; Lock, Karen; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna

    2016-01-01

    Background The nutritional landscape of India is experiencing the fallout of urbanization and globalization. The changes are manifest in dietary patterns as well as health outcomes. The study aimed at assessing household dietary intake pattern with special emphasis on snacking pattern, anthropometric and lipid profiles in low socio-economic status households in an urban slum of Delhi. Methods Community based cross-sectional study in 260 households of a purposively selected urban slum in North-East district of Delhi, India. Family dietary surveys including consumption pattern of commercial food products rich in Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils (PHVOs), 24 h dietary recall and assessment of dietary diversity using Household Diet Diversity Scores (HDDS) were done. Assessment of nutritional status using anthropometric and lipid profile on a subsample (n =130) were also conducted. Results Median energy and fat intake were adequate. Micronutrient intake was found to be inadequate for vitamin A, riboflavin, calcium and folate. PHVO usage was low (<20 % households). Milk (39 %), green leafy vegetables (25 %) and fruits (25 %) intake were below recommendations. Mean HDDS was 7.87. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was high (66.7 %). Lipid profile showed mean HDL-C levels lower than recommendations for females. Conclusion Community based awareness programs for prevention of non-communicable diseases should incorporate healthy diet and lifestyle practices with emphasis on quantity and quality of nutrient intake. This must be considered as an integral part of chronic disease prevention strategy for underprivileged communities in urban India. PMID:26918196

  4. Quantitative estimates of dietary intake with special emphasis on snacking pattern and nutritional status of free living adults in urban slums of Delhi: impact of nutrition transition.

    PubMed

    Singh, Archna; Gupta, Vidhu; Ghosh, Arpita; Lock, Karen; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna

    2015-10-14

    The nutritional landscape of India is experiencing the fallout of urbanization and globalization. The changes are manifest in dietary patterns as well as health outcomes. The study aimed at assessing household dietary intake pattern with special emphasis on snacking pattern, anthropometric and lipid profiles in low socio-economic status households in an urban slum of Delhi. Community based cross-sectional study in 260 households of a purposively selected urban slum in North-East district of Delhi, India. Family dietary surveys including consumption pattern of commercial food products rich in Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils (PHVOs), 24 h dietary recall and assessment of dietary diversity using Household Diet Diversity Scores (HDDS) were done. Assessment of nutritional status using anthropometric and lipid profile on a subsample (n =130) were also conducted. Median energy and fat intake were adequate. Micronutrient intake was found to be inadequate for vitamin A, riboflavin, calcium and folate. PHVO usage was low (<20 % households). Milk (39 %), green leafy vegetables (25 %) and fruits (25 %) intake were below recommendations. Mean HDDS was 7.87. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was high (66.7 %). Lipid profile showed mean HDL-C levels lower than recommendations for females. Community based awareness programs for prevention of non-communicable diseases should incorporate healthy diet and lifestyle practices with emphasis on quantity and quality of nutrient intake. This must be considered as an integral part of chronic disease prevention strategy for underprivileged communities in urban India.

  5. Dietary behaviors and nutritional status of adolescents in a remote rural area of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Areekul, Wirote; Viravathana, Nantaporn; Aimpun, Pote; Watthanakijthavongkul, Khanin; Khruacharooen, Jakkapong; Awaiwanont, Abhinant; Khumtuikhrua, Chaowanan; Silsrikul, Pichayen; Nilrat, Pawarid; Saksoong, Saksit; Watthanatham, Jirawat; Suwannahitatorn, Picha; Sirimaneethum, Pornsirin; Meeprom, Natee; Somboonruangsri, Wuttiwong; Pongmanee, Koonphol; Rangsin, Ram

    2005-11-01

    Nutritional status among adolescents is an important health indicator. The up-to-date information about nutritional status and food consumption pattern in the remote rural area is required for the effective public health intervention in the rural area of the country. The present study aimed to demonstrate the prevalence of malnutrition, eating behavior and nutritional knowledge among secondary school students in a remote rural area in Thailand. Body weight and height data were collected from 298 secondary school students for nutritional status calculation using the Institute of Nutrition Research, Mahidol University, INMU-Thaigrowth program. Eating behavior and nutritional knowledge were observed by self-administrated questionnaires. The prevalence low height-for-age (<-2SD) 6.1% and it was 0.7% for low weight-for-height (<-2SD). Fruits (69%) and vegetables (79.4%) consumptions were in the high level. The authors found that the students always consumed commercial snacks especially salted chips more often than regular Thai dessert (74.0% VS 52.3%). The inappropriate behavior found in the present study included always drinking caffeine beverage (43.5%), always drinking alcoholic beverage (6.5%) and always consuming instant noodles (64.4%). The prevalence of malnutrition was low among this population. The studied population had a fair knowledge about nutrition. The authoes found that regular consumption of highly commercialized snack products especially salted chips and instant noodles were at a high level in this remote rural area of Thailand. The pattern of nutritional problems in Thailand may have changed in which a public health program for children in rural areas of the country should recognize this transition.

  6. Racial and ethnic differences in mortality of hemodialysis patients: role of dietary and nutritional status and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Noori, Nazanin; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Dukkipati, Ramanath; Feroze, Usama; Molnar, Miklos Z; Bross, Rachelle; Nissenson, Allen R; Kopple, Joel D; Norris, Keith C; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2011-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities prevail among hemodialysis patients. We hypothesized that significant differences exist between Black and non-Hispanic and Hispanic White hemodialysis patients in nutritional status, dietary intake and inflammation, and that they account for racial survival disparities. In a 6-year (2001-2007) cohort of 799 hemodialysis patients, we compared diet and surrogates of nutritional-inflammatory status and their mortality-predictabilities between 279 Blacks and 520 Whites using matched and regression analyses and Cox with cubic splines. In age-, gender- and diabetes-matched analyses, Blacks had higher lean body mass and serum prealbumin, creatinine and homocysteine levels than Whites. In case-mix-adjusted analyses, dietary intakes in Blacks versus Whites were higher in energy (+293 ± 119 cal/day) and fat (+18 ± 5 g/day), but lower in fiber (-2.9 ± 1.3 g/day) than Whites. In both races, higher serum albumin, prealbumin and creatinine were associated with greater survival, whereas CRP and IL-6, but not TNF-α, were associated with increased mortality. The highest (vs. lowest) quartile of IL-6 was associated with a 2.4-fold (95% CI: 1.3-3.8) and 4.1-fold (2.2-7.2) higher death risk in Blacks and Whites, respectively. Significant racial disparities exist in dietary, nutritional and inflammatory measures, which may contribute to hemodialysis outcome disparities. Testing race-specific dietary and/or anti-inflammatory interventions is indicated. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Remodelling of the hepatic epigenetic landscape of glucose-intolerant rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by nutritional status and dietary carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Marandel, Lucie; Lepais, Olivier; Arbenoits, Eva; Véron, Vincent; Dias, Karine; Zion, Marie; Panserat, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The rainbow trout, a carnivorous fish, displays a ‘glucose-intolerant’ phenotype revealed by persistent hyperglycaemia when fed a high carbohydrate diet (HighCHO). Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene activity and is closely related to environmental changes and thus to metabolism adjustments governed by nutrition. In this study we first assessed in the trout liver whether and how nutritional status affects global epigenome modifications by targeting DNA methylation and histone marks previously reported to be affected in metabolic diseases. We then examined whether dietary carbohydrates could affect the epigenetic landscape of duplicated gluconeogenic genes previously reported to display changes in mRNA levels in trout fed a high carbohydrate diet. We specifically highlighted global hypomethylation of DNA and hypoacetylation of H3K9 in trout fed a HighCHO diet, a well-described phenotype in diabetes. g6pcb2 ohnologs were also hypomethylated at specific CpG sites in these animals according to their up-regulation. Our findings demonstrated that the hepatic epigenetic landscape can be affected by both nutritional status and dietary carbohydrates in trout. The mechanism underlying the setting up of these epigenetic modifications has now to be explored in order to improve understanding of its impact on the glucose intolerant phenotype in carnivorous teleosts. PMID:27561320

  8. Effect of nutritional status and dietary patterns on human serum C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 concentrations.

    PubMed

    Smidowicz, Angelika; Regula, Julita

    2015-11-01

    The inflammatory process plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, and metabolic syndrome. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are widely tested inflammatory markers involved in the development of these diseases. Several studies indicate a relation between nutritional status and the concentrations of human high-sensitivity CRP and IL-6. Similarly, the role of diet in reducing inflammation and thereby modulating the risk of non-communicable diseases is supported by numerous studies. This review focuses on the effects of the selected nutrition models in humans on the concentrations of CRP and IL-6. It seems that the Mediterranean diet model is most effective in inhibiting inflammation. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension model and the plant nutrition model also have proven to be beneficial. The data on low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets are inconclusive. Comprehensive studies are necessary, taking into account the cumulative effect of dietary and other factors on the inflammatory process. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Dietary habits and nutritional status in adolescents over Europe. An overview of current studies in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Samuelson, G

    2000-03-01

    To give an overview of the dietary habits among adolescents in the Nordic countries and to present results from studies showing the relationship between dietary habits and other lifestyle factors, nutritional status and socio-economic conditions. A number of nutritional studies among adolescents performed during recent decades using recalls, dietary records and food frequency questionnaire. Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Adolescents aged 13-18 y. Food habits are characterized by an irregular meal pattern; many adolescents skip breakfast and also the school lunch, whereas most of them have dinner. However, snacking and light meals are very common, contributing 25-35% of the daily energy intake. Smoking is linked to their dietary habits as well as socio-economic conditions. Dietary intakes of vitamins and minerals are adequate for normal health and growth. Dietary calcium intake is high, whereas the intake of fibre, vitamin D, zinc and selenium and, in girls, iron is below the Nordic recommendations. Relatively low prevalence figures of iron deficiency were found. Many studies show a decrease over time in physical activity. The time spent in sedentary activities, such as television and video watching and computer games has increased during recent decades. Overweight and obesity are becoming more prevalent in all the Nordic countries, even though the prevalence figures are far below those in the USA. On the other hand, dieting girls are common, which might be a factor behind their irregular meal pattern and food choice. In a perspective, overweight and diseases attributable to obesity will be an immense challenge in the coming decades for both the individuals and the society as well.

  10. Dietary intake and nutritional status of micronutrients in adults with cystic fibrosis in relation to current recommendations.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Somerset, Shawn

    2016-08-01

    An increased prevalence of cystic fibrosis (CF) related complications such as impaired bone health and diabetes has accompanied increased survival of patients with CF. This review was conducted to determine the extent to which adults with CF are meeting current nutrition recommendations for micronutrients in association with CF-related complications management. Although dietary intake and nutritional status in CF has improved significantly in recent decades, micronutrient status seems to have diverged. While vitamin A and E intakes appear adequate, frequent vitamin D and K deficiency/insufficiency and compromised bone health in CF, occurs despite supplementation. Although deficiency of water-soluble vitamins and minerals is uncommon, ongoing surveillance will enhance overall health outcomes, particularly in cases of CF-related liver disease and deteriorated lung function and bone health. Salt and fluid status in CF may also need attention due to diminished thirst sensation and voluntary rehydration. Further investigation in micronutrient status optimisation in CF will inform the development of more effective and targeted nutrition therapies to enable integration of more refined recommendations for micronutrient intakes in CF based on individual needs and disease progression.

  11. Nutritional status, dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and self-care assessment in a group of older adults attending community centres in Pavia, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Turconi, G; Rossi, M; Roggi, C; Maccarini, L

    2013-02-01

    The population of industrialised countries is ageing as a consequence of an increase in life expectancy. As a result of the increasing ageing process, the assessment of nutritional status and dietary habits, as well as the assessment of self-care, is needed to plan selected actions aimed at improving the quality of life in the third and fourth life spans. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a randomly selected sample of 200 healthy older adults (≥65 years old), attending community centres for older people in Pavia, Northern Italy. Ninety-two percent of the recruited subjects participated in the survey. Anthropometric measurements and the Mini Nutritional Assessment were performed. Dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and self-care were investigated using a questionnaire administered by two dietitians. The majority of subjects were low socio-economic status and overweight [mean (SD) body mass index = 28.4 (4.3) kg/m(2) ], 12% were malnourished according to their Mini Nutritional Assessment score and the majority of the arm muscle circumference measurements were below the 10th percentile, predicting accelerated loss of lean mass, even in the healthy independently living older adults. Only 30% of the sample had adequate dietary habits, whereas the ability to self-care was good for the whole sample. The unhealthy and unbalanced diet, frequently too rich in sugar and fats and low in protein intake, might explain being overweight and the loss of lean mass in the study subjects. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  12. [Dietary patterns and selected anthropometric parameters of nutritional status of men between 20 and 60 years old from Krakow population].

    PubMed

    Gacek, Maria; Chrzanowska, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of research was to analyze relations between dietary patterns and anthropometric parameters of nutritional status among working men, living in big city population. Tests involved a group of 1451 men between 20 and 60 years old, employed in Steelworks of T. Sendzimir (HTS) in Krakow, Poland. Comparison was done for average values of anthropometric indexes of men in sections of 10 years of age and two categories of persons--of the least (I section) and of the most reasonable nutrition choices (II section). Research pointed out the relation between the quality measurement of nutrition method and some of anthropometric indexes of nutritional status. In selected sections of the least and of the most reasonable nutrition choices there were no differences between average values of 4 skinfolds, waist and arm perimeter, Waist to Hip Ratio distribution index (WHR) and average values of Fat Free Mass (FFM). Unawares characteristically higher average values of BMI were found at men of 20-30 years old (23.91 vs. 25.45 kg/m2, p < 0.05) and 50-60 years old (26.42 vs. 28.00 kg/m2, p = 0.01) declaring more rational nutrition behaviors. Similar regularity was ascertained for percentage of body fat tissue (%BF); higher nutrition habit mark is accompanied with higher average value of %BF at 20-30 years old (15.17 vs. 18.24%, p < 0.01) and 50-60 years old (22.76 vs. 25.01, p < 0.05).

  13. Caregiver's education level, not income, as determining factor of dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals cared for at home.

    PubMed

    Correa, B; Leandro Merhi, V A; Pagotto Fogaca, K; Marques de Oliveira, M R

    2009-08-01

    Home care should intervene in the nutritional status of the elderly. To analyze the nutritional status of the elderly assisted by a Home Care Program (PAD) and associate it with income and education level of the caregiver. Thirty-four individuals of both genders who received home care from PAD. The MNA (Mini Nutritional Assessment) was used along with arm circumference. Dietary intake assessment was done with three 24-hour recalls in non-consecutive days. We collected data on income, education level of the caregiver and user in years of formal education and autonomy of user. The differences between the proportions of the nominal variables were tested by the chi-square test. The continuous variables were tested for normality and if normal, the Student's t-test or ANOVA was applied. The adopted significance level was P < 0.05. The studied sample represented individuals older than 65 years, assisted by PAD and 100% dependent on the caregiver. MNA revealed that 38.2% of the users were malnourished and 61.8% were at risk for malnourishment. Energy, fiber, vitamin E, calcium and zinc intakes were inadequate. Education level of the caregivers was a determining factor (P=0.01) for the nutritional status of the elderly while no association was found with respect to income. These findings allows us to conclude that the nutritional status of this population is worrisome and that it may be associated with low quality of life influenced by the education level of the caregiver, but also by age, economic conditions and limited autonomy of this population.

  14. Association between rice consumption and selected indicators of dietary and nutritional status using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen; Luo, Hanqi

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating whether white rice, brown rice, and rice flour consumption has any association with selected measures of dietary intake and nutritional status, including various variables of energy intake, major vitamin and mineral intakes, weigh status, blood pressure, cholesterol level, and serum folate level for adults 20 years and older. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 and the Food Commodity Intake Database were used. Rice consumers had a significantly higher energy intake, yet they had lower percentage calorie intake from fat and saturated fat. Rice consumers also had significantly higher intakes of a range of nutrients. Rice consumers had lower waist circumference, triceps skinfold, and were significantly more likely to have a body mass index less than or equal to 25.

  15. Dietary pattern, nutritional status, anaemia and anaemia-related knowledge in urban adolescent college girls of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Yearul; Shahjalal, Hussain Mohammad; Saleh, Farzana; Obaid, Wahida

    2010-08-01

    To examine dietary pattern and nutritional status of adolescent college girls of Dhaka, Bangladesh with a particular focus on the prevalence of anaemia and appropriate knowledge about it among them. A cross sectional study was conducted. Sixty-five adolescent girls aged 15-19 years were selected randomly from Home Economics college of Dhaka. A 7-day food frequency questionnaire was used to investigate the dietary pattern. Nutrient intake of the participants was assessed by 24h recall method. Habitual dietary pattern indicated poor consumption of milk, liver and leafy vegetables. Food intake data revealed a deficit of 473 kcal/day in energy. Mean intake of carbohydrate and fat were lower than RDA; while protein, iron, vitamin A and vitamin C intakes were much higher. Anthropometric data indicated that 63% of the girls were stunted (height-for-age < 95% of NCHS reference values) and 45% were underweight (weight-for-age < 75% of NCHS reference values). The prevalence of anaemia (Hb < 12 g/dl) among the participants was 23%. About 17% had low serum iron (< 40 microg/dl), 23% showed evidence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis (Transferrin Saturation < 15%) and only 8% had vitamin C deficiency (< 0.29 mg/dl). About 65% of the participants had correct knowledge about the causes of anaemia; while 72.3% and 80% respectively, knew about the prevention and treatment of anaemia. Surprisingly, 73.8% of the participants were not aware about the sources of iron-rich foods. Results indicate an overall poor nutritional status of the urban adolescent college girls in Bangladesh and need for appropriate nutrition interventions to overcome the problem.

  16. Dietary intake patterns and nutritional status of women of reproductive age in Nepal: findings from a health survey.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Shiva; Sayami, Jamuna Tamrakar; Thapa, Pukar; Sayami, Matina; Kandel, Bishnu Prasad; Banjara, Megha Raj

    2016-01-01

    Improper dietary intake pattern in women of reproductive age in Nepal has resulted in the deficiency of essential nutrients. Adequate nutritional status and proper dietary intake pattern of women improves maternal and child health. The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status and dietary intake pattern among the women and associated factors. Data collection at households and health check-up camps were conducted in selected Village Development Committees of nine districts in three ecological regions (Mountain, Hill and Terai) of Nepal from September 2011 to August 2012. Women of reproductive age (15 to 49 years) were the study subjects. At the household interview, structured questionnaires were used to obtain information on socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, dietary intake pattern, consumption of junk foods, animal rearing, agricultural products, possession of kitchen garden, pregnancy status and anemia. Dietary intake pattern was determined by information collected through the structured questionnaires comprising of food items-cereals, pulses/legumes, vegetables, meat, fruits and milk and milk products. Health check-up camps were conducted in the local health facilities where qualified doctors, nurses and laboratory technicians performed physical examination of the women, confirmed their pregnancy and conducted hematocrit tests. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS. Altogether 21,111 women were interviewed. More than a quarter of the women in Terai were malnourished as indicated by low body mass index (BMI < 18.5 Kg/m(2)). Among the dietary intake pattern, the majority of women consumed cereals at least once a day in all three ecological regions. The majority of women in Mountain consumed pulses/legumes thrice a week. In Terai, the majority of women consumed vegetables thrice a week. In all three ecological regions, the majority of women consumed meat and meat products and fruits once a week. About thirty

  17. Nutritional Status and Habitual Dietary Intake Are Associated with Frail Skin Conditions in Community-Dwelling Older People.

    PubMed

    Iizaka, S; Nagata, S; Sanada, H

    2017-01-01

    Prevention of frail skin is important in older people because frail skin is associated with a risk of injury in this population. In this study, we investigated the association of nutritional status and habitual dietary intake with skin conditions in community-dwelling older people. Cross-sectional study. Three community settings in Japan from autumn to winter. Older people aged ≥65 years without care-need certification (n=118). Malnutrition and obesity were evaluated to assess the nutritional status. Nutrient and food group intakes per 1000 kcal were evaluated using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary patterns based on food groups were evaluated by principal component analysis. Skin condition parameters, including stratum corneum hydration, appearance of xerosis (specific symptom sum score [SRRC score]), and dermal intensity by high-frequency ultrasonography, were measured on a lower leg. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed with adjustment for confounders. The mean (standard deviation) age was 74.1 (4.8) years, and 83.1% of participants were female. A higher intake of plant fat (p=0.018) was associated with a lower SRRC score. Higher intakes of α-tocopherol (p=0.050) and vitamin C (p=0.017) were associated with increased dermal intensity. A body mass index ≥25 (p=0.016) was associated with decreased dermal intensity. A dietary pattern characterized by higher vegetable and fruit intake was associated with a better skin condition. Plant fat, antioxidant vitamins, and a dietary pattern characterized by vegetables and fruits showed positive and obesity showed negative associations for frail skin in community-dwelling older people.

  18. Dietary and anthropometric indicators of nutritional status in relation to Helicobacter pylori infection in a paediatric population.

    PubMed

    Janjetic, Mariana A; Mantero, Paula; Cueto Rua, Eduardo; Balcarce, Norma; Zerbetto de Palma, Gerardo; Catalano, Mariana; Zubillaga, Marcela B; Boccio, José R; Goldman, Cinthia G

    2015-04-14

    It has been postulated that Helicobacter pylori infection could affect growth and appetite, consequently influencing body weight. Therefore, the association between H. pylori infection and the dietary and anthropometric indicators of nutritional status of a paediatric population were investigated. A total of 525 children (aged 4-16 years) who were referred to the gastroenterology unit of the Sor Maria Ludovica Children's Hospital from Buenos Aires, Argentina, were enrolled and completed an epidemiological questionnaire. H. pylori infection was diagnosed using the ¹³C-urea breath test (¹³C-UBT). Height and weight were assessed for calculation of anthropometric indicators. Energy and macronutrient intakes were estimated by 24 h dietary recall. Data analysis was performed using a χ² test, a Student's t test, a Mann-Whitney U test and linear and logistic regressions. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 25·1 % (with a mean age of 10·1 (SD 3·1) years). A tendency towards lower energy, carbohydrate, protein and fat intakes was observed in infected patients; however, it was not associated with H. pylori infection in any of the evaluated age groups (4-8, 9-13 and 14-16 years). Underweight, stunting, overweight and obesity were also not associated with the infection. Although height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z scores tended to be lower in infected patients, the differences between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative children were not statistically significant. In conclusion, H. pylori infection was not associated with dietary intake or with anthropometric indicators in the present population of children with gastrointestinal symptoms; however, an increased sample size would be needed to confirm the observed tendency towards lower dietary intake and lower anthropometric indicators of nutritional status in H. pylori-infected children.

  19. Effect of Nutritional Status and Dietary Patterns on Human Serum C-Reactive Protein and Interleukin-6 Concentrations12

    PubMed Central

    Smidowicz, Angelika; Regula, Julita

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory process plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, and metabolic syndrome. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are widely tested inflammatory markers involved in the development of these diseases. Several studies indicate a relation between nutritional status and the concentrations of human high-sensitivity CRP and IL-6. Similarly, the role of diet in reducing inflammation and thereby modulating the risk of non-communicable diseases is supported by numerous studies. This review focuses on the effects of the selected nutrition models in humans on the concentrations of CRP and IL-6. It seems that the Mediterranean diet model is most effective in inhibiting inflammation. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension model and the plant nutrition model also have proven to be beneficial. The data on low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets are inconclusive. Comprehensive studies are necessary, taking into account the cumulative effect of dietary and other factors on the inflammatory process. PMID:26567198

  20. Nutritional status and dietary intake among pregnant women in relation to pre-pregnancy body mass index in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uno, Kaoru; Takemi, Yukari; Hayashi, Fumi; Hosokawa, Momo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study examined nutritional status and dietary intake of pregnant women in Japan in relation to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI).Methods Participants included 141 Japanese women with singleton pregnancies, from the outpatient department of the S hospital, Gunma prefecture, Japan. Two-day food records, dietary assessment questionnaires, and clinical records were obtained at 20 weeks gestation. Nine patients were excluded from the study due to morning sickness. The remaining 132 participants were divided into 3 groups according to pre-pregnancy BMI: underweight, normal weight, and overweight. Nutritional status and dietary intake were analyzed in relation to BMI using the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Kruskal-Wallis test, one-way analysis of variance, and analysis of covariance with adjustment for age, employment status, and total energy intake.Results Women who were underweight before pregnancy were more frequently working full-time than normal weight and overweight women. Underweight women were also more frequently anemic (P=0.038, underweight 39.3%, normal weight 24.7%, overweight 0%) and had lower mean hemoglobin (Hb) (P=0.021, underweight 11.3 g/dL, normal weight 11.6 g/dL, overweight 12.1 g/dL) and hematocrit (Hct) levels (P=0.025, underweight 33.7%, normal weight 34.3%, overweight 36.0%). Their dietary intake of protein, iron, magnesium, and folic acid was lower than that of normal weight and overweight women. Their meals tended to include fewer meat, fish, egg, and soybean dishes (underweight, mean of 4.7 servings per day; normal weight, 6.1 servings; overweight, 6.1 servings).Conclusion Pregnant women who were underweight before pregnancy had increased risk of anemia as well as reduced Hb and Hct levels. They had lower dietary intake of protein, iron and folic acid compared to women in the other BMI categories. Anemia and these nutrient deficiencies are known risk factors for low birth weight. Our findings suggest

  1. Away-from-home eating: nutritional status and dietary intake among Brazilian adults.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Junior, Eliseu Verly; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the association between eating away from home and BMI and to examine whether dietary intake differs based on the consumption of away-from-home food (AFHF). Data were obtained from the first Brazilian National Dietary Survey, using food records. The association between the percentage of energy provided by foods consumed away from home and BMI status was tested using logistic regression models. The mean percentages of energy provided by protein, fat, saturated fat and free sugars were calculated based on the consumption of foods away from home among AFHF consumers. Urban areas of Brazil. Adults (n 13 736) between 25 and 65 years old. AFHF was not associated with BMI status. Individuals who consumed AFHF had higher intakes of free sugars away from home than at home and had higher intakes of energy-dense foods than AFHF non-consumers. Although AFHF consumption was not related to overweight or obesity status, individuals who consumed foods away from home had higher intakes of energy-dense foods. Public health policies should be implemented to help people make healthier food choices away from home.

  2. The effect of a nutritional education program on the nutritional status of elderly patients in a long-term care hospital in Jeollanamdo province: health behavior, dietary behavior, nutrition risk level and nutrient intake

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bok Hee; Kim, Mi-Ju

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess improvements in nutritional status following the application of nutrition education to elderly patients in a long-term care hospital. The study was carried out from January to May 2009, during which a preliminary survey, a pretest, the application of nutrition education, and a post-test were applied in stages. The number of subjects at pretest was 81, and the number of participants included in the final analysis was 61 (18 men, 43 women), all of whom participated in both the nutrition education program and the post-test. The survey consisted of general demographic items, health behaviors, dietary behaviors, the Nutrition Screening Initiative checklist, and nutrient intake assessment (24 hour recall method). The nutrition education program lasted for four weeks. It included a basic education program, provided once a week, and mini-education program, which was offered daily during lunch times. The survey was conducted before and after the education program using the same assessment method, although some items were included only at pretest. When analyzing the changes in elderly patients after the nutritional education program, we found that, among subjective dietary behaviors, self-rated perceptions of health (P < 0.001) and of depression (P < 0.001) improved significantly and that dietary behavior scores also improved significantly (P < 0.001), while nutritional risk levels decreased. In terms of nutrient intake, subjects' intake of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C all increased significantly (P < 0.001). These results indicated that nutritional education is effective in improving the nutritional status of elderly patients. We hope that the results of this study can be used as preliminary data for establishing guidelines for nutrition management tailored to elderly patients in long-term care hospitals. PMID:22413039

  3. The effect of a nutritional education program on the nutritional status of elderly patients in a long-term care hospital in Jeollanamdo province: health behavior, dietary behavior, nutrition risk level and nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bok Hee; Kim, Mi-Ju; Lee, Yoonna

    2012-02-01

    This study was conducted to assess improvements in nutritional status following the application of nutrition education to elderly patients in a long-term care hospital. The study was carried out from January to May 2009, during which a preliminary survey, a pretest, the application of nutrition education, and a post-test were applied in stages. The number of subjects at pretest was 81, and the number of participants included in the final analysis was 61 (18 men, 43 women), all of whom participated in both the nutrition education program and the post-test. The survey consisted of general demographic items, health behaviors, dietary behaviors, the Nutrition Screening Initiative checklist, and nutrient intake assessment (24 hour recall method). The nutrition education program lasted for four weeks. It included a basic education program, provided once a week, and mini-education program, which was offered daily during lunch times. The survey was conducted before and after the education program using the same assessment method, although some items were included only at pretest. When analyzing the changes in elderly patients after the nutritional education program, we found that, among subjective dietary behaviors, self-rated perceptions of health (P < 0.001) and of depression (P < 0.001) improved significantly and that dietary behavior scores also improved significantly (P < 0.001), while nutritional risk levels decreased. In terms of nutrient intake, subjects' intake of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C all increased significantly (P < 0.001). These results indicated that nutritional education is effective in improving the nutritional status of elderly patients. We hope that the results of this study can be used as preliminary data for establishing guidelines for nutrition management tailored to elderly patients in long-term care hospitals.

  4. Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Boon Koon; Siti Haslinda, Mohd Din; Nik Shanita, Safii; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ng, Lai Oon; Khouw, Ilse; Norimah, A Karim

    2013-09-01

    The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8%) and obesity (11·8%) was higher than that of thinness (5·4%) and stunting (8·4%). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6%), serum ferritin (4·4%) and vitamin A (4·4%), but almost half the children (47·5%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency.

  5. Body image dissatisfaction and dietary patterns according to nutritional status in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Silva, Rita de Cássia; Fiaccone, Rosemeire Leovigildo; Conceição-Machado, Maria Ester Pereira da; Ruiz, Ana Santos; Barreto, Maurício Lima; Santana, Mônica Leila Portela

    2017-08-09

    There is a lack of data on the association between body self-perception and eating patterns in Brazil. Thus, this study aimed to explore the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and eating patterns by the anthropometric status in adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 1496 adolescents was conducted. The participants completed the Body Shape Questionnaire. Demographic, anthropometric, and socioeconomic data were collected, as well as information regarding the pubertal development and dietary intake. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the associations of interest. Body image dissatisfaction was identified in 19.5% of the adolescents. Three dietary patterns were identified: (1) the Western pattern was composed of sweets and sugars, soft drinks, typical dishes, pastries, fast food, beef, milk, and dairy products; (2) the Traditional pattern was composed of oils, chicken, fish, eggs, processed meat products, cereals (rice, cassava flour, pasta, etc.), baked beans, and bread; and (3) the Restrictive pattern was composed of granola, roots, vegetables, and fruit. Among overweight/obese adolescents, the data indicated a negative association of slight body image dissatisfaction (OR: 0.240 [0.100; 0.576]) and moderate body image dissatisfaction (OR: 0.235 [0.086; 0.645]) with the Western dietary pattern. Additionally, in this group, there was a positive association between high body image dissatisfaction and the Restrictive pattern (OR: 2.794 [1.178; 6.630]). Amongst overweight/obese adolescents, those with slight and moderate body image dissatisfaction were less likely to follow a Western-like dietary pattern when compared with those satisfied with their body image. Additionally, in this group, adolescents with high body image dissatisfaction was more likely to follow a restrictive pattern. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  6. [Investigation of nutritional status of pupils and dietary survey in primary schools in poor counties of Guangxi and Yunnan].

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenjing; Shen, Xiuhua; Mao, Xuanxia; Huang, Jingyan; Cai, Wei

    2013-07-01

    To understand the nutritional status of pupils and to provide basic evidence for the nutritional interventions. The subjects of the study were 2046 pupils from 9 primary schools in poor counties of Guangxi and Yunnan. The contents of the investigation included medical physical examination, haematoglobin determination and dietary survey. Nutritional Status was evaluated according to WHO growth standards. The prevalence of stunting and wasting in children from 6 to 14 years old in poor areas of Guangxi and Yunnan were 34.3% and 6.5% respectively. The anemia prevalence of them was 20.5%. The diet provided by the canteens of local school was mainly composed of plant food. Animal food was deficient. The cooking oil in local school was most of lard oil. The per pupil average daily intake of energy, protein, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin C and calcium was 1491.29 kcal, 36.36 g, 179.15 ug, 0.57 mg, 0.37 mg, 53.67 mg and 163.14 mg respectively, which were lower than RNI or Al. The chronic malnutrition of pupils in poor areas is still serious. The variety of food provided by the canteens of local school is quite single, and the quality of the meals is low. Intakes of energy, protein and micronutrient from school diet are insufficient for pupils.

  7. Dietary practices and nutritional status of under-five children in rural and urban communities of Lagos State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Senbanjo, Idowu O.; Olayiwola, Ibiyemi O.; Afolabi, Wasiu A. O.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence shows that urban children generally have a better nutritional status than their rural counterparts. However, data establishing whether this difference in prevalence of undernutrition could be ascribed to difference in dietary practices are few. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare dietary practices and nutritional status of children in rural and urban communities of Lagos State, Nigeria. Methods: This was a comparative-analytical study conducted using the multistage sampling technique to select the study cases. A total of 300 mother–child pairs were studied, including 150 each from rural and urban communities. Data collected include demographics, socioeconomic characteristics, feeding practices and anthropometric measurements of the participants. Food intake data were collected using 24-h dietary recall. Malnutrition in children was determined by calculating the prevalence of low height-for-age (stunting), low weight-for-age (underweight), and low weight-for-height (wasting) using the World Health Organization cutoff points. Results: The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (25.3% vs. 28.7%; P = 0.516), use of formula feeds (48.7% vs. 44%; P = 0.077), and mean age of child at introduction of semisolid foods (7.54 ± 4.0 months vs. 8.51 ± 7.3 months; P = 0.117) were not significantly different between urban and rural communities. The diversity of food choices and frequencies of consumption were similar between urban and rural communities. However, prevalence levels of underweight and stunted children were significantly higher in rural than that of urban communities (19.4% vs. 9.3%, P < 0.001 and 43.3% vs. 12.6%, P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Other risk factors besides inappropriate feeding practices need to be considered for higher prevalence of undernutrition among children in rural communities. PMID:27942096

  8. Dietary diversity scores and nutritional status of women change during the seasonal food shortage in rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Savy, Mathilde; Martin-Prével, Yves; Traissac, Pierre; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Delpeuch, Francis

    2006-10-01

    In developing countries, dietary diversity is usually assessed during a single yearly period and the effects of seasonal variations remain unknown. We studied these variations in women living in a Sahelian rural area (Burkina Faso). A representative sample of 550 women was surveyed at the beginning and at the end of the seasonal cereal shortage in April and September 2003, respectively. For each season, a dietary diversity score (DDS) representing the number of food groups consumed over a 24-h period, was computed and nutritional status was assessed by the BMI. The DDS increased from 3.4 +/- 1.1 to 3.8 +/- 1.5 food groups between the beginning and the end of the shortage season (P < 0.0001), and the proportion of women exhibiting low DDS decreased from 31.6 to 8.1%. This was due to the consumption of foods available during the cereal shortage season and despite the decrease in the consumption of some purchased foods. The increase in DDS was lower in women for whom DDS was already high in April and vice versa. Over the same period, the percentage of underweight women (BMI <18.5 kg/m(2)) increased from 11.1 to 17.1%. The relation between DDS and the women's socioeconomic characteristics or nutritional status was weakened in September. Thus, in April, fewer women were underweight when their DDS was high than when it was medium or low [odds ratio = 0.3 (0.2; 0.6)], but not in September [odds ratio = 0.6 (0.3; 1.0)]. In such a context, it would be useful to measure dietary diversity at the beginning of the cereal shortage season, when many women exhibit low DDS.

  9. Dietary vitamin D₂--a potentially underestimated contributor to vitamin D nutritional status of adults?

    PubMed

    Cashman, Kevin D; Kinsella, Michael; McNulty, Breige A; Walton, Janette; Gibney, Michael J; Flynn, Albert; Kiely, Mairead

    2014-07-28

    It has been suggested that vitamin D₂ is not very prevalent in the human food chain. However, data from a number of recent intervention studies suggest that the majority of subjects had measurable serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D₂ (25(OH)D₂) concentrations. Serum 25(OH)D₂, unlike 25(OH)D₃, is not directly influenced by exposure of skin to sun and thus has dietary origins; however, quantifying dietary vitamin D₂ is difficult due to the limitations of food composition data. Therefore, the present study aimed to characterise serum 25(OH)D₂ concentrations in the participants of the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) in Ireland, and to use these serum concentrations to estimate the intake of vitamin D₂ using a mathematical modelling approach. Serum 25(OH)D₂ concentration was measured by a liquid chromatography-tandem MS method, and information on diet as well as subject characteristics was obtained from the NANS. Of these participants, 78.7 % (n 884) had serum 25(OH)D₂ concentrations above the limit of quantification, and the mean, maximum, 10th, 50th (median) and 90th percentile values of serum 25(OH)D₂ concentrations were 3.69, 27.6, 1.71, 2.96 and 6.36 nmol/l, respectively. To approximate the intake of vitamin D₂ from these serum 25(OH)D₂ concentrations, we used recently published data on the relationship between vitamin D intake and the responses of serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The projected 5th to 95th percentile intakes of vitamin D₂ for adults were in the range of 0.9-1.2 and 5-6 μg/d, respectively, and the median intake ranged from 1.7 to 2.3 μg/d. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that 25(OH)D₂ concentrations are present in the sera of adults from this nationally representative sample. Vitamin D₂ may have an impact on nutritional adequacy at a population level and thus warrants further investigation.

  10. Food prices, household income, and resource allocation: socioeconomic perspectives on their effects on dietary quality and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Bouis, Howarth E; Eozenou, Patrick; Rahman, Aminur

    2011-03-01

    The recent rise in agricultural commodity prices has been dramatic, and food prices are likely to follow an upward trend, at least in the medium-term. Moreover, the recent financial crisis has also lowered incomes and increased food prices. Not only does this reduce dietary quality, but expenditures for health, sanitation, and education will decline, all of which will have a detrimental effect on health and nutrition outcomes. To provide some perspectives on the role of major socioeconomic factors in driving health and nutrition outcomes. We use demand elasticity parameters estimated from household-level survey data to simulate an increase in food prices, which is then mapped into energy and nutrient intakes. Furthermore, we also use household-level data to analyze the implications of unequal intrahousehold distribution of food for the nutritional status of adult women and female children. A 50% increase in food prices results in a decrease in energy intake of 5% to 15% and in a decrease in iron intake of 10% to 30%, depending on the strength of the induced income effect. In a country like the Philippines, this would be equivalent to an increase of 25 percentage points in the proportion of women not meeting their requirements for iron intake. Increasing food prices will make fighting micronutrient malnutrition in developing countries more difficult. In societies where preference is given to males in the intrahousehold distribution of nonstaple foods, this objective will be even more challenging.

  11. Total lymphocyte count and subpopulation lymphocyte counts in relation to dietary intake and nutritional status of peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E; Leander, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Dietary deficiency causes abnormalities in circulating lymphocyte counts. For the present paper, we evaluated correlations between total and subpopulation lymphocyte counts (TLC, SLCs) and parameters of nutrition in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Studies were carried out in 55 patients treated with PD for 22.2 +/- 11.4 months. Parameters of nutritional status included total body mass, lean body mass (LBM), body mass index (BMI), and laboratory indices [total protein, albumin, iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC)]. The SLCs were evaluated using flow cytometry. Positive correlations were seen between TLC and dietary intake of niacin; TLC and CD8 and CD16+56 counts and energy delivered from protein; CD4 count and beta-carotene and monounsaturated fatty acids 17:1 intake; and CD19 count and potassium, copper, vitamin A, and beta-carotene intake. Anorexia negatively influenced CD19 count. Serum albumin showed correlations with CD4 and CD19 counts, and LBM with CD19 count. A higher CD19 count was connected with a higher red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Correlations were observed between TIBC and TLC and CD3 and CD8 counts, and between serum Fe and TLC and CD3 and CD4 counts. Patients with a higher CD19 count showed a better clinical-laboratory score, especially less weakness. Patients with a higher CD4 count had less expressed insomnia. Quantities of ingested vitamins and minerals influence lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood of PD patients. Evaluation of TLC and SLCs is helpful in monitoring the effectiveness of nutrition in these patients.

  12. Dietary selenium and nutritional plane alter specific aspects of maternal endocrine status during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Lemley, C O; Meyer, A M; Neville, T L; Hallford, D M; Camacho, L E; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Wilmoth, T A; Wilson, M E; Perry, G A; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S; Vonnahme, K A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives were to examine effects of selenium (Se) supply and maternal nutritional plane during gestation on placental size at term and maternal endocrine profiles throughout gestation and early lactation. Ewe lambs (n = 84) were allocated to treatments that included Se supply of adequate Se (ASe; 11.5 μg/kg BW) or high Se (HSe; 77 μg/kg BW) initiated at breeding and nutritional plane of 60% (RES), 100% (CON), or 140% (EXC) of requirements beginning on day 40 of gestation. At parturition, lambs were removed from their dams, and ewes were transitioned to a common diet that met requirements of lactation. Blood samples were taken from a subset of ewes (n = 42) throughout gestation, during parturition, and throughout lactation to determine hormone concentrations. Cotyledon number was reduced (P = 0.03) in RES and EXC ewes compared with CON ewes. Placental delivery time tended (P = 0.08) to be shorter in HSe ewes than in ASe ewes, whereas placental delivery time was longer (P = 0.02) in RES ewes than in CON and EXC ewes. During gestation, maternal progesterone, estradiol-17β, and GH were increased (P < 0.05) in RES ewes and decreased (P < 0.05) in EXC ewes compared with CON ewes. In contrast, maternal cortisol, IGF-I, prolactin, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were decreased in RES ewes and increased in EXC ewes compared with CON ewes during gestation. Selenium supply did not alter maternal hormone profiles during gestation. During parturition and lactation, maternal hormone concentrations were influenced by both Se and maternal nutritional plane. During the parturient process, HSe ewes tended to have greater (P = 0.06) concentrations of estradiol-17β than ASe ewes. Three hours after parturition a surge of GH was observed in ASe-RES ewes that was muted in HSe-RES ewes and not apparent in other ewes. Growth hormone area under the curve during the parturient process was increased (P < 0.05) in ASe-RES vs HSe-RES ewes. Ewes that were overfed during gestation had

  13. Effects of individual dietary counseling as part of a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) on nutritional status: a population-based intervention study.

    PubMed

    Nykänen, I; Rissanen, T H; Sulkava, R; Hartikainen, S

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional risk is relatively common in community-dwelling older people. To objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of individual dietary counseling as part of a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment on nutritional status among community-dwelling people aged 75 years or older. Data were obtained from a subpopulation of participants in the population-based Geriatric Multidisciplinary Strategy for the Good Care of the Elderly (GeMS) intervention study in 2004 to 2007. In the present study, the population consist 173 persons at risk of malnutrition in the year 2005 in an intervention (n=84) and control group (n=89). Nutritional status, body weight, body mass index, serum albumin were performed at the beginning of the study and at a two-year follow-up. The nutritional screening was performed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) test. A increase in MNA scores (1.8 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7 to 2.0) and in serum albumin (0.8 g/L, 95% CI: 0.2 to 0.9 g/L) were a significant difference between the groups. Nutritional intervention, even dietary counseling without nutritional supplements, may improve nutritional status.

  14. Food Insecurity and Not Dietary Diversity Is a Predictor of Nutrition Status in Children within Semiarid Agro-Ecological Zones in Eastern Kenya.

    PubMed

    Bukania, Zipporah N; Mwangi, Moses; Karanja, Robert M; Mutisya, Richard; Kombe, Yeri; Kaduka, Lydia U; Johns, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya are associated with historical land degradation, climate change, and food insecurity. Both counties lie in lower midland (LM) lower humidity to semiarid (LM4), and semiarid (LM5) agroecological zones (AEZ). We assessed food security, dietary diversity, and nutritional status of children and women. Materials and Methods. A total of 277 woman-child pairs aged 15-46 years and 6-36 months respectively, were recruited from farmer households. Food security and dietary diversity were assessed using standard tools. Weight and height, or length in children, were used for computation of nutritional status. Findings. No significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed in food security and dietary diversity score (DDS) between LM4 and LM5. Stunting, wasting, and underweight levels among children in LM4 and LM5 were comparable as were BMI scores among women. However, significant associations (P = 0.023) were found between severe food insecurity and nutritional status of children but not of their caregivers. Stunting was significantly higher in older children (>2 years) and among children whose caregivers were older. Conclusion. Differences in AEZ may not affect dietary diversity and nutritional status of farmer households. Consequently use of DDS may lead to underestimation of food insecurity in semiarid settings.

  15. Food Insecurity and Not Dietary Diversity Is a Predictor of Nutrition Status in Children within Semiarid Agro-Ecological Zones in Eastern Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Bukania, Zipporah N.; Mwangi, Moses; Karanja, Robert M.; Mutisya, Richard; Kombe, Yeri; Kaduka, Lydia U.

    2014-01-01

    Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya are associated with historical land degradation, climate change, and food insecurity. Both counties lie in lower midland (LM) lower humidity to semiarid (LM4), and semiarid (LM5) agroecological zones (AEZ). We assessed food security, dietary diversity, and nutritional status of children and women. Materials and Methods. A total of 277 woman-child pairs aged 15–46 years and 6–36 months respectively, were recruited from farmer households. Food security and dietary diversity were assessed using standard tools. Weight and height, or length in children, were used for computation of nutritional status. Findings. No significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed in food security and dietary diversity score (DDS) between LM4 and LM5. Stunting, wasting, and underweight levels among children in LM4 and LM5 were comparable as were BMI scores among women. However, significant associations (P = 0.023) were found between severe food insecurity and nutritional status of children but not of their caregivers. Stunting was significantly higher in older children (>2 years) and among children whose caregivers were older. Conclusion. Differences in AEZ may not affect dietary diversity and nutritional status of farmer households. Consequently use of DDS may lead to underestimation of food insecurity in semiarid settings. PMID:25328691

  16. Dietary Intake, Nutritional Status, and Body Composition in Children With End-Stage Kidney Disease on Hemodialysis or Peritoneal Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Pontón-Vázquez, Consuelo; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar Manuel; Hurtado-López, Erika Fabiola; de la Torre Serrano, Adriana; García, Germán Patiño; Romero-Velarde, Enrique

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate that dietary intake, anthropometric indicators, and body composition in children with end-stage kidney disease differs between those on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and those on hemodialysis (HD). This was a cross-sectional and consecutive study that included 55 children and adolescents with end-stage kidney disease who were undergoing replacement therapy (22 PD patients and 33 HD patients). Two 24-hour dietary recall surveys were conducted for each patient. Anthropometric, biochemical, and body composition indicators were estimated. A Student's t-test and a Mann-Whitney U test were used for the parametric variables, whereas association tests were estimated for the nonparametric variables (i.e., χ(2), Fisher exact test, and odds ratio). Regression models were designed to predict dietary intake on anthropometric and body composition indicators. The mid-upper arm circumference was greater on the patients undergoing HD than on the PD patients (odds ratio = 15.8 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.9, 85.1], P < .001); the arm muscular area was greater in the HD patients than in the PD patients (P = .07). Children on PD had significantly greater creatinine concentration (8.4 ± 3.0 mg/dL vs. 4.6 ± 1.2 mg/dL, P < .001), urea (101 ± 27 mg/dL vs. 50 ± 17 mg/dL, P < .001), and glucose (87 ± 14.4 mg/dL vs. 77 ± 10.2 mg/dL, P = .003). Children on PD had lower lipid intake (31.2 ± 15.8 vs. 40.9 ± 19.1 g/day, P = .032), lower percentage of adequacy of vitamin C (128 ± 66 vs. 146 ± 70, P = .046), and lower sodium (62 ± 43 vs. 79 ± 42, P = .044) than children on HD. Dietary intake predicted 40% to 80% of the variability in the nutritional status in children on PD and 28% to 60% in children on HD. Nutritional status is affected in most patients on dialysis treatment, which differs significantly among those who are undergoing PD or HD. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by

  17. Relationship between Nutritional Status and the Severity of Huntington’s Disease. A Spanish Multicenter Dietary Intake Study.

    PubMed

    Cubo, Esther; Rivadeneyra, Jéssica; Armesto, Diana; Mariscal, Natividad; Martinez, Asunción; Camara, Rafael J

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of nutrition status on Huntington’s disease (HD) severity. To analyze the association of nutritional factors with HD severity. Observational, cross-sectional, national multicenter study. Participants were selected from a Spanish cohort of patients who participate in the European Huntington Disease Network (EHDN). The frequency of food consumption, caloric and nutrients intake in patients with HD were assessed using validated questionnaires for the Spanish population, and calculated using Alimentaci´on and Salud, version 2.0, and the Spanish Dietary Recommended Intakes were used as the gold standard. Disease severity was assessed using the Unified HD Rating Scale (UHDRS) and Total Functional Capacity (TFC). Logistic regression models were performed using the TFC as the dependent variable, and the macro-micronutrients as the independent variables, adjusted for age, gender, education, physical activity, and intake of supplements. Two hundred and twenty four patients with HD were included (59% women), mean age of 47.41±14.26 years, median TFC 9 (3–13), median UHDRS motor score of 33.5 (3.75–56), 75.8% with normal-high caloric intake, 55.4% normal BMI, and 54.4% with medium-high adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Compared to patients with mild-moderate HD, patients with severe HD had higher caloric intake (p = 0.02), and similar BMI (p = 0.33). Advanced HD was associated with higher intake of water-soluble vitamins (OR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.12–3.85, p = 0.02), and minerals (OR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.09– 3.19, p = 0.02). An adequate dietary intake prevents against weight loss in patients with advanced HD, but it is not associated with better functional state.

  18. Effect of integrated school-based nutrition education on optimal dietary practices and nutritional status of school adolescents in Southwest of Ethiopia: a quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Tamiru, Dessalegn; Argaw, Alemayehu; Gerbaba, Mulusew; Ayana, Girmay; Nigussie, Aderajew; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-12-15

    Malnutrition and infection are major barriers to educational access and achievement in low-income countries and also work in conjunction with each other in deteriorating wellness and productivity of school adolescents. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of school-based nutrition education using a peer-led approach, health promotion through school media and health clubs. Data were collected at baseline, midline and end line from sampled participants. To account for the effect of time trend, the difference was measured using a repeated measure analysis. Variables that have p≤0.25 in the bivariate analyses were entered into multivariables to determine the independent effect of interventions. There is a significant difference in food variety between food secure and insecure households (p<0.01). A significant improvement of animal source dietary intake was observed among intervention schools (p<0.001) that was significantly associated with an intervention [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.26, confidence interval (CI): 0.16, 0.42], male gender (AOR=0.48, CI: 0.31, 0.73) and household economic status (AOR=1.69, CI: 1.01, 2.84). The control group had high body mass index (BMI) at baseline, but a significant improvement was observed among the intervention schools, which positively associated with male gender (AOR=4.13, CI: 2.38, 7.15) and having a middle-income family (AOR=2.93, CI: 1.92, 6.15). This study showed that by integrating a dietary intervention into school-based activities, there might be significant improvements in dietary intake of primary school adolescents. Therefore, school-based nutrition education programs should be a part of comprehensive school health programs to reach the students and potentially their families.

  19. A low pulse food intake may contribute to the poor nutritional status and low dietary intakes of adolescent girls in rural southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Roba, Alemzewed C; Gabriel-Micheal, Kebebush; Zello, Gordon A; Jaffe, Joann; Whiting, Susan J; Henry, Carol J

    2015-01-01

    Poor nutrition in adolescent girls poses critical health risks on future pregnancy and birth outcomes especially in developing countries. Our purpose was to assess nutritional status and dietary intake of rural adolescent girls and determine pulse and food intake patterns associated with poor nutritional status. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in a traditional pulse growing region of southern Ethiopia on 188 girls between 15 to 19 years of age, with 70% being from food insecure families. Prevalence of stunting (30.9%) and underweight (13.3%) were associated with low food and nutrient intake. Diets were cereal-based, with both animal source foods and pulses rarely consumed. Improving dietary intakes of female adolescents with nutrient dense foods would ensure better health for themselves and for the next generation.

  20. Nutrition education and introduction of broad bean-based complementary food improves knowledge and dietary practices of caregivers and nutritional status of their young children in Hula, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Negash, Canaan; Belachew, Tefera; Henry, Carol J; Kebebu, Afework; Abegaz, Kebede; Whiting, Susan J

    2014-12-01

    Nutritious complementary foods are needed in countries where undernutrition and stunting are major problems, but mothers may be reluctant to change from traditional gruels. To test whether a recipe-based complementary feeding education intervention would improve knowledge and practice of mothers with young children in Hula, Ethiopia. A baseline survey of 200 eligible, randomly selected mother-child pairs gathered data on sociodemographic characteristics, food security status, knowledge and practices concerning complementary feeding, food group intakes of children aged 6 to 23 months by 24-hour recalls, and children's anthropometric measurements. Twice a month for 6 months, women in the intervention group received an education session consisting of eight specific messages using Alive and Thrive posters and a demonstration and tasting of a local barley and maize porridge recipe containing 30% broad beans. The control group lived in a different area and had no intervention. At 6 months, knowledge and practice scores regarding complementary feeding were significantly improved (p < .001) in the intervention group but not in the control group. The intervention resulted in improvement of children's dietary diversity, as well as mean intake of energy and selected nutrients, compared with children in the control group. Changes in height and weight did not differ between the two groups. Community-based nutrition education over 6 months that included demonstration of a local porridge recipe with broad beans added improved the complementary feeding practices of caregivers and the nutritional status of their young children.

  1. Relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Spronk, Inge; Kullen, Charina; Burdon, Catriona; O'Connor, Helen

    2014-05-28

    The present systematic review examined the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake in adults (mean age ≥ 18 years). Relevant databases were searched from the earliest record until November 2012. Search terms included: nutrition; diet or food knowledge and energy intake; feeding behaviour; diet; eating; nutrient or food intake or consumption. Included studies were original research articles that used instruments providing quantitative assessment of both nutrition knowledge and dietary intake and their statistical association. The initial search netted 1,193,393 potentially relevant articles, of which twenty-nine were eligible for inclusion. Most of them were conducted in community populations (n 22) with fewer (n 7) in athletic populations. Due to the heterogeneity of methods used to assess nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, a meta-analysis was not possible. The majority of the studies (65·5%: community 63·6%; athletic 71·4%) reported significant, positive, but weak (r< 0·5) associations between higher nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, most often a higher intake of fruit and vegetables. However, study quality ranged widely and participant representation from lower socio-economic status was limited, with most participants being tertiary educated and female. Well-designed studies using validated methodologies are needed to clarify the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Diet quality scores or indices that aim to evaluate compliance to dietary guidelines may be particularly valuable for assessing the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Nutrition knowledge is an integral component of health literacy and as low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes, contemporary, high-quality research is needed to inform community nutrition education and public health policy.

