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Sample records for o-linked sugar chains

  1. Added sugars in kids' meals from chain restaurants.

    PubMed

    Scourboutakos, Mary J; Semnani-Azad, Zhila; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2016-06-01

    To analyze the added sugars in kids' meals from Canadian chain restaurants in relation to the World Health Organization's proposed sugar recommendation (less than 5% of total daily calories should come from added sugars) and current recommendation (less than 10% of total daily calories should come from added sugars). Total sugar levels were retrieved from the websites of 10 fast-food and 7 sit-down restaurants in 2010. The added sugar levels in 3178 kids' meals from Canadian chain restaurants were calculated in 2014 (in Toronto, Canada) by subtracting all naturally occurring sugars from the total sugar level. The average amount of added sugars in restaurant kids' meals (25 ± 0.36 g) exceeded the WHO's proposed daily recommendation for sugar intake. There was a wide range of added sugar levels in kids' meals ranging from 0 g to 114 g. 50% of meals exceeded the WHO's proposed daily sugar recommendation, and 19% exceeded the WHO's current daily sugar recommendation. There is a wide range of sugar levels in kids' meals from restaurants, and many contain more than a day's worth of sugar.

  2. Pyridylamination as a means of analyzing complex sugar chains

    PubMed Central

    Hase, Sumihiro

    2010-01-01

    Herein, I describe pyridylamination for versatile analysis of sugar chains. The reducing ends of the sugar chains are tagged with 2-aminopyridine and the resultant chemically stable fluorescent derivatives are used for structural/functional analysis. Pyridylamination is an effective “operating system” for increasing sensitivity and simplifying the analytical procedures including mass spectrometry and NMR. Excellent separation of isomers is achieved by reversed-phase HPLC. However, separation is further improved by two-dimensional HPLC, which involves a combination of reversed-phase HPLC and size-fractionation HPLC. Moreover, a two-dimensional HPLC map is also useful for structural analysis. I describe a simple procedure for preparing homogeneous pyridylamino sugar chains that is less laborious than existing techniques and can be used for functional analysis (e.g., sugar-protein interaction). This novel approach was applied and some of the results are described: i) a glucosyl-serine type sugar chain found in blood coagulation factors; ii) discovery of endo-β-mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.152) and a new type plant α1,2-l-fucosidase; and iii) novel substrate specificity of a cytosolic α-mannosidase. Moreover, using homogeneous sugar chains of a size similar to in vivo substrates we were able to analyze interactions between sugar chains and proteins such as enzymes and lectins in detail. Interestingly, our studies reveal that some enzymes recognize a wider region of the substrate than anticipated. PMID:20431262

  3. O-linked glycosylation of retroviral envelope gene products

    SciTech Connect

    Pinter, A.; Honnen, W.J. )

    1988-03-01

    Treatment of ({sup 3}H)glucosamine-labeled Friend mink cell focus-forming virus (FrMCF) gp70 with excess peptide:N-glycanase F (PNGase F) resulted in removal of the expected seven N-linked oligosaccharide chains; however, approximately 10% of the glucosamine label was retained in the resulting 49,000-M{sub r} (49K) product. For ({sup 3}H)mannose-labeled gp70, similar treatment led to removal of all the carbohydrate label from the protein. Prior digestion of the PNGase F-treated gp70 with neuraminidase resulted in an addition size shift, and treatment with O-glycanase led to the removal of almost all of the PNGase F-resistant sugars. These results indicate that gp70 possesses sialic acid-containing O-linked oligosaccharides. Analysis of intracellular env precursors demonstrated that O-linked sugars were present in gPr90{sup env}, the polyprotein intermediate which contains complex sugars, but not in the primary translation product, gPr80{sup env}, and proteolytic digestion studies allowed localization of the O-linked carbohydrates to a 10K region near the center of the gp70 molecule. similar substituents were detected on the gp70s of ecotropic and xenotropic murine leukemia viruses and two subgroups of feline leukemia virus, indicting that O-linked glycosylation is a conserved feature of retroviral env proteins.

  4. [Sugar Chain Construction of Functional Natural Products Using Plant Glucosyltransferases].

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Hajime

    2015-01-01

      Plant secondary product glycosyltransferases belong to family 1 of the glycosyltransferase superfamily and mediate the transfer of a glycosyl residue from activated nucleotide sugars to lipophilic small molecules, thus affecting the solubility, stability and pharmacological activities of the sugar-accepting compounds. The biotechnological application of plant glycosyltransferases in glycoside synthesis has attracted attention because enzymatic glycosylation offers several advantages over chemical methods, including (1) avoiding the use of harsh conditions and toxic catalysts, (2) providing strict control of regio-and stereo-selectivity and (3) high efficiency. This review describes the in vivo and in vitro glycosylation of natural organic compounds using glycosyltransferases, focusing on our investigation of enzymatic synthesis of curcumin glycosides. Our current efforts toward functional characterization of some glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of iridoids and crocin, as well as in the sugar chain elongation of quercetin glucosides, are described. Finally, I describe the relationship of the structure of sugar chains and the intestinal absorption which was investigated using chemoenzymatically synthesized quercetin glycosides.

  5. The immunologically reactive O-linked polysaccharide chains derived from circulating cathodic antigen isolated from the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni have Lewis x as repeating unit.

    PubMed

    Van Dam, G J; Bergwerff, A A; Thomas-Oates, J E; Rotmans, J P; Kamerling, J P; Vliegenthart, J F; Deelder, A M

    1994-10-01

    The gut-associated excretory antigen circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) was isolated by immunoaffinity chromatography from adult Schistosoma mansoni worms, which were collected from infected golden hamsters. This antigen is probably involved in protection of the schistosome gut and is increasingly used in highly sensitive and specific immunodiagnostic assays. Amino acid analysis before and after alkaline borohydride treatment of CCA and monosaccharide analysis indicated that CCA is O-glycosylated mostly via GalNAc-Thr. After reductive alkaline treatment, the O-linked carbohydrate chains were fractionated by gel-permeation chromatography, followed by normal-phase HPLC on LiChrosorb-NH2. Carbohydrate-positive fractions were investigated by one-dimensional and two-dimensional 1H-NMR spectroscopy, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and collision-induced-dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. The analyses showed that the low-molecular-mass O-linked oligosaccharide alditols (the minor fraction) consist of disaccharides to hexasaccharides having the Gal beta (1-3)GalNAc-OL core in common. The major carbohydrate fraction comprises a population of polysaccharides, containing Lewis x repeating units (-3)Gal beta (1-4)[Fuc alpha (1-3)]GlcNAc beta (1-). CCA-specific monoclonal antibodies and IgM antibodies in patient sera recognized the fucosylated O-linked carbohydrate antigenic structures. Since CCA evokes a strong IgM antibody response and carbohydrate structures containing repeating Lewis x units are found on circulating neutrophils, it is proposed that the antigenic poly-Lewis x polysaccharide of CCA is involved in the induction of auto-immunity against granulocytes, resulting in the mild to moderate neutropenia observed during schistosome infection.

  6. Chemical characterization of detrital sugar chains with peptides in oceanic surface particulate organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukasaki, A.; Nishida, T.; Tanoue, E.

    2016-02-01

    For better understanding of the dynamics of organic matter in the ocean interior, particulate organic matter (POM) in oceanic surface water is a key material as a starting material in food chain and biological carbon pump, and the source of dissolved organic matter. POM consists of a mixture of non-living POM (detritus) and small amount of living POM (organisms). Particulate combined amino acids (PCAAs) are one of the major components of POM and the most important source of nitrogen and carbon for heterotrophic organisms in marine environments. In our previous studies of molecular-level characterization of PCAAs using electrophoretic separation (SDS-PAGE: sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) with specific detection of protein/peptide and sugar chains, we reported that most of PCAAs existed as small-sized peptide chains with carbohydrate-rich remnants. Although carbohydrates are one of the major carbon components of POM, the details of molecular-level structures including sugar chains are unknown. In this study, we applied electrophoretic separation for sugar chains (FACE: fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis) to the POM samples collected from the surface water of the Pacific Ocean. The results showed that sugar chains with various degree of polymerization were detected in POM. The possible roles of such sugar chains in marine biogeochemical cycle of organic matter are discussed in the presentation.

  7. Semiquantitative determination of short-chain fatty acids in cane and beet sugars.

    PubMed

    Batista, Rebecca B; Grimm, Casey C; Godshall, Mary An

    2002-03-01

    Some sugars, specifically white beet sugar and raw cane sugars, possess off-flavors and off-odors. Although not necessarily the source, the presence of short-chain fatty acids serves as an indicator of an off-odor problem in sugar. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is used to collect the volatile compounds from the headspace of sugar. The temperature, moisture, and type of SPME fiber are varied to optimize recovery. Sugars analyzed in the absence of water using an incubation temperature of 70 degrees C with a divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane fiber yield the most reproducible results. Data from depletion analyses report a recovery level of 38% for the first injection. The semiquantitative analysis of butyric acid is accomplished using injected standards to develop a calibration curve.

  8. Characterization of enzymatically prepared sugar medium-chain fatty acid monoesters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Wei, Wei; Cao, Xi; Feng, Fengqin

    2015-06-01

    Sugar medium-chain fatty acid esters are a new type of biodegradable, non-toxic, non-irritant and non-ionic surfactant with proven antimicrobial activity. Various sugar medium-chain fatty monoesters were prepared enzymatically using Lipozyme TLIM in organic solvent. Properties such as surface tension, antimicrobial activity, and ability to foam, emulsify and stabilize emulsions at room temperature were evaluated to conduct systematic studies on the structure-function relationships of these compounds. Results showed that all monoesters displayed good surface activity properties. In particular, sucrose monolaurate was the most excellent surfactant among 12 monoesters. Sugar monoesters containing C8 to C12 alkyl chains showed a broad spectrum of increasing antimicrobial activity. All tested monoesters were more effective against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacterium) than Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Gram-negative bacterium). Methyl α-d-glycoside monoesters were the most effective, whereas raffinose monoesters possessed poor antimicrobial activity. Generally, the length of fatty acid chain (hydrophobic group) and sugar groups (hydrophilic group) for sugar medium-chain fatty acid monoesters both affected the surface properties and antimicrobial activities. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. [Expression and role of sugar chains on airway mucus during the exacerbation of airway inflammation].

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yuji; Inouye, Yoshio; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Human bronchial mucins, such as MUC5AC, have traditionally been defined as a family of high-molecular weight glycoproteins. Changes in the contents of sugar chains on MUC5AC are among the fundamental features in inflammatory respiratory disease. The changes have been shown to lead to unfavorable alterations in the viscosity of mucus, resulting in impairment of mucociliary transport, vulnerability to viral/bacterial infection as sugar chains play an important role in adhesion of some viruses and bacteria to the epithelium, and finally inflammatory cell infiltration in the airway. Recently, we found that expression of some glycosyltransferases associated with the contents and structure of sugar chains is regulated by phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase (PI-PL) C signaling in cells. L-Carbocisteine, a mucoregulatory drug, normalized or balanced fucosylated and sialylated sugar chains, such as sialyl Lewis x through inhibition of PI-PL C signaling. We prepared MUC5AC fusion protein with tandem repeats associated with MUC5AC, and confirmed that L-carbocisteine inhibited the increases in viscosity associated with sialyl Lewis x expression levels. In addition, the clinical study (2008) noted that L-carbocisteine reduced the frequency of common colds and exacerbation of symptoms in patients with COPD. These favorable effects in patients may be due to normalization of sugar chain contents on mucins. We suggest that the inhibitory effect on infection of airway epithelial cells by rhinoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza viruses by treatment with L-carbocisteine may also be based on the regulation of sugar chain contents or structures on mucins.

  10. Medium-chain sugar amphiphiles: a new family of healthy vegetable oil structuring agents.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Swapnil R; Hwang, Hyeondo; Huang, Qingrong; John, George

    2013-12-11

    Vegetable oils are frequently structured to enhance their organoleptic and mechanical properties. This is usually achieved by increasing the net amount of saturated and/or trans fatty acids in the oil. With the risk of coronary heart diseases associated with these fatty acids, the food industry is looking for better alternatives. In this context, the medium-chain dialkanoates of low-calorie sugars (sugar alcohol dioctanoates) are investigated as a healthy alternative structuring agent. Precursors of sugar amphiphiles, being FDA-approved GRAS materials, exhibited high cell viability at a concentration ~50 μg/mL. They readily formed nanoscale multilayered structures in an oil matrix to form a coherent network at low concentrations (1-3 wt %/v), which immobilized a wide range of oils (canola, soybean, and grapeseed oils). The structuring efficiency of sugar amphiphiles was computed in terms of mechanical, thermal, and structural properties and found to be a function of its type and concentration.

  11. Economic feasibility of the sugar beet-to-ethylene value chain.

    PubMed

    Althoff, Jeroen; Biesheuvel, Kees; De Kok, Ad; Pelt, Henk; Ruitenbeek, Matthijs; Spork, Ger; Tange, Jan; Wevers, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    As part of a long-term strategy toward renewable feedstock, a feasibility study into options for the production of bioethylene by integrating the sugar beet-to-ethanol-to-ethylene value chain. Seven business cases were studied and tested for actual economic feasibility of alternative sugar-to-ethanol-to-ethylene routes in comparison to fossil-fuel alternatives. An elaborate model was developed to assess the relevant operational and financial aspects of each business case. The calculations indicate that bioethylene from sugar beet is not commercially viable under current market conditions. In light of expected global energy and feedstock prices it is also reasonable to expect that this will not change in the near future. To consider biorenewable sources as starting material, they need to be low in cost (compared to sugar beets) and also require less capital and energy-intensive methods for the conversion to chemicals. In general, European sugar prices will be too high for many chemical applications. Future efforts for in sugar-to-chemicals routes should, therefore, focus on integrated process routes and process intensification and/or on products that contain a significant part of the original carbohydrate backbone.

  12. Involvement of the alpha2,8-polysialyltransferases II/STX and IV/PST in the biosynthesis of polysialic acid chains on the O-linked glycoproteins in rainbow trout ovary.

    PubMed

    Asahina, Shinji; Sato, Chihiro; Matsuno, Midori; Matsuda, Tsukasa; Colley, Karen; Kitajima, Ken

    2006-11-01

    Polysialoglycoprotein (PSGP) in salmonid fish egg is a unique glycoprotein bearing alpha2,8-linked polysialic acid (polySia) on its O-linked glycans. Biosynthesis of the polySia chains is developmentally regulated and only occurs at later stage of oogenesis. Two alpha2,8-polysialyltransferases (alpha2,8-polySTs), PST (ST8Sia IV) and STX (ST8Sia II), responsible for the biosynthesis of polySia on N-glycans of glycoproteins, are known in mammals. However, nothing has been known about which alpha2,8-polySTs are involved in the biosynthesis of polySia on O-linked glycans in any glycoproteins. We thus sought to identify cDNA encoding the alpha2,8-polyST involved in polysialylation of PSGP. A clone for PST orthologue, rtPST, and two clones for the STX orthologue, rtSTX-ov and rtSTX-em, were identified in rainbow trout. The deduced amino acid sequence of rtPST shows a high identity (72-77%) to other vertebrate PSTs, while that of rtSTX-ov shows 92% identity with rtSTX-em and a significant identity (63-76%) to other vertebrate STXs. The rtPST exhibited the in vivo alpha2,8-polyST activity, although its in vitro activity was low. However, the rtSTXs showed no in vivo and very low in vitro activities. Interestingly, co-existence of rtPST and rSTX-ov in the reaction mixture synergistically enhanced the alpha2,8-polyST activity. During oogenesis, rtPST was constantly expressed, while the expression of rtSTX-ov was not increased until polySia chain is abundantly biosynthesized in the later stage. rtSTX-em was not expressed in ovary. These results suggest that the enhanced expression of rtSTX-ov under the co-expression with rtPST may be important for the biosynthesis of polySia on O-linked glycans of PSGP.

  13. Significance of sugar chain recognition by galectins and its involvement in disease-associated glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Arikawa, Tomohiro; Simamura, Eriko; Shimada, Hiroki; Nakamura, Takanori; Hatta, Toshihisa; Shoji, Hiroki

    2014-05-01

    Galectins are β-galactoside-binding lectins that participate in a wide range of biological processes. Galectins are distributed both inside and outside cells and are believed to have roles in both intra- and extracellular milieus. One of the well-recognized functions of galectins is stabilization of glycoproteins on the cell surface, thereby promoting stable signal transduction and transport of substances such as glucose. Glycoprotein-associated diseases, including congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG, previously called carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome), comprise a disease family established only in the last decade. Although numerous in vitro glycobiology studies have been performed, including investigation of glycan-galectin interactions and of galectin action in cultured cells, a few in vivo studies have investigated molecular mechanisms of galectin actions in animal models. Both in vitro and in vivo studies are needed in order to better determine the biological significance of sugar chain recognition. Hitherto, some reports have focused on the role of impaired sugar chain recognition and galectin function in the development of diverse diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus, colitis, and cancer. We recently focused on the function of galectins in immunity and embryogenesis, and in this review we summarize the diseases related to disorders of sugar chain-galectin interaction and discuss the role of galectins as potential risk factors for some congenital and acquired diseases. These diseases are disorders of immunity, metabolism, and cell differentiation. This approach to understanding the significance of sugar chain recognition by galectins may open up a new field into the nature of glycoprotein-related diseases, including CDG. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  14. Development of molecularly imprinted polymer-based field effect transistor for sugar chain sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishitani, Shoichi; Kajisa, Taira; Sakata, Toshiya

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we developed a molecularly imprinted polymer-based field-effect transistor (MIP-gate FET) for selectively detecting sugar chains in aqueous media, focusing on 3‧-sialyllactose (3SLac) and 6‧-sialyllactose (6SLac). The FET biosensor enables the detection of small molecules as long as they have intrinsic charges. Additionally, the MIP gels include the template for the target molecule, which is selectively trapped without requiring enzyme-target molecule reaction. The MIP gels were synthesized on the gate surface of the FET device, including phenylboronic acid (PBA), which enables binding to sugar chains. Firstly, the 3SLac-MIP-gate FET quantitatively detected 3SLac at µM levels. This is because the FET device recognized the change in molecular charges on the basis of PBA-3SLac binding in the MIP gel. Moreover, 3SLac was selectively detected using the 3SLac- and 6SLac-MIP-gate FETs to some extent, where the detecting signal from the competent was suppressed by 40% at maximum. Therefore, a platform based on the MIP-coupled FET biosensor is suitable for a selective biosensing system in an enzyme-free manner, which can be applied widely in medical fields. However, we need to further improve the selectivity of MIP-gate FETs to discriminate more clearly between similar structures of sugar chains such as 3SLac and 6SLac.

  15. Electric charge and sugar chains of immunoglobulin G in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Koji; Ikoma, Sinya; Yamagata, Toshiaki; Nozaki, Yuji; Sugiyama, Masafumi; Funauchi, Masanori

    2006-03-01

    The charge condition of anti-DNA antibody is thought to be closely related to the pathology of renal disorders in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We examined the relationships among the electric charge of IgG, proteinuria, and DNA binding capacity in SLE patients. Abnormal sugar chains, which affect the IgG charge, were also studied. IgG in SLE patients with proteinuria had a higher positive electric charge than that in SLE patients without proteinuria, healthy individuals, and patients with other collagen diseases. Anti-DNA antibody titers measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were high in the positive charge regions of the IgG fractions obtained by a cationic exchange column. The binding capacity of double-stranded (ds)DNA measured by the Farr assay tended to be present specifically in the positive charge region in SLE patients with proteinuria. In affinoblotting using lectins, the percentage of IgG deficient in negative-charged sugar chains was found to be high in patients with a preponderant positive charge on anti-DNA antibody. Abnormal IgG-bound sugar chains result in a preponderantly positive charge and are involved in the etiology of SLE nephritis.

  16. A novel mass spectrometric strategy “BEMAP” reveals Extensive O-linked protein glycosylation in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Boysen, Anders; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Krogh, Thøger Jensen; Duggin, Iain G.; Larsen, Martin R.; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    The attachment of sugars to proteins via side-chain oxygen atoms (O-linked glycosylation) is seen in all three domains of life. However, a lack of widely-applicable analytical tools has restricted the study of this process, particularly in bacteria. In E. coli, only four O-linked glycoproteins have previously been characterized. Here we present a glycoproteomics technique, termed BEMAP, which is based on the beta-elimination of O-linked glycans followed by Michael-addition of a phosphonic acid derivative, and subsequent titanium dioxide enrichment. This strategy allows site-specific mass-spectrometric identification of proteins with O-linked glycan modifications in a complex biological sample. Using BEMAP we identified cell surface-associated and membrane vesicle glycoproteins from Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and non-pathogenic E. coli K-12. We identified 618 glycosylated Serine and Threonine residues mapping to 140 proteins in ETEC, including several known virulence factors, and 34 in E. coli K-12. The two strains had 32 glycoproteins in common. Remarkably, the majority of the ETEC glycoproteins were conserved in both strains but nevertheless were only glycosylated in the pathogen. Therefore, bacterial O-linked glycosylation is much more extensive than previously thought, and is especially important to the pathogen. PMID:27562176

  17. A novel mass spectrometric strategy "BEMAP" reveals Extensive O-linked protein glycosylation in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Anders; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Krogh, Thøger Jensen; Duggin, Iain G; Larsen, Martin R; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2016-08-26

    The attachment of sugars to proteins via side-chain oxygen atoms (O-linked glycosylation) is seen in all three domains of life. However, a lack of widely-applicable analytical tools has restricted the study of this process, particularly in bacteria. In E. coli, only four O-linked glycoproteins have previously been characterized. Here we present a glycoproteomics technique, termed BEMAP, which is based on the beta-elimination of O-linked glycans followed by Michael-addition of a phosphonic acid derivative, and subsequent titanium dioxide enrichment. This strategy allows site-specific mass-spectrometric identification of proteins with O-linked glycan modifications in a complex biological sample. Using BEMAP we identified cell surface-associated and membrane vesicle glycoproteins from Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and non-pathogenic E. coli K-12. We identified 618 glycosylated Serine and Threonine residues mapping to 140 proteins in ETEC, including several known virulence factors, and 34 in E. coli K-12. The two strains had 32 glycoproteins in common. Remarkably, the majority of the ETEC glycoproteins were conserved in both strains but nevertheless were only glycosylated in the pathogen. Therefore, bacterial O-linked glycosylation is much more extensive than previously thought, and is especially important to the pathogen.

  18. Immobilization of rennet from Mucor miehei via its sugar chain. Its use in milk coagulation.

    PubMed

    Pessela, Benevides C C; Torres, Rodrigo; Fuentes, Manuel; Mateo, Cesar; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto; Guisán, Jose M

    2004-01-01

    A successful strategy for the immobilization of rennet from Mucor miehei has been developed. The strategy is based on the immobilization of the enzyme, via their sugar chains at high ionic strength on aminated supports having primary amino groups with a very low pK value. The rennet was covalently immobilized via sugar chains (previously oxidized with periodate), which act as natural spacer arms and allow a very high percentage of rennet activity to be kept against small (H-Leu-Ser-p-nitro-Phe-Nle-Ala-Leu-OMe.TFA (98%)) and macromolecular substrates (k-casein) (78%). The use of tailor-made aminated support was critical to obtain good stability values, because using fully aminated supports achieved much lower thermostability values than using 50% aminated supports. The optimized derivative was utilized to hydrolyze casein in milk. To prevent the coagulation of the milk in the presence of the derivative, the reaction was performed at 4 degrees C (where hydrolyzed casein did not precipitate). Then the hydrolyzed milk was filtered and latter on heated to 30 degrees C, achieving a similar aggregate to the one achieved with soluble rennet.

  19. Biosynthesis of ascites sialoglycoprotein-1, the major O-linked glycoprotein of 13762 rat mammary adenocarcinoma ascites cells

    SciTech Connect

    Spielman, J.

    1987-01-01

    The present studies were undertaken to determine the timing of the major events in biosynthesis, and to characterize the contributions of chain initiation and elongation in maturation of the glycoprotein. Initiation of the earliest O-linked chains was detected by analysis of conversion of {sup 3}H-thr to {sup 3}H 2-aminobutyrate following mild alkaline borohydride elimination of O-linked sugars from peanut lectin-precipitated ASGP-1. Initiation was detected within 5 min of translation; amino sugar analysis of GlcNH{sub 2}-labeled, trypsinized cells also showed that GalNAc was added as late as 5 min prior to arrival of ASGP-1 at the cell surface. Thus initiation occurs throughout biosynthesis. Maturation of the glycoprotein from a lightly-glycosylated immature form to the heavily-glycosylated mature from involved both continued initiation of new chains and chain elongation, and occurred with a half-time of about 30 min. Analysis of labeled ASGP-1 released from the cell surface by trypsinization showed that although some newly-synthesized ASGP-1 reached the cell surface within 70-80 min of protein synthesis, the half-time for appearance of mature glycoprotein was in excess of 4 hr, indicating that most molecules reside in an intracellular compartment(s) for a considerable time.

  20. A Highly Sensitive Diagnostic System for Detecting Dengue Viruses Using the Interaction between a Sulfated Sugar Chain and a Virion.

    PubMed

    Saksono, Budi; Dewi, Beti Ernawati; Nainggolan, Leonardo; Suda, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel method of detecting trace amounts of dengue virus (DENVs) from serum. Our method is based on the interaction between a sulfated sugar chain and a DENV surface glycoprotein. After capturing DENV with the sulfated sugar chain-immobilized gold nanoparticles (SGNPs), the resulting complex is precipitated and viral RNA content is measured using the reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction SYBR Green I (RT-qPCR-Syb) method. Sugar chains that bind to DENVs were identified using the array-type sugar chain immobilized chip (Sugar Chip) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging. Heparin and low-molecular-weight dextran sulfate were identified as binding partners, and immobilized on gold nanoparticles to prepare 3 types of SGNPs. The capacity of these SGNPs to capture and concentrate trace amounts of DENVs was evaluated in vitro. The SGNP with greatest sensitivity was tested using clinical samples in Indonesia in 2013-2014. As a result, the novel method was able to detect low concentrations of DENVs using only 6 μL of serum, with similar sensitivity to that of a Qiagen RNA extraction kit using 140 μL of serum. In addition, this method allows for multiplex-like identification of serotypes of DENVs. This feature is important for good healthcare management of DENV infection in order to safely diagnose the dangerous, highly contagious disease quickly, with high sensitivity.

  1. A Highly Sensitive Diagnostic System for Detecting Dengue Viruses Using the Interaction between a Sulfated Sugar Chain and a Virion

    PubMed Central

    Saksono, Budi; Dewi, Beti Ernawati; Nainggolan, Leonardo; Suda, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel method of detecting trace amounts of dengue virus (DENVs) from serum. Our method is based on the interaction between a sulfated sugar chain and a DENV surface glycoprotein. After capturing DENV with the sulfated sugar chain-immobilized gold nanoparticles (SGNPs), the resulting complex is precipitated and viral RNA content is measured using the reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction SYBR Green I (RT-qPCR-Syb) method. Sugar chains that bind to DENVs were identified using the array-type sugar chain immobilized chip (Sugar Chip) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging. Heparin and low-molecular-weight dextran sulfate were identified as binding partners, and immobilized on gold nanoparticles to prepare 3 types of SGNPs. The capacity of these SGNPs to capture and concentrate trace amounts of DENVs was evaluated in vitro. The SGNP with greatest sensitivity was tested using clinical samples in Indonesia in 2013–2014. As a result, the novel method was able to detect low concentrations of DENVs using only 6 μL of serum, with similar sensitivity to that of a Qiagen RNA extraction kit using 140 μL of serum. In addition, this method allows for multiplex-like identification of serotypes of DENVs. This feature is important for good healthcare management of DENV infection in order to safely diagnose the dangerous, highly contagious disease quickly, with high sensitivity. PMID:26010246

  2. Modified sugar beet pectin induces apoptosis of colon cancer cells via an interaction with the neutral sugar side-chains.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Ellen G; Colquhoun, Ian J; Chau, Hoa K; Hotchkiss, Arland T; Waldron, Keith W; Morris, Victor J; Belshaw, Nigel J

    2016-01-20

    Pectins extracted from a variety of sources and modified with heat and/or pH have previously been shown to exhibit activity towards several cancer cell lines. However, the structural basis for the anti-cancer activity of modified pectin requires clarification. Sugar beet and citrus pectin extracts have been compared. Pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp only weakly affected the viability of colon cancer cells. Alkali treatment increased the anti-cancer effect of sugar beet pectin via an induction of apoptosis. Alkali treatment decreased the degree of esterification (DE) and increased the ratio of rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI) to homogalacturonan. Low DE per se did not play a significant role in the anti-cancer activity. However, the enzymatic removal of galactose and, to a lesser extent, arabinose from the pectin decreased the effect on cancer cells indicating that the neutral sugar-containing RGI regions are important for pectin bioactivity.

  3. Asparagine-linked sugar chains of glycoproteins in calf thymocyte plasma membrane. Isolation and fractionation of oligosaccharides liberated by hydrazinolysis.

    PubMed

    Yoshima, H; Takasaki, S; Kobata, A

    1980-07-01

    The plasma membrane glycoproteins of calf thymocytes were converted to glycopeptides by exhaustive pronase digestion. Glycopeptides with asparagine-linked sugar chains were separated from those with mucine-type sugar chains by Bio-Gel P-10 column chromatography. The asparagine-linked sugar chains were released as oligosaccharides from the peptide moiety by hydrazinolysis and labeled by reduction with NaB[3H]4. The radioactive oligosaccharides were fractionated into fifteen acidic components and ten neutral components by combination of paper electrophoresis and Bio-Gel P-4 column chromatography. The acidic nature of all fifteen acidic components can be ascribed to their N-acetylneuraminic acid residues. The Bio-Gel P-4 column chromatographic patterns of the neutral oligosaccharide fraction and of the neutral fraction obtained on sialidase treatment of the pooled acidic oligosaccharide fraction were totally different, indicating that the acidic oligosaccharides are not simple sialyl derivatives of the neutral oligosaccharides.

  4. Engineering biosynthetic pathways for deoxysugars: branched-chain sugar pathways and derivatives from the antitumor tetracenomycin.

    PubMed

    Lombó, Felipe; Gibson, Miranda; Greenwell, Lisa; Braña, Alfredo F; Rohr, Jürgen; Salas, José A; Méndez, Carmen

    2004-12-01

    Sugar biosynthesis cassette genes have been used to construct plasmids directing the biosynthesis of branched-chain deoxysugars: pFL942 (NDP-L-mycarose), pFL947 (NDP-4-deacetyl-L-chromose B), and pFL946/pFL954 (NDP-2,3,4-tridemethyl-L-nogalose). Expression of pFL942 and pFL947 in S. lividans 16F4, which harbors genes for elloramycinone biosynthesis and the flexible ElmGT glycosyltransferase of the elloramycin biosynthetic pathway, led to the formation of two compounds: 8-alpha-L-mycarosyl-elloramycinone and 8-demethyl-8-(4-deacetyl)-alpha-L-chromosyl-tetracenomycin C, respectively. Expression of pFL946 or pFL954 failed to produce detectable amounts of a novel glycosylated tetracenomycin derivative. Formation of these two compounds represents examples of the sugar cosubstrate flexibility of the ElmGT glycosyltransferase. The use of these cassette plasmids also provided insights into the substrate flexibility of deoxysugar biosynthesis enzymes as the C-methyltransferases EryBIII and MtmC, the epimerases OleL and EryBVII, and the 4-ketoreductases EryBIV and OleU.

  5. The AMOR Arabinogalactan Sugar Chain Induces Pollen-Tube Competency to Respond to Ovular Guidance.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Akane G; Inatsugi, Rie; Jiao, Jiao; Kotake, Toshihisa; Kuwata, Keiko; Ootani, Kento; Okuda, Satohiro; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Maruyama, Daisuke; Iwai, Hiroaki; Garénaux, Estelle; Sato, Chihiro; Kitajima, Ken; Tsumuraya, Yoichi; Mori, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Junichiro; Itami, Kenichiro; Sasaki, Narie; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-04-25

    Precise directional control of pollen-tube growth by pistil tissue is critical for successful fertilization of flowering plants [1-3]. Ovular attractant peptides, which are secreted from two synergid cells on the side of the egg cell, have been identified [4-6]. Emerging evidence suggests that the ovular directional cue is not sufficient for successful guidance but that competency control by the pistil is critical for the response of pollen tubes to the attraction signal [1, 3, 7]. However, the female molecule for this competency induction has not been reported. Here we report that ovular methyl-glucuronosyl arabinogalactan (AMOR) induces competency of the pollen tube to respond to ovular attractant LURE peptides in Torenia fournieri. We developed a method for assaying the response capability of a pollen tube by micromanipulating an ovule. Using this method, we showed that pollen tubes growing through a cut style acquired a response capability in the medium by receiving a sufficient amount of a factor derived from mature ovules of Torenia. This factor, named AMOR, was identified as an arabinogalactan polysaccharide, the terminal 4-O-methyl-glucuronosyl residue of which was necessary for its activity. Moreover, a chemically synthesized disaccharide, the β isomer of methyl-glucuronosyl galactose (4-Me-GlcA-β-(1→6)-Gal), showed AMOR activity. No specific sugar-chain structure of plant extracellular matrix has been identified as a bioactive molecule involved in intercellular communication. We suggest that the AMOR sugar chain in the ovary renders the pollen tube competent to the chemotropic response prior to final guidance by LURE peptides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modified sugar beet pectin induces apoptosis of colon cancer cells via interaction with the neutral sugar side-chains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pectins extracted from a variety of sources and modified with heat and/or pH have previously been shown to exhibit activity towards several cancer cell lines. However, the structural basis for the anti-cancer activity of modified pectin requires clarification. Sugar beet and citrus pectin extracts h...

  7. Production of sialylated O-linked glycans in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Stephen R; Cook, W James; Gomathinayagam, Sujatha; Burnina, Irina; Bukowski, John; Hopkins, Daniel; Schwartz, Shaina; Du, Min; Sharkey, Nathan J; Bobrowicz, Piotr; Wildt, Stefan; Li, Huijuan; Stadheim, Terrance A; Nett, Juergen H

    2013-10-01

    The methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris, is an important organism used for the production of therapeutic proteins. Previously, we have reported the glycoengineering of this organism to produce human-like N-linked glycans but up to now no one has addressed engineering the O-linked glycosylation pathway. Typically, O-linked glycans produced by wild-type P. pastoris are linear chains of four to five α-linked mannose residues, which may be capped with β- or phospho-mannose. Previous genetic engineering of the N-linked glycosylation pathway of P. pastoris has eliminated both of these two latter modifications, resulting in O-linked glycans which are linear α-linked mannose structures. Here, we describe a method for the co-expression of an α-1,2-mannosidase, which reduces these glycans to primarily a single O-linked mannose residue. In doing so, we have reduced the potential of these glycans to interact with carbohydrate-binding proteins, such as dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin. Furthermore, the introduction of the enzyme protein-O-linked-mannose β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 1, resulted in the capping of the single O-linked mannose residues with N-acetylglucosamine. Subsequently, this glycoform was extended into human-like sialylated glycans, similar in structure to α-dystroglycan-type glycoforms. As such, this represents the first example of sialylated O-linked glycans being produced in yeast and extends the utility of the P. pastoris production platform beyond N-linked glycosylated biotherapeutics to include molecules possessing O-linked glycans.

  8. Genomic analysis of branched chain fatty acid and acyl sugar production in Solanum pennellii and Nicotiana benthamiana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Acyl sugars are extracellular epidermal lipids that are exuded from glandular trichomes and coat the aerial organs of many species in the Solanaceae. These highly viscous surfactants, which often contain branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), play an important defensive role against pest and insects. ...

  9. Cadmium-free sugar-chain-immobilized fluorescent nanoparticles containing low-toxicity ZnS-AgInS2 cores for probing lectin and cells.

    PubMed

    Shinchi, Hiroyuki; Wakao, Masahiro; Nagata, Nonoka; Sakamoto, Masaya; Mochizuki, Eiko; Uematsu, Taro; Kuwabata, Susumu; Suda, Yasuo

    2014-02-19

    Sugar chains play a significant role in various biological processes through sugar chain-protein and sugar chain-sugar chain interactions. To date, various tools for analyzing sugar chains biofunctions have been developed. Fluorescent nanoparticles (FNPs) functionalized with carbohydrate, such as quantum dots (QDs), are an attractive imaging tool for analyzing carbohydrate biofunctions in vitro and in vivo. Most FNPs, however, consist of highly toxic elements such as cadmium, tellurium, selenium, and so on, causing problems in long-term bioimaging because of their cytotoxicity. In this study, we developed cadmium-free sugar-chain-immobilized fluorescent nanoparticles (SFNPs) using ZnS-AgInS2 (ZAIS) solid solution nanoparticles (NPs) of low or negligible toxicity as core components, and investigated their bioavailability and cytotoxicity. SFNPs were prepared by mixing our originally developed sugar-chain-ligand conjugates with ZAIS/ZnS core/shell NPs. In binding experiments with lectin, the obtained ZAIS/ZnS SFNPs interacted with an appropriate lectin to give specific aggregates, and their binding interaction was visually and/or spectroscopically detected. In addition, these SFNPs were successfully utilized for cytometry analysis and cellular imaging in which the cell was found to possess different sugar-binding properties. The results of the cytotoxicity assay indicated that SFNPs containing ZAIS/ZnS have much lower toxicity than those containing cadmium. These data strongly suggest that our designed SFNPs can be widely utilized in various biosensing applications involved in carbohydrates.

  10. Amino and Acetamide Functional Group Effects on the Ionization and Fragmentation of Sugar Chains in Positive-Ion Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagaki, Tohru; Sugahara, Kohtaro; Watanabe, Takehiro

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the influence of amino (-NH2) and acetamide (-NHCOCH3, -NAc) groups in sugar chains on their ionization and fragmentation, cycloamyloses (cyclodextrins, CyDs) and lacto-oligosaccharide are analyzed by MALDI TOF/TOF and ESI Q-TOF mass spectrometry. CyD derivatives substituted by amino or acetamide groups are ideal analytes to extract the function group effects, which are amino-CyD with one hexosamine (HexNH2) and acetamide-CyD with one N-acetyl hexosamine (HexNAc). Interestingly, the relative ion intensities and isotope-like patterns in their product ion spectra depend on the functional groups and ion forms of sugar chains. Consequently, the results indicate that a proton (H+) localizes on the amino group of the amino sugar, and that the proton (H+) induces their fragmentation. Sodium cation (Na+) attachment is independent from amino group and exerts no influence on their fragmentation patterns in amino group except for mono- and disaccharide fragment ions because there is the possibility of the reducing end effect. In contrast, a sodium cation localizes much more frequently on the acetamide group in acetamide-CyDs because the chemical species with HexNAc are stable. Thus, their ions with HexNAc are abundant. These results are consistent with the fragmentation of lacto-neo- N-tetraose and maltotetraose, suggesting that a sodium cation generally localizes much more frequently on the acetamide group in sugar chains.

  11. The N-linked sugar chains of human immunoglobulin G: their unique pattern, and their functional roles.

    PubMed

    Kobata, Akira

    2008-03-01

    In contrast to other serum glycoproteins, the majority of the N-linked sugar chains of human serum IgG are not sialylated. In addition, extremely high micro-heterogeneity occurs in the serum IgG sugar chains. This micro-heterogeneity is mainly produced by the presence or absence of the two galactoses, the bisecting GlcNAc, and the fucose residue. Interesting evidence is that the molar ratio of each sugar chain of the serum IgG samples is quite constant in healthy individuals. By adding the information of the characteristic feature of the sugar patterns of myeloma IgG samples and glycosylated Bence Jones proteins, which are the products of monoclonal B-cells, it was proposed that B-cells in the human blood are a mixture of clones equipped with different sets and ratios of glycosyltransferases. It was also proposed that each glycoform of IgG might have a different function. This hypothesis was realized by the comparative studies of the function of IgG samples before and after removal of galactose residues, fucose residue, or sialic acid residues.

  12. Sialidase of Streptococcus intermedius: a putative virulence factor modifying sugar chains.

    PubMed

    Takao, Ayuko; Nagamune, Hideaki; Maeda, Nobuko

    2010-10-01

    A sialidase gene of Streptococcus intermedius was cloned. It was most similar to nanA, a major sialidase gene in Streptococcus pneumoniae, and was expressed in Escherichia coli. Since the gene-knockout S. intermedius strain lost detectable sialidase activity, the gene might code, either solely or mainly, the glycosidase in the bacterial genome. Polymerase chain reaction using the primers for the nanA homologue in S. intermedius (described as nanA below) showed that this sialidase gene was commonly distributed within the isolates of S. intermedius, but not found in the strains of other species among the anginosus group. In biofilm formation assay under cultivation with mucin, the nanA-deleted S. intermedius maintained the amount of biofilm for 72 hr, while that of the parent strain decreased during incubation from 24 to 72 hr. Since sialidase activity in the parent strain increased during that time period, sialidase might contribute to the degradation of biofilm under sialic acid-rich conditions. When S. intermedius was added into the HepG2 hepatoma culture, the calculated disassociation constant (K(d)) of EDTA-releasable bacterial adhesion to the cells was higher in the nanA-deleted strain than in the parent. Furthermore, the rate constant, assuming endocytosis of the bacterium mediated by ASGP-R in HepG2 cells, seemed to be increased by sialidase pretreatment of the bacterial cells before addition to the cell culture. According to the results, modification of sugar chains by sialidase on the bacterial surface and in the surrounding environment might influence both bacterial interaction and host-bacterial interaction in S. intermedius.

  13. Visual Detection of Human Antibodies Using Sugar Chain-Immobilized Fluorescent Nanoparticles: Application as a Point of Care Diagnostic Tool for Guillain-Barré Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shinchi, Hiroyuki; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Hideharu; Hirata, Koichi; Wakao, Masahiro; Suda, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Sugar chain binding antibodies have gained substantial attention as biomarkers due to their crucial roles in various disorders. In this study, we developed simple and quick detection method of anti-sugar chain antibodies in sera using our previously developed sugar chain-immobilized fluorescent nanoparticles (SFNPs) for the point-of-care diagnostics. Sugar chain structure on SFNPs was modified with the sugar moieties of the GM1 ganglioside via our original linker molecule to detect anti-GM1 antibodies. The structures and densities of the sugar moieties immobilized on the nanoparticles were evaluated in detail using lectins and sera containing anti-GM1 antibodies from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder, as an example of disease involving anti-sugar chain antibodies. When optimized SFNPs were added to sera from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, fluorescent aggregates were able to visually detect under UV light in three hours. The sensitivity of the detection method was equivalent to that of the current ELISA method used for the diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. These results suggest that our method using SFNPs is suitable for the point-of-care diagnostics of diseases involving anti-sugar chain antibodies.

  14. Visual Detection of Human Antibodies Using Sugar Chain-Immobilized Fluorescent Nanoparticles: Application as a Point of Care Diagnostic Tool for Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shinchi, Hiroyuki; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Hideharu; Hirata, Koichi; Wakao, Masahiro; Suda, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Sugar chain binding antibodies have gained substantial attention as biomarkers due to their crucial roles in various disorders. In this study, we developed simple and quick detection method of anti-sugar chain antibodies in sera using our previously developed sugar chain-immobilized fluorescent nanoparticles (SFNPs) for the point-of-care diagnostics. Sugar chain structure on SFNPs was modified with the sugar moieties of the GM1 ganglioside via our original linker molecule to detect anti-GM1 antibodies. The structures and densities of the sugar moieties immobilized on the nanoparticles were evaluated in detail using lectins and sera containing anti-GM1 antibodies from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder, as an example of disease involving anti-sugar chain antibodies. When optimized SFNPs were added to sera from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, fluorescent aggregates were able to visually detect under UV light in three hours. The sensitivity of the detection method was equivalent to that of the current ELISA method used for the diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. These results suggest that our method using SFNPs is suitable for the point-of-care diagnostics of diseases involving anti-sugar chain antibodies. PMID:26378448

  15. Inverse hexagonal and cubic micellar lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behaviour of novel double chain sugar-based amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Feast, George C; Lepitre, Thomas; Tran, Nhiem; Conn, Charlotte E; Hutt, Oliver E; Mulet, Xavier; Drummond, Calum J; Savage, G Paul

    2017-03-01

    The lyotropic phase behaviour of a library of sugar-based amphiphiles was investigated using high-throughput small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Double unsaturated-chain monosaccharide amphiphiles formed inverse hexagonal and cubic micellar (Fd3m) lyotropic phases under excess water conditions. A galactose-oleyl amphiphile from the library was subsequently formulated into hexosome nanoparticles, which have potential uses as drug delivery vehicles. The nanoparticles were shown to be stable at elevated temperatures and non-cytotoxic up to at least 200μgmL(-1). Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Carbocisteine normalizes the viscous property of mucus through regulation of fucosylated and sialylated sugar chain on airway mucins.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yuji; Takayama, Goh; Inouye, Yoshio; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2010-09-01

    Almost all of fucose and sialic acid in mucus are found on the mucus glycoproteins (mucins), and these sugar components on mucins are known to be associated with the viscous property of mucus. We have reported some aspects of carbocisteine, a mucoregulatory drug, correcting fucose and sialic acid contents in mucus. At present, carbocisteine's expectorant action of airway mucus is postulated to involve - the regulation of fucose and sialic acid contents on mucins. However little information is available about the relationship between the viscosity and sugar contents on mucins when treated with carbocisteine. To investigate further the mechanism behind the action of carbocisteine, the present study prepared MUC5AC fusion protein which has tandem repeat regions associated with MUC5AC, and evaluated the effects of carbocisteine on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced increases of mucus viscosity and sialyl-Lewis x-epitopes antigen, an antigen which consists of fucosylated and sialylated sugar chains on the MUC5AC fusion proteins. Carbocisteine inhibited the TNF-alpha-induced increases of the viscosity and sialyl-Lewis x-epitopes on MUC5AC fusion protein. These findings suggest that carbocisteine may normalize the viscosity of mucus through "balancing" of fucose and sialic acid contents on airway mucins.

  17. Characterization of intact N- and O-linked glycopeptides using higher energy collisional dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Li; Tolic, Nikola; Qu, Yi; Meng, Da; Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Qibin; Moore, Ronald J.; Zink, Erika M.; Lipton, Mary S.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Wu, Si

    2014-01-15

    Simultaneous elucidation of the glycan structure and the glycosylation site are needed to reveal the biological function of protein glycosylation. In this study, we employed a recent type of fragmentation termed higher energy collisional dissociation (HCD) to examine fragmentation patterns of intact glycopeptides generated from a mixture of standard glycosylated proteins. The normalized collisional energy (NCE) value for HCD was varied from 30% to 60% to evaluate the optimal conditions for the fragmentation of peptide backbones and glycoconjugates. Our results indicated that HCD with lower NCE valuespreferentially fragmented the sugar chains attached to the peptides to generate a ladder of neutral loss of monosaccharides, thus enabling the putative glycan structure characterization. Also, detection of the oxonium ions enabled unambiguous differentiation of glycopeptides from non-glycopeptides. On the contrary, HCD with higher NCE values preferentially fragmented the peptide backbone and thus provided information needed for confident peptide identification. We evaluated the HCD approach with alternating NCE parameters for confident characterization of intact N-linked and O-linked glycopeptides in a single liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. In addition, we applied a novel data analysis pipeline, so-called GlycoFinder, to form a basis for automated data analysis. Overall, 38 unique intact glycopeptides corresponding to eight glycosylation sites (including six N-linked and two O-linked sites) were confidently identified from a standard protein mixture. This approach provided concurrent characterization of both, the peptide and the glycan, thus enabling comprehensive structural characterization of glycoproteins in a single LC-MS/MS analysis.

  18. Structural Basis for the Sugar Nucleotide and Acyl Chain Selectivity of Leptospira interrogans LpxA

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Lori I.; Williams, Allison H.; Raetz, Christian R. H.