  2. Intestinal morphology adjustments caused by dietary restriction improves the nutritional status during the aging process of rats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Belém, Mônica; Cirilo, Carla Possani; de Santi-Rampazzo, Ana Paula; Schoffen, João Paulo Ferreira; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; de Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José

    2015-09-01

    During the aging process, the body's systems change structurally and loss of function can occur. Ingesting a smaller amount of food has been considered a plausible proposal for increased longevity with the quality of life. However, the effects of dietary restriction (DR) during aging are still poorly understood, especially for organs of the digestive system. This study aimed to describe the body weight, oxidative status and possible morphological changes of the intestinal wall of rats submitted to DR during the aging process (7 to 18months old). Twelve 7-month-old male Wistar rats fed ad libitum since birth were assigned to two groups: control group (CG, n=6) fed ad libitum from 7 to 18months old; and dietary restriction group (DRG, n=6) fed 50% of the amount of chow consumed by the CG from 7 to 18months old. The body weight, feed and water intake were monitored throughout the experiment. Blood, periepididymal adipose tissue (PAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RAT), and the small intestine were collected at 18months old. The blood was collected to evaluate its components and oxidative status. Sections from the duodenum and ileum were stained with HE, PAS and AB pH2.5 for morphometric analyses of the intestinal wall components, and to count intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), goblet cells and cells in mitosis in the epithelium. DR rats showed a reduction in weight, naso-anal length, PAT, RAT and intestinal length; however, they consumed more water. Blood parameters indicate that the DR rats remained well nourished. In addition, they showed lower lipid peroxidation. Hypertrophy of the duodenal mucosa and atrophy of the ileal mucosa were observed. The number of goblet cells and IELs was reduced, but the mitotic index remained unaltered in both duodenum and ileum. In conclusion, 50% dietary restriction for rats from 7 to 18months old contributed to improving their nutritional parameters but, to achieve this, adjustments were required in the structure of the body

  3. Nutritional status of Amerindian children from the Beni River (lowland Bolivia) as related to environmental, maternal and dietary factors.

    PubMed

    Benefice, Eric; Monroy, Selma Luna; Jiménez, Sonia; López, Ronald

    2006-05-01

    To report the nutritional status of children aged up to 15 years and their mothers living in a remote Amazonian area of Bolivia, and to study its main social, familial and maternal determinants. Fifteen Beni River communities located at the foot of the Andes. Cross-sectional survey of riverside populations. All childbearing mothers and their children in the 15 communities were examined. Information on household production, dietary habits and demography was collected. Individual clinical, anthropometric and parasitological examinations were carried out. A total of 631 persons were examined: 171 mothers and 460 children and adolescents aged 0 to 15 years. There were no cases of severe wasting, but 41% of 0-5-year-olds and 36% of 5-10-year-olds were stunted. Among 346 stool specimens examined, 75% were positive for at least one helminth. Diversity of food and quality of diet were satisfactory in 54% of households, but 27% had low diversity scores. Mothers were lighter and shorter than those observed at the national level: 20% had height below 145 cm. Prevalence of anaemia (42%) was also higher. In pre-school children, multivariate analysis indicated a relationship between growth retardation and household factors such as dietary quality, ethnic group and clinical state, but not maternal anthropometry. In contrast, in school-age children and adolescents, growth retardation was related to maternal characteristics. Growth retardation appeared mainly during the weaning period and did not seem to improve thereafter. To ameliorate this situation, an effort should be made to prevent common parasitic and infectious diseases in young children. Follow-up of pregnant mothers during pregnancy and delivery also needs to be reinforced.

  4. The mediation effect of individual eating behaviours on the relationship between socioeconomic status and dietary quality in children: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Ah; Park, Hyesook

    2017-04-01

    Although it has been suggested that socioeconomic status is associated with dietary quality, the possible mediation effects of eating behaviours on dietary quality are unclear. Thus, we investigated the causal chain by which socioeconomic status influences the quality of the diets consumed by children through their eating behaviours using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The study focused on persons from 2 to 18 years of age who completed the 24-h dietary recall survey (n = 3158). Using causal mediation analysis, we assessed the relationship between socioeconomic status and poor dietary quality in children and examined the mediation effects of eating behaviours. Socioeconomic indicators included household income, parental education, and parental occupation. Dietary quality was defined by the number of key nutrients, protein, calcium, phosphorous, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, and vitamin C, consumed at insufficient levels. In the present study, more than half the children did not consume the recommended amounts of vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, and calcium. Eating breakfast had a significant impact on poor dietary quality regardless of socioeconomic indicators. On the other hand, children from lower-middle-income households consumed insufficient amounts of more nutrients than their counterparts regardless of eating behaviours. Through the mediation model, we found that lower-middle household incomes were associated with poor dietary quality, but that dietary quality was significantly mediated by eating breakfast. We found that poor dietary quality among children in lower-income households was partially explained by their being less likely to eat breakfast, but that eating breakfast did not entirely mediate these effects. Thus, to reduce differences in dietary quality among children, those who are economically vulnerable must be prioritized.

  5. Dietary Status and Impact of Risperidone on Nutritional Balance in Children with Autism: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Ronald L.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Aman, Michael G.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Posey, David J.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Pachler, Maryellen; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Bozzolo, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    Background: Risperidone may be effective in improving tantrums, aggression, or self-injurious behaviour in children with autism, but often leads to weight gain. Method: Using a quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), we prospectively examined the nutritional intake of 20 children with autism participating in a randomised…

  6. Dietary Status and Impact of Risperidone on Nutritional Balance in Children with Autism: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Ronald L.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Aman, Michael G.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Posey, David J.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Pachler, Maryellen; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Bozzolo, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    Background: Risperidone may be effective in improving tantrums, aggression, or self-injurious behaviour in children with autism, but often leads to weight gain. Method: Using a quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), we prospectively examined the nutritional intake of 20 children with autism participating in a randomised…

  7. How do socio-economic status, perceived economic barriers and nutritional benefits affect quality of dietary intake among US adults?

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Socio-economic factors may affect diet quality, perhaps differentially across gender and ethnicity. The mechanism of this association is still largely unknown. Objectives We examined the independent effects of socio-economic status (SES), perceived barrier of food price (PBFP), and perceived benefit of diet quality (PBDQ) on diet quality indicators and indices (DQIj,k), across gender and ethnicity. Additionally, we estimated the mediation proportion of the effect of SES on DQIj,k through PBFP and PBDQ. Methods Data from two cross-sectional surveys, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) and Diet and Health Knowledge Survey (DHKS) 1994–96 were used. Our sample consisted of 4,356 US adults aged 20–65 years. With principal components analysis, SES (an index) was measured using household income per capita and education, and PBDQ was measured using an 11-item scale. PBFP was defined as the ratio of importance of food price score relative to nutrition. DQIj,k were assessed by a set of indicators and two indices including the Healthy Eating Index. Results The associations between SES, PBFP, PBDQ, and DQIj,k varied significantly across gender and ethnic groups. PBFP acted as a mediator in the association between SES and selected DQIj indicators, namely energy, fat intake, sodium, and simple sugar consumption (mediation proportion>10%), but not PBDQ. Conclusions SES, PBFP and PBDQ all affect dietary intake, and vary by ethnicity and gender. Positive effect of SES on DQIj,k may be mediated by PBFP but not PBDQ which is an independent protective factor. Nutrition education is important to promote healthy eating. PMID:17342164

  8. How do socio-economic status, perceived economic barriers and nutritional benefits affect quality of dietary intake among US adults?

    PubMed

    Beydoun, M A; Wang, Y

    2008-03-01

    Socio-economic factors may affect diet quality, perhaps differentially across gender and ethnicity. The mechanism of this association is still largely unknown. We examined the independent effects of socio-economic status (SES), perceived barrier of food price (PBFP) and perceived benefit of diet quality (PBDQ) on diet quality indicators and indices (DQI(j,k)), across gender and ethnicity. Additionally, we estimated the mediation proportion of the effect of SES on DQI(j,k) through PBFP and PBDQ. Data from two cross-sectional surveys, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) and Diet and Health Knowledge Survey (DHKS) 1994-96 were used. Our sample consisted of 4356 US adults aged 20-65 years. With principal components analysis, SES (an index) was measured using household income per capita and education, and PBDQ was measured using an 11-item scale. PBFP was defined as the ratio of importance of food price score relative to nutrition. DQI(j,k) were assessed by a set of indicators and two indices including the Healthy Eating Index. The associations between SES, PBFP, PBDQ and DQI(j,k) varied significantly across gender and ethnic groups. PBFP acted as a mediator in the association between SES and selected DQI(j) indicators, namely energy, fat intake, sodium and simple sugar consumption (mediation proportion >10%), but not PBDQ. SES, PBFP and PBDQ all affect dietary intake, and vary by ethnicity and gender. Positive effect of SES on DQI(j,k) may be mediated by PBFP but not PBDQ which is an independent protective factor. Nutrition education is important to promote healthy eating.

  9. [Nutritional status and dietary diversity in nomadic and sedentary rural women on the southeast bank of Lake Chad].

    PubMed

    Bechir, M; Schelling, E; Moto, D D; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2011-12-01

    Malnutrition and undernourishment are widespread in the Sahelian region of Africa. The purpose of this study was to assess nutritional status and associated risk factors among nomadic and sedentary rural women on the southeast bank of Lake Chad. It was a repeated cross-sectional study based on semi-structured interviews and anthropometric measurements. A total of 734 women including 398 nomads and 336 sedentaries were randomly selected. Only non-pregnant women were included for calculation of the body mass index. Results showed a higher prevalence of malnutrition among nomadic women than sedentary women during the dry season: 48% (95% CI: 42-53) versus 16.2% (95% CI: 12-20). Obesity was observed in 4% (95% CI: 2.4-7) of sedentary women versus 0% of nomadic women. These rates were similar during the wet season. Malnutrition rates differed significantly (p<0.01) between the two groups within each season but not between seasons within each group. The average household dietary diversity score (HDDS) determined on a scale of 12 was low in both nomadic and sedentary women: 4.5 (95% CI: 4.4-4.6) and 5.1 (95% CI: 5.0-5.3) respectively. Malnutrition was significantly correlated with HDDS, number of children and ethnic group.

  10. [Dietary food habits, nutritional status and lifestyle in menopausal women in Spain].

    PubMed

    Ubeda, N; Basagoiti, M; Alonso-Aperte, E; Varela-Moreiras, G

    2007-01-01

    To analyse the diet and the dietary food habits in a sample of 1,218 Spanish women, aged 40 to 77 years, in the menopausal or perimenopausal condition. Women were recruited nationwide and the diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Diet in our population group was close to the representative dietary habits of the Spanish population, except for dairy products. These were highly consumed (approximately 4 servings/day) by menopausal women. Energy, protein and cholesterol intakes, as well as most vitamins and mineral intakes, were very high, as compared to recommended dietary allowances. We only found marginal deficient intakes for folate and vitamin D. Women over 60 years consume less eggs, sweats, sugar and miscellany, and therefore less lipids and cholesterol, as well as vitamin D, than younger women. A high rate (61%) of overweight and obesity (BMI > 25) was present in our population group and was associated with a higher intake of meat, fish and eggs, as well as energy. A healthier diet (high intake of dairy products, fresh vegetables, fruits, legumes, cereals and fish) was associated with a healthier lifestyle (no smoking, physical exercise) and the use of fortified foods and vitamin/mineral supplements. A high percentage of women regularly consumed fortified food (52,7%) and micronutrient supplements (22,8%) although diets provided enough vitamins and minerals. Diet in our study group is in accordance to healthy dietary habits and physical activity recommendations. This is probably due to a greater concern for health in women close to the menopause condition.

  11. Application of factor analysis to identify dietary patterns and use of factor scores to study their relationship with nutritional status of adult rural populations.

    PubMed

    Venkaiah, K; Brahmam, G N V; Vijayaraghavan, K

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency (CED) among one-third of the Indian population is attributed to inadequacy of consumption of nutrients. However, considering the complexity of diets among Indians, the relationship between a particular dietary pattern and the nutritional status of the population has not been established so far. A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess estimates, at district level, of diet and nutritional status in Orissa State, India. Factor analysis was used for exploring the existence of consumption pattern of food and nutrients and their relationship with the nutritional status of rural adult population. Data on 2,864 adult men and 3,525 adult women in Orissa state revealed that there exists six patterns among food-groups explaining 59% of the total variation and three patterns among nutrients that explain 73% of the total variation among both adult men and women. The discriminant function analysis revealed that, overall, 53% of the men were correctly classified as either with chronic energy deficiency (CED) or without CED. Similarly, overall, 54% of the women were correctly classified as either with CED or without CED. The sensitivity of the model was 65% for both men and women, and the specificity was 46% and 41% respectively for men and women. In the case of classification of overweight/obesity, the prediction of the model was about 75% among both men and women, along with high sensitivity. Using factor analysis, the dietary patterns were identified from the food and nutrient intake data. There exists a strong relationship between the dietary patterns and the nutritional status of rural adults. These results will help identify the community people with CED and help planners formulate nutritional interventions accordingly.

  12. Nutritional Status Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts.

  13. Dietary fiber intake is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and cardiovascular risk, but not protein nutritional status, in adults with CKD.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Huang, Yan-Feng; Wang, Ming-Qing; Chen, De-Xiu; Wan, Heng; Wei, Lian-Bo; Xiao, Wei

    Evidence suggests that dietary fiber benefits patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, this conclusion requires further validation. In this study, we examined the effects of dietary fiber on kidney function, inflammation, indoxyl sulfate, nutritional status, and cardiovascular risk in patients with advanced CKD. We performed linear regressions to assess the association between dietary fiber intake and CKD parameters. The aforementioned parameters were compared over an 18-month follow- up period. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to investigate the association between fiber intake and Cardiac vascular disease (CVD). In total, 157 patients were included in this study. Dietary fiber and inflammatory indices were associated (interleukin [IL]-6: β=-0.024, p=0.035). The differential estimated glomerular filtration rate (ΔeGFR) as well as levels of C-reactive protein, IL-6, indoxyl sulfate, and serum cholesterol in the higher fiber intake (>=25 g/day) group were lower than those in the lower fiber intake (<25 g/day) group (p<0.05). Differences in IL-6 and indoxyl sulfate levels were more significant in patients in the higher protein intake group (p<0.05). Dietary fiber intake may be a protective factor associated with CVD (hazard ratio=0.537 and 0.305- 0.947). The protein nutritional status was not different between the two groups (p>0.05). Our results suggest that increasing fiber intake can retard the decrease in the eGFR; can reduce the levels of proinflammatory factors, indoxyl sulfate, and serum cholesterol; and is negatively associated with cardiovascular risk, but does not disrupt the nutritional status of patients with CKD.

  14. Nutritional status of lactating women in Bogor district, Indonesia: cross-sectional dietary intake in three economic quintiles and comparison with pre-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Madanijah, Siti; Rimbawan, Rimbawan; Briawan, Dodik; Zulaikhah, Zulaikhah; Andarwulan, Nuri; Nuraida, Lilis; Sundjaya, Tonny; Murti, Laksmi; Bindels, Jacques

    2016-07-01

    The way in which women accommodate for their increased nutritional needs during the lactation period is poorly investigated. In a cross-sectional study involving 220 lactating women (LW), equally distributed in economic quintiles (Q2, Q3, Q4), we investigated whether habitual dietary intake of LW differed from that of 200 pre-pregnant women (PPW) studied using the same methodology. Differences in dietary intake and nutrition sufficiency according to economic status were also investigated. Dietary intake data were collected using 2×24-h dietary recalls and FFQ. Energy, protein, Fe, Ca, Zn and vitamins A and C intakes were calculated utilising local food composition tables and were compared against Indonesian recommendations for adequacy. Energy and protein intakes 25 % of LW. For Q2-LW, this proportion was >50 %, except for protein. LW across all studied economic quintiles approximately doubled their vegetable intake, and 71 % of LW indicated a belief that this enhances lactation performance. Biochemical status parameters were analysed in a subset of forty-five women. Anaemia as well as Fe, Zn and Se deficiencies were prevalent among LW, supporting the nutrient intake deficiency data. Despite increasing intakes in LW compared with PPW, habitual diets in the study area do not provide for daily nutrient requirements in substantial proportions for both LW and PPW across all investigated economic groups.

  15. Nutritional status and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Merli, Manuela; Giusto, Michela; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Riggio, Oliviero

    2011-12-01

    Chronic liver disease has a profound effect on nutritional status and undernourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. In the last decades, due to epidemiological changes, a trend showing an increase in patients with end-stage liver disease and associated obesity has also been reported in developed countries. Nutrition abnormalities may influence the outcome after transplantation therefore, the importance to carefully assess the nutritional status in the work-up of patients candidates for liver transplantation is widely accepted. More attention has been given to malnourished patients as they represent the greater number. The subjective global nutritional assessment and anthropometric measurements are recognized in current guidelines to be adequate in identifying those patients at risk of malnutrition. Cirrhotic patients with a depletion in lean body mass and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk and malnutrition may impact on morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. For this reason an adequate calorie and protein intake should always be ensured to malnourished cirrhotic patient either through the diet, or using oral nutritional supplements or by enteral or parenteral nutrition although studies supporting the efficacy of nutritional supplementation in improving the clinical outcomes after transplantation are still scarce. When liver function is restored, an amelioration in the nutritional status is expected. After liver transplantation in fact dietary intake rapidly normalizes and fat mass is progressively regained while the recovery of muscle mass can be slower. In some patients unregulated weight gain may lead to over-nutrition and may favor metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia). This condition, defined as 'metabolic syndrome', may play a negative role on the overall survival of liver transplant patients. In this report we review

  16. Association of parents' nutritional status, and sociodemographic and dietary factors with overweight/obesity in schoolchildren 7 to 14 years old.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Carla de Oliveira; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de

    2012-02-01

    To assess the association of parents' nutritional status, and dietary and sociodemographic factors with overweight/obesity in schoolchildren in Florianópolis Island, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, this cross-sectional epidemiological study examined 2,826 schoolchildren 7 to 14 years old, classified according to body mass index curves for age and sex recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression. The final model showed overweight/obesity in boys associated directly with father's educational level, mother's age, and parents' nutritional status, and inversely with mother's educational level, and number of daily meals. Among girls, it associated directly with parents' nutritional status and the schoolchildren's age, and inversely with consumption of risk foods. The variables that associated with overweight/obesity differed between the sexes, except parents' nutritional status. Boys and girls with both parents overweight or obese were, respectively, 80% and 150% more likely to exhibit the same diagnosis, indicating the need for interventions that include the family environment.

  17. Consequences of radiotherapy on nutritional status, dietary intake, serum zinc and copper levels in patients with gastrointestinal tract and head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Reza; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad; Ghaeammaghami, Jamal; Jabbari, Morteza V

    2007-03-01

    Malnutrition occurs frequently in cancer patients and is multifactorial and can lead to negative outcomes. So we studied the effect of radiotherapy on nutritional status, weight changes, dietary intake, serum zinc and copper levels. During the period of October to March 2005, 45 cancer patients who referred to the Radiotherapy Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Iran were recruited. We assessed the nutritional status of patients using Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) questionnaire. Patients on the basis of location of radiotherapy classified to mediastinum, head and neck and pelvic groups. Changes in dietary intake (using 24-hour recall method) and body weight were evaluated prior to and during radiotherapy. At the onset and the end of radiotherapy, serum levels of zinc, copper and albumin were determined. After treatment malnutrition increased significantly in all patients (p=0.01) and in head and neck (p=0.007) and pelvic groups (p=0.04). The decreased body weight of patients was significant in the head and neck (p=0.02), and pelvic groups (p=0.005). The mean daily energy and protein intake of head and neck and pelvic groups decreased during radiotherapy while energy intake increased significantly in mediastinum group (p=0.01). After treatment, significant decreases also observed in mean serum zinc, copper and albumin levels (p<0.05). Because of the negative effect of radiotherapy on oral feeding, nutritional assessment and intervention should be an integral part of treatment. Also, it would be worthwhile studying the effect of zinc supplementation on dietary intake and nutritional status of patients.

  18. [The impact of maternal education on the dietary and nutritional status of preschool children--a case study in 8 provinces of China].

    PubMed

    Lü, B; Zhai, F; Jin, S; Popkin, B M

    1998-09-30

    This analysis is based on the data from China Health and Nutrition Survey in collaboration with University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill undertaken in 8 provinces of China from 1993 to 1996. Totally, 1098 mother-child pairs under age 6 were investigated. Descriptive analysis and stratified analysis are applied to investigate the impact of maternal education on the dietary and nutritional status of children. Both the crude analysis and after controlling for confounding variables, maternal education in the population remains statistically relevant to children's dietary and nutritional status. The proportion of low body weight and stunting children is the highest in the group with maternal education level being below preliminary school, the lowest in the group with education level being above high middle school. Moreover, in these three groups, the higher the level of maternal education, the greater the percentage of nutrients intake of China RDA, especially those from animal food. These results fully illustrate the importance of maternal education for the prevention of malnutrition in children.

  19. [Nutritional status in Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Machado, Jacqueline; Caram, Carmen Lucia Barreto; Frank, Andrea Abdala; Soares, Eliane de Abreu; Laks, Jerson

    2009-01-01

    To describe the nutritional status of elderly subjects with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. Subjects of both genders (n=40) diagnosed with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease according to NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, participated in the study. Socioeconomic status, activities of daily life, anthropometric, clinical and dietary profiles were surveyed. Of the total, 65% were female. More than 70% were capable of accomplishing daily activities by themselves. Subjects were eutrophic with a statistically significant difference of the arm circumference between the mild and moderate groups. As for illnesses secondary to Alzheimer's, 52% of the elderly presented hypertension, followed by arthrosis type alterations (17%). The mean consumption of energy and macronutrients in the elderly classified as mild dementia was of 1645 kcal, distributed in 53.7% of carbohydrate, 17.5% of proteins or 0.9 g/kg and 28.8% of lipids. For those classified as moderate dementia it was of 1482 kcal, distributed in 59.3% of carbohydrate, 16.1% of proteins and 24.6% of lipids. In this descriptive study of elderly outpatients with mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease, most presented a nutritional status of eutrophy, with adequate dietary intake of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and vitamin C, but with low dietary intake of vitamin E.

  20. Effects of Two Different Levels of Dietary Protein on Body Composition and Protein Nutritional Status of Growing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tirapegui, Julio; Ribeiro, Sandra Maria Lima; Pires, Ivanir Santana de Oliveira; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a high-protein diet on growth, body composition, and protein nutritional status of young rats. Newly-weaned Wistar rats, weighing 45–50 g, were distributed in two experimental groups, according to their diets, which contained 12% (G12) or 26% protein (G26), over a period of 3 weeks. The animals were euthanized at the end of this period and the following analyses were performed: chemical composition of the carcass, proteoglycan synthesis, IGF-I concentration (serum, muscle and cartilage), total tissue RNA, protein concentration (muscle and cartilage) and protein synthesis (muscle and cartilage). The high-protein diet was found to result in a higher fat-free mass and lower fat mass in the carcass, with no difference in growth or protein nutritional status. PMID:23112920

  1. Effects of two different levels of dietary protein on body composition and protein nutritional status of growing rats.

    PubMed

    Tirapegui, Julio; Ribeiro, Sandra Maria Lima; Pires, Ivanir Santana de Oliveira; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a high-protein diet on growth, body composition, and protein nutritional status of young rats. Newly-weaned Wistar rats, weighing 45-50 g, were distributed in two experimental groups, according to their diets, which contained 12% (G12) or 26% protein (G26), over a period of 3 weeks. The animals were euthanized at the end of this period and the following analyses were performed: chemical composition of the carcass, proteoglycan synthesis, IGF-I concentration (serum, muscle and cartilage), total tissue RNA, protein concentration (muscle and cartilage) and protein synthesis (muscle and cartilage). The high-protein diet was found to result in a higher fat-free mass and lower fat mass in the carcass, with no difference in growth or protein nutritional status.

  2. Combined effect of new complete dentures and simple dietary advice on nutritional status in edentulous patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Komagamine, Yuriko; Kanazawa, Manabu; Iwaki, Maiko; Jo, Ayami; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Amagai, Noriko; Minakuchi, Shunsuke

    2016-11-09

    Individuals who are edentulous have a lower intake of fruit, vegetables, fiber, and protein compared with their dentate counterparts because tooth loss is accompanied by a decrease in ability to chew. Whether or not a combination of prosthetic rehabilitation and simple dietary advice produces improvement in dietary intake among edentulous persons is unclear. We aim to investigate the effect of a simultaneous combination of simple dietary advice delivered by dentists and provision of new complete dentures on dietary intake in edentulous individuals who request new dentures. Through a double-blinded, parallel, randomized controlled trial in which 70 edentate persons who request new complete dentures will be enrolled, eligible study participants will be randomly allocated to either a dietary intervention group receiving dietary advice or to a control group receiving only advice on the care and maintenance of dentures. Outcome measures include daily intake of nutrients and food items, assessed using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire; antioxidant capacity, determined using blood and urine samples; nutritional status, assessed with the Mini-Nutritional Assessment-Short Form; oral health-related quality of life, assessed with the Japanese version of the Oral Health Impact Profile-EDENT and the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index; subjective chewing ability; masticatory performance, assessed using a color-changeable chewing gum and a gummy jelly; patient self-assessment of dentures; mild cognitive impairment, assessed with the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment; and functional capacity, assessed with the Japan Science and Technology Agency Index of Competence. Outcome measures, except for antioxidant capacity, are to be implemented at three time points: at baseline and at 3 and 6 months following intervention. Antioxidant capacity data are to be collected twice: at baseline and at 3 months following intervention. Differences

  3. Associations of dietary, lifestyle, and sociodemographic factors with iron status in Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study in the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peter J; Ley, Sylvia H; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Li, Yanping; Wang, Dong D

    2017-02-01

    Although a high prevalence of anemia and related disease burden have been documented in China, limited evidence is available on the current population-level iron status and risk factors for iron imbalance. We explored the associations of dietary, lifestyle, and sociodemographic factors with iron status in Chinese adults. Our study population consisted of 7672 adults aged 18-65 y from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey. Diet was assessed with the use of 3 consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor, and hemoglobin concentrations were measured. The geometric means ± SDs for ferritin concentrations were 135.9 ± 2.7 ng/mL in men and 42.7 ± 3.1 ng/mL in women. After adjustment for potential risk factors, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration, the association between age and ferritin concentration was inverse in men (P-trend < 0.001) and positive in women (P-trend < 0.001). We observed a positive association between body mass index (in kg/m(2)) and ferritin concentration in both men and women (both P-trends < 0.001). Dietary phytate intake was inversely associated with ferritin concentration in men (P-trend = 0.002) but not in women. Red meat consumption was positively associated with ferritin concentration both in men (P-trend = 0.002) and in older women (P-trend = 0.009). Lower intakes of grains and higher intakes of pork and poultry were associated with higher ferritin concentrations (all P-trends ≤ 0.05) in men but not in women. We observed variations in ferritin concentrations across different geographic regions (both P ≤ 0.01). Serum ferritin concentrations varied across different sociodemographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors in this Chinese population. A higher intake of red meat was associated with higher ferritin concentrations in men and older women. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Identification of dietary patterns by factor analysis and study of the relationship with nutritional status of rural adolescents using factor scores.

    PubMed

    Venkaiah, Kodavalla; Brahmam, Ginnela Narsimhachary Veera; Vijayaraghavan, Kamasamudram

    2015-05-01

    Study was undertaken to know food and nutrient consumption patterns and their relationship with nutritional status among rural adolescents in Orissa. It was a Community based cross sectional study, conducted at district level in the State of Orissa. Data on 686 adolescent boys and 689 adolescent girls were utilized. Factor analysis was used to find dietary pattern and discriminate analysis and its relationship with undernutrition. The study revealed that among adolescent boys, there existed six patterns among food-groups and three patterns among nutrients explaining 52% and 76% of total variation. Similarly among adolescent girls, seven patterns among food groups and three patterns among nutrients, explaining 67% and 80% of total variation. The discriminate analysis using the factor scores revealed overall 56% of adolescent boys, and 53% of girls were correctly classified. About 46% of boys who were actually thin were predicted as normal, while, 40% who were normal were predicted as thin. Among girls 50% who were actually thin were predicted as normal, while, 36% who were normal were predicted as thin. In conclusions, there exists considerable relationship between dietary patterns and nutritional status among rural adolescents.

  5. Analysis of Dietary Pattern Impact on Weight Status for Personalised Nutrition through On-Line Advice: The Food4Me Spanish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Daniel, Hannelore; Saris, Wim H. M.; Traczyk, Iwonna; Manios, Yannis; Gibney, Eileen R.; Gibney, Michael J.; Mathers, John C.; Martinez, J. Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Obesity prevalence is increasing. The management of this condition requires a detailed analysis of the global risk factors in order to develop personalised advice. This study is aimed to identify current dietary patterns and habits in Spanish population interested in personalised nutrition and investigate associations with weight status. Self-reported dietary and anthropometrical data from the Spanish participants in the Food4Me study, were used in a multidimensional exploratory analysis to define specific dietary profiles. Two opposing factors were obtained according to food groups’ intake: Factor 1 characterised by a more frequent consumption of traditionally considered unhealthy foods; and Factor 2, where the consumption of “Mediterranean diet” foods was prevalent. Factor 1 showed a direct relationship with BMI (β = 0.226; r2 = 0.259; p < 0.001), while the association with Factor 2 was inverse (β = −0.037; r2 = 0.230; p = 0.348). A total of four categories were defined (Prudent, Healthy, Western, and Compensatory) through classification of the sample in higher or lower adherence to each factor and combining the possibilities. Western and Compensatory dietary patterns, which were characterized by high-density foods consumption, showed positive associations with overweight prevalence. Further analysis showed that prevention of overweight must focus on limiting the intake of known deleterious foods rather than exclusively enhance healthy products. PMID:26593942

  6. Analysis of Dietary Pattern Impact on Weight Status for Personalised Nutrition through On-Line Advice: The Food4Me Spanish Cohort.

    PubMed

    San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne; Lovegrove, Julie A; Daniel, Hannelore; Saris, Wim H M; Traczyk, Iwonna; Manios, Yannis; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Michael J; Mathers, John C; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2015-11-17

    Obesity prevalence is increasing. The management of this condition requires a detailed analysis of the global risk factors in order to develop personalised advice. This study is aimed to identify current dietary patterns and habits in Spanish population interested in personalised nutrition and investigate associations with weight status. Self-reported dietary and anthropometrical data from the Spanish participants in the Food4Me study, were used in a multidimensional exploratory analysis to define specific dietary profiles. Two opposing factors were obtained according to food groups' intake: Factor 1 characterised by a more frequent consumption of traditionally considered unhealthy foods; and Factor 2, where the consumption of "Mediterranean diet" foods was prevalent. Factor 1 showed a direct relationship with BMI (β = 0.226; r² = 0.259; p < 0.001), while the association with Factor 2 was inverse (β = -0.037; r² = 0.230; p = 0.348). A total of four categories were defined (Prudent, Healthy, Western, and Compensatory) through classification of the sample in higher or lower adherence to each factor and combining the possibilities. Western and Compensatory dietary patterns, which were characterized by high-density foods consumption, showed positive associations with overweight prevalence. Further analysis showed that prevention of overweight must focus on limiting the intake of known deleterious foods rather than exclusively enhance healthy products.

  7. Assessment of protein nutritional status in children.

    PubMed

    Pencharz, Paul B

    2008-02-01

    When considering the effects of disease on nutritional status it is useful to think of the body consisting of lean mass and fat mass. The latter relates to energy status and the former to protein nutritional status. In addition, childhood growth in length/height is to a high degree dependent upon having an adequate protein intake. If insufficient non-protein energy is fed, then protein is used to help meet energy needs. Hence achieving an optimum protein nutritional status also requires receiving sufficient energy. Assessment of protein nutritional status starts with measurement of length/height and weight in relationship to growth standards. Next comes using mid-upper arm parameters in which the measurement of muscle area or circumference is a reflection of protein nutritional status while triceps skin-fold thickness is a measurement of energy status. Serum albumin remains the number one short term parameter reflecting protein nutritional status followed by serum transferrin. Plasma amino acid profiles can be measured but are mostly dependent on recent dietary intake and so are hard to interpret. Classically, nitrogen balance has been used as a reflection of dietary protein intake. While it has been used extensively on a research basis its clinical applicability is limited.

  8. Nutritional status, dietary intake patterns and nutrition knowledge of children aged 5-6 years attending kindergartens in the Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Poh, B K; Kathryn Tham, B L; Wong, S N; Winnie Chee, S S; Tee, E S

    2012-08-01

    Early childhood is a period during which many factors influence the development of lifelong eating habits. This study aimed to assess the nutritional status of young children and to determine factors related to eating habits. A total of 992 children aged 5-6 years attending kindergartens that participated in the Bright Start Nutrition programme in the Klang Valley were included in the study. Anthropometric measurements were taken and body mass index (BMI) calculated. A questionnaire to assess the children's nutrition knowledge was administered through interviews, while their mothers self-administered another set of questionnaires regarding knowledge, attitude and practice on nutrition. The mean BMI was 15.7 +/- 2.7 kg/m2 in boys and 15.4 +/- 2.4 kg/m2 in girls. Based on the WHO 2007 growth reference, the prevalence of overweight and obesity were 9.1% and 9.3%, respectively; while the prevalence of thinness and stunting were 5.8% and 3.9%, respectively. Most of the children consumed breakfast (86.4%), lunch (94.1%) and dinner (93.4%) daily. The majority liked fruits (95.1%), snacks (93.8%), Western fast food (93.3%) and milk (90.8%), while less than two-thirds (65.1%) liked vegetables. The mean nutrition knowledge scores for the children and mothers were 73.2 +/- 9.8% and 60.2 +/- 18.8%, respectively. Maternal nutrition knowledge was correlated positively with children's vegetable intake (r=0.111, p<0.05) and negatively with snack intake (r = -0.134, p<0.05). These results showed a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than underweight and thinness among the urban young children studied. As mother's nutrition knowledge was found to exert a positive influence on children's eating habits, it is important to provide nutrition education to both mothers and children when conducting intervention programmes.

  9. Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and breast cancer risk according to menopause and hormone receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Ferrari, Pietro; González, Carlos A; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Bredsdorff, Lea; Overvad, Kim; Touillaud, Marina; Perquier, Florence; Fagherazzi, Guy; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Tikk, Kaja; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Dilis, Vardis; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Engeset, Dagrun; Menéndez, Virginia; Travier, Noémie; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Wallström, Peter; Sonestedt, Emily; Sund, Malin; Landberg, Rikard; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Travis, Ruth C; Scalbert, Augustin; Ward, Heather A; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle

    2013-05-01

    Evidence on the association between dietary flavonoids and lignans and breast cancer (BC) risk is inconclusive, with the possible exception of isoflavones in Asian countries. Therefore, we investigated prospectively dietary total and subclasses of flavonoid and lignan intake and BC risk according to menopause and hormonal receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 334,850 women, mostly aged between 35 and 70 years from ten European countries. At baseline, country-specific validated dietary questionnaires were used. A flavonoid and lignan food composition database was developed from the US Department of Agriculture, the Phenol-Explorer and the UK Food Standards Agency databases. Cox regression models were used to analyse the association between dietary flavonoid/lignan intake and the risk of developing BC. During an average 11.5-year follow-up, 11,576 incident BC cases were identified. No association was observed between the intake of total flavonoids [hazard ratio comparing fifth to first quintile (HRQ5-Q1) 0.97, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.90-1.04; P trend = 0.591], isoflavones (HRQ5-Q1 1.00, 95 % CI: 0.91-1.10; P trend = 0.734), or total lignans (HRQ5-Q1 1.02, 95 % CI: 0.93-1.11; P trend = 0.469) and overall BC risk. The stratification of the results by menopausal status at recruitment or the differentiation of BC cases according to oestrogen and progesterone receptors did not affect the results. This study shows no associations between flavonoid and lignan intake and BC risk, overall or after taking into account menopausal status and BC hormone receptors.

  10. Vitamin E status and its dietary determinants in Taiwanese--results of the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 1993-1996.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mei-Jyh; Lin, Yi-Chin; Yeh, Wen-Hui; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2004-04-01

    A large proportion of Taiwanese are considered to have inadequate vitamin E intake according to Taiwanese RDA. To evaluate the vitamin E status in Taiwan using biochemical indicators, and to examine the influences of dietary factors. The Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 1993-1996 was conducted using a multi-stage sampling scheme. Data of 3614 subjects (1728 males, and 1886 females) aged 4 years and above were included in the current analysis. Females had higher levels of serum alpha-tocopherol than males. Serum level of alpha-tocopherol significantly increased with age and blood lipids (p < 0.001). The prevalence rate of deficiency, assessed by the ratio of serum alpha-tocopherol to cholesterol+triglyceride(TG) < 1.59 micromol/mmol, was 1.4 % for Taiwanese aged 4 and above. The prevalence was 1.02 % for adults. This biochemical profile was superior in women compared to men. The age-serum vitamin E status was U-shaped, being poorest in teenagers. Geographical variation in vitamin E/cholesterol+TG ratio was not apparent across regions. An association was observed between serum vitamin E status and frequency of vitamin E supplements, fresh fruits, and 100 % fruit juices. An association was also seen with dietary intakes of vitamin C and vitamin E assessed by 24-hour recall. The prevalence rate of vitamin E deficiency in Taiwan was low. An association was observed between serum vitamin E status and dietary vitamins E and C intakes either from foods or supplements.

  11. Nutritional status of pre-pregnant and pregnant women residing in Bogor district, Indonesia: a cross-sectional dietary and nutrient intake study.

    PubMed

    Madanijah, Siti; Briawan, Dodik; Rimbawan, Rimbawan; Zulaikhah, Zulaikhah; Andarwulan, Nuri; Nuraida, Lilis; Sundjaya, Tonny; Murti, Laksmi; Shah, Priyali; Bindels, Jacques

    2016-07-01

    The diet of Indonesian women of childbearing age is relatively poor, posing increased risk for suboptimal pregnancy outcome. In a cross-sectional study including 403 women in three economic quintiles (Q), we investigated differences in dietary intake and nutrition sufficiency according to economic status and whether regular dietary intakes of pregnant women (PW, n 203) differ from that of pre-pregnant women (PPW, n 200). Dietary intake data were collected using 2×24 h dietary recall and FFQ. Energy, protein, Fe, Ca, Zn, vitamin A and vitamin C intakes were calculated utilising Food Composition Tables and compared with Indonesian recommendations for adequacy. Energy and protein intakes <70 % and Fe, Ca, Zn, vitamin A and vitamin C intakes <77 % of the local recommendation were considered insufficient. A higher intake of milk/dairy products (Q3, Q4), fruits and vegetables (Q2) and snacks (Q3) in PW was observed compared with PPW, but insufficient to meet nutrient requirements. Nutrient intake calculations showed insufficiency in 26 % of PPW for protein and up to 70 % for Fe. Deficient nutrient intakes in PW were found in 49 % of the subjects for energy and up to 85 % for Fe. Energy and protein intakes decreased with decreasing economic quintiles in PPW and PW. Ca and vitamin A intakes were lower in Q2 compared with Q4. The proportion of animal protein in Q2-PW was low (31 %). Biochemical status parameters in a subset showed that anaemia and Fe and Zn deficiencies were prevalent among PPW and PW. Habitual diets in the study area did not meet the nutrient requirements for both PPW and PW across the investigated economic groups.

  12. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet, Weight Status, and Blood Pressure among Children and Adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Juliana F W; Lehnerd, Megan E; Houser, Robert F; Rimm, Eric B

    2017-09-01

    The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is associated with lower blood pressure and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease among adults, but little is known about accordance with this dietary pattern or health benefits among children and adolescents. The objectives were to evaluate accordance with the DASH diet, differences over time, and the association with health attributes among a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the 2003-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were analyzed. Data from 9,793 individuals aged 8 to 18 years were examined. DASH accordance was estimated based on nine nutrient targets: total fat, saturated fat, protein, cholesterol, fiber, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium; possible score range is 0 to 9. Accordance with the DASH diet across time was examined comparing the 2011-2012 to 2003-2004 NHANES surveys. The association between DASH score and weight status was examined using multinomial logistic regression, and the associations with waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were examined using multivariable linear regression. Accordance with the DASH diet was low across the age groups, with a range of mean DASH scores from 1.48 to 2.14. There were no significant changes across time. DASH score was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) among 14- to 18-year-olds (β=-.46; 95% CI -.83 to -.09) among the larger sample of participants who completed at least one dietary recall, but no significant differences were seen in other age categories. In the subsample of participants with both dietary recalls, a significant inverse association was seen between DASH score and systolic blood pressure for 11- to 13-year-olds (β=-.57; 95% CI -1.02 to -.12). There were no significant associations between this dietary pattern and weight status, waist circumference, or diastolic blood pressure. Few US

  13. Evaluation of nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, H F

    1983-01-01

    The assessment of nutritional status has become very popular, especially for patients undergoing stress (surgery) or potential parenteral nutrition. Evaluation of cancer patients is essentially the same as for other patients. Body fat reserves are approximated by subcutaneous skinfold measurements. Somatic protein (skeletal muscle) mass is decreased in marasmus (protein-calorie malnutrition) and is evaluated by anthropometric determinations, based upon age and sex or both. Instead of using relatively inadequate standards such as the 1959 Metropolitan Life Insurance tables for ideal weight, it is advocated to use the population percentiles derived from the Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (HANES) published in 1979. The visceral protein mass is decreased in kwashiorkor and is approximated by study of the liver transport proteins. A mixed-type of protein-calorie malnutrition may exist, e.g., cancer cachexia, with marked decrease of immunocompetence. A prognostic nutritional index, based on biologic measurements rather than true nutritional assessment, can predict the probability of complications and survival in severely ill patients. All such studies should be used to substantiate good clinical judgement, based on adequate history and physical examination with emphasis on the nutritional aspects.

  14. Nutritional status, dietary energy intake and the risk of exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    PubMed

    Hallin, Runa; Koivisto-Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa; Lindberg, Eva; Janson, Christer

    2006-03-01

    Loss of body weight, as a result of imbalance between increased energy demand and/or reduced dietary intake, is a common problem in patients with COPD. The aim of this investigation was to examine the relationship between nutritional intake, change in body weight and the risk of exacerbation in patients with COPD. The study comprised 41 patients who were hospitalised because of an exacerbation of COPD. The follow-up period was 12 months. Weight, height and lung function were measured at baseline. At the 12-month follow-up, weight change and current weight were assessed by an interview and nutritional intake was recorded in a food diary for 7 days. An acute exacerbation was defined as having been admitted to hospital and/or making an emergency visit to hospital, due to COPD during the follow-up period. At baseline, 24% of the patients were underweight (body mass index (BMI)<20 kg/m2), 46% were of normal weight (BMI 20-25 kg/m2) and 29% were overweight (BMI>25 kg/m2). Energy intake was lower than the calculated energy demand for all groups. During the follow-up period, 24 of the 41 patients had an exacerbation. A low BMI at inclusion and weight loss during the follow-up period were independent risk factors for having an exacerbation (P=0.003 and 0.006, respectively). We conclude that, in patients who are hospitalised because of COPD, underweight and weight loss during the follow-up period are related to a higher risk of having new exacerbations.

  15. Do Indonesians follow its Dietary Guidelines?: evidence related to food consumption, healthy lifestyle, and nutritional status within the period 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Usfar, Avita A; Fahmida, Umi

    2011-01-01

    Dietary Guidelines are sets of advisory statements that give dietary advice for population to promote nutritional well-being. They contain information on foods or behaviors that are encouraged and cautionary messages derived from scientific evidence-based reviews and specific local conditions. The Indonesian Dietary Guidelines consisting of 13 messages that were publicized by the Ministry of Health in 1995 and have not been reviewed afterward in relation to nutritional status and health outcome of the population. By reviewing studies on different age groups in the past 10 years and comparing the results with the recommended guidelines, this paper aims to identify if messages have been successfully applied and if there are relevant issues not yet covered in the guidelines. The reviews covered 29 out of 33 provinces, representing studies from sub-district or higher levels (district, provincial, national). Results showed that some messages have been better implemented than others; also that information for some messages was not available for which to conclude of its implementation. In addition, some practices were identified which are prevalent in several age groups and have important public health consequence, but not yet included in the 13-guidelines. These include: smoking, increased intakes of fruit and vegetables, limited intakes of salt and sugar, increased intakes of foods rich in zinc and calcium (besides iron), hand-washing before food preparation and eating, and weight-monitoring. For infants and young children, nutrient density, feeding responsiveness and stimulation should be specifically highlighted. Based on the results, several recommendations in revising the guidelines were given.

  16. [Assessing nutritional status before introducing enteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Leandro-Merhi, Vânia Aparecida; Morete, Juliana Luisi; Oliveira, Maria Rita Marques de

    2009-01-01

    A proper diagnosis of the nutritional status is of the utmost importance for prescribing enteral nutrition therapy in the hospital environment. To assess nutritional status indicators of patients about to receive enteral nutrition therapy in a hospital unit. This cross-sectional study examined the nutritional status of 100 adult patients before they were introduced to enteral nutrition therapy by calculating their body mass index . Their height and weight were estimated by prediction formulas and laboratory indicators of nutritional and metabolic statuses. Almost one-third (29%) of the patients were classified as malnourished according to their body mass index, while 80% of them had low albumin values (<3.2 g/dL). When patients were grouped according to body mass index, the distribution of the reasons for hospitalization did not differ between the groups. Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases prevailed as the main reasons for hospitalization. When patients were grouped according to body mass index and diagnosis upon admission, the rates of low albumin concentration, i.e., concentration below the reference value, did not differ between the groups. The estimated body mass index was a specific indicator of nutritional status but lacked sensitivity. Meanwhile, albumin was more sensitive, demonstrating that it is necessary to use many indicators in combination to diagnose nutritional status properly.

  17. Predictors of low bone mineral density in the elderly: the role of dietary intake, nutritional status and sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Coin, A; Perissinotto, E; Enzi, G; Zamboni, M; Inelmen, E M; Frigo, A C; Manzato, E; Busetto, L; Buja, A; Sergi, G

    2008-06-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between sarcopenia, dietary intake, nutritional indices and hip bone mineral density (BMD) in the elderly, and to estimate the risk of low BMD due to specific independent predictor thresholds. Body mass index (BMI), serum albumin, energy and protein intake were studied in 352 elderly outpatients (216 women aged 73.5+/-5.3 years and 136 men aged 73.9+/-5.6 years). BMD at different hip sites and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 13% in men and 45% in women, while the prevalence of sarcopenia (50%) and hypoalbuminemia (5%) were similar in both genders. BMI, albumin and ASMM were significantly associated with BMD in both genders: so was protein intake, but only in men. By multiple regression analysis, the variables that retained their independent explanatory role on total hip BMD, were BMI and protein intake in men, and BMI and albumin in women. By logistic regression analysis, men risked having a low BMD with a BMI <22 (OR=12) and a protein intake <65.7 g/day (OR=3.7). Women carried some risk already in the BMI 25-30 class (OR=5), and a much greater risk in the BMI <22 class (OR=26). Albumin <40 g/l also emerged as an independent risk factor (OR=2.6). BMI in both genders, albumin in women and protein intake in men have an independent effect on BMD. BMI values <22 are normal for younger adults but carry a higher risk of osteoporosis in the elderly, particularly in women. Age-related sarcopenia does not seem to be involved in bone mass loss.

  18. SEANUTS: the nutritional status and dietary intakes of 0.5-12-year-old Thai children.

    PubMed

    Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen; Purttiponthanee, Sasiumphai; Yamborisut, Uruwan; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Kunapan, Petcharat; Thasanasuwan, Wiyada; Khouw, Ilse

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated nutritional status and health-related factors in a multistage cluster sample of 3119 Thai urban and rural children aged 0·5-12·9 years. In a subsample, blood samples were collected for the measurement of Hb, transferrin receptor, vitamin A and vitamin D concentrations. The prevalence of stunting and underweight was higher in rural children than in urban children, whereas the wasting rate was similar in both rural and urban areas. Among children aged 3·0-5·9 years, the prevalence of overweight was significantly higher in urban areas than in rural areas and so was the obesity rate in children aged 6·0-12·9 years. Protein intakes of all age groups were relatively high in both the areas. Intakes of Ca, Fe, Zn and vitamin C were significantly higher in urban areas than in rural areas. The prevalence of anaemia in rural areas was twice as high as that in urban areas, particularly in infants and young children. However, the prevalence of Fe-deficiency anaemia was similar in both urban and rural areas. While the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (by serum retinol cut-off < 0·7 μmol/l) seemed to be very low, vitamin A insufficiency (by serum retinol cut-off < 1·05 μmol/l) was more prevalent (29·4-31·7%) in both the areas. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency ranged between 27·7 and 45·6% among the children. The present study indicates that the double burden of malnutrition is still a major public health problem in Thailand. Further studies need to explore the associated risk factors for these nutrient deficiencies. Effective strategies and actions are needed to tackle the nutritional problems in Thai children.

  19. Effect of meal portion size choice on plate waste generation among patients with different nutritional status. An investigation using Dietary Intake Monitoring System (DIMS).

    PubMed

    Ofei, K T; Holst, M; Rasmussen, H H; Mikkelsen, B E

    2015-08-01

    The trolley meal system allows hospital patients to select food items and portion sizes directly from the food trolley. The nutritional status of the patient may be compromised if portions selected do not meet recommended intakes for energy, protein and micronutrients. The aim of this study was to investigate: (1) the portion size served, consumed and plate waste generated, (2) the extent to which the size of meal portions served contributes to daily recommended intakes for energy and protein, (3) the predictive effect of the served portion sizes on plate waste in patients screened for nutritional risk by NRS-2002, and (4) to establish the applicability of the dietary intake monitoring system (DIMS) as a technique to monitor plate waste. A prospective observational cohort study was conducted in two hospital wards over five weekdays. The DIMS was used to collect paired before- and after-meal consumption photos and measure the weight of plate content. The proportion of energy and protein consumed by both groups at each meal session could contribute up to 15% of the total daily recommended intake. Linear mixed model identified a positive relationship between meal portion size and plate waste (P = 0.002) and increased food waste in patients at nutritional risk during supper (P = 0.001). Meal portion size was associated with the level of plate waste produced. Being at nutritional risk further increased the extent of waste, regardless of the portion size served at supper. The use of DIMS as an innovative technique might be a promising way to monitor plate waste for optimizing meal portion size servings and minimizing food waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutritional status in Europe: methods and results.

    PubMed

    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Freisling, Heinz

    2009-05-01

    Presented here is an analysis and documentation of the nutritional situation in 14 European countries. Collection methods and available data about the most common nutritional status assessment indicators are described. Prevalence of adult obesity varied considerably in the 14 countries, ranging from 6% to 31%. The mean fat intake of adults exceeded the population goal of less than 30% of energy in virtually all of the 14 countries. Dietary fiber, folate, vitamin D, and (excessive) sodium intake did not meet recommended levels. Strategies addressing the inadequacies in European diets are needed to improve the nutritional situation in Europe.

  1. The effects of patient participation-based dietary intervention on nutritional and functional status for patients with gastrectomy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsun; Suh, Eunyoung E; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2014-01-01

    Patients undergoing gastrectomy because of stomach cancer often face weight loss in the perioperational period, which can lead to malnutrition and negative treatment outcomes. The purpose of this study was to develop a patient participation-based dietary intervention (PPDI) and evaluate its effects on patient outcomes. This was a prospective, randomized controlled trial in which the patients were recruited in a cancer center in South Korea. The participants (N = 56), who underwent gastrectomy with stomach cancer stage I to III, were randomly assigned into either the experimental or the control group. The PPDI, which was given on the day before the hospital discharge, comprised 2 face-to-face and 2 telephone interventions. The outcome variables included body weight, body mass index, muscle mass, the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment, Dietary Symptom Scale, Functional Assessment Cancer Therapy-General, Karnofsky Performance Status, Adherence to Dietary Guidelines Scale, Scale of Dietary Knowledge, Patient Satisfaction Scale, and a 3-day food diary. Participants in the PPDI intervention demonstrated significant (P < .05) reductions in adverse dietary symptoms and significant improvements (P < .05) in functional status, performance status, dietary intake, adherence to dietary guidelines, dietary knowledge, and satisfaction with the intervention as compared with the control group over time. The PPDI was an effective dietary intervention for patients undergoing a gastrectomy for gastric cancer and deserves additional study in other populations of patients. Incorporating patients' perspectives into a dietary intervention after gastrectomy for gastric cancer may contribute to improved patient outcomes and quality care.

  2. Dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Deka, Mrigen Kr; Malhotra, Anil Kumar; Yadav, Rashmi; Gupta, Shubhanshu

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents are considered to be a nutritionally vulnerable segment of the population. There is a greater need to look into the nutritional status of adolescents but unfortunately, precise estimates of their dietary intake, dietary practices as well as nutritional deficiencies have been the least explored area. The general objective for conducting this study was to assess the dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescents in schools and colleges in the urban areas of Jhansi district in Uttar Pradesh. The study sample consisted of 400 school children in the age group of 10-19 years. Food consumption of the subjects was assessed using a 3-day food intake recall method. Mean age of the adolescents was 14.16 years. More than half of the children studied had malnutrition (53.5%). Mean intake of calorie, protein, fat, iron, and vitamins A and C were lower than the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). The habitual dietary pattern indicated poor consumption of milk, liver, and leafy vegetables. In comparison to boys (31.5%), more girls (46%) were underweight. On seeing the association, nutritional status of these adolescents within the normal limits were found to be significantly higher in those from nuclear families (P < 0.001), those with better educated parents (P < 0.000), and those from families of higher socioeconomic status (P < 0.000). Overall, among the participants, there were both macro- and micronutrients deficiencies. Therefore, there is a need to encourage people to adopt small family norms, and a need for the sensitization of both adolescents and their parents through health and nutrition education (HNE) to improve the health and nutritional status of the adolescents.

  3. Dietary screening tool identifies nutritional risk in older adults123

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Paige E; Mitchell, Diane C; Hartman, Terryl J; Lawrence, Frank R; Sempos, Christopher T; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Background: No rapid methods exist for screening overall dietary intakes in older adults. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a scoring system for a diet screening tool to identify nutritional risk in community-dwelling older adults. Design: This cross-sectional study in older adults (n = 204) who reside in rural areas examined nutrition status by using an in-person interview, biochemical measures, and four 24-h recalls that included the use of dietary supplements. Results: The dietary screening tool was able to characterize 3 levels of nutritional risk: at risk, possible risk, and not at risk. Individuals classified as at nutritional risk had significantly lower indicators of diet quality (Healthy Eating Index and Mean Adequacy Ratio) and intakes of protein, most micronutrients, dietary fiber, fruit, and vegetables. The at-risk group had higher intakes of fats and oils and refined grains. The at-risk group also had the lowest serum vitamin B-12, folate, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin concentrations. The not-at-nutritional-risk group had significantly higher lycopene and β-carotene and lower homocysteine and methylmalonic acid concentrations. Conclusion: The dietary screening tool is a simple and practical tool that can help to detect nutritional risk in older adults. PMID:19458013

  4. How much of racial/ethnic disparities in dietary intakes, exercise, and weight status can be explained by nutrition- and health-related psychosocial factors and socioeconomic status among US adults?

    PubMed

    Wang, Youfa; Chen, Xiaoli

    2011-12-01

    Large disparities exist in obesity and other chronic diseases across racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status (SES) groups in the United States. This study examined how much of racial/ethnic differences in diet, exercise, and weight status could be explained by nutrition- and health-related psychosocial factors (NHRPF) and SES among US adults. Nationally representative data of 4,356 US adults from the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and the Diet and Health Knowledge Survey were used. NHRPF were assessed using 24 questions and related index scores. Dietary intakes were assessed using two nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. The US Department of Agriculture 2005 Healthy Eating Index was applied to evaluate diet quality. Body mass index was calculated based on self-reported weight and height. SES was assessed using education and household income. Americans with higher SES had better NHRPF and Healthy Eating Index scores. There were some small racial/ethnic differences in NHRPF, including making food choices and awareness of nutrition-related health risks. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models revealed some racial/ethnic differences in diet, exercise, and body mass index, but few of these disparities was explained by NHRPF, whereas SES explained some. The odds ratio of body mass index ≥25 for non-Hispanic blacks compared with whites decreased by 38% after SES was adjusted for. For exercise, we found a smaller change (9.5%) in the racial/ethnic differences when controlling for SES. In conclusion, NHRPF may explain very few, but SES may contribute some of the racial/ethnic disparities in diet, exercise, and weight status in the United States.

  5. Nutritional status of Brazilian elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, Valéria Cristina Provenza; Amancio, Olga Maria Silverio

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the body composition, dietary intake, use of nutritional supplements, and biochemical status of 8 Brazilian male elite swimmers, aged 18-21 years, participants at a national swimming competition. Data from the athletes were obtained through a 4-day food record, a fasting blood sample, and anthropometric measurements. The anthropometric results showed that body composition was compatible with sport category. The dietary assessment showed an adequate ingestion of calories, vitamins, and mineral, with the exception of calcium, for which only half of the sample reached the recommendation. The results also indicated low carbohydrate and high protein and cholesterol intakes. Of the swimmers, 62.5% and 25% consumed synthetic aminoacids and antioxidants supplements, respectively. The biochemical indices of the nutritional status were within normal limits in all swimmers, with the exception of creatine-kinase, which was above the recommended level, indicating muscle degradation probably due to poor carbohydrate intake. In conclusion, the results suggest the importance of nutritional education to promote a balanced intake, provide all nutrients in optimal amounts, inhibit unnecessary ingestion of nutritional supplements, maintain ideal performance, and improve the swimmers' health status.

  6. The effects of denture status on nutrition.

    PubMed

    Papas, A S; Palmer, C A; Rounds, M C; Russell, R M

    1998-01-01

    In Part I of this study, the Human Nutrition Research Center of the United States Department of Agriculture's Nutritional Status Study (NSS) of 691 independently living elderly people aged 60-98 found that poor dietary quality was associated with low educational attainment, low median family income, and self-report of partial or full dentures. In Part II, further analysis was conducted on a random subsample of 181 subjects who were examined and divided into four groups according to dentate status: two dentures, one denture, partial dentures, and teeth. In this subgroup, significant correlations were found between the quality of nutrient intake and the degree of edentulousness. Analysis of 53 nutrients plus calories from three-day food records showed a significantly higher nutritional quality of the diet in dentate volunteers than in the other groups. This difference was approximately 20% for 19 nutrients, bringing some nutrients (such as calcium) below the RDA for this age group. Although direct correlations cannot be made with actual nutritional status, the introduction of dentures could further compromise the precarious nutritional intake of the elderly population. With this in mind, dentists need to consider carefully the importance of their elderly patients maintaining at least some natural dentition and should provide adequate information on nutritional adaptations to dentures.

  7. Maternal nutritional knowledge and the nutritional status of preschool children in a Nairobi slum.

    PubMed

    Waihenya, E W; Kogi-Makau, W; Muita, J W

    1996-07-01

    Most nutrition education programmes in Kenya operate on the premise that nutritional knowledge can have an impact on children's nutritional status. It has, however, been argued that nutritional knowledge among low income groups is unlikely to have an impact, hence, the need to establish whether there is a relationship between nutritional status and maternal nutritional knowledge. In a cross-sectional survey carried out in a Nairobi slum (Kibera), nutritional status of 363 children aged six to 24 months was measured and nutritional knowledge of their mothers assessed. Makina village was randomly selected as the study site and all consenting households were involved in the study. The study established that most mothers (97.5%) have access to nutrition education. Prevalence of stunting (86.2%) and underweight (58.4%) was high but that of wasting (1.9%) was low. There was no significant relationship between the nutritional status of children and overall nutritional knowledge. Unexpectedly, a negative relationship was found between nutritional status and mothers' ability to recognise clinical signs of malnutrition, knowledge in the weaning process and dietary management during sickness. Knowledge on frequency of feeding was, however, positively related to nutritional states. In conclusion, nutritional knowledge alone is inadequate in ensuring young children's nutrition security and, hence, for nutrition education programmes to have a positive impact, facilitational strategies must be incorporated.

  8. The Status of Child Nutrition Programs in Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Daniel C.; Vigil, Herminia J.

    This report provides descriptive and statistical data on the status of child nutrition programs in Colorado. The report contains descriptions of the National School Lunch Program, school breakfast programs, the Special Milk Program, the Summer Food Service Program, the Nutrition Education and Training Program, state dietary guidelines, Colorado…

  9. The Effect of anti-TNFα Induction Therapy on the Nutritional Status and Dietary Intake in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Csontos, Ágnes Anna; Molnár, Andrea; Piri, Zsolt; Katona, Balázs; Dakó, Sarolta; Pálfi, Erzsébet; Miheller, Pál

    2016-03-01

    Patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at a high risk of malnutrition and retain an altered body composition. We hypothesized that anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) alpha therapy may improve dietary intake and have a beneficial influence on body composition in these patients. Our study involved 40 IBD outpatients (33 Crohn's disease, 7 ulcerative colitis); 24 of these received adalimumab (160/80/40EOW) and 16 were treated with infliximab (5 mg/kg at week 0, 2, 6, and subsequently every 8 weeks). Body composition was measured with bioelectrical impedance analysis, while dietary intake was recorded prior to initiating biologicals and 3 months afterwards. Body composition indexes: fat-free mass index [FFMI], body fat mass index [BFMI]) were calculated in kg/m2. Baseline BMI (kg/m2) and muscle parameters increased significantly at the end of the observational period (BMI: 23.81+/-7.19 vs. 24.52+/-7.34, p<0.001; FFMI: 17.64+/-3.00 vs. 18.14+/-3.08, p<0.001; at week 0 vs. 12, respectively). However, no significant changes were detected in the fat parameters (BFMI: 6.21+/-5.20 vs. 6.44+/-5.27, respectively). We found no significant difference between the effects of adalimumab vs. infliximab on body composition (deltaFFMI: 0.55+/-0.82 vs. 0.43+/-0.69; deltaBFMI: 0.23+/-0.85 vs. 0.21+/-1.01, respectively). No significant difference was observed in the extent of changes in parameters whether the patients were on corticosteroids (n=15) or not (n=25) at week 0 (deltaFFMI: 0.44+/-0.84 vs 0.59+/-0.72; deltaBFMI: 0.36+/-1.12 vs. 0.09+/-0.71, respectively). Our findings suggest that muscle parameters improved during the anti-TNF induction therapy, while fat parameters did not change significantly. Thus, induction anti-TNF therapy might have a beneficial effect on body composition.

  10. Changes in dietary intake and nutritional status associated with a significant reduction in sodium intake in patients with heart failure. A sub-analysis of the SODIUM-HF pilot study.

    PubMed

    Colin-Ramirez, Eloisa; McAlister, Finlay A; Zheng, Yinggan; Sharma, Sangita; Ezekowitz, Justin A

    2016-02-01

    Concerns have been raised about the impact of dietary sodium restriction on the overall dietary intake and nutritional status in patients with heart failure (HF). The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between a significant reduction in sodium intake and dietary changes and nutritional status in patients with chronic HF. This is a secondary analysis of 38 patients enrolled in a pilot study of dietary sodium reduction. Patients were classified into two groups according to a level of sodium reduction achieved (≥25% [n = 21 patients] and <25% [n = 14 patients]) at 6 months. Between group changes in energy, nutrient intake, weight loss, and hand grip strength from baseline to 6 months were compared. Patients had a median age of 65 years, 51% were male, median body mass index was 30.7 kg/m(2) and median ejection fraction was 39%. Over 6 months, the group with ≥25% sodium reduction exhibited a greater increase in folate intake [median change 50 mcg/day (25th-75th percentiles: -101, 167) vs. -31 mcg/day (25th-75th percentiles: -221, 51), p = 0.04 between groups] and a larger reduction in calcium intake [median change -262 (25th-75th percentiles: -585, -9) vs. 91 (25th-75th percentiles: -114, 210), p = 0.01 between groups], and were more likely to meet the parameters of the DASH diet compared to the <25% sodium reduction group. No significant differences between groups were seen for caloric intake and other relevant nutrients and no significant weight loss was found in either group. Dietary sodium reduction may be achieved without compromising overall dietary intake and nutritional status in patients with HF when an individualized and comprehensive dietary approached is used. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01480401. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [The nutritional status change the effectiveness of a dietary supplement of lactic bacteria on the emerging of respiratory tract diseases in children].

    PubMed

    Río, María Esther; Zago Beatriz, Liliana; Garcia, Hugo; Winter, Luis

    2002-03-01

    One hundred children 6 to 24 month old, normal or undernourished according to weight for height index, received during three months--autumn to winter--a dietary supplement of live Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus Casei, 10(7)-10(8)/ml in fermented milk (LB) or an equivalent amount of fluid milk (L) as control. Children's follow-up was performed as outpatients in the Hospital Posadas (Great Buenos Aires). Episodes of respiratory tract infections were recorded and classified according to severity as: Pneumonia (N); Bronchitis (B), Recurrent Obstructive Bronchitis (BOR) and upper respiratory tract infections (CVAS). 58% of children fitted the study protocol, 22 in the LB and 36 in the L group; 21 were undernourished and 37 presented normal weight/height. No deaths were recorded. Total episodes were 103: 34 in LB and 69 in L, that means a frequency of 1.55 and 1.92 episodes/children respectively. In LB a maximum of 3 episodes/children was recorded, meanwhile the number reached 7 in L (p = 0.0373). Severity was higher in L than LB: 0.06 vs. 0 for N; 0.69 vs. 0.45 for B + BOR and 1.17 vs. 1.09 for CVAS. In the control group frequency of severe pathologies was about twice in undernourished than in normal: 0.08 vs. 0.04 for N; 1.08 vs. 0.50 for B + BOR; no difference was found for CVAS. Live lactobacillus supplement suppressed pneumonia and decreased bronchitis in undernourished as well as in normal. In this study undernutrition not only increased the chance of suffering severe acute respiratory tract infections but also impaired the effectiveness of the supplement to decrease severity. The effect is explained on the basis of the immunocompetence depression linked to an inadequate nutritional status.

  12. [Influence of nutritional status on the effectiveness of a dietary supplement of live lactobacillus to prevent and cure diarrhoea in children].

    PubMed

    Río, María Esther; Zago, Liliana Beatriz; Garcia, Hugo; Winter, Luis

    2004-09-01

    The influence of undernutrition on the effectiveness of a dietary supplement of live lactobacillus regarding prevention and treatment of infantile diarrhoea was studied on 200 children 6 to 24m old. Children, undernourished (D) or controls (C), received for 90 days, in a blind experiment, a fermented milk providing L. Acidofilus y L. Casei (10(7)-10(8)/ml) (LB) or an equivalent amount of fluid milk (L). diarrhoea episodes were recorded and classified according duration: 1-4, 5-14 days, and protracted diarrhea (DP) those lasting beyond 14 days. Study requirements were fulfilled by 119 children: D-L: n=25; D-LB: n=32; C-L: n=27 y C-LB: n=35. Preventive aspects were evaluated through number of episodes and through their lasting the therapeutic ones. Episodes recorded were 134: 29 in D-L; 48 in D-LB; 37 in C-L and 20 in C-LB. In the D-LB group over 90% episodes were very short (1-4 days), percentage far higher to that observed in D-L and similar to C-LB. There were 12 episodes of DP, 9 D and 3 in C, all in the L groups. In conclusion, although the fermented milk prevent half episode in the controls but not in the undernourished, it was able to shorter episodes duration and prevent protracted diarrhoea irrespectively of nutritional status. Therefore, undernutrition impaired the ability of the lactobacillus supplement to prevent children diarrhoea, which implicates immune system, but not curative effects which are the result of local actions.

  13. [Assessment of the nutritional status of a group of people older than 50 years by means of dietary and body composition parameters].

    PubMed

    Martínez Roldán, C; Veiga Herreros, P; Cobo Sanz, J Ma; Carbajal Azcona, A

    2011-01-01

    To assess the nutritional status of elder adults by means of dietary and body composition parameters. The sample comprised 49 adults, older than 50 years (23 men and 26 women) with a mean age of 54.84±4.56 years, working at a private university. The body composition was analyzed by using anthropometric parameters. The energy and nutrients intake was gathered by means of a registry of all the foods and beverages consumed during 3 days that was filled-up by each (previously instructed) participant and estimating the amounts through photographic models. Total energy requirements were estimated by the Harris-Benedict and FAO/WHO calculations. The body mass index was similar (p=0.018) in both men and women (26.1±1.9 and 24.4±2.8 kg/m²). The percentage of fat obtained by anthropometrics was 29.6±3.6 and 36.8±3.1% (p=0.000) in men and women, respectively. The level of physical activity was very light to light. Daily energy intake was appropriate for total energy demands when these were calculated by the calculations proposed by FAO/WHO. The caloric profile indicated an unbalance with high proteins and lipids and low carbohydrates intake. As for the micronutrients, the diets assessed indicated a deficient intake of folic acid and vitamins D and E, in both genders, and zinc and selenium also in women. We have found overweight problems according to the BMI and the waist circumference, and obesity according to the body fat percentage, with the potential risk for the development of an associated complication. It would be advisable to improve the quality of the diets consumed by increasing the amount of some micronutrients and fiber, and by promoting an increase in the physical activity.

  14. Young adolescents' engagement in dietary behaviour - the impact of gender, socio-economic status, self-efficacy and scientific literacy. Methodological aspects of constructing measures in nutrition literacy research using the Rasch model.

    PubMed

    Guttersrud, Øystein; Petterson, Kjell Sverre

    2015-10-01

    The present study validates a revised scale measuring individuals' level of the 'engagement in dietary behaviour' aspect of 'critical nutrition literacy' and describes how background factors affect this aspect of Norwegian tenth-grade students' nutrition literacy. Data were gathered electronically during a field trial of a standardised sample test in science. Test items and questionnaire constructs were distributed evenly across four electronic field-test booklets. Data management and analysis were performed using the RUMM2030 item analysis package and the IBM SPSS Statistics 20 statistical software package. Students responded on computers at school. Seven hundred and forty tenth-grade students at twenty-seven randomly sampled public schools were enrolled in the field-test study. The engagement in dietary behaviour scale and the self-efficacy in science scale were distributed to 178 of these students. The dietary behaviour scale and the self-efficacy in science scale came out as valid, reliable and well-targeted instruments usable for the construction of measurements. Girls and students with high self-efficacy reported higher engagement in dietary behaviour than other students. Socio-economic status and scientific literacy - measured as ability in science by applying an achievement test - did not correlate significantly different from zero with students' engagement in dietary behaviour.

  15. Nutritional characterization and measurement of dietary carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Englyst, K N; Liu, S; Englyst, H N

    2007-12-01

    Dietary carbohydrate characterization should reflect relevant nutritional and functional attributes, and be measured as chemically identified components. A nutritional classification based on these principles is presented, with a main grouping into 'available carbohydrates', which are digested and absorbed in the small intestine providing carbohydrates for metabolism, and 'resistant carbohydrates', which resist digestion in the small intestine or are poorly absorbed/metabolized. For the available carbohydrates, the chemical division into the starch and total sugars categories does not adequately reflect the physiological or nutritional attributes of foods. Characterizing carbohydrate release from starchy foods provides insight into some of the inherent mechanisms responsible for the varied metabolic effects. Also, a pragmatic approach to product signposting consistent with guidelines to limit free (or added) sugars is proposed. The most prominent of the resistant carbohydrates are the non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) from plant cell walls, which are characteristic of the largely unrefined plant foods that provide the evidence base for the definition and measurement of dietary fibre as 'intrinsic plant cell-wall polysaccharides' as proposed in conjunction with this paper and endorsed by the scientific update. Indigestibility in the small intestine was not considered to be an adequate basis for the definition of dietary fibre, as there is insufficient evidence to establish public health policy by this approach and concerns have been raised about potential detrimental effects of high intakes of rapidly fermentable resistant carbohydrates. Functional ingredients such as resistant starch and resistant oligosaccharides should therefore be researched and managed separately from dietary fibre, using specific health or function claims where appropriate. This structured approach to the characterization of nutritionally relevant features of dietary carbohydrates provides the

  16. Dietary Intakes and Nutritional Issues in Neurologically Impaired Children

    PubMed Central

    Penagini, Francesca; Mameli, Chiara; Fabiano, Valentina; Brunetti, Domenica; Dilillo, Dario; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Neurologically impaired (NI) children are at increased risk of malnutrition due to several nutritional and non-nutritional factors. Among the nutritional factors, insufficient dietary intake as a consequence of feeding difficulties is one of the main issues. Feeding problems are frequently secondary to oropharyngeal dysphagia, which usually correlates with the severity of motor impairment and presents in around 90% of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP) during the first year of life. Other nutritional factors are represented by excessive nutrient losses, often subsequent to gastroesophageal reflux and altered energy metabolism. Among the non-nutritional factors, the type and severity of neurological impairment, ambulatory status, the degree of cognitive impairment, and use of entiepileptic medication altogether concur to determination of nutritional status. With the present review, the current literature is discussed and a practical approach for nutritional assessment in NI children is proposed. Early identification and intervention of nutritional issues of NI children with a multidisciplinary approach is crucial to improve the overall health and quality of life of these complex children. PMID:26580646

  17. New trends in nutritional status assessment of cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, A; De Lorenzo, A; Cadeddu, F; Iacopino, L; Grande, M

    2011-05-01

    Nutritional status assessment and support should be considered a valuable measure within the overall oncology strategy. Despite extensive research in the field of clinical nutrition, definite guidelines to base rational nutritional assessment and support in cancer patients are still debated. This review examines different approaches to nutritional status in cancer patients. The assessment of nutritional status is usually based on anthropometric measures, biochemical or laboratory tests, clinical indicators and dietary assessment. At present, body composition (BC) is rarely measured in the clinical setting because it is thought to be too unmanageable and time-consuming. However, using new technologies, the estimation of fat, lean and body fluids, that is significant in the management of nutrition therapies in oncology, has become easy. The present study evaluates the different methods of nutrition assessment today available, especially body composition (BC) measurements. Furthermore, nutrition assessment, relevance of nutritional support and choice of nutritional strategy, in surgical patients, are discussed. Given the clinical relevance of nutritional intervention in patients' quality of life, the nutritional status assessment has a key role in oncological and surgical practice and should include BC assessment in order to tailor nutritional treatment to patients' individual requirements. Furthermore, administration of the supplemented diet before and after surgery seemed to be the best strategy to reduce complications and length of hospital stay.

  18. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that is...

  19. Nutritional status and phytate:zinc and phytate x calcium:zinc dietary molar ratios of lacto-ovo vegetarian Trappist monks: 10 years later.

    PubMed

    Harland, B F; Smith, S A; Howard, M P; Ellis, R; Smith, J C

    1988-12-01

    A nutrition assessment of 16 members of a community of lacto-ovo vegetarian Trappist monks was conducted in 1977. Plasma zinc was found to be low-normal, which was attributed primarily to high intakes of phytate-containing foods. Individual and group counseling were instituted over a 10-year period in an attempt to emphasize the importance of wise food selection within the constraints of lacto-ovo vegetarianism. In 1987, a more comprehensive nutrition assessment of 21 members of the same community was performed. Food composites were analyzed, and 3-day instead of 24-hour dietary records were kept. Intakes of phytate-containing foods had decreased from 4,569 to 972 mg/day; intake of dietary zinc had increased from 7.4 to 9.7 mg/day; and the phytate:zinc molar ratio had decreased from 67 to 14 for the years 1977 and 1987, respectively. An analyzed phytate:zinc molar ratio of 9.8 and an analyzed phytate x calcium:zinc molar ratio of 0.3 were representative of the 1987 community. Both were within normal ranges. Plasma zinc had risen to upper-normal levels. The 1987 nutrition assessment showed that it is possible to be adequately nourished with a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet provided one has proper knowledge of the phytate-containing foods and the methods for compensating with foods of greater mineral density (primarily zinc).

  20. Functional assessment of nutrition status.

    PubMed

    Russell, Mary Krystofiak

    2015-04-01

    Functional status assessment has been recommended as a part of a complete nutrition assessment for decades, but the specific components of this assessment have eluded a consensus definition. The recent Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition consensus criteria for identification of malnutrition include functional assessment determined by handgrip dynamometry, with the understanding that this technique is not practical for use in some patient populations. Other techniques for functional assessment include physical performance measures such as timed gait and chair stands, as well as activities of daily living tools such as the Katz Index, Lawton Scale, and Karnofsky Scale Index. Manual muscle testing and computed tomography scan assessment of lean tissue are other tools that show promise in correlating functional and nutrition assessments. Functional assessment parameters may be least well correlated with nutrition status in older individuals. Despite a number of scientific studies of a variety of tools for functional assessment, there is to date no definitive tool for use in all individuals in all settings. Nutrition scientists and clinicians must continue to collaborate with colleagues in physical and occupational therapy, geriatrics, and nursing to refine current functional assessment tools to more effectively correlate with nutrition and malnutrition assessment parameters.

  1. Dietary change, nutrition education and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Brug, Johannes; Schols, Annemie; Mesters, Ilse

    2004-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prevalent and serious condition. Nutrition might play a role in COPD prevention and is definitely important in COPD management. There are some indications from epidemiological studies that dietary factors such as ample consumption of fruit and fish may decrease COPD risk. The available evidence is, however, not substantial enough to warrant dietary recommendations for primary prevention of COPD. Substantial evidence does point to the conclusion that, regardless of disease severity, weight loss is related to decreased exercise capacity, health status and mortality as well as to increased morbidity among patients with moderate to severe COPD. Current nutritional support strategies have primarily focussed on treatment of severely underweight and disabled patients. In an in-patient setting or when incorporated in a pulmonary rehabilitation programme, nutritional support has proved effective in inducing weight gain and related functional improvements. However, such interventions are only feasible for a selected group of patients and are very laborious. Therefore, opportunities for dietary and nutrition interventions in COPD management should be explored, aiming at early detection, prevention and early treatment of involuntary weight loss. This means expanding the target group to include COPD out-patients and primary care patients before they have become underweight, and putting more emphasis on dietary change than on medically prescribed supplementation. Successful intervention assumes (voluntary) adjustment of dietary behaviour, and health professionals may play an essential role in encouraging patients to make and maintain these changes. Achieving dietary change among COPD patients may require a combination of diet counselling and self-management. A model for such a combination is presented.

  2. Issues in Nutrition: Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them. There currently is considerable research being performed on probiotics and how the gut microbiome affects health and disease states. Protein supplements may be useful in reducing mortality rates in elderly patients but they do not appear to increase quality of life. If used, protein supplements should contain essential amino acids. Casein and whey supplements, derived from dairy sources, help transport essential amino acids to tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the role of vitamin supplements in disease prevention, there have been few conclusive positive results. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  3. Changes in nutritional status after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Giusto, Michela; Lattanzi, Barbara; Di Gregorio, Vincenza; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Merli, Manuela

    2014-08-21

    Chronic liver disease has an important effect on nutritional status, and malnourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. During recent decades, a trend has been reported that shows an increase in number of patients with end-stage liver disease and obesity in developed countries. The importance of carefully assessing the nutritional status during the work-up of patients who are candidates for liver replacement is widely recognised. Cirrhotic patients with depleted lean body mass (sarcopenia) and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk; malnutrition may further impact morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. After transplantation and liver function is restored, many metabolic alterations are corrected, dietary intake is progressively normalised, and lifestyle changes may improve physical activity. Few studies have examined the modifications in body composition that occur in liver recipients. During the first 12 mo, the fat mass progressively increases in those patients who had previously depleted body mass, and the muscle mass recovery is subtle and non-significant by the end of the first year. In some patients, unregulated weight gain may lead to obesity and may promote metabolic disorders in the long term. Careful monitoring of nutritional changes will help identify the patients who are at risk for malnutrition or over-weight after liver transplantation. Physical and nutritional interventions must be investigated to evaluate their potential beneficial effect on body composition and muscle function after liver transplantation.

  4. Changes in nutritional status after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Giusto, Michela; Lattanzi, Barbara; Di Gregorio, Vincenza; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Merli, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Chronic liver disease has an important effect on nutritional status, and malnourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. During recent decades, a trend has been reported that shows an increase in number of patients with end-stage liver disease and obesity in developed countries. The importance of carefully assessing the nutritional status during the work-up of patients who are candidates for liver replacement is widely recognised. Cirrhotic patients with depleted lean body mass (sarcopenia) and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk; malnutrition may further impact morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. After transplantation and liver function is restored, many metabolic alterations are corrected, dietary intake is progressively normalised, and lifestyle changes may improve physical activity. Few studies have examined the modifications in body composition that occur in liver recipients. During the first 12 mo, the fat mass progressively increases in those patients who had previously depleted body mass, and the muscle mass recovery is subtle and non-significant by the end of the first year. In some patients, unregulated weight gain may lead to obesity and may promote metabolic disorders in the long term. Careful monitoring of nutritional changes will help identify the patients who are at risk for malnutrition or over-weight after liver transplantation. Physical and nutritional interventions must be investigated to evaluate their potential beneficial effect on body composition and muscle function after liver transplantation. PMID:25152572

  5. Dietary fat and sports nutrition: a primer.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Lonnie M

    2004-09-01

    The general public's view of macronutrients has undergone sweeping changes in recent years. Dietary fats are a key example. Since the anti-fat health education initiatives of the 1980s and early 1990s, certain dietary fats have been increasingly recognized as actually beneficial to health. Athletes, like the mainstream populace, are now getting the message that wise dietary fat (triacylglycerol) choices offer essential fatty acids, blood lipid management, maintained endocrine and immune function, inflammation control, metabolic effects and even potential body composition and performance benefits. Toward this end, many companies now sell specialty dietary fat supplements and recognized health authorities have begun recommending them to certain populations. This review will cover data regarding the physiology, dietary needs, food sources, and potential benefits and risks most relevant to athletes. Practical suggestions for incorporating healthy fats will be made. Both food-source and supplemental intakes will be addressed with interrelationships to health throughout. Key PointsNutrition education initiatives over recent years have sent contrasting messages on dietary fat to the public.Variations in chemical structure among triacylglycerols and their component fatty acids induce very different biological effects.Manipulating fat as a percentage of total kcal affects athletes.Athletes have special needs for which dietary fat may prove beneficial.

  6. Nutritional policies and dietary guidelines in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Teiji

    2011-01-01

    The national government settled on "Healthy Japan 21" as the premier preventive policy of lifestyle related diseases in 2000. In 2005, the effectiveness of the campaign was conducted, but the results did not turn out as expected. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare made the "Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top (JFG-ST)" as a practical and easy way to improve eating habits for all of the people. The JFG-ST falls down when the balance of the diets worsens and expresses a stable thing in what a turn (exercise) does. Eyes down quantity to take out of each group per day is shown in the basic form by the 5 distinction from grain dishes, vegetable dishes, fish and meat dishes, milk, and fruits. In 2005, the Basic Law on Dietary Education was enacted to promote the dietary education about the importance of eating proper meals in order to solve problems such as inappropriate eating habits and nutrition intake, disturbances in diets, increases in lifestyle-related diseases, a fall in the rate of food self-sufficiency and so forth. The Ministry of Education and Science started a program to train people to become "diet and nutrition teacher" in primary school. JFG- ST is developed in a dietary education campaign as a standard method of the dietary education. In May, 2011, the government has announced the second dietary education promotional basic plan to assume five years.

  7. CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN OLDER HAN WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Jun, Tao; Yuan, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Malnutrition is one of the most prevalent problems in older people, but there is little information about the nutritional status of the older women in China. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the nutritional status and clinically correlated factors for malnutrition in older Han women in China. In total, 2,556 hospital- and community-based Han women aged 60 years or older were recruited between May 2007 and December 2014. All women completed comprehensive geriatric assessment, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) was used to assess the nutritional status. The clinically corre- lated factors for malnutrition were also analyzed, including social factors, health status, and dietary behavior. The average age of these women was 75.9 ± 9.4 years, and 63.8% women lived in urban areas. Of the total respondents, 344 and 716 women were classified as malnutrition and at risk of malnutrition, respectively. Five factors were independently and positively correlated with poor nutrition, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), gastrointestinal disease, depression, cognitive impairment, and comorbidity (≥ 2). Three factors were independently and negatively correlated with poor nutrition, including economic status, meat intake, and fish intake. The older Han women with these five health problems should be given more attention with regards to their nutritional status. Improving economic status, eating more meat and fish were recommended for preventing poor nutrition in older women.

  8. Nutritional status of vegetarian children.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, J T; Dietz, W H; Andrews, E M; Suskind, R M

    1982-02-01

    Thirty-nine preschool children consuming different types of vegetarian diets were studied. Type and amount of carbohydrate, fat, protein, and amount of sodium and cholesterol provided by their diets were more like intakes suggested in the proposed Dietary Goals for the United States than to levels in usual diets of nonvegetarian children. Macrobiotic vegetarian children consumed less animal food than did other vegetarian children. The mean intake of vitamin D of macrobiotics was an eighth of the Recommended Dietary Allowance and mean serum alkaline phosphatase values were elevated. The mean intake of vitamin B12 levels were normal. Vegan macrobiotic children had the lowest intakes of vitamins B12 and D. Other vegetarians' mean intakes of these vitamins met the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Mean iron intakes of the vegetarians approximated the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Hematological indices were suggestive of mild iron deficiency anemia in a quarter of subjects. Serum cholesterol values were low for the group. Physical measurements were within normal limits and macrobiotic vegetarians were not smaller or leaner than other vegetarian children. The nutritional difficulties discovered could be corrected by careful planning of vegetarian children's diets while preserving the beneficial qualities of the diet in other respects.

  9. Nutritional status of lacto-ovo vegetarian Trappist monks.

    PubMed

    Harland, B F; Peterson, M

    1978-03-01

    The nutritional status of members of a lacto-ovo vegetarian Trappist community was studied. Body weights and heights were normal. An analysis of four weeks' menus showed that, for the most part, sufficient nutrients were provided. A 24-hr. dietary recall revealed that a number of the subjects had low intakes of some nutrients, particularly the B-vitamins and calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc. Improvement in the nutritional intakes and resulting nutritional status of the men must rely on an availability of accurate educational materials and each individual's determination to gain the knowledge needed to make a wiser selection of food.

  10. Nutritional status of Khasi schoolgirls in Meghalaya.

    PubMed

    Agrahar-Murugkar, Dipika

    2005-04-01

    The nutritional status of 222 Khasi girls within age groups 4 to 6 y, 7 to 9 y, and 10 to 12 y was studied. Personal interviews using questionnaires and 24-h dietary recall were used. Weights and heights were recorded, body mass index was calculated, and children were classified as normal or malnourished using Z scores and growth charts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Based on weights and heights, children were classified as normal or undernourished according to classifications by Gomez, Waterlow, and the National Center for Health Statistics. Heights of girls ages 7 to 9 y and 10 to 12 y and weights of all girls were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the reference values for height (126.4 and 142.7 m) and weight (19, 26.9, and 31.5 kg), respectively. The lowest Z scores (-1.5 to -1.0) and percentiles (10th) for body mass index were seen in 12-y-old girls. Most girls ages 7 to 9 y had grade I malnutrition. Girls ages 10 to 12 y had the highest incidence of moderate malnutrition. Severe stunting was observed in all groups. Average energy consumption was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the recommended dietary allowance in all the age groups. Consumption of protein by children ages 7 to 9 y and 10 to 12 y was also significantly lower than the recommended dietary allowance. Consumption of calcium, iron, and carotene in children 10 to 12 y old was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the recommended dietary allowance. Sociologic community factors are required to facilitate implementation of a nutritional package and availability of key nutrients to ensure growth in children.

  11. Aging, Nutritional Status and Health

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Wilma; Hankey, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults. PMID:27417787

  12. Aging, Nutritional Status and Health.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Wilma; Hankey, Catherine

    2015-07-30

    The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults.

  13. Do nutrition labels improve dietary outcomes?

    PubMed

    Variyam, Jayachandran N

    2008-06-01

    The disclosure of nutritional characteristics of most packaged foods became mandatory in the United States with the implementation of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) in 1994. Under the NLEA regulations, a 'Nutrition Facts' panel displays information on nutrients such as calories, total and saturated fats, cholesterol, and sodium in a standardized format. By providing nutrition information in a credible, distinctive, and easy-to-read format, the new label was expected to help consumers choose healthier, more nutritious diets. This paper examines whether the disclosure of nutrition information through the mandatory labels impacted consumer diets. Assessing the dietary effects of labeling is problematic due to the confounding of the label effect with unobserved label user characteristics. This self-selection problem is addressed by exploiting the fact that the NLEA exempts away-from-home foods from mandatory labeling. Difference-in-differences models that account for zero away-from-home intakes suggest that the labels increase fiber and iron intakes of label users compared with label nonusers. In comparison, a model that does not account for self-selection implies significant label effects for all but two of the 13 nutrients that are listed on the label.

  14. Correlations between Fruit, Vegetables, Fish, Vitamins, and Fatty Acids Estimated by Web-Based Nonconsecutive Dietary Records and Respective Biomarkers of Nutritional Status.

    PubMed

    Lassale, Camille; Castetbon, Katia; Laporte, François; Deschamps, Valérie; Vernay, Michel; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Faure, Patrice; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-03-01

    It is of major importance to measure the validity of self-reported dietary intake using web-based instruments before applying them in large-scale studies. This study aimed to validate self-reported intake of fish, fruit and vegetables, and selected micronutrient intakes assessed by a web-based self-administered dietary record tool used in the NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort study, against the following concentration biomarkers: plasma beta carotene, vitamin C, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. One hundred ninety-eight adult volunteers (103 men and 95 women, mean age=50.5 years) were included in the protocol: they completed 3 nonconsecutive-day dietary records and two blood samples were drawn 3 weeks apart. The study was conducted in the area of Paris, France, between October 2012 and May 2013. Reported fish, fruit and vegetables, and selected micronutrient intakes and plasma beta carotene, vitamin C, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels were compared. Simple and adjusted Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were estimated after de-attenuation for intra-individual variation. Regarding food groups in men, adjusted correlations ranged from 0.20 for vegetables and plasma vitamin C to 0.49 for fruits and plasma vitamin C, and from 0.40 for fish and plasma c20:5 n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]) to 0.55 for fish and plasma c22:6 n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). In women, correlations ranged from 0.13 (nonsignificant) for vegetables and plasma vitamin C to 0.41 for fruits and vegetables and plasma beta carotene, and from 0.27 for fatty fish and EPA to 0.54 for fish and EPA+docosahexaenoic acid. Regarding micronutrients, adjusted correlations ranged from 0.36 (EPA) to 0.58 (vitamin C) in men and from 0.32 (vitamin C) to 0.38 (EPA) in women. The findings suggest that three nonconsecutive web-based dietary records provide reasonable estimates of true intake of fruits, vegetables, fish, beta carotene, vitamin C, and n-3 fatty acids. Along with other validation

  15. Nutritional status in the HEMO Study cohort at baseline. Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Michael V; Paranandi, Lata; Burrowes, Jerrilynn D; Cockram, David B; Dwyer, Johanna T; Kusek, John W; Leung, June; Makoff, Rhoda; Maroni, Bradley; Poole, Diane

    2002-02-01

    The nutritional status of the first 1,000 patients randomized into the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study was analyzed at baseline when they received their typical dialysis dose (equilibrated Kt/V = 1.30 +/- 0.22) and dialysis membrane. This is the largest study to date of the nutritional status of chronic hemodialysis patients. The mean (+/- SD) values for these parameters included a serum albumin level of 3.65 +/- 0.38 g/dL, a dietary energy intake of 22.9 +/- 8.4 kcal/kg/day, a dietary protein intake of 0.93 +/- 0.36 g/kg/day, and a double pool normalized protein catabolic rate (enPCR) of 1.00 +/- 0.25 g/kg/day. The percentage of patients below HEMO Study nutritional standards of care included 29% of patients with a serum albumin level less than 3.5 g/dL, 76% of patients with a dietary energy intake less than 28 kcal/kg/day, 61% of patients with a dietary protein intake less than 1.0 g/kg/day, and 52% of patients with an enPCR of less than 1.0 g/kg/day. There was a strong correlation between dietary protein intake and dietary energy intake (r = 0.74, P < 0.0001). Significant correlations were also evident between serum albumin and double pool PCR and between dietary protein intake and double-pool PCR. Kt/V and membrane flux were not predictive of baseline dietary protein intake, dietary energy intake, or serum albumin level. Thus, a majority of patients in the HEMO Study had protein and energy intake levels and enPCR levels that were below National Kidney Foundation Kidney Dialysis Outcome Quality Improvement (NKF-K/DOQI) guidelines.

  16. The role of dietary counseling and nutrition support in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Platek, Mary E

    2012-12-01

    Head and neck cancer patients frequently present with malnutrition. Treatment options put the patient at further nutritional risk. Inadequate nutritional status is associated with poor prognosis. Dietary counseling and nutrition support can positively impact prognosis; however, the evidence is sparse and of poor quality. The aim of this review is to summarize the current evidence concerning the role of dietary counseling and nutrition support in head and neck cancer patients undergoing curative treatment. There remains a lack of evidence both in quantity and quality. Current findings support a role for dietary counseling and nutrition support from diagnosis through rehabilitation. Prognostic indicators for nutrition support include tumor location, tumor stage, and multimodal treatment. Results of an innovative nutrition-based care delivery model were positive. Dietary counseling is appropriate for all head and neck cancer patients to enable adequate oral intake from diagnosis through rehabilitation; however, some patients require nutrition support. Prognostic indicators and predictive models have been developed to identify patients who require early nutrition support. Next steps include development of evidence-based nutrition care paths that are tested at multiple sites using well designed longitudinal studies and randomized clinical trials.

  17. The effect of a nutrition education program on the nutritional knowledge, hemoglobin levels, and nutritional status of Nicaraguan adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jean Burley; Pawloski, Lisa; Rodriguez, Claudia; Lumbi, Laura; Ailinger, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a community-based nutrition education program on the nutritional knowledge, hemoglobin levels, and nutritional status of Nicaraguan adolescent girls and the nutritional knowledge of their mothers. Self-care deficit nursing theory was used in this study. This longitudinal study used a mixed quantitative/qualitative design to study the effect of the nutrition education program. The nonprobability sample consisted of 182 adolescent girls and 67 of their mothers. The setting for the study was a community (barrio) in Managua, Nicaragua. INTERVENTION/MEASUREMENT: A team of nurse and nutrition researchers created the nutrition education program designed to improve girls' and mother's nutrition-related self-care operations. Data collection was carried out for 4 years for girls and 2 years for mothers in Managua, Nicaragua, using questionnaires, a HemoCue, and anthropometric measures. The findings of this study were that girls' and mothers' nutritional knowledge scores significantly improved in most cases after participation in the nutrition intervention program. Girls' hemoglobin levels did not significantly improve and their nutritional status findings were mixed. Girls and mothers described what dietary changes girls made and why.

  18. A Patient with CKD and Poor Nutritional Status

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary Protein energy wasting is common in patients with CKD and ESRD and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, such as increased rates of hospitalization and death, in these patients. A multitude of factors can affect the nutritional and metabolic status of patients with CKD, including decreased dietary nutrient intake, catabolic effects of renal replacement therapy, systemic inflammation, metabolic and hormonal derangements, and comorbid conditions (such as diabetes and depression). Unique aspects of CKD also confound reliable assessment of nutritional status, further complicating management of this comorbid condition. In patients in whom preventive measures and oral dietary intake from regular meals cannot help them maintain adequate nutritional status, nutritional supplementation, administered orally, enterally, or parenterally, is effective in replenishing protein and energy stores. The advantages of oral nutritional supplements include proven efficacy, safety, and compliance. Anabolic steroids and exercise, with nutritional supplementation or alone, improve protein stores and represent potential additional approaches for the treatment of PEW. There are several emerging novel therapies, such as appetite stimulants, anti-inflammatory interventions, and anabolic agents. PMID:23970134

  19. A patient with CKD and poor nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Ikizler, T Alp

    2013-12-01

    Protein energy wasting is common in patients with CKD and ESRD and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, such as increased rates of hospitalization and death, in these patients. A multitude of factors can affect the nutritional and metabolic status of patients with CKD, including decreased dietary nutrient intake, catabolic effects of renal replacement therapy, systemic inflammation, metabolic and hormonal derangements, and comorbid conditions (such as diabetes and depression). Unique aspects of CKD also confound reliable assessment of nutritional status, further complicating management of this comorbid condition. In patients in whom preventive measures and oral dietary intake from regular meals cannot help them maintain adequate nutritional status, nutritional supplementation, administered orally, enterally, or parenterally, is effective in replenishing protein and energy stores. The advantages of oral nutritional supplements include proven efficacy, safety, and compliance. Anabolic steroids and exercise, with nutritional supplementation or alone, improve protein stores and represent potential additional approaches for the treatment of PEW. There are several emerging novel therapies, such as appetite stimulants, anti-inflammatory interventions, and anabolic agents.

  20. Evaluating Nutrition Education Programming by Using a Dietary Screener

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Jennifer; Litchfield, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Short dietary assessment instruments known as screeners have potential for use in evaluating nutrition education programming because detecting change in dietary intake can demonstrate movement toward program goals. Using screeners results in objective dietary intake data but involves less administrative time, training, and cost than other…

  1. Evaluating Nutrition Education Programming by Using a Dietary Screener

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Jennifer; Litchfield, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Short dietary assessment instruments known as screeners have potential for use in evaluating nutrition education programming because detecting change in dietary intake can demonstrate movement toward program goals. Using screeners results in objective dietary intake data but involves less administrative time, training, and cost than other…

  2. Nutritional Aspects of Crewmembers' Cardiovascular Health Indicated by Dietary Lipids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurston, Marcelle A.

    1999-01-01

    This summer's project examined the relationships between dietary and physiological factors on serum lipoproteins using data from past United States astronauts. Nutritional assessment was required to determine whether a relationship existed between dietary intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in crewmembers. Risk for CVD was assessed by the measurement of preflight, inflight, and postflight serum lipoproteins. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the dietary practices of past crewmembers before and during flight, and to examine their relationship with blood indicators of lipid status. Because of mortality and morbidity associated with CVD, such assessments are critical for the maintenance of astronaut health before, during, and after space flight. It was anticipated that the results from this project would assess the effects space flight and diet have on cardiovascular health, thus, defining the adequacy of the current dietary recommendations during space travel. It was hypothesized that the mean preflight serum lipoproteins compared to mean postflight serum lipoproteins would not be statistically different and that the current inflight diet is adequate in nutrient content, having little or no effect on lipoprotein levels.

  3. Nutritional Aspects of Crewmembers' Cardiovascular Health Indicated by Dietary Lipids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurston, Marcelle A.

    1999-01-01

    This summer's project examined the relationships between dietary and physiological factors on serum lipoproteins using data from past United States astronauts. Nutritional assessment was required to determine whether a relationship existed between dietary intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in crewmembers. Risk for CVD was assessed by the measurement of preflight, inflight, and postflight serum lipoproteins. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the dietary practices of past crewmembers before and during flight, and to examine their relationship with blood indicators of lipid status. Because of mortality and morbidity associated with CVD, such assessments are critical for the maintenance of astronaut health before, during, and after space flight. It was anticipated that the results from this project would assess the effects space flight and diet have on cardiovascular health, thus, defining the adequacy of the current dietary recommendations during space travel. It was hypothesized that the mean preflight serum lipoproteins compared to mean postflight serum lipoproteins would not be statistically different and that the current inflight diet is adequate in nutrient content, having little or no effect on lipoprotein levels.

  4. Metabolomics for Assessment of Nutritional Status

    PubMed Central

    Zivkovic, Angela M.; German, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review The current rise in diet-related diseases continues to be one of the most significant health problems facing both the developed and the developing world. The use of metabolomics – the accurate and comprehensive measurement of a significant fraction of important metabolites in accessible biological fluids – for the assessment of nutritional status, is a promising way forward. The basic toolset, targets, and knowledge are all being developed in the emerging field of metabolomics, yet important knowledge and technology gaps will need to be addressed in order to bring such assessment to practice. Recent findings Dysregulation within the principal metabolic organs (e.g. intestine, adipose, skeletal muscle, liver) are at the center of a diet-disease paradigm that includes metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. The assessment of both essential nutrient status, and the more comprehensive systemic metabolic response to dietary, lifestyle, and environmental influences (e.g. metabolic phenotype) are necessary for the evaluation of status in individuals that can identify the multiple targets of intervention needed to address metabolic disease. Summary The first proofs of principle building the knowledge to bring actionable metabolic diagnostics to practice through metabolomics are now appearing. PMID:19584717

  5. [Nutritional status in patients with recurrent glioblastoma].

    PubMed

    Gokcek, D; Tran, J-D; Gonzalez-Aguilar, A; Alentorn, A; Liou, A; Delattre, J-Y; Idbaih, A

    2013-11-01

    Nutritional status is a major clinical parameter in multiple cancers. Indeed, nutritional status is a prognostic factor and a predictor of response and toxicity to treatments in breast and lung cancers for instance. To our knowledge, in patients suffering from malignant primary brain tumors, nutritional status has been poorly investigated. Nutritional status of 26 glioblastoma patients relapsing after a first line of treatment was studied. The body mass index (BMI), the prognostic inflammatory and nutritional index (PINI) and the instant nutritional score (INS) were assessed. The BMI was abnormal in 12 patients, two were malnourished while 10 were overweight. The BMI was not correlated to age of patients. Overweight status did not impact patient survival but it was associated with reduced performance status. The PINI was abnormal in three patients. Finally, the INS was abnormal in 24 patients, noted 2 (n=22) or 4 (n=4). Our results were not in favor of systematic nutritional support in patients with recurrent glioblastoma after a first line of treatment. Being overweight does not influence prognosis but may influence performance status. Steroid therapy and chemotherapy (inducing sodium and water retention and lymphopenia) weaken the relevance of BMI and INS for nutritional assessment in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. Further studies using additional nutritional tests in larger, independent and prospective cohorts of patients are warranted to obtain more details. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of nutritional status and energy expenditure in athletes.

    PubMed

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Maroto-Sánchez, Beatriz; Luzardo-Socorro, Raquel; Palacios, Gonzalo; Palacios Gil-Antuñano, Nieves; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-02-26

    Continuous physical exercise leads the athlete to maintain an unstable balance between dietary intake, energy expenditure and the additional demands of a high amount of physical activity. Thus, an accurate assessment of nutritional status is essential to optimize the performance, since it affects health, body composition, and the recovery of the athlete. Specific aspects like the type of sport, specialty or playing position, training schedule and competition calendar, category, specific objectives, which differ from the general population, must be considered. A biochemical assessment can give us a general idea of the nutritional status, lipid profile, liver or kidney function, if diet is too high in proteins or fats, as well as possible nutritional deficiencies and the need for supplementation. Sport kinanthropometry has great utility that enables the assessment of body mass, height, length, diameter, perimeter and skinfolds, where information is processed by applying different equations, obtaining information on somatotype, body composition, and the proportionality of different parts of the body. To give proper nutritional counselling, energy needs of the athlete must be known. If objective measurement is not possible, there are tables including theoretically established energy requirements of different sports. Dietary assessment should include information about food consumption and nutrient intake to establish the relationship between diet, health status and athlete's performance. On the other hand, an adequate hydration status in athletes is essential to maintain adequate performance. Hence, the knowledge of fluid intake by the athlete is a matter of the utmost importance. Dehydration can cause harmful effects on athletes' health. As there is no gold standard, urine gravidity and urine colour are the most extended methods for analyzing hydration status. There is consensus that due to complexity, the combination of different methods assures an effective data

  7. Nutritional status of endurance athletes: what is the available information?

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Júlia A D; Da Costa, Teresa H M

    2005-03-01

    Nutritional status is a critical determinant of athletic performance. We question whether currently available studies can give adequate information on nutritional status of endurance athletes. This paper is a critical review of articles published from 1989 to 2003 that investigate nutritional status of endurance athletes. The terms, "nutrition", "diet", or "nutrient", were combined with "endurance athletes" to perform Medline and Pubmed electronic database searches. Two inclusion criteria were considered: (a) study subjects should be adults and (b) articles should report gender-specific values for total energy expenditure and intake of energy, macro and micronutrient from food. Only seven studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. In general, the conclusions of these studies are that endurance athletes have negative energy balance, low intake of carbohydrate, adequate to high intake of protein, and high intake of fat. A critical discussion of the articles' data on vitamins, minerals and trace elements adequacy is conducted using insights and methodology proposed by the newly published assessment and interpretation of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). The studies evaluated give an inappropriate evaluation of the prevalence of adequacy/inadequacy of micronutrient intake among endurance athletes. In this work we indicate potential limitations of existing nutritional data, which reflects the misconceptions found in published literature on nutritional group evaluation. This review stresses the need for a comprehensive and well-conducted nutrition assessment planning to fulfill the existing gap in reliable information about micronutrient adequacy of endurance athletes.

  8. How much dietary fat in therapeutic nutrition?

    PubMed Central

    Simko, V.

    1990-01-01

    Dietary fat has a less prominent role in realimentation than the alternate source of energy, carbohydrate. Presently available therapeutic diets, in typical feeding routines, provide only 3 to 120 g of fat per day. Three major factors contribute to fat underutilization: long-standing belief that fat is to blame for various vague symptoms of indigestion, misconception that daily fecal fat in excess of 7 g represents bowel dysfunction, and fear of fat-induced atherogenesis. None of these apply to refeeding starved and malnourished patients. The small intestine has a vastly underutilized capacity for fat absorption, and at the habitual fat intake of 100 g per day absorption is complete in the proximal one fifth of the gut. In patients requiring vigorous realimentation, the remaining small intestine should also be utilized. Dietary fat is well tolerated, and daily intakes of 500 g of polyunsaturated fat in a complete diet have not been associated with important side effects, while there was a significant improvement in body stores of fat and protein. Compared to diets high in carbohydrate, adequate intake of fat results in better nutrient utilization, less CO2 production and decreased lipogenesis and insulin requirements. Diets higher in fat are also better tolerated because of their lower volume and osmolality. The result is more effective absorption of calories and a faster nutritional recovery. Increased adipose tissue and protein reserve benefits patients who are in stress, immunocompromised, or debilitated. Adequate dietary fat should be considered for malnourished subjects with intact gastrointestinal function, and when intestinal absorptive capacity is reduced by surgery or disease. PMID:2194611

  9. Nutritional status of elderly Chinese vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Woo, J; Kwok, T; Ho, S C; Sham, A; Lau, E

    1998-07-01

    To study the nutritional status of elderly Chinese vegetarians. Dietary intake (using the 24-h recall method), anthropometric indices and some nutritional laboratory parameters were studied in 131 elderly Chinese vegetarian women with a mean age of 81 years. Data from age- and sex-matched omnivore subjects from previous elderly surveys were used for comparison. Total energy, fat and protein calorie, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin intakes were lower in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians, while carbohydrate calorie, calcium, potassium, retinol equivalent and ascorbic acid intakes were higher. The 25th, 50th and 75th percentile for total body fat were lower and those for corrected arm muscle area were higher in vegetarians. Both urinary Na/Cr and K/Cr ratios were higher but the Na/K ratio was similar to that in non-vegetarians, as were mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Serum total cholesterol was lower, while serum triglyceride concentration was similar. The mean haemoglobin level was lower in vegetarians, the prevalence of anaemia being 30%, with deficiencies in B12 and/or iron accounting for 64% of the anaemia, compared with only 30% in non-vegetarians. Serum B12 concentration below the reference range occurred in 54% of the vegetarian subjects. Vegetarians also had a lower prevalence of a history of ischaemic heart disease; however, the prevalence of smoking was also lower. While the Chinese vegetarian diet may result in a favourable risk-factor profile for ischaemic heart disease, it is deficient in many B vitamins and gives rise to a high frequency of nutritional anaemias.