    2009-01-01

    The first step of lipid A biosynthesis is catalyzed by LpxA in Escherichia coli (EcLpxA), an acyltransferase selective for UDP-GlcNAc and R-3-hydroxymyristoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP). Leptospira interrogans LpxA (LiLpxA) is extremely selective for R-3-hydroxylauroyl-ACP and an analogue of UDP-GlcNAc, designated UDP-GlcNAc3N, in which NH2 replaces the GlcNAc 3-OH group. EcLpxA does not discriminate between UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-GlcNAc3N; however, E. coli does not make UDP-GlcNAc3N. With LiLpxA R-3-hydroxylauroyl-methylphosphopantetheine efficiently substitutes for R-3-hydroxylauroyl-ACP. We now present crystal structures of free LiLpxA, and of its complexes with its product UDP-3-N-(R-3-hydroxylauroyl)-GlcNAc3N and with its substrate R-3-hydroxylauroyl-methylphosphopantetheine. The positions of the acyl chains of the R-3-hydroxylauroyl-methylphosphopantetheine and of the UDP-3-N-(R-3-hydroxylauroyl)-GlcNAc3N are almost identical, and are similar to that of the acyl chain in the EcLpxA/UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-GlcNAc complex. The selectivity of LiLpxA for UDP-GlcNAc3N may be explained by the orientation of the backbone carbonyl group of Q68, which differs by ∼82° from the corresponding Q73 carbonyl group in EcLpxA. This arrangement provides an extra hydrogen bond acceptor for the 3-NH2 group of UDP-GlcNAc3N in LiLpxA. The R-3-hydroxylauroyl-selectivity of LiLpxA is explained by the position of the K171 side chain, which limits the length of the acyl chain-binding groove. Our results support the role of LiLpxA H120 (which corresponds to EcLpxA H125) as the catalytic base and provide the first structural information about the orientation of the phosphopantetheine moiety during LpxA catalysis. PMID:19456129

  19. Adults Who Order Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Sociodemographics and Meal Patterns at Fast Food Chains.

    PubMed

    Taksler, Glen B; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Elbel, Brian

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 30% of adults consume sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) daily, many at fast food restaurants. Researchers examined fast food purchases to better understand which consumers order SSBs, particularly large SSBs. Fast food customers in New York City and New Jersey provided receipts and participated in a survey during 2013-2014 (N=11,614). Logistic regression analyses predicted three outcomes: ordering no beverage or a non-SSB, a small/medium SSB, or a large SSB. Among respondents who ordered a beverage (n=3,775), additional analyses predicted number of beverage calories and odds of ordering an SSB. Covariates included demographic and behavioral factors. Respondents aged 18-29 years were 88% more likely to order a large SSB than a non-SSB or no beverage, as compared with respondents aged ≥50 years (p<0.001). Among respondents who purchased a beverage, respondents ordered more beverage calories with a large combination meal (+85.13 kcal, p=0.001) or if the restaurant had a large cup size >30 ounces (+36.07 kcal, p=0.001). Hispanic and Asian respondents were less likely to order a large SSB (AOR=0.49 and 0.52, respectively, both p≤0.026) than non-Hispanic white respondents. Odds of ordering a large SSB were higher for respondents who ate in the restaurant (AOR=1.66, p<0.001) or stated that they chose beverage based on price (AOR=2.02, p<0.001). Young adults and customers of restaurants with a larger cup size were more likely to purchase SSBs, and their beverage calories increased with meal size. Increased understanding of these factors is an important step toward limiting unhealthy SSB consumption. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Structures of sugar chains of the subunits of an alpha-amylase inhibitor from Phaseolus vulgaris white kidney beans.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, H; Funaoka, H; Iwamoto, H

    1992-03-01

    The structures of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides in the subunits of an alpha-amylase inhibitor from the white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) were determined. Glycopeptides obtained from each subunit were treated with hydrazine, then N-acetylated. The oligosaccharides thus liberated were labeled with 2-aminopyridine at their reducing ends and purified by gel-permeation, reverse-phase, and size-fractionation HPLC. The structures of seven oligosaccharides from the alpha-subunit and eight oligosaccharides from the beta-subunit were determined by a combination of composition and molecular size analyses, exo- and endoglycosidase digestions, partial acetolysis, and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The major glycan chains in the alpha-subunit were Man alpha 1-6(Man alpha 1-3)Man alpha 1-6(Man alpha 1-2Man alpha 1-3)-Man beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-4GlcNAc and (Man alpha 1-2)Man alpha 1-6(Man alpha 1-2Man alpha 1-3)Man alpha 1-6 (Man alpha 1-2Man alpha 1-2Man alpha 1-3)Man beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-4GlcNAc, while a glycan chain Man alpha 1-6(Man alpha 1-3)(Xyl beta 1-2)Man beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-4GlcNAc comprised more than 70% of the sugar moiety of the beta-subunit.

  1. Structural advantage of sugar beet α-glucosidase to stabilize the Michaelis complex with long-chain substrate.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Takayoshi; Yamashita, Keitaro; Okuyama, Masayuki; Mori, Haruhide; Yao, Min; Kimura, Atsuo

    2015-01-16

    The α-glucosidase from sugar beet (SBG) is an exo-type glycosidase. The enzyme has a pocket-shaped active site, but efficiently hydrolyzes longer maltooligosaccharides and soluble starch due to lower Km and higher kcat/Km for such substrates. To obtain structural insights into the mechanism governing its unique substrate specificity, a series of acarviosyl-maltooligosaccharides was employed for steady-state kinetic and structural analyses. The acarviosyl-maltooligosaccharides have a longer maltooligosaccharide moiety compared with the maltose moiety of acarbose, which is known to be the transition state analog of α-glycosidases. The clear correlation obtained between log Ki of the acarviosyl-maltooligosaccharides and log(Km/kcat) for hydrolysis of maltooligosaccharides suggests that the acarviosyl-maltooligosaccharides are transition state mimics. The crystal structure of the enzyme bound with acarviosyl-maltohexaose reveals that substrate binding at a distance from the active site is maintained largely by van der Waals interactions, with the four glucose residues at the reducing terminus of acarviosyl-maltohexaose retaining a left-handed single-helical conformation, as also observed in cycloamyloses and single helical V-amyloses. The kinetic behavior and structural features suggest that the subsite structure suitable for the stable conformation of amylose lowers the Km for long-chain substrates, which in turn is responsible for higher specificity of the longer substrates. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Serial lectin affinity chromatography with concavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin demonstrates altered asparagine-linked sugar-chain structures of prostatic acid phosphatase in human prostate carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K I; Honda, M; Arai, K; Hosoya, Y; Moriguchi, H; Sumi, S; Ueda, Y; Kitahara, S

    1997-08-01

    Differences between human prostate carcinoma (PCA, five cases) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, five cases) in asparagine-linked (Asn) sugar-chain structure of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) were investigated using lectin affinity chromatography with concanavalin A (Con A) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). PAP activities were significantly decreased in PCA-derived PAP, while no significant differences between the two PAP preparations were observed in the enzymatic properties (Michaelis-Menten value, optimal pH, thermal stability, and inhibition study). In these PAP preparations, all activities were found only in the fractions which bound strongly to the Con A column and were undetectable in the Con A unbound fractions and in the fractions which bound weakly to the Con A column. The relative amounts of PAP which bound strongly to the Con A column but passed through the WGA column, were significantly greater in BPH-derived PAP than in PCA-derived PAP. In contrast, the relative amounts of PAP which bound strongly to the Con A column and bound to the WGA column, were significantly greater in PCA-derived PAP than in BPH-derived PAP. The findings suggest that Asn-linked sugar-chain structures are altered during oncogenesis in human prostate and also suggest that studies of qualitative differences of sugar-chain structures of PAP might lead to a useful diagnostic tool for PCA.

  3. Postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in adults after consumption of dairy desserts and pound cakes containing short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides used to replace sugars.

    PubMed

    Lecerf, J M; Clerc, E; Jaruga, A; Wagner, A; Respondek, F

    2015-01-01

    The present studies aimed to evaluate the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses, in healthy adults, to short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) from sucrose used to replace sugars in foods. Two study populations aged 18-50 years were recruited and they consumed dairy desserts or pound cakes containing either standard sugar content or scFOS to replace 30 % of the sugar content. For each study, the two products were tested once under a double-blind and cross-over design with at least 7 d between the two tests. Glucose and insulin were measured using standard methods in blood samples collected with a venous catheter for 120 min during a kinetic test. For the dairy desserts, replacing 30 % of the sugars with scFOS significantly reduced postprandial glycaemic (AUC0-120 min; P = 0·020) and insulinaemic (AUC0-120 min; P = 0·003) responses. For the pound cakes, the glycaemic response was not altered (AUC0-120 min; P =  0·322) while the insulinaemic response tended to be lower (AUC0-120 min; P = 0·067). This study showed that scFOS can be used to replace sugars with the benefit of lowering the postprandial glycaemic response without increasing the insulinaemic response. The effect might be modulated by other parameters (e.g. fat content) of the food matrices.

  4. Sugar chains of serum transferrin from patients with carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome. Evidence of asparagine-N-linked oligosaccharide transfer deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, K; Ideo, H; Ohkura, T; Fukushima, K; Yuasa, I; Ohno, K; Takeshita, K

    1993-03-15

    The structure of over 93% of the sugar chains of serum transferrin purified from three patients with carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein (CDG) syndrome was Neu5Ac alpha 2-->6Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc beta 1-->2Man alpha 1-->6 (Neu5Ac alpha 2-->6Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc beta 1-->2Man alpha 1-->3)Man beta 1-->4GlcNac beta 1-->4GlcNAc, similar to that in a healthy control. On chromatofocusing, CDG syndrome transferrin was separated into three major isoforms, S4, S2, and S0, containing 4, 2, and 0 sialic acids/molecule at pH 5.12 (5.16), 5.42, and 5.80, respectively. On 7.5% SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the molecular masses of transferrin isoforms S4, S2, and S0 were 80, 77, and 74 kDa, respectively. Transferrin isoforms S4 and S2 were linked to 2 and 1 mol of sialylated biantennary sugar chain/transferrin molecule, on the other hand, isoform S0 was not linked to any asparagine-N-linked oligosaccharide. Accordingly, CDG syndrome can be concluded to be an asparagine-N-linked oligosaccharide transfer deficiency, although the primary deficient enzyme has not yet been determined.

  5. Rational Design of an Anticalin-Type Sugar-Binding Protein Using a Genetically Encoded Boronate Side Chain.

    PubMed

    Edwardraja, Selvakumar; Eichinger, Andreas; Theobald, Ina; Sommer, Carina Andrea; Reichert, Andreas J; Skerra, Arne

    2017-09-22

    The molecular recognition of carbohydrates plays a fundamental role in many biological processes. However, the development of carbohydrate-binding reagents for biomedical research and use poses a challenge due to the generally poor affinity of proteins towards sugars in aqueous solution. Here, we describe the effective molecular recognition of pyranose monosaccharides (in particular, galactose and mannose) by a rationally designed protein receptor based on the human lipocalin scaffold (Anticalin). Complexation relies on reversible covalent cis-diol boronate diester formation with a genetically encoded L-boronophenylalanine (Bpa) residue which was incorporated as a non-natural amino acid at a sterically permissive position in the binding site of the Anticalin, as confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Com-pared with the metal-ion and/or avidity-dependent oligovalent lectins that prevail in nature, our approach offers a novel and promising route to generate tight sugar-binding reagents both as research reagents and for biomedical applications.

  6. Biosynthesis of Conjugate Vaccines Using an O-Linked Glycosylation System

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chao; Sun, Peng; Liu, Bo; Liang, Haoyu; Peng, Zhehui; Dong, Yan; Wang, Dongshu; Liu, Xiankai; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT  Conjugate vaccines are known to be one of the most effective and safest types of vaccines against bacterial pathogens. Previously, vaccine biosynthesis has been performed by using N-linked glycosylation systems. However, the structural specificity of these systems for sugar substrates has hindered their application. Here, we report a novel protein glycosylation system (O-linked glycosylation via Neisseria meningitidis) that can transfer virtually any glycan to produce a conjugate vaccine. We successfully established this system in Shigella spp., avoiding the construction of an expression vector for polysaccharide synthesis. We further found that different protein substrates can be glycosylated using this system and that the O-linked glycosylation system can also effectively function in other Gram-negative bacteria, including some strains whose polysaccharide structure was not suitable for conjugation using the N-linked glycosylation system. The results from a series of animal experiments show that the conjugate vaccine produced by this O-linked glycosylation system offered a potentially protective antibody response. Furthermore, we elucidated and optimized the recognition motif, named MOOR, for the O-glycosyltransferase PglL. Finally, we demonstrated that the fusion of other peptides recognized by major histocompatibility complex class II around MOOR had no adverse effects on substrate glycosylation, suggesting that this optimized system will be useful for future vaccine development. Our results expand the glycoengineering toolbox and provide a simpler and more robust strategy for producing bioconjugate vaccines against a variety of pathogens. PMID:27118590

  7. Muscle-Specific Myosin Heavy Chain Shifts in Response to a Long-Term High Fat/High Sugar Diet and Resveratrol Treatment in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Hyatt, Jon-Philippe K.; Nguyen, Lisa; Hall, Allison E.; Huber, Ashley M.; Kocan, Jessica C.; Mattison, Julie A.; de Cabo, Rafael; LaRocque, Jeannine R.; Talmadge, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Shifts in myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression within skeletal muscle can be induced by a host of stimuli including, but not limited to, physical activity, alterations in neural activity, aging, and diet or obesity. Here, we hypothesized that both age and a long-term (2 year) high fat/high sugar diet (HFS) would induce a slow to fast MHC shift within the plantaris, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from rhesus monkeys. Furthermore, we tested whether supplementation with resveratrol, a naturally occurring compound that has been attributed with augmenting aerobic potential through mitochondrial proliferation, would counteract any diet-induced MHC changes by promoting a fast to slow isoform switch. In general, we found that MHC isoforms were not altered by aging during mid-life. The HFS diet had the largest impact within the soleus muscle where the greatest slow to fast isoform shifts were observed in both mRNA and protein indicators. As expected, long-term resveratrol treatment counteracted, or blunted, these diet-induced shifts within the soleus muscle. The plantaris muscle also demonstrated a fast-to-slow phenotypic response to resveratrol treatment. In conclusion, diet or resveratrol treatment impacts skeletal muscle phenotype in a muscle-specific manner and resveratrol supplementation may be one approach for promoting the fatigue-resistant MHC (type I) isoform especially if its expression is blunted as a result of a long-term high fat/sugar diet. PMID:26973542

  8. Immunological evidence that non-carboxymethyllysine advanced glycation end-products are produced from short chain sugars and dicarbonyl compounds in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, M.; Makita, Z.; Bucala, R.; Suzuki, T.; Koike, T.; Kameda, Y.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Maillard reaction that leads to the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of angiopathy in diabetic patients and in the aging process. Recently, it was proposed that AGE were not only created by glucose, but also by dicarbonyl compounds derived from the Maillard reaction, autoxidation of sugars and other metabolic pathways of glucose. In this study, we developed four types of non-carboxymethyllysine (CML) anti-AGE antibodies that recognized proteins modified by incubation with short chain sugars and dicarbonyl compounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: AGE-modified serum albumins were prepared by incubation of rabbit serum albumin with glyceraldehyde, glycolaldehyde, methylglyoxal or glyoxal. After immunization of rabbits, four types of AGE-specific antisera were obtained that were specific for the AGE modification. To separate non-CML AGE antibodies (Ab) (non-CML AGE-Ab-2, -3, -4, and -5), these anti-AGE antisera were subjected to affinity chromatography on a matrix coupled with four kinds of AGE bovine serum albumin (BSA) or CML-BSA. These non-CML AGE antibodies were used to investigate the AGE content of serum obtained from diabetic patients on hemodialysis. RESULTS: Characterization of the four types of non-CML AGE antibodies obtained by immunoaffinity chromatography was performed by competitive ELISA and immunoblot analysis. Non-CML AGE-Ab-2 crossreacted with the protein modified by glyceraldehyde or glycolaldehyde. Non-CML AGE-Ab-3 and -Ab-4 specifically cross-reacted with protein modified by glycolaldehyde and methylglyoxal, respectively. NonCML AGE-Ab-5 cross-reacted with protein modified with glyoxal as well as methylglyoxal and glycolaldehyde. Three kinds of non-CML AGE (AGE-2, -4, and -5) were detected in diabetic serum as three peaks with apparent molecular weights of 200, 1.15, and 0.85 kD; whereas, AGE-3 was detected as two peaks with apparent molecular weights of 200 and 0.85 k

  9. Biogas production within the bioethanol production chain: Use of co-substrates for anaerobic digestion of sugar beet vinasse.

    PubMed

    Moraes, B S; Triolo, J M; Lecona, V P; Zaiat, M; Sommer, S G

    2015-08-01

    Bioethanol production generates large amounts of vinasse, which is suitable for biogas production. In this study, the anaerobic digestion of sugar beet vinasse was optimised using continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR) supplemented either with lime fertiliser or with 3% cow manure. In both reactors, the C/N ratio was adjusted by adding straw. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of vinasse was 267.4±4.5LCH4kgVS(-1). Due to the low content of macro- and micronutrients and low C/N ratio of vinasse, biogas production failed when vinasse alone was fed to the reactor. When co-substrate was added, biogas production achieved very close to the BMP of vinasse, being 235.7±32.2LCH4kgVS(-1) from the fertiliser supplied reactor and 265.2±26.8LCH4kgVS(-1) in manure supplied reactor at steady state. Anaerobic digestion was the most stable when cow manure was supplied to digestion of vinasse.

  10. Cell- and region-specific expression of sugar chains in the mouse epididymal epithelium using lectin histochemistry combined with immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Tajiri, Shota; Fukui, Tatsuya; Sawaguchi, Akira; Yoshinaga, Kazuya

    2012-02-01

    To understand the cytochemical properties of epididymal epithelial cells, the characteristics of glycoconjugates in the mouse epididymis were examined using the technique of lectin histochemistry combined with immunohistochemistry. Characteristic staining patterns depending on the type of lectins were observed in the epididymal epithelium. Principal cells expressed N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc), N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), and Fucose in the proximal region of the epididymis and Mannose, Glucose, and Galactose in the distal region of the epididymis. Basal cells expressed Mannose, Glucose, Galactose, and GlcNAc in the proximal region and Galactose in the distal region. On the other hand, clear cells expressed various sugar residues and differences among regions were not observed. Interestingly, principal cells, clear cells, and basal cells specifically reacted with Ulex Europaeus-Agglutinin I (UEA-I lectin), Maackia Amurensis-Lectin I (MAL-I lectin), and Griffonia simplicifolia Lectin I-B4 (GS-I B lectin), respectively. These findings indicate that the selectivity in lectin reactivity for distinct cell types and segment-dependent staining in the epididymis may be related to cellular and regional differences in function. Furthermore, because some lectins stain particular cells or cellular compartments selectively, these lectins could be useful markers for histopathological evaluation of diseases or diagnosis of male infertility.

  11. Crystal structure of interleukin-21 receptor (IL-21R) bound to IL-21 reveals that sugar chain interacting with WSXWS motif is integral part of IL-21R.

    PubMed

    Hamming, Ole J; Kang, Lishan; Svensson, Anders; Karlsen, Jesper L; Rahbek-Nielsen, Henrik; Paludan, Søren R; Hjorth, Siv A; Bondensgaard, Kent; Hartmann, Rune

    2012-03-16

    IL-21 is a class I cytokine that exerts pleiotropic effects on both innate and adaptive immune responses. It signals through a heterodimeric receptor complex consisting of the IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) and the common γ-chain. A hallmark of the class I cytokine receptors is the class I cytokine receptor signature motif (WSXWS). The exact role of this motif has not been determined yet; however, it has been implicated in diverse functions, including ligand binding, receptor internalization, proper folding, and export, as well as signal transduction. Furthermore, the WXXW motif is known to be a consensus sequence for C-mannosylation. Here, we present the crystal structure of IL-21 bound to IL-21R and reveal that the WSXWS motif of IL-21R is C-mannosylated at the first tryptophan. We furthermore demonstrate that a sugar chain bridges the two fibronectin domains that constitute the extracellular domain of IL-21R and anchors at the WSXWS motif through an extensive hydrogen bonding network, including mannosylation. The glycan thus transforms the V-shaped receptor into an A-frame. This finding offers a novel structural explanation of the role of the class I cytokine signature motif.

  12. Crystal Structure of Interleukin-21 Receptor (IL-21R) Bound to IL-21 Reveals That Sugar Chain Interacting with WSXWS Motif Is Integral Part of IL-21R*

    PubMed Central

    Hamming, Ole J.; Kang, Lishan; Svensson, Anders; Karlsen, Jesper L.; Rahbek-Nielsen, Henrik; Paludan, Søren R.; Hjorth, Siv A.; Bondensgaard, Kent; Hartmann, Rune

    2012-01-01

    IL-21 is a class I cytokine that exerts pleiotropic effects on both innate and adaptive immune responses. It signals through a heterodimeric receptor complex consisting of the IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) and the common γ-chain. A hallmark of the class I cytokine receptors is the class I cytokine receptor signature motif (WSXWS). The exact role of this motif has not been determined yet; however, it has been implicated in diverse functions, including ligand binding, receptor internalization, proper folding, and export, as well as signal transduction. Furthermore, the WXXW motif is known to be a consensus sequence for C-mannosylation. Here, we present the crystal structure of IL-21 bound to IL-21R and reveal that the WSXWS motif of IL-21R is C-mannosylated at the first tryptophan. We furthermore demonstrate that a sugar chain bridges the two fibronectin domains that constitute the extracellular domain of IL-21R and anchors at the WSXWS motif through an extensive hydrogen bonding network, including mannosylation. The glycan thus transforms the V-shaped receptor into an A-frame. This finding offers a novel structural explanation of the role of the class I cytokine signature motif. PMID:22235133

  13. Added Sugars

    MedlinePlus

    ... sucrose, other names for sugar include high fructose corn syrup, molasses, cane sugar, corn sweetener, raw sugar, syrup, honey or fruit juice ... out any particular types such as high-fructose corn syrup. For more detailed information and guidance on ...

  14. Highly sensitive detection of influenza virus in saliva by real-time PCR method using sugar chain-immobilized gold nanoparticles; application to clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Suda, Yasuo; Nagatomo, Mami; Yokoyama, Risa; Ohzono, Mami; Aoyama, Kazue; Zhang, Xu; Nakajima, Kazuhiko; Murakami, Naoki; Shinoda, Tadashi; Hirota, Tatsuhiko; Yanagihara, Sae; Nishi, Jun-Ichiro

    2015-09-01

    A highly sensitive and convenient method for detecting influenza virus was developed using modified end-point melt curve analysis of a RT-qPCR SYBR Green method and influenza virus-binding sugar chain-immobilized gold-nanoparticles (SGNP). Because SGNPs capture influenza viruses, the virus-SGNP complex was separated easily by centrifugation. Viral RNA was detected at very low concentrations, suggesting that SGNP increased sensitivity compared with standard methods. This method was applied to clinical studies. Influenza viruses were detected in saliva of patients or inpatients who had been considered influenza-free by a rapid diagnostic assay of nasal swabs. Furthermore, the method was applied to a human trial of prophylactic anti-influenza properties of yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus L-92. The incidence of influenza viruses in saliva of the L-92 group was found to be significantly lower compared to the control group. Thus, this method was useful for monitoring the course of anti-influenza treatment or preventive measures against nosocomial infection.

  15. Sweeteners - sugars

    MedlinePlus

    ... from corn starch. Lactose (milk sugar) is the carbohydrate that is in milk. It is made up ... amounts of these foods in place of other carbohydrates. If you have diabetes: Sugars affect blood glucose ...

  16. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  17. The location and characterisation of the O-linked glycans of the human insulin receptor.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Lindsay G; Gorman, Jeffrey J; Strike, Phillip M; Robinson, Christine P; McKern, Neil M; Epa, V Chandana; Ward, Colin W

    2007-02-01

    O-linked glycosylation is a post-translational and post-folding event involving exposed S/T residues at beta-turns or in regions with extended conformation. O-linked sites are difficult to predict from sequence analyses compared to N-linked sites. Here we compare the results of chemical analyses of isolated glycopeptides with the prediction using the neural network prediction method NetOGlyc3.1, a procedure that has been reported to correctly predict 76% of O-glycosylated residues in proteins. Using the heavily glycosylated human insulin receptor as the test protein six sites of mucin-type O-glycosylation were found at residues T744, T749, S757, S758, T759, and T763 compared to the three sites (T759 and T763- correctly, T756- incorrectly) predicted by the neural network method. These six sites occur in a 20 residue segment that begins nine residues downstream from the start of the insulin receptor beta-chain. This region which also includes N-linked glycosylation sites at N742 and N755, is predicted to lack secondary structure and is followed by residues 765-770, the known linear epitope for the monoclonal antibody 18-44.

  18. O-Linked glycome and proteome of high-molecular-mass proteins in human ovarian cancer ascites: Identification of sulfation, disialic acid and O-linked fucose.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Niclas G; McGuckin, Michael A

    2012-07-01

    The O-linked glycosylation of the main acidic high-molecular-weight glycoprotein from ascites fluid from patients with ovarian cancer were analyzed. The O-linked oligosaccharides were shown to consist of mainly highly sialylated core 1 and 2 structures with a smaller amount of sulfated core 2 structures. These structures were shown to be able to be further extended into small keratan sulfate (KS)-type oligosaccharides with up to four N-acetyllactosamine units. Proteomic studies of the acidic fraction of ascites fluid from patients with ovarian cancer showed that this fraction was enriched in proteoglycans. Among them, lumican, agrin, versican and dystroglycans were potential candidates, with threonine- and serine-rich domains that could carry a significant amount of O-linked glycosylation, including also the O-linked KS. Glycomic analysis using liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) also showed that the disialic acid NeuAc-NeuAc- was frequently found as the terminating structure on the O-linked core 1 and 2 oligosaccharides from one ascites sample. Also, a small amount of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-associated O-linked fucose structure Gal-GlcNAc-Fucitol was detected with and without sialic acid in the LC-MS/MS analysis. Candidate proteins containing O-linked fucose were suggested to be proteoglycan-type molecules containing the O-linked fucose EGF consensus domain.

  19. Identification of OmpA-Like Protein of Tannerella forsythia as an O-Linked Glycoprotein and Its Binding Capability to Lectins

    PubMed Central

    Horie, Toshi; Inomata, Megumi; Into, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Yoshiaki; Kitai, Noriyuki; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Murakami, Yukitaka

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial glycoproteins are associated with physiological and pathogenic functions of bacteria. It remains unclear whether bacterial glycoproteins can bind to specific classes of lectins expressed on host cells. Tannerella forsythia is a gram-negative oral anaerobe that contributes to the development of periodontitis. In this study, we aimed to find lectin-binding glycoproteins in T. forsythia. We performed affinity chromatography of wheat germ agglutinin, which binds to N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and sialic acid (Sia), and identified OmpA-like protein as the glycoprotein that has the highest affinity. Mass spectrometry revealed that OmpA-like protein contains O-type N-acetylhexosamine and hexose. Fluorometry quantitatively showed that OmpA-like protein contains Sia. OmpA-like protein was found to bind to lectins including E-selectin, P-selectin, L-selectin, Siglec-5, Siglec-9, Siglec-10, and DC-SIGN. The binding of OmpA-like protein to these lectins, except for the Siglecs, depends on the presence of calcium. N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc), which is the most abundant Sia, inhibited the binding of OmpA-like protein to all of these lectins, whereas GlcNAc and mannose only inhibited the binding to DC-SIGN. We further found that T. forsythia adhered to human oral epithelial cells, which express E-selectin and P-selectin, and that this adhesion was inhibited by addition of NeuAc. Moreover, adhesion of an OmpA-like protein-deficient T. forsythia strain to the cells was reduced compared to that of the wild-type strain. Our findings indicate that OmpA-like protein of T. forsythia contains O-linked sugar chains that can mediate interactions with specific lectins. This interaction is suggested to facilitate adhesion of T. forsythia to the surface of host cells. PMID:27711121

  20. Identification of OmpA-Like Protein of Tannerella forsythia as an O-Linked Glycoprotein and Its Binding Capability to Lectins.

    PubMed

    Horie, Toshi; Inomata, Megumi; Into, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Yoshiaki; Kitai, Noriyuki; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Murakami, Yukitaka

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial glycoproteins are associated with physiological and pathogenic functions of bacteria. It remains unclear whether bacterial glycoproteins can bind to specific classes of lectins expressed on host cells. Tannerella forsythia is a gram-negative oral anaerobe that contributes to the development of periodontitis. In this study, we aimed to find lectin-binding glycoproteins in T. forsythia. We performed affinity chromatography of wheat germ agglutinin, which binds to N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and sialic acid (Sia), and identified OmpA-like protein as the glycoprotein that has the highest affinity. Mass spectrometry revealed that OmpA-like protein contains O-type N-acetylhexosamine and hexose. Fluorometry quantitatively showed that OmpA-like protein contains Sia. OmpA-like protein was found to bind to lectins including E-selectin, P-selectin, L-selectin, Siglec-5, Siglec-9, Siglec-10, and DC-SIGN. The binding of OmpA-like protein to these lectins, except for the Siglecs, depends on the presence of calcium. N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc), which is the most abundant Sia, inhibited the binding of OmpA-like protein to all of these lectins, whereas GlcNAc and mannose only inhibited the binding to DC-SIGN. We further found that T. forsythia adhered to human oral epithelial cells, which express E-selectin and P-selectin, and that this adhesion was inhibited by addition of NeuAc. Moreover, adhesion of an OmpA-like protein-deficient T. forsythia strain to the cells was reduced compared to that of the wild-type strain. Our findings indicate that OmpA-like protein of T. forsythia contains O-linked sugar chains that can mediate interactions with specific lectins. This interaction is suggested to facilitate adhesion of T. forsythia to the surface of host cells.

  1. Blood sugar test

    MedlinePlus

    ... sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... The test may be done in the following ways: After you have not eaten anything for at least 8 ...

  2. Conversion of grass biomass into fermentable sugars and its utilization for medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) production by Pseudomonas strains.

    PubMed

    Davis, Reeta; Kataria, Rashmi; Cerrone, Federico; Woods, Trevor; Kenny, Shane; O'Donovan, Anthonia; Guzik, Maciej; Shaikh, Hamid; Duane, Gearoid; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Tuohy, Maria G; Padamatti, Ramesh Babu; Casey, Eoin; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the potential of grass biomass as a feedstock for mcl-PHA production. Pretreatments (2% NaOH at 120°C or hot water at 120°C) of perennial ryegrass were employed alone or in combination with sodium chlorite/acetic acid (SC/AA) delignification to evaluate the enzymatic digestibility and subsequent utilization of resultant sugars by Pseudomonas strains. NaOH pretreated sample had better digestibility than raw and hot water treated samples and this hydrolysate supported good growth of all tested strains with limited mcl-PHA (6-17% of cell dry mass (CDM)) accumulation. Digestibility of both untreated and pretreated samples was improved after SC/AA delignification and produced glucose (74-77%) rich hydrolysates. Tested strains accumulated 20-34% of CDM as PHA when these hydrolysates were used as sole carbon and energy source. CDM and PHA yields obtained for these strains when tested with laboratory grade sugars was similar to that achieved with grass derived sugars.

  3. Investigation of the effect of sugar stereochemistry on biologically relevant lyotropic phases from branched-chain synthetic glycolipids by small-angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Zahid, N Idayu; Conn, Charlotte E; Brooks, Nicholas J; Ahmad, Noraini; Seddon, John M; Hashim, Rauzah

    2013-12-23

    Synthetic branched-chain glycolipids are suitable as model systems in understanding biological cell membranes, particularly because certain natural lipids possess chain branching. Herein, four branched-chain glycopyranosides, namely, 2-hexyl-decyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (α-Glc-OC10C6), 2-hexyl-decyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (β-Glc-OC10C6), 2-hexyl-decyl-α-D-galactopyranoside (α-Gal-OC10C6), and 2-hexyl-decyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (β-Gal-OC10C6), with a total alkyl chain length of 16 carbon atoms have been synthesized, and their phase behavior has been studied. The partial binary phase diagrams of these nonionic surfactants in water were investigated by optical polarizing microscopy (OPM) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The introduction of chain branching in the hydrocarbon chain region is shown to result in the formation of inverse structures such as inverse hexagonal and inverse bicontinuous cubic phases. A comparison of the four compounds showed that they exhibited different polymorphism, especially in the thermotropic state, as a result of contributions from anomeric and epimeric effects according to their stereochemistry. The neat α-Glc-OC10C6 compound exhibited a lamellar (Lα) phase whereas dry α-Gal-OC10C6 formed an inverse bicontinuous cubic Ia3d (QII(G)) phase. Both β-anomers of glucoside and galactoside adopted the inverse hexagonal phase (HII) in the dry state. Generally, in the presence of water, all four glycolipids formed inverse bicontinuous cubic Ia3d (QII(G)) and Pn3m (QII(D)) phases over wide temperature and concentration ranges. The formation of inverse nonlamellar phases by these Guerbet branched-chain glycosides confirms their potential as materials for novel biotechnological applications such as drug delivery and crystallization of membrane proteins.

  4. Sugar 101

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart area Search By Zipcode Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 ( ... calories you need to meet your nutrient needs. Select low-fat and no-sugar-added foods to ...

  5. Saccharomyces cerevisiae KTR4, KTR5 and KTR7 encode mannosyltransferases differentially involved in the N- and O-linked glycosylation pathways.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Nahúm V; López-Ramírez, Luz A; Díaz-Jiménez, Diana F; Mellado-Mojica, Erika; Martínez-Duncker, Iván; López, Mercedes G; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2017-10-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model to understand basic aspects of protein glycosylation pathways. Although these metabolic routes have been thoroughly studied, there are still knowledge gaps; among them, the role of the MNT1/KRE2 gene family. This family is composed of nine members, with only six functionally characterized. The enzymes Ktr1, Ktr3, and Mnt1/Kre2 have overlapping activities in both O-linked and N-linked glycan synthesis; while Ktr2 and Yur1 participate exclusively in the elongation of the N-linked glycan outer chain. KTR6 encodes for a phosphomannosyltransferase that synthesizes the cell wall phosphomannan. Here, we aimed to establish the functional role of KTR4, KTR5 and KTR7 in the protein glycosylation pathways, by using heterologous complementation in Candida albicans null mutants lacking members of the MNT1/KRE2 gene family. The three S. cerevisiae genes restored defects in the C. albicans N-linked glycosylation pathway. KTR5 and KTR7 partially complemented a C. albicans null mutant with defects in the synthesis of O-linked glycans, and only KTR4 fully elongated the O-linked glycans like wild-type cells. Therefore, our results suggest that the three genes have a redundant activity in the S. cerevisiae N-linked glycosylation pathway, but KTR4 plays a major role in O-linked glycan synthesis. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. CNS Active O-Linked Glycopeptides that Penetrate the BBB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Evan; Polt, Robin

    2015-06-01

    Naturally occurring glycopeptides and glycoproteins play important roles in biological processes. Glycosylation is one of the most common post-translational modifications in vivo. Glycopeptides are involved in cell signaling and sorting, providing cell surface markers for recognition. From the drug design and synthesis perspective, modification of a peptide through glycosylation results in increased bioavailability and bioactivity of glycopeptides in living systems with negligible toxicity of degradation products. Glycopeptide synthesis can be accomplished through incorporation of a glycosylated amino acid in solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) to form the desired peptide, or via incorporation of sugar-amino acid moieties. Additionally, research indicates that glycosylation increases penetration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by peptides, which may lead to novel therapeutics for neurological disorders. Recent applications of glycopeptides have focused on the in vivo central nervous system effects after peripheral administration of centrally active peptides modified with various carbohydrates.

  7. Biochemical characterization of the O-linked glycosylation pathway in Neisseria gonorrhoeae responsible for biosynthesis of protein glycans containing N,N'-diacetylbacillosamine.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Meredith D; Morrison, Michael J; Aas, Finn Erik; Børud, Bente; Koomey, Michael; Imperiali, Barbara

    2011-06-07

    The O-linked protein glycosylation pathway in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is responsible for the synthesis of a complex oligosaccharide on undecaprenyl diphosphate and subsequent en bloc transfer of the glycan to serine residues of select periplasmic proteins. Protein glycosylation (pgl) genes have been annotated on the basis of bioinformatics and top-down mass spectrometry analysis of protein modifications in pgl-null strains [Aas, F. E., et al. (2007) Mol. Microbiol. 65, 607-624; Vik, A., et al. (2009) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 4447-4452], but relatively little biochemical analysis has been performed to date. In this report, we present the expression, purification, and functional characterization of seven Pgl enzymes. Specifically, the enzymes studied are responsible for synthesis of an uncommon uridine diphosphate (UDP)-sugar (PglD, PglC, and PglB-acetyltransferase domain), glycan assembly (PglB-phospho-glycosyltransferase domain, PglA, PglE, and PglH), and final oligosaccharide transfer (PglO). UDP-2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-α-d-hexose (DATDH), which is the first sugar in glycan biosynthesis, was produced enzymatically, and the stereochemistry was assigned as uridine diphosphate N'-diacetylbacillosamine (UDP-diNAcBac) by nuclear magnetic resonance characterization. In addition, the substrate specificities of the phospho-glycosyltransferase, glycosyltransferases, and oligosaccharyltransferase (OTase) were analyzed in vitro, and in most cases, these enzymes exhibited strong preferences for the native substrates relative to closely related glycans. In particular, PglO, the O-linked OTase, and PglB(Cj), the N-linked OTase from Campylobacter jejuni, preferred the native N. gonorrhoeae and C. jejuni substrates, respectively. This study represents the first comprehensive biochemical characterization of this important O-linked glycosylation pathway and provides the basis for further investigations of these enzymes as antibacterial targets.

  8. Quantification by isobaric labeling (QUIBL) for the comparative glycomic study of O-linked glycans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botelho, Julianne Cook; Atwood, James A., III; Cheng, Lei; Alvarez-Manilla, Gerardo; York, William S.; Orlando, Ron

    2008-12-01

    Quantification by isobaric labeling (QUIBL) has recently been described as a tool for the relative quantification of N-linked glycans in glycomic studies. In this paper we expand the application of QUIBL to the relative quantification of O-linked glycans. Fetuin, which contains two O-linked glycans, NeuAc-Hex-HexNAc and NeuAc2-Hex-HexNAc, was used to validate this studyE The glycans were released by [beta]-elimination and permethylated with the isobaric labeling reagents, 13CH3I and 12CH2DI. The exact mass difference between the isobaric labels is minimal (0.00292 Da), but since glycans contain multiple permethylation sites, the mass difference can be resolved with a high resolution mass spectrometer, such as an FTMS. Quantitative data were obtained by comparing the signal intensities from various mixtures of isobarically labeled O-linked glycans of fetuin. Five different ratios of 13CH3 to 12CH2D ranging from 10:1 to 1:10 were analyzed for linearity and reproducibility of the QUIBL method on the standard glycan. QUIBL was also evaluated using porcine mucin, a sample with a larger variety of more complex O-linked glycans. These results indicate that QUIBL allows for the relative quantification of O-linked glycans over a linear dynamic range of at least two orders of magnitude, validating QUIBL as an applicable quantitative glycomics approach for both N-linked and O-linked glycans.

  9. Sugar fragmentation in the maillard reaction cascade: formation of short-chain carboxylic acids by a new oxidative alpha-dicarbonyl cleavage pathway.

    PubMed

    Davídek, Tomas; Robert, Fabien; Devaud, Stéphanie; Vera, Francia Arce; Blank, Imre

    2006-09-06

    The formation of short-chain carboxylic acids was studied in Maillard model systems (90 degrees C, pH 6-10) with emphasis on the role of oxygen and water. The total amount of acetic acid formed did not depend on the reaction atmosphere. In the presence of labeled dioxygen or water (18O2, H2 17O), labeled oxygen was partially incorporated into acetic acid. Thermal treatment of 1-deoxy-d-erythro-2,3-hexodiulose (1) and 3-deoxy-d-erythro-hexos-2-ulose in the presence of 17O-enriched water under alkaline conditions led to acetic and formic acid, respectively, as indicated by 17O NMR spectroscopy. The suggested mechanism involves an oxidative alpha-dicarbonyl cleavage leading to an intermediary mixed acid anhydride that releases the acids, e.g., acetic and erythronic acid, from 1. Similarly, glyceric and lactic acids were formed from 1-deoxy-3,4-hexodiuloses, corroborated by complementary analytical techniques. This paper provides for the first time evidence for the direct formation of acids from C6-alpha-dicarbonyls by an oxidative mechanism and incorporation of a 17OH group into the carboxylic moiety. The experimental data obtained support the coexistence of at least two newly described reaction mechanisms leading to carboxylic acids, i.e., (i) a hydrolytic beta-dicarbonyl cleavage as a major pathway and (ii) an alternative minor pathway via oxidative alpha-dicarbonyl cleavage induced by oxidizing species.

  10. Polymorphism in the intron 20 of porcine O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Gug; Nonneman, Dan; Kim, Doo-Wan; Shin, Sangsu; Rohrer, Gary A

    2017-08-01

    O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) catalyzes the addition of O-GlcNAc and GlcNAcylation has extensive crosstalk with phosphorylation to regulate signaling and transcription. Pig OGT is located near the region of chromosome X that affects follicle stimulating hormone level and testes size. The objective of this study was to find the variations of OGT between European and Chinese pigs. Pigs were tested initially for polymorphism in OGT among European and Chinese pigs by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC). The polymorphism was also determined in an independent population of pigs including European and Chinese Meishan (ME) breeds at the National Institute of Animal Science (NIAS, RDA, Korea). The intron 20 of OGT from European and Chinese pigs was 514 and 233 bp, respectively, in the pigs tested initially. They included 1 White composite (WC) boar and 7 sows (2 Minzu×WC, 2 Duroc [DU]×WC, 2 ME×WC, 1 Fengzing×WC) at USMARC. The 281-bp difference was due to an inserted 276-bp element and GACTT in European pigs. When additional WC and ME boars, the grandparents that were used to generate the 1/2ME×1/2WC parents, and the 84 boars of 16 litters from mating of 1/2ME×1/2WC parents were analyzed, the breeds of origin of X chromosome quantitative trait locus (QTL) were confirmed. The polymorphism was determined in an independent population of pigs including DU, Landrace, Yorkshire, and ME breeds at NIAS. OGT was placed at position 67 cM on the chromosome X of the USMARC swine linkage map. There was complete concordance with the insertion in European pigs at USMARC and NIAS. This polymorphism could be a useful marker to identify the breed of origin of X chromosome QTL in pigs produced by crossbreeding Chinese and European pigs.

  11. Home blood sugar testing

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... Usual times to test your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your provider may ask you to check your blood sugar 2 hours after a ...

  12. Managing your blood sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... hyperglycemia ) Plan healthy meals Monitor your blood sugar (glucose) Take care of yourself when you are sick ...

  13. Oxidative cyclization of D-fructose thiosemicarbazones to 2-amino-5-(D-arabino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybut-1-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazoles through carbon-carbon bond cleavage of the sugar chain.

    PubMed

    Shaban, M A E; Mostafa, M A; Nasr, A Z

    2003-06-01

    Condensation of D-fructose (1) with thiosemicarbazide or 4-phenylthiosemicarbazide gave the corresponding D-fructose thiosemicarbazones (3a and 3b). The latter compounds underwent oxidative cyclization with 10% ethanolic ferric chloride to give mixtures of 2-amino-5-(D-arabino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybut-1-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole (6a) and 2-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (5a) from 3a and the corresponding 2-phenylamino compounds 6b and 5b from 3b. These products were formed as a result of cyclization of the thiosemicarbazone entity accompanied by C-1-C-2 or C-2-C-3 bond cleavage of the sugar chain. Structures of the 1,3,4-thiadiazole acyclo C-nucleosides 6a and 5b were confirmed by comparison with the unequivocally prepared compounds obtained by the dehydrogenative cyclization of D-arabinose thiosemicarbazones 11a and 11b with ethanolic ferric chloride. Structures of the 5-hydroxymethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazoles 5a and 5b were also confirmed by comparison with 5a and 5b unequivocally prepared by periodate cleavage of the alditolyl chain of 6a and 6b followed by reduction of the resulting aldehydes 8a and 8b with sodium borohydride. Compounds 6a and 6b were further characterized as their acetates 7a and 7b and were found to exist in the extended planar zizag conformation 13. Condensative cyclization of the D-arabinose thiosemicarbazones 11a and 11b by boiling with acetic anhydride afforded the 1,3,4-thiadiazoline acyclo C-nucleoside acetates 9a and 9b which exist in the sickle (bent) conformation 14. De-N- and de-O-acetylation with concomitant aromatization of 9a and 9b with 10% ethanolic FeCl3 gave the 1,3,4-thiadiazole acyclo C-nucleosides 6a and 6b. The assigned structures were corroborated by 2D 1H-1H HOMCOR and 2D 1H-13C HETCOR NMR spectroscopy.

  14. Sugar and sugar substitutes. Comparisons and indications.

    PubMed

    Alfin-Slater, R B; Pi-Sunyer, F X

    1987-08-01

    Public confusion and concern about the use of sugar and sugar substitutes are widespread. Physicians must be prepared to answer patients' inquiries about these substances. Some population groups should avoid certain sugar substitutes. In particular, pregnant women and young children should avoid saccharin, and phenylketonuric homozygous persons should avoid aspartame. In a varied, balanced diet, the use of aspartame and saccharin is one safe way for the general population to enjoy sweet foods with fewer calories and less cariogenic potential. Sugar substitutes may be helpful in dietary compliance for overweight and diabetic patients.

  15. Polymorphism in the intron 20 of porcine O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) catalyzes the addition of O-GlcNAc and GlcNAcylation has extensive crosstalk with phosphorylation to regulate signaling and transcription. Pig OGT is located near the region of chromosome X that affects follicle stimulating hormone...

  16. Consumption of sugars.

    PubMed

    Gibney, M; Sigman-Grant, M; Stanton, J L; Keast, D R

    1995-07-01

    The mean percent of energy from total sugars minus lactose is 18% in the United States, according to data from the 1987-1988 US Department of Agriculture Nationwide Food Consumption Survey. When sugars intake is distributed among food pyramid groupings, the primary contributor is the "others" group (39%). The relationship between sugars intakes and micronutrients was age and sex dependent. Consumers of high amounts of sugars do not necessarily have poorer quality diets. In the European Union, the mean percent energy from all sugars is 15.2%. The top five sources of sugar contributed 68% of sugar intake but only 11% of fat intake (UK data). Although sugars intake varies among these major developed regions, the consistent inverse relation between fat and sugars intake and the scarcity of individuals achieving dietary guidelines raises serious questions regarding current dietary recommendations.

  17. N- and O-linked glycosylation of total plasma glycoproteins in galactosemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Xia, Baoyun; Gleason, Tyler J.; Castañeda, Uriel; He, Miao; Berry, Gerard T.; Fridovich-Keil, Judith L.

    2012-01-01

    Classic galactosemia is a potentially lethal metabolic disorder that results from profound impairment of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT); despite decades of research, the underlying mechanism of pathophysiology remains unclear. Previous studies of plasma and tissue samples from patients with classic galactosemia have revealed defects of protein and lipid glycosylation, however, the underlying bases for these defects and their clinical significance, if any, has remained unclear. As a step toward addressing these questions we characterized both the N- and O-linked glycomes of plasma proteins from neonates, infants, children, and adults with galactosemia using mass spectrometry and asked (1) whether similar or disparate defects exist for N-linked and O-linked modifications, (2) what factors correlate with the severity of these defects in different patients, and perhaps most important, (3) whether there is any apparent relationship between chronic glycosylation defects and long-term outcome in patients. We found that some but not all of the galactosemic neonates tested exhibited abnormal N- and O-linked glycosylation of plasma proteins. The types of abnormalities seen were similar between N- and O-linked moieties, but the extent of the defects varied between patients. Age, gender, GALT genotype, and predicted residual GALT activity all failed to explain the extent of the glycosylation defect in the samples studied. Dietary galactose restriction markedly normalized both the N- and O-linked glycosylation patterns for all infants tested; however, any remaining glycosylation defects evident in the plasma of older children or adults on galactose-restricted diets showed no correlation with clinical outcome. These data cannot rule out the possibility that subtle or localized glycosylation defects, not detectable by our methods or not reflected in plasma, may contribute to acute or long-term outcome severity. PMID:22743281

  18. N- and O-linked glycosylation of total plasma glycoproteins in galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Xia, Baoyun; Gleason, Tyler J; Castañeda, Uriel; He, Miao; Berry, Gerard T; Fridovich-Keil, Judith L

    2012-08-01

    Classic galactosemia is a potentially lethal metabolic disorder that results from profound impairment of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT); despite decades of research, the underlying mechanism of pathophysiology remains unclear. Previous studies of plasma and tissue samples from patients with classic galactosemia have revealed defects of protein and lipid glycosylation, however, the underlying bases for these defects and their clinical significance, if any, has remained unclear. As a step toward addressing these questions we characterized both the N- and O-linked glycomes of plasma proteins from neonates, infants, children, and adults with galactosemia using mass spectrometry and asked (1) whether similar or disparate defects exist for N-linked and O-linked modifications, (2) what factors correlate with the severity of these defects in different patients, and perhaps most important, (3) whether there is any apparent relationship between chronic glycosylation defects and long-term outcome in patients. We found that some but not all of the galactosemic neonates tested exhibited abnormal N- and O-linked glycosylation of plasma proteins. The types of abnormalities seen were similar between N- and O-linked moieties, but the extent of the defects varied between patients. Age, gender, GALT genotype, and predicted residual GALT activity all failed to explain the extent of the glycosylation defect in the samples studied. Dietary galactose restriction markedly normalized both the N- and O-linked glycosylation patterns for all infants tested; however, any remaining glycosylation defects evident in the plasma of older children or adults on galactose-restricted diets showed no correlation with clinical outcome. These data cannot rule out the possibility that subtle or localized glycosylation defects, not detectable by our methods or not reflected in plasma, may contribute to acute or long-term outcome severity.