  10. Nutritional status and evolution of pressure sores in geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Donini, L M; De Felice, M R; Tagliaccica, A; De Bernardini, L; Cannella, C

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of pressure sores (PS) ranges from 1 to 18% of in-patients and from 3 to 28% of those admitted to long-term settings. The aim of our study was to verify, a posteriori, how nutritional status influenced the evolution of PS in a population of elderly subjects hospitalised in a long-term care setting. The charts of 125 patients with ulcerative or necrotic pressure ulcers were evaluated retrospectively. For each subject we took note of: PS characteristics (stage, ulcer surface, evolution), clinical characteristics (comorbidity, adverse clinical events, cognitive, functional and nutritional status). In 58 patients (46.4%) there was overall healing of the lesions while in 39 patients (31.2%) we had however an "improvement" of PS. The course of PS was not significantly influenced by the patient's physiological characteristics, by cognitive status or by initial characteristics of PS. Instead, we noticed a significant difference in the course of PS as a function of the level of autonomy and clinical status. The course of PS, and in particular the Healing Index, were influenced by the Nutritional Status and, above all, by its course during the treatment period. The development of PS is multifactorial. Whereas, it is clear that factors other than nutrition influence the risk of developing PS, an important role for nutrition in the development and resolution of PS is suggested. Our data certainly confirm the "Quality indicators for prevention and management of pressure ulcers in vulnerable elders", especially were they say "if a vulnerable elder is identified as at risk for pressure ulcer development and has malnutrition, then nutritional intervention or dietary consultation should be instituted because poor diet, particularly low dietary protein intake, is an independent predictor of pressure ulcer development".

  11. Nutrition and Dietary Services in Social Rehabilitation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trela, James E.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    The Cleveland Inner City Project has recently developed a nutrition and dietary component in an attempt to combat conditions leading to poor health and related impairments among inner city residents. (DM)

  12. Nutrition status of primary school children in Townsville.

    PubMed

    Heath, Deanne L; Panaretto, Kathryn S

    2005-10-01

    Much of the ill health of Australian Indigenous populations can be attributed to diet-related diseases. Many of these diseases and the deleterious dietary choices are thought to begin in early childhood. This project therefore aimed to assess the nutritional health status of children in Townsville. It enabled the Townsville Aboriginal and Islander community to identify and redress nutrition-related issues considered important in improving the overall health status of their community. Baseline urinalysis, anthropometrics, general overall health assessment, dietary and exercise histories were collected. This screening was repeated annually. Diet and exercise histories were recorded biannually. Based in three Northern Queensland health region (pre)primary schools with a high proportion of Indigenous children. Baseline results demonstrated that more children are overweight to obese than underweight. There was no significant difference in body mass index between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous children. Indigenous children were shown to consume less vegetable and dairy products and were significantly more likely to suffer from anaemia, iron depletion and eosinophilia than non-Indigenous children. Indigenous children were also twice as likely to have runny noses and are more than three times more likely to have skin sores. These results support that the health status of the Indigenous children is poorer than that of non-Indigenous children. They demonstrate an immediate need to implement culturally appropriate nutritional and exercise programs within the school environment to improve dietary habits and overall health. Implementation of nutritional, drinking and exercise programs may significantly improve these children's overall awareness and behaviour concerning nutrition and health.

  13. Dietary Practices, Attitudes, and Physiological Status of Collegiate Freshman Football Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonnalagadda, Satya S.; Rosenbloom, Christine A.; Skinner, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Determined the eating habits, attitudes, and physiological status of freshman collegiate football players who completed a nutrition screening survey and provided fasting blood samples and data on height and weight. Results indicated that as a group, there were no major problems in dietary practices and physiological status, though there was room…

  14. Dietary Practices, Attitudes, and Physiological Status of Collegiate Freshman Football Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonnalagadda, Satya S.; Rosenbloom, Christine A.; Skinner, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Determined the eating habits, attitudes, and physiological status of freshman collegiate football players who completed a nutrition screening survey and provided fasting blood samples and data on height and weight. Results indicated that as a group, there were no major problems in dietary practices and physiological status, though there was room…

  15. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO -16E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Heer, M. A.; Zwart, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective was an experiment initiated to expand nominal pre- and postflight clinical nutrition testing, and to gain a better understanding of the time course of changes during flight. The primary activity of this effort was collecting blood and urine samples 5 times during flight for analysis after return to Earth. Samples were subjected to a battery of tests, including nutritional, physiological, general chemistry, and endocrinology indices. These data provide a comprehensive survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by 4-6 months of space flight. Analyzing the data will help us to define nutritional requirements for long-duration missions, and better understand human adaptation to microgravity. This expanded set of measurements will also aid in the identification of nutritional countermeasures to counteract, for example, the deleterious effects of microgravity on bone and muscle and the effects of space radiation.

  16. The School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study: Summary of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burghardt, John; Devaney, Barbara

    This publication, which is based on the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment study, describes the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (SBP), presents findings on the nutrients and foods provided in school meals, and describes the dietary intakes of the nation's students on a typical school day. Data were derived…

  17. Nutrition Status of HIV+ Children in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nnyepi, Maria; Bennink, Maurice R.; Jackson-Malete, Jose; Venkatesh, Sumathi; Malete, Leapetswe; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Lyoka, Philemon; Anabwani, Gabriel M.; Makhanda, Jerry; Weatherspoon, Lorraine J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Identifying and addressing poor nutritional status in school-aged children is often not prioritized relative to HIV/AIDS treatment. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the benefits of integrating nutrition (assessment and culturally acceptable food supplement intervention) in the treatment strategy for this target group.…

  18. Nutrition Status of HIV+ Children in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nnyepi, Maria; Bennink, Maurice R.; Jackson-Malete, Jose; Venkatesh, Sumathi; Malete, Leapetswe; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Lyoka, Philemon; Anabwani, Gabriel M.; Makhanda, Jerry; Weatherspoon, Lorraine J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Identifying and addressing poor nutritional status in school-aged children is often not prioritized relative to HIV/AIDS treatment. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the benefits of integrating nutrition (assessment and culturally acceptable food supplement intervention) in the treatment strategy for this target group.…

  19. Nutritional status of schoolchildren in rural Iran.

    PubMed

    Sarraf, Zahra; Goldberg, Dena; Shahbazi, Mohammad; Arbuckle, Kristen; Salehi, Moosa

    2005-09-01

    The present study compared the nutritional status of schoolchildren from recently settled, ethnic minority tribespeople with those from a Persian village in southern Iran. Height and weight were measured and blood was collected from school children at three time points over 1.5 years. Supplemental Fe was provided to children with low Hb after the first screening. Twenty-one per cent of the children were wasted, 57 % were stunted and 23 % were anaemic. No statistically significant difference in the prevalence of wasting, stunting and anaemia was found between gender or ethnic groups. Children over the age of 12 years had a higher prevalence of wasting than children aged below 12 years. In a sub-sample of forty-one children the average BMI-for-age decreased. Fe supplementation increased Hb levels to normal in most children, but did not increase Fe level in a few children. Dietary deficiency of micronutrients, especially Zn and Fe, probably accounts for the high prevalence of stunting and anaemia in these children. Infection with Helicobacter pylori is another possible explanation for the Fe-deficiency anaemia. Further investigation is in progress to determine the cause(s) of the observed deficiencies.

  20. [ENTERAL NUTRITION ON THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CANCER].

    PubMed

    Escortell Sánchez, Raquel; Reig García-Galbis, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    to identify what effect causes enteral nutrition on nutritional status of cancer. a search was performed using the keywords "Cancer" AND "Enteral Nutrition" AND "Supplementation" in four document databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, ProQuest, and Web of Science. age of the sample, major than 18 years; submitted to surgery for cancer; that the intervention program was including diet and employment or not of nutritional Supplementation; clinical trials published between January 2004 and December 2014, in scientific journals indexed. we analyzed 660 articles, of which only 2% has been included. 58% of intervention programs are applied outside Spain; 84% of the interventions was carried out in a hospitable ambient; 58% of the sample is formed by adults older than 54 years; 33% of the interventions were multidisciplinary and its duration ranges between 1 and 4 years. we found just a few national interventions in cancer participants and there two types of interventions: by exclusive polymeric enteral formula or mixed with immunonutrition. enteral nutrition shows against the parenteral and its introduction at an early stage, it helps to improve nutritional status of the patient; polymeric formulas next immunonutrition, it helps to reduce the time of hospitalization; the analytical parameters are shown as a measurement pattern when assessing the improvement in nutritional status in cancer. It is recommended to increase the research in this field, especially in children. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Polypharmacy and nutritional status in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Jyrkkä, Johanna; Mursu, Jaakko; Enlund, Hannes; Lönnroos, Eija

    2012-01-01

    Increasing use of drugs among elderly people has raised concerns about possible negative health outcomes, including malnutrition, associated with polypharmacy. Evidence about the association of polypharmacy with nutritional status is scarce. This review summarizes the relevant evidence regarding polypharmacy and nutritional status in elderly people. The probability of nutritional problems as a consequence of drugs is highest in elderly people suffering from several diseases. Drug treatment may contribute to poor nutritional status by causing loss of appetite, gastrointestinal problems, and other alterations in body function. Some recently published studies add evidence on possible association between increasing number of drugs and malnutrition. Studies indicate also an association between polypharmacy and weight changes. In addition, there are available studies that have shown deficits in the intake of specific macronutrients and micronutrients (e.g. fiber, glucose, and specific vitamins) for those with a high number of drugs in use. On the basis of available evidence, the role of polypharmacy on nutritional status among elderly people is unclear. Some diseases promote malnutrition; thus, the independent role of drugs for nutritional status is challenging to determine. Longitudinal studies with careful adjustment for underlying diseases are needed to explore association between polypharmacy and malnutrition. Nutritional evaluation should be a routine part of comprehensive geriatric assessment that is conducted ideally in multiprofessional teams, including physician, pharmacist, and dietitian.

  2. High participation in the Posyandu nutrition program improved children nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Faisal; Khomsan, Ali; Sukandar, Dadang; Riyadi, Hadi; Mudjajanto, Eddy S

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this research was to analyze nutritional status and food consumption of children participating in the Posyandu nutrition program. A total sample of 300 children under five years had been drawn. Sample was divided into two categories namely high participation and low participation in the Posyandu nutrition program. The sample was selected from two sub districts of Cianjur District, West Java. The districts were areas with a high proportion of poor people and many of them take the benefits of Posyandu nutrition program conducted by the government. The participation of children (under five years old) in visiting Posyandus was relatively good, namely, 92.4% (for the high participation group). However, for the low participation group, the number of participating children was relatively low (28.3%). The average consumption of energy for children under five years old was still below the recommended dietary allowance < 80% of RDA, whereas the protein consumption was already above the RDA. The prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting among children were respectively 30.0%, 43.7%, and 12.3%. The activities at Posyandus had a positive impact on the nutritional status of children under five years olds, measured in terms of weight for age (W/A) and weight for height (W/H). The more frequent the visit to Posyandus, the better the nutritional statuses would be.

  3. The timing of nutritional status determination: implications for interventions and growth monitoring.

    PubMed

    Huttly, S R; Victora, C G; Barros, F C; Teixeira, A M; Vaughan, J P

    1991-02-01

    A population-based birth cohort of 1226 urban Brazilian children underwent anthropometric examinations at, on average, ages 11, 23 and 47 months. Multiple regression analyses showed that while birth weight was the single most important factor in predicting nutritional status at age 11 months, a wide range of other social, biological and morbidity factors also appeared to play a significant role. Environmental and dietary factors, however, showed no significant association. Nutritional status at age 11 months was a very strong predictor of nutritional status at ages 23 and 47 months and the other explanatory factors made a minimal additional contribution to the regression models. These results suggest that, in this population, childhood nutritional status is primarily determined before the end of the first year of life. These findings have implications for the timing and nature of nutritional interventions and for mechanisms for identifying those children who will suffer from poor nutritional status later in childhood.

  4. Alzheimer's disease, oral function and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Nordenram, G; Ryd-Kjellen, E; Johansson, G; Nordstrom, G; Winblad, B

    1996-07-01

    To study differences in nutritional, dental status and oral function between institutionalised patients with Alzheimer's disease and cognitively healthy elderly people living in the community. Comparison was made between two groups. Alzheimer's disease sufferers and healthy controls, using established criteria for anthropometric, mental and dental state. An institution and residential area in Stockholm, Sweden. Forty patients with Alzheimer's disease living in a nursing home and 40 age- and gender-matched control subjects living independently. Dental status and anthropometric variables. Overnutrition was less frequent among the demented than the controls and more demented were undernourished. Dental status was similar in the two groups with few edentulous subjects but only 2 of 7 edentulous subjects with Alzheimer's disease wore dentures. Having natural teeth and many functional oral zones is important for food consistency choice, but not for nutritional status. In the Alzheimer group, the stage of dementia has a strong association to the ability to eat unaided and an association with dental status. There are differences in nutritional status between Alzheimer's patients in institutions and cognitively healthy elderly living at home. The choice of food consistency is correlated to dental status but nutritional status is not shown to be influenced by dental status. However, the ability to eat unaided is strongly correlated to cognitive status.

  5. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes and dietary restriction behaviour of Taiwanese elderly.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Lee, Ya-Wen

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand knowledge about and general attitudes towards nutrition, dietary restriction attitudes, and dietary restriction behavior in the Taiwanese elderly, and the relationship of these various components to each other. Data from the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1999-2000) were used for analysis and included 1937 elderly persons aged over 65. The results indicated that the elderly had poor nutrition knowledge, especially about the relationship between nutrition and disease. Elderly nutrition attitudes were fair; they tended to disagree with misconceptions about "healthy" or functional foods and also had quite positive general eating attitudes. However, the Taiwanese elderly hold quite strong attitudes influenced by Chinese traditional or food-texture-related dietary restrictions. Elderly people frequently avoid eating foods considered unhealthy by modern medical science (e.g. high fat/cholesterol foods) as well as foods forbidden by Chinese traditional medicine (e.g. "heating" foods, "cooling" foods). Most of the elderly regularly eat three meals a day, however, they seldom pay attention to dietary and nutrition information. The most important sources of nutrition information are offspring or family members, TV, and medical practitioners. In general, elderly men with a higher educational level and living in less remote areas had better nutrition knowledge, held more positive nutrition attitudes, and kept to dietary restrictions less frequently. Elderly people's nutrition knowledge was positively related to their health-care attitudes, general eating attitudes, high- fat or high-cholesterol food restriction behavior, fermented or pickled food restriction behavior, attention to nutrition information, and regularity of meals. However, nutrition knowledge was inversely related to Chinese traditional or food-texture-related dietary restriction behaviors. The results of this study suggest that education of elderly

  6. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation did not help low income Hispanic women in Texas meet the dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hilmers, Angela; Chen, Tzu-An; Dave, Jayna M; Thompson, Deborah; Cullen, Karen Weber

    2014-05-01

    Low-income Hispanic women are at greater risk for dietary deficiencies and obesity. We assessed the association between Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation and dietary intake among 661 Hispanic women aged 26-44 years living in Texas. Cross-sectional data was collected using standard methods. Analysis of variance and logistic regression examined the influence of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program on diet after adjusting for household characteristics, body mass index, and food security status. Most women did not meet recommended dietary guidelines. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants consumed higher amounts of total sugars, sweets-desserts, and sugar-sweetened beverages than Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program nonparticipants. High sodium intakes and low dairy consumption were observed in both groups. Only 27% of low-income eligible women received Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits. Low-income Hispanic women participating in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program reported less healthful dietary patterns than nonparticipants. This may contribute to the increased obesity prevalence and related comorbidities observed in this population. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program should play an important role in enhancing the overall dietary quality of low-income households. Policy initiatives such as limiting the purchase of sugar-sweetened beverages and education to enable women to reduce consumption of high sodium processed foods deserve consideration as means to improve the dietary quality of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants. Effective measures are needed to increase Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation rates among Hispanics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Diet diversity and nutritional status among adults in southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Xinguang; Liu, Zhitao; Varma, Deepthi S.; Wan, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Background With rapid urbanization in the past decades, diet diversity continues to increase in China. The present cross-sectional study aims to explore the association between dietary diversity and nutritional status among adults in southwest China. Methods This study used data from 2011–2012 National Nutritional Survey in Yunnan Province, southwest China (N = 1105).Data of three consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were used to calculate dietary diversity scores (DDS) and nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR). Body mass index and waist circumference were used to determine nutritional status. Surveylogistic procedure of SAS 9.2 software was used to examine the association between DDS and obesity by estimating odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The mean DDS was 5.2 (SD 1.1) out of nine points. Being female, younger age, belonging to Han ethnicity, having higher educational level and household income were positively associated with DDS (all P<0.05). As DDS increased, consumption also increased in most food groups except grains and vegetables. People with medium and high DDS (DDS = 5 and DDS ≥6, respectively) ingested more energy than the recommended quantity(NAR = 1.1 and 1.2, respectively). However, the intakes of Calcium and Vitamin A were seriously inadequate even for people with high DDS (NAR≤0.5). With potential confounders adjusted, people with medium and high DDS were at higher risk of general and central obesity than people with DDS ≤4 (OR = 1.4–1.9, P<0.01). Conclusions Our data indicated that high DDS was associated with excessive energy intake and obesity among adults in southwest China. Although dietary diversity is widely recommended, public health messages should give less emphasis on dietary diversity. PMID:28231308

  8. Diet diversity and nutritional status among adults in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Xinguang; Liu, Zhitao; Varma, Deepthi S; Wan, Rong; Zhao, Shiwen

    2017-01-01

    With rapid urbanization in the past decades, diet diversity continues to increase in China. The present cross-sectional study aims to explore the association between dietary diversity and nutritional status among adults in southwest China. This study used data from 2011-2012 National Nutritional Survey in Yunnan Province, southwest China (N = 1105).Data of three consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were used to calculate dietary diversity scores (DDS) and nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR). Body mass index and waist circumference were used to determine nutritional status. Surveylogistic procedure of SAS 9.2 software was used to examine the association between DDS and obesity by estimating odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The mean DDS was 5.2 (SD 1.1) out of nine points. Being female, younger age, belonging to Han ethnicity, having higher educational level and household income were positively associated with DDS (all P<0.05). As DDS increased, consumption also increased in most food groups except grains and vegetables. People with medium and high DDS (DDS = 5 and DDS ≥6, respectively) ingested more energy than the recommended quantity(NAR = 1.1 and 1.2, respectively). However, the intakes of Calcium and Vitamin A were seriously inadequate even for people with high DDS (NAR≤0.5). With potential confounders adjusted, people with medium and high DDS were at higher risk of general and central obesity than people with DDS ≤4 (OR = 1.4-1.9, P<0.01). Our data indicated that high DDS was associated with excessive energy intake and obesity among adults in southwest China. Although dietary diversity is widely recommended, public health messages should give less emphasis on dietary diversity.

  9. Dietary intake and iron status of Australian vegetarian women.

    PubMed

    Ball, M J; Bartlett, M A

    1999-09-01

    Despite the possible overall health benefits of a vegetarian diet, there is concern that some vegetarians and infrequent meat eaters, particularly females, may have inadequate iron status because of low or no heme-iron intakes. The objective was to investigate the nutritional intake and iron status of vegetarian women. The nutritional intakes of 50 free-living vegetarian women aged 18-45 y and 24 age-matched omnivorous control women were assessed by using 12-d weighed dietary records. Iron status was assessed by measuring hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations. There was no significant difference between mean (+/-SD) daily iron intakes of vegetarians and omnivores (10.7 +/- 4.4 and 9.9 +/- 2.9 mg, respectively), although heme-iron intakes were low in the vegetarians. Vegetarians had significantly lower intakes of protein (P < 0.01), saturated fat (P < 0.01), and cholesterol (P < 0.001), and significantly higher intakes of dietary fiber (P < 0.001) and vitamin C (P < 0.05). Mean serum ferritin concentrations were significantly lower (P = 0.025) in vegetarians (25.0 +/- 16.2 microg/L) than in omnivores (45.5 +/- 42.5 microg/L). However, similar numbers of vegetarians (18%) and omnivores (13%) had serum ferritin concentrations <12 microg/L, which is a value often used as an indicator of low iron stores. Hemoglobin concentrations were not significantly different. It is important that both vegetarian and omnivorous women maintain an adequate iron status and follow dietary practices that enhance iron absorption.

  10. Nutritional requirements and assessing nutritional status in camelids.

    PubMed

    Van Saun, Robert J

    2009-07-01

    It has been nearly 30 years since the first imported llamas and alpacas have been commercially raised in the United States. Nutritional requirements for these animals have not been well understood and most feeding practices were based on extrapolated and experiential information. Only recently has a National Research Council committee reviewed the available published information relative to nutrient requirements of llamas and alpacas. This article summarizes current nutrient requirement recommendations and provides some practical feeding recommendations and methods to assess nutritional status.

  11. Dietary approaches to assessing iron-related nutrition.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kathryn L; Heath, Anne-Louise M

    2013-11-01

    Both dietary and nondietary factors contribute to iron deficiency, the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide. Identifying dietary factors associated with iron deficiency is challenging due to the number of components in food affecting iron absorption. This review describes recent advances in dietary approaches to assessing iron-related nutrition. Most research investigating the relationship between dietary intake and iron deficiency has focussed on individual foods and nutrients, despite several components in foods influencing iron absorption. More recently, studies have considered the overall diet and combinations of foods eaten, through the analysis of dietary patterns and practices. This includes the development and validation of dietary assessment tools to assess iron-related dietary patterns. Dietary pattern analysis which considers the whole diet and combinations of foods eaten may enhance our understanding of how diet impacts on iron deficiency. The analysis of dietary patterns offers an alternative and complementary approach to the traditional focus on individual foods and nutrients when investigating dietary factors associated with iron deficiency.

  12. Dietary Service Staffing Impact Nutritional Quality in Nursing Homes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kelly M; Thomas, Kali S; Johnson, Shanthi; Meng, Hongdao; Hyer, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    To examine the relationship between dietary service staff and dietary deficiency citations in nursing homes (NHs). 2007-2011 Online Survey and Certification and Reporting data for 14,881 freestanding NHs were used to examine the relationship between dietary service staff and the probability of receiving a dietary service-related deficiency citation. An unconditional logit model with random effects was employed. Findings suggest that higher staffing levels for dietitians (odds ratio [OR] = .955; p < .01), dietary service personnel (OR = .996; p < .01), and certified nursing assistants (CNAs; OR = .981; p < .05) decrease the likelihood of receiving a dietary service deficiency citation. Higher levels of dietary service and CNA staffing levels have the potential to improve the quality of nutritional care in NHs. Findings help substantiate the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' proposed rules for more stringent Food and Nutrition Services in the NH setting and signify the need for further research relative to the impact of dietary service staff on nutritional and clinical outcomes.

  13. Parenteral nutrition improves nutritional status, autonomic symptoms and quality of life in transthyretin amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Russo, Massimo; Vita, Gian Luca; Stancanelli, Claudia; Mazzeo, Anna; Vita, Giuseppe; Messina, Sonia

    2016-06-01

    Transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) is an inherited amyloidosis, leading to death in about ten years in most cases due to cardiac failure or wasting syndrome. Previous studies showed that modified body mass index was related to time before death, duration of gastrointestinal disturbances, malabsorption and functional capacity. We report two patients in whom nutritional status worsened despite diet modification, hypercaloric supplement and two relevant therapeutic approaches such as liver transplant and tafamidis meglumine, respectively. The first patient, a 52-year-old lady carrying Thr49Ala mutation, had a disease duration of twelve years and had lost weight up to 35 kg because of daily diarrhea. The second patient, a 63-year-old man with Glu89Gln mutation and a disease duration of fifteen years, was in the New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification class III and his weight was 39 kg. In both cases, a peripherally inserted central catheter was placed for parenteral nutrition. It allowed to improve their nutritional status and clinical conditions, with body weight gains of 11 and 8 kg in a one year follow-up, respectively. Moreover, reduction of autonomic symptoms including postural hypotension, nausea and diarrhoea was recorded with ameliorated quality of life. Our experience suggests that parenteral nutrition may be useful in reducing complications and disabilities in TTR-FAP patients, even when all dietary adjustments have been ineffective. Reasonably, the improvement in nutritional status may prolong survival in TTR-FAP patients.

  14. Assessment of nutritional status in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Yuste, Claudia; Abad, Soraya; Vega, Almudena; Barraca, Daniel; Bucalo, Laura; Pérez-de José, Ana; López-Gómez, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem and a risk factor of mortality in haemodialysis patients. However, there is no consensus for its assessment. To assess the relationship between nutritional status, measured by bioimpedance spectrometry (BIS), and laboratory markers of nutritional status, as well as nutritional evolution and its changes after 1 year. We performed an observational prospective study on 124 haemodialysis patients (aged 61.2 ±[15.8] years, 62.9% were males, 33.1% were diabetic. Laboratory markers of nutritional status and BIS were implemented at baseline and after one year. At baseline, lean mass index (LMI) (13.3 [3.6] Kg/m2) was inversely correlated with age (P=.006), and directly with male gender (P=.01). At baseline, the fat mass index (FMI) (mean 11.2 & 6.1kg/m2) correlates directly with the body mass index (P<.001) and the female gender (P=.004). We found no association with comorbidity or inflammatory markers. We did not observe any correlation between lean mass or fat mass modifications and nutritional marker modifications. Patients with LMI gain (>0kg/m2) have lower baseline serum albumin (P=.017), lower baseline LMI (P<.001) and higher baseline FMI (P=.027). Patients with FMI loss (<0kg/m2) have lower systolic blood pressure (P=.04). Assessment of nutritional status through laboratory parameters does not have a good correlation with body composition parameters or with their modifications.

  15. Nutritional status and physical fitness of elderly sportsmen.

    PubMed

    Chatard, J C; Boutet, C; Tourny, C; Garcia, S; Berthouze, S; Guézennec, C Y

    1998-01-01

    The nutritional status of elderly sportsmen has not been reported on, neither has the nutritional balance nor the precise relationship between nutritional status and physical fitness been detailed for this population. Thus, group of 18 sportsmen [age 63 (SD 4.5) years] was monitored by weighing their food during a 6-day period. Macro nutrient, mineral and vitamin content was derived from tables. Daily energy expenditure (DEE) and sport activity (DSA) were quantified over a 7-day period using a questionnaire. Physical fitness was assessed by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) measurements. The DEE was 11429 (SD 1890) kJ x day(-1). The DSA corresponded to 38% of DEE and VO2max to 35.9 (SD 6.1) ml x min(-1) x kg(-1). When compared with French recommended dietary allowances (RDA) intakes were higher for energy (+ 24%), macro nutrients, and most minerals and vitamins. Despite high energy intakes, some subjects had mineral and vitamin deficits. Energy intakes were significantly related to intakes of magnesium, phosphorus, iron, vitamins B2, B6, C and to VO2max, but not to age. Stepwise regressions indicated that vitamin C intake was the only determinant to have a relationship with VO2max. Thus, most elderly sportsmen had higher nutritional status than RDA, although some had mineral and vitamin deficits. It is therefore suggested that elderly sportsmen should be encouraged to consume food with higher mineral and vitamin contents.

  16. Nutritional status and cognitive impairment in elderly.

    PubMed

    Daradkeh, Ghazi; Essa, Musthafa M; Al-Adawi, S Samir; Koshy, Roopa P; Al-Asmi, Abdullah; Waly, Mostafa I

    2014-10-01

    The elderly population is increasing worldwide and it has been suggested that senior citizens will continue to constitute the bulk of the population in many countries. Nutritional status of senior citizens are adversely affected by their frailty, chronic condition and declining cognitive functioning. Conversely, malnourished elderly further deteriorate their frailty, chronic disease and cognitive functioning. The aim of this review article is to recognize the importance of nutritional assessment of elderly population particularly those with cognitive impairment. First part is to highlight characteristic cognitive impairment among senior citizens and the second one highlight t he background in which malnutrition is a factor that leads to increased risk of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. This review also highlight salgorithms for safeguarding nutritional status among senior citizen and focuses on importance of nutritional screening, assessment and early intervention for safeguarding further deterioration of elderly who are likely to prone to cognitive impairment.

  17. A study of the dietary intake of Cypriot children and adolescents aged 6–18 years and the association of mother’s educational status and children’s weight status on adherence to nutritional recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A balanced diet is fundamental for healthy growth and development of children. The aim of this study was to document and evaluate the dietary intake of Cypriot children aged 6–18 years (y) against recommendations, and to determine whether maternal education and children’s weight status are associated with adherence to recommendations. Methods The dietary intake of a random sample of 1414 Cypriot children was assessed using a 3-day food diary. Adherence to recommendations was estimated and the association of their mother’s education and their own weight status on adherence were explored. Results A large percentage of children consumed less than the minimum of 45% energy (en) of carbohydrate (18.4%-66.5% in different age groups) and exceeded the recommended intakes of total fat (42.4%-83.8%), saturated fatty acids (90.4%-97.1%) and protein (65.2%-82.7%), while almost all (94.7%-100%) failed to meet the recommended fibre intake. Additionally, a large proportion of children (27.0%-59.0%) consumed >300 mg/day cholesterol and exceeded the upper limit of sodium (47.5%-78.5%). In children aged 9.0-13.9y, there was a high prevalence of inadequacy for magnesium (85.0%-89.9%), in girls aged 14.0-18.9y, of Vitamin A (25.3%), Vitamin B6 (21.0%) and iron (25.3%) and in boys of the same group, of Vitamin A (35.8%). Children whose mother was more educated were more likely to consume >15%en from protein, Odds Ratio (OR) 1.85 (95% CI:1.13-3.03) for mothers with tertiary education and exceed the consumption of 300 mg/day cholesterol (OR 2.13 (95% CI:1.29-3.50) and OR 1.84 (95% CI:1.09-3.09) for mothers with secondary and tertiary education respectively). Children whose mothers were more educated, were less likely to have Vitamin B1 (p<0.05) and Vitamin B6 intakes below the EAR (p < 0.05 for secondary school and p < 0.001 for College/University) and iron intake below the AI (p < 0.001). Overweight/obese children were more likely to consume >15%en

  18. A study of the dietary intake of Cypriot children and adolescents aged 6-18 years and the association of mother's educational status and children's weight status on adherence to nutritional recommendations.

    PubMed

    Tornaritis, Michael J; Philippou, Elena; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalambos; Kourides, Yiannis A; Panayi, Adamos; Savva, Savvas C

    2014-01-08

    A balanced diet is fundamental for healthy growth and development of children. The aim of this study was to document and evaluate the dietary intake of Cypriot children aged 6-18 years (y) against recommendations, and to determine whether maternal education and children's weight status are associated with adherence to recommendations. The dietary intake of a random sample of 1414 Cypriot children was assessed using a 3-day food diary. Adherence to recommendations was estimated and the association of their mother's education and their own weight status on adherence were explored. A large percentage of children consumed less than the minimum of 45% energy (en) of carbohydrate (18.4%-66.5% in different age groups) and exceeded the recommended intakes of total fat (42.4%-83.8%), saturated fatty acids (90.4%-97.1%) and protein (65.2%-82.7%), while almost all (94.7%-100%) failed to meet the recommended fibre intake. Additionally, a large proportion of children (27.0%-59.0%) consumed >300 mg/day cholesterol and exceeded the upper limit of sodium (47.5%-78.5%). In children aged 9.0-13.9y, there was a high prevalence of inadequacy for magnesium (85.0%-89.9%), in girls aged 14.0-18.9y, of Vitamin A (25.3%), Vitamin B6 (21.0%) and iron (25.3%) and in boys of the same group, of Vitamin A (35.8%). Children whose mother was more educated were more likely to consume >15%en from protein, Odds Ratio (OR) 1.85 (95% CI:1.13-3.03) for mothers with tertiary education and exceed the consumption of 300 mg/day cholesterol (OR 2.13 (95% CI:1.29-3.50) and OR 1.84 (95% CI:1.09-3.09) for mothers with secondary and tertiary education respectively). Children whose mothers were more educated, were less likely to have Vitamin B1 (p<0.05) and Vitamin B6 intakes below the EAR (p < 0.05 for secondary school and p < 0.001 for College/University) and iron intake below the AI (p < 0.001). Overweight/obese children were more likely to consume >15%en protein (OR 1.85 (95% CI:1.26-2.71) and

  19. Seasonality, household food security, and nutritional status in Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hillbruner, Chris; Egan, Rebecca

    2008-09-01

    The influence of seasonality on food security and nutritional status is widely accepted. However, research has typically focused on rural households and has not explored the specific mechanisms underlying seasonal effects. To investigate the role of seasonality in determining the food security and nutritional status of low-income urban households and to isolate specific pathways through which seasonality has its impact. Secondary panel data from CARE/IFPRI were utilized. Three rounds of data were collected from approximately 600 households in low-income areas of Dinajpur, Bangladesh, from 2002 through 2003, twice during the monsoon season and once in the dry season. Household-level surveys collected data on income and expenditure, employment, urban agriculture, health, and assets. Height and weight measurements were taken from children between the ages of 6 and 72 months. Paired t-tests and logistic fixed-effects modeling were then used to explore the role of seasonality. The prevalence rates of food insecurity, wasting, and inadequate growth were all significantly higher during the monsoon season as compared with the dry season. Dietary diversity and lost work due to the weather were identified as specific pathways through which season affected household food security. However, mechanisms hypothesized to contribute to seasonal declines in nutritional status, such as child illness, were not found to be significant. Season had a significant effect on both food security and nutritional status in Dinajpur, with households consistently worse off during the monsoon season. Initiatives to promote food market development, support employment during the hunger season, and prevent seasonal declines in nutritional status should be implemented.

  20. Nutritional Assessment and Status of Hospitalized Infants.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Misa; Bell, Kristie; White, Melinda; Lawson, Karen; David, Michael; Doolan, Annabel; Todd, Alwyn

    2017-09-01

    Malnutrition during infancy has long-term adverse consequences for both physical and psychological development. Early detection of malnutrition among hospitalized infants is essential to provide optimal nutrition support. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the nutritional status of hospitalized infants using 2 methods: the Subjective Global Nutritional Assessment (SGNA) and anthropometric measurement. We also investigated diagnostic category associated with nutritional status, the mean anthropometric z scores, and explored the association between malnutrition and nutrition focused variables. Nutritional status of 110 hospitalized infants ages 31 days to 12 months was investigated using the SGNA and anthropometric measurements converted to z scores. Utilizing the SGNA, 78 (70.9%) infants were classified as having normal nutritional status, 30 (27.3%) were moderately malnourished, and 2 (1.8%) were severely malnourished. The proportion of infants with acute malnutrition (weight-for-length z score <-2) was 16.4%, and chronic malnutrition (length-for-age z score <-2) was 3.6%. The mean anthropometric z scores of infants were significantly lower in infants identified as moderately and severely malnourished using the SGNA. Decrease in serial weight (odds ratio [OR] 44.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.3-451.5), having prolonged gastrointestinal symptoms (OR 18.8; 95% CI: 1.5-234.7), and reduced nutrition-related functional capacity (OR 27.6; 95% CI 2.5-301.7) were associated with malnutrition after adjusting for sex, age, and length of hospital stay. Regardless of the method applied, cases of malnutrition amongst hospitalized infants were identified. The SGNA is a comprehensive approach to identifying malnutrition in hospitalized infants.

  1. Dietary patterns of female university students with nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Strawson, Cynthia; Bell, Rhonda; Downs, Shauna; Farmer, Anna; Olstad, Dana; Willows, Noreen

    2013-01-01

    Dietary patterns were examined in a convenience sample of 36 female University of Alberta students, all of whom had completed at least one nutrition course. Data from a validated food frequency questionnaire were used to determine if students had a dietary pattern similar to that recommended in Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide (EWCFG) or by the Traditional Healthy Mediterranean Diet Pyramid (THMDP), as measured using a Mediterranean Diet Quality Index Score. No student consumed the THMDP minimum number of portions of legumes, seeds, and nuts, of olive oil, or of whole grains. The majority did not meet the minimum EWCFG recommendations for any food group. The results suggest that nutrition education alone may be insufficient to ensure optimal dietary patterns among female university students. The methodology reported in this study is novel in assessing whether dietary patterns resemble the THMDP or the EWCFG.

  2. Nutritional Status DNA Damage and Tumor Pathology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    deficiencies of folic acid/vitamin B12 and niacin . The study population will consist of 200 women (self-report as African-American or European-American) newly...diagnosed with breast cancer in South Carolina. Dietary deficiencies of folic acid and niacin have been reported in populations of low socioeconomic...status, such as reside in South Carolina. The specific objectives of the research are 1) to analyze the status of folic acid/vitamin B12 and niacin and

  3. Nutritional status and oral status of the elderly with dementia: a 2-year study.

    PubMed

    Sadamori, Shinsuke; Hayashi, Syouji; Fujihara, Isao; Abekura, Hitoshi; Hamada, Taizo; Akagawa, Yasumasa

    2012-06-01

    To determine the relationship between denture wearing and nutritional status in the elderly with dementia. There could be a correlation between nutrition, oral health, dietary habits, patients' satisfaction, and their socio-economic status in the elderly, and the relationship between compromised oral status and nutritional status in the elderly with dementia. A 2-year follow-up study of 63 elderly Japanese women with and without dentures from a nursing home was undertaken to investigate their oral, physical and mental, and nutritional status. Each item for 2006 and 2008 in this study showed no significant difference between 2006 and 2008, except the calories/day. The elderly with dementia without complete dentures during the 2 years of the study only significantly decreased the mean of the calories/day. The calories/day of the elderly with dementia without dentures decreased after 2 years. Denture wearing for the elderly with dementia could be necessary to maintain a satisfactory intake of calories. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Heer, M.; Coburn, S. P.; Booth, S. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lupton, J.

    2007-01-01

    It has not been possible to assess nutritional status of crew members on the ISS during flight because blood and urine could not be collected during ISS missions. Postflight observations of alterations in nutritional status for several nutrients are troubling, and we require the ability to monitor the status of these nutrients during flight to determine if there is a specific impetus or timeframe for these changes. In addition to the monitoring of crew nutritional status during flight, in-flight sample collection would allow better assessment of countermeasure effectiveness. SMO 016E is also designed to expand the current medical requirement for nutritional assessment (MR016L) to include additional normative markers for assessing crew health and countermeasure effectiveness. Additional markers of bone metabolism will be measured to better monitor bone health and the effectiveness of countermeasures to prevent bone resorption. New markers of oxidative damage will be measured to better assess the type of oxidative insults that occur during space flight. The array of nutritional assessment parameters will be expanded to include parameters that will allow us to better understand changes in folate and vitamin B6 status, and related cardiovascular risk factors during and after flight. Additionally, stress hormones and hormones that affect bone and muscle metabolism will also be measured. This additional assessment will allow us to better monitor the health of crew members and make more accurate recommendations for their rehabilitation. Several nutritional assessment parameters are altered at landing, but it is not known how long these changes persist. We extended the current protocol to include an additional postflight blood and urine sample collection 30 days after landing. Data are being collected before, during, and after flight. These data will provide a complete survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by space flight. Analyzing the data

  5. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Heer, M.; Coburn, S. P.; Booth, S. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lupton, J.

    2007-01-01

    It has not been possible to assess nutritional status of crew members on the ISS during flight because blood and urine could not be collected during ISS missions. Postflight observations of alterations in nutritional status for several nutrients are troubling, and we require the ability to monitor the status of these nutrients during flight to determine if there is a specific impetus or timeframe for these changes. In addition to the monitoring of crew nutritional status during flight, in-flight sample collection would allow better assessment of countermeasure effectiveness. SMO 016E is also designed to expand the current medical requirement for nutritional assessment (MR016L) to include additional normative markers for assessing crew health and countermeasure effectiveness. Additional markers of bone metabolism will be measured to better monitor bone health and the effectiveness of countermeasures to prevent bone resorption. New markers of oxidative damage will be measured to better assess the type of oxidative insults that occur during space flight. The array of nutritional assessment parameters will be expanded to include parameters that will allow us to better understand changes in folate and vitamin B6 status, and related cardiovascular risk factors during and after flight. Additionally, stress hormones and hormones that affect bone and muscle metabolism will also be measured. This additional assessment will allow us to better monitor the health of crew members and make more accurate recommendations for their rehabilitation. Several nutritional assessment parameters are altered at landing, but it is not known how long these changes persist. We extended the current protocol to include an additional postflight blood and urine sample collection 30 days after landing. Data are being collected before, during, and after flight. These data will provide a complete survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by space flight. Analyzing the data

  6. Racial and Gender Differences in Weight Status and Dietary Practices among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino; Sargent, Roger G.; Topping, Marvette

    2001-01-01

    The nutritional intake, weight status, and dietary practices of college (N=630) students were assessed. The majority did not consume recommended servings of foods each day. Findings that African Americans skip meals and consume fast foods may contribute to the greater amount of weight gain for females since returning to school. Presents…

  7. Racial and Gender Differences in Weight Status and Dietary Practices among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino; Sargent, Roger G.; Topping, Marvette

    2001-01-01

    The nutritional intake, weight status, and dietary practices of college (N=630) students were assessed. The majority did not consume recommended servings of foods each day. Findings that African Americans skip meals and consume fast foods may contribute to the greater amount of weight gain for females since returning to school. Presents…

  8. Nutritional knowledge and dietary habits survey in high school population.

    PubMed

    Milosavljević, Dragana; Mandić, Milena L; Banjari, Ines

    2015-03-01

    During adolescence, young people are in a sensitive transition period when they gradually take over the responsibility for their own eating habits, health attitudes and behaviours and create lifelong habits so it is essential that they adopt healthy habits according to dietary recommendations. Knowledge is one of the factors necessary for the changes in dietary habits. The'objective of this study was to gain insight in nutritional knowledge and dietary habits of adolescents. The sample included 117 adolescents aged 17-19 years. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, representing modified version of General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire was used to assess general characteristics, nutritional knowledge about nutrients, dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, diet-disease relationship, and dietary habits. Less than one third of adolescents showed satisfactory knowledge, but boys, adolescents from rural environment and overweight adolescents showed significantly lower knowledge unlike others. Meal skipping was present habit, especially for breakfast consumption. Especially high consumption of meat and meat products was noted for boys, while fruit and vegetables for girls. Fad dieting was quite practiced habit, especially in girls and overweight adolescents. Among girls, high consumption of sweets was confirmed, while boys showed high consumption of soft drinks. Television presents the main source of infor- mation about nutrition for adolescents. Collected data shows similarity with other research in Europe and North America that confirm strong influence of globalization and fast spread of unhealthy habits. The results pointed out weak spots in nutritional knowledge and revealed unhealthy eating habits. This information is necessary for the development of new approaches to modulate their knowledge and consequently act on their behaviour. Behavioral changes would include higher number of meals per day, regular breakfast consumption, higher intake of fish

  9. Diet and nutritional status of rural adolescents in India.

    PubMed

    Venkaiah, K; Damayanti, K; Nayak, M U; Vijayaraghavan, K

    2002-11-01

    To study the current diet and nutritional status of rural adolescents in India. Cross-sectional study with household as the unit of randomization. National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau collected information in the rural areas of the nine States. In each State, 120 villages were selected from eight districts. From each of the selected villages, 20 households (HHs) were selected from five clusters. The information on socio-demographic profile was collected in all the 20 HHs, while anthropometric data such as weight, height and clinical signs of nutritional deficiency was collected on all the available adolescents in the selected households. In every fourth sampled household, ie five HHs, dietary information on all the members was collected using 24 h dietary recall. The outcome measures for nutritional status were proportion of underweight (dietary allowances (RDA). Anthropometric and socio-economic information on 12 124 adolescent boys and girls and dietary information on 2579 individuals in 1996-1997 was available for the analysis. The major occupation of the heads of the households surveyed was agriculture. More than a third (37.3%) of the families with adolescents did not possess any land. The per capita income per month was about Rs 250/- at 1996-1997 prices. About 23% of the adolescent girls were married before the age of 18 y. About a quarter of the married adolescent girls had short stature and 18.6% were underweight. They considered as 'at risk'. About 39% of the adolescents were stunted (

  10. Food and Nutrient Intake and Nutritional Status of Finnish Vegans and Non-Vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Elorinne, Anna-Liisa; Alfthan, Georg; Erlund, Iris; Kivimäki, Hanna; Paju, Annukka; Salminen, Irma; Turpeinen, Ursula; Voutilainen, Sari; Laakso, Juha

    2016-01-01

    Vegetarian and vegan diets have become more popular among adolescents and young adults. However, few studies have investigated the nutritional status of vegans, who may be at risk of nutritional deficiencies. To compare dietary intake and nutritional status of Finnish long-term vegans and non-vegetarians. Dietary intake and supplement use were estimated using three-day dietary records. Nutritional status was assessed by measuring biomarkers in plasma, serum, and urine samples. Vegans' (n = 22) data was compared with those of sex- and age-matched non-vegetarians (n = 19). All vegans adhered strictly to their diet; however, individual variability was marked in food consumption and supplementation habits. Dietary intakes of key nutrients, vitamins B12 and D, were lower (P < 0.001) in vegans than in non-vegetarians. Nutritional biomarker measurements showed lower concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), iodine and selenium (corrected for multiple comparisons, P < 0.001), Vegans showed more favorable fatty acid profiles (P < 0.001) as well as much higher concentrations of polyphenols such as genistein and daidzein (P < 0.001). Eicosapentaenoic acid proportions in vegans were higher than expected. The median concentration of iodine in urine was below the recommended levels in both groups. Long-term consumption of a vegan diet was associated with some favorable laboratory measures but also with lowered concentrations of key nutrients compared to reference values. This study highlights the need for nutritional guidance to vegans.

  11. Nutritional status in dialysis patients: a European consensus.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Francesco; Fouque, Denis; Heimburger, Olof; Drüeke, Tilman B; Cannata-Andía, Jorge B; Hörl, Walter H; Ritz, Eberhard

    2002-04-01

    Malnutrition is common in dialysis patients and closely related to morbidity and mortality. Therefore, assessment of nutritional status and nutritional management of dialysis patients play a central role in everyday nephrological practice. Achieving a consensus on key points relating to pathogenesis, clinical assessment, and nutritional management of dialysis patients. The assessment of nutritional status should be based on clinical assessment and biochemical parameters, including history of weight loss, per cent standard weight, body mass index, muscle mass, subcutaneous fat mass, and plasma albumin, creatinine, bicarbonate and cholesterol. Co-morbid conditions should be assessed and C-reactive protein (CRP) measured--as a marker of inflammation--as there is a close relation between malnutrition, on one side, and co-morbid conditions and inflammation on the other. For a more detailed assessment, subjective global assessment of nutritional status is a well-validated tool, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is a useful method for routine assessment of lean body mass. Anthropometric methods are also useful. They are cheap and easy to apply, although less precise than DEXA. The recommended daily protein intake is at least 1.2 g/kg standard body weight and the energy intake 35 kcal/kg standard body weight (BW), in patients <60 years, and 30 kcal/kg standard BW in patients >60 years. The standard bicarbonate level should be at least 22 mmol/l. If CRP is >10 mg/l, it is important to seek and treat the underlying cause. Adequate dialysis (for haemodialysis: Kt/V >1.2) should be ensured and, although no definite evidence of the importance of dialysis water quality is available, the opinion of the authors is that the water quality should be high. The role of the biocompatibility of the dialysis membrane is still not clear. The dietitian plays a pivotal role in the nutritional care of dialysis patients, and patients should be provided with dietary counselling from

  12. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Heer, M.; Ericson, K.; Coburn, S. P.; Booth, S. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lupton, J.

    2009-01-01

    Until 2006, it was not been possible to assess nutritional status of crewmembers on the ISS during flight because blood and urine could not be collected during ISS missions. Postflight observations of alterations in status of several nutrients are troubling, and we require the ability to monitor the status of these nutrients during flight to determine if there is a specific impetus or timeframe for these changes. In addition to the monitoring of crew nutritional status during flight, in-flight sample collection would allow better assessment of countermeasure effectiveness. Collecting samples during flight is one of the objectives of SMO 016E, and it is also designed to expand the current medical requirement for nutritional assessment (MR016L) to include additional normative markers for assessing crew health and countermeasure effectiveness. Additional markers of bone metabolism will be measured to better monitor bone health and the effectiveness of countermeasures to prevent bone resorption. New markers of oxidative damage will be measured to better assess the type of oxidative insults that occur during space flight. The array of nutritional assessment variables will be expanded to include ones that will allow us to better understand changes in folate, vitamin K, and vitamin B6 status, as well as risk factors for cardiovascular and oxidative damage during and after flight. Stress hormones and hormones that affect bone and muscle metabolism will also be measured. Measuring these additional variables will allow us to better monitor the health of crewmembers and make more accurate recommendations for their rehabilitation. Several nutritional assessment variables are altered at landing, but it is not known how long these changes persist. We extended the original protocol to include an additional postflight blood and urine sample collection 30 days after landing. Data are being collected before, during, and after flight. These data will provide a complete survey of how

  13. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Heer, M.; Ericson, K.; Coburn, S. P.; Booth, S. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lupton, J.

    2009-01-01

    Until 2006, it was not been possible to assess nutritional status of crewmembers on the ISS during flight because blood and urine could not be collected during ISS missions. Postflight observations of alterations in status of several nutrients are troubling, and we require the ability to monitor the status of these nutrients during flight to determine if there is a specific impetus or timeframe for these changes. In addition to the monitoring of crew nutritional status during flight, in-flight sample collection would allow better assessment of countermeasure effectiveness. Collecting samples during flight is one of the objectives of SMO 016E, and it is also designed to expand the current medical requirement for nutritional assessment (MR016L) to include additional normative markers for assessing crew health and countermeasure effectiveness. Additional markers of bone metabolism will be measured to better monitor bone health and the effectiveness of countermeasures to prevent bone resorption. New markers of oxidative damage will be measured to better assess the type of oxidative insults that occur during space flight. The array of nutritional assessment variables will be expanded to include ones that will allow us to better understand changes in folate, vitamin K, and vitamin B6 status, as well as risk factors for cardiovascular and oxidative damage during and after flight. Stress hormones and hormones that affect bone and muscle metabolism will also be measured. Measuring these additional variables will allow us to better monitor the health of crewmembers and make more accurate recommendations for their rehabilitation. Several nutritional assessment variables are altered at landing, but it is not known how long these changes persist. We extended the original protocol to include an additional postflight blood and urine sample collection 30 days after landing. Data are being collected before, during, and after flight. These data will provide a complete survey of how

  14. Laboratory Indices of Nutritional Status in Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    This report reviews the current state of knowledge regarding laboratory indices of nutritional and metabolic status during normal pregnancy in order to provide normative data with respect to such indices in healthy pregnant women. The report contains seven chapters: Physiologic Adjustments in General; Hematologic Indices; Electrolytes in Normal…

  15. Laboratory Indices of Nutritional Status in Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    This report reviews the current state of knowledge regarding laboratory indices of nutritional and metabolic status during normal pregnancy in order to provide normative data with respect to such indices in healthy pregnant women. The report contains seven chapters: Physiologic Adjustments in General; Hematologic Indices; Electrolytes in Normal…

  16. Nutritional status among pediatric cancer patients: a comparison between hematological malignancies and solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Tah, Pei Chien; Nik Shanita, Safii; Poh, Bee Koon

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to compare the nutritional status of pediatric patients with hematological malignancies and solid tumors. A total of 74 pediatric cancer patients were assessed for anthropometric status, biochemical profiles, and dietary intake. The prevalence of undernutrition was higher among patients with solid tumors as reflected in their lower dietary intakes of energy and nutrients compared with patients with hematological malignancies. Adequate dietary intake is important for pediatric cancer patients, but nurses need to pay more attention to the diets of patients with solid tumors as compared with those with hematological malignancies. © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Food pattern and nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Patrícia Ayrosa C; Amancio, Olga Maria S; Araújo, Roberta Faria C; Vitalle, Maria Sylvia de S; Braga, Josefina Aparecida P

    2013-09-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the food intake pattern and the nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 90 children from two to 12.8 years with cerebral palsy in the following forms: hemiplegia, diplegia, and tetraplegia. Nutritional status was assessed by weight, height, and age data. Food intake was verified by the 24-hour recall and food frequency questionnaire. The ability to chew and/or swallowing, intestinal habits, and physical activity were also evaluated. RESULTS For 2-3 year-old age group, the mean energy intake followed the recommended range; in 4-6 year-old age group with hemiplegia and tetraplegia, energy intake was below the recommended limits. All children presented low intake of carbohydrates, adequate intake of proteins and high intake of lipids. The tetraplegia group had a higher prevalence of chewing (41%) and swallowing (12.8%) difficulties compared to 14.5 and 6.6% of children with hemiplegia, respectively. Most children of all groups had a daily intestinal habit. All children presented mild physical activity, while moderate activity was not practiced by any child of the tetraplegia group, which had a significantly lower height/age Z score than those with hemiplegia (-2.14 versus -1.05; p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS The children with cerebral palsy presented inadequate dietary pattern and impaired nutritional status, with special compromise of height. Tetraplegia imposes difficulties regarding chewing/swallowing and moderate physical activity practice.

  18. [Nutritional status and postoperative complications in patients with digestive cancer].

    PubMed

    Pañella, Loreto; Jara, Marlene; Cornejo, Morelia; Lastra, Ximena; Contreras, María Gladys; Alfaro, Kattia; De La Maza, María Pía

    2014-11-01

    Risk of malnutrition is elevated among oncologic patients, and this increases postoperative morbidity and mortality. To study the association between nutritional status and postoperative outcomes in a group of patients with gastrointestinal cancers. We studied 129 patients with diagnosis of digestive cancer, previous to potentially curative surgery. Nutritional status was evaluated through anthropometric measures, Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), dietary intake recalls and routine biochemical parameters. Functional performance was assessed by the Karnofsky index (KI). Cancer stage was classified according to TNM4. During the postoperative period, complications, length of stay at the critical care ward and duration of hospitalization were registered. Thirty days after discharge, patients were contacted, and the appearance of new complications was listed. According to SGA 14.7% of patients were classified as well nourished (A), 57.3% as moderately undernourished or at risk of malnutrition (B) and 27.9% as severely malnourished (C). The incidence of total complications was 25.5%. Nutritional status was not associated with cancer stage. The frequency of complications among patients classified as A, B and C were 5.5, 25.3 and 37.1% respectively (p = 0.03). We detected a high frequency of malnutrition in this group of patients. Overall the frequency of postoperative complications was low, however malnourished patients exhibited a higher rate of surgical complications.