  19. The Truth about Sugar.

    PubMed

    Yeung, C Albert; Goodfellow, Ashley; Flanagan, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Sugars are used by the industry to enhance the attractiveness of foods and drinks. These added sugars, or 'free sugars', are not easily identified in food or drink labels. Certain manufactured foods and drinks with 'safe' names, such as dried fruit and fruit juice, still contain free sugars and can be confusing. Guidance states that daily consumption of free sugars should be less than 10% of total energy intake (no more than 5% in the UK). However, it is found that both tooth decay and obesity are associated with consumption of free sugars in large quantities and at inappropriate times.

  20. Anomeric Anhydro Sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, Nathan W.; Williams, Spencer J.

    Anomeric anhydro sugars are sugar derivatives where the anomeric carbon participates in an acetal linkage with two of the hydroxyl groups of the sugar. They are essentially intramolecular glycosides, and their bicyclic nature provides a powerful conformational constraint that greatly influences their reactivity. This chapter reviews the occurrence, properties, formation, and reactions of anomeric anhydro sugars. Particular emphasis is placed on 1,2- and 1,6-anhydropyranoses, including conformational aspects and ring-opening reactions. Epoxide-containing 1,6-anhydro sugars (Černý epoxides) are briefly reviewed, and the formation and some reactions of the 1,6-anhydro sugar enone, levoglucosenone, is covered. An overview is given of the use of 1,2-anhydro sugar as glycosyl donors. Also discussed are the formation and reactions of anomeric anhydro sugars containing nitrogen, sulfur, or selenium.

  1. Functional Analysis of the Glucuronyltransferases GlcAT-P and GlcAT-S of Drosophila melanogaster: Distinct Activities towards the O-linked T-antigen.

    PubMed

    Breloy, Isabelle; Schwientek, Tilo; Althoff, Deborah; Holz, Marvin; Koppen, Tim; Krupa, Angelika; Hanisch, Franz-Georg

    2016-01-06

    The Drosophila melanogaster glucuronyltransferases dGlcAT-S and dGlcAT-P were reported to be expressed ubiquitously and results of in vitro activity assays indicate a functional redundancy. We analyzed both transferases in vivo and in vitro and could show significant differences in their activity towards N-and O-glycoproteins in vivo. While GlcAT-P is able to use N-linked N-acetyllactosamine chains and the O-linked T-antigen as a substrate to form non-sulfated HNK1- (GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-) and glucuronyl-T-antigens in vivo, GlcAT-S adds glucuronic acid only to N-linked chains, thereby synthesizing only the non-sulfated HNK1-antigen.

  2. Functional Analysis of the Glucuronyltransferases GlcAT-P and GlcAT-S of Drosophila melanogaster: Distinct Activities towards the O-linked T-antigen

    PubMed Central

    Breloy, Isabelle; Schwientek, Tilo; Althoff, Deborah; Holz, Marvin; Koppen, Tim; Krupa, Angelika; Hanisch, Franz-Georg

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster glucuronyltransferases dGlcAT-S and dGlcAT-P were reported to be expressed ubiquitously and results of in vitro activity assays indicate a functional redundancy. We analyzed both transferases in vivo and in vitro and could show significant differences in their activity towards N-and O-glycoproteins in vivo. While GlcAT-P is able to use N-linked N-acetyllactosamine chains and the O-linked T-antigen as a substrate to form non-sulfated HNK1- (GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-) and glucuronyl-T-antigens in vivo, GlcAT-S adds glucuronic acid only to N-linked chains, thereby synthesizing only the non-sulfated HNK1-antigen. PMID:26751495

  3. Hydrophobic sugar holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Fontanilla-Urdaneta, R.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2008-02-01

    The sugar matrix is used to record of phase holograms; it was modified with the purpose of obtaining a hydrophobic material to improve the stability of the registered image and to stimulate the photosensitivity of the sugar. The new material is formed by a sugar, pectin and vanillin dissolution. The diffraction efficiency parameter increases in comparison with only the sugar matrix, obtaining already of 10%.

  4. Sugar and other sweeteners

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar and starch are among the abundant plant products available, and large industries exist worldwide to extract and process them from agricultural sources. The world production of sugar (sucrose from sugarcane and sugar beet) in 2015/2016 was approximately 176 million metric tons, raw value, with...

  5. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... bedtime. Your blood sugar meter may have computer software to help you track your blood sugar level. ... bedtime. Your blood sugar meter may have computer software to help you track your blood sugar level. ...

  6. Developments in beet and cane sugar extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, C.; Schwartzberg, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the various types of extractors used in the extraction of sugar from beet and sugar cane. The types of extractors described are as follows:- Countercurrent Screw - Conveyor Extractors, (Tower Extractors, Slope Extractors), Countercurrent Drag Chain Extractors, Multistage Cross-Flow Extractors, Trommel Extractors, Multistage Scroll Extractors, Diffustion Batteries. Reduced capital costs and power expenditures and slightly higher cane sugar yields can be obtained by combined milking and diffusion extraction as opposed to multi-stage milling. The mechanical reliability of the machinery is emphasized and special attention is given to extraction procedures. Nowadays the trend in beet and cane sugar extraction is toward the use of larger and larger units which helps minimize labor and capital costs per unit of product.

  7. O-Linked Glycosylation Determines the Nephritogenic Potential of IgA Rheumatoid Factor

    PubMed Central

    Kihara, Masao; Ito, Kiyoaki; Nakata, Junichiro; Otani, Masako; Tran, Ngoc Lan; Morito, Naoki; Takahashi, Satoru; Wada, Yoshinao

    2014-01-01

    Deficient glycosylation of O-linked glycans in the IgA1 hinge region is associated with IgA nephropathy in humans, but the pathogenic contribution of the underlying structural aberrations remains incompletely understood. We previously showed that mice implanted with cells secreting the class-switch variant 6-19 IgA anti-IgG2a rheumatoid factor, but not 46-42 IgA anti-IgG2a rheumatoid factor, develop glomerular lesions resembling IgA nephropathy. Because the levels of O-linked glycosylation in the hinge region and the structures of N-linked glycans in the CH1 domain differ in 6-19 IgA and 46-42 IgA, we determined the respective contributions of O- and N-linked glycans to the nephritogenic potential of the 6-19 IgA rheumatoid factor in mice. Wild-type 6-19 IgA secreted by implanted cells induced significant formation of glomerular lesions, whereas poorly O-glycosylated 6-19 IgA glycovariants or a 6-19 IgA hinge mutant lacking O-linked glycans did not. However, we observed no apparent heterogeneity in the structure of N-linked glycans attached to three different sites of the Fc regions of nephritogenic and non-nephritogenic 6-19 IgAs. Collectively, our data suggest a critical role of O-linked glycans attached to the hinge region in the development of IgA nephropathy–like GN induced by 6-19 IgA rheumatoid factor in mice. PMID:24511137

  8. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and

  9. Effect of O-Linked Glycosylation on the Equilibrium Structural Ensemble of Intrinsically Disordered Polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Zerze, Gül H; Mittal, Jeetain

    2015-12-24

    Glycosylation is one of the most common post-translational modifications (PTMs), which provides a large proteome diversity. Previous work on glycosylation of globular proteins has revealed remarkable effects of glycosylation on protein function, altering the folding stability and structure and/or altering the protein surface which affects their binding characteristics. Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) or intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) of large proteins are also frequently glycosylated, yet how glycosylation affects their function remains to be elucidated. An important open question is, does glycosylation affect IDP structure or binding characteristics or both? In this work, we particularly address the structural effects of O-linked glycosylation by investigating glycosylated and unglycosylated forms of two different IDPs, tau174-183 and human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), by all-atom explicit solvent simulations. We simulate these IDPs in aqueous solution for O-linked glycosylated and unglycosylated forms by employing two modern all-atom force fields for which glycan parameters are also available. We find that O-linked glycosylation only has a modest effect on equilibrium structural ensembles of IDPs, for the cases studied here, which suggests that the functional role of glycosylation may be primarily exerted by modulation of the protein binding characteristics rather than structure.

  10. Classification of Tandem Mass Spectra for Identification of N- and O-linked Glycopeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toghi Eshghi, Shadi; Yang, Weiming; Hu, Yingwei; Shah, Punit; Sun, Shisheng; Li, Xingde; Zhang, Hui

    2016-11-01

    Analysis of intact glycopeptides by mass spectrometry is essential to determining the microheterogeneity of protein glycosylation. Higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) fragmentation of glycopeptides generates mono- or disaccharide ions called oxonium ions that carry information about the structure of the fragmented glycans. Here, we investigated the link between glycan structures and the intensity of oxonium ions in the spectra of glycopeptides and utilized this information to improve the identification of glycopeptides in biological samples. Tandem spectra of glycopeptides from fetuin, glycophorin A, ovalbumin and gp120 tryptic digests were used to build a spectral database of N- and O-linked glycopeptides. Logistic regression was applied to this database to develop model to distinguish between the spectra of N- and O-linked glycopeptides. Remarkably, the developed model was found to reliably distinguish between the N- and O-linked glycopeptides using the spectral features of the oxonium ions using verification spectral set. Finally, the performance of the developed predictive model was evaluated in HILIC enriched glycopeptides extracted from human serum. The results showed that pre-classification of tandem spectra based on their glycosylation type improved the identification of N-linked glycopeptides. The developed model facilitates interpretation of tandem mass spectrometry data for assignment of glycopeptides.

  11. Classification of Tandem Mass Spectra for Identification of N- and O-linked Glycopeptides

    PubMed Central

    Toghi Eshghi, Shadi; Yang, Weiming; Hu, Yingwei; Shah, Punit; Sun, Shisheng; Li, Xingde; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of intact glycopeptides by mass spectrometry is essential to determining the microheterogeneity of protein glycosylation. Higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) fragmentation of glycopeptides generates mono- or disaccharide ions called oxonium ions that carry information about the structure of the fragmented glycans. Here, we investigated the link between glycan structures and the intensity of oxonium ions in the spectra of glycopeptides and utilized this information to improve the identification of glycopeptides in biological samples. Tandem spectra of glycopeptides from fetuin, glycophorin A, ovalbumin and gp120 tryptic digests were used to build a spectral database of N- and O-linked glycopeptides. Logistic regression was applied to this database to develop model to distinguish between the spectra of N- and O-linked glycopeptides. Remarkably, the developed model was found to reliably distinguish between the N- and O-linked glycopeptides using the spectral features of the oxonium ions using verification spectral set. Finally, the performance of the developed predictive model was evaluated in HILIC enriched glycopeptides extracted from human serum. The results showed that pre-classification of tandem spectra based on their glycosylation type improved the identification of N-linked glycopeptides. The developed model facilitates interpretation of tandem mass spectrometry data for assignment of glycopeptides. PMID:27869200

  12. Serum glycoprotein-derived N- and O-linked glycans as cancer biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Ying; Hao, Cui; Zeng, Xuan; He, Yanli; Zeng, Pengjiao; Guo, Zhihua; Zhang, Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of cancer is the key to improving survival. Since most clinically used serum cancer biomarkers are either glycoproteins or glycan structures that can be recognized by specific monoclonal antibodies, developing glycan structure-based biomarkers from human serum/plasma glycoproteins through mass spectrometry (MS) analysis are active research field during the past decades. Numerous studies have shown that changes in serum/plasma glycan structures occur during cancer initiation, progression, and treatment. This review describes N- and O-linked glycan structures identified from serum/plasma glycoprotein (s) by MS analysis with focus on alterations associated with different types of human cancers. The global changes in serum N- and O-linked glycan structures, especially the glycans that are not made by cancer cells such as B lymphocyte-derived IgG and liver-synthesized haptoglobin and α1 acid glycoprotein, suggest that glycans might be the long sought diagnostic biomarkers associated with system malfunction in the blood circulation of cancer patients. Therefore, N- and O-linked glycan structures have great potential to serve as cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment monitoring biomarkers to facilitate personalized medicine. PMID:27904760

  13. Broad spectrum O-linked protein glycosylation in the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Vik, Åshild; Aas, Finn Erik; Anonsen, Jan Haug; Bilsborough, Shaun; Schneider, Andrea; Egge-Jacobsen, Wolfgang; Koomey, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is an important element of biologic systems because of its significant effects on protein properties and functions. Although prominent within all domains of life, O-linked glycosylation systems modifying serine and threonine residues within bacteria and eukaryotes differ substantially in target protein selectivity. In particular, well-characterized bacterial systems have been invariably dedicated to modification of individual proteins or related subsets thereof. Here we characterize a general O-linked glycosylation system that targets structurally and functionally diverse groups of membrane-associated proteins in the Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the etiologic agent of the human disease gonorrhea. The 11 glycoproteins identified here are implicated in activities as varied as protein folding, disulfide bond formation, and solute uptake, as well as both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Along with their common trafficking within the periplasmic compartment, the protein substrates share quasi-related domains bearing signatures of low complexity that were demonstrated to encompass sites of glycan occupancy. Thus, as in eukaryotes, the broad scope of this system is dictated by the relaxed specificity of the glycan transferase as well as the bulk properties and context of the protein-targeting signal rather than by a strict amino acid consensus sequence. Together, these findings reveal previously unrecognized commonalities linking O-linked protein glycosylation in distantly related life forms. PMID:19251655

  14. Glucosamine-induced insulin resistance is coupled to O-linked glycosylation of Munc18c.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoli; Liu, Ping; Thurmond, Debbie C; Elmendorf, Jeffrey S

    2003-01-16

    Evidence suggests that glucosamine inhibits distal components regulating insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. Here we assessed whether key membrane docking and fusion events were targeted. Consistent with a plasma membrane-localized effect, 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to glucosamine displayed an increase in cell-surface O-linked glycosylation and a simultaneously impaired mobilization of GLUT4 by insulin. Analysis of syntaxin 4 and SNAP23, plasma membrane-localized target receptor proteins (t-SNAREs) for the GLUT4 vesicle, showed that they were not cell-surface targets of O-linked glycosylation. However, the syntaxin 4 binding protein, Munc18c, was targeted by O-linked glycosylation. This occurred concomitantly with a block in insulin-stimulated association of syntaxin 4 with its cognate GLUT4 vesicle receptor protein (v-SNARE), VAMP2. In conclusion, our data suggest that the mechanism by which glucosamine inhibits insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation involves modification of Munc18c.

  15. O-Linked Glycosylation of the PilA Pilin Protein of Francisella tularensis: Identification of the Endogenous Protein-Targeting Oligosaccharyltransferase and Characterization of the Native Oligosaccharide▿†

    PubMed Central

    Egge-Jacobsen, Wolfgang; Salomonsson, Emelie Näslund; Aas, Finn Erik; Forslund, Anna-Lena; Winther-Larsen, Hanne C.; Maier, Josef; Macellaro, Anna; Kuoppa, Kerstin; Oyston, Petra C. F.; Titball, Richard W.; Thomas, Rebecca M.; Forsberg, Åke; Prior, Joann L.; Koomey, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Findings from a number of studies suggest that the PilA pilin proteins may play an important role in the pathogenesis of disease caused by species within the genus Francisella. As such, a thorough understanding of PilA structure and chemistry is warranted. Here, we definitively identified the PglA protein-targeting oligosaccharyltransferase by virtue of its necessity for PilA glycosylation in Francisella tularensis and its sufficiency for PilA glycosylation in Escherichia coli. In addition, we used mass spectrometry to examine PilA affinity purified from Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis and F. tularensis subsp. holarctica and demonstrated that the protein undergoes multisite, O-linked glycosylation with a pentasaccharide of the structure HexNac-Hex-Hex-HexNac-HexNac. Further analyses revealed microheterogeneity related to forms of the pentasaccharide carrying unusual moieties linked to the distal sugar via a phosphate bridge. Type A and type B strains of Francisella subspecies thus express an O-linked protein glycosylation system utilizing core biosynthetic and assembly pathways conserved in other members of the proteobacteria. As PglA appears to be highly conserved in Francisella species, O-linked protein glycosylation may be a feature common to members of this genus. PMID:21804002

  16. Sugar and Other Sweeteners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godshall, Mary An

    Sugar and starch are among the most abundant plant products available, and large industries exist worldwide to extract and process them from agricultural sources. The world production of sugar (sucrose from cane and beet) in 2004/2005 was 142 million metric tons, raw value, 1 with 24.8 percent of that being beet sugar and 75.1 percent being cane sugar.2 The proportion of beet sugar to cane sugar has fallen steadily since about 1971, when it constituted 42.8 percent of total sugar production. The decline in total beet sugar proportion over the last ten years represents not so much a decline in beet production, which has remained in a range of 33-39 million metric tons, but rather a continued increase in cane sugar production from around 70 million metric tons in 1991 to 112 million metric tons.2 The production of total world sugar has also risen dramatically since 1971/72, when it was 71.7 million tons.3

  17. Transport of sugars.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Qing; Cheung, Lily S; Feng, Liang; Tanner, Widmar; Frommer, Wolf B

    2015-01-01

    Soluble sugars serve five main purposes in multicellular organisms: as sources of carbon skeletons, osmolytes, signals, and transient energy storage and as transport molecules. Most sugars are derived from photosynthetic organisms, particularly plants. In multicellular organisms, some cells specialize in providing sugars to other cells (e.g., intestinal and liver cells in animals, photosynthetic cells in plants), whereas others depend completely on an external supply (e.g., brain cells, roots and seeds). This cellular exchange of sugars requires transport proteins to mediate uptake or release from cells or subcellular compartments. Thus, not surprisingly, sugar transport is critical for plants, animals, and humans. At present, three classes of eukaryotic sugar transporters have been characterized, namely the glucose transporters (GLUTs), sodium-glucose symporters (SGLTs), and SWEETs. This review presents the history and state of the art of sugar transporter research, covering genetics, biochemistry, and physiology-from their identification and characterization to their structure, function, and physiology. In humans, understanding sugar transport has therapeutic importance (e.g., addressing diabetes or limiting access of cancer cells to sugars), and in plants, these transporters are critical for crop yield and pathogen susceptibility.

  18. Development of N- and O-linked oligosaccharide engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hiroko; Tomimoto, Kazuya; Fujita, Yasuko; Iwaki, Tomoko; Chiba, Yasunori; Nakayama, Ken-Ichi; Nakajima, Yoshihiro

    2016-11-01

    Yeast cells have been engineered for the production of glycoproteins as biopharmaceuticals with humanized N-linked oligosaccharides. The suppression of yeast-specific O-mannosylation is important to reduce immune response and to improve heterologous protein productivity in the production of biopharmaceuticals. However, so far, there are few reports of the engineering of both N-linked and O-linked oligosaccharides in yeast cells. In the present study, we describe the generation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain capable of producing a glycoprotein with humanized Man5GlcNAc2 N-linked oligosaccharides, an intermediate of mammalian hybrid- and complex-type oligosaccharides, while suppressing O-mannosylation. First, a yeast strain that produces a glycoprotein with Man5GlcNAc2 was isolated by introducing msdS encoding α-1,2-mannosidase into a strain synthesizing Man8GlcNAc2 N-linked oligosaccharides. Next, to suppress O-mannosylation, an O-mannosyltransferase-deficient strain was generated by disrupting PMT1 and PMT2 Although the relative amount of O-linked oligosaccharides in the disruptant was reduced to approximately 40% of that in wild type cells, this strain exhibited growth defects and decreased protein productivity. To overcome the growth defects, we applied a mutagenesis technique that is based on the disparity theory of evolution. Finally, to improve protein productivity of the growth-recovered strain, vacuolar proteases PEP4 and PRB1 were further disrupted. Thus, by combining genetic engineering and disparity mutagenesis, we generated an Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain whose N- and O-linked oligosaccharide synthetic pathways were engineered to effectively produce the heterologous protein.

  19. Effects of Sugars on Lipid Bilayers during Dehydration − SAXS/WAXS Measurements and Quantitative Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lenne, Thomas; Garvey, Christopher J.; Koster, Karen L.; Bryant, Gary

    2009-04-02

    We present an X-ray scattering study of the effects of dehydration on the bilayer and chain-chain repeat spacings of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers in the presence of sugars. The presence of sugars has no effect on the average spacing between the phospholipid chains in either the fluid or gel phase. Using this finding, we establish that for low sugar concentrations only a small amount of sugar exclusion occurs. Under these conditions, the effects of sugars on the membrane transition temperatures can be explained quantitatively by the reduction in hydration repulsion between bilayers due to the presence of the sugars. Specific bonding of sugars to lipid headgroups is not required to explain this effect.

  20. Acquisition of species-specific O-linked carbohydrate chains from oviducal mucins in Rana arvalis. A case study.

    PubMed

    Coppin, A; Maes, E; Flahaut, C; Coddeville, B; Strecker, G

    1999-12-01

    The extracellular matrix surrounding amphibian eggs is composed of mucin-type glycoproteins, highly O-glycosylated and plays an important role in the fertilization process. Oligosaccharide-alditols were released from the oviducal mucins of the anuran Rana arvalis by alkali-borohydride treatment in reduced conditions. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were fractionated by ion-exchange chromatographies and purified by HPLC. Each compound was identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) spectrometry, NMR spectroscopy, electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS/MS) and permethylation analyses. This paper reports on the structures of 19 oligosaccharide-alditols, 12 of which have novel structures. These structures range in size from disaccharide to octasaccharide. Some of them are acidic, containing either a glucuronic acid or, more frequently, a sulfate group, located either at the 6 position of GlcNAc or the 3 or 4 positions of Gal. This latter sulfation is novel and has only been characterized in the species R. arvalis. This structural analysis led to the establishment of several novel carbohydrate structures, demonstrating the structural diversity and species-specificity of amphibian glycoconjugates.

  1. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  2. Hyperactivity and sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar, artificial sweeteners, or certain food colorings. Other experts disagree with this. Side Effects Some people claim that eating sugar (such as sucrose), aspartame (NutraSweet), and artificial flavors and colors lead to hyperactivity and other ...

  3. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  4. Low blood sugar - newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... neonatal hypoglycemia. It refers to low blood sugar (glucose) in the first few days after birth. ... Babies need blood sugar (glucose) for energy. Most of that glucose is used by the brain. The baby gets glucose from the mother through the ...

  5. Sugar (sucrose) holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce-Lee, E. L.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2004-06-01

    Computer holograms made with sugar crystals are reported. This material is well known as a good sweetener; the sugar from sugar cane or sugar beet (sucrose). These sweetener can be applied as honey "water and diluted sugar" easily on any substrate such as plastics or glasses without critical conditions for developed process. This step corresponds only to the cured sucrose as a photopolymer process. The maximum absorption spectra is localized at UV region λ=240 nm. We record with lithographic techniques some gratings, showing a good diffraction efficiency around 45%. This material has good resolution to make diffraction gratings. These properties are attractive because they open the possibility to make phase holograms on candies. Mainly the phase modulation is by refraction index.

  6. Enterocin F4-9, a Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Bacteriocin.

    PubMed

    Maky, Mohamed Abdelfattah; Ishibashi, Naoki; Zendo, Takeshi; Perez, Rodney Honrada; Doud, Jehan Ragab; Karmi, Mohamed; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2015-07-01

    Enterococcus faecalis F4-9 isolated from Egyptian salted-fermented fish produces a novel bacteriocin, termed enterocin F4-9. Enterocin F4-9 was purified from the culture supernatant by three steps, and its molecular mass was determined to be 5,516.6 Da by mass spectrometry. Amino acid and DNA sequencing showed that the propeptide consists of 67 amino acid residues, with a leader peptide containing a double glycine cleavage site to produce a 47-amino-acid mature peptide. Enterocin F4-9 is modified by two molecules of N-acetylglucosamine β-O-linked to Ser37 and Thr46. The O-linked N-acetylglucosamine moieties are essential for the antimicrobial activity of enterocin F4-9. Further analysis of the enterocin F4-9 gene cluster identified enfC, which has high sequence similarity to a glycosyltransferase. The antimicrobial activity of enterocin F4-9 covered a limited range of bacteria, including, interestingly, a Gram-negative strain, Escherichia coli JM109. Enterocin F4-9 is sensitive to protease, active at a wide pH range, and moderately resistant to heat.

  7. Gp120 on HIV-1 Virions Lacks O-Linked Carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Stansell, Elizabeth; Panico, Maria; Canis, Kevin; Pang, Poh-Choo; Bouché, Laura; Binet, Daniel; O'Connor, Michael-John; Chertova, Elena; Bess, Julian; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Haslam, Stuart M; Morris, Howard R; Desrosiers, Ronald C; Dell, Anne

    2015-01-01

    As HIV-1-encoded envelope protein traverses the secretory pathway, it may be modified with N- and O-linked carbohydrate. When the gp120s of HIV-1 NL4-3, HIV-1 YU2, HIV-1 Bal, HIV-1 JRFL, and HIV-1 JRCSF were expressed as secreted proteins, the threonine at consensus position 499 was found to be O-glycosylated. For SIVmac239, the corresponding threonine was also glycosylated when gp120 was recombinantly expressed. Similarly-positioned, highly-conserved threonines in the influenza A virus H1N1 HA1 and H5N1 HA1 envelope proteins were also found to carry O-glycans when expressed as secreted proteins. In all cases, the threonines were modified predominantly with disialylated core 1 glycans, together with related core 1 and core 2 structures. Secreted HIV-1 gp140 was modified to a lesser extent with mainly monosialylated core 1 O-glycans, suggesting that the ectodomain of the gp41 transmembrane component may limit the accessibility of Thr499 to glycosyltransferases. In striking contrast to these findings, gp120 on purified virions of HIV-1 Bal and SIV CP-MAC lacked any detectable O-glycosylation of the C-terminal threonine. Our results indicate the absence of O-linked carbohydrates on Thr499 as it exists on the surface of virions and suggest caution in the interpretation of analyses of post-translational modifications that utilize recombinant forms of envelope protein.

  8. Enterocin F4-9, a Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Bacteriocin

    PubMed Central

    Maky, Mohamed Abdelfattah; Ishibashi, Naoki; Zendo, Takeshi; Perez, Rodney Honrada; Doud, Jehan Ragab; Karmi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis F4-9 isolated from Egyptian salted-fermented fish produces a novel bacteriocin, termed enterocin F4-9. Enterocin F4-9 was purified from the culture supernatant by three steps, and its molecular mass was determined to be 5,516.6 Da by mass spectrometry. Amino acid and DNA sequencing showed that the propeptide consists of 67 amino acid residues, with a leader peptide containing a double glycine cleavage site to produce a 47-amino-acid mature peptide. Enterocin F4-9 is modified by two molecules of N-acetylglucosamine β-O-linked to Ser37 and Thr46. The O-linked N-acetylglucosamine moieties are essential for the antimicrobial activity of enterocin F4-9. Further analysis of the enterocin F4-9 gene cluster identified enfC, which has high sequence similarity to a glycosyltransferase. The antimicrobial activity of enterocin F4-9 covered a limited range of bacteria, including, interestingly, a Gram-negative strain, Escherichia coli JM109. Enterocin F4-9 is sensitive to protease, active at a wide pH range, and moderately resistant to heat. PMID:25956765

  9. Gp120 on HIV-1 Virions Lacks O-Linked Carbohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Stansell, Elizabeth; Panico, Maria; Canis, Kevin; Pang, Poh-Choo; Bouché, Laura; Binet, Daniel; O'Connor, Michael-John; Chertova, Elena; Bess, Julian; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Haslam, Stuart M.; Morris, Howard R.; Desrosiers, Ronald C.; Dell, Anne

    2015-01-01

    As HIV-1-encoded envelope protein traverses the secretory pathway, it may be modified with N- and O-linked carbohydrate. When the gp120s of HIV-1 NL4-3, HIV-1 YU2, HIV-1 Bal, HIV-1 JRFL, and HIV-1 JRCSF were expressed as secreted proteins, the threonine at consensus position 499 was found to be O-glycosylated. For SIVmac239, the corresponding threonine was also glycosylated when gp120 was recombinantly expressed. Similarly-positioned, highly-conserved threonines in the influenza A virus H1N1 HA1 and H5N1 HA1 envelope proteins were also found to carry O-glycans when expressed as secreted proteins. In all cases, the threonines were modified predominantly with disialylated core 1 glycans, together with related core 1 and core 2 structures. Secreted HIV-1 gp140 was modified to a lesser extent with mainly monosialylated core 1 O-glycans, suggesting that the ectodomain of the gp41 transmembrane component may limit the accessibility of Thr499 to glycosyltransferases. In striking contrast to these findings, gp120 on purified virions of HIV-1 Bal and SIV CP-MAC lacked any detectable O-glycosylation of the C-terminal threonine. Our results indicate the absence of O-linked carbohydrates on Thr499 as it exists on the surface of virions and suggest caution in the interpretation of analyses of post-translational modifications that utilize recombinant forms of envelope protein. PMID:25915761

  10. Sugars in Antarctic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbaro, Elena; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Zangrando, Roberta; Vecchiato, Marco; Piazza, Rossano; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The processes and transformations occurring in the Antarctic aerosol during atmospheric transport were described using selected sugars as source tracers. Monosaccharides (arabinose, fructose, galactose, glucose, mannose, ribose, xylose), disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose, lactulose), alcohol-sugars (erythritol, mannitol, ribitol, sorbitol, xylitol, maltitol, galactitol) and anhydrosugars (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) were measured in the Antarctic aerosol collected during four different sampling campaigns. For quantification, a sensitive high-pressure anion exchange chromatography was coupled with a single quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method was validated, showing good accuracy and low method quantification limits. This study describes the first determination of sugars in the Antarctic aerosol. The total mean concentration of sugars in the aerosol collected at the "Mario Zucchelli" coastal station was 140 pg m-3; as for the aerosol collected over the Antarctic plateau during two consecutive sampling campaigns, the concentration amounted to 440 and 438 pg m-3. The study of particle-size distribution allowed us to identify the natural emission from spores or from sea-spray as the main sources of sugars in the coastal area. The enrichment of sugars in the fine fraction of the aerosol collected on the Antarctic plateau is due to the degradation of particles during long-range atmospheric transport. The composition of sugars in the coarse fraction was also investigated in the aerosol collected during the oceanographic cruise.

  11. Sugar substitutes during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Eliza; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Question I have a pregnant patient who regularly consumes sugar substitutes and she asked me if continuing their use would affect her pregnancy or child. What should I tell her, and are there certain options that are better for use during pregnancy? Answer Although more research is required to fully determine the effects of in utero exposure to sugar substitutes, the available data do not suggest adverse effects in pregnancy. However, it is recommended that sugar substitutes be consumed in moderate amounts, adhering to the acceptable daily intake standards set by regulatory agencies. PMID:25392440

  12. Sugar substitutes during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pope, Eliza; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

    2014-11-01

    I have a pregnant patient who regularly consumes sugar substitutes and she asked me if continuing their use would affect her pregnancy or child. What should I tell her, and are there certain options that are better for use during pregnancy? Although more research is required to fully determine the effects of in utero exposure to sugar substitutes, the available data do not suggest adverse effects in pregnancy. However, it is recommended that sugar substitutes be consumed in moderate amounts, adhering to the acceptable daily intake standards set by regulatory agencies. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  13. 4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Furnace doer for sugar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Furnace doer for sugar boiling range. Manufactured by Honolulu Iron Works, Honolulu, 1879. Cost: $15.30. View: the furnace for the sugar boiling range was stoked from outside of the east wall of the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  14. Virion basic phosphoprotein from human cytomegalovirus contains O-linked N-acetylglucosamine.

    PubMed Central

    Benko, D M; Haltiwanger, R S; Hart, G W; Gibson, W

    1988-01-01

    A 149-kDa virion protein of human strains of cytomegalovirus is the principal acceptor for galactose added in vitro by bovine milk galactosyltransferase. Peptide comparisons with other biochemical characteristics of the galactosylated protein identified it as the virus-encoded basic phosphoprotein. This protein is an abundant constituent of the virion and is located in the tegument region, between the capsid and the envelope, rather than in the envelope layer with the recognized virion glycoproteins. The galactosylated carbohydrate was resistant to a commercial preparation of endoglycosidase F but was sensitive to removal by alkali-induced beta-elimination, indicating an O-linkage to the protein. Chromatographic and electrophoretic determinations identified the beta-eliminated material as the alditol of Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc, establishing that the human cytomegalovirus virion basic phosphoprotein contains single O-linked residues of N-acetylglucosamine. Images PMID:2833746

  15. Blood Sugar - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Blood Sugar URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bloodsugar.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  16. 5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Two sugar coolers ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Two sugar coolers ca. 1880. View: After the concentrated syrup flowed out of the sorghum pan, it cooled and crystallized in these iron sugar coolers. After the sugar syrup was granulated and cooled it was dug out of the coolers and fed into the centrifugals. The Meyer Mill purchased twelve coolers between 1878 and 1881 costing between $35 and $45 each. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  17. Microscale nonreductive release of O-linked glycans for subsequent analysis through MALDI mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Mechref, Y; Novotny, M V

    2001-12-15

    A new beta-elimination-based procedure has been devised for a microscale release of O-linked oligosaccharides from glycoproteins. Unlike the conventional Carlson degradation, which leads to formation of alditols, the procedure reported here renders the reducing end intact. Conversion of the liberated oligosaccharides to glycosylamines in ammonia medium is followed by the production of the reducing oligosaccharides through the addition of boric acid. The quantitatively generated oligosaccharides with the reducing end can subsequently be derivatized with a fluorophoric reagent for capillary electrophoresis or, alternatively, analyzed through MALDI mass spectrometry. The microscale version of these chemical steps permits us to investigate structurally O-linked oligosaccharides at very low levels.

  18. Glycosylation of α-amino acids by sugar acetate donors with InBr3. Minimally competent Lewis acids.

    PubMed

    Lefever, Mark R; Szabò, Lajos Z; Anglin, Bobbi; Ferracane, Michael; Hogan, Joanna; Cooney, Lauren; Polt, Robin

    2012-04-01

    A simplified method for the preparation of Fmoc-serine and Fmoc-threonine glycosides for use in O-linked glycopeptide synthesis is described. Lewis acids promote glycoside formation, but also promote undesired reactions of the glycoside products. Use of 'minimally competent' Lewis acids such as InBr(3) promotes the desired activation catalytically, and with greatly reduced side products from sugar peracetates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolic engineering of sugars and simple sugar derivatives in plants.

    PubMed

    Patrick, John W; Botha, Frikkie C; Birch, Robert G

    2013-02-01

    Carbon captured through photosynthesis is transported, and sometimes stored in plants, as sugar. All organic compounds in plants trace to carbon from sugars, so sugar metabolism is highly regulated and integrated with development. Sugars stored by plants are important to humans as foods and as renewable feedstocks for industrial conversion to biofuels and biomaterials. For some purposes, sugars have advantages over polymers including starches, cellulose or storage lipids. This review considers progress and prospects in plant metabolic engineering for increased yield of endogenous sugars and for direct production of higher-value sugars and simple sugar derivatives. Opportunities are examined for enhancing export of sugars from leaves. Focus then turns to manipulation of sugar metabolism in sugar-storing sink organs such as fruits, sugarcane culms and sugarbeet tubers. Results from manipulation of suspected 'limiting' enzymes indicate a need for clearer understanding of flux control mechanisms, to achieve enhanced levels of endogenous sugars in crops that are highly selected for this trait. Outcomes from in planta conversion to novel sugars and derivatives range from severe interference with plant development to field demonstration of crops accumulating higher-value sugars at high yields. The differences depend on underlying biological factors including the effects of the novel products on endogenous metabolism, and on biotechnological fine-tuning including developmental expression and compartmentation patterns. Ultimately, osmotic activity may limit the accumulation of sugars to yields below those achievable using polymers; but results indicate the potential for increases above current commercial sugar yields, through metabolic engineering underpinned by improved understanding of plant sugar metabolism.

  20. Fluorescence study of sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongjamroon, Sunida; Pattanaporkratana, Apichart

    2015-07-01

    We studied photoemission of monosaccharides and disaccharides using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. A 532- nm, 10 mW, laser was used to excite the samples and back-scattering signals were collected by a spectrometer. We found that most sugars show weak fluorescence in solid phase but do not fluoresce when dissolved in water solutions. The emission spectra show similar peak intensity at 590 nm, but they are different in emission intensities. We suggest that the fluorescence spectra may be used to differentiate sugar type, even though the origin of the fluorescence is unclear and needed further study.

  1. [Sugar and cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Gómez Morales, Luis; Beltrán Romero, Luis Matías; García Puig, Juan

    2013-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the Spanish population and may be a relationship between the prevalence of these and excessive sugar consumption. In recent years, researchers have focused on the properties of these nutrients. Although there are many studies examining this association, the results are not unanimous. In any case there is sufficient basis for designing public health strategies in order to reduce the consumption of sugary drinks as part of a healthy lifestyle. Therefore, the question we address is: sugar intake in abundant amounts, is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease? We use as the focus of the discussion SAFO analysis model.

  2. Protein O-linked ß-N-acetylglucosamine: A novel effector of cardiomyocyte metabolism and function

    PubMed Central

    Darley-Usmar, Victor M.; Ball, Lauren E.; Chatham, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The post-translational modification of serine and threonine residues of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins by the O-linked attachment of the monosaccharide ß-N-acetyl-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is emerging as an important mechanism for the regulation of numerous biological processes critical for normal cell function. Active synthesis of O-GlcNAc is essential for cell viability and acute activation of pathways resulting in increased protein O-GlcNAc levels improves the tolerance of cells to a wide range of stress stimuli. Conversely sustained increases in O-GlcNAc levels have been implicated in numerous chronic disease states, especially as a pathogenic contributor to diabetic complications. There has been increasing interest in the role of O-GlcNAc in the heart and vascular system and acute activation of O-GlcNAc levels have been shown to reduce ischemia/reperfusion injury attenuate vascular injury responses as well mediate some of the detrimental effects of diabetes and hypertension on cardiac and vascular function. Here we provide an overview of our current understanding of pathways regulating protein O-GlcNAcylation, summarize the different methodologies for identifying and characterizing O-GlcNAcylated proteins and subsequently focus on two emerging areas: 1) the role of O-GlcNAc as a potential regulator of cardiac metabolism and 2) the cross talk between O-GlcNAc and reactive oxygen species. PMID:21878340

  3. You are what you Eat: O-Linked N-acetylglucosamine in Disease, Development and Epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    OLIVIER-VAN STICHELEN, Stéphanie; HANOVER, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review The O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification is both responsive to nutrient availability and capable of altering intracellular cellular signaling. We summarize data defining a role for O-GlcNAcylation in metabolic homeostasis and epigenetic regulation of development in the intrauterine environment. Recent Findings O-GlcNAc Transferase (OGT) catalyzes nutrient-driven O-GlcNAc addition and is subject to random X-inactivation. OGT plays key roles in growth factor signaling, stem cell biology, epigenetics, and possibly imprinting. The O-GlcNAcase, which removes O-GlcNAc is subject to tight regulation by higher order chromatin structure. O-GlcNAc cycling plays an important role in the intrauterine environment where OGT expression is an important biomarker of placental stress. Summary Regulation of O-GlcNAc cycling by X-inactivation, epigenetic regulation, and nutrient-driven processes make it an ideal candidate for a nutrient-dependent epigenetic regulator of human disease. In addition, O-GlcNAc cycling influences chromatin modifiers critical to the regulation and timing of normal development including the polycomb repression complex (PRC2) and the TET proteins mediating DNA methyl cytosine demethylation. The pathway also impacts the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis critical to intrauterine programming influencing disease susceptibility in later life. PMID:26049631

  4. A subpopulation of estrogen receptors are modified by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine.

    PubMed

    Jiang, M S; Hart, G W

    1997-01-24

    Estrogen receptors (ER) are ligand-inducible transcription factors regulated by Ser(Thr)-O-phosphorylation. Many transcription factors and eukaryotic RNA polymerase II itself are also dynamically modified by Ser(Thr)-O-linked N-acetylglucosamine moieties (O-GlcNAc). Here we report that subpopulations of murine, bovine, and human estrogen receptors are modified by O-GlcNAc. O-GlcNAc moieties were detected on insect cell-expressed, mouse ER (mER) by probing with bovine milk galactosyltransferase, followed by structural analysis. Wheat germ agglutinin-Sepharose affinity chromatography also readily detected terminal GlcNAc residues on subpopulations of ER purified from calf uterus, from human breast cancer cells (MCF-7), or from mER produced by in vitro translation. These data suggest that greater than 10% of these populations of estrogen receptors bear O-GlcNAc. Site mapping of insect cell expressed mER localized one major site of O-GlcNAc addition to Thr-575, within a PEST region of the carboxyl-terminal F domain. Based upon their relative resistance to both hexosaminidase and to in vitro galactosylation, O-GlcNAc moieties appear to be largely buried on native mER. This dynamic saccharide modification, like phosphorylation, may play a role in modulating the dimerization, stability, or transactivation functions of estrogen receptors.

  5. Secretion of N- and O-linked Glycoproteins from 4T1 Murine Mammary Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Phang, Wai-Mei; Tan, Aik-Aun; Gopinath, Subash C.B.; Hashim, Onn H.; Kiew, Lik Voon; Chen, Yeng

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers that affect women globally and accounts for ~23% of all cancers diagnosed in women. Breast cancer is also one of the leading causes of death primarily due to late stage diagnoses and a lack of effective treatments. Therefore, discovering protein expression biomarkers is mandatory for early detection and thus, critical for successful therapy. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-E) coupled with lectin-based analysis followed by mass spectrometry were applied to identify potential biomarkers in the secretions of a murine mammary carcinoma cell line. Comparisons of the protein profiles of the murine 4T1 mammary carcinoma cell line and a normal murine MM3MG mammary cell line indicated that cadherin-1 (CDH), collagenase 3 (MMP-13), Viral envelope protein G7e (VEP), Gag protein (GAG) and Hypothetical protein LOC433182 (LOC) were uniquely expressed by the 4T1 cells, and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) was exclusively secreted by the MM3MG cells. Further analysis by a lectin-based study revealed that aberrant O-glycosylated CDH, N-glycosylated MMP-13 and LOC were present in the 4T1 medium. These differentially expressed N- and O-linked glycoprotein candidates, which were identified by combining lectin-based analysis with 2D-E, could serve as potential diagnostic and prognostic markers for breast cancer. PMID:27226773

  6. Design and optimization of 20-O-linked camptothecin glycoconjugates as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Lerchen, H G; Baumgarten, J; von dem Bruch, K; Lehmann, T E; Sperzel, M; Kempka, G; Fiebig, H H

    2001-11-22

    To improve the biological profile of 20(S)-camptothecin, a novel class of 20-O-linked camptothecin glycoconjugates has been designed for preferential cellular uptake into tumor cells by an active transport mechanism. Such conjugates have been optimized for enhanced solubility, stabilization of the camptothecin lactone ring, sufficient hydrolytic and proteolytic stability, and for an overall improvement in tumor selectivity. The constitution of the peptide spacer has a major impact on stability and biological activity of the conjugates both in vitro and in vivo. Glycoconjugates 17-22 with valine residues at the linkage position to camptothecin are sufficiently stable and show good antitumor activity in vitro against HT29 and other tumor cell lines. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry experiments indicate that glycoconjugates such as 19 are taken up into lysosomal compartments of the tumor cell line HT29 by an active transport mechanism. The steric configuration of the particular amino acid residues linked to the camptothecin moiety has a major impact on the in vivo activity of the corresponding glycoconjugates in the breast cancer xenograft MX-1 model. Inhibiting tumor growth by >96%, the glycoconjugates 19 and 21 show the best activity in this particular model and have been investigated more extensively. The glycoconjugate 19 compares favorably to topotecan 4 and glycoconjugate 21 with respect to toxicity against hematopoietic stem cells and hepatocytes. Based on its profile, 19 has been selected for clinical trials.

  7. Comparison of analytical methods for profiling N- and O-linked glycans from cultured cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Togayachi, Akira; Azadi, Parastoo; Ishihara, Mayumi; Geyer, Rudolf; Galuska, Christina; Geyer, Hildegard; Kakehi, Kazuaki; Kinoshita, Mitsuhiro; Karlsson, Niclas G.; Jin, Chunsheng; Kato, Koichi; Yagi, Hirokazu; Kondo, Sachiko; Kawasaki, Nana; Hashii, Noritaka; Kolarich, Daniel; Stavenhagen, Kathrin; Packer, Nicolle H.; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Nakano, Miyako; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Kurimoto, Ayako; Wada, Yoshinao; Tajiri, Michiko; Yang, Pengyuan; Cao, Weiqian; Li, Hong; Rudd, Pauline M.; Narimatsu, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    The Human Disease Glycomics/Proteome Initiative (HGPI) is an activity in the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) supported by leading researchers from international institutes and aims at development of disease-related glycomics/glycoproteomics analysis techniques. Since 2004, the initiative has conducted three pilot studies. The first two were N- and O-glycan analyses of purified transferrin and immunoglobulin-G and assessed the most appropriate analytical approach employed at the time. This paper describes the third study, which was conducted to compare different approaches for quantitation of N- and O-linked glycans attached to proteins in crude biological samples. The preliminary analysis on cell pellets resulted in wildly varied glycan profiles, which was probably the consequence of variations in the pre-processing sample preparation methodologies. However, the reproducibility of the data was not improved dramatically in the subsequent analysis on cell lysate fractions prepared in a specified method by one lab. The study demonstrated the difficulty of carrying out a complete analysis of the glycome in crude samples by any single technology and the importance of rigorous optimization of the course of analysis from preprocessing to data interpretation. It suggests that another collaborative study employing the latest technologies in this rapidly evolving field will help to realize the requirements of carrying out the large-scale analysis of glycoproteins in complex cell samples. PMID:26511985

  8. The Liquid Glass Transition in Sugars and Sugar Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jeong-Ah; Oh, Jiyoung; Kwon, Hyun-Joung; Kim, Hyung Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2006-05-01

    The liquid-glass transition in sugars and sugar mixtures was studied with calorimetry, Brillouin scattering, and dielectric spectroscopy. Sugars are particular interest among other glass forming materials because sugars are main constitution of the biological system and sugar glasses play an important role in preservation and protection of biological cells. We studied a number of sugars and sugar mixtures including glucose, galactose, sucrose, maltose, trehalose, glucose/sucrose, sucrose/trehalose, using calorimetry (DTA and DSC), Brillouin scattering, and dielectric spectroscopy. We found the following: (1) Brillouin scattering technique can be used to determine the glass transition temperature. (2) In sugar mixtures, the volume compression effect from the molecule size and shape played an important role in the glass transition temperature. (3) The origin of the secondary relaxation in glucose-water mixtures maybe relate to the rotation-translation coupling constant in the schematic mode coupling theory.

  9. 1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Large rectangular piece lying in front of the mill is the top of the mill frame appearing in its proper place in 1928 views. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  10. Converting sugars to sugar alcohols by aqueous phase catalytic hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Werpy, Todd A.; Wang, Yong; Frye, Jr., John G.

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a method of converting sugars to their corresponding sugar alcohols by catalytic hydrogenation in the aqueous phase. It has been found that surprisingly superior results can be obtained by utilizing a relatively low temperature (less than 120.degree. C.), selected hydrogenation conditions, and a hydrothermally stable catalyst. These results include excellent sugar conversion to the desired sugar alcohol, in combination with long life under hydrothermal conditions.