  19. Food pattern and nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Patrícia Ayrosa C.; Amancio, Olga Maria S.; Araújo, Roberta Faria C.; Vitalle, Maria Sylvia de S.; Braga, Josefina Aparecida P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the food intake pattern and the nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 90 children from two to 12.8 years with cerebral palsy in the following forms: hemiplegia, diplegia, and tetraplegia. Nutritional status was assessed by weight, height, and age data. Food intake was verified by the 24-hour recall and food frequency questionnaire. The ability to chew and/or swallowing, intestinal habits, and physical activity were also evaluated. RESULTS For 2-3 year-old age group, the mean energy intake followed the recommended range; in 4-6 year-old age group with hemiplegia and tetraplegia, energy intake was below the recommended limits. All children presented low intake of carbohydrates, adequate intake of proteins and high intake of lipids. The tetraplegia group had a higher prevalence of chewing (41%) and swallowing (12.8%) difficulties compared to 14.5 and 6.6% of children with hemiplegia, respectively. Most children of all groups had a daily intestinal habit. All children presented mild physical activity, while moderate activity was not practiced by any child of the tetraplegia group, which had a significantly lower height/age Z score than those with hemiplegia (-2.14 versus -1.05; p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS The children with cerebral palsy presented inadequate dietary pattern and impaired nutritional status, with special compromise of height. Tetraplegia imposes difficulties regarding chewing/swallowing and moderate physical activity practice. PMID:24142317

  20. Food intake and the nutritional status of women undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Isabela Borges; Marinho, Eduarda da Costa; Custódio, Isis Danyelle Dias; Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Maia, Yara Cristina de Paiva

    2016-06-01

    The objective behind this study was the analysis of food intake and the nutritional status of women with breast cancer (BC) undergoing chemotherapy (CT). The quantitative dietary evaluation was performed in accordance with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), whereas the qualitative evaluation was performed through the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index - Revised (BHEI-R).From among the total number of patients (n = 20), 60% (n = 12) presented waist circumference, equal to or higher than 88cm. It was noted that 75% (n = 15) individuals were overweight. The average intake for calcium, copper, iron, dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, vitamin B6 and zinc, were found to be below adequate intake levels, while the intake of vitamin C, phosphorus, manganese, sodium and thiamine were all found to be above DRIs recommendations. As for the analysis of the BHEI-R, 80% (n = 16) of the patients presented a "diet that needs modifications", while 20% (n = 4) presented a "healthy diet". Noted from these observations was the presence of a high overweight rate, a discrepancy in the intake of micronutrients and a diet that needed improvements. In this manner, the establishment and use of a nutritional intervention protocol are very important when it comes to the improvement of the diet in patients with BC and who are undergoing CT.

  1. Nutritional status of adventure racers.

    PubMed

    Zalcman, Ioná; Guarita, Heloisa Vidigal; Juzwiak, Claudia Ridel; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Edwards, Ben; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2007-05-01

    We describe the usual food intake, body composition, and biochemical profile of adventure racers during their training season and evaluate their energy and nutrient intake in relation to current recommendations for ultraendurance athletes. Twenty-four adventure race athletes (18 men and 6 women), 24 to 42 y of age, participated in the study. Food intake was determined with a 3-d food record and body composition by plethysmography. Blood samples were obtained from all subjects for biochemical analyses. All assessments were made during the usual training phase. Female athletes had a higher body fat percentage than did male athletes (20.2 +/- 5.7% versus 12.5 +/- 3.5%). For men and women, food intake was high in protein (1.9 +/- 0.5 g/kg in men, 2.0 +/- 0.4 g/kg in women) and fat (1.6 +/- 0.3 g/kg in men, 1.5 +/- 1.3 g/kg in women). Carbohydrate intake of male athletes was at the lower limit of that recommended (5.9 +/- 1.8 g/kg). For most vitamins and minerals, athletes' intake was adequate, with the exception of magnesium, zinc, and potassium in men and women and vitamin E and calcium in women, which presented a high probability of being inadequate compared with reference values. High blood levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were found in female athletes (201.0 +/- 44.7 and 104.1 +/- 43.1 mg/dL, respectively) and all other biochemical analyses were within normal reference values. The adventure racers presented an inadequate nutritional profile when compared with recommendations for endurance exercise. These athletes need to be educated about consuming an adequate diet to meet the nutritional needs of their activity.

  2. [Increase of physical activity by improvement of the nutritional status].

    PubMed

    Torún, B

    1989-09-01

    Physical activity is affected by nutritional modifications and, in turn, influences growth, cognition, social behavior, work performance and other functions. Studies in preschool children showed that: 1. A decrease in energy intake during four to seven days reduced the time allocated to energy-demanding activities and increased sedentary activities. 2. Children with mild weight deficit were more sedentary than well-nourished counterparts. 3. Children became more active when nutritional status improved. 4. A 10% reduction in energy intake reduced total energy expenditure by 15% without affecting weight gain nor basal metabolism. Studies of men working in non-mechanized agriculture showed that: 1. Dietary improvements led to faster salaried work, reduction of napping time and greater physical activity after work. 2. An increase in energy intake increased total daily energy expenditure, tending to maintain energy balance and relatively stable body weight within the cyclic variations of the agricultural year. 3. Food supplementation did not necessarily improve productivity. Other labor incentives without dietary improvements increased energy expenditure during working hours, which resulted in weight loss. In conclusion, good health and nutrition provide the biological basis for adequate physical activity that may improve cognitive development, social interactions, economic productivity and the quality of life of an individual or a population, but other incentives are required for the optimal expression of that biologic potential.

  3. [Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey 2014. I. Nutritional status of the Hungarian adult population].

    PubMed

    Erdei, Gergő; Kovács, Viktória Anna; Bakacs, Márta; Martos, Éva

    2017-04-01

    The Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey examines the obesity prevalence, dietary habits and, since 2014, physical activity in Hungarian adults in every 5 years. The survey provides national data representative by age and gender, based on anthropometric measurements and international standards. In 2014, nearly two-thirds of adults were overweight or obese. 28.2% of men and 31.5% of women were obese. Prevalence of morbid obesity were 2.6% and 3.3% in men and women, respectively. Abdominal obesity was more prevalent among women than men (55% vs. 38%), and the rate was increasing with age in both genders. In elderly, 55% of men and almost 80% of women were abdominally obese. In conclusion, the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity is high in Hungarian adults. In order to tackle obesity, we need to obtain representative and measured data, which form the basis of targeted interventions and the assessment of their impact. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(14), 533-540.

  4. Home-Delivered Meals and Nutrition Status Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Sahyoun, Nadine R; Vaudin, Anna

    2014-08-01

    The trend among older adults in the United States is to "age in place" instead of opting for institutionalization. To maintain older adults with chronic conditions in their homes and to improve health after hospitalization, comprehensive social, health, and nutrition services are essential. Quality of dietary intake is crucial and yet often underestimated. Calorie needs decrease with age while nutrient needs remain the same, even increasing for some nutrients. This poses difficulties for individuals with functional disabilities who are unable to shop and cook due to physical or mental limitations or on a limited budget. The Older American Act home-delivered meal (HDM) program offers at least 1 healthy meal per day, 5 or more days per week, and targets individuals homebound due to illness, disability, or social isolation and those with greatest economic or social need. This review summarizes the available literature on the relationship between HDM and health outcomes. The HDM program is difficult to evaluate because of the multifactorial effect on health status. However, national surveys and smaller studies show that it is well targeted, efficient, and well liked; provides quality food to needy individuals; and helps individuals remain living independently. Studies show that HDMs improve dietary intake, with greater health benefits when more meals reach the neediest individuals. HDMs also decrease institutionalization of older adults and resulting healthcare expenditures. However, funding has not kept up with increased demand for this program. More studies with improved designs may provide more information supporting the program's impact on nutrition status and decreased health expenditures.

  5. Associations of dietary indices with biomarkers of dietary exposure and cardiovascular status among adolescents in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adolescence is an important life stage for the development of dietary preferences and health behaviour. Longitudinal studies indicated that cardiovascular status in adolescence predicts cardiovascular risk marker values in adulthood. Several diet quality indices for adolescents have been developed in the past, but literature concerning associations between indices and biomarkers of dietary exposure and cardiovascular status is rather sparse. Hence, the aim of this study was to analyse associations of dietary indices with biomarkers of dietary exposure and cardiovascular status. Methods For the present analysis, data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS 2003–2006) were used. The analysis included 5,198 adolescents, aged 12 to 17 years. The Healthy Food Diversity Index (HFD), the Healthy Nutrition Score for Kids and Youth (HuSKY), the Indicator Food Index (IFI) and a simple fruit/vegetable intake index were derived from food frequency questionnaire information to indicate a healthy diet. Adjusted mean values for homocysteine, uric acid, CRP, total cholesterol, HDL-C, ferritin, HbA1c, folate, vitamin B12 and BMI were calculated using complex-samples general linear models for quintiles of the different indices. Furthermore, the agreement in ranking between the different indices was calculated by weighted kappa. All statistical analyses were conducted for boys and girls separately, and were adjusted for potential confounders. Results Folate was positively associated with the HFD, the HuSKY, and fruit/vegetable intake for both boys and girls and with IFI for boys. Among girls, positive associations were seen between vitamin B12 and the IFI and between diastolic blood pressure and the IFI as well as fruit/vegetable intake. A negative association was found between homocysteine and the HFD, the HuSKY, and the IFI for both boys and girls and with fruit/vegetable intake for boys. Among boys, uric acid and

  6. Nutritional status and nutritional habits of men with benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate cancer - preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna; Rygielska, Magda; Nowacka, Ilona

    2013-01-01

    The ageing in men, the most frequent pathologic lesions affecting the prostatic gland in this period are benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PC), the course of which may be influenced by the improper nutritional status of patients and their nutritional habits. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the nutritional status and eating habits of men diagnosed and treated for one of the above diseases. MATERIAL AND METODS: The nutritional status of 30 male patients with clinically confirmed and treated disease of the prostatic gland, including 15 men (aged 51-75 years) with BPH and 15 men (aged 51-73 years) with PC, was evaluated based on their BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR parameters. In turn, the energy and nutritive value of 90 daily food rations (DFRs) was evaluated. Finally, calculations were made for the Key's index of diet atherogenicity, resultant Glycemic Index (GI) and Glycemic Load (GL). Higher values of the BMI, WC, WHR and WHtR parameters were noted in the men with PC, they were also characterized by a higher incidence of peripheral subcutaneous obesity and visceral obesity. The DFRs of the men were characterized by a low energy value and by a low intake of available carbohydrates, dietary fi ber, K, Ca, Mg, vitamins D and C, and fl uids at a simultaneously high intake of total and animal protein, cholesterol, Na, P, Fe, Cu as well as vitamins B2 and PP. The contribution of energy derived from the basic nutrients diverged from the recommended values. In addition, the DFRs were characterized by high values of Key's index and 24-h GL. Differences in meeting the RDA for selected nutrients between the analysed groups of men were statistically significant. The improper nutritional status of the men may result from their incorrect nutritional habits which fail to improve their health status, and even predispose them to the development of some diet-dependent diseases. In view of that, both correction of diets of the surveyed men, as well as

  7. Dietary and nutritional change in India: implications for strategies, policies, and interventions.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Bhavani; Agrawal, Sutapa; Beaudreault, Amy R; Avula, Laxmaiah; Martorell, Reynaldo; Osendarp, Saskia; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Mclean, Mireille Seneclauze

    2017-03-17

    Despite the global transition to overnutrition, stunting affected approximately 159 million children worldwide in 2014, while an estimated 50 million children were wasted. India is an important front in the fight against malnutrition and is grappling with the coexistence of undernutrition, overnutrition, and micronutrient deficiencies. This report summarizes discussions on trends in malnutrition in India, its evolution in the context of economic growth, intrahousehold aspects, infant and young child feeding practices, women's status, maternal nutrition, and nutrition policymaking. The discussion focuses on a review of trends in malnutrition and dietary intakes in India in the context of economic change over the past four decades, identification of household dynamics affecting food choices and their consequences for family nutritional status in India, and effective malnutrition prevention and treatment interventions and programs in India and associated policy challenges.

  8. A theory-based newsletter nutrition education program reduces nutritional risk and improves dietary intake for congregate meal participants.

    PubMed

    Francis, Sarah L; MacNab, Lindsay; Shelley, Mack

    2014-01-01

    At-risk older adults need community-based nutrition programs that improve nutritional status and practices. This 6-month study assessed the impact of the traditional Chef Charles (CC) program (Control) compared to a theory-based CC program (Treatment) on nutritional risk (NR), dietary intakes, self-efficacy (SE), food security (FS), and program satisfaction for congregate meal participants. Participants were mostly educated, single, "food secure" White females. NR change for the treatment group was significantly higher (P = 0.042) than the control group. No differences were noted for SE or FS change and program satisfaction between groups. The overall distribution classification levels of FS changed significantly (P < .001) from pre to post. Over half (n = 46, 76.7%) reported making dietary changes and the majority (n = 52, 86.7%) rated CC as good to excellent. Results suggest the theory-based CC program (treatment) is more effective in reducing NR and dietary practices than the traditional CC program (control).

  9. Diets, dietary supplements, and nutritional therapies in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Henderson, C J; Panush, R S

    1999-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis and many other systemic rheumatic diseases remain illnesses of unknown cause for which current therapy is often inadequate. This leads patients to seek questionable remedies, prominent among which are dietary manipulations. Is there a role for dietary modifications in the routine therapy for patients with rheumatic diseases? This article discusses the relationships between diets, fasting, elemental nutrition, vitamins, minerals, and foods for rheumatic diseases. Known scientific-based evidence for the use, safety, and efficacy of diets and dietary-related practices subscribed by patients with rheumatic diseases are presented. Studies that link diet with arthritis offer the possibility of identifying new therapeutic approaches for selected patients and of developing new insights to disease pathogenesis. Dietary therapy for arthritis, however, is still being investigated.

  10. Nutrition activation and dietary intake disparities among US adults.

    PubMed

    Langellier, Brent A; Massey, Philip M

    2016-12-01

    To introduce the concept 'nutrition activation' (the use of health and nutrition information when making food and diet decisions) and to assess the extent to which nutrition activation varies across racial/ethnic groups and explains dietary disparities. Cross-sectional sample representative of adults in the USA. Primary outcome measures include daily energy intake and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), fast foods and sit-down restaurant foods as determined by two 24 h dietary recalls. We use bivariate statistics and multiple logistic and linear regression analyses to assess racial/ethnic disparities in nutrition activation and food behaviour outcomes. USA. Adult participants (n 7825) in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Nutrition activation varies across racial/ethnic groups and is a statistically significant predictor of SSB, fast-food and restaurant-food consumption and daily energy intake. Based on the sample distribution, an increase from the 25th to 75th percentile in nutrition activation is associated with a decline of about 377 kJ (90 kcal)/d. Increased nutrition activation is associated with a larger decline in SSB consumption among whites than among blacks and foreign-born Latinos. Fast-food consumption is associated with a larger 'spike' in daily energy intake among blacks (+1582 kJ (+378 kcal)/d) than among whites (+678 kJ (+162 kcal)/d). Nutrition activation is an important but understudied determinant of energy intake and should be explicitly incorporated into obesity prevention interventions, particularly among racial/ethnic minorities.

  11. Nutritional Status in Self-Neglecting Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is the most common, and most compelling form of elder mistreatment. Individuals who cannot provide the basic needs for themselves may develop social, functional, and physical deficits. The CREST project has the goal of systematically characterizing these individuals, and the objective of the study reported here is to characterize aspects of their nutritional status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects referred from Adult Protective Services were recruited and consented. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socio-economic status when possible. Reported here are data on 47 SN subjects (age 77 +/- 7, mean +/- SD; body weight 76 kg +/- 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 +/- 7, 79 kg +/- 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of nutritional status. SN subjects had higher serum concentrations of homocysteine (p < 0.01) and methylmalonic acid (p < 0.05). Red blood cell folate levels were lower (p < 0.01) in the SN subjects and serum folate levels tended (p < 0.07) to be lower, also. C-reactive protein concentrations were higher than 10 mg/dL in 36% of SN subjects and 18% of CN subjects. Total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were similar in the two groups. These data demonstrate that the self-neglecting elderly population is at risk with respect to several markers of nutritional status.

  12. Nutritional Status in Self-Neglecting Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is the most common, and most compelling form of elder mistreatment. Individuals who cannot provide the basic needs for themselves may develop social, functional, and physical deficits. The CREST project has the goal of systematically characterizing these individuals, and the objective of the study reported here is to characterize aspects of their nutritional status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects referred from Adult Protective Services were recruited and consented. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socio-economic status when possible. Reported here are data on 47 SN subjects (age 77 +/- 7, mean +/- SD; body weight 76 kg +/- 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 +/- 7, 79 kg +/- 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of nutritional status. SN subjects had higher serum concentrations of homocysteine (p < 0.01) and methylmalonic acid (p < 0.05). Red blood cell folate levels were lower (p < 0.01) in the SN subjects and serum folate levels tended (p < 0.07) to be lower, also. C-reactive protein concentrations were higher than 10 mg/dL in 36% of SN subjects and 18% of CN subjects. Total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were similar in the two groups. These data demonstrate that the self-neglecting elderly population is at risk with respect to several markers of nutritional status.

  13. Trading nutrition for education: nutritional status and the sale of snack foods in an eastern Kentucky school.

    PubMed

    Crooks, Deborah L

    2003-06-01

    Overweight and poor nutrition of children in the United States are becoming issues of increasing concern for public health. Dietary patterns of U.S. children indicate they are consuming too few fruits and vegetables and too many foods high in fat and sugar. Contributing to this pattern of food consumption is snacking, which is reported to be on the increase among adults and children alike. One place where snacking is under increased scrutiny, and where it is being increasingly criticized, is in U.S. schools, where snack foods are often sold to supplement inadequate budgets. This article takes a biocultural approach to understanding the nutritional status of elementary school children in a rural community in eastern Kentucky. It pays particular attention to the ways in which the school's nutrition environment shapes overweight and nutritional status for many of the children, focusing on the sale of snack foods and the reasons behind the principal's decision to sell snack foods in the school.

  14. Trends and nutritional status for magnesium in Taiwan from NAHSIT 1993 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jui-Line; Weng, Yao-Lin; Pan, Wen-Harn; Kao, Mei-Ding

    2011-01-01

    Data from nationwide population-based nutrition surveys in Taiwan were used to investigate trends and nutritional status for magnesium from 1993 to 2008. Dietary magnesium intake was estimated from 24-hour dietary recalls. Serum and urinary magnesium were also measured. In Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 2005-2008, average magnesium intake was 305 mg and 259 mg for adult males and females, respectively, which is equivalent to 82-85% of relevant Taiwanese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). After correcting intra-individual variation, 74-81% of adult subjects' dietary magnesium was estimated as sub-optimal. Mean serum magnesium concentration was 0.866 mmol/L and 0.861 mmol/L for the males and females, respectively. The prevalence of low serum magnesium (<0.8 mmol/L) was 12.3% and 23.7% for the males and females, respectively. There was positive association among dietary magnesium, blood magnesium, and urinary magnesium/creatinine ratio. From NAHSIT 1993-1996 to NAHSIT 2005-2008, dietary magnesium significantly increased (p<0.05), the blood magnesium and urinary magnesium/creatinine ratio decreased (p<0.05). The findings suggest that the relationships between dietary magnesium and biochemical markers among different nutrition and health surveys are not straightforward and need to be further clarified.

  15. Evaluation of nutritional status in children with refractory epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Bertoli, S; Cardinali, S; Veggiotti, P; Trentani, C; Testolin, G; Tagliabue, A

    2006-01-01

    Background children affected by refractory epilepsy could be at risk of malnutrition because of feeding difficulties (anorexia, chewing, swallowing difficulties or vomiting) and chronic use of anticonvulsants, which may affect food intake and energy metabolism. Moreover, their energy requirement may be changed as their disabilities would impede normal daily activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate nutritional status, energy metabolism and food intake in children with refractory epilepsy. Methods 17 children with refractory epilepsy (13 boys and 4 girls; mean age 9 ± 3,2 years; Body Mass Index 15,7 ± 3,6) underwent an anthropometric assessment, body composition evaluation by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, detailed dietetic survey and measurement of resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry. Weight-for-age, height-for-age (stunting) and weight-for-height (wasting) were estimated compared to those of a reference population of the same age. Results 40% of children were malnourished and 24% were wasted. The nutritional status was worse in the more disabled children. Dietary intake resulted unbalanced (18%, 39%, 43% of total daily energy intake derived respectively from protein, lipid and carbohydrate). Adequacy index [nutrient daily intake/recommended allowance (RDA) × 100] was < 60% for calcium iron and zinc. Conclusion many children with refractory epilepsy would benefit from individual nutritional assessment and management as part of their overall care. PMID:16640779

  16. Assessment of nutritional status in children with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Paglialonga, F; Felice Civitillo, C; Groppali, E; Edefonti, A

    2010-06-01

    The achievement of a normal nutritional status, that is a normal body composition and a normal pattern of growth, is a cornerstone in the management of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Protein-energy wasting (PEW) which indicates the state of decreased body protein mass and fuel reserves (body protein and fat mass), is a common condition in this population, and a source of morbidity and mortality. For the diagnosis of this condition, a lot of methods have been proposed, but due to the clinical characteristics of children with CKD, the intrinsic limits of the available indices and some methodological issues concerning published pediatric studies, none of these parameters could be considered as the gold standard. Given these limitations, a general consensus exists according to which only the combination of more indices integrated in a multidisciplinary approach can give the idea of the individual nutritional status. Among these indices, recent guidelines recommend dietary intake (by means of 3-day diary or 24-hour recall), anthropometric parameters (weight, height, height velocity, body mass index, head circumference) and, only for adolescent on hemodialysis, normalized protein catabolic rate as the most accurate ones. Other methods, such as mid-arm anthropometry, bioimpedance analysis, biochemical indices, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry could certainly help in the nutritional evaluation, taking into account the advantages and drawbacks of each method.

  17. Effect of a nutrition education programme on clinical status and dietary behaviours of adults with type 2 diabetes in a resource-limited setting in South Africa: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Muchiri, Jane W; Gericke, Gerda J; Rheeder, Paul

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of a participant-customised nutrition education programme on glycated Hb (HbA(1c)), blood lipids, blood pressure, BMI and dietary behaviours in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A randomised controlled trial. The control group (n 41) received education materials. The intervention group (n 41) received the same education materials and participated in eight weekly (2-2·5 h) group nutrition education sessions and follow-up sessions. Outcomes were assessed at 6 and 12 months. An intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. ANCOVA compared the groups (adjustments for baseline values, age, sex and clinic). Two community health centres, Moretele sub-district (North West Province), South Africa. Adults (aged 40-70 years) with type 2 diabetes, HbA(1c) ≥8 %. Differences in HbA(1c) (primary outcome) were -0·64 % (P=0·15) at 6 months and -0·63 % (P=0·16) at 12 months in favour of the intervention group. Starchy-food intake was significantly lower in the intervention group, 9·3 v. 10·8 servings/d (P=0·005) at 6 months and 9·9 v. 11·9 servings/d (P=0·017) at 12 months. Median energy intake was significantly lower in the intervention group at 12 months (5988 v. 6946 kJ/d, P=0·017). No significant group differences in BMI, lipid profile, blood pressure and intakes of macronutrients, vegetables and fruits were observed. Nutrition education was not efficacious on HbA(1c); however, it improved specific dietary behaviours. Group education and hands-on activities appeared to contribute to the improvement. Optimal goal setting and self-efficacy training/assessment could benefit future nutrition education programmes for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in resource-limited settings.

  18. Nutritional Supplement Use by Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Does Receiving Dietary Counseling Make a Difference?

    PubMed

    Wardenaar, Floris C; Ceelen, Ingrid J M; Van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Hangelbroek, Roland W J; Van Roy, Lore; Van der Pouw, Britte; De Vries, Jeanne H M; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger F

    2017-02-01

    The use of nutritional supplements is highly prevalent among athletes. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the prevalence of nutritional supplement use by a large group of Dutch competitive athletes in relation to dietary counseling. A total of 778 athletes (407 males and 371 females) completed a web-based questionnaire about the use of nutritional supplements. Log-binomial regression models were applied to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) for the use of individual nutritional supplements in athletes receiving dietary counseling as compared with athletes not receiving dietary counseling. Of the athletes, 97.2% had used nutritional supplements at some time during their sports career, whereas 84.7% indicated having used supplements during the last 4 weeks. The top ranked supplements used over the last 4 weeks from dietary supplements, sport nutrition products and ergogenic supplements were multivitamin and mineral preparations (42.9%), isotonic sports drinks (44.1%) and caffeine (13.0%). After adjustment for elite status, age, and weekly exercise duration, dietary counseling was associated with a higher prevalence of the use of vitamin D, recovery drinks, energy bars, isotonic drinks with protein, dextrose, beta-alanine, and sodium bicarbonate. In contrast, dietary counseling was inversely associated with the use of combivitamins, calcium, vitamin E, vitamin B2, retinol, energy drinks and BCAA and other amino acids. In conclusion, almost all athletes had used nutritional supplements at some time during their athletic career. Receiving dietary counseling seemed to result in better-informed choices with respect to the use of nutritional supplements related to performance, recovery, and health.

  19. Nutritional Status of Mexican American Preschool Children in East Los Angeles and San Diego.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    Results of a 1968 pilot study of the nutritional status of Mexican American preschool children in East Los Angeles and San Diego are reported in this document. Questionnaire data collected from mothers of preschool children are presented in terms of a description of families, prenatal care, clinical examinations, dietary intakes, and biochemical…

  20. Nutritional Status of New Orleans, Mississippi and Alabama Head Start Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jack L.

    Three purposes guided compilation of this final report on the nutritional status of New Orleans, Mississippi, and Alabama Head Start children: (1) to evaluate the causes of anemia through detailed studies of urban New Orleans preschool children and their mothers, (2) to study the effect of dietary supplementation of school feeding programs upon…

  1. Rising Poverty, Declining Health: The Nutritional Status of the Rural Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Voice for Food and Health Policy, Washington, DC.

    Using five key indicators of nutritional status (dietary intake, biochemical tests for circulating levels of nutrients or their metabolites, anthropometric measures, low birth weight and infant mortality rates, and food, health, and income assistance program participation rates and benefit levels), this 1-year research project identified national,…

  2. Nutritional Status and Risk Factors for Chronic Disease in Urban-Dwelling Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez, Sandra; Sheean, Patricia; Tomey, Kristin M.; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional status and biochemical risk factors for chronic disease were assessed in 48 community-dwelling adults with Down syndrome in the Chicago area. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire completed by the participant's primary caregiver; anthropometric measures included height and weight and waist circumference.…

  3. Nutritional Status and Risk Factors for Chronic Disease in Urban-Dwelling Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez, Sandra; Sheean, Patricia; Tomey, Kristin M.; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional status and biochemical risk factors for chronic disease were assessed in 48 community-dwelling adults with Down syndrome in the Chicago area. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire completed by the participant's primary caregiver; anthropometric measures included height and weight and waist circumference.…

  4. Nutrition education by a registered dietitian improves dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of a NCAA female volleyball team.

    PubMed

    Valliant, Melinda W; Emplaincourt, Heather Pittman; Wenzel, Rachel Kieckhaefer; Garner, Bethany Hilson

    2012-06-01

    Eleven female participants from a NCAA Division I volleyball team were evaluated for adequate energy and macronutrient intake during two off-seasons. Total energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by food records and results were compared against estimated needs using the Nelson equation. Dietary intervention was employed regarding the individual dietary needs of each athlete as well as a pre- and post-sports nutrition knowledge survey. Post dietary intervention, total energy, and macronutrient intake improved, as well as a significant improvement in sports nutrition knowledge (p < 0.001). Nutrition education is useful in improving dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of female athletes.

  5. Nutrition Education by a Registered Dietitian Improves Dietary Intake and Nutrition Knowledge of a NCAA Female Volleyball Team

    PubMed Central

    Valliant, Melinda W.; Pittman Emplaincourt, Heather; Wenzel, Rachel Kieckhaefer; Garner, Bethany Hilson

    2012-01-01

    Eleven female participants from a NCAA Division I volleyball team were evaluated for adequate energy and macronutrient intake during two off-seasons. Total energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by food records and results were compared against estimated needs using the Nelson equation. Dietary intervention was employed regarding the individual dietary needs of each athlete as well as a pre- and post-sports nutrition knowledge survey. Post dietary intervention, total energy, and macronutrient intake improved, as well as a significant improvement in sports nutrition knowledge (p < 0.001). Nutrition education is useful in improving dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of female athletes. PMID:22822449

  6. Nutritional status assessment in colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Joana Pedro; de Castro Cardoso Pereira, Paula Manuela; dos Reis Baltazar Vicente, Ana Filipa; Bernardo, Alexandra; de Mesquita, María Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    The present study intended to evaluate the nutritional status of Portuguese colorectal patients and associated it with surgery type as well as quality of life outcomes. Malnutrition can affect up to 85% of cancer patients and specifically 30-60% in colorectal cancer and can significantly influence health outcomes. A sample of 50 colorectal cancer patients was evaluated in what refers to several anthropometric measures, food intake, clinical history, complications rate before and after surgery procedure. The sample was divided between convention and fast-track procedures. Most of the individuals were overweight or obese but had lost weight on the past six months. Despite mild, there were signs of malnutrition in this sample with high losses of fat free mass, weight and also fat mass during the hospitalization period. These results reinforce the importance of malnutrition assessment in colorectal patients as well as consider weight loss on the past months and body composition in order to complement nutritional status evaluation.

  7. The determinants of dietary diversity and nutrition: ethnonutrition knowledge of local people in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Powell, Bronwen; Bezner Kerr, Rachel; Young, Sera L; Johns, Timothy

    2017-04-27

    Diet and nutrition-related behaviours are embedded in cultural and environmental contexts: adoption of new knowledge depends on how easily it can be integrated into existing knowledge systems. As dietary diversity promotion becomes an increasingly common component of nutrition education, understanding local nutrition knowledge systems and local concepts about dietary diversity is essential to formulate efficient messages. This paper draws on in-depth qualitative ethnographic research conducted in small-scale agricultural communities in Tanzania. Data were collected using interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation in the East Usambara Mountains, an area that is home primarily to the Shambaa and Bondei ethnic groups, but has a long history of ethnic diversity and ethnic intermixing. The data showed a high degree of consensus among participants who reported that dietary diversity is important because it maintains and enhances appetite across days, months and seasons. Local people reported that sufficient cash resources, agrobiodiversity, heterogeneity within the landscape, and livelihood diversity all supported their ability to consume a varied diet and achieve good nutritional status. Other variables affecting diet and dietary diversity included seasonality, household size, and gender. The results suggest that dietary diversity was perceived as something all people, both rich and poor, could achieve. There was significant overlap between local and scientific understandings of dietary diversity, suggesting that novel information on the importance of dietary diversity promoted through education will likely be easily integrated into the existing knowledge systems.

  8. Impaired nutritional status in geriatric trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Müller, F S; Meyer, O W; Chocano-Bedoya, P; Schietzel, S; Gagesch, M; Freystaetter, G; Neuhaus, V; Simmen, H-P; Langhans, W; Bischoff-Ferrari, H A

    2017-05-01

    Malnutrition is an established risk factor for adverse clinical outcomes. Our aim was to assess nutritional status among geriatric trauma patients. We enrolled 169 consecutive patients (⩾70 years) admitted to the Geriatric Traumatology Centre (University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland). On admission to acute care, nutritional status was assessed with the mini nutritional assessment (score<17=malnourished (M), ⩽23.5=at risk of malnutrition (ARM), >23.5=normal). At the same examination, we assessed mental (Geriatric Depression Scale; GDS) and cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination; MMSE), frailty status (Fried Scale), and number of comorbidities and medications. Further, discharge destination was documented. All analyses were adjusted for age and gender. A total of 7.1% of patients were malnourished and 49.1% were ARM. Patients with reduced mental health (GDS⩾5: 30.5 vs 11.5%; P=0.004), impaired cognitive function (MMSE⩽26: 23.6±0.5 vs 26.0±0.6; P=0.004), prevalent frailty (32.5 vs 8%; P<0.001), more comorbidities (2.3±0.1 vs 1.3±0.2; P<0.0001) and medications (5.6±0.3 vs 3.4±0.4; P<0.0001) were more likely to have an impaired nutritional status (M+ARM). Further, M+ARM patients were twice as likely to be discharged to destinations different to home (odds ratio=2.08; confidence interval 1.07-4.05). In this consecutive sample of geriatric trauma patients, 56.2% had an M+ARM upon admission to acute care, which was associated with indicators of worse physical, mental and cognitive health and predicted a more than twofold greater odds of being discharged to a destination other than home.

  9. Comparison analysis of nutritional scores for serial monitoring of nutritional status in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Beberashvili, Ilia; Azar, Ada; Sinuani, Inna; Kadoshi, Hadas; Shapiro, Gregory; Feldman, Leonid; Averbukh, Zhan; Weissgarten, Joshua

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to compare the longitudinal performance of the malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) and the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI), two nutritional scores for patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Nutritional scores, dietary intake, biochemical markers, and body composition analysis were performed at baseline and at 6, 12, and 18 months after enrollment (which took place from January through December 2006) on 75 prevalent hemodialysis patients (43% women, mean age 64.8 ± 11.9 years). The patients underwent simultaneous MIS and GNRI assessments calculated by two independent examiners from baseline. The study period was 46.8 ± 16.4 months. GNRI had higher interobserver agreement (weighted κ-score 0.98) than MIS (weighted κ-score 0.62). Longitudinally, a 1-unit increase in MIS was associated with a 0.41 kcal/kg per day reduction in daily energy intake (P<0.001) and with a 0.014 g/kg per day reduction in nPNA (P=0.02). GNRI did not correlate with the change over time of dietary intake. Longitudinal changes of both scores were associated with appropriate changes over time in levels of nutritional biomarkers, inflammation (IL-6), and body composition parameters. Both scores expressed significant associations with prospective hospitalization, whereas only MIS was associated with mortality in this cohort. The multivariate Cox proportional hazard ratio was 1.15 for death for each 1-unit increase in the MIS (95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.3; P=0.02). Both MIS and GNRI are valid tools for longitudinal assessment of hemodialysis patients' nutritional status. MIS has lower interobserver reproducibility than GNRI; however, MIS is more comprehensive than GNRI.

  10. Relationship between prosthodontic status and nutritional intake in the elderly in Korea: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES IV).

    PubMed

    Choi, Y K; Park, D Y; Kim, Y

    2014-11-01

    Many health issues have been reported to be associated with poor nutritional status. We sought to examine the association between nutritional intake and oral health status in elderly people. The association between perceived disability in mastication and prosthodontic status was analysed using multiple logistic regression. Multiple linear regression was used to analyse the association between prosthodontic status and nutritional intake. The elderly subjects with partial or full dentures reported chewing difficulties 1.62-fold more frequently (95% CI: 1.06-2.49) than those with natural teeth or a fixed prosthesis after adjusting for gender, TMD (temporomandibular disorder), household income and education level. Additionally, daily nutritional intakes of energy, protein, fat, ash, calcium, phosphorus and thiamine were decreased significantly in elderly with partial or full dentures compared with those with no prosthesis or with a fixed prosthesis (P < 0.05). Our findings underline oral health status and perceived disability in mastication are associated with dietary imbalances in the elderly. We suggest that the evaluation of patients' nutritional status should be considered as a part of an overall plan for dental hygiene care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Food Choices and Consequences for the Nutritional Status: Insights into Nutrition Transition in an Hospital Community.

    PubMed

    Piple, Jitendra; Gora, Ranjeet; Purbiya, Pragati; Puliyel, Ashish; Chugh, Parul; Bahl, Pinky; Puliyel, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Although economic development is generally accompanied by improvements in the overall nutritional status of the country's population the 'nutritional transition' often involves a shift to high energy diets and less exercise with negative consequences. This pilot study was done to examine if education of parents operates at the household level to influence dietary choices and the nutritional status of children in a small community of hospital workers. 3 groups of persons with varying skill and education levels participated. Weighed food logs were used in all households to calculate 'adult equivalent' per-capita-consumption. Nutrients were calculated using nutrients calculator software. BMI was used to classify children as underweight, normal weight and overweight. 128 individuals participated from 30 families included 47 children. 10 children (21%) were underweight, 29 (62%) were normal and 8 (17%) were overweight. Energy consumption was highest in families with overweight children 2692 +/-502 compared to 2259 +/-359 in families with normal weight and 2031+/-354 in the family of underweight children. These differences were statistically significant. 42% underweight children belonged to Class 1 at the lowest skill level and there were no overweight children in this group. Most of the overweight children belonged to Class 2. In Class 3 there were no underweight children and the majority was normal weight children. Underweight children came from the poorer households. Per capita intake of the family as a whole correlated well with BMI in the children. There was increased obesity in middle income families belonging to Class 2-probably in families who move up the scale from deprivation. Nutritional status in children correlated mostly with maternal education status.

  12. Dietary fiber: nutritional lessons for macronutrient substitutes.

    PubMed

    Behall, K M

    1997-05-23

    The wide array of low-fat foods containing soluble fibers have the potential for helping in weight loss or weight control. Consumption of soluble fibers in sufficient quantities has been shown to lower serum lipid concentrations and to improve glycemic response. Some individuals could, eventually, consume a significant portion of their soluble dietary fiber from processed foods containing soluble-fiber fat substitutes. Changes in dietary fiber and starch sources increase the amount of fermentable material reaching the colon. Short-chain fatty acids thus produced are used as an energy source by colonocytes and may inhibit hepatic cholesterol synthesis. However, colonic fermentation can also result in flatulence or diarrhea. In addition, some diets high in soluble fiber have been shown to change intestinal cell morphology in rats. The possible benefits from consumption of a diet high in soluble fiber fat substitutes in serum lipid reduction, glycemic response improvement, and/or weight reduction as well as potential problems in flatulence, mineral absorption, and colonic cell hyperproliferation should be investigated.

  13. Early postoperative enteral nutrition is useful for recovering gastrointestinal motility and maintaining the nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Naruo; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakayoshi, Tomoko; Hanyu, Nobuyoshi; Nakao, Masatoshi; Takeda, Akihiro; Furukawa, Yoshiyuki; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of enteral nutrition in postoperative nutritional management is known, but the effects on gastrointestinal motility and nutrition have not yet been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of enteral and parenteral nutrition soon after open abdominal surgery on gastrointestinal motility and nutritional status. A partial resection of rectum models was prepared to compare two types of nutrient administration: enteral nutrition and total parenteral nutrition. The differences between the effects of nutrition types in terms of gastrointestinal motility and nutritional status were investigated. Enteral nutrition contributed to recovery of gastrointestinal motility and maintenance of nutritional status. Enteral nutrition should therefore be initiated soon after surgery if the gastrointestinal tract is available.

  14. Nutritional status according to Mini Nutritional Assessment is related to functional status in geriatric patients--independent of health status.

    PubMed

    Schrader, E; Baumgärtel, C; Gueldenzoph, H; Stehle, P; Uter, W; Sieber, C C; Volkert, D

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nutritional and functional status in acute geriatric patients including mobility and considering health status. Cross-sectional study. Hospital. 205 geriatric patients (median age 82.0 (IQR: 80-86) years, 69.3% women). Nutritional status was determined by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and patients were categorized as well-nourished (≥ 24 points), at risk of malnutrition (17-23.5 points) or as malnourished (< 17 points). Functional status was determined by Barthel Index (BI) and Timed 'Up and Go' Test (TUG) and related to MNA categories. Using binary multiple logistic regression the impact of nutritional status on functional status was examined, adjusted for health status. 60.3% of the patients were at risk of malnutrition and 29.8% were malnourished. Ability to perform basic activities of daily living (ADL) decreased with declining nutritional status. The proportion of patients unable to perform the TUG increased with worsening of nutritional status (45.0% vs. 50.4% vs. 77.0%, p<0.01). After adjusting for age, gender, number of diagnoses, disease severity and cognitive function, a higher MNA score significantly lowered the risk of being dependent in ADL (OR 0.85, 95 % CI 0.77-0.94) and inability to perform the TUG (OR 0.90, 95 % CI 0.82-0.99). Nutritional status according to MNA was related to ADL as well as to mobility in acute geriatric patients. This association remained after adjusting for health status.

  15. Influence of care practices on nutritional status of Ghanaian children.

    PubMed

    Nti, Christina Antwiwaa; Lartey, Anna

    2008-01-01

    A community-based longitudinal study was conducted in the Manya Krobo District of the Eastern Region of Ghana with the objective of assessing how caregiving practices influence nutritional status of young children in Ghana. The study subjects were one hundred mothers with infants between the ages of 6 and 12 months. Each child was visited at home monthly for a period of six months. On each visit, information was collected on caregiver household and personal hygiene, child's immunization status, child's dietary diversity, caregiver responsiveness during feeding, caregiver hygienic practices related to feeding and child's weight and length. At the end of the study, summary scores were generated for each variable and quality of care practice determined based on their distribution. Classification of child nutritional status was based on z-scores for both weight-for-age and length-for-age. The results revealed that caregivers who exhibited better quality of care practice had well-nourished children. Such caregivers were more likely to practice good household and personal hygiene than those of poorly nourished children (97.1% vs 31.8%, p<0.001). They were also more likely to complete their children's immunization schedules (88.2% vs 62.2%, p< 0.001), provide good quality diets from highly diversified sources (79% vs 23%, p<0.001), exhibit high responsiveness during feeding (100% vs 22.7%, p<0.001) and feed under hygienic conditions (100% vs 22.7%, p<0.001). Based on the findings it was concluded that good caregiving practices are associated with improved child nutritional status.

  16. Epigenetic modifications by dietary phytochemicals: implications for personalized nutrition.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Sharmila; Kumar, Dhruv; Srivastava, Rakesh K

    2013-04-01

    In the last two decades, the study of epigenetic modification emerged as one of the major areas of cancer treatment targeted by dietary phytochemicals. Recent studies with various types of cancers revealed that the epigenetic modifications are associated with the food source corresponds to dietary phytochemicals. The dietary phytochemicals have been used in Asian countries for thousands of years to cure several diseases including cancer. They have been reported to modulate the several biological processes including histone modification, DNA methylation and non-coding microRNA expression. These events play a vital role in carcinogenesis. Various studies suggest that a number of dietary compounds present in vegetables, spices and other herbal products have epigenetic targets in cancer cells. Dietary phytochemicals have been reported to repair DNA damage by enhancing histone acetylation that helps to restrain cell death, and also alter DNA methylation. These phytochemicals are able to modulate epigenetic modifications and their targets to cure several cancers. Epigenetic aberrations dynamically contribute to cancer pathogenesis. Given the individualized traits of epigenetic biomarkers, the personalized nutrition will help us to prevent various types of cancer. In this review, we will discuss the effect of dietary phytochemicals on genetic and epigenetic modifications and how these modifications help to prevent various types of cancers and improve health outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Epigenetic Modifications by Dietary Phytochemicals: Implications for Personalized Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Sharmila; Kumar, Dhruv; Srivastava, Rakesh K.

    2014-01-01

    In last two decades, the study of epigenetic modification emerged as one of the major areas of cancer treatment targeted by dietary phytochemicals. Recent studies with various types of cancers revealed that the epigenetic modifications are associated with the food source corresponds to dietary phytochemicals. The dietary phytochemicals have been used in Asian countries for thousands of years to cure several diseases including cancer. They have been reported to modulate the several biological processes including histone modification, DNA methylation and non-coding microRNA expression. These events play a vital role in carcinogenesis. Various studies suggest that a number of dietary compounds present in vegetables, spices and other herbal products have epigenetic targets in cancer cells. Dietary phytochemicals have been reported to repair DNA damage by enhancing histone acetylation that helps to restrain cell death, and also alter DNA methylation. These phytochemicals are able to modulate epigenetic modifications and their targets to cure several cancers. Epigenetic aberrations dynamically contribute to cancer pathogenesis. Given the individualized traits of epigenetic biomarkers, the personalized nutrition will help us to prevent various types of cancer. In this review, we will discuss the effect of dietary phytochemicals on genetic and epigenetic modifications and how these modifications help to prevent various types of cancers and improve health outcomes. PMID:23159372

  18. Nutritional and radiological impact of dietary potassium on the Pakistani population.

    PubMed

    Akhter, P; Ashraf, N; Mohammad, D; Orfi, S D; Ahmad, N

    2003-04-01

    The nutritional status of dietary potassium and the radiological impact of its isotope (40)K were estimated for the Pakistani population. Potassium concentration was determined in dietary samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. An average potassium concentration was 4.54+/-0.89 mg/g, which leads to potassium dietary intake of 2.69+/-0.54 g/day and the radiological hazard due to (40)K activity was 79.94 Bq/day. The annual and lifetime effective doses calculated for the reference Pakistani man weighing 64 kg due to measured activity of (40)K were found to be 1.65 x 10(-4) Sv y(-1) and 8.27 x 10(-3) Sv, respectively. Measured data showed that the potassium concentration in the Pakistani diet is adequate and safe according to international standards.

  19. Examining Nutritional Adequacy and Dietary Diversity Among Women in Niger.

    PubMed

    Cisse-Egbuonye, Nafissatou; Ishdorj, Ariun; McKyer, E L J; Mkuu, Rahma

    2017-01-19

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the nutritional adequacy and dietary composition among women residing in Zinder and Maradi of Niger, and the factors that affect the variety of their dietary intake. Methods Data from 3360 women of ages 15-49 were used in the analysis. The variable of interest was the Women Dietary Diversity Score (WDDS), which is the simple sum of scores of the 9 categorized food groups, ranging from 0 to 9. Lower values for WDDS indicate nutritionally inadequate dietary diversity. Analysis included descriptive, Mann-Whitney U test and linear regression. Results The majority of the participants were residing in the Maradi Region (56.7%) and were living in households with both male and female adults (94.9%). The mean WDDS was 3.5 in Zinder compared to 2.5 in Maradi (p < .05). The most frequently consumed food items in both Zinder and Maradi were starchy staple food (98.3%). Region of residence was one of the strong predictor of WDDS. A total number of farmers in the household and Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) had positive and significant effects on WDDS whereas Household Hunger Scale (HHS) had a negative and significant effect on WDDS. Conclusion Niger has one of the highest concentrations of malnutrition in the world. In 2012, approximately 2.5 million Nigeriens were affected by malnutrition. Our study results reinforce the importance to conduct more studies that examine the nutritional intake of women in Niger.

  20. Proceedings from the 2013 Canadian Nutrition Society Conference on Advances in Dietary Fats and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Holub, Bruce; Mutch, David M; Pierce, Grant N; Rodriguez-Leyva, Delfin; Aliani, Michel; Innis, Sheila; Yan, William; Lamarche, Benoit; Couture, Patrick; Ma, David W L

    2014-07-01

    The science of lipid research continues to rapidly evolve and change. New knowledge enhances our understanding and perspectives on the role of lipids in health and nutrition. However, new knowledge also challenges currently held opinions. The following are the proceedings of the 2013 Canadian Nutrition Society Conference on the Advances in Dietary Fats and Nutrition. Content experts presented state-of-the-art information regarding our understanding of fish oil and plant-based n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, nutrigenomics, pediatrics, regulatory affairs, and trans fats. These important contributions aim to provide clarity on the latest advances and opinions regarding the role of different types of fats in health.

  1. Assessing nutritional status in chronically critically ill adult patients.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Patricia A; Daly, Barbara J; Lipson, Amy R; Guo, Su-Er

    2006-03-01

    Numerous methods are used to measure and assess nutritional status of chronically critically ill patients. To discuss the multiple methods used to assess nutritional status in chronically critically ill patients, describe the nutritional status of chronically critically ill patients, and assess the relationship between nutritional indicators and outcomes of mechanical ventilation. A descriptive, longitudinal design was used to collect weekly data on 360 adult patients who required more than 72 hours of mechanical ventilation and had a hospital stay of 7 days or more. Data on body mass index and biochemical markers of nutritional status were collected. Patients' nutritional intake compared with physicians' orders, dieticians' recommendations, and indirect calorimetry and physicians' orders compared with dieticians' recommendations were used to assess nutritional status. Relationships between nutritional indicators and variables of mechanical ventilation were determined. Inconsistencies among nurses' implementation, physicians' orders, and dieticians' recommendations resulted in wide variations in patients' calculated nutritional adequacy. Patients received a mean of 83% of the energy intake ordered by their physicians (SD 33%, range 0%-200%). Patients who required partial or total ventilator support upon discharge had a lower body mass index at admission than did patients with spontaneous respirations (Mann-Whitney U = 8441, P = .001). In this sample, the variability in weaning progression and outcomes most likely reflects illness severity and complexity rather than nutritional status or nutritional therapies. Further studies are needed to determine the best methods to define nutritional adequacy and to evaluate nutritional status.

  2. Individualized nutritional recommendations: do we have the measurements needed to assess risk and make dietary recommendations?

    PubMed

    Arab, Lenore

    2004-02-01

    Is the information currently available to adjust nutritional recommendations and develop individualized nutrition? No. There is not even the information needed for setting dietary recommendations with confidence now at the group level. Will it be available soon? The answer to this question depends on the drive and will of the nutritional community, the success in recruiting funding to the area, the education of nutritionists and the spawning of great ideas and approaches. The emerging tools of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are enabling the in-depth study of relationships between diet, genetics and metabolism. The advent of technologies can be compared with the discovery of the microscope and the new dimensions of scientific visualization enabled by that discovery. Nutritionists stand at the crest of new waves of data that can be generated, and new methods for their digestion will be required. To date, the study of dietary requirements has been based largely on a black box approach. Subjects are supplemented or depleted and clinical outcomes are observed. Few recommendations are based on metabolic outcomes. Metabolomics and nutrigenomics promise tools with which recommendations can be refined to meet individual requirements and the potential of individualized nutrition can be explored. As yet, these tools are not being widely applied in nutritional research and are rarely being applied by nutritionists. The result is often interesting research that is frequently nutritionally flawed, resulting in inappropriate conclusions. Nutritional education is needed to put nutritionists at the forefront of the development of applications for these technologies, creating a generation of nutrigenomicists. A new generation of nutritionists should be working interdisciplinarily with geneticists, molecular biologists and bioinformaticians in the development of research strategies. The present paper reviews the current status of nutrigenomic research, the current

  3. Researching the impact of oral health on diet and nutritional status: methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, Paula; Thomason, Mark; Walls, Angus; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Morais, Jose A; Ghanem, Henry; Wollin, Stephanie; Ellis, Janice; Steele, Jimmy; Lund, James; Feine, Jocelyne

    2009-04-01

    Assessment of the impact of dental function on diet and nutritional status requires robust methodologies and a standardised approach to increase accuracy of results and to facilitate cross study comparisons. The objectives of this paper are: to report the outcomes of a consensus workshop that critically reviewed publications reporting on dietary methodologies in relation to the impact of oral health on nutrition; to highlight future directions for research and; to make recommendations for appropriate use of methodologies for future research. Data relevant to nutrition and dental status published from 1980 to 2005 in English were presented at the consensus workshop for discussion and appraisal. Relevant papers were retrieved through PubMed. Relevant texts were obtained from the library at Newcastle University, UK. A purposive sample of original articles that illustrated the application of a range of nutritional methodologies to the study of oral health impacts was identified. Original flagship texts on nutritional methodologies were reviewed. Numerous studies have shown an association between loss of teeth and inferior diet. Further research is required to elucidate the impact of novel approaches to prosthetic rehabilitation and the impact of contemporaneous dietary and dental intervention on diet, nutritional status, disease progression and quality of life. The recommendation of the consensus workshop was that future studies should adopt a comprehensive approach to the assessment of nutrition that encompasses measurement of diet, body composition, biochemical indices of intake and levels of nutrients, and functional biomarkers of disease.

  4. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Heer, M. A.; Zwart, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective was initiated to expand nominal clinical nutrition testing of ISS astronauts, and to gain a better understanding of the time course of changes in nutritional status during flight. The primary activity of this effort was collecting blood and urine samples during flight for analysis after return to Earth. Samples were subjected to a battery of tests. The resulting data provide a comprehensive survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by 4-6 months of space flight. Analysis of these data has yielded many findings to date, including: Vision. Documented evidence that biochemical markers involved in one-carbon metabolism were altered in crewmembers who experienced vision-related issues during and after flight (1). Iron, Oxidative Stress, and Bone. In-flight data document a clear association of increased iron stores, markers of oxidative damage to DNA, and bone loss (2). Exercise. Documented that well-nourished crewmembers performing heavy resistance exercise returned from ISS with bone mineral densities unchanged from preflight (3). Furthermore, the response of bone to space flight and exercise countermeasures was the same in men and women (4). Body Mass. Crewmembers lose 2-5% of their body mass in the first month of flight, and maintain the lower body mass during flight (5). Additionally, the two devices to measure body mass on orbit, the SLAMMD and BMMD, provide similar results (5). Cytokines. Findings indicated that a pattern of persistent physiological adaptations occurs during space flight that includes shifts in immune and hormonal regulation (6). Fish/Bone. Documented a relationship between fish intake and bone loss in astronauts (that is, those who ate more fish lost less bone) (7). Vitamin K. Documented that in generally well-fed and otherwise healthy individuals, vitamin K status and bone vitamin K-dependent proteins are unaffected by space flight (and bed rest) (8

  5. Current nutritional recommendations and novel dietary strategies to manage sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Calvani, Riccardo; Miccheli, Alfredo; Landi, Francesco; Bossola, Maurizio; Cesari, Matteo; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Sieber, Cornel C.; Bernabei, Roberto; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that occurs with aging, is associated with increased risk for several adverse health outcomes, including frailty, disability, falls, loss of independent living, and mortality. At present, no pharmacological treatment exists that is able to definitely halt the progression of sarcopenia. Likewise, no pharmacological remedies are yet available to prevent the onset of age-related muscle wasting. In this scenario, the combination of nutritional interventions and physical exercise appears to be the most effective strategy presently available for the management of sarcopenia. The purposes of this review are to summarize the current knowledge on the role of nutrition as a countermeasure for sarcopenia, illustrate the mechanisms of action of relevant dietary agents on the aging muscle, and introduce novel nutritional strategies that may help preserve muscle mass and function into old age. Issues related to the identification of the optimal timing of nutritional interventions in the context of primary and secondary prevention are also discussed. Finally, the prospect of elaborating personalized dietary and physical exercise recommendations through the implementation of integrated, high-throughput analytic approaches is illustrated. PMID:26082911

  6. [Evaluation of occupational risk factors, nutritional habits and nutritional status in industrial workers].