  11. Free sugar profile in cycads.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Lindström, Anders J

    2014-01-01

    The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date.

  12. The Maple Sugar Festival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Basil

    1978-01-01

    Describing the Iroquoi's Maple Sugar Festival, this article details the symbolism of renewal, becoming, and regeneration celebrated by the Iroquoi as the sap from the maple trees begins to flow each year. The symbolic role of woman, the sweet sap itself, and man's fellow creatures are described. (JC)

  13. The Maple Sugar Festival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Basil

    1978-01-01

    Describing the Iroquoi's Maple Sugar Festival, this article details the symbolism of renewal, becoming, and regeneration celebrated by the Iroquoi as the sap from the maple trees begins to flow each year. The symbolic role of woman, the sweet sap itself, and man's fellow creatures are described. (JC)

  14. Sugar Cane Magic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mower, Nancy Alpert

    The booklet contains a story for middle-grade students which shows how the roles of men and women change through the years. The main characters are three sixth graders in Hawaii: one girl has Hawaiian ancestors, one girl has Japanese ancestors, and one boy has New England missionary ancestors. The children discover a magic stalk of sugar cane…

  15. 32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: End of mill into which cane was fed between top and bottom roll. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  16. Variation in sugar content in a budded sugar maple clone

    Treesearch

    Frank S., Jr. Santamour; Frank E. Cunningham

    1964-01-01

    The production of maple sugar and maple syrup from the sap of the sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) is an important industry in the Northeast, particularly in Vermont and New York. Although it has been recognized for a long time that some trees are sweeter than others - have a higher sugar content in their sap - systematic study of ways to...

  17. Future sustainability of the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Like many other food and chemical industries, the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries are facing important sustainability issues. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, the world-wide impetus to produce alternatives to petroleum-based fuels and reduce green house gases, and water- and ...

  18. Pyroglutamate and O-linked glycan determine functional production of anti-IL17A and anti-IL22 peptide-antibody bispecific genetic fusions.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiaotian; Kieras, Elizabeth; Sousa, Eric; D'Antona, Aaron; Baber, J Christian; He, Tao; Desharnais, Joel; Wood, Lauren; Luxenberg, Deborah; Stahl, Mark; Kriz, Ronald; Lin, Laura; Somers, Will; Fitz, Lori J; Wright, Jill F

    2013-01-11

    Protein biosynthesis and extracellular secretion are essential biological processes for therapeutic protein production in mammalian cells, which offer the capacity for correct folding and proper post-translational modifications. In this study, we have generated bispecific therapeutic fusion proteins in mammalian cells by combining a peptide and an antibody into a single open reading frame. A neutralizing peptide directed against interleukin-17A (IL17A) was genetically fused to the N termini of an anti-IL22 antibody, through either the light chain, the heavy chain, or both chains. Although the resulting fusion proteins bound and inhibited IL22 with the same affinity and potency as the unmodified anti-IL22 antibody, the peptide modality in the fusion scaffold was not active in the cell-based assay due to the N-terminal degradation. When a glutamine residue was introduced at the N terminus, which can be cyclized to form pyroglutamate in mammalian cells, the IL17A neutralization activity of the fusion protein was restored. Interestingly, the mass spectroscopic analysis of the purified fusion protein revealed an unexpected O-linked glycosylation modification at threonine 5 of the anti-IL17A peptide. The subsequent removal of this post-translational modification by site-directed mutagenesis drastically enhanced the IL17A binding affinity and neutralization potency for the resulting fusion protein. These results provide direct experimental evidence that post-translational modifications during protein biosynthesis along secretory pathways play critical roles in determining the structure and function of therapeutic proteins produced by mammalian cells. The newly engineered peptide-antibody genetic fusion is promising for therapeutically targeting multiple antigens in a single antibody-like molecule.

  19. O-linked GlcNAcylation elevated by HPV E6 mediates viral oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qinghua; Zhao, Rui-Xun; Chen, Jianfeng; Li, Yining; Li, Xiang-Dong; Liu, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Wei-Ming; Quan, Cheng-Shi; Wang, Yi-Shu; Zhai, Ying-Xian; Wang, Jian-Wei; Youssef, Mariam; Cui, Rutao; Liang, Jiyong; Genovese, Nicholas; Chow, Louise T.; Li, Yu-Lin; Xu, Zhi-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are causative agents of anogenital cancers and a fraction of head and neck cancers. The mechanisms involved in the progression of HPV neoplasias to cancers remain largely unknown. Here, we report that O-linked GlcNAcylation (O-GlcNAc) and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) were markedly increased in HPV-caused cervical neoplasms relative to normal cervix, whereas O-GlcNAcase (OGA) levels were not altered. Transduction of HPV16 oncogene E6 or E6/E7 into mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) up-regulated OGT mRNA and protein, elevated the level of O-GlcNAc, and promoted cell proliferation while reducing cellular senescence. Conversely, in HPV-18–transformed HeLa cervical carcinoma cells, inhibition of O-GlcNAc with a low concentration of a chemical inhibitor impaired the transformed phenotypes in vitro. We showed that E6 elevated c-MYC via increased protein stability attributable to O-GlcNAcylation on Thr58. Reduction of HPV-mediated cell viability by a high concentration of O-GlcNAc inhibitor was partially rescued by elevated c-MYC. Finally, knockdown of OGT or O-GlcNAc inhibition in HeLa cells or in TC-1 cells, a mouse cell line transformed by HPV16 E6/E7 and activated K-RAS, reduced c-MYC and suppressed tumorigenesis and metastasis. Thus, we have uncovered a mechanism for HPV oncoprotein-mediated transformation. These findings may eventually aid in the development of effective therapeutics for HPV-associated malignancies by targeting aberrant O-GlcNAc. PMID:27482104

  20. O-linked GlcNAcylation elevated by HPV E6 mediates viral oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qinghua; Zhao, Rui-Xun; Chen, Jianfeng; Li, Yining; Li, Xiang-Dong; Liu, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Wei-Ming; Quan, Cheng-Shi; Wang, Yi-Shu; Zhai, Ying-Xian; Wang, Jian-Wei; Youssef, Mariam; Cui, Rutao; Liang, Jiyong; Genovese, Nicholas; Chow, Louise T; Li, Yu-Lin; Xu, Zhi-Xiang

    2016-08-16

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are causative agents of anogenital cancers and a fraction of head and neck cancers. The mechanisms involved in the progression of HPV neoplasias to cancers remain largely unknown. Here, we report that O-linked GlcNAcylation (O-GlcNAc) and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) were markedly increased in HPV-caused cervical neoplasms relative to normal cervix, whereas O-GlcNAcase (OGA) levels were not altered. Transduction of HPV16 oncogene E6 or E6/E7 into mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) up-regulated OGT mRNA and protein, elevated the level of O-GlcNAc, and promoted cell proliferation while reducing cellular senescence. Conversely, in HPV-18-transformed HeLa cervical carcinoma cells, inhibition of O-GlcNAc with a low concentration of a chemical inhibitor impaired the transformed phenotypes in vitro. We showed that E6 elevated c-MYC via increased protein stability attributable to O-GlcNAcylation on Thr58. Reduction of HPV-mediated cell viability by a high concentration of O-GlcNAc inhibitor was partially rescued by elevated c-MYC. Finally, knockdown of OGT or O-GlcNAc inhibition in HeLa cells or in TC-1 cells, a mouse cell line transformed by HPV16 E6/E7 and activated K-RAS, reduced c-MYC and suppressed tumorigenesis and metastasis. Thus, we have uncovered a mechanism for HPV oncoprotein-mediated transformation. These findings may eventually aid in the development of effective therapeutics for HPV-associated malignancies by targeting aberrant O-GlcNAc.

  1. Role of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine modification in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Gellai, Renata; Hodrea, Judit; Lenart, Lilla; Hosszu, Adam; Koszegi, Sandor; Balogh, Dora; Ver, Agota; Banki, Nora F; Fulop, Norbert; Molnar, Agnes; Wagner, Laszlo; Vannay, Adam; Szabo, Attila J; Fekete, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Increased O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine glycosylation (O-GlcNAcylation) is a known contributor to diabetes; however, its relevance in diabetic nephropathy (DN) is poorly elucidated. Here, we studied the process and enzymes of O-GlcNAcylation with a special emphasis on Akt-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and heat shock protein (HSP)72 signaling. Since tubular injury is the prominent site of DN, the effect of hyperglycemia was first measured in proximal tubular (HK2) cells cultured in high glucose. In vivo O-GlcNAcylation and protein levels of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), O-GlcNAcase (OGA), phosphorylated (p)Akt/Akt, peNOS/eNOS, and HSP72 were assessed in the kidney cortex of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The effects of various renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors were also evaluated. In proximal tubular cells, hyperglycemia-induced OGT expression led to increased O-GlcNAcylation, which was followed by a compensatory increase of OGA. In parallel, peNOS and pAkt levels decreased, whereas HSP72 increased. In diabetic rats, elevated O-GlcNAcylation was accompanied by decreased OGT and OGA. RAAS inhibitors ameliorated diabetes-induced kidney damage and prevented the elevation of O-GlcNAcylation and the decrement of pAkt, peNOS, and HSP72. In conclusion, hyperglycemia-induced elevation of O-GlcNAcylation contributes to the progression of DN via inhibition of Akt/eNOS phosphorylation and HSP72 induction. RAAS blockers successfully inhibit this process, suggesting a novel pathomechanism of their renoprotective action in the treatment of DN.

  2. Changes in O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) Homeostasis Activate the p53 Pathway in Ovarian Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Rafaela Muniz; Madan, Rashna; Chien, Jeremy; Dias, Wagner Barbosa; Slawson, Chad

    2016-09-02

    O-GlcNAcylation is a dynamic post-translational modification consisting of the addition of a single N-acetylglucosamine sugar to serine and threonine residues in proteins by the enzyme O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT), whereas the enzyme O-GlcNAcase (OGA) removes the modification. In cancer, tumor samples present with altered O-GlcNAcylation; however, changes in O-GlcNAcylation are not consistent between tumor types. Interestingly, the tumor suppressor p53 is modified by O-GlcNAc, and most solid tumors contain mutations in p53 leading to the loss of p53 function. Because ovarian cancer has a high frequency of p53 mutation rates, we decided to investigate the relationship between O-GlcNAcylation and p53 function in ovarian cancer. We measured a significant decrease in O-GlcNAcylation of tumor tissue in an ovarian tumor microarray. Furthermore, O-GlcNAcylation was increased, and OGA protein and mRNA levels were decreased in ovarian tumor cell lines not expressing the protein p53. Treatment with the OGA inhibitor Thiamet-G (TMG), silencing of OGA, or overexpression of OGA and OGT led to p53 stabilization, increased nuclear localization, and increased protein and mRNA levels of p53 target genes. These data suggest that changes in O-GlcNAc homeostasis activate the p53 pathway. Combination treatment of the chemotherapeutic cisplatin with TMG decreased tumor cell growth and enhanced cell cycle arrest without impairing cytotoxicity. The effects of TMG on tumor cell growth were partially dependent on wild type p53 activation. In conclusion, changes in O-GlcNAc homeostasis activate the wild type p53 pathway in ovarian cancer cells, and OGA inhibition has the potential as an adjuvant treatment for ovarian carcinoma.

  3. [Sugar's introduction in apothecary].

    PubMed

    Plouvier, L

    1999-01-01

    In ancient times, the medicaments used to be sweetened with honey. Subsequently, the Arab apothecaries progressively replaced it by sugar, as witnessed by their formularies, that were known as grabadins. These were introduced to the West as from the XIth century A.D. The latin world also produced its very own formularies, of which the Antidotarium magnum (circa 1100) and the Antidotarium Mesuae (appearing at around the same period) are the most famous. The latter accords to sugar a place of honour and has recourse to it for the best part of the formulae intended for internal usage (namely syrops, julebs, electuaries, loochs, aromatic powders, condita, conservae, etc.) whilst not abandoning the use of honey.

  4. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Aller, Erik E. J. G.; Abete, Itziar; Astrup, Arne; Martinez, J. Alfredo; van Baak, Marleen A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages. PMID:22254101

  5. Pyrolysis of Table Sugar

    PubMed Central

    Karagöz, Selhan

    2013-01-01

    Table sugars were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300, 400, and 500°C) in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on yields of liquid, solid, and gaseous products was investigated. As expected the yield of liquid products gradually increased and the yield of solid products gradually decreased when the pyrolysis temperature was raised. The yield of liquid products was greatest (52 wt%) at 500°C. The composition of bio-oils extracted with diethyl ether was identified by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The following compounds were observed in bio-oils produced from the pyrolysis of table sugar at 500°C: 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-α-d-glucopyranose, 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural, 5-acetoxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, and cyclotetradecane liquid product. The relative concentration of 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural was the highest in bio-oils obtained from pyrolysis of table sugars at 500°C. PMID:24223500

  6. Pyrolysis of table sugar.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Adnan; Karagöz, Selhan

    2013-01-01

    Table sugars were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300, 400, and 500°C) in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on yields of liquid, solid, and gaseous products was investigated. As expected the yield of liquid products gradually increased and the yield of solid products gradually decreased when the pyrolysis temperature was raised. The yield of liquid products was greatest (52 wt%) at 500°C. The composition of bio-oils extracted with diethyl ether was identified by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The following compounds were observed in bio-oils produced from the pyrolysis of table sugar at 500°C: 1,4:3,6-dianhydro- α -d-glucopyranose, 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural, 5-acetoxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, and cyclotetradecane liquid product. The relative concentration of 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural was the highest in bio-oils obtained from pyrolysis of table sugars at 500°C.

  7. pH Regulation of Electrogenic Sugar/H+ Symport in MFS Sugar Permeases.

    PubMed

    Bazzone, Andre; Madej, M Gregor; Kaback, H Ronald; Fendler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial sugar symporters in the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) use the H+ (and in a few cases Na+) electrochemical gradients to achieve active transport of sugar into the cell. Because a number of structures of MFS sugar symporters have been solved recently, molecular insight into the transport mechanism is possible from detailed functional analysis. We present here a comparative electrophysiological study of the lactose permease (LacY), the fucose permease (FucP) and the xylose permease (XylE), which reveals common mechanistic principles and differences. In all three symporters energetically downhill electrogenic sugar/H+ symport is observed. Comparison of the pH dependence of symport at symmetrical pH exhibits broad bell-shaped pH profiles extending over 3 to 6 pH units and a decrease at extremely alkaline pH ≥ 9.4 and at acidic to neutral pH = 4.6-7.5. The pH dependence can be described by an acidic to neutral apparent pK (pKapp) and an alkaline pKapp. Experimental evidence suggests that the alkaline pKapp is due to H+ depletion at the protonation site, while the acidic pKapp is due to inhibition of deprotonation. Since previous studies suggest that a single carboxyl group in LacY (Glu325) may be the only side chain directly involved in H+ translocation and a carboxyl side chain with similar properties has been identified in FucP (Asp46) and XylE (Asp27), the present results imply that the pK of this residue is switched during H+/sugar symport in all three symporters.

  8. Enantiomer Ratios of Meteoritic Sugar Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George

    2012-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse suite of soluble organic compounds. Studies of these compounds reveal the Solar System's earliest organic chemistry. Among the classes of organic compounds found in meteorites are keto acids (pyruvic acid, etc.), hydroxy tricarboxylic acids (1), amino acids, amides, purines and pyrimidines. The Murchison and Murray meteorites are the most studied for soluble and insoluble organic compounds and organic carbon phases. The majority of (indigenous) meteoritic compounds are racemic, (i.e., their D/L enantiomer ratios are 50:50). However, some of the more unusual (non-protein) amino acids contain slightly more of one enantiomer (usually the L) than the other. This presentation focuses on the enantiomer analyses of three to six-carbon (3C to 6C) meteoritic sugar acids. The molecular and enantiomer analysis of corresponding sugar alcohols will also be discussed. Detailed analytical procedures for sugar-acid enantiomers have been described. Results of several meteorite analyses show that glyceric acid is consistently racemic (or nearly so) as expected of non-biological mechanisms of synthesis. Also racemic are 4-C deoxy sugar acids: 2-methyl glyceric acid; 2,4-dihydroxybutyric acid; 2,3-dihydroxybutyric acid (two diastereomers); and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid. However, a 4C acid, threonic acid, has never been observed as racemic, i.e., it possesses a large D excess. In several samples of Murchison and one of GRA 95229 (possibly the most pristine carbonaceous meteorite yet analyzed) threonic acid has nearly the same D enrichment. In Murchison, preliminary isotopic measurements of individual threonic acid enantiomers point towards extraterrestrial sources of the D enrichment. Enantiomer analyses of the 5C mono-sugar acids, ribonic, arabinonic, xylonic, and lyxonic also show large D excesses. It is worth noting that all four of these acids (all of the possible straight-chained 5C sugar acids) are present in meteorites, including the

  9. Proposal for a standard system for drawing structural diagrams of N- and O-linked carbohydrates and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Harvey, David J; Merry, Anthony H; Royle, Louise; Campbell, Matthew P; Dwek, Raymond A; Rudd, Pauline M

    2009-08-01

    Symbolic diagrams are commonly used to depict N- and O-linked glycans but there is no general consensus as to how individual constituent monosaccharides or linkages are shown. This article proposes a system that avoids ambiguities inherent in most other systems and is appropriate for both hand drawing and computer applications. Constituent monosaccharides are depicted by shapes modified to show OAc, deoxy, etc. Linkage is indicated by the bond angle and anomericity by solid (beta) or dashed (alpha) lines.

  10. The role of O-linked GlcNAc modification on the glucose response of ChREBP

    SciTech Connect

    Sakiyama, Haruhiko; Fujiwara, Noriko; Noguchi, Takahiro; Eguchi, Hironobu; Yoshihara, Daisaku; Uyeda, Kosaku; Suzuki, Keiichiro

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} The O-linked GlcNAc modification is crucial for the glucose response. {yields} Mlx is required for nuclear localization and transcription activity of ChREBP. {yields} The presence of Mlx stabilizes ChREBP protein. -- Abstract: The carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) functions as a transcription factor in mediating the glucose-activated gene expression of multiple liver enzymes, which are responsible for converting excess carbohydrate to storage fat. ChREBP is translocated into the nucleus in response to high glucose levels, and then up-regulates transcriptional activity. Although this glucose activation of ChREBP is generally observed only in liver cells, overexpression of wild type max-like protein X (Mlx), but not an inactive mutant Mlx, resulted in the exhibition of the ChREBP functions also in a human kidney cell line. Because high glucose conditions induce the glycosylation of cellular proteins, the effect of O-linked GlcNAc modification on ChREBP functions was examined. Treatment with an O-GlcNAcase inhibitor (PUGNAc), which increases the O-linked GlcNAc modification of cellular proteins, caused an increase in the glucose response of ChREBP. In contrast, treatment with a glutamine fructose amidotransferase inhibitor (DON), which decreases O-GlcNAcylation by inhibiting the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, completely blocked the glucose response of ChREBP. These results suggest that the O-linked glycosylation of ChREBP itself or other proteins that regulate ChREBP is essential for the production of functional ChREBP.

  11. O-linked carbohydrate of recombinant von Willebrand factor influences ristocetin-induced binding to platelet glycoprotein 1b.

    PubMed Central

    Carew, J A; Quinn, S M; Stoddart, J H; Lynch, D C

    1992-01-01

    By transfecting the full-length cDNA for human von Willebrand factor (vWf) into a line of Chinese hamster ovary cells with a defect in carbohydrate metabolism, we have prepared recombinant vWf specifically lacking O-linked carbohydrates. We have compared this under-glycosylated protein to fully glycosylated recombinant vWf with respect to several structural and binding properties. vWf deficient in O-linked glycans was synthesized, assembled into multimers, and secreted in an apparently normal manner and was not prone to degradation in the extracellular milieu. It did not differ from fully glycosylated vWf in ability to bind to heparin or to collagen type I but did interact less well with glycoprotein 1b on formalin-fixed platelets. This decreased interaction was evidenced in both a lessened overall binding to platelets and in diminished capacity to promote platelet agglutination, in the presence of ristocetin. In contrast, no difference was seen in platelet binding in the presence of botrocetin. These data indicate a possible role for O-linked carbohydrates in the vWf-glycoprotein 1b interaction promoted by ristocetin and suggest that abnormalities in carbohydrate modification might contribute to the altered ristocetin-dependent reactivity between vWf and platelets described for some variant forms of von Willebrand disease. Images PMID:1469086

  12. Extracellular O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine Is Enriched in Stem Cells Derived from Human Umbilical Cord Blood

    PubMed Central

    Hirvonen, Tia; Ritamo, Ilja; Natunen, Suvi; Tuimala, Jarno; Laitinen, Saara; Anderson, Heidi; Nystedt, Johanna; Räbinä, Jarkko; Valmu, Leena

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Stem cells have a unique ability to self-renew and differentiate into diverse cell types. Currently, stem cells from various sources are being explored as a promising new treatment for a variety of human diseases. A diverse set of functional and phenotypical markers are used in the characterization of specific therapeutic stem cell populations. The glycans on the stem cell surface respond rapidly to alterations in cellular state and signaling and are therefore ideal for identifying even minor changes in cell populations. Many stem cell markers are based on cell surface glycan epitopes including the widely used markers SSEA-3, SSEA-4, Tra 1-60, and Tra 1-81. We have now discovered by mRNA analysis that a novel glycosyltranferase, epidermal growth factor (EGF) domain-specific O-linked GlcNAc transferase (EOGT), is highly expressed in stem cells. EOGT is responsible for adding O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to folded EGF domains on extracellular proteins, such as those on the Notch receptors. We were able to show by immunological assays that human umbilical cord blood–derived mesenchymal stromal cells display O-GlcNAc, the product of EOGT, and that O-GlcNAc is further elongated with galactose to form O-linked N-acetyllactosamine. We suggest that these novel glycans are involved in the fine tuning of Notch receptor signaling pathways in stem cells. PMID:24804163

  13. Free sugar profile in cycads

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E.; Lindström, Anders J.

    2014-01-01

    The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date. PMID:25339967

  14. Sap-Sugar Content of Grafted Sugar Maple Trees

    Treesearch

    Maurice E. Jr. Demeritt; Maurice E. Jr. Demeritt

    1985-01-01

    In March and April 1983, 289 and 196 young grafted sugar maple trees were tapped and evaluated for sap-sugar content. In April, sap was collected from taps both above and below the graft union. Diameter of all tapped trees at 18 inches above the ground was measured. Analysis of the data revealed that: (1) trees selected for high sugar yield cannot be reproduced by...

  15. Campylobacter sugars sticking out.

    PubMed

    Guerry, Patricia; Szymanski, Christine M

    2008-09-01

    The amazing repertoire of glycoconjugates that are found in Campylobacter jejuni includes lipooligosaccharides mimicking human glycolipids, capsular polysaccharides with complex and unusual sugars, and proteins that are post-translationally modified with either O- or N-linked glycans. Thus, the glycome of this important food-borne pathogen is an excellent toolbox for glycobiologists to understand the fundamentals of these pathways and their role in host-microbe interactions, develop new techniques for glycobiology and exploit these pathways for novel diagnostics and therapeutics. The exciting surge in recent research activities will be summarized in this review.

  16. Why do sugars taste good?

    PubMed

    Ramirez, I

    1990-01-01

    The preference humans and animals show for sweet solutions has been the subject of hundreds of publications. Nevertheless, the evolutionary origin of sweet preference remains enigmatic because of the relatively low nutritional value of sugars and the absence of specific tastes for other, more essential, nutrients. Moderate concentrations of sugars are found in most plant foods because sugars play an important role in plant physiology. Widespread occurrence of sugars in plants is paralleled by widespread preference for sugar solutions in mammals. These observations suggest that preference for sugars evolved because they are common in plants and easy to detect rather than because of any special nutritional merits they offer. Perception of sweetness cannot be used to accurately meter the metabolizable energy or nutritive value of a food.

  17. Functional Characterization of Bacterial Oligosaccharyltransferases Involved in O-Linked Protein Glycosylation▿

    PubMed Central

    Faridmoayer, Amirreza; Fentabil, Messele A.; Mills, Dominic C.; Klassen, John S.; Feldman, Mario F.

    2007-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is an important posttranslational modification that occurs in all domains of life. Pilins, the structural components of type IV pili, are O glycosylated in Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this work, we characterized the P. aeruginosa 1244 and N. meningitidis MC58 O glycosylation systems in Escherichia coli. In both cases, sugars are transferred en bloc by an oligosaccharyltransferase (OTase) named PglL in N. meningitidis and PilO in P. aeruginosa. We show that, like PilO, PglL has relaxed glycan specificity. Both OTases are sufficient for glycosylation, but they require translocation of the undecaprenol-pyrophosphate-linked oligosaccharide substrates into the periplasm for activity. Whereas PilO activity is restricted to short oligosaccharides, PglL is able to transfer diverse oligo- and polysaccharides. This functional characterization supports the concept that despite their low sequence similarity, PilO and PglL belong to a new family of “O-OTases” that transfer oligosaccharides from lipid carriers to hydroxylated amino acids in proteins. To date, such activity has not been identified for eukaryotes. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing recombinant O glycoproteins synthesized in E. coli. PMID:17890310

  18. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors, which apply to all... establishing, adjusting, or suspending sugar marketing allotments in the Federal Register. FOR FURTHER...

  19. O-GlcNAc transferase invokes nucleotide sugar pyrophosphate participation in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Schimpl, Marianne; Zheng, Xiaowei; Borodkin, Vladimir S; Blair, David E; Ferenbach, Andrew T; Schüttelkopf, Alexander W; Navratilova, Iva; Aristotelous, Tonia; Albarbarawi, Osama; Robinson, David A; Macnaughtan, Megan A; van Aalten, Daan M F

    2012-12-01

    Protein O-GlcNAcylation is an essential post-translational modification on hundreds of intracellular proteins in metazoa, catalyzed by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) using unknown mechanisms of transfer and substrate recognition. Through crystallographic snapshots and mechanism-inspired chemical probes, we define how human OGT recognizes the sugar donor and acceptor peptide and uses a new catalytic mechanism of glycosyl transfer, involving the sugar donor α-phosphate as the catalytic base as well as an essential lysine. This mechanism seems to be a unique evolutionary solution to the spatial constraints imposed by a bulky protein acceptor substrate and explains the unexpected specificity of a recently reported metabolic OGT inhibitor.

  20. Sugar-oligoamides: synthesis of DNA minor groove binders.

    PubMed

    Badía, Concepción; Souard, Florence; Vicent, Cristina

    2012-12-07

    Sugar-oligoamides have been designed and synthesized as structurally simple carbohydrate-based ligands to study carbohydrate-minor groove DNA interactions. Here we report an efficient solution-phase synthetic strategy to obtain two broad families of sugar-oligoamides. The first type, structure vector A (-Py[Me]-γ-Py-Ind), has a methyl group present as a substituent on the nitrogen of pyrrole B, connected to the C terminal of the oligoamide fragment. The second type, structure vector B (-Py[(CH(2))(11)OH]-γ-Py-Ind), has an alkyl chain present on the nitrogen of pyrrole B connected to the C terminal of the oligoamide fragment and has been designed to access to di- and multivalent sugar-oligoamides. By using sequential DIPC/HOBt coupling reactions, the oligoamide fragment -Py[R]-γ-Py-Ind has been constructed. The last coupling reaction between the anomeric amino sugar and the oligoamide fragment was carried out by activating the acid derivative as a BtO- ester, which has been performed by using TFFH. The isolated esters (BtO-Py[R]-γ-Py-Ind) were coupled with selected amino sugars using DIEA in DMF. The synthesis of two different selective model vectors (vector A (1) and vector B (2)) and two types of water-soluble sugar-oligoamide ligands, with vector A structure (compounds 3-7) and with vector B structure (compound 8), was carried out.

  1. Mini-tapping sugar maples for sap-sugar testing

    Treesearch

    William J. Gabriel

    1982-01-01

    Describes a technique using cannulas, surgical tubing, and small containers to obtain sap samples for use in determining the sugar content of sap in small sugar maple trees. This technique is used on trees directly exposed to the weather, and sets a minimum tappable tree diameter of 1.5 cm.

  2. Sapstreak disease of sugar maple

    Treesearch

    James W. Walters

    1992-01-01

    Sapstreak is a fatal disease of sugar maple that usually enters the tree through basal trunk scars or root wounds. The disease most often affects large, wounded trees left after logging. The fungus causing sapstreak readily infects stumps or cut logs during the summer months. So, wounding sugar maples during this time will increase the potential for disease spread. In...

  3. Using Math With Maple Sugaring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Gary

    1984-01-01

    Suggest several math activities using the simple technique of tapping a sugar maple tree for sap. Information and activities presented are useful in tapping one or two trees on school property, helping students who tap trees at home, or leading a field trip to a nearby maple sugaring site. (ERB)

  4. Sweeter future with fewer sugars.

    PubMed

    Winkler, J T

    1994-07-09

    Britain's food industry is entering a new phase. For as far ahead as we can see, manufacturers will be creating an expanding, ever more complex range of reduced sugar and sugar-free products. These innovations will vastly strengthen the structural approach to oral health promotion: improving food as well as educating people.

  5. Sugar crops for fuel alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of alcohol rather than petroleum as a fuel source would require a large amount of land and suitable crops. Acerage now in use for food crops and animal production in the USA is given. The author presents alternatives to present land use in order to free acreage for energy crops such as sorghum, sugar beets, and sugar cane. (DC)

  6. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Kagami, Hiroyo; Kurata, Masayuki; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Kazunori; Mikami, Tetsuo; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2015-01-01

    Creating transgenic plants is invaluable for the genetic analysis of sugar beet and will be increasingly important as sugar beet genomic technologies progress. A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet is described in this chapter. Our protocol is optimized for a sugar beet genotype that performs exceptionally well in tissue culture, including the steps of dedifferentiation, callus proliferation, and regeneration. Because of the infrequent occurrence of such a genotype in sugar beet populations, our protocol includes an in vitro propagation method for germplasm preservation. The starting materials for transgenic experiments are aseptic shoots grown from surface-sterilized seed balls. Callus is induced from leaf explants and subsequently infected with Agrobacterium. Plantlets are regenerated from transgenic callus and vernalized for flowering, if necessary. The efficiency of transformation was quite high; in our laboratory, the culture of only ten leaf explants, on average, generated one transgenic plant.

  7. 75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ...' Marketing: Amalgamated Sugar Co 1,074,683 -17,362 14,327 1,071,647 American Crystal Sugar Co 1,850,519 -51... Cane Sugar 4,215,892 -200,000 -500,000 3,515,892 Cane Processors' Marketing Florida: Florida Crystals...' Marketing Allocations: Amalgamated Sugar Co 1,074,683 American Crystal Sugar Co 1,845,383 ] Michigan Sugar...

  8. GalNAc moieties in O-linked oligosaccharides of the primordial germ cells of Xenopus embryos.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Edurne; Sáez, Francisco José; Madrid, Juan Francisco; Hernández, Francisco

    2002-04-01

    Glycoconjugates could play a role in cell adhesion and migration mechanisms, including the locomotive movements of the primordial germ cells (PGCs) during the development of the embryo. In the present work, we have studied by lectin histochemistry the presence of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) in the glycans of the Xenopus PGCs, as a first approach to identifying their glycoconjugates which could be involved in the migration mechanism. The PGCs were negative for three of the GalNAc-binding lectins employed (from soybean, SBA; from lima bean, LBA; and from snail, HPA). However, when sialic acid (NeuAc) was previously removed by acid hydrolysis, SBA and HPA, but not LBA, labeled the PGCs, except if the staining was combined with the beta-elimination procedure. This suggests the presence of GalNAc alpha(1,3)-linked to galactose (Gal) in O-linked oligosaccharides, in a subterminal position to NeuAc. As the PGCs were always negative for LBA, the absence of fucose alpha(1,2)-linked to subterminal Gal is suggested. With the lectin from horse gram (DBA), the PGCs were stained, although beta-elimination turned the cells negative and acid hydrolysis increased the labeling, suggesting that GalNAc(alpha)(1,3)GalNAc was in O-linked glycans in terminal and subterminal to NeuAc position.

  9. The O-linked glycosylation of secretory/shed MUC1 from an advanced breast cancer patient's serum.

    PubMed

    Storr, Sarah J; Royle, Louise; Chapman, Caroline J; Hamid, Umi M Abd; Robertson, John F; Murray, Andrea; Dwek, Raymond A; Rudd, Pauline M

    2008-06-01

    MUC1 is a high molecular weight glycoprotein that is overexpressed in breast cancer. Aberrant O-linked glycosylation of MUC1 in cancer has been implicated in disease progression. We investigated the O-linked glycosylation of MUC1 purified from the serum of an advanced breast cancer patient. O-Glycans were released by hydrazinolysis and analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with sequential exoglycosidase digestions. Core 1 type glycans (83%) dominated the profile which also confirmed high levels of sialylation: 80% of the glycans were mono-, di- or trisialylated. Core 2 type structures contributed approximately 17% of the assigned glycans and the oncofoetal Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) antigen (Galbeta1-3GalNAc) accounted for 14% of the total glycans. Interestingly, two core 1 type glycans were identified that had sialic acid alpha2-8 linked to sialylated core 1 type structures (9% of the total glycan pool). This is the first O-glycan analysis of MUC1 from the serum of a breast cancer patient; the results suggest that amongst the cell lines commonly used to express recombinant MUC1 the T47D cell line processes glycans that are most similar to patient-derived material.

  10. 35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Bevel gear at lower end of vertical drive shaft in foreground turned bevel gear of top roll when the vertical drive shaft was in place in the brass-bearing socket in the middle ground of the photograph. The bolts above the top roll and at the side of the two bottom rolls adjusted the pressure and position of the rolls' brass bearings. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  11. 33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: From above the mill showing the three 15' x 22' horizontal rolls, mill frame or cheeks, portland cement foundation, and lower part of vertical drive shaft lying next mill in foreground. The loose metal piece resting on top of the mill frame matched the indented portion of the upper frame to form a bracket and bearing for the drive shaft when it was in its proper upright position. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  12. 30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1885-1870. View: Masonry-lined passage-way leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away. Bridges over the passageways, no longer in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  13. 31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: View down at the mill from top of the mill's circular masonry enclosure. Mill animals circling above the mill, on top of the enclosure, dragged booms radiating from the drive shaft to power the mill. The drive-shaft is no longer in its upright positon but is lying next to the mill in the foreground. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  14. 34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Side view of mill. Vertical drive shaft lying on ground in foreground. When drive-shaft was in upright position its bevel gear was meshed with the bevel gear of the top roll, transmitting the animals'circular motion around the drive shaft to the horizontal rolls. The foundation is of portland cement. The heavy timber mill bed, between the mill and the portland cement foundation has rolled away. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  15. Added sugars and micronutrient dilution.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, M B E; Rennie, K L

    2009-03-01

    There is increasing concern that high intakes of added sugars promote micronutrient dilution. However, the overall conclusion to emerge from the existing evidence base is that associations between reported intakes of added sugars and intakes of micronutrients are inconsistent and often non-linear, both across and within age groups, and between the genders. If a nutrient displacement effect does exist, a high consumption of added sugar does not necessarily compromise overall micronutrient intakes and similarly, consuming less added sugar is no guarantee that micronutrient intakes will be optimized. Clarification of this issue has been beset by methodological and conceptual difficulties. The observed associations between added sugars and micronutrient intake have been heavily contingent on both the definition of sugars chosen and the analytical approach used for adjusting for differences in reported energy intake. These issues have been further compounded by mis-reporting of food intake of unknown direction and magnitude and the cut-offs used to determine 'inadequate' micronutrient intakes which vary over time and between studies and countries. In the absence compelling evidence that micronutrient intakes are compromised by a high consumption of added sugars, it may now be appropriate to question the legitimacy of the nutrient dilution hypothesis as it is highly likely that it is oversimplifying more subtle and complex dietary issues. Recommendations for further research are made to help bring resolution to these issues.

  16. Sugar and Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lean, Michael E J; Te Morenga, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    Consumption of sugar, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages, has been widely held responsible by the media for the global rise in Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Systematic reviews and dietary guidelines relating dietary sugars to T2DM. Weight gain and T2DM incidence are associated with diet and lifestyle patterns characterized by high consumptions of any sweetened beverages. High sugar intakes impair risk factors for macrovascular complications of T2DM. Much of the association between sugars and T2DM is eliminated by adjusting data for body mass index (BMI). However, BMI adjustment does not fully account for adiposity (r(2)=0.65-0.75). Excess sugar can promote weight gain, thus T2DM, through extra calories, but has no unique diabetogenic effect at physiological levels. Ethical concerns about caffeine added to sweetened beverages, undetectable by consumers, to increase consumption. Evidence needed for limiting dietary sugar below 10% energy intake. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Falling chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2006-06-01

    The one-dimensional fall of a folded chain with one end suspended from a rigid support and a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Because their Lagrangians contain no explicit time dependence, the falling chains are conservative systems. Their equations of motion are shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is incorrect because it neglects the energy gained when a link leaves a subchain. The maximum chain tension measured by Calkin and March for the falling folded chain is given a simple if rough interpretation. Other aspects of the falling folded chain are briefly discussed.

  18. Phenotypic selection in sugar maple for superior sap sugar production

    Treesearch

    William J. Gabriel; William J. Gabriel

    1972-01-01

    This is a report on the results of the sugar maple selection program at Burlington, Vermont. Because of its possible value to other forestry workers, the method used in making the selections has been treated in detail.

  19. 12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. Masonry-lined passageway leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away after milling. Bridges over the passageways, not in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. View shows area prior to substantial overgrowth existing in 1978 views of the area. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  20. Circuit organization of sugar reinforcement.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Ivan E

    2016-10-01

    Sugar's potent reinforcing properties arise from the complex interplay between gustatory and nutritive signals. This commentary addresses a unique organizational aspect of the neuronal circuitry that mediates sugar reinforcement in both Drosophila and rodents. Specifically, current evidence supports a general circuit model where separate populations of dopaminergic neurons encode the gustatory and nutritive values of sugar. This arrangement allows animals to prioritize energy seeking over taste quality, and implies that specialized subpopulations of dopamine-containing neurons form a class of evolutionary conserved chemo- and nutrient-sensors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fermentation of sugars and sugar alcohols by plaque Lactobacillus strains.

    PubMed

    Almståhl, Annica; Lingström, Peter; Eliasson, Lars; Carlén, Anette

    2013-07-01

    The objective was to analyse the ability of Lactobacillus strains isolated from supragingival plaque of subjects with hyposalivation and from healthy controls to ferment sugars and sugar alcohols. Fifty strains isolated from interproximal plaque from subjects with radiation-induced hyposalivation (25 strains), subjects with primary Sjögren's syndrome (16 strains) and from subjects with normal salivary secretion rate (9 strains) were tested. Growth and pH were determined after 24 and 48 h of anaerobic incubation in vials containing basal media with 1 % of glucose, fructose, sucrose, mannitol, sorbitol or xylitol. No differences between strains isolated from hyposalivated subjects and controls were detected. All strains lowered the pH to <5.0 from fructose and the majority of the strains from glucose and sucrose. A pH of <5.5 was seen for 52 % of the strains using mannitol, 50 % using sorbitol and 36 % using xylitol. The ability to produce acids from sugars and sugar alcohols was highest among strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei and lowest among Lactobacillus fermentum strains. A large number of Lactobacillus strains are able to ferment not only sugars but also the sugar substitutes mannitol, sorbitol and xylitol to pH levels critical for enamel demineralisation. Our findings suggest that products containing mannitol, sorbitol and/or xylitol may contribute to the acidogenic potential of the dental plaque and especially in hyposalivated subjects with high numbers of lactobacilli.

  2. Hsp90 regulates O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase: a novel mechanism of modulation of protein O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine modification in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Snead, Connie M.; Catravas, John D.

    2012-01-01

    O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of proteins is involved in many important cellular processes. Increased O-GlcNAc has been implicated in major diseases, such as diabetes and its complications and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, we reported that O-GlcNAc modification occurs in the proteasome and serves to inhibit proteasome function by blocking the ATPase activity in the 19S regulatory cap, explaining, at least in part, the adverse effects of O-GlcNAc modification and suggesting that downregulating O-GlcNAc might be important in the treatment of human diseases. In this study, we report on a novel mechanism to modulate cellular O-GlcNAc modification, namely through heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibition. We observed that O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) interacts with the tetratricopeptide repeat binding site of Hsp90. Inhibition of Hsp90 by its specific inhibitors, radicicol or 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, destabilized OGT in primary endothelial cell cultures and enhanced its degradation by the proteasome. Furthermore, Hsp90 inhibition downregulated O-GlcNAc protein modifications and attenuated the high glucose-induced increase in O-GlcNAc protein modification, including high glucose-induced increase in endothelial or type 3 isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) O-GlcNAcylation. These results suggest that Hsp90 is involved in the regulation of OGT and O-GlcNAc modification and that Hsp90 inhibitors might be used to modulate O-GlcNAc modification and reverse its adverse effects in human diseases. PMID:22496241

  3. Hsp90 regulates O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase: a novel mechanism of modulation of protein O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine modification in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengxue; Snead, Connie M; Catravas, John D

    2012-06-15

    O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of proteins is involved in many important cellular processes. Increased O-GlcNAc has been implicated in major diseases, such as diabetes and its complications and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, we reported that O-GlcNAc modification occurs in the proteasome and serves to inhibit proteasome function by blocking the ATPase activity in the 19S regulatory cap, explaining, at least in part, the adverse effects of O-GlcNAc modification and suggesting that downregulating O-GlcNAc might be important in the treatment of human diseases. In this study, we report on a novel mechanism to modulate cellular O-GlcNAc modification, namely through heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibition. We observed that O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) interacts with the tetratricopeptide repeat binding site of Hsp90. Inhibition of Hsp90 by its specific inhibitors, radicicol or 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, destabilized OGT in primary endothelial cell cultures and enhanced its degradation by the proteasome. Furthermore, Hsp90 inhibition downregulated O-GlcNAc protein modifications and attenuated the high glucose-induced increase in O-GlcNAc protein modification, including high glucose-induced increase in endothelial or type 3 isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) O-GlcNAcylation. These results suggest that Hsp90 is involved in the regulation of OGT and O-GlcNAc modification and that Hsp90 inhibitors might be used to modulate O-GlcNAc modification and reverse its adverse effects in human diseases.

  4. Smashing Bubbles and Vanishing Sugar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Alan

    1979-01-01

    Science activities with soap bubbles for primary school children are described in this article. Another activity involves children in determining the whereabouts of sugar as it dissolves in water. (SA)

  5. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Treesearch

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  6. Detection of weak-binding sugar activity using membrane-based carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Kawasaki, Norihito

    2010-01-01

    Protein-sugar interactions underlie many biological events. Although protein-sugar interactions are weak, they are regulated in physiological conditions including clustering, association with other proteins, pH condition, and so on. The elucidation of the precise specificities of sugar-binding proteins is essential for understanding their biological functions. To detect the weak-binding activity of carbohydrate-binding proteins to sugar ligands, we studied lectin tetramer binding to cell-surface carbohydrates by flow cytometry. Tetramerization of lectins enhanced their avidity for sugar ligands, and sugar chains displayed on the cell surfaces were easily accessible to such soluble lectins. In this chapter, we describe methods to (1) prepare biotinylated soluble lectin, (2) obtain R-phycoerythrin-labeled lectin tetramer, and (3) measure tetramer binding to various lectin-resistant cell lines or cells treated with sugar-processing inhibitors. This approach enabled us to detect the weak sugar-binding activity of lectins (K(a) approximately 10(4)M(-1)), especially those from animals, and also to elucidate their specificity for sugar ligands. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics of sugar surfactants in stabilizing proteins during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Koreyoshi; Murai, Katsuyuki; Korehisa, Tamayo; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Yamahira, Ryo; Matsuura, Tsutashi; Tada, Hiroko; Imanaka, Hiroyuki; Ishida, Naoyuki; Nakanishi, Kazuhiro

    2014-06-01

    Sugar surfactants with different alkyl chain lengths and sugar head groups were compared for their protein-stabilizing effect during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying. Six enzymes, different in terms of tolerance against inactivation because of freeze-thawing and freeze-drying, were used as model proteins. The enzyme activities that remained after freeze-thawing and freeze-drying in the presence of a sugar surfactant were measured for different types and concentrations of sugar surfactants. Sugar surfactants stabilized all of the tested enzymes both during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying, and a one or two order higher amount of added sugar surfactant was required for achieving protein stabilization during freeze-drying than for the cryoprotection. The comprehensive comparison showed that the C10-C12 esters of sucrose or trehalose were the most effective through the freeze-drying process: the remaining enzyme activities after freeze-thawing and freeze-drying increased at the sugar ester concentrations of 1-10 and 10-100 μM, respectively, and increased to a greater extent than for the other surfactants at higher concentrations. Results also indicate that, when a decent amount of sugar was also added, the protein-stabilizing effect of a small amount of sugar ester through the freeze-drying process could be enhanced. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  8. Site-Directed Glycosylation of Peptide/Protein with Homogeneous O-Linked Eukaryotic N-Glycans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhigang; Jiang, Kuan; Zhu, Hailiang; Ma, Cheng; Yu, Zaikuan; Li, Lei; Guan, Wanyi; Liu, Yunpeng; Zhu, He; Chen, Yanyi; Li, Shanshan; Li, Jing; Cheng, Jiansong; Zhang, Lianwen; Wang, Peng George

    2016-09-21

    Here we report a facile and efficient method for site-directed glycosylation of peptide/protein. The method contains two sequential steps: generation of a GlcNAc-O-peptide/protein, and subsequent ligation of a eukaryotic N-glycan to the GlcNAc moiety. A pharmaceutical peptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and a model protein, bovine α-Crystallin, were successfully glycosylated using such an approach. It was shown that the GLP-1 with O-linked N-glycan maintained an unchanged secondary structure after glycosylation, suggesting the potential application of this approach for peptide/protein drug production. In summary, the coupled approach provides a general strategy to produce homogeneous glycopeptide/glycoprotein bearing eukaryotic N-glycans.

  9. O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine modification of mammalian Notch receptors by an atypical O-GlcNAc transferase Eogt1

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaidani, Yuta; Ichiyanagi, Naoki; Saito, Chika; Nomura, Tomoko; Ito, Makiko; Nishio, Yosuke; Nadano, Daita; Matsuda, Tsukasa; Furukawa, Koichi; Okajima, Tetsuya

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We characterized A130022J15Rik (Eogt1)-a mouse gene homologous to Drosophila Eogt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eogt1 encodes EGF domain O-GlcNAc transferase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of Eogt1 in Drosophila rescued the cell-adhesion defect in the Eogt mutant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer O-GlcNAcylation reaction in the secretory pathway is conserved through evolution. -- Abstract: O-linked-{beta}-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification is a unique cytoplasmic and nuclear protein modification that is common in nearly all eukaryotes, including filamentous fungi, plants, and animals. We had recently reported that epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeats of Notch and Dumpy are O-GlcNAcylated by an atypical O-GlcNAc transferase, EOGT, in Drosophila. However, no study has yet shown whether O-GlcNAcylation of extracellular proteins is limited to insects such as Drosophila or whether it occurs in other organisms, including mammals. Here, we report the characterization of A130022J15Rik, a mouse gene homolog of Drosophila Eogt (Eogt 1). Enzymatic analysis revealed that Eogt1 has a substrate specificity similar to that of Drosophila EOGT, wherein the Thr residue located between the fifth and sixth conserved cysteines of the folded EGF-like domains is modified. This observation is supported by the fact that the expression of Eogt1 in Drosophila rescued the cell-adhesion defect caused by Eogt downregulation. In HEK293T cells, Eogt1 expression promoted modification of Notch1 EGF repeats by O-GlcNAc, which was further modified, at least in part, by galactose to generate a novel O-linked-N-acetyllactosamine structure. These results suggest that Eogt1 encodes EGF domain O-GlcNAc transferase and that O-GlcNAcylation reaction in the secretory pathway is a fundamental biochemical process conserved through evolution.