    PubMed

    Domagała-Dobrzycka, M

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between selected risk factors at the workplace and health indices in relation to nutritional habits and nutritional status in industrial workers. Exposure to physical and chemical risk factors and their impact on health in the province of Szczecin and in Poland was evaluated basing on data published in the Yearbooks of the Province of Szczecin, the Central Statistics Bureau (GUS) and Regional Inspectorate of Labor (OIP) in Szczecin. A random selection of plants in Szczecin was done and workplaces with chemical and physical risk levels exceeding the highest acceptable values were identified. Measurements of concentrations of chemicals and intensity of physical factors were performed by Work Environment Research Laboratories of the plants and by the laboratory of the Sanitary and Epidemiological Center in Szczecin. Eighty-eight men exposed to occupational risk factors were randomly selected. The mean period of exposure in that group was approximately ten years. The control group was composed of male workers (n = 83) not exposed to any of the risk factors in question (Tab. 3). Nutritional habits and nutritional status were studied during summer/autumn and winter/spring periods. Dietary survey consisted of the last 24-hour nutrient intake questionnaire. Nutritional status evaluation was based on body mass index (BMI) values and results of the following laboratory tests: blood cell count, levels of total protein, prealbumin, retinol binding protein (RBP), magnesium, inorganic phosphorus, and ascorbic acid. The following results were obtained: 1. Physical factors constituted the most frequent source of occupational risk in the province of Szczecin and in Poland in 1990-1994 (Tab. 1); 2. The incidence of occupational risk and occupational disease morbidity rates in 1990-1994 were lower for the province of Szczecin than the average for Poland; 3. The rate of fatal accidents at work in 1982-1994 was higher for the

  7. Dietary intakes and eating habits of college athletes: are female college athletes following the current sports nutrition standards?

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Betts, Nancy M; Wollenberg, Gena

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May 2010. Participants completed anthropometric measurements and dietary assessment using a 3-day food record, a 24-hour recall, and a nutrition questionnaire. t tests indicated the energy and carbohydrate intakes were below the minimum recommended amount (p<.001), with only 9% of the participants meeting their energy needs. Seventy-five percent of the participants failed to consume the minimum amount of carbohydrates that is required to support training. The majority of the participants reported no regular breakfast, 36% consumed<5 meals/day, and only 16% monitored their hydration status. Effective nutrition interventions are needed to improve dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes.

  8. Historical development of Chinese dietary patterns and nutrition from the ancient to the modern society.

    PubMed

    Chen, J D; Xu, H

    1996-01-01

    Actually, food, diet and diet therapy germinated together with the change of meal patterns and traditional Chinese medicine from very ancient China; they appeared in an embryonic form till the Shang and Zhou Dynasties and received great importance from the governors who arranged officials to manage their diets and banquets. Moreover, food, diet and meal patterns were replenished through the Zhou, Qin, Han and Jin Dynasties and epitomized and reached thriving and prosperous standards till the Tang Dynasty. They then became perfected, developed, and formed a complete theory in the dynasties of Song, Jin, Yuan, Ming and Qing. The basis of modern nutrition was made up until the end of 19th century and the beginning of 20th century, which was the time when natural science, including microbiology, chemistry, food industry, etc. were extended into China, yet it was not fully formed until the established of the People's Republic of China. Practicing, teaching, training and research activities started regularly in 1950. With a big population and poor economy basis, the first problem that the Chinese people has now been basically solved. Chinese nutritional scientists worked hard to find out the nutritional problems and status of the people. Through the broad-scale 'Nationwide Nutrition Survey', we now understand our main problems. On this basis, RDA, dietary goal and dietary guidance have been put forward. Although the problem of adequate food and clothing has been basically solved, the Chinese are still facing both the problem of nutrition insufficiency and nutrition excess. However, although nutrition insufficiency and deficiency still extensively exist, nutrition excess and imbalance are emerging in other sections of the population. There is still a shortage of qualified nutritional scientists and technicians, and the training of nutritionists is urgent. Food supplies, including milk, beef, green vegetables and fruit should be increased, especially for some rural and

  9. The effect of a modified meat product on nutritional status in institutionalized elderly people.

    PubMed

    Beriain, M J; Ibáñez, F C; Baleztena, J; Oria, E

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether the inclusion of a new modified meat product as a dietary supplement has a positive influence on the nutritional status and blood lipid profile of institutionalized elderly subjects. A sample population of elderly people living in institutions (9 men and 29 women aged 68-97 years) completed a crossover study with two dietary supplements. Nutritionally complete diets differed only in food supplementation, first, with a standard meat product and, subsequently, with a modified meat product. Venous blood samples were taken prior to each of the three phases of the study: the basal phase, during which participants followed their normal, controlled diet; a control phase (3 days per week for 3 weeks), during which the subjects' normal diet was supplemented with 50 g of the standard product; and an experimental phase (3 days per week for 3 weeks), when the normal diet was supplemented with 50 g of the modified product. Nutritional intervention did not influence hematological parameters or serum lipids. The modified meat product altered blood concentrations of urea, creatinine, GOT, transferrin, iron, and retinol-binding protein. Consumption of both the standard and the modified products contributes to maintaining the individuals' nutritional status and equalizes nutritional status across the study population with no effect on blood lipid profiles. Despite the limitations of the experiment, the introduction of dietary supplements in meat products significantly increased plasma iron levels in this elderly sample.

  10. Numbers of natural teeth, diet, and nutritional status in US adults.

    PubMed

    Nowjack-Raymer, R E; Sheiham, A

    2007-12-01

    Evidence that dental status affects diet is equivocal. The hypothesis of this study was that diet was affected by dental status. The objective was to assess the relationship between numbers of teeth and diet and nutritional status in US adult civilians without prostheses. We examined 6985 NHANES (1988-1994) participants. Data included socio-economics, demographics, dental status, and diet and nutritional status. Dietary data were obtained from food frequency questionnaires and 24-hour dietary recall. Serum levels of beta carotene, folate, and vitamin C were measured with isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography. The population was classified by numbers of teeth. Covariance and Satterthwaite F-adjusted statistical comparisons were made between tooth groupings and the fully dentate population. Multilinear regression models adjusted for covariates. People with fewer than 28 teeth had significantly lower intakes of carrots, tossed salads, and dietary fiber than did fully dentate people, and lower serum levels for beta carotene, folate, and vitamin C. Dental status significantly affects diet and nutrition.

  11. Iodine nutrition status in pregnant women in Mexico.

    PubMed

    García-Solís, Pablo; Solís-S, Juan Carlos; García-Gaytán, Ana Cristina; Reyes-Mendoza, Vanessa Amaranta; Robles-Osorio, Ludivina; Hernández-Montiel, Hebert Luis; Leo-Amador, Guillermo Enrique

    2011-12-01

    Iodine nutrition during pregnancy has become an important public health concern because of the deleterious impact of iodine deficiency on brain development during fetal and early postnatal life. Iodine nutrition status can be assessed in a population by the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC). World Health Organization, the United Nations Children's Fund, and the International Council for Iodine Deficiency Disorders have established that a median of UIC between 150 and 249 μg/L in pregnant women indicates an adequate iodine intake. The aim of this study was to assess iodine nutrition status in Mexican pregnant women. Two hundred ninety-four pregnant women receiving prenatal care in the Public Medical Units of the State Ministry of Health for each pregnancy trimester (first, n=60; second, n=103; and third, n=131) in Queretaro, Mexico, were enrolled to assess UIC by the Sandell-Kholtoff method. The median of UIC was 273, 285, and 231 μg/L in the first, second, and third trimesters of gestation, respectively. Globally, the median (range) of UIC was 260 (5-1320) μg/L, and the percentage of samples with UIC below 150 μg/L was 28%. There was no significant difference between the UIC of women using iodine-containing multivitamins compared with those who reported the consumption of noniodized multivitamins (p>0.05). In addition, we found no difference between the UIC of women using iodized table salt compared with those who employed noniodized table salt, with those who did not know whether their table salt was iodized (p>0.05). Based on the median UIC, iodine intake in Queretaro, Mexico, is slightly above requirements during the first two trimesters, and adequate in the third trimester. The wide Mexican universal iodized salt program seems to supply adequate dietary iodine to pregnant women without health insurance in this region. However, regular monitoring of iodine status is recommended during pregnancy throughout Mexico.

  12. Effect of nutritional interventions on nutritional status, quality of life and mortality in patients with head and neck cancer receiving (chemo)radiotherapy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Langius, Jacqueline A E; Zandbergen, Myrna C; Eerenstein, Simone E J; van Tulder, Maurits W; Leemans, C René; Kramer, Mark H H; Weijs, Peter J M

    2013-10-01

    We performed a systematic review to examine the effect of nutritional interventions on nutritional status, quality of life (QoL) and mortality in patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) receiving radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. We searched Pubmed, EMBASE, CENTRAL and Cinahl from inception through January 3rd, 2012 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from a broad range of nutritional interventions in patients with HNSCC during (chemo)radiotherapy. Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. Of 1141 titles identified, 12 study reports were finally included, describing 10 different studies with 11 interventions. Four out of 10 studies examined the effects of individualized dietary counseling, and showed significant benefits on nutritional status and QOL compared to no counseling or general nutritional advice by a nurse (p < 0.05). Three studies on oral nutritional supplements (ONS) were inconsistent about the effect on nutritional status compared with no supplementation. One study showed that nasogastric tube feeding had beneficial effects on nutritional status compared to ONS, but not in all patient groups (p < 0.04). One study showed benefits of percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy (PEG) feeding on nutritional status shortly after RT compared with nasogastric feeding (p = 0.001). Two studies showed that prophylactic PEG feeding was not superior over tube feeding if required. This review shows beneficial effects of individualized dietary counseling on nutritional status and QoL, compared to no counseling or standard nutritional advice. Effects of ONS and tube feeding were inconsistent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of Nutritional Status of Patients with Depression.

    PubMed

    Kaner, Gülşah; Soylu, Meltem; Yüksel, Nimet; Inanç, Neriman; Ongan, Dilek; Başmısırlı, Eda

    2015-01-01

    Our goal was to determine nutritional status, body composition, and biochemical parameters of patients diagnosed with depression based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. A total of 59 individuals, aged 18-60 years admitted to Mental Health Centre of Kayseri Education and Research Hospital, were included in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups; depression group (n = 29) and control group (n = 30). Anthropometric measurements, some biochemical parameters, demographic data, and 24-hour dietary recall were evaluated. 65.5% of depression and 60.0% of control group were female. Intake of vitamins A, thiamine, riboflavin, B6, folate, C, Na, K, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, and fibre (p < 0.05) were lower in depression group. Median levels of body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in depression group. Fasting blood glucose levels, serum vitamins B12, and folic acid (p < 0.05) in depression group were lower than controls. Serum insulin and HOMA levels of two groups were similar. Some vitamin B consumption and serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were low while signs of abdominal obesity were high among patients with depression. Future research exploring nutritional status of individuals with depression is warranted.

  14. Evaluation of Nutritional Status of Patients with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kaner, Gülşah; Soylu, Meltem; Yüksel, Nimet; Inanç, Neriman; Ongan, Dilek; Başmısırlı, Eda

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives. Our goal was to determine nutritional status, body composition, and biochemical parameters of patients diagnosed with depression based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. Methods. A total of 59 individuals, aged 18–60 years admitted to Mental Health Centre of Kayseri Education and Research Hospital, were included in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups; depression group (n = 29) and control group (n = 30). Anthropometric measurements, some biochemical parameters, demographic data, and 24-hour dietary recall were evaluated. Results. 65.5% of depression and 60.0% of control group were female. Intake of vitamins A, thiamine, riboflavin, B6, folate, C, Na, K, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, and fibre (p < 0.05) were lower in depression group. Median levels of body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in depression group. Fasting blood glucose levels, serum vitamins B12, and folic acid (p < 0.05) in depression group were lower than controls. Serum insulin and HOMA levels of two groups were similar. Conclusion. Some vitamin B consumption and serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were low while signs of abdominal obesity were high among patients with depression. Future research exploring nutritional status of individuals with depression is warranted. PMID:26413529

  15. Nutritional status of white college students in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Driskell, J A; Keith, R E; Tangney, C C

    1979-01-01

    The nutritional status of the fifty men, fifty-three women, and forty-seven women taking oral contraceptives--all white--between the ages of seventeen and twenty-two years--as reflected by height-weight measurements, hemoglobin-hematocrit values, and dietary records, was similar or slightly better than reported by other investigators. Low hemoglobin values were observed in 2 to 4 per cent of these students, and low hematocrits, in 8 to 17 per cent. Similar hemoglobin and hematocrit values were observed in all women, regardless of whether they were taking oral contraceptives. Exercise patterns; use of vitamin-mineral supplements, "pot," alcoholic beverages, special diets; whether subjects ate alone; where subjects ate; snacking; number of meals consumed daily; whether subjects had ever been diagnosed as being anemic; and what subjects thought of their food habits did not affect hemoglobin or hematocrit. Iron intakes of many of the women students were below the allowance.

  16. Anemia and nutritional status of pre-school children in Kerala.

    PubMed

    George, K A; Kumar, N S; Lal, J J; Sreedevi, R

    2000-08-01

    A study on the pattern of anemia and its relation to nutritional status and dietary habits was conducted among 3633 pre-school children of 108 selected anganwadi centers in rural areas of Kerala State during the period 1996 to 1998. Children were invited with their parent or guardian. Capillary blood was collected from each child and hemoglobin was estimated by cyanomethemoglobin method. Weight and height of children were taken for assessing their nutritional status. The information regarding their age, sex, clinical condition and dietary habits was collected in a performa through an interview. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship of anemia to sex, dietary habits, and nutritional status. For multivariate analysis logistic regression model was employed. The prevalence of anemia was 11.4%. The percentage of anemic children among male and female children was 10.25 and 12.55 respectively and statistical analysis showed that female children were more susceptible to anemia. Normal nutritional status was seen among 46.7% of the children. When 187 (11.78%) of the mild undernourished children were anemic, the percentage anemic among the moderate undernourished children was 57 (16.37%). Moderate under nutrition and anemia showed a significant association. Anemia was reported among both vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Among 927 vegetarians, 86 (9.27%) were anemic and among 2,706 non-vegetarians, 328 (12.1%) were anemic. Dietary survey revealed that, consumption of iron sources, whether haem or non-haem, was below the recommended level. Undernutrition can be attributed as the major reason for nutritional anemia. Changes in eating behaviour could have potentially affected the iron bio-availability.

  17. Alternative Dietary Fiber Sources in Companion Animal Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    de Godoy, Maria R. C.; Kerr, Katherine R.; Fahey, George C.

    2013-01-01

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical

  18. Alternative dietary fiber sources in companion animal nutrition.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, Maria R C; Kerr, Katherine R; Fahey, George C

    2013-08-06

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical

  19. [Nutritional status of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis].

    PubMed

    Bober, Joanna; Mazur, Olech; Gołembiewska, Edyta; Bogacka, Anna; Sznabel, Karina; Stańkowska-Walczak, Dobrosława; Kabat-Koperska, Joanna; Stachowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The main causes of death in patients undergoing dialysis are cardiovascular diseases. Their presence is related to the nutritional status of patients treated with peritoneal dialysis, and has a predicted value in this kind of patient. Long-term therapy entails unfavourable changes, from which a clinically significant complication is protein-energy malnutrition and intensification of inflammatory processes. The aim of the study was to assess the nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney disease treated with peritoneal dialysis based on anthropometric, biochemical parameters analysis, a survey, as well as the determination of changes in measured parameters occurring over time. The study involved 40 people undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 30 healthy people. For dialyzed patients testing material was collected twice, every 6 months. Proteins, albumins, prealbumins, C-reactive protein and glucose levels were measured. Anthropometric measurements included body height, body weight, triceps skinfold and subscapular skinfold thickness. Body mass index (BMI) value and exponent of tissue protein source were calculated. The examined patients completed the questionnaire, which included, among other factors, the daily intake of nutrients, and lifestyle information. During the 6 month observation of the PD group a stastically significant increase in the energy value of intake food and amount of calories intake from carbohydrates was found. Analysis of nutritional status dependent on the BMI showed that overweight and obese patients are characterized by higher concentrations of the C-reactive protein and glucose, as well as lower concentrations of prealbumin compared to patients with normal body weight. At the same time, the energy value of food and the amount of protein in the group with BMI > 25 were smaller than in the other groups. During the 6 month observation a decrease the concentration of prealbumin and an increase in C-reactive protein in BMI > 25 group

  20. Dietary iron intervention using a staple food product for improvement of iron status in female runners.

    PubMed

    Alaunyte, Ieva; Stojceska, Valentina; Plunkett, Andrew; Derbyshire, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Adequate nutrient intake is critically important for achieving optimal sports performance. Like all athletes, female runners require a nutritionally balanced diet to maintain daily activities and a successful training regime. This study investigates the effects of cereal product based dietary iron intervention on iron status of recreational female runners (n = 11; 32 ± 7yr; 239 ± 153 minutes exercise/week, of which 161 ± 150 minutes running activity/week; VO2max 38 ± 4 ml/kg/min). Participants completed a 6-week dietary intervention study. They were asked to replace their usual bread with iron-rich Teff bread as part of their daily diet. During this period, their dietary habits were assessed by multiple pass 24-hr recalls; iron status was determined by venous blood analysis for serum transferrin, serum transferrin receptor, serum ferritin, total iron-binding capacity and transferrin receptor/ferritin log index. Pre-intervention a cohort of 11 female runners reported inadequate daily dietary iron intake of 10.7 ± 2.7 mg/day, which was associated with overall compromised iron status. Over a third of all participants showed depleted bodily iron stores (serum ferritin <12 μg/L). Pre-intervention macronutrient assessment revealed adequate energy, protein and fibre intakes, whilst total fat and saturated fat intake was above the recommendations at the expense of carbohydrate intake. A 6-week dietary intervention resulted in significantly higher total iron intakes (18.5 mg/day, P < 0.05) and improved iron tissue supply but not enlarged iron stores. Improvements in heamatological indices were associated with compromised baseline iron status, prolonged intervention period and increase in dietary iron intake. Dietary iron interventions using a staple cereal product offer an alternative way of improving dietary iron intake and favourable affecting overall iron status in physically active females.

  1. Nutritional status of Irish older people in receipt of meals-on-wheels and the nutritional content of meals provided.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, C; Corish, C A; Timonen, V

    2009-12-01

    Research has suggested that meals-on-wheels recipients can be at risk for poor nutritional status. Despite this, few countries have statutory minimum requirements for the nutrient content of meals-on-wheels. This study examined both the nutritional status of a sample of Irish recipients and the nutrient content of a sample of meals provided to determine whether Irish recipients would benefit from statutory minimum nutritional standards. The study had two phases. First, a nutritional assessment was carried out to analyse the nutritional status of a sample of Irish meals-on-wheels recipients (Mini Nutritional Assessment and 24-h dietary recall with 63 self-selected respondents). Second, an assessment of the nutrient content of a sample of 46 meals from eight meals-on-wheels services was undertaken to characterise the nutritional content of the meals. Over one-third of recipients (38.5%) were malnourished or at-risk of malnutrition and over half (52.3%) were overweight or obese. The mean (SD) energy [kJ (kcal)] content of the meals assessed was 3008 (498) kJ [719 (119.1) kcal], contributing 35-40% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for males aged 65 years and over and 42-45% of the RDA for females aged 65 years and over. In the meals assessed, the levels of vitamin C (25.3%), vitamin D (11.6%), folate (24.8%) and calcium (20.9%) were below one-third of the Irish RDA for these nutrients. Irish recipients may not be receiving adequate micronutrients from meals-on-wheels. Legislation that sets out minimum standards for the nutrient content of meals-on-wheels and greater variation in the portion sizes offered may benefit recipients.

  2. Nutritional quality of dietary patterns of children: are there differences inside and outside school?

    PubMed

    Vieira, Diva Aliete Dos Santos; Castro, Michelle Alessandra; Fisberg, Mauro; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    To describe the dietary patterns of children inside and outside school and investigate their associations with sociodemographic factors and nutritional status. This was a multicenter cross-sectional study in which children of both sexes, aged 1-6 years, attending private and public daycare centers and preschools in Brazil, were evaluated (n=2979). Demographic, socioeconomic and dietary data (weighed food records and estimated food records) were collected. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis from 36 food groups. Four dietary patterns were identified inside school, and three outside. Inside school, the "traditional" pattern was associated to low income and presented high nutritional quality. The "dual" pattern was associated with low income and with high intake of added sugar and glycemic load. The "snack" pattern was associated with children enrolled at private schools and with high intake of added sugar and glycemic load. The "bread and butter" pattern was associated with high intake of added sugar and trans fat. Outside school, the "traditional" pattern was associated with high intake of saturated fat, trans fats, sodium, and total fiber. The "bread and butter" pattern was associated with high intake of trans fats and glycemic load, whereas the "snack" pattern was associated with overweight, private schools, high income, and high intake of trans fats, sodium, and total fiber. There are differences in the nutritional quality of dietary patterns inside and outside school, and heterogeneity in adherence to these patterns were observed across regions and socioeconomic classes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Important considerations in iron management and nutritional status in select hemodialysis populations.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Rosie

    2007-01-01

    Patients on hemodialysis frequently encounter multiple complications during the course of therapy. Anemia occurs from impaired erythropoiesis stemming from chronic kidney disease and loss of blood and iron during the hemodialysis process. Dietary restrictions are often necessary in patients on hemodialysis to maintain adequate nutritional status and prevent the accumulation of nutrients that are not effectively removed with hemodialysis. These factors can significantly affect a patient's iron status and result in iron-restricted erythropoiesis and eventually absolute iron deficiency. This article describes the role that nephrology nurses have in effectively managing nutrition, iron status, and anemia in patients on hemodialysis and highlights important clinical characteristics that should be considered in select racial or ethnic populations. The results of an initiative within one dialysis network to track dietary intake and administer appropriate anemia treatment, including intravenous iron, through an educational program are examined.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions of realistic dietary choices in Denmark: the carbon footprint and nutritional value of dairy products

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Louise Bruun; Flysjö, Anna; Tholstrup, Tine

    2014-01-01

    Background Dairy products are important in a healthy diet due to their high nutritional value; they are, however, associated with relatively large greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) per kg product. When discussing the need to reduce the GHGE caused by the food system, it is crucial to consider the nutritional value of alternative food choices. Objective The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of dairy products in overall nutrition and to clarify the effects of dietary choices on GHGE, and to combine nutritional value and GHGE data. Methods We created eight dietary scenarios with different quantity of dairy products using data from the Danish National Dietary Survey (1995–2006). Nutrient composition and GHGE data for 71 highly consumed foods were used to estimate GHGE and nutritional status for each dietary scenario. An index was used to estimate nutrient density in relation to nutritional recommendation and climate impact for solid food items; high index values were those with the highest nutrient density scores in relation to the GHGE. Results The high-dairy scenario resulted in 27% higher protein, 13% higher vitamin D; 55% higher calcium; 48% higher riboflavin; and 18% higher selenium than the non-dairy scenario. There was a significant correlation between changes in calcium and changes in vitamin D, selenium, and riboflavin content (P=0.0001) throughout all of the diets. The estimated GHGE for the dietary scenario with average-dairy consumption was 4,631 g CO2e/day. Conclusions When optimizing a diet with regard to sustainability, it is crucial to account for the nutritional value and not solely focus on impact per kg product. Excluding dairy products from the diet does not necessarily mitigate climate change but in contrast may have nutritional consequences. PMID:24959114

  5. Impact of tooth replacement strategies on the nutritional status of partially-dentate elders.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Gerald; Allen, Patrick Finbarr; Flynn, Albert; O'Mahony, Denis; DaMata, Cristiane; Cronin, Michael; Woods, Noel

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the impact of tooth replacement on the nutritional status of partially dentate older patients, and, to compare two different tooth replacement strategies; conventional treatment using removable partial dentures and functionally orientated treatment based on the shortened dental arch. Amongst older patients, diet plays a key role in disease prevention, as poor diets have been linked to numerous illnesses. Poor oral health and loss of teeth can have very significant negative effects on dietary intake and nutritional status for elderly patients. There is evidence that good oral health generally, has positive effects on the nutritional intake of older adults. A randomised, controlled clinical trial was designed to investigate the impact of tooth replacement on the nutritional status of partially dentate elders. Forty-four patients aged over 65 years completed the trial, with 21 allocated to conventional treatment and 23 allocated to functionally orientated treatment. Nutritional status was accessed at baseline and after treatment using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and a range of haematological markers. At baseline, relationships were observed between the number of occluding tooth contacts and some measures of nutritional status. As the number of contacts increased, MNA scores (R = 0.16), in addition to vitamin B12 (R = 0.21), serum folate (R = 0.32) and total lymphocyte count (R = 0.35), also increased. After treatment intervention, the only measure of nutritional status that showed a statistically significant improvement for both treatment groups was MNA score (p = 0.03). No significant between group differences were observed from analysis of the haematological data. In this study, prosthodontic rehabilitation with both conventional treatment and functionally orientated treatment resulted in an improvement in MNA score. Haematological markers did not illustrate a clear picture of improvement in nutritional status for either treatment group.

  6. Liver Cirrhosis: Evaluation, Nutritional Status, and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Hiroki; Osaki, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    The liver is the major organ for the metabolism of three major nutrients: protein, fat, and carbohydrate. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of chronic liver disease. Liver cirrhosis (LC) results from different mechanisms of liver injury that lead to necroinflammation and fibrosis. LC has been seen to be not a single disease entity but one that can be graded into distinct clinical stages related to clinical outcome. Several noninvasive methods have been developed for assessing liver fibrosis and these methods have been used for predicting prognosis in patients with LC. On the other hand, subjects with LC often have protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and poor physical activity. These conditions often result in sarcopenia, which is the loss of skeletal muscle volume and increased muscle weakness. Recent studies have demonstrated that PEM and sarcopenia are predictive factors for poorer survival in patients with LC. Based on these backgrounds, several methods for evaluating nutritional status in patients with chronic liver disease have been developed and they have been preferably used in the clinical field practice. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge in the field of LC from the viewpoints of diagnostic method, nutritional status, and clinical outcomes.

  7. Liver Cirrhosis: Evaluation, Nutritional Status, and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Hiroki; Osaki, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    The liver is the major organ for the metabolism of three major nutrients: protein, fat, and carbohydrate. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of chronic liver disease. Liver cirrhosis (LC) results from different mechanisms of liver injury that lead to necroinflammation and fibrosis. LC has been seen to be not a single disease entity but one that can be graded into distinct clinical stages related to clinical outcome. Several noninvasive methods have been developed for assessing liver fibrosis and these methods have been used for predicting prognosis in patients with LC. On the other hand, subjects with LC often have protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and poor physical activity. These conditions often result in sarcopenia, which is the loss of skeletal muscle volume and increased muscle weakness. Recent studies have demonstrated that PEM and sarcopenia are predictive factors for poorer survival in patients with LC. Based on these backgrounds, several methods for evaluating nutritional status in patients with chronic liver disease have been developed and they have been preferably used in the clinical field practice. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge in the field of LC from the viewpoints of diagnostic method, nutritional status, and clinical outcomes. PMID:26494949

  8. Zinc and selenium nutritional status in vegetarians.

    PubMed

    de Bortoli, Maritsa Carla; Cozzolino, Silvia Maria Franciscato

    2009-03-01

    A vegetarian diet may have beneficial effects on human health, however when it is not well-balanced may be deficient in some nutrients, as minerals for example. The aim of the present study was to assess the nutritional status of zinc and selenium in vegetarians in the city of São Paulo. A cross-sectional study was performed, and the inclusion criteria were age > or = 18 years, both gender, no use of food or pharmaceutical supplements. Thirty vegetarian, of both genders, mean age of 27 years and 4.5 years of vegetarianism had performed the study, and their mean BMI was 21.5. Zinc plasma concentration was 71 and 62.5 microg/dL for men and women and erythrocyte concentration was 37 microg/gHb for both genders. Selenium concentration was 73.5 and 77.3 microg/L in plasma and 51.4 and 66.9 microg/L in erythrocytes for men and women, respectively. These biochemical values show that, according to the references, selenium blood levels are adequate and zinc concentration in erythrocytes is deficient in the studied population. For this reason, vegetarians should be constantly assessed and receive nutritional support to reduce the effects of inadequate zinc status.

  9. Association of nutritional status with quality of life in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Shooka; Sulaiman, Suhaina; Koon, Poh Bee; Amani, Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional status and dietary intake play a significant role in the prognosis of breast cancer and may modify the progression of disease. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of nutritional status on the quality of life of Iranian breast cancer survivors. Cross-sectional data were collected for 100 Iranian breast cancer survivors, aged 32 to 61 years, attending the oncology outpatient clinic at Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran. Nutritional status of subjects was assessed by anthropometric measurements, Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) and three non-consecutive 24-hour diet recalls. The European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life form (EORTC QLQ-C30) was used to assess quality of life. Ninety-four percent of the survivors were well-nourished, 6% were moderately malnourished or suspected of being malnourished while none were severely malnourished. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 86%. Overall, participants had an inadequate intake of vitamin D, E, iron and magnesium according to dietary reference intake (DRI) recommendations. Survivors with better nutritional status had better functioning scales and experienced fewer clinical symptoms. It appears important to provide educational and nutritional screening programs to improve cancer survivor quality of life.

  10. Disorders of nutritional status in sepsis - facts and myths.

    PubMed

    Kosałka, Katarzyna; Wachowska, Ewelina; Słotwiński, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The problem of diagnosing nutritional status disorders in septic patients remains unresolved. This is associated with the necessity of the introduction of newer and newer methods of assessing nutritional status, often requiring precise and expensive equipment as well as employment of professionals in this field in hospital wards, primarily including intensive care units (ICU). Methods that have been applied thus far for assessing nutritional status, also used in severely ill septic patients, have little impact on improving treatment results. This is due to the high dynamics of changes in nutritional status in these patients, healing process variability in individual patients, and the "mismatch" of methods for assessing nutritional status in relation to the patient's clinical status. The diagnostic value of the traditional methods of assessing nutritional status, i.e. anthropometric analysis and selected laboratory tests, as markers of nutritional status disorders in septic patients, is still debatable. There is still no precise method that could become the "gold standard" allowing for early identification of malnutrition in these group of patients. Phase angle, bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA), and the "illness marker", obtained directly from the resistance, reactance, and impedance, can be used as prognostic or nutritional indices in severely ill septic patients, but the intensity of research on this subject needs to be increased. Detailed assessment of nutritional status should include tests of selected inflammation markers (including TLC, HMGB1, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ra, sTNFRI).

  11. Disorders of nutritional status in sepsis – facts and myths

    PubMed Central

    Wachowska, Ewelina; Słotwiński, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The problem of diagnosing nutritional status disorders in septic patients remains unresolved. This is associated with the necessity of the introduction of newer and newer methods of assessing nutritional status, often requiring precise and expensive equipment as well as employment of professionals in this field in hospital wards, primarily including intensive care units (ICU). Methods that have been applied thus far for assessing nutritional status, also used in severely ill septic patients, have little impact on improving treatment results. This is due to the high dynamics of changes in nutritional status in these patients, healing process variability in individual patients, and the “mismatch” of methods for assessing nutritional status in relation to the patient’s clinical status. The diagnostic value of the traditional methods of assessing nutritional status, i.e. anthropometric analysis and selected laboratory tests, as markers of nutritional status disorders in septic patients, is still debatable. There is still no precise method that could become the “gold standard” allowing for early identification of malnutrition in these group of patients. Phase angle, bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA), and the “illness marker”, obtained directly from the resistance, reactance, and impedance, can be used as prognostic or nutritional indices in severely ill septic patients, but the intensity of research on this subject needs to be increased. Detailed assessment of nutritional status should include tests of selected inflammation markers (including TLC, HMGB1, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ra, sTNFRI). PMID:28702094

  12. Nutritional status of vegetarians on maintenance haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tai-Te; Chang, Chieh-Ying; Hsu, Wei-Min; Wang, I-Kwan; Hsu, Chih-Hao; Cheng, Shu-Hwa; Liang, Chih-Chia; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2011-08-01

    Vegetarian diets have long been thought of as beneficial to health. However, vegetarian diets are often low in protein, which is contradictory to the high protein diet guideline for uraemia patients. The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of a vegetarian diet on the nutritional status of haemodialysis (HD) patients. Patients on chronic HD for over 6 months were included in the study. The normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) was used to reflect daily protein intake. Biochemical markers of nutrition, anthropometric parameters, subjective global assessment (SGA) and functional activity of daily living were assessed to evaluate the nutritional status of vegetarians on chronic HD. Nineteen out of 318 HD patients were vegetarians. The nPCR was lower in the vegetarian group (1.20 ± 0.24 vs 1.10 ± 0.29 g/kg per day, non-Veg vs Veg, P < 0.05). The serum albumin and prealbumin were similar in vegetarian and non-vegetarian HD patients. The body mass index (BMI) and mid-arm muscular circumference (MAMC) were lower in vegetarian patients (P < 0.05). The haematocrit of vegetarians can be maintained at a level similar to that of non-vegetarian patients but erythropoietin doses needed were higher in vegetarian patients (P < 0.05). The muscle strength evaluated by the hand-grip test, SGA and activities of daily living were similar in vegetarians and non-vegetarians. The present study revealed that HD patients on vegetarian diets might have a smaller BMI, but SGA and function of daily activities were similar to those of the non-vegetarians. The haematocrit of vegetarians can be maintained with a higher erythropoietin dose. © 2011 The Authors. Nephrology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  13. Dietary patterns and health and nutrition outcomes in men living with HIV infection123

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Kristy M; Mwamburi, D Mkaya; Newby, PK; Wanke, Christine A

    2009-01-01

    Background Nutritional status is an important determinant of HIV outcomes. Objective We assessed the association between dietary patterns identified by cluster analysis and change in body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), CD4 count, and viral load (VL). Design HIV-positive adult male subjects (n = 348) with a BMI ≥ 20.5 were evaluated by biochemical, body composition, and dietary data. Cluster analysis was performed on 41 designated food groups derived from 3-d food records. Dietary clusters were compared for sociodemographic, nutrient intake, and clinical outcomes. Multivariate linear regression assessed associations between dietary clusters and change in BMI, CD4 count, and VL. Results We observed 3 dietary patterns: juice and soda; fast food and fruit drinks; and fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy. Subjects in the fast food and fruit drinks pattern had the lowest fiber intake, highest VL, and lowest CD4 count and had a lower income than did subjects in the other 2 clusters. Subjects in the fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy diet pattern had higher intakes of protein, fiber, and micronutrients and the highest BMI and CD4 count. Subjects in the juice and soda pattern had higher energy intakes and lowest BMI. On average, the fast food and fruit drinks cluster and fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy cluster gained 0.33 (P = 0.06) and 0.42 (P = 0.02), respectively, more in BMI than the juice and soda cluster across the study interval in a multivariate model. Conclusions In a cohort of HIV-positive men, we identified 3 distinct dietary patterns; each pattern was associated with specific nutrition, demographic, and HIV-related variables. PMID:19064519

  14. Maternal work and childhood nutritional status among the Purari, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J

    2003-01-01

    In traditional economies, body size, physical work capacity, subsistence productivity, and nutrition of adults may be interrelated, and one cross-generational effect of these relationships may operate through the household, influencing nutritional status of children. In this analysis, the relationships among adult body size, work productivity in terms of time spent making sago starch, dietary diversity, nutrient availability, and childhood nutritional status are examined in the Purari population of Papua New Guinea, a group largely dependent on the starchy staple palm sago, which is devoid of all nutrients apart from energy. Observations of work scheduling, household food and nutrient availability, and nutritional status were carried out for 16 women, their households, and their children. A multiple regression model of hours spent in sago making on a particular day with days spent in other subsistence activities showed a negative relationship with the number of days spent in sago-making and a positive relationship with the number of days spent fishing. The number of hours spent in sago-making on a particular day was also positively related to daily per capita availability of protein at the household level. This is not a function of maternal nutritional status, however, since there is no association between body size of adult females and the number of hours spent making sago on a particular day. Nor does the greater per capita protein availability at the household level in households where women spend longer on a particular day in sago-making result in improved childhood nutritional status. Since relationships among adult body size, work productivity, dietary diversity, nutrient availability, and childhood nutritional status are only partially demonstrated in this population, it may be that these linkages may only be important if physically arduous work is needed more consistently than is the case in the Purari delta.

  15. Maternal nutritional knowledge and child nutritional status in the Volta region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Appoh, Lily Yaa; Krekling, Sturla

    2005-04-01

    The relationship between mother's nutritional knowledge, maternal education, and child nutritional status (weight-for-age) was the subject of investigation in this study. The data were collected in Ghana on 55 well nourished and 55 malnourished mother-child pairs. A questionnaire designed to collect data on mother's knowledge and practices related to child care and nutrition was administered to the mothers. Data on mother's demographic and socio-economic characteristics as well as child anthropometric data were also collected. A nutrition knowledge score was calculated based on mother's responses to the nutrition related items. Bivariate analysis gave significant associations between child nutritional status and the following variables: time of initiating of breastfeeding, mother's knowledge of importance of colostrum and whether colostrum was given to child, age of introduction of supplementary food, and mother's knowledge about causes of kwashiorkor. The two groups also showed significant differences in their nutrition knowledge scores. Maternal formal education, and marital status were also found to be associated with child nutritional status in bivariate analyses. Further analysis with logistic regression revealed that maternal nutrition knowledge was independently associated with nutritional status after the effects of other significant variables were controlled for. Maternal education on the other hand was not found to be independently associated with nutritional status. These results imply that mother's practical knowledge about nutrition may be more important than formal maternal education for child nutrition outcome.

  16. Self-reported use of nutrition labels to make food choices is associated with healthier dietary behaviours in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Haidar, Amier; Carey, Felicia R; Ranjit, Nalini; Archer, Natalie; Hoelscher, Deanna

    2017-09-01

    The study aimed to examine nutrition label use and dietary behaviours among ethnically diverse middle- and high-school students, in Texas, USA. The School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) survey is a cross-sectional statewide study using a self-administered questionnaire to assess nutrition and physical activity behaviours. Height and weight measurements were used to determine BMI. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine associations between nutrition label use and dietary behaviours, with gender, grade, ethnicity, BMI, parent education, socio-economic status and nutrition knowledge as covariates. Participants from 283 schools, weighted to represent Texas youth. SPAN 2009-2011 included 6716 8th and 11th graders (3465 girls and 3251 boys). The study population consisted of 39·83 % White/Other, 14·61 % African-American and 45·56 % Hispanic adolescents; with a mean age of 14·9 years, and 61·95 % at a healthy weight, 15·71 % having overweight and 22·34 % having obesity. Adolescents who did not use nutrition labels had 1·69 times greater odds of consuming ≥1 sugary beverages/d (P<0·05). Adolescents who used nutrition labels had 2·13 times greater odds of consuming ≥1 fruits and vegetables/d (P<0·05). Adolescents who used nutrition labels had significantly higher healthy eating scores than those who did not (P<0·001). For every 1-point increase in nutrition knowledge, adolescents had 1·22 greater odds of using nutrition labels. Nutrition label use is associated with healthier dietary behaviours in adolescents. Intervention strategies for youth should include efforts to teach adolescents to use labels to make healthy food choices.

  17. Nutritional Properties of Dietary Omega-3-Enriched Phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Murru, Elisabetta; Carta, Gianfranca

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids regulate several physiological functions. However, to exert their properties, they have to be present in the diet in an optimal balance. Particular attention has been focused on tissue highly polyunsaturated fatty acids (HPUFAs) n-6/n-3 ratio, influenced by the type and the esterified form of dietary fatty acids. Dietary EPA and DHA when esterified to phospholipids (PLs) are more efficiently incorporated into tissue PLs and seem to possess peculiar properties through specific mechanism(s) of action, such as the capacity to affect endocannabinoid biosynthesis at much lower doses than EPA and DHA in triglyceride form, probably because of the above mentioned higher incorporation into tissue PLs. Downregulation of the endocannabinoid system seems to mediate the positive effects exerted by omega-3-enriched PLs on several parameters of metabolic syndrome. PLs are one of the major dietary forms of EPA and DHA we are exposed to with the everyday diet; therefore, it is not surprising that it guarantees an effective EPA and DHA nutritional activity. Future studies should address whether EPA and DHA in PL form are also more effective than other formulations in ameliorating other pathological conditions where n-3 HPUFAs seem to exert beneficial activities such as cancer and psychiatric disorders. PMID:23984423

  18. Food and Nutrient Intake and Nutritional Status of Finnish Vegans and Non-Vegetarians

    PubMed Central

    Elorinne, Anna-Liisa; Alfthan, Georg; Erlund, Iris; Kivimäki, Hanna; Paju, Annukka; Salminen, Irma; Turpeinen, Ursula; Voutilainen, Sari; Laakso, Juha

    2016-01-01

    Background Vegetarian and vegan diets have become more popular among adolescents and young adults. However, few studies have investigated the nutritional status of vegans, who may be at risk of nutritional deficiencies. Objective To compare dietary intake and nutritional status of Finnish long-term vegans and non-vegetarians. Methods Dietary intake and supplement use were estimated using three-day dietary records. Nutritional status was assessed by measuring biomarkers in plasma, serum, and urine samples. Vegans’ (n = 22) data was compared with those of sex- and age-matched non-vegetarians (n = 19). Results All vegans adhered strictly to their diet; however, individual variability was marked in food consumption and supplementation habits. Dietary intakes of key nutrients, vitamins B12 and D, were lower (P < 0.001) in vegans than in non-vegetarians. Nutritional biomarker measurements showed lower concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), iodine and selenium (corrected for multiple comparisons, P < 0.001), Vegans showed more favorable fatty acid profiles (P < 0.001) as well as much higher concentrations of polyphenols such as genistein and daidzein (P < 0.001). Eicosapentaenoic acid proportions in vegans were higher than expected. The median concentration of iodine in urine was below the recommended levels in both groups. Conclusions Long-term consumption of a vegan diet was associated with some favorable laboratory measures but also with lowered concentrations of key nutrients compared to reference values. This study highlights the need for nutritional guidance to vegans. PMID:26840251

  19. Intestinal permeability and nutritional status in developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Souza, Nilian Carla Silva; Mendonca, Jacqueline Nakau; Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Jordao Junior, Alceu Afonso; Marchini, Julio Sergio; Chiarello, Paula Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder with a possible connection between dietary components and triggering or worsening of symptoms. An altered intestinal permeability might allow absorption of incompletely digested peptides (gluten and casein) that could produce opioid-like activity on the brain, causing significant changes in behavior. To assess the intestinal permeability and nutritional status of participants with developmental disorders to determine if changes in the intestinal mucosal barrier and/or injury to the intercellular junctions have occurred that might justify application of further dietary modifications. To assess intestinal permeability, the research team analyzed participants urine under fasting conditions, using gas chromatography to determine chromatographic peaks. To assess nutritional status, the team determined participants heights and weights and performed a bioelectric bioimpedance examination at least 4 hours after their most recent meal. In addition, the team determined food intake using three diet diaries. They asked participants and caregivers to register each food consumed during 2 nonconsecutive weekdays and 1 weekend day. The study occurred at the Ribeirao Preto School of Medicine, Sao Paulo University. Seven participants aged 9 to 23 years with developmental disorders (the developmental group, DG) completed the study. The research team recruited them through the Association of Friends of the Autistic Persons of Ribeirao Preto in Ribeirao Preto, Brazil. The control group (CG) consisted of nonsmoking healthy volunteers in the general population who were similar in age to the experimental group and did not suffer from diseases that potentially could influence nutritional status and intestinal function. To assess intestinal permeability, participants ingested 150 mL of an isosmolar solution of the sugars mannitol (2 g) and lactulose (7.5 g) under fasting conditions and the researchers collected all voided urine over a period of 5 hours

  20. Nutrient intake, nutritional status, and cognitive function with aging.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katherine L

    2016-03-01

    With the demographic aging of populations worldwide, diseases associated with aging are becoming more prevalent and costly to individuals, families, and healthcare systems. Among aging-related impairments, a decline in cognitive function is of particular concern, as it erodes memory and processing abilities and eventually leads to the need for institutionalized care. Accumulating evidence suggests that nutritional status is a key factor in the loss of cognitive abilities with aging. This is of tremendous importance, as dietary intake is a modifiable risk factor that can be improved to help reduce the burden of cognitive impairment. With respect to nutrients, there is evidence to support the critical role of several B vitamins in particular, but also of vitamin D, antioxidant vitamins (including vitamin E), and omega-3 fatty acids, which are preferentially taken up by brain tissue. On the other hand, high intakes of nutrients that contribute to hypertension, atherosclerosis, and poor glycemic control may have negative effects on cognition through these conditions. Collectively, the evidence suggests that considerable slowing and reduction of cognitive decline may be achieved by following a healthy dietary pattern, which limits intake of added sugars, while maximizing intakes of fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. [Actual aspects of state control of dietary, clinical and prophylactic nutrition in health care organizations].

    PubMed

    Sukhanov, B P; Kerimova, M G; Elizarova, E V

    2014-01-01

    A review is aimed to help professionals, who provide state sanitary control of dietary (clinical and prophylactic) nutrition in health care organizations. Taking into account the new modern legislative framework and the scientific and practical publications, the basic requirements for standardization, harmonization and individualization (personalization) of nutritional therapy and monitoring of their implementation in health care organizations by state sanitary authorities has been set out. The attention is focused on the optimization of clinical nutrition, as well as the methods of assessment of balance and nutritive value of the standard diets, their proper correction with dry protein composite blends and other specialized products of dietary clinical and prophylactic nutrition, including foods fortified with dietary and biologically active substances and food supplements (nutraceuticals). The paper describes ways to improve the organization of state sanitary and dietary nutritional care in health care organizations, outlines priority issues to be addressed to improve the nutritional care.

  2. Pilot Study on the Influence of Nutritional Counselling and Implant Therapy on the Nutritional Status in Dentally Compromised Patients.

    PubMed

    Wöstmann, Bernd; Simon, Teresa; Neuhäuser-Berthold, Monika; Rehmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the impact of implant-prosthetic rehabilitation combined with nutritional counseling on the nutritional status of patients with severely reduced dentitions. An explorative intervention study including an intra-individual comparison of 20 patients with severely reduced dentitions in terms of nutrition- and quality of life-related parameters recorded at baseline and at six and twelve months after implant-prosthetic rehabilitation. Twenty patients from the Department of Prosthetic Dentistry of Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, with an mean age of 63 years, who had fewer than ten pairs of antagonists. The baseline data collection included dental status, a chewing ability test, laboratory parameters, anthropometric data (body mass index), energy supply, a 3-day dietary record, an analysis of the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) with the OHIP-G14, the Mini-Mental Status (MMS) and Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Six months after implantation and prosthetic rehabilitation, individual nutritional counseling was performed by a dietician. Data were again collected and analyzed. A final follow-up was conducted 12 months after prosthetic rehabilitation. Despite the highly significant improvement in masticatory ability and OHRQoL after implant-prosthetic rehabilitation, no significant changes were observed regarding MNA, anthropometric data or energy supply. Except for cholinesterase (p = 0.012), ferritin (p = 0.003), folic acid (p = 0.019) and vitamin A (p = 0.004), no laboratory parameter changed significantly during the investigation period. In addition, no general significant differences were observed for nutrient intake or food choice. The present study does not confirm the assumption that the implant-prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with severely reduced residual dentitions with or without an individual nutritional counseling influences nutritional status.

  3. Pilot Study on the Influence of Nutritional Counselling and Implant Therapy on the Nutritional Status in Dentally Compromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wöstmann, Bernd; Simon, Teresa; Neuhäuser-Berthold, Monika; Rehmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the impact of implant-prosthetic rehabilitation combined with nutritional counseling on the nutritional status of patients with severely reduced dentitions. Design An explorative intervention study including an intra-individual comparison of 20 patients with severely reduced dentitions in terms of nutrition- and quality of life-related parameters recorded at baseline and at six and twelve months after implant-prosthetic rehabilitation. Participants Twenty patients from the Department of Prosthetic Dentistry of Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, with an mean age of 63 years, who had fewer than ten pairs of antagonists. Measurements The baseline data collection included dental status, a chewing ability test, laboratory parameters, anthropometric data (body mass index), energy supply, a 3-day dietary record, an analysis of the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) with the OHIP-G14, the Mini-Mental Status (MMS) and Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Six months after implantation and prosthetic rehabilitation, individual nutritional counseling was performed by a dietician. Data were again collected and analyzed. A final follow-up was conducted 12 months after prosthetic rehabilitation. Results Despite the highly significant improvement in masticatory ability and OHRQoL after implant-prosthetic rehabilitation, no significant changes were observed regarding MNA, anthropometric data or energy supply. Except for cholinesterase (p = 0.012), ferritin (p = 0.003), folic acid (p = 0.019) and vitamin A (p = 0.004), no laboratory parameter changed significantly during the investigation period. In addition, no general significant differences were observed for nutrient intake or food choice. Conclusion The present study does not confirm the assumption that the implant-prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with severely reduced residual dentitions with or without an individual nutritional counseling influences nutritional status. PMID:26821352

  4. Differences in nutritional status of preschool children in the context of the maternal social characteristics.

    PubMed

    Potocka, Adrianna; Jacukowicz, Aleksandra

    2017-07-14

    It is generally accepted that maternal factors are important in maintaining the adequate nutritional status of young children. This study was aimed at verifying whether mother's socio-demographic (age and relationship status) and socio-economic features (education and professional status) differentiate the child's nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and October 2013. Five hundred thirty mothers of preschool children from 5 different regions of Poland were interviewed. Mothers were interviewed on their socio-demographic and socio-economic status. To assess the child's nutritional status, body mass index (BMI) z-score and the diet indicators were calculated, such as the percentage of the estimated average requirement for energy (%EAR), the percentage of energy coming from carbohydrates (%EC), fat (%ET) and proteins (%EP). Percentage of the estimated average requirement for energy, %EC, %ET and %EP was obtained from 24-h dietary recalls conducted with the mothers. The results showed that mother's education and professional status did not differentiate any of the indices of the child's nutritional status. However, maternal age and her relationship status occurred significant (ANOVA; p < 0.05). Children of younger mothers had higher BMI z-score and higher %EC as compared to children of older mothers. Moreover, %EAR was higher among children of single mothers and it was closer to the recommended nutrition standards as compared to children of mothers with a partner. When a child is diagnosed with any type of malnutrition, it is worth assessing various factors that might influence the nutritional status, such as child's social background (e.g., maternal factors). Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):811-821.

  5. Nutrition education linked to agricultural interventions improved child dietary diversity in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Reinbott, Anika; Schelling, Anna; Kuchenbecker, Judith; Jeremias, Theresa; Russell, Iean; Kevanna, Ou; Krawinkel, Michael B; Jordan, Irmgard

    2016-10-01

    Poor infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices are major determinants of chronic malnutrition. The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of a nutrition education (NE) programme aimed at promoting improved IYCF behaviours in combination with an agriculture intervention on children's dietary diversity and nutritional status. From 2012 to 2014, a cluster randomised trial was rolled out in Cambodia in the context of an agriculture and nutrition project of the FAO of the UN. The cross-sectional baseline study was carried out in sixteen pre-selected communes in 2012. Restricted randomisation allotted the communes to either intervention (NE and agriculture intervention) or comparison arms (agriculture intervention only). The impact survey was conducted as a census in all FAO project villages in 2014. Caregivers of children aged 0-23 months were interviewed using standardised questions on socio-economic status and dietary diversity (24-h recall). Anthropometric measurements were taken. A difference-in-differences model was applied. The sample comprised 743 households with children ≥6 months of age at baseline and 921 at impact. After 1 year of NE, 69 % of the intervention households reported to have participated in the NE. Estimated mean child dietary diversity was significantly different at impact between comparison and intervention (3·6 and 3·9, respectively). In particular, the consumption of pro-vitamin A-rich foods and other fruits and vegetables increased. No treatment effects on height-for-age Z-scores could be shown. NE led to improvements in children's diets. For effects on growth, it is assumed that longer NE activities are required to achieve sustainable behaviour change of age-appropriate infant feeding.

  6. Nutrition status of children in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Garmendia, M. L.; Jones‐Smith, J.; Lutter, C. K.; Miranda, J. J.; Pedraza, L. S.; Popkin, B. M.; Ramirez‐Zea, M.; Salvo, D.; Stein, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Summary The prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing among Latin American children, posing challenges for current healthcare systems and increasing the risk for a wide range of diseases. To understand the factors contributing to childhood obesity in Latin America, this paper reviews the current nutrition status and physical activity situation, the disparities between and within countries and the potential challenges for ensuring adequate nutrition and physical activity. Across the region, children face a dual burden of undernutrition and excess weight. While efforts to address undernutrition have made marked improvements, childhood obesity is on the rise as a result of diets that favour energy‐dense, nutrient‐poor foods and the adoption of a sedentary lifestyle. Over the last decade, changes in socioeconomic conditions, urbanization, retail foods and public transportation have all contributed to childhood obesity in the region. Additional research and research capacity are needed to address this growing epidemic, particularly with respect to designing, implementing and evaluating the impact of evidence‐based obesity prevention interventions. PMID:28741907

  7. Nutrition status of children in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Corvalán, C; Garmendia, M L; Jones-Smith, J; Lutter, C K; Miranda, J J; Pedraza, L S; Popkin, B M; Ramirez-Zea, M; Salvo, D; Stein, A D

    2017-07-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing among Latin American children, posing challenges for current healthcare systems and increasing the risk for a wide range of diseases. To understand the factors contributing to childhood obesity in Latin America, this paper reviews the current nutrition status and physical activity situation, the disparities between and within countries and the potential challenges for ensuring adequate nutrition and physical activity. Across the region, children face a dual burden of undernutrition and excess weight. While efforts to address undernutrition have made marked improvements, childhood obesity is on the rise as a result of diets that favour energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and the adoption of a sedentary lifestyle. Over the last decade, changes in socioeconomic conditions, urbanization, retail foods and public transportation have all contributed to childhood obesity in the region. Additional research and research capacity are needed to address this growing epidemic, particularly with respect to designing, implementing and evaluating the impact of evidence-based obesity prevention interventions. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  8. Dietary practices, attitudes, and physiological status of collegiate freshman football players.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, S S; Rosenbloom, C A; Skinner, R

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the dietary practices, attitudes, and physiological status of freshman collegiate football players. Thirty-one freshman football players at a National Collegiate Athletic Association division I school completed a self-administered nutrition screening questionnaire designed to determine their dietary practices and attitudes. Fasting blood samples were collected and height and weight were measured. The mean age of these athletes was 18 years. These players reported eating 3.6 times per day and on the average eating out 4.8 times per week. Fast food was the most common choice when eating out (55%). Of these athletes, 42% reported the use of dietary supplements, the most popular one being creatine (36%). Although more than 90% of the athletes recognized the importance of maintaining proper hydration status, greater than 50% believed that protein supplements were necessary for muscle growth and development, protein was the primary source of energy for muscle, and vitamin and mineral supplements increased energy levels. The plasma lipid profiles of the majority (76%) of the athletes were within normal ranges. The data suggest that these athletes may require education about healthy dietary practices and on the proper use of dietary supplements. This is not only important to help improve performance but to also promote healthy dietary practices in the long term.

  9. Influence of dietary nutritional composition on caterpillar salivary enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Babic, Branislav; Poisson, Alexandre; Darwish, Shireef; Lacasse, Jean; Merkx-Jacques, Magali; Despland, Emma; Bede, Jacqueline C

    2008-01-01

    Caterpillars are faced with nutritional challenges when feeding on plants. In addition to harmful secondary metabolites and protein- and water-limitations, tissues may be carbohydrate-rich which may attenuate optimal caterpillar performance. Therefore, caterpillars have multiple strategies to cope with surplus carbohydrates. In this study, we raise the possibility of a pre-ingestive mechanism to metabolically deal with excess dietary sugars. Many Noctuid caterpillars secrete the labial salivary enzyme glucose oxidase (GOX), which oxidizes glucose to hydrogen peroxide and gluconate, a nutritionally unavailable carbohydrate to the insect. Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, larvae were restricted to diets varying in protein to digestible carbohydrate (P:C) ratio (42p:21c; 33p:30c; 21p:42c) and total nutrient concentration (42% and 63%). High mortality and longer developmental time were observed when caterpillars were reared on the C-biased, P-poor diet (21p:42c). As the carbohydrate content of the diet increased, caterpillars egested excess glucose and a diet-dependent difference in assimilated carbohydrates and pupal biomass was not observed, even though caterpillars restricted to the C-biased diet (21p:42c) accumulated greater pupal lipid reserves. Larval labial salivary GOX activity was also diet-dependent and gluconate, the product of GOX activity, was detected in the frass. Unexpectedly, GOX activity was strongly and positively correlated with dietary protein content.

  10. A nutritional evaluation of dietary behaviour in various professional sports.

    PubMed

    Pilis, Karol; Michalski, Cezary; Zych, Michał; Pilis, Anna; Jelonek, Jakub; Kaczmarzyk, Agata; Pilis, Wiesław

    2014-01-01

    The types of physical exertion undertaken by weightlifters and race walkers markedly differ. This difference should also be reflected in their respective diets. The aim of the study was to investigate and assess the diets of professional weightlifters and race walkers, along with a comparison to the diets of those students studying physical education (PE). Materials and Methods. Subjects were respectively 12 weightlifters, 12 race walkers and 12 physical education students whose body composition and nutrition were determined by weighing the foods that were both eaten and drunk. The study groups showed body differences, which may have arisen through dietary differences. Higher calorie diets were observed for race walkers according to body mass whilst weightlifters showed no difference with the other groups. Dietary intakes of protein, fat, and carbohydrates were however inappropriate for all groups. Vitamin and mineral intakes in weightlifters and students were within tolerable limits, but the rather aggressive taking of supplements by race walkers resulted in standard/recommended consumption levels being greatly exceeded in some cases. The diets of the study groups of weightlifters and race walkers need to be corrected. nutrition in sport, weightlifting, race walking, food supplementation.

  11. Laboratory Indices of Nutritional Status in Pregnancy. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    This report, a condensation of a publication titled "Laboratory Indices of Nutritional Status in Pregnancy," summarizes the effects of normal gestation on certain laboratory indices of nutritional and metabolic status in an effort to provide the clinician with normative data applicable to healthy pregnant women. The report is divided into six…

  12. Laboratory Indices of Nutritional Status in Pregnancy. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    This report, a condensation of a publication titled "Laboratory Indices of Nutritional Status in Pregnancy," summarizes the effects of normal gestation on certain laboratory indices of nutritional and metabolic status in an effort to provide the clinician with normative data applicable to healthy pregnant women. The report is divided into six…

  13. [Estimation of the students nutritional status in Surgut Pedagogical University].

    PubMed

    Sorokun, I V; Korchina, T Ia

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of the students nutritional status in Surgut State Pedagogical University with the help of the special program "ASPON--nutrition", showed that most of the student' population consumes insufficient quantity of albumens, carbohydrates and vitamins A, E, C and calories. Recommendations for correction of macro- and micronutrients status for the students of the North higher educational institution were developed.

  14. Dietary Intake, Nutrition, and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip A.; Hamrick, Kari J.; Corbin, Karen D.; Hasken, Julie; Marais, Anna-Susan; Brooke, Lesley E.; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Gossage, J. Phillip

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we describe the nutritional status of women from a South African community with very high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Nutrient intake (24-hours recall) of mothers of children with FASD was compared to mothers of normal controls. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). More than 50 percent of all mothers were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, D, E, and C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Mean intakes were below the Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin K, potassium, and choline. Mothers of children with FASD reported significantly lower intake of calcium, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), riboflavin, and choline than controls. Lower intake of multiple key nutrients correlates significantly with heavy drinking. Poor diet quality and multiple nutritional inadequacies coupled with prenatal alcohol exposure may increase the risk for FASD in this population. PMID:24568797

  15. Dietary intake, nutrition, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    May, Philip A; Hamrick, Kari J; Corbin, Karen D; Hasken, Julie M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Brooke, Lesley E; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H Eugene; Gossage, J Phillip

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we describe the nutritional status of women from a South African community with very high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Nutrient intake (24-h recall) of mothers of children with FASD was compared to mothers of normal controls. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). More than 50% of all mothers were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, D, E, and C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Mean intakes were below the Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin K, potassium, and choline. Mothers of children with FASD reported significantly lower intake of calcium, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), riboflavin, and choline than controls. Lower intake of multiple key nutrients correlates significantly with heavy drinking. Poor diet quality and multiple nutritional inadequacies coupled with prenatal alcohol exposure may increase the risk for FASD in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Obesity in Older People in China: Data from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoyue; Hall, John; Byles, Julie; Shi, Zumin

    2015-01-01

    Background: No studies have been conducted to explore the associations between dietary patterns and obesity among older Chinese people, by considering gender and urbanization level differences. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (2745 individuals, aged ≥ 60 years). Dietary data were obtained using 24 h-recall over three consecutive days. Height, Body Weight, and Waist Circumference were measured. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Multinomial and Poisson regression models were used to examine the association between dietary patterns and Body Mass Index (BMI) status/central obesity. Results: The prevalence of general and central obesity was 9.5% and 53.4%. Traditional dietary pattern (high intake of rice, pork and vegetables) was inversely associated with general/central obesity; modern dietary pattern (high intake of fruit, fast food, and processed meat) was positively associated with general/central obesity. The highest quartile of traditional dietary pattern had a lower risk of general/central obesity compared with the lowest quartile, while an inverse picture was found for the modern dietary pattern. These associations were consistent by gender and urbanization levels. Conclusions: Dietary patterns are associated with general/central obesity in older Chinese. This study reinforces the importance of a healthy diet in promoting healthy ageing in China. PMID:26404368

  17. Assessment of nutritional status and quality of life in patients treated for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Prevost, V; Joubert, C; Heutte, N; Babin, E

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify tools for the assessment of nutritional status in head and neck cancer patients, to evaluate the impact of malnutrition on therapeutic management and quality of life and to propose a simple screening approach adapted to routine clinical practice. The authors conducted a review of the literature to identify tools for the assessment of nutritional status in head and neck cancer patients published in French and English. Articles were obtained from the PubMed database and from the references of these articles and selected journals, using the keywords: "nutritional assessment", and "head and neck" and "cancer". Anthropometric indices, laboratory parameters, dietary intake assessment, clinical scores and nutritional risk scores used in patients with head and neck cancers are presented. The relevance of these tools in clinical practice and in research is discussed, together with the links between nutritional status and quality of life. This article is designed to help teams involved in the management of patients with head and neck cancer to choose the most appropriate tools for assessment of nutritional status according to their resources and their objectives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation methods on the nutritional status of stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Luo, B; Xie, Y; Hu, H-Y; Feng, L; Li, Z-N

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of particular tools on the nutritional status of patients with stroke risk factors; to analyze these risk factors; to construct an assessment table; and to enable nurses to conduct fast and accurate assessment of the nutritional status of patients with stroke. Various nutritional assessment tools were employed to assess the nutritional status of stroke patients [(Nutritional Risk Screening 2002, NRS2002); (mini nutritional assessment, MNA), (subjective global assessment SGA), (malnutrition universal screening, MUST); (body composition, BCA)]. The leading disease-related factors of cerebral apoplexy were observed in patients with malnutrition. And a statistical analysis was conducted. The significant risk factors of cerebral apoplexy in malnourished patients older than 70 years were swallowing dysfunctions, disturbance of consciousness and reliance or half-reliance on feeding practices. The significant risk factors of malnutrition in patients with cerebral apoplexy were the decline in upper limb muscle strength, decline in the performance of various activities, loss of appetite and gastrointestinal symptoms. Disorders that affect the nutritional status of stroke patients can be used as evaluation tools, as described in the evaluation table. The clinical relevance of this study includes the following: to enable the clinical nursing staff to easily assess the patient's nutritional status in a timely manner; to improve compliance with nutritional evaluation; to provide clinical nutrition support to patients with stroke; and to provide a scientific basis for the improvement of the clinical outcomes of patients with cerebral apoplexy.

  19. Nutrition Therapy for Liver Diseases Based on the Status of Nutritional Intake

    PubMed Central

    Yasutake, Kenichiro; Kohjima, Motoyuki; Nakashima, Manabu; Kotoh, Kazuhiro; Nakamuta, Makoto; Enjoji, Munechika

    2012-01-01

    The dietary intake of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is generally characterized by high levels of carbohydrate, fat, and/or cholesterol, and these dietary patterns influence hepatic lipid metabolism in the patients. Therefore, careful investigation of dietary habits could lead to better nutrition therapy in NAFLD patients. The main treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is interferon-based antiviral therapy, which often causes a decrease in appetite and energy intake; hence, nutritional support is also required during therapy to prevent undernourishment, treatment interruption, and a reduction in quality of life. Moreover, addition of some nutrients that act to suppress viral proliferation is recommended. As a substitutive treatment, low-iron diet therapy, which is relatively safe and effective for preventing hepatocellular carcinoma, is also recommended for CHC patients. Some patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) have decreased dietary energy and protein intake, while the number of LC patients with overeating and obesity is increasing, indicating that the nutritional state of LC patients has a broad spectrum. Therefore, nutrition therapy for LC patients should be planned on an assessment of their complications, nutritional state, and dietary intake. Late evening snacks, branched-chain amino acids, zinc, and probiotics are considered for effective nutritional utilization. PMID:23197979

  20. Nutrition therapy for liver diseases based on the status of nutritional intake.

    PubMed

    Yasutake, Kenichiro; Kohjima, Motoyuki; Nakashima, Manabu; Kotoh, Kazuhiro; Nakamuta, Makoto; Enjoji, Munechika

    2012-01-01

    The dietary intake of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is generally characterized by high levels of carbohydrate, fat, and/or cholesterol, and these dietary patterns influence hepatic lipid metabolism in the patients. Therefore, careful investigation of dietary habits could lead to better nutrition therapy in NAFLD patients. The main treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is interferon-based antiviral therapy, which often causes a decrease in appetite and energy intake; hence, nutritional support is also required during therapy to prevent undernourishment, treatment interruption, and a reduction in quality of life. Moreover, addition of some nutrients that act to suppress viral proliferation is recommended. As a substitutive treatment, low-iron diet therapy, which is relatively safe and effective for preventing hepatocellular carcinoma, is also recommended for CHC patients. Some patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) have decreased dietary energy and protein intake, while the number of LC patients with overeating and obesity is increasing, indicating that the nutritional state of LC patients has a broad spectrum. Therefore, nutrition therapy for LC patients should be planned on an assessment of their complications, nutritional state, and dietary intake. Late evening snacks, branched-chain amino acids, zinc, and probiotics are considered for effective nutritional utilization.

  1. Nutritional status and eating habits of older Manitobans after relocating to a personal care home.

    PubMed

    Sitter, Melissa; Lengyel, Christina

    2011-01-01

    We explored the effect of relocating to a personal care home (PCH) on older adults' nutritional status and eating habits. Fourteen Caucasian older adults (F=57%) with a mean age of 83 years (standard deviation = 9.79) consented to participate. Anthropometric information (height, weight, bioelectrical impedance analysis), biochemical and clinical information (diagnoses, data from scales measuring risk or function), and dietary information (three-day plate waste analysis) were collected at time points A (two to three months after relocation) and B (six to seven months after relocation) through face-to-face interviews and medical chart reviews, and from nursing staff. At time B, cognitive function declined (z = -2.185, p<0.05) and the number of medications prescribed increased (z = -2.00, p<0.05). Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were insufficient among 83% of participants at both time points. Mean serum albumin was 34.4 ± 7.2 g/L at time B, and the prevalence of potential nutritional risk increased from 57% to 77%. Dietary intake was inadequate at both time points. Nutritional risk became more prevalent at time B. Protein-energy malnutrition and other nutritional inadequacies may result if dietary intakes do not improve. Strategies to improve dietary intakes should be implemented within PCHs to reduce potential malnutrition.

  2. Dietary essentiality of "nutritionally non-essential amino acids" for animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yongqing; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-08-01

    Based on growth or nitrogen balance, amino acids (AA) had traditionally been classified as nutritionally essential (indispensable) or non-essential (dispensable) for animals and humans. Nutritionally essential AA (EAA) are defined as either those AA whose carbon skeletons cannot be synthesized de novo in animal cells or those that normally are insufficiently synthesized de novo by the animal organism relative to its needs for maintenance, growth, development, and health and which must be provided in the diet to meet requirements. In contrast, nutritionally non-essential AA (NEAA) are those AA which can be synthesized de novo in adequate amounts by the animal organism to meet requirements for maintenance, growth, development, and health and, therefore, need not be provided in the diet. Although EAA and NEAA had been described for over a century, there are no compelling data to substantiate the assumption that NEAA are synthesized sufficiently in animals and humans to meet the needs for maximal growth and optimal health. NEAA play important roles in regulating gene expression, cell signaling pathways, digestion and absorption of dietary nutrients, DNA and protein synthesis, proteolysis, metabolism of glucose and lipids, endocrine status, men and women fertility, acid-base balance, antioxidative responses, detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous metabolites, neurotransmission, and immunity. Emerging evidence indicates dietary essentiality of "nutritionally non-essential amino acids" for animals and humans to achieve their full genetic potential for growth, development, reproduction, lactation, and resistance to metabolic and infectious diseases. This concept represents a new paradigm shift in protein nutrition to guide the feeding of mammals (including livestock), poultry, and fish.

  3. Dietary essentiality of “nutritionally non-essential amino acids” for animals and humans

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yongqing; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    Based on growth or nitrogen balance, amino acids (AA) had traditionally been classified as nutritionally essential (indispensable) or non-essential (dispensable) for animals and humans. Nutritionally essential AA (EAA) are defined as either those AA whose carbon skeletons cannot be synthesized de novo in animal cells or those that normally are insufficiently synthesized de novo by the animal organism relative to its needs for maintenance, growth, development, and health and which must be provided in the diet to meet requirements. In contrast, nutritionally non-essential AA (NEAA) are those AA which can be synthesized de novo in adequate amounts by the animal organism to meet requirements for maintenance, growth, development, and health and, therefore, need not be provided in the diet. Although EAA and NEAA had been described for over a century, there are no compelling data to substantiate the assumption that NEAA are synthesized sufficiently in animals and humans to meet the needs for maximal growth and optimal health. NEAA play important roles in regulating gene expression, cell signaling pathways, digestion and absorption of dietary nutrients, DNA and protein synthesis, proteolysis, metabolism of glucose and lipids, endocrine status, men and women fertility, acid–base balance, antioxidative responses, detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous metabolites, neurotransmission, and immunity. Emerging evidence indicates dietary essentiality of “nutritionally non-essential amino acids” for animals and humans to achieve their full genetic potential for growth, development, reproduction, lactation, and resistance to metabolic and infectious diseases. This concept represents a new paradigm shift in protein nutrition to guide the feeding of mammals (including livestock), poultry, and fish. PMID:26041391

  4. Changes in nutritional status in nursing home residents and associated factors in nutritional status decline: a secondary data analysis.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Silvia; Halfens, Ruud J G; Lohrmann, Christa

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe changes in the nutritional status of nursing home residents over a period of 1 year and identify factors associated with a decline in nutritional status. The maintenance of good nutritional status is important for nursing home residents. Therefore, it is essential to identify risk factors that indicate a decline in nutritional status to take early prevention steps. Secondary data analysis of repeated cross-sectional studies. Data collection was performed between 2009-2013 using the International Prevalence Measurement of Care Problems questionnaire. Data from three purposively selected nursing homes that included 157 residents were analysed. The comparison between baseline data and data collected 1 year later showed that the nutritional status declined in 22·8% of the residents and improved in 6·5% of the cases. The body mass index and changes in the body mass index were significantly different between residents with stable/improved and declined nutritional status. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that care dependency, length of stay, changes in body mass index and malnutrition risk at baseline were significantly associated with a decline in nutritional status. This study showed that the baseline risk of malnutrition is the most important risk factor indicating a decline in nutritional status. Therefore, healthcare professionals should identify the malnutrition risk and take action as early as possible. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    Nutrition Health Education During the 2 years preceding the study: • The percentage of states that provided funding for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health ...

  6. Present status and issues of school nutrition programs in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jihyun; Kwon, Sooyoun; Shim, Jae Eun

    2012-01-01

    School nutrition programs are essential for children's long-term nutrition and health promotion. The last decade has been the most dramatic years in the history of school nutrition programs in Korea. The percentage of schools serving school lunches reached almost 100% in 2003. In 2006, School Meals Act was significantly revised after serial outbreaks of food-borne illness among students having eaten school lunches. The safety and nutritional quality of school meals had remained as the biggest issue until the middle of 2000s, and then eco-friendly and universal free school lunches have become the main issues related to school meal service and are still under debate. Implementation of the Nutrition Teacher System in 2006 was the turning point of school-based nutrition education in Korea. In addition, two new laws, Special Act on Children's Dietary Life Safety Management of 2008 and Dietary Life Education Support Act of 2009, started to make meaningful changes in school nutrition environment and practices. The next decade is expected to be very critical in the development of school nutrition programs in Korea as the new systems and laws are to be settled. Significant effort is needed from both the academia and the field to make the related issues to be debated and answered to progressive direction for the school nutrition programs in Korea.

  7. Non-cereal food consumption, food insecurity and nutritional status of children and mothers: a case study in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rabiul, Islam G M; Jahangir, Alam M; Buysse, J

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of food insecurity derived from non-cereal food consumption on nutritional status of children and mothers in a poverty-prone region in Bangladesh. Data from the Bangladesh Nutritional Surveillance Project, 2005 of Helen Keller International were used to relate non-cereal food consumption and household food insecurity to nutritional status of children and their mothers. Multiple regressions were used to determine the association between the nutritional outcomes and the explanatory variables. In the case of binary and multi-level outcomes, logistic regressions were used as well. Non-cereal dietary diversity was found to have little predictive power on BMI and MUAC of mothers and on the nutritional status of the children. Maternal education is strongly associated with mothers' and children's nutritional status. Dietary diversity based on non-cereal food consumption can be a useful tool to investigate the nutritional status of poor households, but more studies are needed to verify these findings.

  8. Intradialytic oral nutrition improves protein homeostasis in chronic hemodialysis patients with deranged nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Pupim, Lara B; Majchrzak, Karen M; Flakoll, Paul J; Ikizler, T Alp

    2006-11-01

    Decreased dietary protein intake and hemodialysis (HD)-associated protein catabolism predispose chronic HD (CHD) patients to deranged nutritional status, which is associated with poor clinical outcome in this population. Intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) reverses the net negative whole-body and skeletal muscle protein balance during HD. IDPN is costly and restricted by Medicare and other payers. Oral supplementation (PO) is a more promising, physiologic, and affordable intervention in CHD patients. Protein turnover studies were performed by primed-constant infusion of L-(1-(13)C) leucine and L-(ring-(2)H(5)) phenylalanine in eight CHD patients with deranged nutritional status before, during, and after HD on three separate occasions: (1) with IDPN infusion, (2) with PO administration, and (3) with no intervention (control). Results showed highly positive whole-body net balance during HD for both IDPN and PO (4.43 +/- 0.7 and 5.71 +/- 1.2 mg/kg fat-free mass per min, respectively), compared with a neutral balance with control (0.25 +/- 0.5 mg/kg fat-free mass per min; P = 0.002 and <0.001 for IDPN versus control and PO versus control, respectively). Skeletal muscle protein homeostasis during HD also improved with both IDPN and PO (50 +/- 19 and 42 +/- 17 microg/100 ml per min) versus control (-27 +/- 13 microg/100 ml per min; P = 0.005 and 0.009 for IDPN versus control and PO versus control, respectively). PO resulted in persistent anabolic benefits in the post-HD phase for muscle protein metabolism, when anabolic benefits of IDPN dissipated (-53 +/- 25 microg/100 ml per min for control, 47 +/- 41 microg/100 ml per min for PO [P = 0.039 versus control], and -53 +/- 24 microg/100 ml per min for IDPN [P = 1.000 versus control and 0.039 versus PO]). Long-term studies using intradialytic oral supplementation are needed for CHD patients with deranged nutritional status.

  9. APPETITE PREDICTS INTAKE AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN PATIENTS RECEIVING PERITONEAL DIALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Young, Valerie; Balaam, Sarah; Orazio, Linda; Bates, Annerley; Badve, Sunil V; Johnson, David W; Campbell, Katrina L

    2016-06-01

    Sub-optimal nutrition status is common amongst patients receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD) and leads to poor clinical outcome. This population experiences multi-factorial challenges to achieving optimal nutritional status, particularly driven by inadequate intake. The aim of this investigation was to identify factors associated with inadequate protein intake and sub-optimal nutritional status in patients undergoing PD. This was a cross-sectional study of 67 adult patients receiving PD (mean age 59 ± 14 years; 57% male) within a single centre. Participants were consecutively recruited and interviewed by renal dietitians, collecting: Subjective Global Assessment (SGA); quality of life (using EQ-5D); dietary intake (via dietary interview); and appetite (using Appetite and Diet Assessment Tool). Participant demographics were obtained via survey or medical charts. Main outcome measures were inadequate dietary protein intake (<1.1 g/kg adjusted body weight/day) and malnutrition (as defined by SGA rating B or C). Overall, 15 (22%) patients were malnourished and 29 (43%) had inadequate protein intake. Poor appetite (anorexia) was reported in 62% (18/29) of participants with inadequate protein malnourished patients reported anorexia versus 12 (23%) of the well-nourished patients (p = 0.0001). Anorexia was a key risk factor for inadequate protein intake and malnutrition in patients undergoing PD. These findings highlight a need to closely monitor patients with appetite disturbances. © 2016 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  10. Acculturation process and its effects on dietary habits, nutritional behavior and body-image in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Skreblin, Lana; Sujoldzić, Anita

    2003-12-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the acculturation process may contribute to psychosocial and health problems among immigrants through the mediation of acculturation stress. This study focuses on adolescents with immigrant background permanently settled in the Croatian region of Dalmatia and the influences of the acculturation process on their dietary habits, nutritional behavior and perceived body-image. The survey was conducted on the total sample of 510 adolescents (aged 14-19) including 52 first generation and 248 second generation immigrants. The analysis included dietary habits and questions of restrictive diet as indicators of unhealthy influence on physical health. Psychological factors (stress and self-esteem) have been found to be associated with dietary habits, diet behavior and dissatisfaction with body-image among adolescents with significant differences by immigrant status. Immigrant status is viewed as a risk factor for psychological distress and unhealthy dieting behavior. Research stresses the need to study the interaction between acculturation and health not only from an individual perspective, but also from the broader socio-ecological context of population subgroups.

  11. Precision nutrition - review of methods for point-of-care assessment of nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Balaji; Lee, Seoho; Erickson, David; Mehta, Saurabh

    2017-04-01

    Precision nutrition encompasses prevention and treatment strategies for optimizing health that consider individual variability in diet, lifestyle, environment and genes by accurately determining an individual's nutritional status. This is particularly important as malnutrition now affects a third of the global population, with most of those affected or their care providers having limited means of determining their nutritional status. Similarly, program implementers often have no way of determining the impact or success of their interventions, thus hindering their scale-up. Exciting new developments in the area of point-of-care diagnostics promise to provide improved access to nutritional status assessment, as a first step towards enabling precision nutrition and tailored interventions at both the individual and community levels. In this review, we focus on the current advances in developing portable diagnostics for assessment of nutritional status at point-of-care, along with the numerous design challenges in this process and potential solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between poor nutritional status and severe depression in Korean cerebral infarction patients.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun Jung; Choue, Ryowon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association between cerebral infarction (CI), nutritional status, and depression. Subjects with and without CI (n = 146; 73 CI vs. 73 non-CI) were recruited from Kyung Hee University Medical Center (Seoul, Korea) and were matched according to age and gender. The subjects' medical histories, health-related behavioral habits, food intake, nutritional assessment, and depression status were analyzed. The prevalence of hypertension or diabetes were much higher in subjects in the CI group than in the non-CI group (P < 0.001). Subjects with CI registered lower dietary intakes of potassium, dietary fiber, fish, fruits, and vegetables than non-CI subjects (P < 0.05). By the mini-nutritional assessment (MNA) classification, malnutrition affected 57.5% of subjects in the CI group, but none of the subjects in the non-CI group (P < 0.001). The average Beck depression inventory (BDI) score was 43.6 ± 7.7 points in the CI group and 20.6 ± 13.1 points in the non-CI group (P < 0.001). Higher MNA scores (well-nourished status) were inversely associated with CI prevalence (odds ratio (OR) = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.79) after controlling for age, gender, medical history, and health-related factors, whereas BDI was not associated with CI prevalence (OR = 1.32; 95% CI: 0.90, 1.94). CI patients had several comorbidities, inappropriate health-related behavioral habits, malnourished status, and severe depression prior to CI onset. Indices of well-nourished status were inversely associated with CI. Accordingly, it would be desirable to develop a protocol for medical nutrition therapy in CI patients to improve nutritional status.

  13. Dietary Diversity Is Not Associated with Haematological Status of Pregnant Women Resident in Rural Areas of Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Oladele, Jeremiah; Larbi, Asamoah; Hoeschle-Zeledon, Irmgard

    2017-01-01

    Background. Information regarding how dietary diversity is related to haematological status of the pregnant women in rural areas of Northern Ghana is limited. This study therefore evaluated maternal dietary intake and how it relates to the nutritional status of pregnant women belonging to different socioeconomic conditions in Northern Ghana. Methods. This study was cross-sectional in design involving 400 pregnant women. Midupper arm circumference (MUAC) and anaemia status were used to assess the nutritional status of pregnant women. Results. The mean dietary diversity score (DDS) of the study population from ten food groups was 4.2 ± 1.5 (95% CI: 4.08 to 4.37). Of the 400 women, 46.1% (95% CI: 40.0 to 52.2) met the new minimum dietary diversity for women (MDD-W). The mean haemoglobin concentration among the pregnant women studied was 10.1 g/dl ± 1.40 (95% CI: 9.8 to 10.3). The independent predictors of haemoglobin concentration were maternal educational attainment, gestational age, frequency of antenatal care (ANC) attendance, number of under-five children in the household, size of MUAC, and maternal height. Conclusions. Irrespective of the socioeconomic status, women minimum dietary diversity (MDD-W) was not associated with anaemia among pregnant women resident in the rural areas of Northern Ghana. PMID:28168052

  14. Dietary Diversity Is Not Associated with Haematological Status of Pregnant Women Resident in Rural Areas of Northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Saaka, Mahama; Oladele, Jeremiah; Larbi, Asamoah; Hoeschle-Zeledon, Irmgard

    2017-01-01

    Background. Information regarding how dietary diversity is related to haematological status of the pregnant women in rural areas of Northern Ghana is limited. This study therefore evaluated maternal dietary intake and how it relates to the nutritional status of pregnant women belonging to different socioeconomic conditions in Northern Ghana. Methods. This study was cross-sectional in design involving 400 pregnant women. Midupper arm circumference (MUAC) and anaemia status were used to assess the nutritional status of pregnant women. Results. The mean dietary diversity score (DDS) of the study population from ten food groups was 4.2 ± 1.5 (95% CI: 4.08 to 4.37). Of the 400 women, 46.1% (95% CI: 40.0 to 52.2) met the new minimum dietary diversity for women (MDD-W). The mean haemoglobin concentration among the pregnant women studied was 10.1 g/dl ± 1.40 (95% CI: 9.8 to 10.3). The independent predictors of haemoglobin concentration were maternal educational attainment, gestational age, frequency of antenatal care (ANC) attendance, number of under-five children in the household, size of MUAC, and maternal height. Conclusions. Irrespective of the socioeconomic status, women minimum dietary diversity (MDD-W) was not associated with anaemia among pregnant women resident in the rural areas of Northern Ghana.

  15. Influence of denture improvement on the nutritional status and quality of life of geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Wöstmann, Bernd; Michel, Karin; Brinkert, Bernd; Melchheier-Weskott, Andrea; Rehmann, Peter; Balkenhol, Markus

    2008-10-01

    Recent research suggests that there is a correlation between nutrition, oral health, dietary habits, patients' satisfaction and their socio-economic status. However, the dependent and independent variables have remained unclear. This exploratory interventional study aimed to identify the impact of denture improvement on the nutritional status as well as the oral health-related quality of life in geriatric patients. Forty-seven patients who were capable of feeding themselves (minimum age: 60 years) and with dentures requiring repair or replacement were selected from a random sample of 100 residents of two nursing homes. Before and 6 months after the dentures were optimised a Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and a masticatory function test were carried out. Nutritional markers (pre-albumin, serum albumin, zinc) were determined and an OHIP-G14 (Oral Health Impact Profile, German version) was recorded in order to determine the effect of the optimised oral situation on the patient's nutritional status and oral health-related quality of life. Despite the highly significant improvement in masticatory ability after the optimisation of the dentures, no general improvement regarding the nutritional status was observed since the albumin, zinc and MNA values remained unchanged and pre-albumin even decreased. Since masticatory ability and masticatory efficiency are not the only factors affecting this, prosthetic measures alone apparently cannot effect a lasting improvement in nutritional status as masticatory ability and masticatory efficiency are not the only factors of influence. Nutrition is not only a matter of masticatory function, but also depends on other influencing factors (e.g. habits, taste and cultural customs as well as financial and organisational aspects).

  16. Dietary total antioxidant capacity is associated with diet and plasma antioxidant status in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Davis, Catherine G; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2012-10-01

    Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC), based on the cumulative antioxidant activities of all the antioxidants present in food, has been shown to be inversely associated with risks of chronic diseases. However, dietary TAC has not been validated for its relevance in a healthy young population or for reliability and predictability for antioxidant status. Our study aimed to validate TAC as a tool in assessing antioxidant intake and to investigate whether dietary TAC predicts plasma antioxidant status in a healthy young population. Sixty healthy, nonsmoking college students at the University of Connecticut ages 18 to 25 years were recruited. Thirty-day food records and two 12-hour fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. After adjustment for total energy intake, TAC from diet and supplement was positively correlated with intakes of carotenoids (P<0.01), beta carotene (P<0.05), β-cryptoxanthin (P<0.05), flavonoids (P<0.0001), isoflavones (P<0.01), flavan-3-ols (P<0.01), flavones (P<0.05), and flavonols (P<0.0001). Dietary TAC was an independent predictor of plasma TAC determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (P<0.01) and by ferric-reducing ability of plasma (P<0.0001), plasma glutathione peroxidase (P<0.01), red blood cell glutathione peroxidase (P<0.05), α-tocopherol (P<0.05), and lutein (P<0.05). Results were similar for TAC from diet sources only. The findings suggest that dietary TAC is a good predictor of dietary and plasma antioxidant status in this sample of young adult men and women. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutritional status and HIV in rural South African children.

    PubMed

    Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Norris, Shane A; Pettifor, John M; Tollman, Stephen M; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Gómez-Olivé, Xavier F; Dunger, David B; Kahn, Kathleen

    2011-03-25

    Achieving the Millennium Development Goals that aim to reduce malnutrition and child mortality depends in part on the ability of governments/policymakers to address nutritional status of children in general and those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS in particular. This study describes HIV prevalence in children, patterns of malnutrition by HIV status and determinants of nutritional status. The study involved 671 children aged 12-59 months living in the Agincourt sub-district, rural South Africa in 2007. Anthropometric measurements were taken and HIV testing with disclosure was done using two rapid tests. Z-scores were generated using WHO 2006 standards as indicators of nutritional status. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to establish the determinants of child nutritional status. Prevalence of malnutrition, particularly stunting (18%), was high in the overall sample of children. HIV prevalence in this age group was 4.4% (95% CI: 2.79 to 5.97). HIV positive children had significantly poorer nutritional outcomes than their HIV negative counterparts. Besides HIV status, other significant determinants of nutritional outcomes included age of the child, birth weight, maternal age, age of household head, and area of residence. This study documents poor nutritional status among children aged 12-59 months in rural South Africa. HIV is an independent modifiable risk factor for poor nutritional outcomes and makes a significant contribution to nutritional outcomes at the individual level. Early paediatric HIV testing of exposed or at risk children, followed by appropriate health care for infected children, may improve their nutritional status and survival.

  18. Classification of toddler nutritional status using fuzzy inference system (FIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permatasari, Dian; Azizah, Isnaini Nur; Hadiat, Hanifah Latifah; Abadi, Agus Maman

    2017-08-01

    Nutrition is a major health problem and concern for parents when it is relating with their toddler. The nutritional status is an expression of the state caused by the status of the balance between the number of intake of nutrients and the amount needed by the body for a variety of biological functions. The indicators that often used to determine the nutritional status is the combination of Weight (W) and Height (H) symbolized by W/H, because it describe a sensitive and specific nutritional status. This study aims to apply the Fuzzy Inference System Mamdani method to classify the nutritional status of toddler. The inputs are weight and height of the toddler. There are nine rules that used and the output is nutritional status classification consisting of four criteria: stunting, wasting, normal, and overweight. Fuzzy Inference System that be used is Mamdani method and the defuzzification use Centroid Method. The result of this study is compared with Assessment Anthropometric Standard of Toddler Nutritional Status by Ministry of Health. The accuracy level of this fuzzy model is about 84%.

  19. Nutritional status and body fat distribution in children and adolescentes with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Célia Regina Moutinho de Miranda; Cunha, Ana Lúcia Pereira da; Costa, Ana Carolina da; Costa, Roseli de Souza Santos da; Lacerda, Speranza Vieira

    2015-11-01

    assessing the nutritional status and body fat distribution in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis. Fifty-six (56) 8-18 year old patients were assessed for fat distribution by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, for nutritional status by height/age, and for body mass index to age and dietary intake by 24-hour dietary recall. Approximately 50% of the sample showed adequate nutritional status. Most of it showed inadequate caloric and lipid intake. BMI/age was the nutritional indicator that best showed the increased percentage of trunk fat, android/gynecoidratio and trunk fat/total fat ratio. Patients with Pancreatic Insufficiency and eutrophic individuals showed higher median android/gynecoidratio. Increased abdominal adiposity was evidenced by DXA. The BMI did not identify decreased lean body mass. However, when body mass was high, it was significant for abdominal adiposity. The anthropometric assessment of patients with cystic fibrosis should be associated with body composition and body fat distribution to obtain an earlier malnutrition and cardiometabolic risk factor diagnosis.

  20. Nutritional status of patients who have fallen in an acute care setting.

    PubMed

    Bauer, J D; Isenring, E; Torma, J; Horsley, P; Martineau, J

    2007-12-01

    Falls may result in injury, loss of independence and higher healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to examine the nutritional status of patients who had fallen in an acute care setting. Forty-nine patients who had experienced a fall while admitted at an Australian private hospital participated in the study (age: 71.2 (SD 14.1) years; 21 male: 28 female). Nutritional status was assessed using subjective global assessment. Protein and energy intake was determined by dietary history and analysed using Australian computerised food composition data. According to subjective global assessment, 27 patients were well nourished and 22 malnourished (21 moderately, one severely malnourished). Well nourished fallers had significantly higher BMI (mean difference 3.7 kg/m(2), CI: 1.2-6.2), dietary protein (mean difference 19.8 g, CI: 2.0-37.5) and energy intake (mean difference 1751 kJ, CI: 332-3170) compared to malnourished fallers. There was no difference in severity of falls based on nutritional status, weight or BMI. There was a high prevalence of malnutrition and poor intake in this sample of patients who had fallen in hospital. Nutrition assessment and intervention for patients who have fallen in the acute care setting should be considered.

  1. Assessment of nutritional status, body composition, and human immunodeficiency virus-associated morphologic changes.

    PubMed

    Knox, Tamsin A; Zafonte-Sanders, Melissa; Fields-Gardner, Cade; Moen, Karol; Johansen, Diana; Paton, Nicholas

    2003-04-01

    Nutritional status should be assessed at regular intervals as part of management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The simplest approach to assessment is serial weight measurement. A comprehensive nutritional assessment includes (1) anthropometric measurements of body composition; (2) biochemical measurements of serum protein, micronutrients, and metabolic parameters; (3) clinical assessment of altered nutritional requirements and social or psychological issues that may preclude adequate intake; and (4) measurement of dietary intake. Techniques for measuring body composition of fat and lean body mass include anthropometry and bioelectric impedance analysis. Other techniques, including dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), hydrodensitometry, total body potassium measurement, and cross-sectional computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging are available in research centers. Anthropometry, including waist-hip ratios, regional DXA, and cross-sectional imaging, is best for detecting morphologic changes associated with fat redistribution syndrome. Nutritional assessment and intervention in children with HIV can help to prevent stunted growth and development.

  2. Dietary intake and dietary quality of low-income adults in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.

    PubMed

    Leung, Cindy W; Ding, Eric L; Catalano, Paul J; Villamor, Eduardo; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C

    2012-11-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) aims to alleviate hunger among its beneficiaries by providing benefits to purchase nutritious foods. We conducted a comprehensive dietary analysis of low-income adults and examined differences in dietary intake between SNAP participants and nonparticipants. The study population comprised 3835 nonelderly adults with a household income ≤130% of the federal poverty level from the 1999-2008 NHANES. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the distributions of usual intake for dietary outcomes. Relative differences in dietary intake by SNAP participation were estimated with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and household food security. Few low-income adults consumed recommended amounts of whole grains, fruit, vegetables, fish, and nuts/seeds/legumes. Conversely, many low-income adults exceeded recommended limits for processed meats, sweets, and bakery desserts and sugar-sweetened beverages. Approximately 13-22% of low-income adults did not meet any food and nutrient guidelines; virtually no adults met all of the guidelines. Compared with nonparticipants, SNAP participants consumed 39% fewer whole grains (95% CI: -57%, -15%), 44% more 100% fruit juice (95% CI: 0%, 107%), 56% more potatoes (95% CI: 18%, 106%), 46% more red meat (95% CI: 4%, 106%), and, in women, 61% more sugar-sweetened beverages (95% CI: 3%, 152%). SNAP participants also had lower dietary quality scores than did nonparticipants, as measured by a modified Alternate Healthy Eating Index. Although the diets of all low-income adults need major improvement, SNAP participants in particular had lower-quality diets than did income-eligible nonparticipants.

  3. Dealing with dietary measurement error in nutritional cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Laurence S; Schatzkin, Arthur; Midthune, Douglas; Kipnis, Victor

    2011-07-20

    Dietary measurement error creates serious challenges to reliably discovering new diet-disease associations in nutritional cohort studies. Such error causes substantial underestimation of relative risks and reduction of statistical power for detecting associations. On the basis of data from the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition Study, we recommend the following approaches to deal with these problems. Regarding data analysis of cohort studies using food-frequency questionnaires, we recommend 1) using energy adjustment for relative risk estimation; 2) reporting estimates adjusted for measurement error along with the usual relative risk estimates, whenever possible (this requires data from a relevant, preferably internal, validation study in which participants report intakes using both the main instrument and a more detailed reference instrument such as a 24-hour recall or multiple-day food record); 3) performing statistical adjustment of relative risks, based on such validation data, if they exist, using univariate (only for energy-adjusted intakes such as densities or residuals) or multivariate regression calibration. We note that whereas unadjusted relative risk estimates are biased toward the null value, statistical significance tests of unadjusted relative risk estimates are approximately valid. Regarding study design, we recommend increasing the sample size to remedy loss of power; however, it is important to understand that this will often be an incomplete solution because the attenuated signal may be too small to distinguish from unmeasured confounding in the model relating disease to reported intake. Future work should be devoted to alleviating the problem of signal attenuation, possibly through the use of improved self-report instruments or by combining dietary biomarkers with self-report instruments.

  4. Infant feeding practices, dietary adequacy, and micronutrient status measures in the MAL-ED study.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Laura E; Bose, Anuradha; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Nesamvuni, Cebisa; de Moraes, Milena Lima; Turab, Ali; Patil, Crystal; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2014-11-01

    The overall goal of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study is to evaluate the roles of repeated enteric infection and poor dietary intakes on the development of malnutrition, poor cognitive development, and diminished immune response. The use of 8 distinct sites for data collection from Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, and South Asia allow for an examination of these relationships across different environmental contexts. Key to testing study hypotheses is the collection of appropriate data to characterize the dietary intakes and nutritional status of study children from birth through 24 months of age. The focus of the current article is on the collection of data to describe the nature and adequacy of infant feeding, energy and nutrient intakes, and the chosen indicators to capture micronutrient status in children over time.

  5. Infant Feeding Practices, Dietary Adequacy, and Micronutrient Status Measures in the MAL-ED Study

    PubMed Central

    Caulfield, Laura E.; Bose, Anuradha; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Nesamvuni, Cebisa; de Moraes, Milena Lima; Turab, Ali; Patil, Crystal; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2014-01-01

    The overall goal of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study is to evaluate the roles of repeated enteric infection and poor dietary intakes on the development of malnutrition, poor cognitive development, and diminished immune response. The use of 8 distinct sites for data collection from Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, and South Asia allow for an examination of these relationships across different environmental contexts. Key to testing study hypotheses is the collection of appropriate data to characterize the dietary intakes and nutritional status of study children from birth through 24 months of age. The focus of the current article is on the collection of data to describe the nature and adequacy of infant feeding, energy and nutrient intakes, and the chosen indicators to capture micronutrient status in children over time. PMID:25305294

  6. Distinctive modulation of inflammatory and metabolic parameters in relation to zinc nutritional status in adult overweight/obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Costarelli, Laura; Muti, Elisa; Malavolta, Marco; Cipriano, Catia; Giacconi, Robertina; Tesei, Silvia; Piacenza, Francesco; Pierpaoli, Sara; Gasparini, Nazzarena; Faloia, Emanuela; Tirabassi, Giacomo; Boscaro, Marco; Polito, Angela; Mauro, Beatrice; Maiani, Francesca; Raguzzini, Anna; Marcellini, Fiorella; Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Emanuelli, Monica; Lattanzio, Fabrizia; Mocchegiani, Eugenio

    2010-05-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with low grade of inflammation and chronic inflammatory response characterized by abnormal production and activation of some pro-inflammatory signalling pathways. Taking into account that obesity is the direct result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, the nutritional factors in the diet, with particular focus on zinc, may play a pivotal role in the development of obesity-associated comorbidities. Considering the potential interactions among zinc nutritional status, inflammation, overweight/obesity and insulin secretion, the aim of the present work was to clarify the influence of zinc dietary intake on some metabolic, inflammatory and zinc status parameters in adult overweight/obese subjects. We found a close interrelationship between nutritional zinc and obesity. In particular, subjects with a lower zinc dietary intake display a deeper inflammatory status, general impairment of the zinc status, an altered lipid profile and increased insulin production with respect to obese subjects with normal zinc dietary intake. Moreover, in the presence of low dietary zinc intake, the obese subjects are less capable to respond to oxidative stress and to inflammation leading to the development of obesity or to a worsening of already preexisting obesity status. In conclusion, a possible zinc supplementation in obese subjects with a deeper inflammatory status and more altered zinc profile may be suggested in order to limit or reduce the inflammation, taking also into account that zinc supplementation normalizes "inflammaging" as well as zinc profile leading to a correct intra- and extracellular zinc homeostasis.

  7. Health, developmental, and nutritional status of adolescent alcohol and marijuana abusers.

    PubMed

    Farrow, J A; Rees, J M; Worthington-Roberts, B S

    1987-02-01

    The impact of alcohol and marijuana abuse on the physical health and nutritional status of adolescents has not been well documented. The health consequences of alcoholism and chemical abuse in adults may not relate to the pediatric population. Forty-nine adolescent boys (mean age 15.8 years) with varying degrees of alcohol and marijuana use by self-report were evaluated as to their general health, pubertal development and nutritional status using health and dietary history, physical examination, anthropometrics, and biochemical assays of liver function and tissue nutrients. Thirteen (27%) were alcohol and marijuana abusers, 20 (41%) marijuana abusers, and 16 (32%) nonusers. There were significant differences between alcohol and marijuana abusers and marijuana abusers compared to nonusers with respect to endorsing symptoms of nutritional deficiency (muscle weakness, bleeding gums, tiredness, etc) (P less than .001). There were no significant differences between subgroups in other nutritional measures except plasma zinc concentration which was low in marijuana abusers (mean 85 micrograms/dL). All adolescents reported consuming adequate nutrients, although alcohol and marijuana abusers reported eating more snack foods and less fruit, vegetables, and milk than other groups. There were no significant differences in hematologic status (complete blood cell count, transferrin, folate), liver function (gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase), or anthropometric and sexual maturational indices of growth. There were no chronic signs of chemical abuse by physical examinations. It appears that health and nutritional disability from chemical abuse in adolescents relates more to poor dietary habits and symptomatic deterioration in general health than to specific effects on growth or nutritional status. Studies with larger numbers of subjects need to document these findings.

  8. Nutritional status assessment in semiclosed environments: ground-based and space flight studies in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Rice, B. L.; Nillen, J. L.; Gillman, P. L.; Block, G.

    2001-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical during long-term spaceflight, as is the ability to easily monitor dietary intake. A comprehensive nutritional status assessment profile was designed for use before, during and after flight. It included assessment of both dietary intake and biochemical markers of nutritional status. A spaceflight food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed to evaluate intake of key nutrients during spaceflight. The nutritional status assessment protocol was evaluated during two ground-based closed-chamber studies (60 and 91 d; n = 4/study), and was implemented for two astronauts during 4-mo stays on the Mir space station. Ground-based studies indicated that the FFQ, administered daily or weekly, adequately estimated intake of key nutrients. Chamber subjects maintained prechamber energy intake and body weight. Astronauts tended to eat 40--50% of WHO-predicted energy requirements, and lost >10% of preflight body mass. Serum ferritin levels were lower after the chamber stays, despite adequate iron intake. Red blood cell folate concentrations were increased after the chamber studies. Vitamin D stores were decreased by > 40% on chamber egress and after spaceflight. Mir crew members had decreased levels of most nutritional indices, but these are difficult to interpret given the insufficient energy intake and loss of body mass. Spaceflight food systems can provide adequate intake of macronutrients, although, as expected, micronutrient intake is a concern for any closed or semiclosed food system. These data demonstrate the utility and importance of nutritional status assessment during spaceflight and of the FFQ during extended-duration spaceflight.

  9. Nutritional status assessment in semiclosed environments: ground-based and space flight studies in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Rice, B. L.; Nillen, J. L.; Gillman, P. L.; Block, G.

    2001-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical during long-term spaceflight, as is the ability to easily monitor dietary intake. A comprehensive nutritional status assessment profile was designed for use before, during and after flight. It included assessment of both dietary intake and biochemical markers of nutritional status. A spaceflight food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed to evaluate intake of key nutrients during spaceflight. The nutritional status assessment protocol was evaluated during two ground-based closed-chamber studies (60 and 91 d; n = 4/study), and was implemented for two astronauts during 4-mo stays on the Mir space station. Ground-based studies indicated that the FFQ, administered daily or weekly, adequately estimated intake of key nutrients. Chamber subjects maintained prechamber energy intake and body weight. Astronauts tended to eat 40--50% of WHO-predicted energy requirements, and lost >10% of preflight body mass. Serum ferritin levels were lower after the chamber stays, despite adequate iron intake. Red blood cell folate concentrations were increased after the chamber studies. Vitamin D stores were decreased by > 40% on chamber egress and after spaceflight. Mir crew members had decreased levels of most nutritional indices, but these are difficult to interpret given the insufficient energy intake and loss of body mass. Spaceflight food systems can provide adequate intake of macronutrients, although, as expected, micronutrient intake is a concern for any closed or semiclosed food system. These data demonstrate the utility and importance of nutritional status assessment during spaceflight and of the FFQ during extended-duration spaceflight.

  10. Dietary arachidonic acid in perinatal nutrition: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Fewtrell, Mary; Agostoni, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is supplied together with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in infant formulas, but we have limited knowledge about the effects of supplementation with either of these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on growth and developmental outcomes. AA is present in similar levels in breast milk throughout the world, whereas the level of DHA is highly diet dependent. Autopsy studies show similar diet-dependent variation in brain DHA, whereas AA is little affected by intake. Early intake of DHA has been shown to affect visual development, but the effect of LCPUFA on neurodevelopment remains to be established. Few studies have found any functional difference between infants supplemented with DHA alone compared to DHA+AA, but some studies show neurodevelopmental advantages in breast-fed infants of mothers supplemented with n-3 LCPUFA alone. It also remains to be established whether the AA/DHA balance could affect allergic and inflammatory outcomes later in life. Disentangling effects of genetic variability and dietary intake on AA and DHA-status and on functional outcomes may be an important step in the process of determining whether AA-intake is of any physiological or clinical importance. However, based on the current evidence we hypothesize that dietary AA plays a minor role on growth and development relative to the impact of dietary DHA.

  11. Dietary patterns and bone mineral status in young adults: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Claire R; Woodside, Jayne V; Cardwell, Chris R; McCourt, Hannah J; Young, Ian S; Murray, Liam J; Boreham, Colin A; Gallagher, Alison M; Neville, Charlotte E; McKinley, Michelle C

    2012-10-28

    Studies of individual nutrients or foods have revealed much about dietary influences on bone. Multiple food or nutrient approaches, such as dietary pattern analysis, could offer further insight but research is limited and largely confined to older adults. We examined the relationship between dietary patterns, obtained by a posteriori and a priori methods, and bone mineral status (BMS; collective term for bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD)) in young adults (20-25 years; n 489). Diet was assessed by 7 d diet history and BMD and BMC were determined at the lumbar spine and femoral neck (FN). A posteriori dietary patterns were derived using principal component analysis (PCA) and three a priori dietary quality scores were applied (dietary diversity score (DDS), nutritional risk score and Mediterranean diet score). For the PCA-derived dietary patterns, women in the top compared to the bottom fifth of the 'Nuts and Meat' pattern had greater FN BMD by 0·074 g/cm(2) (P = 0·049) and FN BMC by 0·40 g (P = 0·034) after adjustment for confounders. Similarly, men in the top compared to the bottom fifth of the 'Refined' pattern had lower FN BMC by 0·41 g (P = 0·049). For the a priori DDS, women in the top compared to the bottom third had lower FN BMD by 0·05 g/cm(2) after adjustments (P = 0·052), but no other relationships with BMS were identified. In conclusion, adherence to a 'Nuts and Meat' dietary pattern may be associated with greater BMS in young women and a 'Refined' dietary pattern may be detrimental for bone health in young men.

  12. Nutritional status and functional capacity of hospitalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria R M; Fogaça, Kelly C P; Leandro-Merhi, Vânia A

    2009-11-17

    The nutritional status of the aging individual results from a complex interaction between personal and environmental factors. A disease influences and is influenced by the nutritional status and the functional capacity of the individual. We asses the relationship between nutritional status and indicators of functional capacity among recently hospitalized elderly in a general hospital. A cross-sectional study was done with 240 elderly (women, n = 127 and men, n = 113) hospitalized in a hospital that provides care for the public and private healthcare systems. The nutritional status was classified by the MNA (Mini Nutritional Assessment) into: malnourished, risk of malnutrition and without malnutrition (adequate). The functional autonomy indicators were obtained by the self-reported Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) and Activity of Daily Living (ADL) questionnaire. The chi-square test was used to compare the proportions and the level of significance was 5%. Among the assessed elderly, 33.8% were classified as adequate regarding nutritional status; 37.1% were classified as being at risk of malnutrition and 29.1% were classified as malnourished. All the IADL and ADL variables assessed were significantly more deteriorated among the malnourished individuals. Among the ADL variables, eating partial (42.9%) or complete (12.9%) dependence was found in more than half of the malnourished elderly, in 13.4% of those at risk of malnutrition and in 2.5% of those without malnutrition. There is an interrelationship between the nutritional status of the elderly and reduced functional capacity.