  10. Negative Ion CID Fragmentation of O-linked Oligosaccharide Aldoses—Charge Induced and Charge Remote Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doohan, Roisin A.; Hayes, Catherine A.; Harhen, Brendan; Karlsson, Niclas Göran

    2011-06-01

    Collision induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation was compared between reducing and reduced sulfated, sialylated, and neutral O-linked oligosaccharides. It was found that fragmentation of the [M - H]- ions of aldoses with acidic residues gave unique Z-fragmentation of the reducing end GalNAc containing the acidic C-6 branch, where the entire C-3 branch was lost. This fragmentation pathway, which is not seen in the alditols, showed that the process involved charge remote fragmentation catalyzed by a reducing end acidic anomeric proton. With structures containing sialic acid on both the C-3 and C-6 branch, the [M - H]- ions were dominated by the loss of sialic acid. This fragmentation pathway was also pronounced in the [M - 2H]2- ions revealing both the C-6 Z-fragment plus its complementary C-3 C-fragment in addition to glycosidic and cross ring fragmentation. This generation of the Z/C-fragment pairs from GalNAc showed that the charges were not participating in their generation. Fragmentation of neutral aldoses showed pronounced Z-fragmentation believed to be generated by proton migration from the C-6 branch to the negatively charged GalNAc residue followed by charge remote fragmentation similar to the acidic oligosaccharides. In addition, A-type fragments generated by charge induced fragmentation of neutral oligosaccharides were observed when the charge migrated from C-1 of the GalNAc to the GlcNAc residue followed by rearrangement to accommodate the 0,2A-fragmentation. LC-MS also showed that O-linked aldoses existed as interchangeable α/β pyranose anomers, in addition to a third isomer (25% of the total free aldose) believed to be the furanose form.

  11. Structural and metabolic studies of O-linked fucose-containing proteins of normal and virally-transformed rat fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies in this laboratory have demonstrated that cultured human and rodent cells contain a series of low molecular weight glycosylated amino acids of unusual structure, designated amino acid fucosides. The incorporation of radiolabelled-fucose into one of these components, designated FL4a (glucosylfucosylthreonine), is markedly-reduced in transformed epithelial and fibroblastic cells. The authors have examined fucose-labelled normal and virally-transformed rat fibroblast cell lines for glycoproteins which might be precursors to amino acid fucosides. Using milk alkaline/borohydride treatment (the beta-elimination reaction) to release O-linked oligosaccharides from proteins, they have isolated and partially characterized two low M/sub r/ reaction products (designated DS-ol and TS-ol) released from macromolecular cell material. The identity of one of these components (DS-ol, glucosylfucitol) suggested the existence in these cells of a direct protein precursor to FL4a. They examined fucose-labelled macromolecular cell material for proteins which release DS-ol (DS-proteins.). Using gel filtration chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with subsequent autoradiography, they have observed DS-proteins which appear to exhibit a broad molecular weight size range, and are also present in culture medium from normal and transformed cells. The findings suggest that mammalian cells contain DS-proteins and TS-proteins with a novel carbohydrate-peptide linkage wherein L-fucose is O-linked to a polypeptide backbone. Metabolic studies were undertaken to examine both the relationship between DS-protein and FL4a and the biochemical basis for the decreased level of FL4a and the biochemical basis for the decreased level of FL4a observed in transformed cells.

  12. Neisseria gonorrhoeae O-linked pilin glycosylation: functional analyses define both the biosynthetic pathway and glycan structure

    PubMed Central

    Aas, Finn Erik; Vik, Åshild; Vedde, John; Koomey, Michael; Egge-Jacobsen, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae expresses an O-linked protein glycosylation pathway that targets PilE, the major pilin subunit protein of the Type IV pilus colonization factor. Efforts to define glycan structure and thus the functions of pilin glycosylation (Pgl) components at the molecular level have been hindered by the lack of sensitive methodologies. Here, we utilized a ‘top-down’ mass spectrometric approach to characterize glycan status using intact pilin protein from isogenic mutants. These structural data enabled us to directly infer the function of six components required for pilin glycosylation and to define the glycan repertoire of strain N400. Additionally, we found that the N. gonorrhoeae pilin glycan is O-acetylated, and identified an enzyme essential for this unique modification. We also identified the N. gonorrhoeae pilin oligosaccharyltransferase using bioinformatics and confirmed its role in pilin glycosylation by directed mutagenesis. Finally, we examined the effects of expressing the PglA glycosyltransferase from the Campylobacter jejuni N-linked glycosylation system that adds N-acetylgalactosamine onto undecaprenylpyrophosphate-linked bacillosamine. The results indicate that the C. jejuni and N. gonorrhoeae pathways can interact in the synthesis of O-linked di- and trisaccharides, and therefore provide the first experimental evidence that biosynthesis of the N. gonorrhoeae pilin glycan involves a lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursor. Together, these findings underpin more detailed studies of pilin glycosylation biology in both N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis, and demonstrate how components of bacterial O- and N-linked pathways can be combined in novel glycoengineering strategies. PMID:17608667

  13. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for samples shall be substantially built and secured by locks furnished by Customs...

  14. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for samples shall be substantially built and secured by locks furnished by Customs...

  15. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for samples shall be substantially built and secured by locks furnished by Customs...

  16. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for samples shall be substantially built and secured by locks furnished by Customs...

  17. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for samples shall be substantially built and secured by locks furnished by Customs...

  18. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may... microorganisms in cane-sugar and/or beet-sugar mills as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) They are...

  19. Dehydration Processes of Sugar Glasses and Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jeong-Ah; Kwon, Hyun-Joung; Kim, Hyung Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2006-05-01

    The dehydration processes of sugar glasses and sugar crystals were studied by using Thermogravimetry — Differential Thermal Analysis method. We used three monosaccharide sugars (fructose, galactose, and glucose) and three disaccharide sugars (sucrose, maltose and trehalose). It was found that a trehalose showed different dehydration process compared to the other sugars. The amount of mass reductions in sugar glasses is larger than that in sugar crystals. However, in the case of trehalose, the amount of mass reduction in trehalose glasses is smaller than that in trehalose crystals. It seems to be possible that this unique dehydration property of trehalose glasses maybe relate to the cell protection ability during an anhydrobiosis process.

  20. Sugar Price Supports and Taxation

    PubMed Central

    Dilk, Abby; Savaiano, Dennis A.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic US sugar production has been protected by government policy for the past 82 years, resulting in elevated domestic prices and an estimated annual (2013) $1.4 billion dollar “tax” on consumers. These elevated prices and the simultaneous federal support for domestic corn production have ensured a strong market for high-fructose corn syrup. Americans have dramatically increased their consumption of caloric sweeteners during the same period. Consumption of “empty” calories (ie, foods with low-nutrient/high-caloric density)—sugar and high-fructose corn syrup being the primary sources—is considered by most public health experts to be a key contributing factor to the rise in obesity. There have been substantial efforts to tax sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to both reduce consumption and provide a source of funds for nutrition education, thereby emulating the tobacco tax model. Volume-based SSB taxes levy the tax rate per ounce of liquid, where some are only imposed on beverages with added sugar content exceeding a set threshold. Nonetheless, volume-based taxes have significant limitations in encouraging consumers to reduce their caloric intake due to a lack of transparency at the point of purchase. Thus, it is hypothesized that point-of-purchase, nutrient-specific excise taxes on SSBs would be more effective at reducing sugar consumption. However, all SSB taxes are limited by the possibility that consumers may compensate their decreased intake from SSBs with other high-calorie junk foods. Furthermore, there are no existing studies to provide evidence on how SSB taxes will impact obesity rates in the long term. The paradox of sugar prices is that Americans have paid higher prices for sugar to protect domestic production for more than 80 years, and now, Americans are being asked to pay even more to promote public health. The effective use of sugar taxes should be considered based on their merits in reducing sugar consumption and making available a new

  1. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of... in the domestic sugar Overall Allotment Quantity (OAQ); a reassignment of surplus sugar under...

  2. Sugar fatty acid esters inhibit biofilm formation by food-borne pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Soichi; Akiyoshi, Yuko; O’Toole, George A.; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Morinaga, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    Effects of food additives on biofilm formation by food-borne pathogenic bacteria were investigated. Thirty-three potential food additives and 3 related compounds were added to the culture medium at concentrations from 0.001 to 0.1% (w/w), followed by inoculation and cultivation of five biofilm-forming bacterial strains for the evaluation of biofilm formation. Among the tested food additives, 21 showed inhibitory effects of biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and in particular, sugar fatty acid esters showed significant anti-biofilm activity. Sugar fatty acid esters with long chain fatty acid residues (C14-16) exerted their inhibitory effect at the concentration of 0.001%(w/w), but bacterial growth was not affected at this low concentration. Activities of the sugar fatty acid esters positively correlated with the increase of the chain length of the fatty acid residues. Sugar fatty acid esters inhibited the initial attachment of the Staphylococcus aureus cells to the abiotic surface. Sugar fatty acid esters with long chain fatty acid residues (C14-16) also inhibited biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans and Listeria monocytogenes at 0.01%(w/w), while the inhibition of biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa required the addition of a far higher concentration (0.1%(w/w)) of the sugar fatty acid esters. PMID:20089325

  3. Sugar fatty acid esters inhibit biofilm formation by food-borne pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Soichi; Akiyoshi, Yuko; O'Toole, George A; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Morinaga, Yasushi

    2010-03-31

    Effects of food additives on biofilm formation by food-borne pathogenic bacteria were investigated. Thirty-three potential food additives and 3 related compounds were added to the culture medium at concentrations from 0.001 to 0.1% (w/w), followed by inoculation and cultivation of five biofilm-forming bacterial strains for the evaluation of biofilm formation. Among the tested food additives, 21 showed inhibitory effects of biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and in particular, sugar fatty acid esters showed significant anti-biofilm activity. Sugar fatty acid esters with long chain fatty acid residues (C14-16) exerted their inhibitory effect at the concentration of 0.001% (w/w), but bacterial growth was not affected at this low concentration. Activities of the sugar fatty acid esters positively correlated with the increase of the chain length of the fatty acid residues. Sugar fatty acid esters inhibited the initial attachment of the S. aureus cells to the abiotic surface. Sugar fatty acid esters with long chain fatty acid residues (C14-16) also inhibited biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans and Listeria monocytogenes at 0.01% (w/w), while the inhibition of biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa required the addition of a far higher concentration (0.1% (w/w)) of the sugar fatty acid esters.

  4. 2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761899. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1899. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Top roll and one bottom roll, mill housing or cheeks, and spur pinion gears. The broken projection on the mill beside the bottom roll indicates the location of the cane tray. The cane juice crushed from the cane flowed into the juice tray below the bottom rolls. It then flowed into a wooden gutter and through a short tunnel in the mill's masonry enclosure and on to the boiling house for further processing. The opening at the base of the masency wall (In the photograph) is where the gutter ran from the mill to the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  5. Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-08-10

    The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

  6. Impaired O-Linked N-Acetylglucosaminylation in the Endoplasmic Reticulum by Mutated Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) Domain-specific O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine Transferase Found in Adams-Oliver Syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Mitsutaka; Sawaguchi, Shogo; Kawai, Takami; Nadano, Daita; Matsuda, Tsukasa; Yagi, Hirokazu; Kato, Koichi; Furukawa, Koichi; Okajima, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) domain-specific O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (EOGT) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase that acts on EGF domain-containing proteins such as Notch receptors. Recently, mutations in EOGT have been reported in patients with Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS). Here, we have characterized enzymatic properties of mouse EOGT and EOGT mutants associated with AOS. Simultaneous expression of EOGT with Notch1 EGF repeats in human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells led to immunoreactivity with the CTD110.6 antibody in the ER. Consistent with the GlcNAc modification in the ER, the enzymatic properties of EOGT are distinct from those of Golgi-resident GlcNAc transferases; the pH optimum of EOGT ranges from 7.0 to 7.5, and the Km value for UDP N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) is 25 μm. Despite the relatively low Km value for UDP-GlcNAc, EOGT-catalyzed GlcNAcylation depends on the hexosamine pathway, as revealed by the increased O-GlcNAcylation of Notch1 EGF repeats upon supplementation with hexosamine, suggesting differential regulation of the luminal UDP-GlcNAc concentration in the ER and Golgi. As compared with wild-type EOGT, O-GlcNAcylation in the ER is nearly abolished in HEK293T cells exogenously expressing EOGT variants associated with AOS. Introduction of the W207S mutation resulted in degradation of the protein via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, although the stability and ER localization of EOGTR377Q were not affected. Importantly, the interaction between UDP-GlcNAc and EOGTR377Q was impaired without adversely affecting the acceptor substrate interaction. These results suggest that impaired glycosyltransferase activity in mutant EOGT proteins and the consequent defective O-GlcNAcylation in the ER constitute the molecular basis for AOS. PMID:25488668

  7. Conformational Dynamics of Dry Lamellar Crystals of Sugar Based Lipids: An Atomistic Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    ManickamAchari, Vijayan; Bryce, Richard A.; Hashim, Rauzah

    2014-01-01

    The rational design of a glycolipid application (e.g. drug delivery) with a tailored property depends on the detailed understanding of its structure and dynamics. Because of the complexity of sugar stereochemistry, we have undertaken a simulation study on the conformational dynamics of a set of synthetic glycosides with different sugar groups and chain design, namely dodecyl β-maltoside, dodecyl β-cellobioside, dodecyl β-isomaltoside and a C12C10 branched β-maltoside under anhydrous conditions. We examined the chain structure in detail, including the chain packing, gauche/trans conformations and chain tilting. In addition, we also investigated the rotational dynamics of the headgroup and alkyl chains. Monoalkylated glycosides possess a small amount of gauche conformers (∼20%) in the hydrophobic region of the lamellar crystal (LC) phase. In contrast, the branched chain glycolipid in the fluid Lα phase has a high gauche population of up to ∼40%. Rotational diffusion analysis reveals that the carbons closest to the headgroup have the highest correlation times. Furthermore, its value depends on sugar type, where the rotational dynamics of an isomaltose was found to be 11–15% and more restrained near the sugar, possibly due to the chain disorder and partial inter-digitation compared to the other monoalkylated lipids. Intriguingly, the present simulation demonstrates the chain from the branched glycolipid bilayer has the ability to enter into the hydrophilic region. This interesting feature of the anhydrous glycolipid bilayer simulation appears to arise from a combination of lipid crowding and the amphoteric nature of the sugar headgroups. PMID:24978205

  8. Conformational dynamics of dry lamellar crystals of sugar based lipids: an atomistic simulation study.

    PubMed

    ManickamAchari, Vijayan; Bryce, Richard A; Hashim, Rauzah

    2014-01-01

    The rational design of a glycolipid application (e.g. drug delivery) with a tailored property depends on the detailed understanding of its structure and dynamics. Because of the complexity of sugar stereochemistry, we have undertaken a simulation study on the conformational dynamics of a set of synthetic glycosides with different sugar groups and chain design, namely dodecyl β-maltoside, dodecyl β-cellobioside, dodecyl β-isomaltoside and a C12C10 branched β-maltoside under anhydrous conditions. We examined the chain structure in detail, including the chain packing, gauche/trans conformations and chain tilting. In addition, we also investigated the rotational dynamics of the headgroup and alkyl chains. Monoalkylated glycosides possess a small amount of gauche conformers (∼20%) in the hydrophobic region of the lamellar crystal (LC) phase. In contrast, the branched chain glycolipid in the fluid Lα phase has a high gauche population of up to ∼40%. Rotational diffusion analysis reveals that the carbons closest to the headgroup have the highest correlation times. Furthermore, its value depends on sugar type, where the rotational dynamics of an isomaltose was found to be 11-15% and more restrained near the sugar, possibly due to the chain disorder and partial inter-digitation compared to the other monoalkylated lipids. Intriguingly, the present simulation demonstrates the chain from the branched glycolipid bilayer has the ability to enter into the hydrophilic region. This interesting feature of the anhydrous glycolipid bilayer simulation appears to arise from a combination of lipid crowding and the amphoteric nature of the sugar headgroups.

  9. N- and O-linked carbohydrates and glycosylation site occupancy in recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor secreted by a Chinese hamster ovary cell line.

    PubMed

    Forno, Guillermina; Bollati Fogolin, Mariela; Oggero, Marcos; Kratje, Ricardo; Etcheverrigaray, Marina; Conradt, Harald S; Nimtz, Manfred

    2004-03-01

    GM-CSF is one of several naturally occurring glycoproteins that regulate leukocyte production, migration and function. It has been produced in different cell types, with different properties that depend on the production process used. The purpose of this work was to characterize the recombinant human GM-CSF from an engineered Chinese hamster ovary cell line grown in suspension and as adherent culture for the identification of the glycosylation sites and the definition of the glycosidic moiety, including the degree of site occupancy. Both preparations exhibited size heterogeneity in SDS/PAGE with multiple bands containing glycoprotein forms with either two or one N-glycosylation sites occupied. Minor low molecular mass forms completely lacked N-linked oligosaccharides but contained 1-3 O-linked glycans. Twelve differently charged isoforms were detected in isoelectric focusing gels. At least 16 glycoforms, differing in the number of Hex-HexNAc units (Deltam 365 Da), were detected in MALDI-TOF MS spectra of the desialylated GM-CSFs. MALDI-TOF MS and HPAEC-PAD analysis indicated the presence of predominantly tri- and tetraantennary N-linked oligosaccharide chains with and without N-acetyllactosamine repeat units and some 10% of biantennary oligosaccharides, all containing more than 90% proximal alpha1-6-linked fucose. The oligosaccharide patterns of both GM-CSF preparations were found to be very similar. More than 90% of terminal galactose residues of the N-glycans were found alpha2-3 sialylated with NeuNAc (93%) or NeuNGc (7%). Site specific glycosylation was analysed by electrospray ionization MS and it was found that in the mono glycosylated GM-CSF form more than 90% of the Asn37 were occupied by N-glycans. O-glycosylation at the N-terminus of the polypeptide was detected at Ser7 and Ser9 or Thr10, in the predominantly doubly O-glycosylated glycoprotein form. In the triply modified GM-CSF molecules, Ser5 was additionally O-glycosylated. The major difference between

  10. Synthesis of the Sugar Moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Szeja, Wieslaw

    Biological activity of the anthracycline antibiotics, which have found wide application in clinical oncology, is strongly related to their glycosidic structure. Modification or switch of the saccharide moiety became an important line of new drug discovery and study of their mechanism of action. Natural glycons (sugar moieties) of the anthracycline antibiotics belong to the 2,6-dideoxypyranose family and their principal representative, daunosamine, is 3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy- l-lyxo-pyranose. Some newer chemical syntheses of this sugar, from a chiral pool as well as from achiral starting materials, are presented and their capability for scale-up and process development are commented upon. Rational sugar structural modifications, which are either useful for synthetic purposes or offer advantages in experimental therapy of cancer, are discussed from the chemical point of view.

  11. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    PubMed

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  12. Defining and interpreting intakes of sugars.

    PubMed

    Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Morita, Jaime

    2003-10-01

    This paper clarifies the myriad of terminologies used to describe intakes of sugars by American consumers. In addition, it carefully critiques information sources used to explain and interpret consumption levels. Sugars are incorporated into foods for their biological, sensory, physical, and chemical properties. By chemical definition, the sugars normally consumed are the monosaccharides and disaccharides: glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, and trehalose. US governmental agencies use 4 terms to describe sugars: added sugars, caloric sweeteners, sugar, and sugars. Different sources are included when measuring sugars. Knowledge regarding intakes of sugars relies on food intake surveys (primarily dietary recalls) and economic food availability estimates. Although intake data may underestimate actual consumption, availability data tend to overestimate it. Furthermore, the sugars contents of many foods appearing in composition databases are derived from the summation of recipe ingredients rather than from actual measurements. Intakes of sugars over time (trends) must be viewed within the context of varying definitions, changes in food composition, changes in dietary intake methods, and acknowledged increases in the underreporting of intake. Agreement is needed to identify one common definition to describe intakes of sugars. Convergence between intake data and economic availability data would more accurately depict consumption. Precise amounts of sugars within currently available foods should be measured, not calculated. Without a common language, accurate and precise measurements, and consensus among scientists, educators, regulatory agencies, and the public, conversations regarding any health effects of sugars may lead to continued misunderstandings.

  13. Production of sugar and sugar derivatives by pyrolysis of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Shafizadeh, F.

    1983-01-01

    Thermochemical conversion of biomass to sugar and sugar derivatives is hindered by the inhomogeneity of the substrate and the low specificity of the pyrolytic reactions. Recent analysis and investigation of these reactions have shown that they could be controlled and catalyzed to minimize the side reactions and increase the yield of individual compounds. These compounds include levoglucosan which could be obtained in high yields within the temperature range of 350-400/sup 0/C when the substrate has undergone previous acid treatment or a trace amount of acid is present. This phenomenon has been used for production of sugars from softwood and hardwood based on prehydrolysis and subsequent pyrolysis to a tar that could be posthydrolyzed to sugars. Acid-catalyzed pyrolysis of cellulosic materials, particularly waste paper, gives a pyrolyzate containing mainly levoglucosenone which has proved to be a highly reactive compound for production of a variety of carbohydrate derivatives. Pyrolysis of carbohydrates also provides several other furan and pyran derivatives that could be used as synthetic intermediates. 28 references, 22 figures, 11 tables.

  14. Sugar holograms with erioglaucine and tartrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2007-09-01

    An artificial green colorant, composed by erioglaucine (Blue 1) and tartrazine (Yellow 5), was employed in a sugar matrix to improve the material sensibility and to make a comparative analysis of the diffraction efficiency parameter, for holograms replications, the holographic pattern was obtained by a computer and recorded in sugar films and in modified sugar (sugar-colorant). Conventional lithography and UV radiation were used. The results show that the behavior diffraction efficiency of the sugar-colorant films is slightly larger than in the sugar matrix under the same recording conditions.

  15. Amphitropic liquid crystal phases from polyhydroxy sugar surfactants: Fundamental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou Zied, Osama K.; Hashim, Rauzah; Timimi, B. A.

    2015-03-01

    The self-assembly phenomena on a special class of poly-hydroxy sugar surfactant have been studied extensively. This class of material is classified as amphitropic liquid crystals since they exhibit both thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystalline properties. Hence the potential applications of these non-ionic surfactants are more versatile than those from the conventional lyotropic liquid crystals including those from thermotropic phases, but the latters are yet to be realized. Unfortunately, due to the lack of interest (or even awareness), fundamental studies in thermotropic glycolipids are scanty to support application development, and any tangible progress is often mired by the complexity of the sugar stereochemistry. However, some applications may be pursued from these materials by taking the advantage of the sugar chirality and the tilted structure of the lipid organization which implies ferroelectric behavior. Here, we present our studies on the stereochemical diversity of the sugar units in glycosides that form the thermotropic/lyotropic phases. The structure to property relationship compares different chain designs and other popular polyhydroxy compounds, such as monooleins and alkylpolyglucosides. Different structural properties of these glycosides are discussed with respect to their self-assembly organization and potential applications, such as delivery systems and membrane mimetic study.

  16. General N-and O-Linked Glycosylation of Lipoproteins in Mycoplasmas and Role of Exogenous Oligosaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Daubenspeck, James M.; Jordan, David S.; Simmons, Warren; Renfrow, Matthew B.; Dybvig, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a cell wall, flagella, fimbria, and other extracellular appendages and the possession of only a single membrane render the mycoplasmas structurally simplistic and ideal model organisms for the study of glycoconjugates. Most species have genomes of about 800 kb and code for few proteins predicted to have a role in glycobiology. The murine pathogens Mycoplasma arthritidis and Mycoplasma pulmonis have only a single gene annotated as coding for a glycosyltransferase but synthesize glycolipid, polysaccharide and glycoproteins. Previously, it was shown that M. arthritidis glycosylated surface lipoproteins through O-linkage. In the current study, O-linked glycoproteins were similarly found in M. pulmonis and both species of mycoplasma were found to also possess N-linked glycans at residues of asparagine and glutamine. Protein glycosylation occurred at numerous sites on surface-exposed lipoproteins with no apparent amino acid sequence specificity. The lipoproteins of Mycoplasma pneumoniae also are glycosylated. Glycosylation was dependent on the glycosidic linkages from host oligosaccharides. As far as we are aware, N-linked glycoproteins have not been previously described in Gram-positive bacteria, the organisms to which the mycoplasmas are phylogenetically related. The findings indicate that the mycoplasma cell surface is heavily glycosylated with implications for the modulation of mycoplasma-host interactions. PMID:26599081

  17. O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine cycling and insulin signaling are required for the glucose stress response in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Mondoux, Michelle A; Love, Dona C; Ghosh, Salil K; Fukushige, Tetsunari; Bond, Michelle; Weerasinghe, Gayani R; Hanover, John A; Krause, Michael W

    2011-06-01

    In a variety of organisms, including worms, flies, and mammals, glucose homeostasis is maintained by insulin-like signaling in a robust network of opposing and complementary signaling pathways. The hexosamine signaling pathway, terminating in O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) cycling, is a key sensor of nutrient status and has been genetically linked to the regulation of insulin signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we demonstrate that O-GlcNAc cycling and insulin signaling are both essential components of the C. elegans response to glucose stress. A number of insulin-dependent processes were found to be sensitive to glucose stress, including fertility, reproductive timing, and dauer formation, yet each of these differed in their threshold of sensitivity to glucose excess. Our findings suggest that O-GlcNAc cycling and insulin signaling are both required for a robust and adaptable response to glucose stress, but these two pathways show complex and interdependent roles in the maintenance of glucose-insulin homeostasis.

  18. Human RNA Polymerase II Promoter Recruitment in Vitro Is Regulated by O-Linked N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase (OGT).

    PubMed

    Lewis, Brian A; Burlingame, Alma L; Myers, Samuel A

    2016-07-01

    Although the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain was described 20 years ago, the function of this RNA polymerase II (pol II) species is not known. We show here that an O-GlcNAcylated pol II species (pol IIγ) exists on promoters in vitro Inhibition of O-GlcNAc-transferase activity and O-GlcNAcylation prevents pol II entry into the promoter, and O-GlcNAc removal from pol II is an ATP-dependent step during initiation. These data indicate that O-GlcNAc-transferase activity is essential for RNA pol II promoter recruitment and that pol II goes through a cycling of O-GlcNAcylation at the promoter. Mass spectrometry shows that serine residues 2 and 5 of the pol II C-terminal domain are O-GlcNAcylated, suggesting an overlap with the transcription factor IIH (TFIIH)-dependent serine 5 phosphorylation events during initiation and P-TEFb (positive transcriptional elongation factor b) events during elongation. These data provide unexpected and important insights into the role of a previously ill-defined species of RNA polymerase II in regulating transcription.

  19. O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase promotes cervical cancer tumorigenesis through human papillomaviruses E6 and E7 oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min Young; Park, Jeongsook; Lee, Dong Hoon; Roh, Gu Seob; Kim, Hyun Joon; Kang, Sang Soo; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Park, Ji Kwon; Cho, Jin Won; Shin, Jeong Kyu; Choi, Wan Sung

    2016-01-01

    O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) increases O-GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAcylation), and transcriptional co-regulator host cell factor 1 (HCF-1) is one of OGT targets. High-risk Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) encode E6 and E7 oncoproteins, which promote cervical cancer. Here, we tested whether O-GlcNAc modification of HCF-1 affects HPV E6 and E7 expressions and tumorigenesis of cervical cancer. We found that depleting OGT with OGT-specific shRNA significantly decreased levels of E6 and E7 oncoproteins, and cervical cancer tumorigenesis, while OGT overexpression greatly increased levels of E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Notably, OGT overexpression caused dose-dependent increases in the transcriptional activity of E6 and E7, and this activity was decreased when HCF-1 was depleted with HCF-1-specific siRNA. Moreover, OGT depletion reduced proliferation, invasion, and metastasis in cervical cancer cells. Further, high glucose enhanced the interaction between OGT and HCF-1, paralleling increased levels of E6 and E7 in cervical cancer cells. Most importantly, we found that reducing OGT in HeLa cells caused decreased tumor growth in vivo. These findings identify OGT as a novel cellular factor involved in E6 and E7 expressions and cervical cancer tumorigenesis, suggesting that targeting OGT in cervical cancer may have potential therapeutic benefit. PMID:27331873

  20. General N-and O-Linked Glycosylation of Lipoproteins in Mycoplasmas and Role of Exogenous Oligosaccharide.

    PubMed

    Daubenspeck, James M; Jordan, David S; Simmons, Warren; Renfrow, Matthew B; Dybvig, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a cell wall, flagella, fimbria, and other extracellular appendages and the possession of only a single membrane render the mycoplasmas structurally simplistic and ideal model organisms for the study of glycoconjugates. Most species have genomes of about 800 kb and code for few proteins predicted to have a role in glycobiology. The murine pathogens Mycoplasma arthritidis and Mycoplasma pulmonis have only a single gene annotated as coding for a glycosyltransferase but synthesize glycolipid, polysaccharide and glycoproteins. Previously, it was shown that M. arthritidis glycosylated surface lipoproteins through O-linkage. In the current study, O-linked glycoproteins were similarly found in M. pulmonis and both species of mycoplasma were found to also possess N-linked glycans at residues of asparagine and glutamine. Protein glycosylation occurred at numerous sites on surface-exposed lipoproteins with no apparent amino acid sequence specificity. The lipoproteins of Mycoplasma pneumoniae also are glycosylated. Glycosylation was dependent on the glycosidic linkages from host oligosaccharides. As far as we are aware, N-linked glycoproteins have not been previously described in Gram-positive bacteria, the organisms to which the mycoplasmas are phylogenetically related. The findings indicate that the mycoplasma cell surface is heavily glycosylated with implications for the modulation of mycoplasma-host interactions.

  1. O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase promotes cervical cancer tumorigenesis through human papillomaviruses E6 and E7 oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjun; Kim, Yoon Sook; Kim, Hwajin; Kang, Min Young; Park, Jeongsook; Lee, Dong Hoon; Roh, Gu Seob; Kim, Hyun Joon; Kang, Sang Soo; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Park, Ji Kwon; Cho, Jin Won; Shin, Jeong Kyu; Choi, Wan Sung

    2016-07-12

    O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) increases O-GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAcylation), and transcriptional co-regulator host cell factor 1 (HCF-1) is one of OGT targets. High-risk Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) encode E6 and E7 oncoproteins, which promote cervical cancer. Here, we tested whether O-GlcNAc modification of HCF-1 affects HPV E6 and E7 expressions and tumorigenesis of cervical cancer. We found that depleting OGT with OGT-specific shRNA significantly decreased levels of E6 and E7 oncoproteins, and cervical cancer tumorigenesis, while OGT overexpression greatly increased levels of E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Notably, OGT overexpression caused dose-dependent increases in the transcriptional activity of E6 and E7, and this activity was decreased when HCF-1 was depleted with HCF-1-specific siRNA. Moreover, OGT depletion reduced proliferation, invasion, and metastasis in cervical cancer cells. Further, high glucose enhanced the interaction between OGT and HCF-1, paralleling increased levels of E6 and E7 in cervical cancer cells. Most importantly, we found that reducing OGT in HeLa cells caused decreased tumor growth in vivo. These findings identify OGT as a novel cellular factor involved in E6 and E7 expressions and cervical cancer tumorigenesis, suggesting that targeting OGT in cervical cancer may have potential therapeutic benefit.

  2. O-Linked-N-Acetylglucosamine Cycling and Insulin Signaling Are Required for the Glucose Stress Response in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Mondoux, Michelle A.; Love, Dona C.; Ghosh, Salil K.; Fukushige, Tetsunari; Bond, Michelle; Weerasinghe, Gayani R.; Hanover, John A.; Krause, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    In a variety of organisms, including worms, flies, and mammals, glucose homeostasis is maintained by insulin-like signaling in a robust network of opposing and complementary signaling pathways. The hexosamine signaling pathway, terminating in O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) cycling, is a key sensor of nutrient status and has been genetically linked to the regulation of insulin signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we demonstrate that O-GlcNAc cycling and insulin signaling are both essential components of the C. elegans response to glucose stress. A number of insulin-dependent processes were found to be sensitive to glucose stress, including fertility, reproductive timing, and dauer formation, yet each of these differed in their threshold of sensitivity to glucose excess. Our findings suggest that O-GlcNAc cycling and insulin signaling are both required for a robust and adaptable response to glucose stress, but these two pathways show complex and interdependent roles in the maintenance of glucose–insulin homeostasis. PMID:21441213

  3. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  4. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  5. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  6. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  7. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  8. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar... raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES: Effective Date...), the United States maintains tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar...

  9. Impact of glyphosate-resistant sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Don W

    2016-12-19

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) sugar beet became commercially available to US sugar beet growers in 2008 and was rapidly adopted. Prior to the availability of GR sugar beet, growers would commonly make 3-5 herbicide applications. This often resulted in some crop injury, but was accepted to reduce the impact of weeds. In addition, non-GR sugar beet was cultivated 1-3 times and often followed by hand weeding. The introduction of GR sugar beet drastically reduced the complexity of weed management. Concerns about GR weeds in the United States also apply to sugar beet growers. Changes in weed management strategies will be required to keep this technology. Sugar beet is arguably one of the most suitable crops for GR technology because: (1) none of the herbicides registered for use in this crop was very effective without risking crop injury; (2) sugar beet cannot be grown in the same field year after year owing to disease concerns and thus requires a 3-4 year rotation; (3) pollen-mediated gene flow is negligible from the sugar beet crop because it is a biennial and harvested before it flowers; (4) the processing of harvested roots to extract the sucrose rapidly degrades the DNA in the extracted raw juice and subsequent refining so that no DNA is present in the finished sugar; (5) studies have shown that processed GR beet sugar is identical to non-GR beet sugar, as well as cane sugar. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. What's a sugar maple worth?

    Treesearch

    George L. Cook

    1991-01-01

    What is a sugar maple worth? This is an interesting question and not one which is easy to answer. I have some thoughts on this subject to share with you. Many of these have been discussed with county and district foresters, sugarmakers and people from the community who appreciate the maple tree very much.

  11. Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

    MedlinePlus

    ... glucose monitor (also called a home blood sugar meter, a glucometer, or a glucose meter) and know how to use it. Your doctor ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved meters that work without pricking your finger. But these ...

  12. Polyphenolic reductants in cane sugar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Limited information is available to understand the chemical structure of cane sugar extracts responsible for the redox reactivity. This study employed Fremy’s salt to test the hypothesis that hydroquinone/catechol-semiquinone-quinone redox cycle is responsible for the antioxidant activity of sugarc...

  13. Probing protein-sugar interactions.

    PubMed

    Ebel, C; Eisenberg, H; Ghirlando, R

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the partial specific volumes (2) (ml/g), hydration, and cosolvent interactions of rabbit muscle aldolase by equilibrium sedimentation in the analytical ultracentrifuge and by direct density increment (partial differential/partial differentialc(2))(mu) measurements over a range of sugar concentrations and temperature. In a series of sugars increasing in size, glucose, sucrose, raffinose, and alpha-cyclodextrin, (partial differential/ partial differentialc(2))(mu) decreases linearly with the solvent density rho(0). These sugar cosolvents do not interact with the protein; however, the interaction parameter B(1) (g water/g protein) mildly increases with increasing sugar size. The experimental B(1) values are smaller than values calculated by excluded volume (rolling ball) considerations. B(1) relates to hydration in this and in other instances studied. It decreases with increasing temperature, leading to an increase in (2) due to reduced water of hydration electrostriction. The density increments (partial differential/ partial differentialc(2))(mu), however, decrease in concave up form in the case of glycerol and in concave down form for trehalose, leading to more complex behavior in the case of carbohydrates playing a biological role as osmolytes and antifreeze agents. A critical discussion, based on the thermodynamics of multicomponent solutions, is presented.

  14. Probing protein-sugar interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Ebel, C; Eisenberg, H; Ghirlando, R

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the partial specific volumes (2) (ml/g), hydration, and cosolvent interactions of rabbit muscle aldolase by equilibrium sedimentation in the analytical ultracentrifuge and by direct density increment (partial differential/partial differentialc(2))(mu) measurements over a range of sugar concentrations and temperature. In a series of sugars increasing in size, glucose, sucrose, raffinose, and alpha-cyclodextrin, (partial differential/ partial differentialc(2))(mu) decreases linearly with the solvent density rho(0). These sugar cosolvents do not interact with the protein; however, the interaction parameter B(1) (g water/g protein) mildly increases with increasing sugar size. The experimental B(1) values are smaller than values calculated by excluded volume (rolling ball) considerations. B(1) relates to hydration in this and in other instances studied. It decreases with increasing temperature, leading to an increase in (2) due to reduced water of hydration electrostriction. The density increments (partial differential/ partial differentialc(2))(mu), however, decrease in concave up form in the case of glycerol and in concave down form for trehalose, leading to more complex behavior in the case of carbohydrates playing a biological role as osmolytes and antifreeze agents. A critical discussion, based on the thermodynamics of multicomponent solutions, is presented. PMID:10620302

  15. History of sugar maple decline

    Treesearch

    David R. Houston

    1999-01-01

    Only a few episodes of sugar maple dieback or decline were recorded during the first half of the 20th Century. In contrast, the last 50 years have provided numerous reports of both urban and forest dieback/decline. In the late 1950s, a defoliation-triggered decline, termed maple blight, that occurred in Wisconsin prompted the first comprehensive, multidisciplinary...

  16. Sugar pine and its hybrids

    Treesearch

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch

    1986-01-01

    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  17. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    PubMed

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet.

  18. Intensive Insulin Therapy: Tight Blood Sugar Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... insulin therapy can help you achieve desired blood sugar control and what intensive insulin therapy requires of ... aggressive treatment approach designed to control your blood sugar levels. Intensive insulin therapy requires close monitoring of ...

  19. When Blood Sugar is Too High

    MedlinePlus

    ... Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches When Blood Sugar Is Too High KidsHealth > For Kids > When Blood ... balancing act. continue The Causes of High Blood Sugar In general, higher than normal blood glucose levels ...

  20. Drug-induced low blood sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Drug-induced low blood sugar is low blood glucose that results from taking medicine. ... Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) is common in people with diabetes who are taking insulin or other medicines to control their diabetes. ...

  1. High blood sugar - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... High blood glucose - self care; Diabetes - high blood sugar ... Symptoms of high blood sugar can include: Being very thirsty or having a dry mouth Having blurry vision Having dry skin Feeling weak or tired ...

  2. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sport for You Healthy School Lunch Planner When Blood Sugar Is Too High KidsHealth > For Teens > When ... it often can be unhealthy. What Is High Blood Sugar? The blood glucose level is the amount ...

  3. Growing of sugar cane for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Humbert, R.P.

    1980-06-01

    The Brazilian alcohol program is reviewed and research into ways of increasing sugar cane yields discussed. Sugar cane varieties are being selected for their ''total sugars'' production. The effects of supplimentary applications of fertilizers and irrigations are being investigated. Time up to several months can be saved because in the growing of sugar cane for alcohol and cellulose it is not necessary to ripen the cane to convert most of the sugars to sucrose. The author feels that growing sugar cane for alcohol has a lot of potential for petroleum importing contries in the tropics. Smaller sugar mills, no longer economic for sugar production, can be economic for alcohol production as the energy requirements are far less.

  4. OMICS Technologies and Applications in Sugar Beet

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongxue; Nan, Jingdong; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet is a species of the Chenopodiaceae family. It is an important sugar crop that supplies approximately 35% of the sugar in the world. Sugar beet M14 line is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss. And exhibits tolerance to salt stress. In this review, we have summarized OMICS technologies and applications in sugar beet including M14 for identification of novel genes, proteins related to biotic and abiotic stresses, apomixes and metabolites related to energy and food. An OMICS overview for the discovery of novel genes, proteins and metabolites in sugar beet has helped us understand the complex mechanisms underlying many processes such as apomixes, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The knowledge gained is valuable for improving the tolerance of sugar beet and other crops to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as for enhancing the yield of sugar beet for energy and food production. PMID:27446130

  5. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans: a sugar code for vertebrate development?

    PubMed Central

    Poulain, Fabienne E.; Yost, H. Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) have long been implicated in a wide range of cell-cell signaling and cell-matrix interactions, both in vitro and in vivo in invertebrate models. Although many of the genes that encode HSPG core proteins and the biosynthetic enzymes that generate and modify HSPG sugar chains have not yet been analyzed by genetics in vertebrates, recent studies have shown that HSPGs do indeed mediate a wide range of functions in early vertebrate development, for example during left-right patterning and in cardiovascular and neural development. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the various roles of HSPGs in these systems and explore the concept of an instructive heparan sulfate sugar code for modulating vertebrate development. PMID:26487777

  6. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans: a sugar code for vertebrate development?

    PubMed

    Poulain, Fabienne E; Yost, H Joseph

    2015-10-15

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) have long been implicated in a wide range of cell-cell signaling and cell-matrix interactions, both in vitro and in vivo in invertebrate models. Although many of the genes that encode HSPG core proteins and the biosynthetic enzymes that generate and modify HSPG sugar chains have not yet been analyzed by genetics in vertebrates, recent studies have shown that HSPGs do indeed mediate a wide range of functions in early vertebrate development, for example during left-right patterning and in cardiovascular and neural development. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the various roles of HSPGs in these systems and explore the concept of an instructive heparan sulfate sugar code for modulating vertebrate development.

  7. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date of...

  8. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date of...

  9. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products shall...

  10. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date of...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an aqueous...

  12. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products shall...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an aqueous...

  14. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products shall...

  15. Drought tolerance of sugar maple ecotypes

    Treesearch

    Richard J. Hauer; Jeffery O. Dawson

    1995-01-01

    Sugar maple declines periodically occur in rural and urban areas. These declines usually follow periods of below-average precipitation leading to the speculation that moisture deficiency is a primary cause of the decline. Sugar maple ecotypes with greater tolerance to drought should have greater longevity and vitality as a result of this tolerance. Sugar maple and...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an aqueous solution of inverted or...

  17. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date of...

  18. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products shall...

  19. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products shall...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an aqueous...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an aqueous...

  2. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date of...

  3. Reducing Sugar in Children's Diets: Why? How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Cosby S.; Morris, Sandra S.

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that sugar intake should be reduced in young children's diets because of its link to dental cavities, poor nutrition, and obesity. Reducing the focus on sweetness, limiting sugar consumption, and using natural sources of sweetness and other treats are ways to help reduce sugar intake. (BB)

  4. Reducing Sugar in Children's Diets: Why? How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Cosby S.; Morris, Sandra S.

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that sugar intake should be reduced in young children's diets because of its link to dental cavities, poor nutrition, and obesity. Reducing the focus on sweetness, limiting sugar consumption, and using natural sources of sweetness and other treats are ways to help reduce sugar intake. (BB)

  5. Sugar feeding in adult stable flies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adult stable flies, (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)), are known to feed readily on sugars in the laboratory. However, little is known concerning the extent of stable fly sugar feeding in wild populations. We examined the frequency of sugar feeding in stable flies in rural and urban environments. In additi...

  6. Some correlations between sugar maple tree characteristics and sap and sugar yields

    Treesearch

    Barton M. Blum

    1971-01-01

    Simple correlation coefficients between various characteristics of sugar maple trees and sap sugar concentration, sap volume yield, and total sugar production are given for the 1968 sap season. Correlation coefficients in general indicated that individual tree characteristics that express tree and crown size are significantly related to sap volume yield and total sugar...

  7. Ray tissues as an indirect measure of relative sap-sugar concentration in sugar maple

    Treesearch

    Peter W. Garrett; Kenneth R. Dudzik; Kenneth R. Dudzik

    1989-01-01

    Attempts to correlate ray tissue as a percentage of total wood volume with sap-sugar concentrations of sugar maple progenies were unsuccessful. These results raise doubts about our ability to use a relatively constant value such as ray-tissue volume in a selection program designed to increase the sap-sugar concentration of sugar maple seedlings.

  8. Effect of Meloidogyne incognita parasitism on yield and sugar content of sugar beet in Georgia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is typically grown as a summer crop for edible sugar production in the north-central and western US, but it could be incorporated as a winter crop into annual cropping systems in the southern US where the sugar would be used for biofuel and plastic production. Sugar beet ...

  9. Sustainability issues and opportunities in the sugar and sugar-bioproduct industries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Like many other industries, the sugar and sugar-bioproduct industries are facing important sustainability issues. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, surpluses of sugar, world-wide trend to produce alternative, renewable bio-based fuels and chemicals to those derived from petroleum...

  10. Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy’s sugar process (CLE Sugar)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Results Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy’s Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood), and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood). Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed) biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed) pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate liquor and enzymatic

  11. [Sugar characterization of mini-watermelon and rapid sugar determination by near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Yuan, Hong-fu; Song, Chun-feng; Xie, Jin-chun; Li, Xiao-yu; Feng, Le-ping

    2012-08-01

    In the present paper, the distribution of sugar level within the mini-watermelon was studied, a new sugar characterization method of mini-watermelon using average sugar level, the highest sugar level and the lowest sugar level index is proposed. Feasibility of nondestructive determination of mini-watermenlon sugar level using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy information was investigated by an experiment. PLS models for measuring the 3 sugar levels were established. The results obtained by near infrared spectroscopy agreed with that of the new method established above.

  12. Hypoxia upregulates the expression of the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine containing epitope H in human ependymal cells.

    PubMed

    Arvanitis, Leonidas D; Vassiou, Katerina; Kotrotsios, Anastasios; Sgantzos, Markos N

    2011-02-15

    Epitope H contains an O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) residue in a specific conformation and/or environment recognized by mouse IgM monoclonal antibody H (mabH). Epitope H is present in several types of cells and in several polypeptides outside the CNS. Previous results have shown that in the adult human brains, epitope H is confined mostly to a minority of fibrous astrocytes, and it is greatly upregulated in the reactive astrocytes. Post-translational modification with O-GlcNAc occurs on many proteins involved in several cell processes, such as cell cycle progression, apoptosis, proteasome degradation pathways, and modulation of cellular function in response to nutrition and stress. Hypoxia is one of the major causes of cellular stress. Therefore, in this study, we used the mAbH and the indirect immunoperoxidase method to investigate the expression of epitope H in ependymal cells in brains of persons who died with signs of hypoxic encephalopathy. The results of the present study showed that practically all ependymal cells showed cytoplasmic staining for epitope H in supranuclear cytoplasm in the brain of two premature neonates and in ten infants who died with signs of hypoxic encephalopathy. However, the overwhelming majority of ependymal cells of the nine human embryos taken from legal abortions, ranging from 26 days until 13 weeks of gestational age, and of the ten infants' brains without any sign of hypoxic encephalopathy remained negative. Only occasionally did the ependymal cells show weak cytoplasmic staining in some foci. In addition, the reactive astrocytes in the hypoxic brains showed strong cytoplasmic staining, confirming previous results.

  13. The Putative O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine Transferase SPINDLY Inhibits Class I TCP Proteolysis to Promote Sensitivity to Cytokinin.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Evyatar; Livne, Sivan; Kobinson-Katz, Tammy; Tal, Lior; Pri-Tal, Oded; Mosquna, Assaf; Tarkowská, Danuše; Mueller, Bruno; Tarkowski, Petr; Weiss, David

    2016-06-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SPINDLY (SPY) is a putative serine and threonine O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT). While SPY has been shown to suppress gibberellin signaling and to promote cytokinin (CK) responses, its catalytic OGT activity was never demonstrated and its effect on protein fate is not known. We previously showed that SPY interacts physically and functionally with TCP14 and TCP15 to promote CK responses. Here, we aimed to identify how SPY regulates TCP14/15 activities and how these TCPs promote CK responses. We show that SPY activity is required for TCP14 stability. Mutation in the putative OGT domain of SPY (spy-3) stimulated TCP14 proteolysis by the 26S proteasome, which was reversed by mutation in CULLIN1 (CUL1), suggesting a role for SKP, CUL1, F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase in TCP14 proteolysis. TCP14 proteolysis in spy-3 suppressed all TCP14 misexpression phenotypes, including the enhanced CK responses. The increased CK activity in TCP14/15-overexpressing flowers resulted from increased sensitivity to the hormone and not from higher CK levels. TCP15 overexpression enhanced the response of the CK-induced synthetic promoter pTCS to CK, suggesting that TCP14/15 affect early steps in CK signaling. We propose that posttranslational modification of TCP14/15 by SPY inhibits their proteolysis and that the accumulated proteins promote the activity of the CK phosphorelay cascade in developing Arabidopsis leaves and flowers. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Isoform-specific Regulation of the Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor by O-Linked Glycosylation*

    PubMed Central

    Bimboese, Patricia; Gibson, Craig J.; Schmidt, Stefan; Xiang, Wanqing; Ehrlich, Barbara E.