  13. Nutritional Knowledge, Practice, and Dietary Habits among school Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Naeeni, Marjan Manouchehri; Jafari, Sakineh; Fouladgar, Maryam; Heidari, Kamal; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Fakhri, Maryam; Karami, Parvaneh; Omidi, Razieh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although nutritional status of children and adolescents is of great concern various interventions and modifications aiming at promotion of healthy eating behaviors have limited impact due to insufficient understanding of dietary habits between different age groups and genders. The aim of this study in not only evaluation of nutritional knowledge, practice, and dietary habits of primary school and junior high school students in Isfahan province, but also this research explore crucial differences regarding gender and living area of the above-mentioned population in Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 4700 primary school and junior high school pupils in Isfahan province. Data were collected through standard 24-h recall food frequency questionnaire and researcher-designed questionnaire. Independent t-test was applied for comparison of mean values of total units of consumed food materials. Qualitative variables were compared by using the Chi-square test. Data were analyzed by ACCESS 2010 and SPSS 18 software. Results: Nutritional knowledge of female pupils and junior high school students was higher than their male and elementary school students respectively; still, theses superiorities did not lead to higher practice score. Bread and cereals group received daily intakes in accordance with food and drug administration (FDA) recommendations. Indeed, vegetables, milk, and dairy products, as well as meat daily intakes, were lower than the FDA recommendation, whereas fats, oils, and sugars intakes were higher. In comparison to females, male participants had significantly lower consumption of vegetables and fruits whilst they had a higher intake of carbohydrates, fats, and meats. Conclusions: Our results showed that adolescents failed to meet sufficient nutritional requirements, and they had an imbalanced diet, which was considerably low in several essential nutrients and high in some food materials. PMID:26157569

  14. Nutritional status and HIV in rural South African children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Achieving the Millennium Development Goals that aim to reduce malnutrition and child mortality depends in part on the ability of governments/policymakers to address nutritional status of children in general and those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS in particular. This study describes HIV prevalence in children, patterns of malnutrition by HIV status and determinants of nutritional status. Methods The study involved 671 children aged 12-59 months living in the Agincourt sub-district, rural South Africa in 2007. Anthropometric measurements were taken and HIV testing with disclosure was done using two rapid tests. Z-scores were generated using WHO 2006 standards as indicators of nutritional status. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to establish the determinants of child nutritonal status. Results Prevalence of malnutrition, particularly stunting (18%), was high in the overall sample of children. HIV prevalence in this age group was 4.4% (95% CI: 2.79 to 5.97). HIV positive children had significantly poorer nutritional outcomes than their HIV negative counterparts. Besides HIV status, other significant determinants of nutritional outcomes included age of the child, birth weight, maternal age, age of household head, and area of residence. Conclusions This study documents poor nutritional status among children aged 12-59 months in rural South Africa. HIV is an independent modifiable risk factor for poor nutritional outcomes and makes a significant contribution to nutritional outcomes at the individual level. Early paediatric HIV testing of exposed or at risk children, followed by appropriate health care for infected children, may improve their nutritional status and survival. PMID:21439041

  15. Racial and gender differences in weight status and dietary practices among college students.

    PubMed

    Debate, R D; Topping, M; Sargent, R G

    2001-01-01

    A questionnaire was used to assess nutritional intake, weight status, and dietary practices among 630 U.S. college students. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using self-reported heights and weights, and nutritional status was assessed via 24-hour recall. Sixty-four percent of the students had acceptable BMI levels (between 19 and 25); 16% of African-American females and 15% of African-American males had BMIs indicating obesity (30 or above). Approximately 18% of the students consumed 5 servings per day of fruits and vegetables, 7% consumed 6 or more grain products, and 53% consumed 2 or more dairy products. Twenty-seven percent reported never/rarely eating fast foods. Recommendations are presented for the development of culturally appropriate health education/promotion programs in order to help college students meet Healthy People 2010 objectives.

  16. Nutritional status, gender and marital status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Odencrants, Sigrid; Bjuström, Tomas; Wiklund, Nils; Blomberg, Karin

    2013-10-01

    To describe and compare nutritional status, pulmonary function, gender and marital status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a chronic illness that can lead to poor nutritional status due to an increased energy requirements related to laboured breathing. Inadequate nutritional intake has often been described in this patient group. Nutritional support for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who suffer from nutritional problems is essential, both for their sense of well-being and for their survival with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The study design was descriptive and comparative. Quantitative data collection was carried out among 81 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (47 women and 34 men) with an average age of 65 years (SD 3·5). The Mini Nutritional Assessment was used to assess nutritional status. Participants who lived alone had worse nutritional status than those who did not live alone, and female participants had worse nutritional status than their male counterparts. No significant correlation was found between pulmonary function and nutritional status. This study contributes knowledge of a potential correlation between nutritional status, gender and marital status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be at an increased risk of malnutrition. Despite the previous results showing malnutrition and underweight to be common, the present study found that many of the participants were overweight, which may reflect a global health trend regardless of disease. Early identification of patients at risk of malnutrition is important. Registered nurses should be aware that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who are female or who live alone may be at an increased risk of nutritional problems. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease must be offered information and support

  17. Dietary Intake Contributions of Food and Beverages by Source and Food Security Status in US Adults.

    PubMed

    Spees, Colleen K; Clark, Jill E; Hooker, Neal H; Watowicz, Rosanna P; Taylor, Christopher A

    2017-09-01

    To compare the consumption patterns and diet quality of foods and beverages obtained from various sources by food security status. Cross-sectional analysis of 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. A total of 4,789 adults (aged >19 years) with dietary intake and food security data. The contribution of foods and beverages to energy, nutrients, and diet quality by locations where food was obtained was compared across food security status. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression. Almost all US adults consumed food and beverages obtained from grocery stores, regardless of food security status (about 95%), which accounted for one half to two thirds of total macronutrient intakes. The diet quality of foods from grocery stores was better in highly food-secure adults. Convenience stores are used most by very low food-secure adults; those foods had the poorest diet quality profile. Dietary patterns of marginally food-secure adults more closely resembled sources and intakes of low and very low food-secure adults. Food-insecure adults use food sources differently, resulting in diet quality differences of foods and beverages obtained. Place-based interventions in the food environment may have differential effects by food security status. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Oral nutritional supplements intake and nutritional status among inpatients admitted in a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Lammel Ricardi, Juliana; Marcadenti, Aline; Perocchin de Souza, Simone; Siviero Ribeiro, Anelise

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition is very common in hospitals and inpatients with prescription of oral nutritional supplementation have improvement of the nutritional status. To detect the total acceptance rate and a possible association between oral nutritional supplements intake and nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 398 inpatients. Fifteen types of supplements were analyzed and nutritional status was detected by Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). Rest-ingestion index (RI) was obtained and Modified Poisson's regression was used to detect associations between nutritional status and intake of nutritional supplements. The prevalence of malnutrition was 43.7% and overall acceptance of supplements was around 75%. Industrialized supplements have better acceptance among well-nourished inpatients and patients who ate less than 80% of the supplement offered (industrialized or homemade) had higher risk for malnutrition (48%). There was an association between oral nutritional supplements intake and nutritional status, despite the good acceptance rate. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. [Nutritional status and nutritional rehabilitation of elderly people living in long-term care institutions].

    PubMed

    Lelovics, Zsuzsanna

    2009-11-01

    We review our studies on the most important factors related to feeding and nutrition in long-term care institutions, as well as we present the nutritional status of elderly people living in social homes, and, based on our results, we make recommendations concerning nutritional rehabilitation. We aimed to assess the following: nutritional status of people older than sixty years (elderly) living in long-term care institutions; changes in the body mass index of elderly living in long-term care institutions; changes in the nutritional status of elderly living in long-term care institutions during the last half decade; relations and correlations between acute and chronic diseases and nutritional status; the sip feed provision for elderly living in long-term care institutions; relationship between the discovered potential influencing factors and nutritional status screened by Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). We screened the nutritional status of altogether 4774 (men: 28.9-30.9%, women: 69.1-71.19%; mean age: 77.8+/-8.9 years) elderly long-term care residents who volunteered to participate. In 2004 and 2006 the MUST and our questionnaire, in 2008 the nutritionDay questionnaire was used. Risk of malnutrition is high (26.8-77.0%) in elderly residents of social homes. Assessment of nutritional status is done four times a year or even more rarely in 29.5% of the residents. Nutritional status is multifactorial; it is influenced by immobility, fever, etc. Loss of appetite and swallowing difficulties are 2.5-fold, limited mobility, dementia and missing teeth are almost two-fold (1.6-1.7) more frequent in the group of high risk elderly than in the elderly living in social homes. Neurological diseases are in a significant correlation with nutritional status. Incidence of neurological diseases increased significantly in the last years. Nutritional rehabilitation does not end with screening the nutritional status, moreover, it begins with that. Individual diet has to

  20. Is dengue severity related to nutritional status?

    PubMed

    Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Nimmannitya, Suchitra

    2005-03-01

    A retrospective review of dengue patients admitted to Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (previously known as Children's Hospital) from 1995 to 1999 revealed 4,532 confirmed cases of dengue infection; 80.9% were dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and 19.1% were dengue fever cases (DF). Among the DHF patients; 30.6% had shock. The majority of them, 66.6%, had a normal nutritional status, while 9.3% were malnourished and 24.2% had obesity as classified by weight for age. Compared with control patients with other diagnoses (excluding HIV/AIDS patients), malnourished children had a lower risk of contracting dengue infection (odds ratio = 0.48, 95% Cl = 0.39-0.60, p = 0.000) while obese children had a greater risk of infection with dengue viruses (odds ratio = 1.96, 95% Cl = 1.55-2.5, p = 0.000). The clinical signs, symptoms and laboratory findings of dengue were almost the same among the 3 groups of malnourished, normal, and obese patients. The minor differences observed were that in obese children liver enlargement was found less often; maculopapular/convalescence rash and elevations of alanine aminotransferase were found more often. Malnourished patients had a higher risk of developing shock (37.8%) than normal (29.9%) and obese patients (30.2%) (p = 0.000). Obese patients had more unusual presentations: encephalopathy (1.3%) and associated infections (4.8%), than normal (0.5% and 2.7%) and malnourished patients (1.2% and 3.1%). Complications of fluid overload were found more in obese patients (6.5%) compared to normal (3.2%) and malnourished patients (2.1%) (p = 0.000). The case-fatality rates (CFR) in malnourished patients and obese patients were 0.5% and 0.4%, respectively, while in normal patients the CFR was 0.07%. Under and over nutrition DHF patients had either a greater risk of shock or unusual presentations and complications, which can lead to severe disease or complications and probably a higher CFR.

  1. Energy metabolism and nutritional status in hospitalized patients with lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takemura, Yumi; Sasaki, Masaya; Goto, Kenichi; Takaoka, Azusa; Ohi, Akiko; Kurihara, Mika; Nakanishi, Naoko; Nakano, Yasutaka; Hanaoka, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the energy metabolism of patients with lung cancer and the relationship between energy metabolism and proinflammatory cytokines. Twenty-eight patients with lung cancer and 18 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The nutritional status upon admission was analyzed using nutritional screening tools and laboratory tests. The resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient were measured using indirect calorimetry, and the predicted resting energy expenditure was calculated using the Harris–Benedict equation. Energy expenditure was increased in patients with advanced stage disease, and there were positive correlations between measured resting energy expenditure/body weight and interleukin-6 levels and between measured resting energy expenditure/predicted resting energy expenditure and interleukin-6 levels. There were significant relationships between body mass index and plasma leptin or acylated ghrelin levels. However, the level of appetite controlling hormones did not affect dietary intake. There was a negative correlation between plasma interleukin-6 levels and dietary intake, suggesting that interleukin-6 plays a role in reducing dietary intake. These results indicate that energy expenditure changes significantly with lung cancer stage and that plasma interleukin-6 levels affect energy metabolism and dietary intake. Thus, nutritional management that considers the changes in energy metabolism is important in patients with lung cancer. PMID:27698539

  2. Energy metabolism and nutritional status in hospitalized patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Yumi; Sasaki, Masaya; Goto, Kenichi; Takaoka, Azusa; Ohi, Akiko; Kurihara, Mika; Nakanishi, Naoko; Nakano, Yasutaka; Hanaoka, Jun

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the energy metabolism of patients with lung cancer and the relationship between energy metabolism and proinflammatory cytokines. Twenty-eight patients with lung cancer and 18 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The nutritional status upon admission was analyzed using nutritional screening tools and laboratory tests. The resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient were measured using indirect calorimetry, and the predicted resting energy expenditure was calculated using the Harris-Benedict equation. Energy expenditure was increased in patients with advanced stage disease, and there were positive correlations between measured resting energy expenditure/body weight and interleukin-6 levels and between measured resting energy expenditure/predicted resting energy expenditure and interleukin-6 levels. There were significant relationships between body mass index and plasma leptin or acylated ghrelin levels. However, the level of appetite controlling hormones did not affect dietary intake. There was a negative correlation between plasma interleukin-6 levels and dietary intake, suggesting that interleukin-6 plays a role in reducing dietary intake. These results indicate that energy expenditure changes significantly with lung cancer stage and that plasma interleukin-6 levels affect energy metabolism and dietary intake. Thus, nutritional management that considers the changes in energy metabolism is important in patients with lung cancer.

  3. Dietary nutritional profile and phenolic compounds consumption in school children of highlands of Argentine Northwest.

    PubMed

    Rossi, M C; Bassett, M N; Sammán, N C

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this work was to assess dietary patterns and consumption of phenolic compounds from fruits and vegetables byschoolchildren of high altitude regions from northwest of Argentina. A nutritional survey including food-frequency consumption, 24-h dietary recall and anthropometric measurements was applied to 241 children from 6 to 12years old. The amounts of the different classes of phenolic compounds were established from Food Composition Tables available in phenol-explorer website. Statistics analyses were performed using IBM SPSS 20.0. Nutritional status assessment showed underweight (2.2%), low weight (12.7%), overweight (12.7%) and obesity (7.4%). Mean intake of phenolic compounds was 412mg/day. Most consumed foods were infusions and sugar products, consumption of vegetables, fruits and dairy products were low compared to recommendations for this age. Considering that polyphenols have protective health effects, its low consumption could be a risk of development of chronic non communicable diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Nutritional status and weakness following pediatric hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bouma, Sandra; Peterson, Mark; Gatza, Erin; Choi, Sung Won

    2016-12-01

    Survivorship after pediatric HCT has increased over the past decade. Focus on long-term care and well-being remains critical due to risk of poor dietary habits and exaggerated sedentary behavior, which can lead to muscle weakness, increased risk for obesity, and cardiometabolic disorders. Nutrition and physical activity are key factors in survivorship; however, data are limited. Comprehensive nutritional assessments, including nutrition-focused physical examination, grip strength, and food/activity surveys, were completed in 36 pediatric HCT survivors (aged 2-25 years). Patients were divided into undernutrition, normal-nutrition, and overnutrition categories. Fifty percent of participants were classified as normal nutrition, 22% undernutrition, and 28% overnutrition. Few patients met the U.S. Dietary Guidelines recommended intake for vegetables, fiber, saturated fat, and So FAS. Patients in the undernutrition group demonstrated significantly lower grip strength than those in the normal- and overnutrition groups. When grip strength was normalized to body mass, patients in the overnutrition group had the highest prevalence of weakness. Using NHANES reference data, maximum grip strength and NGS cutoffs were identified that could significantly distinguish the nutrition groups. Comprehensive nutritional assessments and grip strength measurements are feasible, non-invasive, easy to perform, and inform both under- and overnutrition in pediatric HCT survivors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Screening Children for Nutritional Status: Suggestions for Child Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Rockville, MD. Maternal and Child Health Service.

    This report details two screening programs aimed at determining childhood nutritional problems within a given community. Discussed in section I is a simplified screening approach which involves gathering information about the frequency of specific food stuffs and food nutrients in the community; obtaining family demographic and dietary information…

  6. [Effects of individualized nutritional education programs on the level of nutrient intake and nutritional status of colorectal cancer patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Park, Kwi Ock; Choi-Kwon, Smi

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an individualized nutritional education programs on nutrient intake and nutritional status of patients with colorectal cancer who are undergoing palliative chemotherapy. Forty patients with colorectal cancer (19 experimental and 21 control patients) were recruited from a chemotherapy ward at S University Hospital in Seoul, Korea. The experimental group received two individualized nutritional counseling sessions and two telephone counseling sessions over 6 weeks. The control group received nutritional counseling after completion of data collection. Nutritional education included general guidelines for food intake while receiving chemotherapy, dietary guidelines for patients with colorectal cancer, daily meal schedules to overcome cancer, and dietary guideline for each chemotherapy side effect. Data were analyzed using χ²-test and t-test with the SPSS program 17.0. Two group comparison revealed that the experimental group had significantly improved calorie (p=.038) and total protein intake (p=.001), and serum albumin percentage change (p=.040). Body weight did not increase but remained the same as the baseline in both groups. Study results indicate that this individualized nutritional education programs are effective in enhancing nutrient intake and nutritional status of patients with colorectal cancer who are undergoing palliative chemotherapy.

  7. [Nutritional status of old patients on programmed hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Revkovskaia, N S; Denisov, A Iu; Borisov, I A

    2008-01-01

    To study nutritional status of old patients on programmed hemodialysis. A total of 82 patients aged 60-88 years were divided into two groups by age: group 1 (n = 41) consisted of 60-75 year-olds, group 2 (n = 41) included 76-year-olds and older. The nutritional status (NS) was assessed by anthropometric and laboratory data, a prognostic hypotrophy index. In group 1 NS was normal in 65.9% patients while in group 2--only in 29.2%. Older patients had obesity in 21.9% cases. It is shown that two thirds of presenile and senile patients have abnormal nutritional status. Taking into consideration the fact that protein-energy insufficiency is an unfavourable factor affecting the patients'survival, old patients need a special control of nutritional status and its early correction.

  8. Nutritional status in short-term overtraining boxers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrova, Albena; Petrov, Lubomir; Zaekov, Nikolay; Bozhkov, Borislav; Zsheliaskova-Koynova, Zshivka

    2017-03-01

    The diet is essential to the recovery process in athletes, especially those undergoing intensive training. The continuous imbalance between loading and recovery leads to development of overtraining syndrome. The purpose of this study was to establish the changes in the nutritional status of short-term overtrained athletes. Twelve boxers from the team of National Spoils Academy Sofia, Bulgaria during their preparation for the National Championship 2016 were studied. The measurements were conducted three times.in the beginning of preparation (T1), 22 days later (2) and 10 days after (32 days after first measurement), in the beginning of the recovery period, one week prior the competition (T3).The measurements included basic anthropometric data, overtraining questionnaire RESTO-Sport and nutrition questionnaire, plasma concentration of testosterone and cortisol.On the data of dietary survey the percent proportion and the amount of daily consumed proteins, fats and carbohydrates were defined and the energy intake of the tested athletes was calculated. According to the RESTO-Sport a significant decrease in the ratio stress/recovery was observed in the period with the heaviest training load T2, and an increase was estimated in the pre­competition recovery period T3. It was found a typical for the overtraining syndrome decrease in the concentration of testosterone and the ratio of testosterone/cortisol in T3. In some respondents a reduction in carbohydrates and proteins intake was observed in T2 and especially in T3, which correlates with the hormonal changes. In this work the diet changes was discussed as a possible consequence and/or a cause of the overtraining syndrome.

  9. [Assessment of nutritional status in children with atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    López-Campos, Xiomara; Castro-Almarales, Raúl Lázaro; Massip Nicot, Juliette

    2011-01-01

    There has been described some exacerbating factors for atopic dermatitis, including foods. Several investigations have reported controversial results about the influence of foods on atopic dermatitis. But there is scarce information about the nutritional status of patients with atopic dermatitis. To characterize the nutritional condition in a sample of children with atopic dermatitis in Old Havana, Cuba. In this descriptive study, were included 60 children, aged between 2 and 14 years, with the diagnosis of atopic dermatitis from the Allergy Department in the municipality Havana, from January to April of 2008. For every patient we evaluated anthropometrics, biochemical and immunologic measurements, as well the frequency of meals ingestion and the types of foods. We found that 83.3% of the patients were younger than 6 years, with a slight prevalence of females (53.3%). Ninety-seven percent of the children had a normal height for its age and 48.3% had a normal weight for their height, and 20% of the patients had malnutrition. It was detected mild and moderate anemia in 63.3%. The daily frequency of taking breakfast was carried out in 55%, the lunch in 100% and dinner in 95%. The products of regular consumption are carbohydrates, candies nd sodas in 76.6%. Fish and shellfish are consumed only for 16% of the patients. In the studied sample of children with atopic dermatitis we found a high prevalence of malnutrition associated with poor dietary habits. Breast milk feeding was related to a less malnutrition percentage in children with atopic dermatitis.

  10. Nutritional status, psychological issues and survival in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Scott D; Kimmel, Paul L

    2007-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition in the end-stage renal disease population. There are a number of causes of malnutrition in hemodialysis patients, which can often be directly linked to the uremic state. Laboratory measures including albumin, prealbumin, and serum cholesterol, as well as anthropometric measures, have been used to assess malnutrition in this patient population. There is, however, no single accepted measure of malnutrition in patients with chronic kidney disease. Failure to achieve adequate nutritional goals may lead to protein-energy malnutrition, which has been linked to decreased survival. Several studies have also shown a direct association between psychosocial variables, including depression, and the nutritional status of hemodialysis patients, in particular the serum albumin concentration. Interventions such as oral nutritional supplements or intradialytic parenteral nutrition may be necessary to improve nutritional status if conservative measures such as nutritional counseling and regular dietician follow-up fail to produce the changes needed to sustain health. In addition, given the potential link between psychological conditions, such as depression, and overall nutritional status, interventions designed to screen for and treat psychiatric disorders may lead to improvements in nutritional status and therefore increased survival rates of patients with end-stage renal disease treated with hemodialysis. Further study is needed to evaluate the association between depression, malnutrition, and survival in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  11. Nutrition and Aging: Assessment and Treatment of Compromised Nutritional Status in Frail Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Jennie L; Dumbrell, Andrea C

    2006-01-01

    Nutrition is an important determinant of health in persons over the age of 65. Malnutrition in the elderly is often underdiagnosed. Careful nutritional assessment is necessary for both the successful diagnosis and development of comprehensive treatment plans for malnutrition in this population. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with an educational overview of this essential but often underecognized aspect of geriatric assessment. This article will review some common issues in nutrition for the elderly in both hospital and community settings. The complexity and impact of multiple comorbidities on the successful nutritional assessment of elderly patients is highlighted by using case scenarios to discuss nutritional issues common to elderly patients and nutritional assessment tools. Three case studies provide some context for an overview of these issues, which include the physiology of aging, weight loss, protein undernutrition, impaired cognition, malnutrition during hospitalization, screening procedures, and general dietary recommendations for patients 65 years of age and older. PMID:18047259

  12. Nutrition and aging: assessment and treatment of compromised nutritional status in frail elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jennie L; Dumbrell, Andrea C

    2006-01-01

    Nutrition is an important determinant of health in persons over the age of 65. Malnutrition in the elderly is often underdiagnosed. Careful nutritional assessment is necessary for both the successful diagnosis and development of comprehensive treatment plans for malnutrition in this population. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with an educational overview of this essential but often underecognized aspect of geriatric assessment. This article will review some common issues in nutrition for the elderly in both hospital and community settings. The complexity and impact of multiple comorbidities on the successful nutritional assessment of elderly patients is highlighted by using case scenarios to discuss nutritional issues common to elderly patients and nutritional assessment tools. Three case studies provide some context for an overview of these issues, which include the physiology of aging, weight loss, protein undernutrition, impaired cognition, malnutrition during hospitalization, screening procedures, and general dietary recommendations for patients 65 years of age and older.

  13. [Organization of nutrition and nutritional status in major jobs workers engaged in gas-processing industry].

    PubMed

    Beĭlin, S M; Fateeva, T A

    2009-01-01

    The workers of gas-processing industry are exposed to a complex of industrial factors throughout their labor activity. Curative diet is in full measure unable to neutralize reactants and to optimize metabolic processes so there is a need for warranting, designing, and introducing a functional diet. The nutrition of major jobs workers engaged in gas-processing industry is inadequate, improper, and unbalanced, which leads to an excess nutritional status in the majority of workers. It is necessary to develop a functional nutrition concept that makes it possible to correct the intake of essential nutrients and to normalize the nutritional status of the workers, by including functional foods into their diet.

  14. Academic performance of Korean children is associated with dietary behaviours and physical status.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Young P; Frongillo, Edward A; Han, Sung-Sook; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Woo-Kyung; Jang, Young-Ai; Won, Hye-Sook; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Sook-He

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain a fuller understanding of the association of dietary behaviours, physical status and socio-economic status with academic performance in Korean teenagers. The subjects in this study were 6,463 boys and girls, in grade 5, 8, and 11 in Korea. A self-administered questionnaire and the food-frequency form were used. Grade point average (GPA), height, weight, and physical fitness score for the year were recorded from the school record. The academic performance of students was strongly associated with dietary behaviours, especially with regularity of three meals even after control for parent's education level. Regular breakfast and lunch were more important in grades 5 and 8, while regular dinner was more related with academic performance in grade 11. Small, positive associations of height and physical fitness to academic performance were also found. The relative importance of regularity of meals was greater than that of socio-economic status and physical status in older teenagers. The results of this study suggest that accommodation of better dietary environment and nutrition education for three regular meals is recommended.

  15. Low-level arsenic exposure: nutritional and dietary predictors in first-grade Uruguayan children

    PubMed Central

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Queirolo, Elena I; Mañay, Nelly; Peregalli, Fabiana; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Lu, Ying; Vahter, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure in children is a public health concern but is understudied in relation to the predictors, and effects of low-level exposure. We examined the extent and dietary predictors of exposure to inorganic arsenic in 5–8 year old children from Montevideo, Uruguay. Children were recruited at school; 357 were enrolled, 328 collected morning urine samples, and 317 had two 24-hour dietary recalls. Urinary arsenic metabolites, i.e. inorganic arsenic (iAs), methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICP-MS), and the sum concentration (U-As) used for exposure assessment. Proportions of arsenic metabolites (%iAs, %MMA and %DMA) in urine were modelled in OLS regressions as functions of food groups, dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. Exposure to arsenic was low (median U-As: 9.9 µg/L) and household water (water As: median 0.45 µg/L) was not a major contributor to exposure. Children with higher consumption of rice had higher U-As but lower %iAs, %MMA, and higher %DMA. Children with higher meat consumption had lower %iAs and higher %DMA. Higher scores on ”nutrient dense” dietary pattern were related to lower %iAs and %MMA, and higher %DMA. Higher intake of dietary folate was associated with lower %MMA and higher %DMA. Overweight children had lower %MMA and higher %DMA than normal-weight children. In summary, rice was an important predictor of exposure to inorganic arsenic and DMA. Higher meat and folate consumption, diet rich in green leafy and red-orange vegetables and eggs, and higher BMI contributed to higher arsenic methylation capacity. PMID:26828624

  16. The Mexican Dietary and Physical Activity Guidelines: Moving Public Nutrition Forward in a Globalized World.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this article is to explain the process of the development of and to assess the Mexican food-based dietary and physical activity guidelines (FBDGs). The FBDGs were developed by an intersectoral and interdisciplinary committee of 11 national experts with input from 11 external advisors. The sectors represented were research and academic institutions, the Ministry of Health, and a nongovernmental organization. The evidence-based process included the following: literature reviews of local, national, and international evidence; review of dietary patterns of the Mexican population; key national and international recommendations; and review of FBDGs and visual icons from other countries. The guidelines' report follows the life-course socioecological model rooted in a deep understanding of the epidemiology and underlying causes of malnutrition in Mexico. The guidelines are summarized in 10 pretested main recommendations that include, and go beyond, simply promoting the consumption of a healthy and varied diet that includes fresh fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains and staying within caloric needs and staying active. The guidelines strongly emphasize healthy cooking habits, enjoyable meals with family and friends, drinking water, and avoiding the consumption of sweetened beverages, grain-based desserts, and highly processed foods. Detailed guidelines specific to different groups (on the basis of age and physiologic status) are also included. An innovative aspect of the Mexican FBDGs is the inclusion of dietary guidance of children <2 y of age. Future editions of these guidelines should consider removing their emphasis on dietary cholesterol and total dietary fat and placing more attention on the substitution of saturated and trans fats with healthy oils. The process of national agenda setting, policy articulation, and implementation of the Mexican FBDGs in the context of addressing the national obesity epidemic deserves to be initiated and

  17. Low-level arsenic exposure: Nutritional and dietary predictors in first-grade Uruguayan children.

    PubMed

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Queirolo, Elena I; Mañay, Nelly; Peregalli, Fabiana; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Lu, Ying; Vahter, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic exposure in children is a public health concern but is understudied in relation to the predictors, and effects of low-level exposure. We examined the extent and dietary predictors of exposure to inorganic arsenic in 5-8 year old children from Montevideo, Uruguay. Children were recruited at school; 357 were enrolled, 328 collected morning urine samples, and 317 had two 24-h dietary recalls. Urinary arsenic metabolites, i.e. inorganic arsenic (iAs), methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICP-MS), and the sum concentration (U-As) used for exposure assessment. Proportions of arsenic metabolites (%iAs, %MMA and %DMA) in urine were modelled in OLS regressions as functions of food groups, dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. Exposure to arsenic was low (median U-As: 9.9µg/L) and household water (water As: median 0.45µg/L) was not a major contributor to exposure. Children with higher consumption of rice had higher U-As but lower %iAs, %MMA, and higher %DMA. Children with higher meat consumption had lower %iAs and higher %DMA. Higher scores on "nutrient dense" dietary pattern were related to lower %iAs and %MMA, and higher %DMA. Higher intake of dietary folate was associated with lower %MMA and higher %DMA. Overweight children had lower %MMA and higher %DMA than normal-weight children. In summary, rice was an important predictor of exposure to inorganic arsenic and DMA. Higher meat and folate consumption, diet rich in green leafy and red-orange vegetables and eggs, and higher BMI contributed to higher arsenic methylation capacity.

  18. Nutritional status of selenium in Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Bárbara Rita; Ong, Thomas Prates; Jacob-Filho, Wilson; Jaluul, Omar; Freitas, Maria Isabel d'Avila; Cozzolino, Silvia M Franciscato

    2010-03-01

    Studies have shown that various antioxidants are decreased in different age-related degenerative diseases and thus, oxidative stress would have a central role in the pathogenesis of many disorders that involve neuronal degeneration, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study aimed to assess the nutritional status of Se in AD patients and to compare with control subjects with normal cognitive function. The case-control study was carried out on a group of elderly with AD (n 28) and compared with a control group (n 29), both aged between 60 and 89 years. Se intake was evaluated by using a 3-d dietary food record. Se was evaluated in plasma, erythrocytes and nails by using the method of hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy. Deficient Se intake was largely observed in the AD group. AD patients showed significantly lower Se levels in plasma, erythrocytes and nails (32.59 microg/l, 43.74 microg/l and 0.302 microg/g) when compared with the control group (50.99 microg/l, 79.16 microg/l and 0.400 microg/g). The results allowed us to suggest that AD has an important relation with Se deficiency.

  19. MATERNAL NUTRITIONAL STATUS AS A CONTRIBUTING FACTOR FOR THE RISK OF FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip A.; Hamrick, Kari J.; Corbin, Karen D.; Hasken, Julie M.; Marais, Anna-Susan; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Gossage, J. Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Objective Compare nutritional status of 57 South African mothers of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) with 148 mothers of controls. Methods Dietary data were analyzed for macronutrients, micronutrients, and fats via Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) and Adequate Intakes (AI) for pregnant women. Results Virtually all mothers were likely deficient on most micronutrients by either EAR (<50%) or AI values. Mothers of FASD children consumed more of 13 of 25 micronutrients. For percentage below EAR, only vitamin D was significantly higher for FASD mothers. Despite no difference in total food intake, control mothers had a higher mean body mass index (BMI) than FASD mothers. Maternal BMI is more significant for positive child outcomes than any individual nutrient. Conclusions Most mothers have inadequate dietary intake. Minor advantages in nutrient intake are overpowered by teratogenic effects of alcohol. Further study is needed of the interaction of alcohol, maternal nutrition, and metabolism. PMID:26656914

  20. Maternal nutritional status as a contributing factor for the risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    May, Philip A; Hamrick, Kari J; Corbin, Karen D; Hasken, Julie M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H Eugene; Gossage, J Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Compare nutritional status of 57 South African mothers of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) with 148 mothers of controls. Dietary data were analyzed for macronutrients, micronutrients, and fats via estimated average requirements (EAR) and adequate intakes (AI) for pregnant women. Virtually all mothers were likely deficient on most micronutrients by either EAR (<50%) or AI values. Mothers of FASD children consumed more of 13 of 25 micronutrients. For percentage below EAR, only vitamin D was significantly higher for FASD mothers. Despite no difference in total food intake, control mothers had a higher mean body mass index (BMI) than FASD mothers. Maternal BMI is more significant for positive child outcomes than any individual nutrient. Most mothers have inadequate dietary intake. Minor advantages in nutrient intake are overpowered by teratogenic effects of alcohol. Further study is needed of the interaction of alcohol, maternal nutrition, and metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Food intake and nutritional status of hospitalised older people.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Maria Rita Marques; Leandro-Merhi, Vânia Aparecida

    2011-09-01

    Disease is influenced by the nutritional status of the individual. We have assessed the relationship between nutritional status and food intake among recently hospitalised older people. A cross-sectional study was undertaken with 240 older people in a hospital that provides care for the public and private healthcare systems. Nutritional status was classified by the MNA (Mini Nutritional Assessment) into: malnourished, risk of malnutrition and without malnutrition. Food intake was estimated by the reported food intake during a typical day. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the medians and the correlation coefficient of Spearman to verify the relationship between the consumption of energy, protein and vitamin C and MNA scores. 33.8% were classified as adequate regarding nutritional status; 37.1% were classified as being at risk of malnutrition and 29.1% were classified as malnourished. The malnourished individuals reported significantly less energy and nutrient intake than those at risk of malnutrition or those without malnutrition (P = 0.001). Not all nutrient intake, just some (iron, cholesterol and fibre), were lower in malnourished people. Deterioration of the nutritional status of older people is accompanied by a reduction in energy and some nutrient intake. The investigation of food intake in older people could provide important information about nutritional risk. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. [NUTRITIONAL STATUS ASSESSMENT IN PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS].

    PubMed

    Lambe, Cécile; Mallet, Pascale; Bailly, Céline; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle

    2015-10-01

    Prognosis of cystic fibrosis has been largely modified over the past 30 years. Optimization of nutrition is one of the most important contributing factors of this improvement. Nutritional defect result from the conjunction of loss of calories, maldigestion, hypercatabolism and insufficient intake. Pancreatic opotherapy and ADEK vitamin administration is mandatory in pancreatic insufficient patients. Nutritional status must be evaluated at each clinics to detect nutritional defect as early as possible. Nutritional intake must be hypercaloric, normalipidic and adapted to the tastes of the patient. The clinician must be aware of at risk nutritional period: first year of life, puberty, infectious exacerbation, respiratory worsening and diabetes, In neonatal screened babies, recovery of birth weight percentile must be targeted at 6 months, and for the height must be in accordance to genetic height at 2 years. In all cases it is mandatory to treat denutrition by oral supplementation and if necessay enteral nutrition.

  3. [Assessing the health and nutritional status of illegal immigrant adolescents from Maghreb].

    PubMed

    Oliván Gonzalvo, G

    2000-07-01

    To assess the health and nutritional status of illegal immigrant adolescents from Maghreb at the time of entry into foster care in Zaragoza, Spain. Cross-sectional study over a 3-year period (1997-1999). Health status via clinical history and physical examination was assessed according to standard protocols and individualized complementary laboratory examinations were performed. Nutritional status was assessed using the anthropometric method. Weight, height, head and upper arm circumferences, tricipital and subscapular skinfold thickness, body-mass index and nutritional index were established and compared with national normal standards of reference (Z-score). Student s t-test was used to assess statistically significant differences. Forty male adolescents (22 Algerians and 18 Moroccans) were admitted during the study period. Mean age was 15 +/- 1.42 years (range: 13-17 years). Health status: anomaly in at least one body system (50%) and more than one anomaly (15%). Most frequent problems were odontologic (32. 5%), dermatological (17.5%), respiratory (12.5%), ophthalmological (7.5%), orthopedic (5%) and otic (2.5%). Tuberculous infection was detected in 5% and iron deficiency anemia in 2.5% of the patients. Nutritional status: except for head circumference (p < 0.05), no statistically significant differences were found in the other variables analyzed. Mean value of nutritional index was found to be within normal intervals. Individualized analysis showed a mild form of acute malnutrition in 12.5% of the patients. The adolescents studied showed prevalent odontological, dermatological and respiratory diseases due infection and lack of hygienic practices. Deficiency diseases, congenital anomalies and undiagnosed chronic diseases were observed in a small number of patients. Concerning nutritional status, a low percentage of patients showed a mild form of acute malnutrition, probably related to food deprivation and poor dietary habits experienced during the immigration

  4. Iodine nutritional status in Uttarakhand State, India

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Neha; Kapil, Umesh; Nambiar, Vanisha; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Khenduja, Preetika

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Uttarakhand (UK) state is a known endemic region to iodine deficiency (ID). Objective: To assess the current status of iodine nutrition in a population of UK. Methodology: Three districts, namely Udham Singh Nagar (USN), Nainital (N), and Pauri Garhwal (PG) were selected. In each district, 30 clusters were identified by utilizing the population proportional to size cluster sampling methodology. Total of 6143 school age children (SAC) (USN; 1807, N; 2269, PG: 2067), 5430 adolescent girls (AGs) (USN; 1823, N; 1811, PG: 1796), 1727 pregnant mothers (PMs) (USN; 632, N; 614, PG: 481), and 2013 Neonates (USN; 649, N; 670, PG: 694), were included in the study. Clinical examination of thyroid of each child, AG and PM was conducted. Spot urine and salt samples were collected from children, AGs and PMs. Cord blood samples were collected from neonates for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Results: In SAC, total goiter rate (TGR) was 13.2% (USN), 15.9% (N), and 16.8% (PG). Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) level was 150 μg/l (USN), 125 μg/l (N), and 115 μg/l (PG). In AGs, TGR was 6.8% (USN), 8.2% (N) and 5.6% (PG). Median UIC level was 250 μg/l (USN), 200 μg/l (N), and 183 μg/l (PG). In PMs, TGR was 16.1% (USN), 20.2% (N), and 24.9% (PG). Median UIC level was 124 μg/l (USN), 117.5 μg/l (N) and 110 μg/l (PG), respectively. In Neonates, TSH levels of >5 mIU/L were found in 55.3 (USN), 76.4 (N) and 72.8 (PG) percent of neonates. Conclusion: UIC level in PMs and TSH levels among neonates indicate the prevalence of ID in three districts surveyed. PMID:27042411

  5. [Nutritional status of elderly surgical patients].

    PubMed

    Damuleviciene, Gyte; Lesauskaite, Vita; Macijauskiene, Jūrate

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess nutritional status of aged surgical patients, to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and factors associated with it. A total of 156 patients aged 45 years and more, treated at the Departments of Surgery and Urology of Kaunas 2nd Clinical Hospital, were enrolled in the study. Elderly group (aged 65 years and more) consisted of 99 patients, and middle-aged group (45 to 64 years old) of 57 patients. The following anthropometric measurements were performed: weight, height, mid-arm circumference; hemoglobin, serum albumin level, and total lymphocyte count were determined. Standard assessment scales included Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, Geriatric Depression Scale, and Mini Mental State Exam. Statistical analysis was performed with the help of SPSS 12.0. Malnutrition was diagnosed in 53.5% of older patients and in 15.8% of middle-aged patients (P<0.05). Obesity was diagnosed in 32.3% of elderly patients and in 40.4% of middle-aged patients (P<0.05). Among men, obese patients made up 20%, among women - 54.4% (P<0.05). Malnutrition was more prevalent among elderly patients who underwent urgent operations than in patients who underwent planned operations (69.6% and 34.1%, respectively; P<0.05) and among elderly patients with impaired cognitive functions than among those without impaired cognitive functions (in 100% of patients with medium impaired cognitive function, in 59.3% of patients with mild impaired cognitive function, and in 44.4% of patients with unimpaired cognitive function, P<0.05). Malnourished elderly patients had lower functional level than the remaining (IADL score of 3.97 and 4.75 for men, 5.38 and 6.89 for women, respectively; P<0.05). The prevalence of malnutrition did not differ significantly in the groups of older patients with depression, probable depression and not depressed patients - 75.0%, 57.7%, and 46.7%, respectively (P>0.05). Malnutrition was diagnosed more frequently in elderly surgical

  6. Vitamin D status in Greenland – dermal and dietary donations

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Stig; Jakobsen, Anna; Rex, Hanne Lynge; Lyngaard, Folmer; Kleist, Inge-Lise; Kern, Peder; Laurberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D status influences skeletal health, the risk of falls and fractures, and muscle health, and it has been associated with inflammatory, infectious, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in addition to some cancers. Prevailing intracellular infections such as tuberculosis are speculated to relate to vitamin D status. The vitamin D sources are dietary and dermal, the latter depending on UVB radiation exposure from the sun. Life in the Arctic influences vitamin D status because of dietary peculiarities, the polar night, waning of the ozone layer and maybe ethnic differences between Inuit and non-Inuit. Objective and design Data on vitamin D status as estimated by plasma 25OHD in Inuit and non-Inuit in Greenland are reviewed. Results Decreasing intake of vitamin D-rich local food items associated with decreasing plasma 25OHD levels and insufficient vitamin D status is seen with low intake of traditional Inuit foods. Plasma 25OHD levels increase markedly during spring and summer in parallel with the high influx of sunlight while plasma 25OHD is not influenced by obesity in Greenland Inuit and no clear-cut association is seen between plasma 25OHD and the risk of tuberculosis. Conclusion The frequency of vitamin D deficiency in populations in Greenland rises with the dietary transition and diseases related to low vitamin D status should be monitored. PMID:23986902

  7. Household food insecurity and dietary intake in Korea: results from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ja; Oh, Kyungwon

    2015-12-01

    To examine the prevalence of household food insecurity and compare dietary intake by food security status in a representative Korean population. Cross-sectional. Food security status of households was classified using an eighteen-item food security questionnaire. The nutrition survey comprised questions on dietary habits, a 24 h dietary recall and a semi-quantitative FFQ. The 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 3007 households completed the food security questionnaire. Family members within each household aged ≥1 year (n 7118) participated in the nutrition survey. Results from the 2012 survey indicated that 88.7% of Korean households showed food security. The remaining 11.3% (9.3% for food insecurity without hunger and 2.0% for food insecurity with hunger) were in food-insecure households. The prevalence of household food insecurity was 13.2% in households with children and 10.3% in households without children. Mean daily intakes of energy, fat and carbohydrates were not significantly different between food-secure and food-insecure adults. In contrast, mean daily intakes of protein, crude fibre, vitamins and minerals as well as weekly consumption frequencies of vegetables, seaweeds, fruits, fruit juice, nuts, and milk and milk products were significantly lower in food-insecure adults compared with food-secure adults. The study demonstrated that food insecurity is associated with reduced intakes of healthy foods and nutrients essential for health and growth in a representative Korean population.

  8. Nutritional status and gastrointestinal symptoms in systemic sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Murtaugh, Maureen A; Frech, Tracy M

    2013-02-01

    Gastrointestinal manifestations in systemic sclerosis (SSc) can influence the nutritional status of patients. Our objective was to examine whether nutritional status was associated with symptoms captured by the University of California Los Angeles Scleroderma Clinical Trials Consortium Gastrointestinal Tract Questionnaire (GIT 2.0). A series of 24 University of Utah SSc Center patients were assessed using the MUST, SGA, and GIT 2.0. A single evaluator administered the nutrition assessment and gastrointestinal symptom questionnaire. Nine patients were assessed at moderate to high risk of malnutrition using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and 12 patients with moderate to severe malnutrition using Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). Neither MUST nor SGA status was associated with duration of disease. Soilage, social function and emotional subscores were associated with SGA nutritional status. Clinically significant differences in Total GIT 2.0 score, reflux, distention/bloating, soilage, diarrhea, social function and emotional well-being were observed across levels of nutritional status. Clinically significant differences in gastrointestinal tract symptoms were observed across levels of nutritional status in patients with varying severity of SSc. These two clinically utilized tools, the SGA and the GIT 2.0, appear to be complementary in the evaluation of SSc patients. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Acculturation and Sociocultural Influences on Dietary Intake and Health Status among Puerto Rican Adults in Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Van Rompay, Maria I.; McKeown, Nicola M.; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen; Falcon, Luis M.; Ordovas, José M.; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown negative consequences of acculturation on lifestyle factors, health status, and dietary intake of Hispanic immigrants in the US. Despite prevalent type 2 diabetes and low socioeconomic status (SES) among Puerto Rican adults living on the US mainland, little is known about acculturation in this group. Objective We investigated associations among acculturation, lifestyle characteristics, health status, and carbohydrate nutrition in Puerto Rican adults. A secondary objective was to investigate possible confounding and/or effect modification on these associations by SES. Design Cross-sectional data from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, which included 1219 Puerto Ricans in the Boston area, aged 45–75 years. Statistical analyses Characteristics were compared using ANCOVA, linear trend and Pearson’s chi-square tests across quartiles of acculturation. Tests for interaction by poverty status were conducted. Proportional contributions of foods to intake of total carbohydrate and fiber were assessed using SAS RANK. Results Levels of acculturation were low, despite young age at first arrival to the US mainland (25.4 ± 12.3 y) and long length of stay (34.2 ± 12.2 y). Greater English language use was associated with higher SES, alcohol consumption, physical activity, better perceived health, and less central obesity. Acculturation was associated with lower legume fiber and greater cereal fiber intake. Among those above the poverty threshold, acculturation was associated with lower dietary glycemic index and starch intake, and greater fruit and non-starchy vegetable intake. Conclusions In contrast to studies with Mexican Americans, the association of acculturation with dietary quality in these Puerto Rican adults was mixed, but tended toward better carbohydrate quality. Dietary recommendations should include maintenance of traditional, healthful dietary practices including consumption of legumes, but also reduction in refined

  10. Nutritional Status of Children Aged 3-6 Years in a Rural Area of Tamilnadu

    PubMed Central

    Sivanandham, Ranjit; Salome, Sam Dashni; Francis, Roniya; D, Roopa; Sampavi, Sakthi; S R, Sabu; Prasad, Ranjit

    2014-01-01

    .3%) and was statistically significant. As the socioeconomic status increased the prevalence of undernourishment decreased and the difference was found to be statistically significant(p<0.05). Duration of exclusive breast feeding had influence on the nutritional status. Conclusion: Community based preventive measures should be taken to allievate malnutrition. Health education to the mothers on dietary practices like feeding their children with locally available low cost but healthy food should be given. Nutritional rehabilitation centres should be established. Improving the socioeconomic standards is mandatory. PMID:25478370

  11. Making healthy food choices using nutrition facts panels. The roles of knowledge, motivation, dietary modifications goals, and age.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lisa M Soederberg; Cassady, Diana L

    2012-08-01

    Nutrition facts panels (NFPs) contain a rich assortment of nutrition information and are available on most food packages. The importance of this information is potentially even greater among older adults due to their increased risk for diet-related diseases, as well as those with goals for dietary modifications that may impact food choice. Despite past work suggesting that knowledge and motivation impact attitudes surrounding and self-reported use of NFPs, we know little about how (i.e., strategies used) and how well (i.e., level of accuracy) younger and older individuals process NFP information when evaluating healthful qualities of foods. We manipulated the content of NFPs and, using eye tracking methodology, examined strategies associated with deciding which of two NFPs, presented side-by-side, was healthier. We examined associations among strategy use and accuracy as well as age, dietary modification status, knowledge, and motivation. Results showed that, across age groups, those with dietary modification goals made relatively more comparisons between NFPs with increasing knowledge and motivation; but that strategy effectiveness (relationship to accuracy) depended on age and motivation. Results also showed that knowledge and motivation may protect against declines in accuracy in later life and that, across age and dietary modification status, knowledge mediates the relationship between motivation and decision accuracy.

  12. Making Healthy Food Choices Using Nutrition Facts Panels: The Roles of Knowledge, Motivation, Dietary Modifications Goals, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Cassady, Diana L.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition facts panels (NFPs) contain a rich assortment of nutrition information and are available on most food packages. The importance of this information is potentially even greater among older adults due to their increased risk for diet-related diseases, as well as those with goals for dietary modifications that may impact food choice. Despite past work suggesting that knowledge and motivation impact attitudes surrounding and self-reported use of NFPs, we know little about how (i.e., strategies used) and how well (i.e., level of accuracy) younger and older individuals process NFP information when evaluating healthful qualities of foods. We manipulated the content of NFPs and, using eye tracking methodology, examined strategies associated with deciding which of two NFPs, presented side-by-side, was healthier. We examined associations among strategy use and accuracy as well as age, dietary modification status, knowledge, and motivation. Results showed that, across age groups, those with dietary modification goals made relatively more comparisons between NFPs with increasing knowledge and motivation; but that strategy effectiveness (relationship to accuracy) depended on age and motivation. Results also showed that knowledge and motivation may protect against declines in accuracy in later life and that, across age and dietary modification status, knowledge mediates the relationship between motivation and decision accuracy. PMID:22524999

  13. The Effects of a Sports Nutrition Education Intervention on Nutritional Status, Sport Nutrition Knowledge, Body Composition, and Performance during Off Season Training in NCAA Division I Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Fabrício Eduardo; Landreth, Andrew; Beam, Stacey; Jones, Taylor; Norton, Layne; Cholewa, Jason Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a sport nutrition education intervention (SNEI) on dietary intake, knowledge, body composition, and performance in NCAA Division I baseball players. Resistance trained NCAA Division I baseball players (82.4 ± 8.2 kg; 1.83 ± 0.06 m; 13.7 ± 5 % body fat) participated in the study during 12 weeks of off-season training. Fifteen players volunteered for SNEI while 15 players matched for position served as controls (C) for body composition and performance. The nutrition intervention group (NI) received a 90 min SNEI encompassing energy intake (Kcal), carbohydrate (CHO), protein (PRO), fat, food sources, and hydration. Sport nutrition knowledge questionnaires were administered to NI pre and post. Nutritional status was determined by three-day dietary logs administered to NI pre and post. Body composition and performance (5-10-5 shuttle test, vertical jump, broad jump, 1 RM squat) were measured pre and post for C and NI. Knowledge increased in NI. Pro and fat, but not CHO intake increased in NI. FM decreased pre to post in NI (11.5 ± 4.8 vs. 10.5 ± 5.4 kg) but not C (11.3 ± 4.7 vs. 11.9 ± 4.5 kg). FFM increased pre to post with no differences between groups. The 5-10-5 shuttle times decreased significantly more in NI (4.58 ± 0.15 vs. 4.43 ± 0.13 sec) compared to C (4.56 ± 0.18 vs. 4.50 ± 0.16 sec). Jump and squat performance increased pre to post with no differences between groups. Our findings indicate that an off season SNEI is effective at improving sport nutrition knowledge and some, but not all, nutrient intakes and performance measures in Division I baseball players. Key points Sport nutrition education intervention increased nutritional knowledge and nutritional status. Sport nutrition education intervention reduced body fat percentage, total fat mass, 5-10-5 shuttle times, and trended towards greater increases in lean mass compared to controls. Both groups increased strength and jump ability similarly. PMID:28344452

  14. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Health Implications of Dietary Fiber.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Wendy J; Stewart, Maria L

    2015-11-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that the public should consume adequate amounts of dietary fiber from a variety of plant foods. Dietary fiber is defined by the Institute of Medicine Food Nutrition Board as "nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants." Populations that consume more dietary fiber have less chronic disease. Higher intakes of dietary fiber reduce the risk of developing several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers, and have been associated with lower body weights. The Adequate Intake for fiber is 14 g total fiber per 1,000 kcal, or 25 g for adult women and 38 g for adult men, based on research demonstrating protection against coronary heart disease. Properties of dietary fiber, such as fermentability and viscosity, are thought to be important parameters influencing the risk of disease. Plant components associated with dietary fiber may also contribute to reduced disease risk. The mean intake of dietary fiber in the United States is 17 g/day with only 5% of the population meeting the Adequate Intake. Healthy adults and children can achieve adequate dietary fiber intakes by increasing their intake of plant foods while concurrently decreasing energy from foods high in added sugar and fat, and low in fiber. Dietary messages to increase consumption of whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits, and nuts should be broadly supported by food and nutrition practitioners. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutritional status in the healthy longeval population from Sardinia (Italy).

    PubMed

    Buffa, R; Floris, G; Lodde, M; Cotza, M; Marini, E

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sex- and age-related variations of the nutritional status in the aged population of central Sardinia, a geographical area with a high frequency of long-lived people, particularly men. The sample consisted of 200 subjects over 70 years of age (men: N= 100, age= 81.0 +/- 7.0 years; women: N= 100, age= 81.5 +/- 7.3 years). Orroli (central Sardinia, Italy). Mini nutritional assessment (MNA) and bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) were used to evaluate nutritional status and body composition. The indicators revealed a generally good nutritional status. The MNA results (men: 24.6 +/- 2.2; women: 23.4 +/- 2.5) showed that 64.1% of the subjects had a normal nutritional status and only a small proportion (1.2%) could be classified as malnourished. BIVA showed that most subjects (74.2%) were normal, while the prevalence of low body cell mass was 10.7% and that of dehydration 11.2%. According to the MNA, the nutritional status was significantly better in the men. Almost three-quarters of the men (73.1%) were well nourished vs. half of the women (50.6%). A worsening of the nutritional status with age was observed. The proportion of malnourished individuals, as assessed by MNA, increased from 0% to 9.1% from 70-79 to > 90 years. With respect to their contemporaries from other regions, the elderly of Orroli presented a better nutritional status, a similar worsening with age and generally higher sexual dimorphism.

  16. [Residual renal function and nutritional status in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis].

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Natasa; Lausević, Mirjana; Stojimirović, Biljana

    2005-01-01

    During the last years, an increasing number of patients with end-stage renal failure caused by various underlying diseases, all over the world, is treated by renal replacement therapy. NUTRITIONAL STATUS: Malnutrition is often found in patients affected by renal failure; it is caused by reduced intake of nutritional substances due to anorexia and dietary restrictions hormonal and metabolic disorders, comorbid conditions and loss of proteins, amino-acids, and vitamins during the dialysis procedure itself. Nutritional status significantly affects the outcome of patients on chronic dialysis treatment. Recent epiodemiological trials have proved that survival on chronic continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis program depends more on residual renal function (RRF) than on peritoneal clearances of urea and creatinine. The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of RRF on common biochemical and anthropometric markers of nutrition in 32 patients with end-stage renal failure with various underlying diseases during the first 6 months on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The mean residual creatinine clearance was 8,3 ml/min and the mean RRF was 16,24 l/week in our patients at the beginning of the chronic peritoneal dialysis treatment. During the follow-up, the RRF slightly decreased, while the nutritional status of patients significantly improved. Gender and age, as well as the leading disease and peritonitis didn't influence the RRF during the first 6 months of CAPD treatment. We found several positive correlations between RRF and laboratory and anthropometric markers of nutrition during the follow-up, proving the positive influence of RRF on nutritional status of patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis.

  17. Nutritional status of foster children in the U.S.: Implications for cognitive and behavioral development.

    PubMed

    Tooley, Ursula A; Makhoul, Zeina; Fisher, Philip A

    2016-11-01

    Children in foster care are at greater risk for poor health, physical, cognitive, behavioral, and developmental outcomes than are children in the general population. Considerable research links early nutrition to later cognitive and behavioral outcomes. The aim of this narrative review is to examine the prevalence of poor nutrition and its relation to subsequent h