    2011-01-01

    The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R), an intracellular calcium channel, has three isoforms with >65% sequence homology, yet the isoforms differ in their function and regulation by post-translational modifications. We showed previously that InsP3R-1 is functionally modified by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine glycosylation (O-GlcNAcylation) (Rengifo, J., Gibson, C. J., Winkler, E., Collin, T., and Ehrlich, B. E. (2007) J. Neurosci. 27, 13813–13821). We now report the effect of O-GlcNAcylation on InsP3R-2 and InsP3R-3. Analysis of AR4-2J cells, a rat pancreatoma cell line expressing predominantly InsP3R-2, showed no detectable O-GlcNAcylation of InsP3R-2 and no significant functional changes despite the presence of the enzymes for addition (O-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase) and removal (O-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase) of the monosaccharide. In contrast, InsP3R-3 in Mz-ChA-1 cells, a human cholangiocarcinoma cell line expressing predominantly InsP3R-3, was functionally modified by O-GlcNAcylation. Interestingly, the functional impact of O-GlcNAcylation on the InsP3R-3 channel was opposite the effect measured with InsP3R-1. Addition of O-GlcNAc by O-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase increased InsP3R-3 single channel open probability. Incubation of Mz-ChA-1 cells in hyperglycemic medium caused an increase in the InsP3-dependent calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. The dynamic and inducible nature of O-GlcNAcylation and the InsP3R isoform specificity suggest that this form of modification of InsP3R and subsequent changes in intracellular calcium transients are important in physiological and pathophysiological processes. PMID:21383013

  15. Structural analysis of PseH, the Campylobacter jejuni N-acetyltransferase involved in bacterial O-linked glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Song, Wan Seok; Nam, Mi Sun; Namgung, Byeol; Yoon, Sung-il

    2015-03-20

    Campylobacter jejuni is a bacterium that uses flagella for motility and causes worldwide acute gastroenteritis in humans. The C. jejuni N-acetyltransferase PseH (cjPseH) is responsible for the third step in flagellin O-linked glycosylation and plays a key role in flagellar formation and motility. cjPseH transfers an acetyl group from an acetyl donor, acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA), to the amino group of UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-β-L-altrosamine to produce UDP-2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-β-L-altropyranose. To elucidate the catalytic mechanism of cjPseH, crystal structures of cjPseH alone and in complex with AcCoA were determined at 1.95 Å resolution. cjPseH folds into a single-domain structure of a central β-sheet decorated by four α-helices with two continuously connected grooves. A deep groove (groove-A) accommodates the AcCoA molecule. Interestingly, the acetyl end of AcCoA points toward an open space in a neighboring shallow groove (groove-S), which is occupied by extra electron density that potentially serves as a pseudosubstrate, suggesting that the groove-S may provide a substrate-binding site. Structure-based comparative analysis suggests that cjPseH utilizes a unique catalytic mechanism of acetylation that has not been observed in other glycosylation-associated acetyltransferases. Thus, our studies on cjPseH will provide valuable information for the design of new antibiotics to treat C. jejuni-induced gastroenteritis.

  16. Aberrant expression of mucin core proteins and o-linked glycans associated with progression of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Remmers, Neeley; Anderson, Judy M; Linde, Erin M; DiMaio, Dominick J; Lazenby, Audrey J; Wandall, Hans H; Mandel, Ulla; Clausen, Henrik; Yu, Fang; Hollingsworth, Michael A

    2013-04-15

    Mucin expression is a common feature of most adenocarcinomas and features prominently in current attempts to improve diagnosis and therapy for pancreatic cancer and other adenocarcinomas. We investigated the expression of a number of mucin core proteins and associated O-linked glycans expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma-sialyl Tn (STn), Tn, T antigen, sialyl Lewis A (CA19-9), sialyl Lewis C (SLeC), Lewis X (LeX), and sialyl LeX (SLeX)-during the progression of pancreatic cancer from early stages to metastatic disease. Immunohistochemical analyses of mucin and associated glycan expression on primary tumor and liver metastatic tumor samples were conducted with matched sets of tissues from 40 autopsy patients diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, 14 surgically resected tissue samples, and 8 normal pancreata. There were significant changes in mucin expression patterns throughout disease progression. MUC1 and MUC4 were differentially glycosylated as the disease progressed from early pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias to metastatic disease. De novo expression of several mucins correlated with increased metastasis indicating a potentially more invasive phenotype, and we show the expression of MUC6 in acinar cells undergoing acinar to ductal metaplasia. A "cancer field-effect" that included changes in mucin protein expression and glycosylation in the adjacent normal pancreas was also seen. There are significant alterations in mucin expression and posttranslational processing during progression of pancreatic cancer from early lesions to metastasis. The results are presented in the context of how mucins influence the biology of tumor cells and their microenvironment during progression of pancreatic cancer.

  17. Novel O-linked methylated glycan antigens decorate secreted immunodominant glycoproteins from the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus

    PubMed Central

    Hewitson, James P.; Nguyen, D. Linh; van Diepen, Angela; Smit, Cornelis H.; Koeleman, Carolien A.; McSorley, Henry J.; Murray, Janice; Maizels, Rick M.; Hokke, Cornelis H.

    2016-01-01

    Glycan molecules from helminth parasites have been associated with diverse biological functions ranging from interactions with neighbouring host cell populations to down-modulation of specific host immunity. Glycoproteins secreted by the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus are of particular interest as the excretory–secretory products (termed HES) of this parasite contain both heat-labile and heat-stable components with immunomodulatory effects. We used MALDI-TOF-MS and LC–MS/MS to analyse the repertoire of N- and O-linked glycans released from Heligmosomoides polygyrus excretory–secretory products by PNGase A and F, β-elimination and hydrazinolysis revealing a broad range of structures including novel methylhexose- and methylfucose-containing glycans. Monoclonal antibodies to two immunodominant glycans of H. polygyrus, previously designated Glycans A and B, were found to react by glycan array analysis to a methyl-hexose-rich fraction and to a sulphated LacDiNAc (LDN; GalNAcβ1–4GlcNAc) structure, respectively. We also analysed the glycan repertoire of a major glycoprotein in Heligmosomoides polygyrus excretory–secretory products, VAL-2, which contains many glycan structures present in Heligmosomoides polygyrus excretory–secretory products including Glycan A. However, it was found that this set of glycans is not responsible for the heat-stable immunomodulatory properties of Heligmosomoides polygyrus excretory–secretory products, as revealed by the inability of VAL-2 to inhibit allergic lung inflammation. Taken together, these studies reveal that H. polygyrus secretes a diverse range of antigenic glycoconjugates, and provides a framework to explore the biological and immunomodulatory roles they may play within the mammalian host. PMID:26688390

  18. Chain Sampling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-08-01

    35609 Advanced Techniques Branch Plans and Programs Analysis Division Directorate for Product Assurance U. S. Army Missile Command Redstone Arsenal...Ray Heathcock Advanced Techniques Branch Plans and Programs Analysis Division Directorate for Product Assurance U. S. Army Missile Command...for Product Assurance has established a rather unique computer program for handling a variety of chain sampling schemes and is available for

  19. Why Anticancer Nanomedicine Needs Sugars?

    PubMed

    Bouffard, E; El Cheikh, K; Gallud, A; Da Silva, A; Maynadier, M; Basile, I; Gary-Bobo, M; Morere, A; Garcia, M

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, nanomedicine brings new opportunities for diagnosis and treatment through innovative combinations of materials structured at the nanoscale, biomolecules and physicochemical processes. If the intrinsic properties of nanomaterials appear of major importance in this new discipline, the functionalization of these nanotools with biomolecules improves both their biocompatibility and efficacy. This is the case of carbohydrate derivatives, natural or synthetic, which are increasingly being used in nanostructures for medical purposes. As in current medicine, sugars are used to mimic their physiological roles. Indeed, carbohydrates enhance the solubility and reduce the clearance of drugs. They are used to mask immunogenic components of nano-objects and escape the body defenses and finally facilitate the delivery to the target tissue. All these properties explain the growing importance of sugars in nanomedicine.

  20. The use of sugar in foods.

    PubMed

    Koivistoinen, P; Hyvönen, L

    1985-09-01

    Although the main reason for the use of sugar is its sweet taste, sugar has many other functions in food technology. The most important among these are that added sugar in foods acts as a sweetener, preservative, texture modifier, fermentation substrate, flavouring and colouring agent, bulking agent. The various methods of use of sugar are based on its physical and chemical properties. The replacement of sugar by the newly available sweeteners is difficult if the sweetness values or physical and chemical properties of the substitutes differ greatly from those of sucrose.

  1. [Sugar and diabetes: international recommendations].

    PubMed

    Sanz París, Alejandro; Boj Carceller, Diana; Melchor Lacleta, Isabel; Albero Gamboa, Ramón

    2013-07-01

    Nutrition in the diabetic patient is not just a mere nutrient but his treatment is based. In fact, international scientific societies have called "medical nutrition therapy" to give it the emphasis it deserves. Nutritional recommendations of scientific societies have been changing in recent years with evidence-based medicine. Regarding the consumption of sugar, most believe it does not affect metabolic control if it is replaced by other carbohydrates, but does not indicate a specific amount.

  2. Peracetylated sugar derivatives show high solubility in liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Potluri, Vijay K; Xu, Jianhang; Enick, Robert; Beckman, Eric; Hamilton, Andrew D

    2002-07-11

    [structure: see text] Acetylated sugars derivatives exhibit high solubility in liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)). Peracetylated sorbitol and beta-D-galactose are soluble under mild conditions in scCO(2), high pressures are required to dissolve peracetylated beta-cyclodextrin, and peracetoxyalkyl chains impart CO(2)-solubility to amides.

  3. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered only...

  4. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered only...

  5. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered only...

  6. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered only...

  7. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered only...

  8. Nomenclature, characteristics, and dietary intakes of sugars.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Teresa A

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization has recommended a reduction in free sugars intake throughout one's life span to decrease the burden of noncommunicable diseases, including caries and obesity. The author defines sugars' nomenclature, describes sugars' roles in food, and identifies current sugars intake. The oral health care practitioner can identify added sugars intake and provide guidance to patients to decrease their intake of added sugars while improving nutrient intake and reducing caries risk. Intake of added sugars increases the burden of chronic diseases in the United States. The oral health care practitioner is in a position to provide dietary guidance to patients to reduce both oral and systemic diseases. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Production of clean pyrolytic sugars for fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rover, Marjorie R; Johnston, Patrick A; Jin, Tao; Smith, Ryan G; Brown, Robert C; Jarboe, Laura

    2014-06-01

    This study explores the separate recovery of sugars and phenolic oligomers produced during fast pyrolysis with the effective removal of contaminants from the separated pyrolytic sugars to produce a substrate suitable for fermentation without hydrolysis. The first two stages from a unique recovery system capture "heavy ends", mostly water-soluble sugars and water-insoluble phenolic oligomers. The differences in water solubility can be exploited to recover a sugar-rich aqueous phase and a phenolic-rich raffinate. Over 93 wt % of the sugars is removed in two water washes. These sugars contain contaminants such as low-molecular-weight acids, furans, and phenols that could inhibit successful fermentation. Detoxification methods were used to remove these contaminants from pyrolytic sugars. The optimal candidate is NaOH overliming, which results in maximum growth measurements with the use of ethanol-producing Escherichia coli. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Chain Gang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    6 August 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a chain of clustered and battered craters. These were formed by secondary impact. That is, somewhere to the south (beyond the bottom of this image), a large impact crater formed. When this occurred, material ejected from the crater was thrown tens to hundreds of kilometers away. This material then impacted the martian surface, forming clusters and chains of smaller craters.

    Location near: 15.8oN, 35.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Spring

  11. Electron density analysis of the effects of sugars on the structure of lipid bilayers at low hydration - a preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Lenné, T.; Kent, B.; Koster, K.L.; Garvey, C.J.; Bryant, G.

    2012-02-06

    Small angle X-ray scattering is used to study the effects of sugars on membranes during dehydration. Previous work has shown that the bilayer and chain-chain repeat spacings of DPPC bilayers are relatively unaffected by the presence of sugars. In this work we present a preliminary analysis of the electron density profiles of DPPC in the presence of sugars at low hydration. The difficulties of determining the correct phasing are discussed. Sugars and other small solutes have been shown to have an important role in improving the tolerance of a range of species to desiccation and freezing. In particular it has been shown that sugars can stabilize membranes in the fluid membrane phase during dehydration, and in the fully dehydrated state. Equivalently, at a particular hydration, the presence of sugars lowers the transition temperature between the fluid and gel phases. There are two competing models for explaining the effects of sugars on membrane phase transition temperatures. One, designated the water replacement hypothesis (WRH) states that sugars hydrogen bond to phospholipid headgroups, thus hindering the fluid-gel phase transition. One version of this model suggests that certain sugars (such as trehalose) achieve the measured effects by inserting between the phospholipid head groups. An alternative model explains the observed effects of sugars in terms of the sugars effect on the hydration repulsion that develops between opposing membranes during dehydration. The hydration repulsion leads to a lateral compressive stress in the bilayer which squeezes adjacent lipids more closely together, resulting in a transition to the gel phase. When sugars are present, their osmotic and volumetric effects reduce the hydration repulsion, reduce the compressive stress in the membranes, and therefore tend to maintain the average lateral separation between lipids. This model is called the hydration forces explanation (HFE). We recently showed that neither mono- nor di

  12. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds

  13. Structure determination by MALDI-IRMPD mass spectrometry and exoglycosidase digestions of O-linked oligosaccharides from Xenopus borealis egg jelly.

    PubMed

    Li, Bensheng; Russell, Scott C; Zhang, Jinhua; Hedrick, Jerry L; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2011-07-01

    Differences in the fertilization behavior of Xenopus borealis from X. laevis and X. tropicalis suggest differences in the glycosylation of the egg jellies. To test this assumption, O-linked glycans were chemically released from the egg jelly coat glycoproteins of X. borealis. Over 50 major neutral glycans were observed, and no anionic glycans were detected from the released O-glycan pool. Preliminary structures of ∼30 neutral oligosaccharides were determined using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) infrared multiphoton dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (MS). The mass fingerprint of a group of peaks for the core-2 structure of O-glycans was conserved in the tandem mass spectra and was instrumental in rapid and efficient structure determination. Among the 29 O-glycans, 22 glycans contain the typical core-2 structure, 3 glycans have the core-1 structure and 2 glycans contained a previously unobserved core structure with hexose at the reducing end. There were seven pairs of structural isomers observed in the major O-linked oligosaccharides. To further elucidate the structures of a dozen O-linked glycans, specific and targeted exoglycosidase digestions were carried out and the products were monitored with MALDI-MS. Reported here are the elucidated structures of O-linked oligosaccharides from glycoproteins of X. borealis egg jelly coats. The structural differences in O-glycans from jelly coats of X. borealis and its close relatives may provide a better understanding of the structure-function relationships and the role of glycans in the fertilization process within Xenopodinae.

  14. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  15. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  16. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  17. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  18. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar-containing products. DATES... tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar. Pursuant to Additional U.S...

  19. Fermentation of hemicellulosic sugars and sugar mixtures by Candida shehatae

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, T.W.; Sreenath, H.K.

    1988-04-05

    In the experiments described here, batchwise fermentations were employed with Candida shehatae cells induced by growth on either glucose or xylose, and fermentation kinetic constants were determined. Results show that ethanol production rates were higher with xylose-grown inocula than with glucose-grown inocula. This comparison held true for all of the combinations of glucose and xylose tested. The ethanol production rate was highest for a fermentation of 6% xylose supplemented with 3% glucose by xylose-grown inoculum. The next highest rates were obtained with the fermentation of pure glucose and the glucose-xylose mixture by xylose-grown inoculum. Ethanol yields did not appear to be greatly affected by the sugars tested. The rates of mannose, glucose, xylose, galactose, and L-arabinose utilization by xylose-grown inocula were determined in a separate experiment. Mannose (6%) was used at a higher rate than any of the other sugars tested. Mannose also showed the highest rate of ethanol production. Most of the mannose taken up, however, could not be accounted for in the ethanol produced, so it is possible that significant amounts of mannitol were formed. The D-galactose was fermented at a significantly lower rate than glucose, xylose, or mannose. The L-arabinose was not consumed. The ethanol fermentation rate observed was much lower with an autoclaved acid hydrolysate than with the conditioned hydrolysate or a mixture of individual sugars. Contacting the hydrolysate with cells for an extended period of time prior to autoclaving greatly improved fermentability, but this strain of C. shehatae was still very susceptible to inhibition by components in the hydrolysate (Table III).

  20. GlycoMinestruct: a new bioinformatics tool for highly accurate mapping of the human N-linked and O-linked glycoproteomes by incorporating structural features

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuyi; Li, Chen; Revote, Jerico; Zhang, Yang; Webb, Geoffrey I.; Li, Jian; Song, Jiangning; Lithgow, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylation plays an important role in cell-cell adhesion, ligand-binding and subcellular recognition. Current approaches for predicting protein glycosylation are primarily based on sequence-derived features, while little work has been done to systematically assess the importance of structural features to glycosylation prediction. Here, we propose a novel bioinformatics method called GlycoMinestruct(http://glycomine.erc.monash.edu/Lab/GlycoMine_Struct/) for improved prediction of human N- and O-linked glycosylation sites by combining sequence and structural features in an integrated computational framework with a two-step feature-selection strategy. Experiments indicated that GlycoMinestruct outperformed NGlycPred, the only predictor that incorporated both sequence and structure features, achieving AUC values of 0.941 and 0.922 for N- and O-linked glycosylation, respectively, on an independent test dataset. We applied GlycoMinestruct to screen the human structural proteome and obtained high-confidence predictions for N- and O-linked glycosylation sites. GlycoMinestruct can be used as a powerful tool to expedite the discovery of glycosylation events and substrates to facilitate hypothesis-driven experimental studies. PMID:27708373

  1. Downregulation of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase by RNA interference decreases MMP9 expression in human esophageal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    QIAO, ZHE; DANG, CHENGXUE; ZHOU, BIN; LI, SHAOMIN; ZHANG, WEI; JIANG, JIANTAO; ZHANG, JIN; MA, YUEFENG; KONG, RANRAN; MA, ZHENCHUAN

    2016-01-01

    O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) catalyzes O-linked glycosylation (O-GlcNAcylation). O-GlcNAcylation is a post-translational carbohydrate modification of diverse nuclear and cytosolic proteins by the addition of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine. It was recently demonstrated that OGT and the level of O-GlcNAcylation are upregulated in esophageal cancer; however, the physiological consequences of this upregulation remain unknown. The current study reports that OGT knockdown by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) did not affect cell viability; however, cell migration in esophageal cancer Eca-109 cells was significantly reduced. OGT-specific shRNA vectors efficiently decreased the protein and mRNA levels of OGT and the RL2 level (a marker of O-GlcNAcylation levels) in Eca-109 esophageal cancer cells. In addition, colony formation and cell proliferation assays demonstrated that OGT-specific shRNA decreased the proliferation of Eca-109 cells; however, there was no significant statistical difference between OGT-specific shRNA and control shRNA. Notably, transwell assays demonstrated that the migratory ability of Eca-109 cells was significantly suppressed following knockdown of the OGT gene. Correspondingly, western blot analyses demonstrated that OGT knockdown significantly downregulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) in Eca-109 cells. These results suggest that OGT may promote the migration, invasion and metastasis of esophageal cancer cells by enhancing the stability or expression of MMP9. PMID:27123109

  2. Structural analysis of PseH, the Campylobacter jejuni N-acetyltransferase involved in bacterial O-linked glycosylation

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Wan Seok; Nam, Mi Sun; Namgung, Byeol; Yoon, Sung-il

    2015-03-20

    Campylobacter jejuni is a bacterium that uses flagella for motility and causes worldwide acute gastroenteritis in humans. The C. jejuni N-acetyltransferase PseH (cjPseH) is responsible for the third step in flagellin O-linked glycosylation and plays a key role in flagellar formation and motility. cjPseH transfers an acetyl group from an acetyl donor, acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA), to the amino group of UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-β-L-altrosamine to produce UDP-2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-β-L-altropyranose. To elucidate the catalytic mechanism of cjPseH, crystal structures of cjPseH alone and in complex with AcCoA were determined at 1.95 Å resolution. cjPseH folds into a single-domain structure of a central β-sheet decorated by four α-helices with two continuously connected grooves. A deep groove (groove-A) accommodates the AcCoA molecule. Interestingly, the acetyl end of AcCoA points toward an open space in a neighboring shallow groove (groove-S), which is occupied by extra electron density that potentially serves as a pseudosubstrate, suggesting that the groove-S may provide a substrate-binding site. Structure-based comparative analysis suggests that cjPseH utilizes a unique catalytic mechanism of acetylation that has not been observed in other glycosylation-associated acetyltransferases. Thus, our studies on cjPseH will provide valuable information for the design of new antibiotics to treat C. jejuni-induced gastroenteritis. - Highlights: • cjPseH adopts a single-domain structure of a central β-sheet decorated by α-helices. • cjPseH features two continuously connected grooves on the protein surface. • Acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) binds into a deep groove of cjPseH in an ‘L’ shape. • The acetyl end of AcCoA points to a wide groove, a potential substrate-binding site.

  3. Complete oxidative conversion of lignocellulose derived non-glucose sugars to sugar acids by Gluconobacter oxydans.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ruimiao; Hou, Weiliang; Bao, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Non-glucose sugars derived from lignocellulose cover approximately 40% of the total carbohydrates of lignocellulose biomass. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars to the target products is an important task of lignocellulose biorefining research. Here we report a fast and complete conversion of the total non-glucose sugars from corn stover into the corresponding sugar acids by whole cell catalysis and aerobic fermentation of Gluconobacter oxydans. The conversions include xylose to xylonate, arabinose to arabonate, mannose to mannonate, and galactose to galactonate, as well as with glucose into gluconate. These cellulosic non-glucose sugar acids showed the excellent cement retard setting property. The mixed cellulosic sugar acids could be used as cement retard additives without separation. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars not only makes full use of lignocellulose derived sugars, but also effectively reduces the wastewater treatment burden by removal of residual sugars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.

    PubMed

    Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar.

  5. Sugar addiction: the state of the science.

    PubMed

    Westwater, Margaret L; Fletcher, Paul C; Ziauddeen, Hisham

    2016-11-01

    As obesity rates continue to climb, the notion that overconsumption reflects an underlying 'food addiction' (FA) has become increasingly influential. An increasingly popular theory is that sugar acts as an addictive agent, eliciting neurobiological changes similar to those seen in drug addiction. In this paper, we review the evidence in support of sugar addiction. We reviewed the literature on food and sugar addiction and considered the evidence suggesting the addictiveness of highly processed foods, particularly those with high sugar content. We then examined the addictive potential of sugar by contrasting evidence from the animal and human neuroscience literature on drug and sugar addiction. We find little evidence to support sugar addiction in humans, and findings from the animal literature suggest that addiction-like behaviours, such as bingeing, occur only in the context of intermittent access to sugar. These behaviours likely arise from intermittent access to sweet tasting or highly palatable foods, not the neurochemical effects of sugar. Given the lack of evidence supporting it, we argue against a premature incorporation of sugar addiction into the scientific literature and public policy recommendations.

  6. Structural Basis for Outer Membrane Sugar Uptake in Pseudomonads*

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Substrate-specific outer membrane channels of Gram-negative bacteria mediate uptake of many small molecules, including carbohydrates. The mechanism of sugar uptake by enterobacterial channels, such as Escherichia coli LamB (maltoporin), has been characterized in great detail. In pseudomonads and related organisms, sugar uptake is not mediated by LamB but by OprB channels. Beyond the notion that OprB channels seem to prefer monosaccharides as substrates, very little is known about OprB-mediated sugar uptake. Here I report the X-ray crystal structure of an OprB channel from Pseudomonas putida F1. The structure shows that OprB forms a monomeric, 16-stranded β-barrel with a constriction formed by extracellular loops L2 and L3. The side chains of two highly conserved arginine residues (Arg83 and Arg110) and a conserved glutamate (Glu106) line the channel constriction and interact with a bound glucose molecule. Liposome swelling uptake assays show a strong preference for monosaccharide transport over disaccharides. Moreover, substrates with a net negative charge are disfavored by the channel, probably due to the negatively charged character of the constriction. The architecture of the eyelet and the absence of a greasy slide provide an explanation for the observed specificity of OprB for monosaccharides rather than the oligosaccharides preferred by LamB and related enterobacterial channels. PMID:23066028

  7. Structural basis for outer membrane sugar uptake in pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Bert

    2012-11-30

    Substrate-specific outer membrane channels of gram-negative bacteria mediate uptake of many small molecules, including carbohydrates. The mechanism of sugar uptake by enterobacterial channels, such as Escherichia coli LamB (maltoporin), has been characterized in great detail. In pseudomonads and related organisms, sugar uptake is not mediated by LamB but by OprB channels. Beyond the notion that OprB channels seem to prefer monosaccharides as substrates, very little is known about OprB-mediated sugar uptake. Here I report the X-ray crystal structure of an OprB channel from Pseudomonas putida F1. The structure shows that OprB forms a monomeric, 16-stranded β-barrel with a constriction formed by extracellular loops L2 and L3. The side chains of two highly conserved arginine residues (Arg(83) and Arg(110)) and a conserved glutamate (Glu(106)) line the channel constriction and interact with a bound glucose molecule. Liposome swelling uptake assays show a strong preference for monosaccharide transport over disaccharides. Moreover, substrates with a net negative charge are disfavored by the channel, probably due to the negatively charged character of the constriction. The architecture of the eyelet and the absence of a greasy slide provide an explanation for the observed specificity of OprB for monosaccharides rather than the oligosaccharides preferred by LamB and related enterobacterial channels.

  8. Sugar consumption among Canadians of all ages.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Kellie; Garriguet, Didier

    2011-09-01

    According to the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition, Canadians consumed an average of 110 grams (26 teaspoons) of sugar a day, approximately 20% of their total energy intake. While over 30% of this sugar came from vegetables and fruit, 35% came from the "other" foods category, which consists of items such as soft drinks, salad dressings and candy. The top ten sources of sugar accounted for approximately 85% of daily sugar intake. Beverages (milk, fruit juice, fruit drinks and regular soft drinks) represented 44% of the sugar consumed by children and adolescents, and 35% of that consumed by adults. Diabetics' average sugar intake was less than that of non-diabetics, but at 17%, exceeded the recommended 10% cut-off of total daily calories.

  9. Sugar intake, obesity, and diabetes in India.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

    2014-12-22

    Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing "epidemic" of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers), should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased.

  10. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species.

  11. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Are the Main Sources of Added Sugar Intake in the Mexican Population.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Batis, Carolina; Lutter, Chessa K; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    Sugar intake has been associated with an increased prevalence of obesity, other noncommunicable diseases, and dental caries. The WHO recommends that free sugars should be <10% of total energy intake (TEI) and that additional health benefits could be obtained with a reduction below 5% of TEI. The objective of this study was to estimate the total, intrinsic, and added sugar intake in the Mexican diet and to identify the food groups that are the main sources of these sugars. We used data from a national probabilistic survey [ENSANUT (National Health and Nutrition Survey) 2012], which represents 3 geographic regions and urban and rural areas. Dietary information was obtained by administering a 24-h recall questionnaire to 10,096 participants. Total sugar intake was estimated by using the National Institute of Public Health (INSP) food-composition table and an established method to estimate added sugars. The mean intakes of total, intrinsic, and added sugars were 365, 127, and 238 kcal/d, respectively. Added sugars contributed 13% of TEI. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) were the main source of sugars, contributing 69% of added sugars. Food products high in saturated fat and/or added sugar (HSFAS) were the second main sources of added sugars, contributing 25% of added sugars. The average intake of added sugars in the Mexican diet is higher than WHO recommendations, which may partly explain the high prevalence of obesity and diabetes in Mexico. Because SSBs and HSFAS contribute >94% of total added sugars, strategies to reduce their intake should be strengthened. This includes stronger food labels to warn the consumer about the content of added sugars in foods and beverages. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Sugar gustatory thresholds and sugar selection in two species of Neotropical nectar-eating bats.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Berdon, Jorge; Rodríguez-Peña, Nelly; García Leal, Cristian; Stoner, Kathryn E; Schondube, Jorge E

    2013-02-01

    Nectar-feeding bats play an important role in natural communities acting as pollinators; however, the characteristics that affect their food selection are unclear. Here we explore the role that sugar gustatory thresholds and sugar concentration play on sugar selection of Glossophaga soricina and Leptonycteris yerbabuenae. We offered bats paired feeders containing sugar solutions of sucrose (S), glucose (G) or fructose (F) vs. pure water, and sucrose vs. 1:1 equicaloric solutions of glucose-fructose at 5, 15 and 35% (wt./vol.). To see the effect of sweetness on sugar selection, we habituated the bats with a diet containing either sucrose or hexoses and subsequently evaluated sugar preferences. Sugar thresholds were Ssugar preferences when the bats fed on dilute nectars. L. yerbabuenae changed its sugar preferences with concentration while G. soricina did not. Finally, the bats consistently preferred the sugar they were habituated to. Our results suggest that bats become accustomed to the sugar found in the most abundant plants they use, and thus prefer the most common sugars included in their diet. This could confer an advantage by allowing them shifting sugar preferences on the most common food present in their environment.

  13. Structural and physicochemical characteristics of starch from sugar cane and sweet sorghum stalks.

    PubMed

    Alves, Fernanda Viginotti; Polesi, Luís Fernando; Aguiar, Cláudio Lima; Sarmento, Silene Bruder Silveira

    2014-10-13

    The starch present in sugar cane and sorghum juice has been considered a problem to the sugar industry. The objective of this work was to study the structural and physicochemical characteristics of the starch present in sugar cane and sweet sorghum. Sugar cane and sweet sorghum starches presented small granules (maximum 5.9 and 7.9 μm), A-type diffraction pattern, high degree of relative crystallinity (44.4 and 42.0%), and low amylose content (17.5 and 16.4%), respectively. Sugar cane starch presented more uniformity in granule shape and size, more homogeneity in amylose chain length, higher number of long lateral chains of amylopectin, and higher susceptibility to enzymatic digestion. Besides being in higher amount in the juice, sweet sorghum starch presented lower values for thermal properties of gelatinization, as well as higher swelling factor, which can cause more problems during processing. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the variety and maturity influence on these properties.

  14. Isolation and purification of feruloylated oligosaccharides from cell walls of sugar-beet pulp.

    PubMed

    Ralet, M C; Thibault, J F; Faulds, C B; Williamson, G

    1994-10-17

    Cell walls from sugar-beet pulp contain some feruloyl groups linked to the pectic neutral side-chains. Enzymic as well as chemical hydrolysis of the pulp yielded a series of feruloylated oligosaccharides, which have been purified by Sephadex LH-20 and Biogel P-2 chromatography in aqueous solvents. Feruloylated arabinose di-, tri-, hexa-, hepta-, and octa-saccharides as well as feruloylated galactose disaccharides were obtained after hydrolysis of the pulp with a mixture of fungal carbohydrases (Driselase). Feruloylated arabinose and galactose monosaccharides were obtained through mild acid hydrolyses. Both arabinose and galactose residues in the side-chains are feruloylated, 50-55% of the feruloyl groups being linked to arabinose residues and 45-50% to galactose residues. It is concluded that 1 out of 56 arabinose residues and 1 out of 16 galactose residues present as pectic side-chains in sugar-beet pulp carry a feruloyl group.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  19. Sugar holograms with artificial organic colorants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2007-09-01

    The sugar cane crystals (sucrose) are used as matrix to obtain computer holograms. We made a sugar solution (sugar in water) and it is irradiated with ultraviolet light, since the maximum absorption spectra is localized at UV region, to wavelength 200 nm. This step also corresponds to sugar photopolymer process. It is recorded applying conventional lithography technique and measures the parameter of diffraction efficiency. With the purpose to reduce the exposition time at UV radiation of this emulsion, we made studies with artificial organic colorant with azo components.

  20. Prebiotic Synthesis of Autocatalytic Products From Formaldehyde-Derived Sugars as the Carbon and Energy Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    2003-01-01

    Our research objective is to understand and model the chemical processes on the primitive Earth that generated the first autocatalytic molecules and microstructures involved in the origin of life. Our approach involves: (a) investigation of a model origin-of-life process named the Sugar Model that is based on the reaction of formaldehyde- derived sugars (trioses and tetroses) with ammonia, and (b) elucidation of the constraints imposed on the chemistry of the origin of life by the fixed energies and rates of C,H,O-organic reactions under mild aqueous conditions. Recently, we demonstrated that under mild aqueous conditions the Sugar Model process yields autocatalytic products, and generates organic micropherules (2-20 micron dia.) that exhibit budding, size uniformity, and chain formation. We also discovered that the sugar substrates of the Sugar Model are capable of reducing nitrite to ammonia under mild aqueous conditions. In addition studies done in collaboration with Sandra Pizzarrello (Arizona State University) revealed that chiral amino acids (including meteoritic isovaline) catalyze both the synthesis and specific handedness of chiral sugars. Our systematic survey of the energies and rates of reactions of C,H,O-organic substrates under mild aqueous conditions revealed several general principles (rules) that govern the direction and rate of organic reactions. These reactivity principles constrain the structure of chemical pathways used in the origin of life, and in modern and primitive metabolism.

  1. Prebiotic Synthesis of Autocatalytic Products From Formaldehyde-Derived Sugars as the Carbon and Energy Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    2003-01-01

    Our research objective is to understand and model the chemical processes on the primitive Earth that generated the first autocatalytic molecules and microstructures involved in the origin of life. Our approach involves: (a) investigation of a model origin-of-life process named the Sugar Model that is based on the reaction of formaldehyde- derived sugars (trioses and tetroses) with ammonia, and (b) elucidation of the constraints imposed on the chemistry of the origin of life by the fixed energies and rates of C,H,O-organic reactions under mild aqueous conditions. Recently, we demonstrated that under mild aqueous conditions the Sugar Model process yields autocatalytic products, and generates organic micropherules (2-20 micron dia.) that exhibit budding, size uniformity, and chain formation. We also discovered that the sugar substrates of the Sugar Model are capable of reducing nitrite to ammonia under mild aqueous conditions. In addition studies done in collaboration with Sandra Pizzarrello (Arizona State University) revealed that chiral amino acids (including meteoritic isovaline) catalyze both the synthesis and specific handedness of chiral sugars. Our systematic survey of the energies and rates of reactions of C,H,O-organic substrates under mild aqueous conditions revealed several general principles (rules) that govern the direction and rate of organic reactions. These reactivity principles constrain the structure of chemical pathways used in the origin of life, and in modern and primitive metabolism.

  2. Reducing added sugar intake increases the relative reinforcing value of high-sugar foods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To determine whether reducing added sugar intake to <10% of calories for 1 week changes the relative reinforcing value (RRV) of foods high in sugar and to test whether changes in RRV of high-sugar foods differed between non-overweight and obese adults. Background: The 2015-2020 DGA focu...

  3. Human myeloma light chains with increased molecular weight: high frequency among lambda chains.

    PubMed

    Bouvet, J P; Pillot, J; Liacopoulos, P

    1983-04-01

    The discovery of a human myeloma protein comprising a kappa L-chain with an increased mol. wt of 30,000) (Bouvet et. al., 1980) prompted investigations on the incidence of such heavier L-chains among other human myeloma proteins. In 105 samples examined, 34 were found to have L-chains heavier than normal (23,000-24,000), ranging from 25,000 up to 31,000, and five of lighter mol. wt (21,000-22,000). These mol. wt abnormalities were detected by electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate 10% polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE) after reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol. The mol. wt of three of the heavier kappa or lambda chains was also estimated by filtration through a Sephadex G100 column and by sedimentation equilibrium. All three methods indicated a mol. wt increase of about 15-25% as compared with the usual mol. wt. The distribution of the high mol. wt chains among all L-chains examined was found to be 11 out of 62 kappa chains (17.7%) and 23 out of 43 lambda chains (53%) (P less than 0.001). A preferential association of such L-chains with H-chains producing multiple bands in SDS-PAGE (P less than 0.01) and an association between multiple L-chain and multiple H-chain band (P less than 0.05) were also observed. In contrast, no abnormal L-chain was found in immunoglobulins from normal subjects. Spontaneous degradation of the normal H-chains sometimes yielded fragments of 30,000 mol. wt. These fragments were easily distinguishable from abnormal L-chains. The nature of extra mol. wt in heavy L-chains was investigated for the presence of carbohydrate moiety. Four large and three normal size L-chains were examined for amino-sugar and sialic acid content. A small amount (one residue per molecule) of amino-sugar was detected only in two normal and two heavy L-chains, whereas sialic acid was only found in the heaviest (27,000-30,000) L-chains (Lh) and in small percentage (one or two residues per molecule). Total sugar estimation in one Lh chain indicated a proportion not exceeding

  4. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35...

  5. 7 CFR 1435.603 - Eligible sugar seller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible sugar seller. 1435.603 Section 1435.603... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Feedstock Flexibility Program § 1435.603 Eligible sugar seller. (a) To be considered an eligible sugar seller, the sugar seller must be...

  6. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35...

  7. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35...

  8. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35...

  9. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35...

  10. Novel Protein Substrates of the Phospho-Form Modification System in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Their Connection to O-Linked Protein Glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Anonsen, Jan Haug; Egge-Jacobsen, Wolfgang; Aas, Finn Erik; Børud, Bente; Koomey, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The zwitterionic phospho-form moieties phosphoethanolamine (PE) and phosphocholine (PC) are important components of bacterial membranes and cell surfaces. The major type IV pilus subunit protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, PilE, undergoes posttranslational modifications with these moieties via the activity of the pilin phospho-form transferase PptA. A number of observations relating to colocalization of phospho-form and O-linked glycan attachment sites in PilE suggested that these modifications might be either functionally or mechanistically linked or interact directly or indirectly. Moreover, it was unknown whether the phenomenon of phospho-form modification was solely dedicated to PilE or if other neisserial protein targets might exist. In light of these concerns, we screened for evidence of phospho-form modification on other membrane glycoproteins targeted by the broad-spectrum O-linked glycosylation system. In this way, two periplasmic lipoproteins, NGO1043 and NGO1237, were identified as substrates for PE addition. As seen previously for PilE, sites of PE modifications were clustered with those of glycan attachment. In the case of NGO1043, evidence for at least six serine phospho-form attachment sites was found, and further analyses revealed that at least two of these serines were also attachment sites for glycan. Finally, mutations altering glycosylation status led to the presence of pptA-dependent PC modifications on both proteins. Together, these results reinforce the associations established in PilE and provide evidence for dynamic interplay between phospho-form modification and O-linked glycosylation. The observations also suggest that phospho-form modifications likely contribute biologically at both intracellular and extracellular levels. PMID:22083701

  11. Sugar sensing by enterocytes combines polarity, membrane bound detectors and sugar metabolism.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Maude; Tobin, Vanessa; Stolarczyk, Emilie; Dalet, Véronique; Leturque, Armelle; Brot-Laroche, Edith

    2007-12-01

    Sugar consumption and subsequent sugar metabolism are known to regulate the expression of genes involved in intestinal sugar absorption and delivery. Here we investigate the hypothesis that sugar-sensing detectors in membranes facing the intestinal lumen or the bloodstream can also modulate intestinal sugar absorption. We used wild-type and GLUT2-null mice, to show that dietary sugars stimulate the expression of sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and L-pyruvate kinase (L-PK) by GLUT2-dependent mechanisms, whereas the expression of GLUT5 and SGLT1, did not rely on the presence of GLUT2. By providing sugar metabolites, sugar transporters, including GLUT2, fuelled a sensing pathway. In Caco2/TC7 enterocytes, we could disconnect the sensing triggered by detector from that produced by metabolism, and found that GLUT2 generated a metabolism-independent pathway to stimulate the expression of SI and L-PK. In cultured enterocytes, both apical and basolateral fructose could increase the expression of GLUT5, conversely, basolateral sugar administration could stimulate the expression of GLUT2. Finally, we located the sweet-taste receptors T1R3 and T1R2 in plasma membranes, and we measured their cognate G alpha Gustducin mRNA levels. Furthermore, we showed that a T1R3 inhibitor altered the fructose-induced expression of SGLT1, GLUT5, and L-PK. Intestinal gene expression is thus controlled by a combination of at least three sugar-signaling pathways triggered by sugar metabolites and membrane sugar receptors that, according to membrane location, determine sugar-sensing polarity. This provides a rationale for how intestine adapts sugar delivery to blood and dietary sugar provision. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Sugar Ester Compounds for Arthropod Control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar esters, also known as acyl sugars or polyol esters, are a class of compounds that are internationally recognized as food additives. They are commonly used in bakery goods, drugs, cosmetics, food packaging plastics, and in other applications because of their surfactant and emulsifying properti...

  13. Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and…

  14. A sugar maple planting study in Vermont

    Treesearch

    Harry W. Yawney; Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Clayton M. Carl

    1970-01-01

    Past attempts to establish sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) by planting have generally met with little success. The failures have been blamed mainly on competition by other vegetation and on damage done by animals. Finding an effective way to establish sugar maple seedlings is a key part in the research being carried on in Vermont by the USDA Forest Service to...

  15. Grading sugar pine saw logs in trees.

    Treesearch

    John W. Henley

    1972-01-01

    Small limbs and small overgrown limbs cause problems when grading saw logs in sugar pine trees. Surface characteristics and lumber recovery information for 426 logs from 64 sugar pine trees were examined. Resulting modifications in the grading specification that allow a grader to ignore small limbs and small limb indicators do not appear to decrease the performance of...

  16. Sugar maple: its characteristics and potentials

    Treesearch

    Ralph D. Nyland

    1999-01-01

    Sugar maple dominates the northern hardwood forest, but grows over a broader geographic area. Conditions of soil and climate largely limit its distribution, and account for its less continuous cover along fringes of the range. Sugar maple regenerates readily following a wide range of overstory treatments. Success depends upon its status as advance regeneration,...

  17. Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

  18. Sugar proximity and human grip strength.

    PubMed

    Quintanar, A F; Hill, T V

    1988-12-01

    In a double-blind experiment with 90 undergraduate students the hypothesis was tested that proximity to sugar reduces human grip strength. An earlier study indicated that sugar proximity does indeed significantly reduce human grip strength. When additional controls were added to this design to reduce random sampling error, the hypothesis was not supported.

  19. Spring reflections on Louisiana sugar cane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Louisiana sugar industry continues to produce high cane and sugar yields despite a short growing season. Spring fallow land management is essential for the upcoming crop. In the past few years, wide row spacing, billet cane planting, and cover-cropping have received significant attention. The ei...

  20. Natural Product Sugar Biosynthesis and Enzymatic Glycodiversification**

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeaux, Christopher J.; Melançon, Charles E.; Liu, Hung-wen

    2009-01-01

    Many biologically active small molecule natural products produced by microorganisms derive their activities from sugar substituents. Changing the structures of these sugars can have a profound impact on the biological properties of the parent compounds. This realization has inspired attempts to derivatize the sugar moieties of these natural products through exploitation of the sugar biosynthetic machinery. This approach requires an understanding of the biosynthetic pathway of each target sugar and detailed mechanistic knowledge of the key enzymes. Scientists have begun to unravel the biosynthetic logic behind the assembly of many glycosylated natural products, and have found that a core set of enzyme activities is mixed and matched to synthesize the diverse sugar structures observed in nature. Remarkably, many of these sugar biosynthetic enzymes and glycosyltransferases also exhibit relaxed substrate specificity. The promiscuity of these enzymes has prompted efforts to modify the sugar structures and/or alter the glycosylation patterns of natural products via metabolic pathway engineering and/or enzymatic glycodiversification. In applied biomedical research, these studies will enable the development of new glycosylation tools and generate novel glycoforms of secondary metabolites with useful biological activity. PMID:19058170

  1. Strategic Sugar Beet Germplasm Resource Development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Smooth-root varieties (SR) have been recognized as desirable since the 1940’s for their potential to reduce soil tare at harvest and at the factory. Until the 1990’s this germplasm had low sugar and was unacceptable. Since 2000, USDA-ARS SR germplasm releases increased sugar content to acceptable le...

  2. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  3. Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

  4. Polysaccharides from Sugar - A Range of Structures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It has been known for many years that bacteria, most notably Leuconostoc spp., can convert sugar into a high-molecular weight glucan known as dextran. While problematic in the sugar industry due to its potential for forming biofilms, viscous slimes and for interfering with massecuite boiling and su...

  5. Clathrin heavy chain, light chain interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, F K; Stanley, K K

    1983-01-01

    Purified pig brain clathrin can be reversibly dissociated and separated into heavy chain trimers and light chains in the presence of non-denaturing concentrations of the chaotrope thiocyanate. The isolated heavy chain trimers reassemble into regular polygonal cage structures in the absence of light chains. The light chain fraction can be further resolved into its two components L alpha and L beta which give different one-dimensional peptide maps. Radiolabelled light chains bind with high affinity (KD < 10(-10) M) to heavy chain trimers, to heavy chain cages and to a 110,000 mol. wt. tryptic fragment of the heavy chain. Both light chains compete with each other and with light chains from other sources for the same binding sites on heavy chains and c.d. spectroscopy shows that the two pig brain light chains possess very similar structures. We conclude that light chains from different sources, despite some heterogeneity, have a highly conserved, high affinity binding site on the heavy chain but are not essential for the formation of regular cage structures. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 8. PMID:10872336

  6. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 300,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2010 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) by...

  7. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES... refined sugar. Pursuant to Additional U.S. Note 8 to Chapter 17 of the HTS, the United States maintains a...

  8. Alkaline degradation of invert sugar from molasses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Byung Y; Montgomery, Rex

    2007-11-01

    Sugar beet and sugar cane molasses have been shown to be suitable starting materials for producing de-icer preparations. The sucrose in the molasses is hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose by invertase. The reducing sugars are then degraded by NaOH, the alkali being neutralized by the sugar acids produced, resulting in an increase of the ionic strength and consequently depression of the freezing point of the resulting solution. For the preparation of de-icers, the desired freezing point depression to a temperature of less than about -20 degrees C can be achieved by adjusting the amount and concentration of the alkali metal hydroxide used. The resulting products are biodegradable and eliminate the corrosive effects associated with the use of conventional chloride salts. Degradation of invert sugar by NaOH has been achieved without an external heat source. The reaction products showed the same freezing point depression as seen in the degradation products from pure glucose.

  9. Moisture sorption curves of fruit and nut cereal bar prepared with sugar and sugar substitutes.

    PubMed

    Pallavi, Byrappa Vasu; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Ravi, Ramaswamy; Reddy, Sunkireddy Yella

    2015-03-01

    Low sugar, low fat, dry fruit and nut cereal bars without sugar were prepared using cereals, nuts, and sugar substitutes. The sorption characteristics of the bars prepared with sugar substitutes in comparison with that of sugar were studied by keeping the bars at water activity (aw) from 0.1 to 0.9. The sorption isotherms of low sugar bars were practically identical below aw of 0.5 but above aw of 0.5, a clear differentiation in the isotherms could be observed compared to that of sugar counterpart. A sharp increase in moisture content was observed in the bars prepared with alternative sweeteners, above aw 0.6, whereas a gradual increase in aw was observed in the case of bar prepared with sugar. The ERH (Equilibrium relative humidity) value for bar with sugar was 50 %, and for bars prepared with alternative sweeteners, it was about 60 %. Low sugar cereal bar prepared with sorbitol + maltitol (SM) syrup scored higher sensory quality compared to other product prepared with sorbitol + nutriose (SN) as the former retained softness and chewiness on storage. Thus, it was observed that bars with alternative sweeteners will be more stable as their ERH is closer to normal ambient conditions compared to that prepared with sugar.

  10. VIEW OF UNLOADING STATION THAT WAS ADDED IN 1997. SUGAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF UNLOADING STATION THAT WAS ADDED IN 1997. SUGAR BIN AND MILL IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  11. OVERALL VIEW OF THE MILL WITH SUGAR BIN LEFT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF THE MILL WITH SUGAR BIN LEFT OF CENTER, CLEANING PLANT TO RIGHT, SEED TREATMENT PLANT TO LEFT. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  12. VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  13. SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS RIGHT. CONVEYOR FROM BOILING HOUSE ABOVE. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  14. 4. View of castiron sugar kettle with mill ruins in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of cast-iron sugar kettle with mill ruins in background, looking S. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Sugar Mill, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  15. Influence of sugars and hormones on the genes involved in sucrose metabolism in maize endosperms.

    PubMed

    Ren, X D; Liu, H M; Liu, Y H; Hu, Y F; Zhang, J J; Huang, Y B

    2015-03-06

    Starch is the major storage product in the endosperm of cereals. Its synthesis is closely related to sucrose metabolism. In our previous study, we found that the expression of most of the genes involved in starch synthesis might be regulated by sugars and hormones in the maize endosperm. However, little is known regarding the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in sucrose metabolism. Thus, in this study, maize endosperms were treated with different sugars and hormones and the expression of genes involved in sucrose metabolism (including synthesis, degradation, and transport) were evaluated using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We found that genes affected by different sugars and hormones were primarily regulated by abscisic acid. Sucrose and abscisic acid showed an additive effect on the expression of some genes. Differences in the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in sucrose metabolism and starch biosynthesis were observed.

  16. A highly sensitive method for analyses of sugar moieties of glycoproteins by fluorescence labeling.

    PubMed

    Hase, S; Ikenaka, T; Matsushima, Y

    1981-08-01

    The sensitivity of a fluorescence labeling method ((1979). J. Biochem. 85, 989--994; 995--1002) for structure analyses of asparagine-linked sugar moieties of glycoproteins was increased by using HPLC with a fluorescence detector. Sugar moieties were separated from polypeptide portions by hydrazinolysis. Free amino groups thus exposed were acetylated and the reducing ends of sugar chains were reductively aminated with a fluorescent reagent, 2-aminopyridine, by the use of sodium cyanoborohydride. The pyridylamino derivatives were purified on a Dowex 1 column to eliminate undesired substances. The separation and identification of the pyridylamino derivatives were carried out by HPLC with a column of C18 reversed phase or gel permeation phase. As little as 0.1 pmol of pyridylamino derivatives can be detected. Ten microgram of Taka-amylase A was easily detected by this system. The method was also applied to some other glycoproteins.

  17. Structure-function relationships affecting the insecticidal and miticidal activity of sugar esters.

    PubMed

    Puterka, Gary J; Farone, William; Palmer, Tracy; Barrington, Anthony

    2003-06-01

    Synthetic sugar esters are a relatively new class of insecticidal compounds that are produced by reacting sugars with fatty acids. The objective of this research was to determine how systematic alterations in sugar or fatty acid components of sugar ester compounds influenced their insecticidal properties. Sucrose octanoate, sorbitol octanoate, sorbitol decanoate, sorbitol caproate, xylitol octanoate, xylitol decanoate and xylitol dodecanoate were synthesized and evaluated against a range of arthropod pests. Dosage-mortality studies were conducted on pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster) on pear, tobacco aphid (Myzus nicotianae) Blackman and tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta [Johannson]) on tobacco, and twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on apple in laboratory bioassays. These sugar esters were compared with insecticidal soap (M-Pede, Dow AgroSciences L.L.C., San Diego, CA), to determine how toxicologically similar these materials were against the arthropod pests. Substitutions in either the sugar or fatty acid component led to significant changes in the physical properties and insecticidal activity of these compounds. The sugar esters varied in their solubility in water and in emulsion stability, yet, droplet spread upon pear leaves occurred at low concentrations of 80-160 ppm and was strongly correlated with psylla mortalities (R2 = 0.73). Sequentially altering the sugar or fatty acid components from lower to higher numbers of carbon chains, or whether the sugar was a monosaccharide or disaccharide did not follow a predictable relationship to insecticidal activity. Intuitively, changing the hydrophile from sorbitol (C6) to xylitol (C5) would require a decrease in lipophile chain length to maintain hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) relationships, yet an increase in lipophile chain length was unexpectedly needed for increasing insecticidal activity. Thus, the HLB of these materials did not correlate with pear psylla mortalities. Initial insect

  18. The combination of atomic force microscopy and sugar analysis to evaluate alkali-soluble Canna edulis Ker pectin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Cui, Junhui; Xiao, Lin; Wang, Zhengwu

    2014-08-01

    Alkali-soluble pectin, which has been extracted from Canna edulis Ker, was characterized by single sugar determination and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results indicated that the amounts of four predominant sugars including arabinose (Ara), glucose (Glc), galactose (Gal) and galacturonic acid (GalA) significantly decreased during the process of mild acid hydrolysis. The decreasing rates of these four sugars followed a sequential order of Ara>Gal>Glc>GalA. The homogalacturonan (HG) chain present in pectin, and the quantity of branched material is greater than the sample containing the main neutral sugars. The results indicated that the neutral sugar and HG side chains are attached to pectin as part of the rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI) complex. Moreover, hydrolysis leads to the reduction of mean lengths of backbone and branch, as well as the number/weight-average molecular weight. Meanwhile, the amount of short chain fractions increased during hydrolysis. Furthermore, the decrease of the polymerization degree of alkali-soluble C. edulis pectin as a function of the hydrolysis time could be described by a first-order exponential decay function.

  19. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges.

    PubMed

    Snyder, D; Cernicchiaro, N; Allan, S A; Cohnstaedt, L W

    2016-06-01

    The mixing of an insecticide with sugar solution creates an oral toxin or insecticidal sugar bait (ISB) useful for reducing adult insect populations. The ability of ISBs to kill the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a vector of bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease and vesicular stomatitis viruses, was tested. The commercial insecticide formulations (percentage active ingredient) tested included bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and spinosad. Mortality rates were determined for various concentrations of commercial formulations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3%) and observed at 1, 4, 10 and 24 h post-exposure to the ISB. In the first set of assays, laboratory-reared midges were fed sugar ad libitum and then exposed to insecticide-treated sugar solutions to measure mortality. The second assay assessed competitive feeding: midges were provided with a control sugar solution (10% sucrose) in one vial, and a sugar and insecticide solution in another. Pyrethroid treatments resulted in the greatest mortality in the first hour at the lowest concentrations and spinosad consumption resulted in the least mortality. Biting midges were not deterred from feeding on the 1% ISB solutions despite the presence of an insecticide-free alternative source of sugar. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology.

  1. Ethanol from sugar crops: a critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E.S.; Allen, B.R.; Bose, A.; Kresovich, S.

    1981-01-01

    Due to the hardships resulting from rising oil prices and periodic production shortfalls, many developing countries, especially those with warm humid climates, have explored ethanol production from sugar crops. This critical review offers information on ethanol production for development planners. Two sugar crop-based ethanol systems, raw sugar facility retrofit and conventional juice extraction, are first examined. The agronomy of sugar crops (cane, beet, sorghum) is then described, as are the steps in crop processing (extraction, fermentation, distillation, stillage disposal). The costs of producing ethanol from a typical sugarcane processing plant and from a state-of-the-art molasses processing facility are presented, and the trade-offs between producing ethanol or raw sugar from sugarcane weighed. Finally, the properties of ethanol in automotive fuels are outlined, along with important storage, handling, and safety considerations. Three major problems are cited in ethanol production from sugar crops: adverse environmental effects (10 gallons of waste to 1 gallon of ethanol); the high cost of conventional milling equipment; and the loss of potential revenue from raw sugar sales. A future possibility of producing ethanol from fibrous residues (bagasse) is noted. Included are a 64-item bibliography (1936-1980) and 31 tables.

  2. A cytotoxic type-2 ribosome inactivating protein (from leafless mistletoe) lacking sugar binding activity.

    PubMed

    Das, Mrinal Kumar; Sharma, Radhey Shyam; Mishra, Vandana

    2011-12-01

    Articulatin-D, a 66 kDa ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) comprised of 29 kDa A-chain linked to 35 kDa B-chain, is purified from leafless mistletoe (Viscum articulatum) parasitic on Dalbergia sp. from Western Ghats (India). N-terminal sequence and LC-MS/MS analyses of A- and B-chain confirmed that articulatin-D is a type-2 RIP having high homology with other mistletoe lectins. Translation inhibition and diagnostic N-glycosidase activity of articulatin-D illustrate the presence of catalytically active A-chain. Its inability to: (i) bind to acid treated Sepharose CL-6B column, (ii) agglutinate trypsin-treated and untreated RBCs of human (A, B, O, AB), mice, rat, rabbit, buffalo, porcine, pigeon, cock, fish, sheep and goat even with 10mg/ml of purified articulatin-D, (iii) show change in circular dichroism spectra after addition of sugar to the native protein, (iv) bind to different sugars (galactose, lactose, gal-NAc, rhamnose, arabinose, fucose and mannose) immobilized on Sepharose 4B matrix, and (v) show change in enthalpy during titration with galactose confirm that the B-chain of articulatin-D lacks sugar binding activity. Despite this, articulatin-D is highly toxic as characterized with low IC(50) against different cancer cell lines (Jurkat: 0.31 ± 0.02 nM, MOLT-4: 0.51 ± 0.03 nM, U-937: 0.64 ± 0.07 nM, HL-60: 0.79 ± 0.11 nM, Raji: 1.45 ± 0.09 nM). Toxicity of RIPs has been ascribed to the absence/presence of B-chain with sugar binding activity. Identification of articulatin-D, the first cytotoxic RIP with B-chain lacking sugar binding activity opens new vistas in understanding cytotoxic action of RIPs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sugar as a vehicle for iron fortification.

    PubMed

    Layrisse, M; Martinez-Torres, C; Renzi, M; Velez, F; González, M

    1976-01-01

    Sugar as a vehicle for iron fortification presents several advantages over the other vehicles used in the last three decades. In vitro studies demonstrated that ferrous sulfate added to sugar in proportion of 1 mg to 1 g, respectively, is maintained in the ferrous form for a period of at least 1 year and does not induce adverse changes in the vehicle. Sugar, by itself, carries practically no inhibitors for the absorption of iron. Iron absorption from fortified sugar mixed with vegetals is the same as that of native vegetal iron. The absorption from fortified sugar is increased more than 50% over that observed from native vegetal when it is administered as a drink during the ingestion of a meal. A further increase in absorption was found when fortified sugar was administered with beverages. The mean absorption ratio of fortified sugar given with orange juice, Coca-Cola, and Pepsi-Cola to a reference dose of iron ascorbate was between 0.45 and 0.66, which is more than 3 times the absorption of this iron fortification mixed with vegetals. The mean absorption ratio from coffee was 0.30, and from coffee with milk, 0.15. These data indicate that the fortification of sugar with iron could be a better procedure for the prevention of iron deficiency than the iron fortification of bread and wheat products, from which iron is poorly absorbed. It could be used in developing countries where beverages are highly consumed by the low socioeconomic class. This program could be extended to all sugar consumption or be restricted to soft drinks.

  4. Does information about sugar source influence consumer liking of products made with beet and cane sugars?

    PubMed

    Urbanus, Brittany L; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-11-01

    Beet sugar contains an off-aroma, which was hypothesized to generate expectations on the acceptability of a product made with beet sugar. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the impact of information about the sugar source (beet vs. cane) on the overall liking of an orange-flavored beverage. One hundred panelists evaluated an orange-flavored powdered beverage mix and beverage made with beet and cane sugars using a 5-phase testing protocol involving a tetrad test and hedonic ratings performed under blind and informed conditions. Tetrad test results indicated that there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the beverage mix made with beet sugar and cane sugar; however, no difference was found between the beverage made with beet sugar and cane sugar. Hedonic ratings revealed the significance of information conditions on the panelists evaluation of sugar (F = 24.67, P < 0.001); however, no difference in the liking was identified for the beverage mix or beverage. Average hedonic scores were higher under informed condition compared to blind condition for all products, possibly because labels tend to reduce uncertainty about a product. Results from this study are representative of the responses from the general population and suggest that they are not affected by sugar source information in a beverage product. Based on concerns with the use of beet sugar expressed in the popular press, there may be a subgroup of the population that has a preconceived bias about sugar sources due to their prior experiences and knowledge and, thus, would be influenced by labels indicating the sugar source used in a product. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. [Sugar substitutes in the diabetic diet].

    PubMed

    Mehnert, H

    1976-01-01

    The decreased glucsoe utilization in diabetes mellitus justifies the use of sugar substitutes ("diabetic sugar") if two conditions are fulfilled: 1)The sugar substitute should be a carbohydrate which does not lead, or only to a slight degree, to hyperglycaemia and thus, in this respect, differs distinctly from sugars such as glucose and saccharose. 2) The sugar substitute must not cause undesired side-effects. The absorption, utilization and side-effects of the sugar substitutes fructose, sorbitol and xylitol were investigated. They were found to be more slowly absorbed than glucose and thus to offer the advantage of better utilization under conditions of limited insulin production. However, the particularly slow passive absorption of sorbitol and xylitol can sometimes be a disadvantage, since osmotic diarrhoea may occur after administration of high oral doses. The sugar substitutes enter the metabolism enzymatically and are utilized mainly in the liver. The peripheral state was investigated after intravenous, intraduodenal and oral administration of glucose and fructose to healthy subjects. Liver metabolism was examined (Dietze) by comparing hepatic venous and arterial concentrations after intravenous administration of the sugars. Also, diabetic patients received glucose and fructose orally. As previously demonstrated, the investigations using several techniques showed a smaller influence on blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations after administration of fructose, sorbitol and xylitol than after glucose. If no metabolic changes occur after intravenous administration of high doses, no such changes need be expected after oral administration of small doses. Nor did measurements in hepatic venous blood (Dietze) show any marked effect of fructose on the blood glucose level. The healthy subjects showed no significant changes in blood glucose or serum insulin concentration after either intraduodenal or oral administration of fructose, whereas they showed a

  6. Knoevenagel Reaction of Unprotected Sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrmann, Marie-Christine

    The Knoevenagel reaction of unprotected sugars was investigated in the 1950s using zinc chloride as promoter. The so-called Garcia Gonzalez reaction had been almost forgotten for 50 years, until the emergence of new water tolerant catalysts having Lewis acid behavior. The reaction was thus reinvestigated and optimal conditions have been found to prepare trihydroxylated furan derivatives from pentose or β-tetrahydrofuranylfuran from hexoses with non-cyclic β-keto ester or β-diketones. Other valuable compounds such as β-linked tetrahydrobenzofuranyl glycosides or hydroxyalkyl-3,3,6,6,-tetramethyl-3,4,5,6,7,9-hexahydro-1H-xanthene-1,8(2H)-dione can be obtained using cyclic β-dicarbonylic derivatives. Apart from one report in the 1950s, the Knoevenagel reaction of unprotected carbohydrate in basic condition has been studied only in the mid-1980s to prepare C-glycosyl barbiturates from barbituric acids and, later on, from non-cyclic β-diketones, β-C-glycosidic ketones. The efficient method exploited to prepare such compounds has found an industrial development in cosmetics.

  7. Interstellar Glycolaldehyde: The First Sugar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Lovas, F. J.; Jewell, P. R.

    2000-09-01

    Interstellar glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO) has been detected in emission toward the Galactic center source Sagittarius B2(N) by means of millimeter-wave rotational transitions. Glycolaldehyde is an important biomarker since it is structurally the simplest member of the monosaccharide sugars that heretofore have gone undetected in interstellar clouds. There is no consensus as to how any such large complex molecules are formed in the interstellar clouds. It may be that the typical environment of dense interstellar clouds is favorable to glycolaldehyde synthesis by means of the polymerization of formaldehyde (H2CO) molecules either on grain surfaces or in the gas phase. Alternatively, we speculate that glycolaldehyde and other complex molecules may undergo assembly from functional molecular groups on grain surfaces. Utilizing common chemical precursors, a chance process could account for the high degree of isomerism observed in complex interstellar molecules (e.g., methyl formate, acetic acid, and glycolaldehyde). This work suggests that the phenomenon of isomerism be investigated further as a means of potentially constraining interstellar chemistry routes for those individual sources where the condition of good source-beam coupling can be achieved.

  8. A common pathway for O-linked protein-glycosylation and synthesis of capsule in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Lees-Miller, Robert G; Iwashkiw, Jeremy A; Scott, Nichollas E; Seper, Andrea; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Schild, Stefan; Feldman, Mario F

    2013-09-01

    Multi-drug resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii are increasingly being isolated in hospitals worldwide. Among the virulence factors identified in this bacterium there is a general O-glycosylation system that appears to be important for biofilm formation and virulence, and the capsular polysaccharide, which is essential for resistance to complement killing. In this work, we identified a locus that is responsible for the synthesis of the O-pentasaccharide found on the glycoproteins. Besides the enzymes required for the assembly of the glycan, additional proteins typically involved in polymerization and transport of capsule were identified within or adjacently to the locus. Mutagenesis of PglC, the initiating glycosyltransferase prevented the synthesis of both glycoproteins and capsule, resulting in abnormal biofilm structures and attenuated virulence in mice. These results, together with the structural analysis of A. baumannii 17978 capsular polysaccharide via NMR, demonstrated that the pentasaccharides that decorate the glycoproteins are also the building blocks for capsule biosynthesis. Two linked subunits, but not longer glycan chains, were detected on proteins via MS. The discovery of a bifurcated pathway for O-glycosylation and capsule synthesis not only provides insight into the biology of A. baumannii but also identifies potential novel candidates for intervention against this emerging pathogen.

  9. Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... sugar levels at home using a blood glucose meter, which is a computerized device that measures the ... a testing strip that goes into the glucose meter, and the blood glucose reading appears on a ...

  10. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    DOEpatents

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin [Lakewood, CO; Elander, Richard [Evergreen, CO; Hennessey, Susan M [Avondale, PA

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  11. Blood Sugar Testing: Why, When and How

    MedlinePlus

    ... monitoring blood glucose — provides useful information for diabetes management. It can help you: Judge how well you're reaching overall treatment goals Understand how diet and exercise affect blood sugar ...

  12. Hybrids of sugar pine by embryo culture

    Treesearch

    E. C. Stone; J. W. Duffield

    1950-01-01

    A modified embryo culture technique was used to facilitate germination of seed obtained after pollinating sugar pine with pollen from blister rust- resistant Armand and Korean pines. Resulting seedlings appear to be hybrids.

  13. Difference thresholds for added sugar in chocolate-flavoured milk: Recommendations for gradual sugar reduction.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Denize; Reis, Felipe; Deliza, Rosires; Rosenthal, Amauri; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2016-11-01

    Reducing the concentration of added sugar in processed foods is one of the most realistic strategies to reduce the intake of this nutrient in the short-term. In order to be effective, gradual sugar reduction strategies need to determine the maximum sugar reduction that can be unnoticed by consumers. In this context, the present work aimed at providing recommendations for gradual sugar reduction in chocolate-flavoured milk by determining difference thresholds for added sugar and evaluating consumers' sensory and hedonic perception of reduced-sugar products. Five studies were conducted with 50 consumers to determine five sequential difference thresholds. In each study consumers completed six paired-comparison tests. Each pair was composed of a reference chocolate-flavoured milk and a sample that was reduced in added sugar from the reference. Difference thresholds, corresponding to the smallest reduction in sugar concentration that is noticed by consumers, were determined using survival analysis. Then, a study was carried to with 100 consumers to evaluate their sensory and hedonic perception of chocolate-flavoured milk samples with different added sugar concentrations. Results suggested that sequential sugar reductions can be set at 6.7% without affecting consumers' sensory and hedonic perception. Sugar reduction in chocolate-flavoured milk without affecting consumers' perception seems feasible and easy to implement. The approach of the present work could be extended to design recommendations for gradual reduction of the added sugar concentration of other industrialized products, contributing to the development of more healthful products that meet current nutritional recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A PHILIPPINE SUGAR CANE DISTRICT: SPATIAL PHENOMENA AFFECTING SUGAR CANE PRODUCTION ON THE HACIENDAS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The study primarily involves the analysis of physical and cultural factors affecting sugar cane yield although it will also further an understanding...of the spatial organization of sugar cane production. The study is based on the Victorias Milling District, which covers approximately 37,000...hectares in northern Negros Occidental Province in the central Philippines. A simple model was used to describe the area’s spatial organization of sugar

  15. Digestion and absorption of sugars and sugar substitutes in rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Y; Yamada, K; Hosoya, N; Moriuchi, S

    1986-02-01

    The bioavailability of newly developed sugar substitutes was observed by measuring the transmural potential difference (delta PD) evoked by Na+-dependent active transport of glucose, which is supposed to be produced by the hydrolysis of sugar substitutes. delta PD was measured using everted intestinal sac prepared from jejunum of adult rats and compared with the digestibility of sugar substitutes in the mucosal homogenate of everted sac. delta PDs evoked by glucose, maltose or maltosylfructose had almost the same levels, however, the delta PD evoked by sucrose was a little lower. delta PDs evoked by maltitol or palatinose were low, and delta PDs evoked by fructo-oligosaccharides were negligible. The hydrolyzing activities of these sugars and sugar substitutes by the mucosal homogenate were correlated with the delta PDs. A significant positive correlation was observed between delta PDmax of various sugars and sugar substitutes and the Vmax of their corresponding hydrolyzing activities. Also, a significant positive correlation was observed between Kt and Km values of these sugars. These results suggest that the absorption of sugar substitutes is dependent on digestibility by membrane digestive enzymes.

  16. Effect on Caries of Restricting Sugars Intake

    PubMed Central

    Moynihan, P.J.; Kelly, S.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of studies in humans was conducted to update evidence on the association between the amount of sugars intake and dental caries and on the effect of restricting sugars intake to < 10% and < 5% energy (E) on caries to inform the updating of World Health Organization guidelines on sugars consumption. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and South African Department of Health. Eligible studies reported the absolute amount of sugars and dental caries, measured as prevalence, incidence, or severity. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement, and the evidence was assessed according to GRADE Working Group guidelines. From 5,990 papers identified, 55 studies were eligible – 3 intervention, 8 cohort, 20 population, and 24 cross-sectional. Data variability limited meta-analysis. Of the studies, 42 out of 50 of those in children and 5 out of 5 in adults reported at least one positive association between sugars and caries. There is evidence of moderate quality showing that caries is lower when free-sugars intake is < 10% E. With the < 5% E cut-off, a significant relationship was observed, but the evidence was judged to be of very low quality. The findings are relevant to minimizing caries risk throughout the life course. PMID:24323509

  17. Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

    2014-01-01

    Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing “epidemic” of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers), should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased. PMID:25533007

  18. Microbiological counts during beet sugar extraction.

    PubMed

    Robles-Gancedo, S; López-Díaz, T M; Otero, A

    2009-06-01

    In order to discover the main microbial populations present throughout the process of beet sugar extraction and to identify the steps where possible control measures could be implemented, four Spanish beet sugar extraction factories were investigated. Eighteen stages were sampled at each factory and analyzed for several microbial groups and physicochemical parameters. Beets, cossettes, and diffusion juices were the most contaminated samples during beet sugar extraction, and mesophiles, thermophiles, and yeasts were the most numerous microbiota. Differences in contamination among factories and among stages of the sugar extraction process were statistically significant (P < 0.01). Beets and cossettes showed high numbers of mesophiles and lactic acid bacteria, with gum-forming bacteria and yeasts being at levels of >6 log CFU/g. Diffusion juices were highly contaminated with aerobic mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, and thermophiles. Beet-washing water, equipment, and air were also important sources of contamination; in contrast, diffusion water showed moderate levels of microorganisms due to the acid treatment performed. Gum-forming bacteria, which are present at high levels from the first step of the extraction, survive the diffusion process and remain in the diffusion juice, where they may produce "gums" responsible for obstruction of filters. Thermophiles were present, although at levels lower than expected in most samples. Other microbial groups, particularly yeasts, may also contribute to the destruction of sugar. No biocides were used during the beet sugar extraction in the factories investigated.

  19. Dietary sugar utilisation by putative oral probiotics.

    PubMed

    Stamatova, I; Kari, K; Hervonen, L; Meurman, J H

    2012-09-01

    Probiotic consumption and repeated probiotic intake have shown promising results as adjunct therapies in prevention and alleviation of some chronic disease conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent evidence suggests that probiotics may also be beneficial in preventing oral diseases. An efficient probiotic candidate in the mouth, however, should not impose any risk to oral tissues, such as acid demineralisation of tooth enamel because of sugar fermentation. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the utilisation of some sugars and sugar alcohols by yogurt starter Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains and to assess the influence of these carbohydrate sources on cell surface properties. For comparsion, a commercially available probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, was used. The results showed that lactose, glucose and fructose were readily metabolised by all strains tested. However, strain-specific metabolic patterns were observed when other sugars and sugar alcohols were used as sole carbohydrate source in the growth medium. Surface properties of the bacteria such as hydrophobicity and surface-associated proteins appeared to vary with the carbohydrate content of the growth medium. Based on these results it can be concluded that among the L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains probiotic candidate strains are available that warrant further studies due to their inability to ferment sugars with pronounced cariogenic properties.

  20. [Consumption pattern and recommended intakes of sugar].

    PubMed

    Quiles i Izquierdo, Joan

    2013-07-01

    Sugars are sweet-flavored carbohydrates that provide energy to the body. The adult brain uses about 140 g of glucose per day, amount which can represent up to 50 of the total number of carbohydrates consumed. In our country the sugar in food consumption pattern remains constant, while the consumption of soft drinks has increased in the past four years. The national survey of dietary intake of Spain (ENIDE, 2010-11) estimated that 20% of calories intake comes from carbohydrates called sugars. Sugar consumption has been associated with various pathologies (diabetes, obesity, tooth decay, cardiovascular disease) but these relationships are not consistent enough. Food information through nutritional labeling, including sugars present in food, pretend to protect the consumer health and to guarantee their right to information so they can make their own decisions with criterion. In view of different appraisals and existing studies, and above all, in the absence of a solid scientific evidence that concrete data on which make recommendations, the best nutritional advice for the general population could be a diet varied and balanced with food and nutrients from different sources, combining such a diet with exercise and physical activity. More specifically in terms of moderate consumption of sugar in the previous context of varied and balanced diet is perfectly compatible.

  1. Liquid calories, sugar, and body weight.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam; Bellisle, France

    2007-03-01

    The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been linked to rising rates of obesity in the United States. The standard explanation is that energy-containing liquids are less satiating than are solid foods. However, purely physiologic mechanisms do not fully account for the proposed links between liquid sugar energy and body weight change. First, a reevaluation of published epidemiologic studies of consumption of sweetened beverages and overweight shows that most such studies either are cross-sectional or are based on passive surveillance of temporal trends and thus permit no conclusions about causal links. Second, research evidence comparing the short-term satiating power of different types of liquids and of solids remains inconclusive. Numerous clinical studies have shown that sugar-containing liquids, when consumed in place of usual meals, can lead to a significant and sustained weight loss. The principal ingredient of liquid meal replacement shakes is sugar, often high-fructose corn syrup, which is present in amounts comparable to those in soft drinks. Far from suppressing satiety, one such liquid shake is marketed on the grounds that it helps control hunger and prevents hunger longer when consumed for the purpose of weight loss. These inconsistencies raise the question whether the issue of sugars and body weight should continue to be framed purely in metabolic or physiologic terms. The effect of sugar consumption on body weight can also depend on behavioral intent, context, and the mode of use, availability, and cost of sweetened liquids.

  2. Study of fiber optic sugar sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayanth Kumar, A.; Gowri, N. M.; Venkateswara Raju, R.; Nirmala, G.; Bellubbi, B. S.; Radha Krishna, T.

    2006-08-01

    Over the last two decades, the fiber optic technology has passed through many analytical stages. Some commercially available fiber optic sensors, though in a small way, are being used for automation in mechanical and industrial environments. They are also used for instrumentation and controls. In the present work, an intensity-modulated intrinsic fiber optic sugar sensor is presented. This type of sensor, with slight modification, can be used for on-line determination of the concentration of sugar content in sugarcane juice in sugar industry. In the present set-up, a plastic fiber made of polymethylmethacrylate is used. A portion of the cladding (1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm) at the mid-point along the length of the fiber is removed. This portion is immersed in sugar solution of known concentration and refractive index. At one end of the fiber an 850 nm source is used and at the other end a power meter is connected. By varying the concentration of sugar solution, the output power is noted. These studies are made due to the change in refractive index of the fluid. The device was found to be very sensitive which is free from EMI and shock hazards, stable and repeatable and they can be remotely interfaced with a computer to give on-line measurements and thus become useful for application in sugar industries.

  3. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    PubMed Central

    Tandel, Kirtida R.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from “safe under all conditions” to “unsafe at any dose”. Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes. PMID:22025850

  4. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits.

    PubMed

    Tandel, Kirtida R

    2011-10-01

    Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from "safe under all conditions" to "unsafe at any dose". Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes.

  5. Aerosol Chemistry of Furfural and Sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srithawirat, T.; Brimblecombe, P.

    2008-12-01

    Furfural and sugars (as levoglucosan equivalent) are derived from biomass burning and contribute to aerosol composition. This study examined the potential of furfural and levoglucosan to be tracers of biomass burning. Furfural is likely to be oxidized quickly so comparison with levoglucosan may give a sense of the age of the aerosols in forest fire smoke. However, few furfural emissions are available for biomass combustion. Furfural and sugars were determined in coarse aerosols (>2.4μm aerodynamic diameter) and fine aerosols (<2.4μm aerodynamic diameter) collected in 24 hour periods during different seasons in the United Kingdom and PM10 collected from Thailand and Malaysia including haze episodes. Also total suspended particulate matter (TSP) samples were collected from Taiwan. Furfural and sugars dominated in fine fractions, especially in the UK autumn. Sugars were found at 5.96-18.37 nmol m-3 in fine mode and 1.36-5.75 nmol m-3 in coarse mode aerosols in the UK. Furfural was found at 0.18-0.91 nmol m-3 and 0.05-0.51 nmol m-3 respectively in the same aerosols. Sugars were a dominant contributor to aerosol derived from biomass burning. Sugars and furfural were about 10 and 20 times higher during haze episodes in Malaysia. Laboratory experimental simulation suggested furfural is more rapid destroyed by UV and sunlight than levoglucosan.

  6. Sugar Restriction Leads to Increased Ad Libitum Sugar Intake by Overweight Adolescents in an Experimental Test Meal Setting.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Gillian A; Black, David S; Huh, Jimi; Davis, Jaimie N; Unger, Jennifer; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2017-07-01

    The impact of sugar restriction on subsequent sugar intake by overweight adolescents is unknown. Our aim was to examine the effect of sugar restriction on subsequent ad libitum sugar intake by overweight adolescents and whether habitual sugar intake and impulsivity influence the effect of sugar restriction on subsequent sugar intake. This was an in-laboratory crossover feeding trial with sugar-exposure and sugar-restriction conditions. Eighty-seven overweight Latino and African-American adolescents underwent both meal conditions in two separate 8-hour in-laboratory visits. Participants had access to ad libitum snack trays for 3 hours after the condition-specific meals. Ad libitum sugar intake during the snack period was measured at each visit. Habitual sugar intake and impulsivity were assessed at baseline. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to examine the within-person effect of meal condition on ad libitum sugar intake. Mixed models were used to examine the moderating effects of habitual sugar intake and impulsivity on the meal condition-ad libitum sugar intake relationship. Participants consumed more ad libitum sugar during the snack period in the sugar-restriction condition than in the sugar-exposure condition (sugar restriction=78.63±38.84 g, sugar exposure=70.86±37.73 g; F=9.64, P=0.002). There was no relationship between habitual sugar intake and how much ad libitum sugar participants consumed during either condition. Higher impulsivity was associated with greater ad libitum sugar intake during both conditions (sugar restriction: b=.029, standard error=.01, P<0.05; sugar exposure: b=.034, standard error=.01, P<0.05). Findings suggest that overweight adolescents restricted from sugar intake consume greater amounts of sugar when they are later given access to high-sugar foods. Overweight adolescents with higher impulsivity appear to consume greater amounts of sugar regardless of previous levels of sugar consumption. Compensatory sugar intake

  7. Kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed cross-linking of feruloylated arabinan from sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz Abang; Arnous, Anis; Holck, Jesper; Meyer, Anne S

    2011-11-09

    Ferulic acid (FA) groups esterified to the arabinan side chains of pectic polysaccharides can be oxidatively cross-linked in vitro by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) catalysis in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) to form ferulic acid dehydrodimers (diFAs). The present work investigated whether the kinetics of HRP catalyzed cross-linking of FA esterified to α-(1,5)-linked arabinans are affected by the length of the arabinan chains carrying the feruloyl substitutions. The kinetics of the HRP-catalyzed cross-linking of four sets of arabinan samples from sugar beet pulp, having different molecular weights and hence different degrees of polymerization, were monitored by the disappearance of FA absorbance at 316 nm. MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis confirmed that the sugar beet arabinans were feruloyl-substituted, and HPLC analysis verified that the amounts of diFAs increased when FA levels decreased as a result of the enzymatic oxidation treatment with HRP and H(2)O(2). At equimolar levels of FA (0.0025-0.05 mM) in the arabinan samples, the initial rates of the HRP-catalyzed cross-linking of the longer chain arabinans were slower than those of the shorter chain arabinans. The lower initial rates may be the result of the slower movement of larger molecules coupled with steric phenomena, making the required initial reaction of two FAs on longer chain arabinans slower than on shorter arabinans.

  8. 27 CFR 24.181 - Use of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of sugar. 24.181... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Wine § 24.181 Use of sugar. Only sugar, as defined in § 24.10, may be used in the production of standard wine. The quantity of sugar used will be determined...

  9. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty sugars. An importer or the importer's agent must...

  10. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a total...

  11. 27 CFR 24.181 - Use of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of sugar. 24.181... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.181 Use of sugar. Only sugar, as defined in § 24.10, may be used in the production of standard wine. The quantity of sugar used will be determined...

  12. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as defined...

  13. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as defined...

  14. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a total...

  15. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as defined...

  16. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a full...

  17. 27 CFR 24.181 - Use of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of sugar. 24.181... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Wine § 24.181 Use of sugar. Only sugar, as defined in § 24.10, may be used in the production of standard wine. The quantity of sugar used will be determined...

  18. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a full...

  19. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a total...

  20. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty sugars. An importer or the importer's agent must...

  1. 27 CFR 24.181 - Use of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of sugar. 24.181... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.181 Use of sugar. Only sugar, as defined in § 24.10, may be used in the production of standard wine. The quantity of sugar used will be determined...

  2. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as defined...

  3. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty sugars. An importer or the importer's agent must...

  4. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a full...

  5. 7 CFR 1435.604 - Eligible sugar buyer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible sugar buyer. 1435.604 Section 1435.604... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Feedstock Flexibility Program § 1435.604 Eligible sugar buyer. (a) To be considered an eligible sugar buyer, the bioenergy producer...

  6. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a full...

  7. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty sugars. An importer or the importer's agent must...

  8. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as defined...

  9. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty sugars. An importer or the importer's agent must...

  10. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a total...

  11. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a full...

  12. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a total...

  13. 27 CFR 24.181 - Use of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of sugar. 24.181... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.181 Use of sugar. Only sugar, as defined in § 24.10, may be used in the production of standard wine. The quantity of sugar used will be determined...

  14. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this section. (a) Sugar beet extract flavor base is...

  15. [Sugar substitute products impact on oral fluid biochemical properties].

    PubMed

    Tsapok, P I; Imbriakov, K V; Chuchkova, M R

    2012-01-01

    Sugar substitute products impact on oral fluid protein and carbohydrate content, as well as oxidative balance were studied in 60 medical school students in compare with conventional sugar. Sugar intake proved to cause cariesogenic carbohydrate metabolism disorders in oral fluid, intensification of lipoperoxidation and decrease in antioxidation activity. Sugar substitute products help to prevent dental decay.

  16. Synthesis of Natural O-Linked Carba-Disaccharides, (+)- and (−)-Pericosine E, and Their Analogues as α-Glucosidase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Usami, Yoshihide; Mizuki, Koji; Kawahata, Rikiya; Shibano, Makio; Sekine, Atsuko; Yoneyama, Hiroki; Harusawa, Shinya

    2017-01-01

    Pericosine E (6), a metabolite of Periconia byssoides OUPS-N133 was originally isolated from the sea hare Aplysia kurodai, which exists as an enantiomeric mixture in nature. The enantiospecific syntheses of both enantiomers of Periconia byssoides OUPS-N133 has been achieved, along with six stereoisomers, using a common simple synthetic strategy. For these efficient syntheses, highly regio- and steroselective processes for the preparation of bromohydrin and anti-epoxide intermediates were applied. In order to access the unique O-linked carbadisaccharide structure, coupling of chlorohydrin as a donor and anti-epoxide as an acceptor was achieved using catalytic BF3·Et2O. Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited selectively significant inhibitory activity against α-glycosidase derived from yeast. The strongest analog showed almost 50 times the activity of the positive control, deoxynojirimycin. PMID:28124983

  17. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining... cane sugar into liquid refined sugar. ...

  18. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining... cane sugar into liquid refined sugar. ...

  19. The effect of ammonia on the O-linked glycosylation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor produced by chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, D.C.; Goochee, C.F.

    1995-07-05

    Ammonium ion concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 mM are shown to significantly reduce the sialylation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) produced by recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells. Specifically, the degree of completion of the final reaction in the O-linked glycosylation pathway, the addition of sialic acid in an {alpha}(2,6) linkage to N-acetylgalactosamine, is reduced by NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentrations of as low as 2 mM. The effect of ammonia on sialylation is rapid, sustained, and does not affect the secretion rate of G-CSF. Additionally, the effect can be mimicked using the weak base chloroquine, suggesting that the effect is related to the weak base characteristics of ammonia. In support of this hypothesis, experiments using brefeldin A suggest that the addition of sialic acid in an {alpha}(2,6) linkage to N-acetylgalactosamine occurs in the trans-Golgi compartment prior to the trans-Golgi network, which would be expected under normal conditions to have a slightly acidic pH in the range from 6.5 to 6.75. Ammonium ion concentrations of 10mM would be expected to reduce significantly the differences in pH between acidic intracellular compartments and the cytoplasm. The pH-activity profile for the CHO O-linked {alpha}(2,6)sialytransferase using monosialylated G-CSF as a substrate reveals a twofold decrease in enzymatic activity across the pH range from 6.75 to 7.0. Mathematical modeling of this sialylation reaction supports the hypothesis that this twofold decrease in sialyltransferase activity resulting from an ammonia-induced increase in trans-Golgi pH could produce the observed decrease in G-CSF sialylation.

  20. Determination of endotoxins in sugar with the Limulus test.

    PubMed

    Haskå, G; Nystrand, R

    1979-12-01

    The Limulus amebocyte lysate test has been used for determination of pyrogens in sugar of different qualities. All the samples of domestic white sugar and beet raw sugar produced in Sweden during 1976 had a very low content of endotoxins, less than 10 ng/g of sugar. Imported cane raw sugar was, however, highly contaminated. The highest value obtained corresponds to about 100 mg of Escherichia coli endotoxin per g of raw sugar. Such crude sugar cannot, even after refining, be used for medical purposes. Instead, Swedish beet sugar is used as the raw material for production of invert sugar solutions for parenteral administration. The amount of endotoxin in this sugar is less than 1 ng/g.

  1. A trial of sugar-free or sugar-sweetened beverages and body weight in children.

    PubMed

    de Ruyter, Janne C; Olthof, Margreet R; Seidell, Jacob C; Katan, Martijn B

    2012-10-11

    The consumption of beverages that contain sugar is associated with overweight, possibly because liquid sugars do not lead to a sense of satiety, so the consumption of other foods is not reduced. However, data are lacking to show that the replacement of sugar-containing beverages with noncaloric beverages diminishes weight gain. We conducted an 18-month trial involving 641 primarily normal-weight children from 4 years 10 months to 11 years 11 months of age. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 250 ml (8 oz) per day of a sugar-free, artificially sweetened beverage (sugar-free group) or a similar sugar-containing beverage that provided 104 kcal (sugar group). Beverages were distributed through schools. At 18 months, 26% of the children had stopped consuming the beverages; the data from children who did not complete the study were imputed. The z score for the body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) increased on average by 0.02 SD units in the sugar-free group and by 0.15 SD units in the sugar group; the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the difference was -0.21 to -0.05. Weight increased by 6.35 kg in the sugar-free group as compared with 7.37 kg in the sugar group (95% CI for the difference, -1.54 to -0.48). The skinfold-thickness measurements, waist-to-height ratio, and fat mass also increased significantly less in the sugar-free group. Adverse events were minor. When we combined measurements at 18 months in 136 children who had discontinued the study with those in 477 children who completed the study, the BMI z score increased by 0.06 SD units in the sugar-free group and by 0.12 SD units in the sugar group (P=0.06). Masked replacement of sugar-containing beverages with noncaloric beverages reduced weight gain and fat accumulation in normal-weight children. (Funded by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development and others; DRINK ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00893529.).

  2. Pomegranate juice sugar fraction reduces macrophage oxidative state, whereas white grape juice sugar fraction increases it.

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, Orit; Howell, Amy; Aviram, Michael

    2006-09-01

    The antiatherogenic properties of pomegranate juice (PJ) were attributed to its antioxidant potency and to its capacity to decrease macrophage oxidative stress, the hallmark of early atherogeneis. PJ polyphenols and sugar-containing polyphenolic anthocyanins were shown to confer PJ its antioxidant capacity. In the present study, we questioned whether PJ simple or complex sugars contribute to the antioxidative properties of PJ in comparison to white grape juice (WGJ) sugars. Whole PJ decreased cellular peroxide levels in J774A.1 macrophage cell-line by 23% more than PJ polyphenol fraction alone. Thus, we next determined the contribution of the PJ sugar fraction to the decrease in macrophage oxidative state. Increasing concentrations of the PJ sugar fraction resulted in a dose-dependent decrement in macrophage peroxide levels, up to 72%, compared to control cells. On the contrary, incubation of the cells with WGJ sugar fraction at the same concentrations resulted in a dose-dependent increment in peroxide levels by up to 37%. The two sugar fractions from PJ and from WGJ showed opposite effects (antioxidant for PJ and pro-oxidant for WGJ) also in mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) from control as well as from streptozotocin-induced diabetic Balb/C mice. PJ sugar consumption by diabetic mice for 10 days resulted in a small but significant decrement in their peritoneal macrophage total peroxide levels and an increment in cellular glutathione content, compared to MPM harvested from control diabetic mice administrated with water. In contrast, WGJ sugar consumption by diabetic mice resulted in a 22% increment in macrophage total peroxide levels and a 45% decrement in cellular glutathione content. Paraoxonase 2 activity in macrophages increases under oxidative stress conditions. Indeed, macrophage paraoxonase 2 activity was decreased after PJ sugars supplementation, but increased after WGJ sugars supplementation. We conclude that PJ sugar fraction, unlike WGJ sugar fraction

  3. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

  4. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

  5. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

  6. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

  7. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

  8. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising the...

  9. By-products of the cane sugar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Paturav, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book discussed the inroads made in the sugar trade by the increasing consumption of high fructose corn syrup and the rapidly decreasing U.S. sugar imports that have forced many cane sugar-producing countries to reconsider their development policy and give more attention to improved efficiency and a more productive utilization of cane sugar by-products. Changes in sugar technology are addressed and the general improvement of biotechnology is described.

  10. Health supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors.

  11. Adjusting the Chain Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloc, Z.; Korf, J.; Kavan, P.

    The adjustment (modification) deals with gear chains intermediating (transmitting) motion transfer between the sprocket wheels on parallel shafts. The purpose of the adjustments of chain gear is to remove the unwanted effects by using the chain guide on the links (sliding guide rail) ensuring a smooth fit of the chain rollers into the wheel tooth gap.

  12. Sugar addiction: pushing the drug-sugar analogy to the limit.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Serge H; Guillem, Karine; Vandaele, Youna

    2013-07-01

    To review research that tests the validity of the analogy between addictive drugs, like cocaine, and hyperpalatable foods, notably those high in added sugar (i.e., sucrose). Available evidence in humans shows that sugar and sweetness can induce reward and craving that are comparable in magnitude to those induced by addictive drugs. Although this evidence is limited by the inherent difficulty of comparing different types of rewards and psychological experiences in humans, it is nevertheless supported by recent experimental research on sugar and sweet reward in laboratory rats. Overall, this research has revealed that sugar and sweet reward can not only substitute to addictive drugs, like cocaine, but can even be more rewarding and attractive. At the neurobiological level, the neural substrates of sugar and sweet reward appear to be more robust than those of cocaine (i.e., more resistant to functional failures), possibly reflecting past selective evolutionary pressures for seeking and taking foods high in sugar and calories. The biological robustness in the neural substrates of sugar and sweet reward may be sufficient to explain why many people can have difficultly to control the consumption of foods high in sugar when continuously exposed to them.

  13. Stem girdling manipulates leaf sugar concentrations and anthocyanin expression in sugar maples trees during autumn

    Treesearch

    P.F. Murakami; P.G. Schaberg; J.B. Shane

    2008-01-01

    To better understand the effects of sugar accumulation on red color development of foliage during autumn, we compared carbohydrate concentration, anthocyanin expression and xylem pressure potential of foliage on girdled versus non-girdled (control) branches of 12 mature, open-grown sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) trees. Half of the study trees...

  14. Modeling sugar content of farmer-managed sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We measured or estimated leaf and root physical and chemical traits of spatio-temporally heterogeneous field-grown sugar beet throughout its ontogeny during three growing seasons. The objective was to quantify the impact of temporal changes in these traits on root sugar content [S(R); g 100g**-1 roo...

  15. Development of real-time PCR method for the detection and the quantification of a new endogenous reference gene in sugar beet "Beta vulgaris L.": GMO application.

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Maher; Alaya, Akram; Ali, Imen Ben Haj; Hafsa, Ahmed Ben; Nabi, Nesrine; Bérard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Skhiri, Fethia; Saïd, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : Here, we describe a new developed quantitative real-time PCR method for the detection and quantification of a new specific endogenous reference gene used in GMO analysis. The key requirement of this study was the identification of a new reference gene used for the differentiation of the four genomic sections of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) (Beta, Corrollinae, Nanae and Procumbentes) suitable for quantification of genetically modified sugar beet. A specific qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was designed to detect the sugar beet amplifying a region of the adenylate transporter (ant) gene only from the species of the genomic section I of the genus Beta (cultivated and wild relatives) and showing negative PCR results for 7 species of the 3 other sections, 8 related species and 20 non-sugar beet plants. The sensitivity of the assay was 15 haploid genome copies (HGC). A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assay was also performed, having high linearity (R (2) > 0.994) over sugar beet standard concentrations ranging from 20,000 to 10 HGC of the sugar beet DNA per PCR. The QRT-PCR assay described in this study was specific and more sensitive for sugar beet quantification compared to the validated test previously reported in the European Reference Laboratory. This assay is suitable for GMO quantification in routine analysis from a wide variety of matrices.

  16. Closed Circular Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caglayan, Günhan

    2016-01-01

    A Steiner chain is defined as the sequence of n circles that are all tangent to two given non-intersecting circles. A closed chain, in particular, is one in which every circle in the sequence is tangent to the previous and next circles of the chain. In a closed Steiner chain the first and the "n"th circles of the chain are also tangent…

  17. Closed Circular Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caglayan, Günhan

    2016-01-01

    A Steiner chain is defined as the sequence of n circles that are all tangent to two given non-intersecting circles. A closed chain, in particular, is one in which every circle in the sequence is tangent to the previous and next circles of the chain. In a closed Steiner chain the first and the "n"th circles of the chain are also tangent…

  18. Manufacture of fermentable sugar solutions from sugar cane bagasse hydrolyzed with phosphoric acid at atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Gámez, Sara; Ramírez, José A; Garrote, Gil; Vázquez, Manuel

    2004-06-30

    Sugar cane bagasse, a renewable and cheap bioresource, was hydrolyzed at 100 degrees C using phosphoric acid at different concentrations (2, 4, or 6%) and reaction times (0-300 min) to obtain fermentable sugar solutions, which have a high concentration of sugars (carbon source for microorganism growth) and a low concentration of growth inhibitors (acetic acid and furfural). Xylose, glucose, arabinose, acetic acid, and furfural were determined following the hydrolysis. Kinetic parameters of mathematical models for predicting these compounds in the hydrolysates were obtained. Derived parameters such as efficiency of hydrolysis or purity of hydrolysates were considered to select as optimal conditions 6% phosphoric acid at 100 degrees C for 300 min. Using these conditions, 21.4 g of sugars L(-)(1) and <4 g of inhibitors L(-)(1) were obtained from the hydrolysis with a water/solid ratio of 8 g of water g(-)(1) of sugar cane bagasse on a dry basis.

  19. Genetic transformation of the sugar beet plastome.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Francesca; Wang, Yongxin; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Arcioni, Sergio; Bellucci, Michele

    2009-02-01

    It is very important for the application of chloroplast engineering to extend the range of species in which this technology can be achieved. Here, we describe the development of a chloroplast transformation system for the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris, Sugar Beet Group) by biolistic bombardment of leaf petioles. Homoplasmic plastid-transformed plants of breeding line Z025 were obtained. Transformation was achieved using a vector that targets genes to the rrn16/rps12 intergenic region of the sugar beet plastome, employing the aadA gene as a selectable marker against spectinomycin and the gfp gene for visual screening of plastid transformants. gfp gene transcription and protein expression were shown in transplastomic plants. Detection of GFP in Comassie blue-stained gels suggested high GFP levels. Microscopy revealed GFP fluorescence within the chloroplasts. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of engineering the sugar beet chloroplast genome; this technology provides new opportunities for the genetic improvement of this crop and for social acceptance of genetically modified sugar beet plants.

  20. Preparation of sugar-salt solutions.

    PubMed

    de Zoysa, I; Kirkwood, B; Feachem, R; Lindsay-Smith, E

    1984-01-01

    Correct measurement techniques are essential for the preparation of oral rehydration solutions but dangerous or ineffective solutions may also result from the inherent variability of the method and ingredients. This paper describes an experimental study conducted in Zimbabwe to compare the reliability of three methods for measuring sugar and salt in a 750 ml bottle of water: (i) 6 level teaspoons of sugar and half a level teaspoon of salt, (ii) 3 heaped teaspoons of sugar and half a level teaspoon of salt and (iii) 3 level measures of sugar and salt with a double-ended spoon. The teaspoon and 750 ml bottle methods produced reliable results. Heaped teaspoons of sugar gave more reproducible sucrose concentrations than level teaspoons . The double-ended spoon was not more reliable and gave disquietingly high sodium concentrations with refined salt. Under field conditions the level teaspoon method gave more variable results but still within acceptable limits. It is concluded that a domestic teaspoon and a standard 750 ml bottle can be recommended for the preparation of home-based oral rehydration solutions in rural Zimbabwe.

  1. Decontamination of sugar syrup by pulsed light.

    PubMed

    Chaine, Aline; Levy, Caroline; Lacour, Bernard; Riedel, Christophe; Carlin, Frédéric

    2012-05-01

    The pulsed light produced by xenon flash lamps was applied to 65 to 67 °Brix sugar syrups artificially contaminated with suspensions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and with spores of Bacillus subtilis, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, and Aspergillus niger. The emitted pulsed light contained 18.5 % UV radiation. At least 3-log reductions of S. cerevisiae, B. subtilis, G. stearothermophilus, and A. acidoterrestris suspended in 3-mm-deep volumes of sugar syrup were obtained with a fluence of the incident pulsed light equal to or less than 1.8 J/cm(2), and the same results were obtained for B. subtilis and A. acidoterrestris suspended in 10-mm-deep volumes of sugar syrup. A. niger spores would require a more intense treatment; for instance, the maximal log reduction was close to 1 with a fluence of the incident pulsed light of 1.2 J/cm(2). A flowthrough reactor with a flow rate of 320 ml/min and a flow gap of 2.15 mm was designed for pulsed light treatment of sugar syrup. Using this device, a 3-log reduction of A. acidoterrestris spores was obtained with 3 to 4 pulses of incident pulsed light at 0.91 J/cm(2) per sugar syrup volume.

  2. Optimal concentration for sugar transport in plants

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Savage, Jessica A.; Holbrook, N. Michele

    2013-01-01

    Vascular plants transport energy in the form of sugars from the leaves where they are produced to sites of active growth. The mass flow of sugars through the phloem vascular system is determined by the sap flow rate and the sugar concentration. If the concentration is low, little energy is transferred from source to sink. If it is too high, sap viscosity impedes flow. An interesting question is therefore at which concentration is the sugar flow optimal. Optimization of sugar flow and transport efficiency predicts optimal concentrations of 23.5 per cent (if the pressure differential driving the flow is independent of concentration) and 34.5 per cent (if the pressure is proportional to concentration). Data from more than 50 experiments (41 species) collected from the literature show an average concentration in the range from 18.2 per cent (all species) to 21.1 per cent (active loaders), suggesting that the phloem vasculature is optimized for efficient transport at constant pressure and that active phloem loading may have developed to increase transport efficiency. PMID:23516065

  3. Optimal concentration for sugar transport in plants.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kaare H; Savage, Jessica A; Holbrook, N Michele

    2013-06-06

    Vascular plants transport energy in the form of sugars from the leaves where they are produced to sites of active growth. The mass flow of sugars through the phloem vascular system is determined by the sap flow rate and the sugar concentration. If the concentration is low, little energy is transferred from source to sink. If it is too high, sap viscosity impedes flow. An interesting question is therefore at which concentration is the sugar flow optimal. Optimization of sugar flow and transport efficiency predicts optimal concentrations of 23.5 per cent (if the pressure differential driving the flow is independent of concentration) and 34.5 per cent (if the pressure is proportional to concentration). Data from more than 50 experiments (41 species) collected from the literature show an average concentration in the range from 18.2 per cent (all species) to 21.1 per cent (active loaders), suggesting that the phloem vasculature is optimized for efficient transport at constant pressure and that active phloem loading may have developed to increase transport efficiency.

  4. Post-oral appetite stimulation by sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs.

    PubMed

    Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2013-10-01

    Post-oral sugar actions enhance the intake of and preference for sugar-rich foods, a process referred to as appetition. Here, we investigated the role of intestinal sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) in sugar appetition in C57BL/6J mice using sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs that differ in their affinity for SGLT1 and SGLT3. In experiments 1 and 2, food-restricted mice were trained (1 h/day) to consume a flavored saccharin solution [conditioned stimulus (CS-)] paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of water and a different flavored solution (CS+) paired with infusions of 8 or 12% sugars (glucose, fructose, and galactose) or sugar analogs (α-methyl-D-glucopyranoside, MDG; 3-O-methyl-D-glucopyranoside, OMG). Subsequent two-bottle CS+ vs. CS- choice tests were conducted without coinfusions. Infusions of the SGLT1 ligands glucose, galactose, MDG, and OMG stimulated CS+ licking above CS- levels. However, only glucose, MDG, and galactose conditioned significant CS+ preferences, with the SGLT3 ligands (glucose, MDG) producing the strongest preferences. Fructose, which is not a ligand for SGLTs, failed to stimulate CS+ intake or preference. Experiment 3 revealed that IG infusion of MDG+phloridzin (an SGLT1/3 antagonist) blocked MDG appetition, whereas phloridzin had minimal effects on glucose-induced appetition. However, adding phloretin (a GLUT2 antagonist) to the glucose+phloridzin infusion blocked glucose appetition. Taken together, these findings suggest that humoral signals generated by intestinal SGLT1 and SGLT3, and to a lesser degree, GLUT2, mediate post-oral sugar appetition in mice. The MDG results indicate that sugar metabolism is not essential for the post-oral intake-stimulating and preference-conditioning actions of sugars in mice.

  5. Post-oral appetite stimulation by sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs

    PubMed Central

    Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Post-oral sugar actions enhance the intake of and preference for sugar-rich foods, a process referred to as appetition. Here, we investigated the role of intestinal sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) in sugar appetition in C57BL/6J mice using sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs that differ in their affinity for SGLT1 and SGLT3. In experiments 1 and 2, food-restricted mice were trained (1 h/day) to consume a flavored saccharin solution [conditioned stimulus (CS−)] paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of water and a different flavored solution (CS+) paired with infusions of 8 or 12% sugars (glucose, fructose, and galactose) or sugar analogs (α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside, MDG; 3-O-methyl-d-glucopyranoside, OMG). Subsequent two-bottle CS+ vs. CS− choice tests were conducted without coinfusions. Infusions of the SGLT1 ligands glucose, galactose, MDG, and OMG stimulated CS+ licking above CS− levels. However, only glucose, MDG, and galactose conditioned significant CS+ preferences, with the SGLT3 ligands (glucose, MDG) producing the strongest preferences. Fructose, which is not a ligand for SGLTs, failed to stimulate CS+ intake or preference. Experiment 3 revealed that IG infusion of MDG+phloridzin (an SGLT1/3 antagonist) blocked MDG appetition, whereas phloridzin had minimal effects on glucose-induced appetition. However, adding phloretin (a GLUT2 antagonist) to the glucose+phloridzin infusion blocked glucose appetition. Taken together, these findings suggest that humoral signals generated by intestinal SGLT1 and SGLT3, and to a lesser degree, GLUT2, mediate post-oral sugar appetition in mice. The MDG results indicate that sugar metabolism is not essential for the post-oral intake-stimulating and preference-conditioning actions of sugars in mice. PMID:23926132

  6. Agm1/Pgm3-Mediated Sugar Nucleotide Synthesis Is Essential for Hematopoiesis and Development▿

    PubMed Central

    Greig, Kylie T.; Antonchuk, Jennifer; Metcalf, Donald; Morgan, Phillip O.; Krebs, Danielle L.; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Hacking, Douglas F.; Bode, Lars; Robb, Lorraine; Kranz, Christian; de Graaf, Carolyn; Bahlo, Melanie; Nicola, Nicos A.; Nutt, Stephen L.; Freeze, Hudson H.; Alexander, Warren S.; Hilton, Douglas J.; Kile, Benjamin T.

    2007-01-01

    Carbohydrate modification of proteins includes N-linked and O-linked glycosylation, proteoglycan formation, glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor synthesis, and O-GlcNAc modification. Each of these modifications requires the sugar nucleotide UDP-GlcNAc, which is produced via the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway. A key step in this pathway is the interconversion of GlcNAc-6-phosphate (GlcNAc-6-P) and GlcNAc-1-P, catalyzed by phosphoglucomutase 3 (Pgm3). In this paper, we describe two hypomorphic alleles of mouse Pgm3 and show there are specific physiological consequences of a graded reduction in Pgm3 activity and global UDP-GlcNAc levels. Whereas mice lacking Pgm3 die prior to implantation, animals with less severe reductions in enzyme activity are sterile, exhibit changes in pancreatic architecture, and are anemic, leukopenic, and thrombocytopenic. These phenotypes are accompanied by specific rather than wholesale changes in protein glycosylation, suggesting that while universally required, the functions of certain proteins and, as a consequence, certain cell types are especially sensitive to reductions in Pgm3 activity. PMID:17548465

  7. Sugar-mediated lattice contacts in crystals of a plant glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Tanis; Kuta Smatanova, Ivana; Bezouska, Karel; Ulbrich, Norbert; Hilgenfeld, Rolf

    2002-10-01

    Pokeweed antiviral protein, PAP-S(aci), isolated from seeds of the Chinese pokeweed plant, Phytolacca acinosa, belongs to the family of type-1 ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs). Type-1 RIPs are approximately 30-kDa N-glycosidases that inactivate eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes via a site-specific depurination of ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Here we describe the preliminary X-ray structure determination at 1.7 A resolution of one PAP isoenzyme from seeds, PAP-S1(aci), after crystallisation from a heterogeneous mixture of two isoenzymes. PAP-S1(aci) possesses a rare type of glycosylation, specifically, N-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine monosaccharide (GlcNAc) substitutions at canonical Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr sequons. One GlcNAc residue was found to play a critical role in crystal lattice formation, forming a packing interface across a crystallographic two-fold with the identical sequon of an adjacent monomer. This observation suggests that deglycosylation protocols for the crystallisation of glycoproteins should be designed to allow for exploitation of the crystal packing potential of the innermost core sugar residue (N-linked GlcNAc or O-linked GalNAc).

  8. Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Joseph B.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2010-01-01

    Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels and chemicals. Realizing this potential requires the economical conversion of recalcitrant lignocellulose into useful intermediates, such as sugars. We report a high-yielding chemical process for the hydrolysis of biomass into monosaccharides. Adding water gradually to a chloride ionic liquid-containing catalytic acid leads to a nearly 90% yield of glucose from cellulose and 70–80% yield of sugars from untreated corn stover. Ion-exclusion chromatography allows recovery of the ionic liquid and delivers sugar feedstocks that support the vigorous growth of ethanologenic microbes. This simple chemical process, which requires neither an edible plant nor a cellulase, could enable crude biomass to be the sole source of carbon for a scalable biorefinery. PMID:20194793

  9. Not-so-healthy sugar substitutes?

    PubMed Central

    Swithers, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Replacing sugar-sweetened beverages with diet soft drinks containing sugar substitutes that provide few or no calories has been suggested as one strategy for promoting improved public health outcomes. However, current scientific evidence indicates that routine consumption of beverages with non-nutritive sweeteners not only fails to prevent disease, but is associated with increases in risks for the same health outcomes associated with sugar-sweetened beverages, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and stroke. Results from pre-clinical studies have provided plausible biological mechanisms that could promote these counterintuitive negative health effects of artificial sweeteners. Taken together, scientific studies currently indicate that public health will be improved by reducing intake of all sweeteners, both caloric and non-caloric. PMID:27135048

  10. Not-so-healthy sugar substitutes?

    PubMed

    Swithers, Susan E

    2016-06-01

    Replacing sugar-sweetened beverages with diet soft drinks containing sugar substitutes that provide few or no calories has been suggested as one strategy for promoting improved public health outcomes. However, current scientific evidence indicates that routine consumption of beverages with non-nutritive sweeteners not only fails to prevent disease, but is associated with increases in risks for the same health outcomes associated with sugar-sweetened beverages, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and stroke. Results from pre-clinical studies have provided plausible biological mechanisms that could promote these counterintuitive negative health effects of artificial sweeteners. Taken together, scientific studies currently indicate that public health will be improved by reducing intake of all sweeteners, both caloric and non-caloric.

  11. Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass.

    PubMed

    Binder, Joseph B; Raines, Ronald T

    2010-03-09

    Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels and chemicals. Realizing this potential requires the economical conversion of recalcitrant lignocellulose into useful intermediates, such as sugars. We report a high-yielding chemical process for the hydrolysis of biomass into monosaccharides. Adding water gradually to a chloride ionic liquid-containing catalytic acid leads to a nearly 90% yield of glucose from cellulose and 70-80% yield of sugars from untreated corn stover. Ion-exclusion chromatography allows recovery of the ionic liquid and delivers sugar feedstocks that support the vigorous growth of ethanologenic microbes. This simple chemical process, which requires neither an edible plant nor a cellulase, could enable crude biomass to be the sole source of carbon for a scalable biorefinery.

  12. [Prophylaxis of dental caries using sugar substitutes].

    PubMed

    Eberle, G

    1984-12-01

    Among the three measures, which are capable of producing a preventive effect against caries only when applied combined, i.e. adequate fluoride supply, proper mouth hygiene and healthy nutrition, the latter is dealt with in greater detail. The use of sugar substitutes is discussed under the aspects of caries prevention, substitute composition and production technology as well as from a medical point of view. Among the presently available sugar substitutes with nutritive value are mentioned Xylite, Lycasine, Mannite, Sorbite, Palatinite, the non-calorific substitutes such as the natural Aspartame as well as the synthetic sweetening agents Saccharine and Cyclamate. The possibilities and limitations of using these sugar substitutes in the prevention of caries in adults and children are presented.

  13. Sugar Transport and Metabolism in Thermotoga

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, Kenneth M.; Romano, Antonio H.

    2003-02-11

    The work conducted under this grant demonstrated that the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana carries out glucose and lactose transport in a sodium-dependent manner and that energization of anaerobic cells is required to observe transport. We also demonstrated that Thermotoga maritima carries out maltose and glucose transport using periplasmic sugar binding proteins. We began defining patterns of expression of genes encoding sugar transport and catabolic functions in both T. maritima and T. neapolitana. We began a collaborative effort to identify all the genes regulated at the transcriptional level in response to sugars substrates. These funds also allowed us to begin an examination of the functions of several periplasmic substrate binding proteins encoded in the genome of T. maritima.

  14. Conversion of cellulosic materials to sugar

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, Charles R.; Mitra, Gautam

    1976-08-03

    A process for the production of sugar, mainly glucose, by the enzymatic degradation of cellulosic materials, particularly cellulosic wastes, which comprises hydrolyzing the cellulosic material in the presence of cellulase enzyme to produce a sugar solution and recovering from the hydrolysis products a major proportion of the cellulase enzyme used in the hydrolysis reaction for re-use. At least a portion of the required makeup cellulase enzyme is produced in a two-stage operation wherein, in the first stage, a portion of the output sugar solution is utilized to grow a cellulase-secreting microorganism, and, in the second stage, cellulase enzyme formation is induced in the microorganism-containing culture medium by the addition of an appropriate inducer, such as a cellulosic material. Cellulase enzyme is precipitated from the culture liquid by the addition of an organic solvent material, such as a low molecular weight alkyl ketone or alcohol, and the cellulase precipitate is then fed to the hydrolysis reaction.

  15. Sugar amino acids in designing new molecules.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Tushar Kanti; Srinivasu, Pothukanuri; Tapadar, Subhasish; Mohan, Bajjuri Krishna

    2005-03-01

    Emulating the basic principles followed by nature to build its vast repertoire of biomolecules, organic chemists are developing many novel multifunctional building blocks and using them to create 'nature-like' and yet unnatural organic molecules. Sugar amino acids constitute an important class of such polyfunctional scaffolds where the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl termini provide an excellent opportunity to organic chemists to create structural diversities akin to Nature's molecular arsenal. This article describes some of our works on various sugar amino acids and many other related building blocks, like furan amino acids, pyrrole amino acids etc. used in wide-ranging peptidomimetic studies.

  16. Nutrition and aging skin: sugar and glycation.

    PubMed

    Danby, F William

    2010-01-01

    The effect of sugars on aging skin is governed by the simple act of covalently cross-linking two collagen fibers, which renders both of them incapable of easy repair. Glucose and fructose link the amino acids present in the collagen and elastin that support the dermis, producing advanced glycation end products or "AGEs." This process is accelerated in all body tissues when sugar is elevated and is further stimulated by ultraviolet light in the skin. The effect on vascular, renal, retinal, coronary, and cutaneous tissues is being defined, as are methods of reducing the glycation load through careful diet and use of supplements. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Sodium Absorption by Intact Sugar Beet Plants

    PubMed Central

    El-Sheikh, Adel M; Ulrich, Albert

    1971-01-01

    Sodium absorption by intact sugar beet plants (Beta vulgaris) was found to be mediated by at least two distinct mechanisms when uptake was studied over a wide range of Na and K concentrations. The first mechanism operates at low Na concentrations (<1 milliequivalent per liter); presence of K completely blocks this mechanism for Na. The second mechanism operates at high Na concentrations (>1 milliequivalent per liter), transporting Na as well as K; but apparently this mechanism is not active for Na absorption in young sugar beet plants up to the 10-leaf stage. PMID:16657872

  18. Square sugars: challenges and synthetic strategies.

    PubMed

    Hazelard, Damien; Compain, Philippe

    2017-03-31

    Square sugars (4-membered ring carbohydrate mimetics) are at the intersection of several important topics concerning the recent emergence, in medicinal chemistry, of glycomimetic drugs and small ring systems. Monosaccharide mimetics containing oxetane, azetidine, thiethane or cyclobutane rings present a number of synthetic challenges that are a powerful driving force for innovation in organic synthesis. In addition to the inherent issues associated with 4-membered rings, the high density of functional groups and asymmetric centres found in glycomimetics further complicates the matter and requires efficient stereoselective methodologies. The purpose of this review is to present an overview of the elegant strategies that have been developed to synthesize the different types of square sugars.

  19. [Sugar transport, metabolism, accumulation and their regulation in fruits].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Wei; Zhang, Shang-Long; Zhang, Liang-Cheng

    2004-02-01

    Photosynthates transported into fruits are mainly in the form of sucrose in most fruit tree species; but sorbitol takes the place of sucrose in woody Rosaceae plants. The transport of sugars across the plasma membrane from apoplastic space into cells is mediated by sugar transporters. The fact that gene expression of sugar transporters is upregulated just before and during sugar accumulation suggests the participation of sugar transporters in sugar accumulation of fruit. The sucrose-metabolizing enzymes participate in four futile cycles that involve sugar transport between cytosol, vacuole, amyloplast and apoplast. The increase in SS (sucrose synthase) and SPS (sucrose phosphate synthase) activities and mRNA levels during maturation parallels the increase in sugar accumulation indicates that the sucrose-metabolizing enzymes have important roles on sugar accumulation in fruits. The prerequisite for rapid accumulation of sugar in fruit is restriction of hexose catabolism and promotion of its synthesis. In woody Rosaceae plants, the fact that sucrose metabolism is also quite active in fruit suggests that sorbitol and sucrose probably play similar roles in fruit development. Sugars as signal molecules regulate the expression of genes involved in sugar transport and metabolism. Sugar transport, metabolism and accumulation are also regulated by natural environmental factors and cultural practices. The increase in sugar content of tomato fruit in acid invertase gene antisense-inhibited plants provides promising prospect of genetic engineering as a potential effective technique in regulation of sugar accumulation in fruits. Thus, the sugar content of fruit is determined by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The future research works will be focused on elucidating the mechanism of sugar signal and other intrinsic signals as well as extrinsic signals including nutrients, plant hormones and physical factors on sugar transport, metabolism and accumulation and the

  20. Laser amplifier chain

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain.

  1. Laser amplifier chain

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.

    1992-10-20

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain. 6 figs.

  2. Sugar and Sugar Derivatives in Residues Produced from the UV Irradiation of Astrophysical Ice Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuevo, M.; Sandford, S. A.; Cooper, G.

    2016-01-01

    A large variety and number of organic compounds of prebiotic interest are known to be present in carbonaceous chondrites. Among them, one sugar (dihydroxyacetone) as well as several sugar acids, sugar alcohols, and other sugar derivatives have been reported in the Murchison and Murray meteorites. Their presence, along with amino acids, amphiphiles, and nucleobases strongly suggests that molecules essential to life can form abiotically under astrophysical conditions. This hypothesis is supported by laboratory studies on the formation of complex organic molecules from the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of simulated astrophysical ice mixtures consisting of H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, CH4, NH3, etc., at low temperature. In the past 15 years, these studies have shown that the organic residues recovered at room temperature contain amino acids, amphiphiles, nucleobases, as well as other complex organics. However, no systematic search for the presence of sugars and sugar derivatives in laboratory residues have been reported to date, despite the fact that those compounds are of primary prebiotic significance. Indeed, only small (up to 3 carbon atoms) sugar derivatives including glycerol and glyceric acid have been detected in residues so far.

  3. Sugars and Sugar Derivatives in Residues Produced from the UV Irradiation of Astrophysical Ice Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuevo, M.; Sandford, S. A.; Cooper, G.

    2017-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites contain a large variety of organic compounds of prebiotic interest, which include amino acids, amphiphiles, nucleobases, and sugar derivatives. The presence of these compounds strongly suggests that molecules essential to life can form abiotically under astrophysical conditions. Among the sugar derivatives reported in the Murchison and Murray meteorites, only one sugar (dihydroxyacetone) was found, together with a variety of sugar alcohols and sugar acids containing up to 6 carbon atoms, including sugar acid derivatives of the biological sugars ribose and glucose. On the other hand, laboratory studies on the formation of complex organic molecules from the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of simulated astrophysical ice mixtures consisting of H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, CH4, NH3, etc., at low temperature have been routinely carried out in the past 15 years. These studies have shown that the organic residues recovered at room temperature contain amino acids, amphiphiles, nucleobases, as well as other complex organics, supporting a scenario in which molecules of prebiotic interest can form in extra-terrestrial environments.

  4. Acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols in Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengzhan; Kallio, Heikki; Lü, Deguo; Zhou, Chuansheng; Ou, Shiyi; Yang, Baoru

    2010-01-27

    Acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols in the fruits of 22 cultivars/origins of three species of hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Citric acid (2.0-8.4 g/100 g dry mass [DM]), quinic acid (0.5-5.6 g/100 g DM), malic acid (0.3-1.1 g/100 g DM), fructose (5.5-18.4 g/100 g DM), glucose (5.3-16.6 g/100 g DM), sorbitol (3.0-15.7 g/100 g DM), and myo-inositol (0.1-0.3 g/100 g DM) were found in all the samples. Sucrose was present only in C. scabrifolia and three cultivars of C. pinnatifida var. major. C. scabrifolia differed from other species by its high content of quinic acid. The cultivars of C. pinnatifida var. major and C. brettschneideri had a higher content of total sugars and a higher sugar/acid ratio than the natural origins of C. pinnatifida and C. scabrifolia (P < 0.05). The hawthorn samples analyzed fell into two groups rich in sugars and acids respectively. This is the first report of the profiles of sugars and sugar alcohols and the occurrence of quinic acid in hawthorn fruits.

  5. Evidence for sugar addiction: behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake.

    PubMed

    Avena, Nicole M; Rada, Pedro; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2008-01-01

    [Avena, N.M., Rada, P., Hoebel B.G., 2007. Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews XX(X), XXX-XXX]. The experimental question is whether or not sugar can be a substance of abuse and lead to a natural form of addiction. "Food addiction" seems plausible because brain pathways that evolved to respond to natural rewards are also activated by addictive drugs. Sugar is noteworthy as a substance that releases opioids and dopamine and thus might be expected to have addictive potential. This review summarizes evidence of sugar dependence in an animal model. Four components of addiction are analyzed. "Bingeing," "withdrawal," "craving" and "cross-sensitization" are each given operational definitions and demonstrated behaviorally with sugar bingeing as the reinforcer. These behaviors are then related to neurochemical changes in the brain that also occur with addictive drugs. Neural adaptations include changes in dopamine and opioid receptor binding, enkephalin mRNA expression and dopamine and acetylcholine release in the nucleus accumbens. The evidence supports the hypothesis that under certain circumstances rats can become sugar dependent. This may translate to some human conditions as suggested by the literature on eating disorders and obesity.

  6. Characterization of a Unique Tetrasaccharide and Distinct Glycoproteome in the O-Linked Protein Glycosylation System of Neisseria elongata subsp. glycolytica.

    PubMed

    Anonsen, Jan Haug; Vik, Åshild; Børud, Bente; Viburiene, Raimonda; Aas, Finn Erik; Kidd, Shani W A; Aspholm, Marina; Koomey, Michael

    2015-10-19

    Broad-spectrum O-linked protein glycosylation is well characterized in the major Neisseria species of importance to human health and disease. Within strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis, and N. lactamica, protein glycosylation (pgl) gene content and the corresponding oligosaccharide structure are fairly well conserved, although intra- and interstrain variability occurs. The status of such systems in distantly related commensal species, however, remains largely unexplored. Using a strain of deeply branching Neisseria elongata subsp. glycolytica, a heretofore unrecognized tetrasaccharide glycoform consisting of di-N-acetylbacillosamine-glucose-di-N-acetyl hexuronic acid-N-acetylhexosamine (diNAcBac-Glc-diNAcHexA-HexNAc) was identified. Directed mutagenesis, mass spectrometric analysis, and glycan serotyping confirmed that the oligosaccharide is an extended version of the diNAcBac-Glc-based structure seen in N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis generated by the successive actions of PglB, PglC, and PglD and glucosyltransferase PglH orthologues. In addition, a null mutation in the orthologue of the broadly conserved but enigmatic pglG gene precluded expression of the extended glycoform, providing the first evidence that its product is a functional glycosyltransferase. Despite clear evidence for a substantial number of glycoprotein substrates, the major pilin subunit of the endogenous type IV pilus was not glycosylated. The latter finding raises obvious questions as to the relative distribution of pilin glycosylation within the genus, how protein glycosylation substrates are selected, and the overall structure-function relationships of broad-spectrum protein glycosylation. Together, the results of this study provide a foundation upon which to assess neisserial O-linked protein glycosylation diversity at the genus level. Broad-spectrum protein glycosylation systems are well characterized in the pathogenic Neisseria species N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis. A

  7. A putative O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase is essential for hormogonium development and motility in the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.

    PubMed

    Khayatan, Behzad; Bains, Divleen K; Cheng, Monica H; Cho, Ye Won; Huynh, Jessica; Kim, Rachelle; Omoruyi, Osagie H; Pantoja, Adriana P; Park, Jun Sang; Peng, Julia K; Splitt, Samantha D; Tian, Mason Y; Risser, Douglas D

    2017-02-27

    Most species of filamentous cyanobacteria are capable of gliding motility, likely via a conserved type IV pilus-like system that may also secrete a motility associated polysaccharide. In a subset of these organisms, motility is only achieved after the transient differentiation of hormogonia, specialized filaments that enter a non-growth state dedicated to motility. Despite the fundamental importance of hormogonia to the life cycle of many filamentous cyanobacteria, the molecular regulation of hormogonium development is largely undefined. To systematically identify genes essential for hormogonium development and motility in the model heterocyst-forming, filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme, a forward genetic screen was employed. The first gene identified using this screen, designated ogtA, encodes a putative O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT). Deletion of ogtA abolished motility while ectopic expression of ogtA induced hormogonium development even under hormogonium-repressing conditions. Transcription of ogtA is rapidly upregulated (1 h) following hormogonium induction and an OgtA-GFPuv fusion protein localized to the cytoplasm. In developing hormogonia, accumulation of PilA, but not HmpD, is dependent on ogtA RT-qPCR analysis indicated equivalent levels of pilA transcript in the wild-type and ΔogtA strain, while a reporter construct consisting of the intergenic region 5' to pilA fused to gfp produced lower levels of fluorescence in the ΔogtA strain than the wild-type. Production of hormogonium polysaccharide in the ΔogtA strain is reduced compared to the wild type, but comparable to that of a pilA-deletion strain. Collectively, these results imply that O-GlcNAc protein modification regulates the accumulation of PilA via a post-transcriptional mechanism in developing hormogonia.Importance Filamentous cyanobacteria are among the most developmentally complex prokaryotes. Species such as Nostoc punctiforme develop an array of cell types

  8. Characterization of a Unique Tetrasaccharide and Distinct Glycoproteome in the O-Linked Protein Glycosylation System of Neisseria elongata subsp. glycolytica

    PubMed Central

    Anonsen, Jan Haug; Vik, Åshild; Børud, Bente; Viburiene, Raimonda; Aas, Finn Erik; Kidd, Shani W. A.; Aspholm, Marina

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Broad-spectrum O-linked protein glycosylation is well characterized in the major Neisseria species of importance to human health and disease. Within strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis, and N. lactamica, protein glycosylation (pgl) gene content and the corresponding oligosaccharide structure are fairly well conserved, although intra- and interstrain variability occurs. The status of such systems in distantly related commensal species, however, remains largely unexplored. Using a strain of deeply branching Neisseria elongata subsp. glycolytica, a heretofore unrecognized tetrasaccharide glycoform consisting of di-N-acetylbacillosamine-glucose-di-N-acetyl hexuronic acid-N-acetylhexosamine (diNAcBac-Glc-diNAcHexA-HexNAc) was identified. Directed mutagenesis, mass spectrometric analysis, and glycan serotyping confirmed that the oligosaccharide is an extended version of the diNAcBac-Glc-based structure seen in N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis generated by the successive actions of PglB, PglC, and PglD and glucosyltransferase PglH orthologues. In addition, a null mutation in the orthologue of the broadly conserved but enigmatic pglG gene precluded expression of the extended glycoform, providing the first evidence that its product is a functional glycosyltransferase. Despite clear evidence for a substantial number of glycoprotein substrates, the major pilin subunit of the endogenous type IV pilus was not glycosylated. The latter finding raises obvious questions as to the relative distribution of pilin glycosylation within the genus, how protein glycosylation substrates are selected, and the overall structure-function relationships of broad-spectrum protein glycosylation. Together, the results of this study provide a foundation upon which to assess neisserial O-linked protein glycosylation diversity at the genus level. IMPORTANCE Broad-spectrum protein glycosylation systems are well characterized in the pathogenic Neisseria species N. gonorrhoeae

  9. Both α2,3- and α2,6-Linked Sialic Acids on O-Linked Glycoproteins Act as Functional Receptors for Porcine Sapovirus

    PubMed Central

    Alfajaro, Mia Madel; Kim, Ji-Yun; Park, Jun-Gyu; Son, Kyu-Yeol; Ryu, Eun-Hye; Sorgeloos, Frederic; Kwon, Hyung-Jun; Park, Su-Jin; Lee, Woo Song; Cho, Duck; Kwon, Joseph; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kang, Mun-Il; Goodfellow, Ian; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

    2014-01-01

    Sapovirus, a member of the Caliciviridae family, is an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans and pigs. Currently, the porcine sapovirus (PSaV) Cowden strain remains the only cultivable member of the Sapovirus genus. While some caliciviruses are known to utilize carbohydrate receptors for entry and infection, a functional receptor for sapovirus is unknown. To characterize the functional receptor of the Cowden strain of PSaV, we undertook a comprehensive series of protein-ligand biochemical assays in mock and PSaV-infected cell culture and/or piglet intestinal tissue sections. PSaV revealed neither hemagglutination activity with red blood cells from any species nor binding activity to synthetic histo-blood group antigens, indicating that PSaV does not use histo-blood group antigens as receptors. Attachment and infection of PSaV were markedly blocked by sialic acid and Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (NA), suggesting a role for α2,3-linked, α2,6-linked or α2,8-linked sialic acid in virus attachment. However, viral attachment and infection were only partially inhibited by treatment of cells with sialidase S (SS) or Maackia amurensis lectin (MAL), both specific for α2,3-linked sialic acid, or Sambucus nigra lectin (SNL), specific for α2,6-linked sialic acid. These results indicated that PSaV recognizes both α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialic acids for viral attachment and infection. Treatment of cells with proteases or with benzyl 4-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (benzylGalNAc), which inhibits O-linked glycosylation, also reduced virus binding and infection, whereas inhibition of glycolipd synthesis or N-linked glycosylation had no such effect on virus binding or infection. These data suggest PSaV binds to cellular receptors that consist of α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialic acids on glycoproteins attached via O-linked glycosylation. PMID:24901849

  10. 24. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Centrifugal inner basket, 1879. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Centrifugal inner basket, 1879. Manufacturer, unknown. Supplied by Honolulu Iron Works, Honolulu, Hawaii, 1879. View: After sugar was granulated and cooled it was dried and drained, completely separating the sugar crystals from the molasses, in the centrifugal. Revolving at 1200 rpm the sugar charge was forced outward with the molasses flying through the holes in the brass lining. Dried sugar was left behind in the inner basket and was dug out by hand. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  11. Metal ions in sugar binding, sugar specificity and structural stability of Spatholobus parviflorus seed lectin.

    PubMed

    Abhilash, Joseph; Dileep, Kalarickal Vijayan; Palanimuthu, Muthusamy; Geethanandan, Krishnan; Sadasivan, Chittalakkotu; Haridas, Madhathilkovilakath

    2013-08-01

    Spatholobus parviflorus seed lectin (SPL) is a heterotetrameric lectin, with two α and two β monomers. In the crystal structure of SPL α monomer, two residues at positions 240 and 241 are missing. This region was modeled based on the positional and sequence similarities. The role of metal ions in SPL structure was analyzed by 10 ns molecular dynamics simulation. MD simulations were performed in the presence and absence of metal ions to explain the loss of haemagglutinating property of the lectin due to demetallization. Demetallized structure was found to deviate drastically at the metal binding loop region. Affinity of different sugars like N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc), D-galactose and lactose towards the native and demetallized protein was calculated by molecular docking studies. It was found that the sugar binding site got severely distorted in demetallized lectin. Consequently, sugar binding ability of lectin might be decreasing in the demetallized condition. Isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) analysis of the sugars in the presence of native and demetallized protein confirmed the in silico results. It was observed after molecular dynamics simulations, that significant structural deviations were not caused in the quaternary structure of demetallized lectin. It was confirmed that the structural changes modified the sugar binding ability, as well as sugar specificity of the present lectin. The role of metal ions in sugar binding is described based on the in silico studies and ITC analysis. A comprehensive analysis of the ITC data suggests that the sugar specificity of the metal bound lectin and the loss of sugar specificity due to metal chelation are not linear.

  12. Sugar-peptidic bond interactions: spectroscopic characterization of a model system.

    PubMed

    Camiruaga, Ander; Usabiaga, Imanol; Insausti, Aran; León, Iker; Fernández, José A

    2017-05-17

    Sugars are small carbohydrates which play numerous roles in living organisms such as storage of energy or as structural components. Modifications of specific sites within the glycan chain can modulate a carbohydrate's overall biological function as it happens with nucleic acids and proteins. Hence, identifying discrete carbohydrate modifications and understanding their biological effects is essential. A study of such processes requires of a deep knowledge of the interaction mechanism at the molecular level. Here, we use a combination of laser spectroscopy in jets and quantum mechanical calculations to characterize the interaction between phenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside and N-methylacetamide as a model to understand the interaction between a sugar and a peptide bond. The most stable structure of the molecular aggregate shows that the main interaction between the peptide fragment and the sugar proceeds via a C[double bond, length as m-dash]OH-O2 hydrogen bond. A second conformer was also found, in which the peptide establishes a C[double bond, length as m-dash]OH-O6 hydrogen bond with the hydroxymethyl substituent of the sugar unit. All the conformers present an additional interaction point with the aromatic ring. This particular preference of the peptide for the hydroxyl close to the aromatic ring could explain why glycogenin uses tyrosine in order to convert glucose into glycogen by exposing the O4H hydroxyl group for the other glucoses for the polymerization to take place.

  13. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yttri, K. E.; Dye, C.; Kiss, G.

    2007-08-01

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose) and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol) in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry - Time of Flight) method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m-3 in PM10 and 55 ng m-3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m-3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m-3. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2.5 were observed during spring and early summer at the rural background site Birkenes. It is hypothesized that this was due to ruptured pollen.

  14. Natural variability in acyl moieties of sugar esters produced by certain tobacco and other Solanaceae species.

    PubMed

    Kroumova, Antoaneta B M; Zaitlin, Dave; Wagner, George J

    2016-10-01

    A unique feature of glandular trichomes of plants in the botanical family Solanaceae is that they produce sugar esters (SE), chemicals that have been shown to possess insecticidal, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. Sugar esters of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) provide pest resistance, and are important flavor precursors in oriental tobacco cultivars. Acyl moieties of SEs in Nicotiana spp., petunia, and tomato are shown to vary with respect to carbon length and isomer structure (2-12 carbon chain length; anteiso-, iso-, and straight-chain). Sugar esters and their acyl groups could serve as a model to explore the basis of phenotypic diversity and adaptation to natural and agricultural environments. However, information on the diversity of acyl composition among species, cultivars, and accessions is lacking. Herein, described is the analysis of SE acyl groups found in 21 accessions of Nicotiana obtusifolia (desert tobacco), six of Nicotiana occidentalis subsp. hesperis, three of Nicotiana alata, two of N. occidentalis, four modern tobacco cultivars, five petunia hybrids, and one accession each of a primitive potato (Solanum berthaultii) and tomato (Solanum pennellii). A total of 20 different acyl groups was observed that were represented differently among cultivars, species, and accessions. In Nicotiana species, acetate and iso- and anteiso-branched acids prevailed. Straight-chain groups (2-8 carbons) were prominent in petunias, while octanoic acid was prominent in N. alata and N. × sanderae. Two unexpected acyl groups, 8-methyl nonanoate and decanoate were found in N. occidentalis subsp. hesperis. Longer chain groups were found in the petunia, tomato, and potato species studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Serum Free Light Chains

    MedlinePlus

    ... and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Serum Free Light Chains Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Free Light Chains; SFLC; FLC; Kappa and Lambda Free Light ...

  16. Dietary sources of sugars in adolescents' diet: the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Mesana, M I; Hilbig, A; Androutsos, O; Cuenca-García, M; Dallongeville, J; Huybrechts, I; De Henauw, S; Widhalm, K; Kafatos, A; Nova, E; Marcos, A; González-Gross, M; Molnar, D; Gottrand, F; Moreno, L A

    2016-11-29

    To report dietary sugars consumption and their different types and food sources, in European adolescents. Food consumption data of selected groups were obtained from 1630 adolescents (45.6% males, 12.5-17.5 years) from the HELENA study using two nonconsecutive 24-h recalls. Energy intake, total sugars and free sugars were assessed using the HELENA-DIAT software. Multiple regression analyses were performed adjusting for relevant confounders. Total sugars intake (137.5 g/day) represented 23.6% and free sugars (110.1 g/day), 19% of energy intake. Girls had significantly lower intakes of energy, carbohydrates, total sugars and free sugars. 94% of adolescents had a consumption of free sugars above 10% of total energy intake. The main food contributor to free sugars was 'carbonated, soft and isotonic drinks,' followed by 'non-chocolate confectionary' and 'sugar, honey, jam and syrup.' Older boys and girls had significantly higher intakes of free sugars from 'cakes, pies and biscuits.' Free sugars intake was negatively associated with low socioeconomic status for 'non-chocolate confectionary' and 'sugar, honey and jam' groups; with low maternal educational level for carbonated and 'soft drinks,' 'sugar, honey and jam,' 'cakes and pies' and 'breakfast cereals' groups; and with high paternal educational level for 'carbonated and soft drinks' and 'chocolates' group. The majority (94%) of studied adolescents consumed free sugars above 10% of daily energy intake. Our data indicate a broad variety in foods providing free sugars. Continued efforts are required at different levels to reduce the intake of free sugars, especially in families with a low educational level.

  17. Sugars as tobacco ingredient: Effects on mainstream smoke composition.

    PubMed

    Talhout, Reinskje; Opperhuizen, Antoon; van Amsterdam, Jan G C

    2006-11-01

    Sugars are natural tobacco components, and are also frequently added to tobacco during the manufacturing process. This review describes the fate of sugars during tobacco smoking, in particular the effect of tobacco sugars on mainstream smoke composition. In natural tobacco, sugars can be present in levels up to 20 wt%. In addition, various sugars are added in tobacco manufacturing in amounts up to 4 wt% per sugar. The added sugars are usually reported to serve as flavour/casing and humectant. However, sugars also promote tobacco smoking, because they generate acids that neutralize the harsh taste and throat impact of tobacco smoke. Moreover, the sweet taste and the agreeable smell of caramelized sugar flavors are appreciated in particular by starting adolescent smokers. Finally, sugars generate acetaldehyde, which has addictive properties and acts synergistically with nicotine in rodents. Apart from these consumption-enhancing pyrolysis products, many toxic (including carcinogenic) smoke compounds are generated from sugars. In particular, sugars increase the level of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, and 2-furfural in tobacco smoke. It is concluded that sugars in tobacco significantly contribute to the adverse health effects of tobacco smoking.

  18. The scientific basis of recent US guidance on sugars intake.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Johnson, Rachel K

    2003-10-01

    Most fruits and dairy products are high in sugars, and thus naturally occurring sugars are consumed as part of a healthy diet. Sugars are also added to foods during processing or preparation, primarily to enhance taste. Monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods are chemically indistinguishable from naturally occurring forms. However, concern has been expressed about the apparent increasing consumption of added sugars and their possible role in displacing or diluting nutrients in the diet and contributing to the epidemic of obesity in developed countries. One of the 2000 Dietary Guidelines for Americans states, "Choose beverages and foods to moderate your intake of sugars." The Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee discussed whether to specify added sugars rather than the broader term sugars but decided that it was not possible to conclude that added sugars per se play a negative role in the public's health. The Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee issued a call for more definitive studies of the role of sugars in current diets and the potential effect of a reduction in added sugars on both dietary quality and energy intake. The American Heart Association recently released a statement advising consumers to limit sugars consumption. The macronutrient report for the dietary reference intakes addresses many of these same issues; the expert panel concluded that it was not appropriate to set a tolerable upper intake level for added sugars but suggested a maximal intake level of 25% of energy from added sugars because of concerns about reduced intakes of essential micronutrients.

  19. Storage requirements for sugar maple seeds

    Treesearch

    Harry W. Yawney; Clayton M., Jr. Carl

    1974-01-01

    Sugar maple seeds, collected from three trees in northern Vermont, were stored at four temperatures (18, 7, 2, and -10ºC) in combination with four seed moisture contents (35, 25, 17, and 10 percent). Seed moisture content and storage temperature significantly affected keeping ability, and these factors were highly interrelated. Seeds from all trees kept best...

  20. Sugars in peach fruit: a breeding perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cirilli, Marco; Bassi, Daniele; Ciacciulli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has been characterized by a decrease in peach (Prunus persica) fruit consumption in many countries, foremost due to unsatisfactory quality. The sugar content is one of the most important quality traits perceived by consumers, and the development of novel peach cultivars with sugar-enhanced content is a primary objective of breeding programs to revert the market inertia. Nevertheless, the progress reachable through classical phenotypic selection is limited by the narrow genetic bases of peach breeding material and by the complex quantitative nature of the trait, which is deeply affected by environmental conditions and agronomical management. The development of molecular markers applicable in MAS or MAB has become an essential strategy to boost the selection efficiency. Despite the enormous advances in ‘omics’ sciences, providing powerful tools for plant genotyping, the identification of the genetic bases of sugar-related traits is hindered by the lack of adequate phenotyping methods that are able to address strong within-plant variability. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways and physiological mechanisms regulating sugar accumulation in peach fruit, the main advances in phenotyping approaches and genetic background, and finally addressing new research priorities and prospective for breeders. PMID:26816618

  1. Effects of Sugar (Sucrose) on Children's Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Lee A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined effects of sugar on behavior of 45 preschool and elementary school children. Provided all children with basic breakfast that included drink containing either 50 g of sucrose, a comparably sweet placebo, or very little sucrose. Found some small behavior changes in high-sucrose group. All effects were small in magnitude and not considered…

  2. Deterioration of sugar maple following logging damage

    Treesearch

    Gene A. Hesterberg

    1957-01-01

    The northern hardwood forest comprises about 9 million acres in the Lake States region. Most of this timber is in Upper Michigan and Wisconsin, with lesser amounts in Minnesota, It consists primarily of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt,), basswood (Tilia americana...

  3. The cost of maple sugaring in Vermont

    Treesearch

    Paul E. Sendak; John P. Bennink; John P. Bennink

    1985-01-01

    An annual maple syrup production cost series was developed for the period 1972 to 1984. Comparisons were made between plastic tubing and metal bucket technology and wood- and oil-fired evaporation. The effects of sap- sugar content and size of operation were examined together with the relationships among major cost items. The information will be useful to maple syrup...

  4. Sequence of the Sugar Pine Megagenome

    Treesearch

    Kristian A. Stevens; Jill L. Wegrzyn; Aleksey Zimin; Daniela Puiu; Marc Crepeau; Charis Cardeno; Robin Paul; Daniel Gonzalez-Ibeas; Maxim Koriabine; Ann E. Holtz-Morris; Pedro J. Martínez-García; Uzay U. Sezen; Guillaume Marçais; Kathie Jermstad; Patrick E. McGuire; Carol A. Loopstra; John M. Davis; Andrew Eckert; Pieter de Jong; James A. Yorke; Steven L. Salzberg; David B. Neale; Charles H. Langley

    2016-01-01

    Until very recently, complete characterization of the megagenomes of conifers has remained elusive. The diploid genome of sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) has a highly repetitive, 31 billion bp genome. It is the largest genome sequenced and assembled to date, and the first from the subgenus Strobus, or white pines, a group...

  5. Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.

    PubMed

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks.

  6. Water quality in sugar catchments of Queensland.

    PubMed

    Rayment, G E

    2003-01-01

    Water quality condition and trend are important indicators of the impact of land use on the environment, as degraded water quality causes unwelcome changes to ecosystem composition and health. These concerns extend to the sea, where discharges of nutrients, sediments and toxicants above natural levels are unwelcome, particularly when they drain to the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area and other coastal waters of Queensland. Sugarcane is grown in 26 major river catchments in Queensland, most in environmentally sensitive areas. This puts pressure on the Queensland Sugar Industry to manage the land in ways that have minimum adverse off-site impacts. Sugar researchers including CRC Sugar have been associated with water quality studies in North Queensland. These include investigations and reviews to assess the role of groundwater as a pathway for nitrate loss from canelands in the Herbert Catchment, to find causes of oxygen depletion in water (including irrigation runoff) from Ingham to Mackay, to use residues of superseded pesticides as indicators of sediment loss to the sea, and to assemble information on water quality pressure and status in sugar catchments. Key findings, plus information on input pressures are described in this paper, and areas of concern and opportunities discussed.

  7. Building improved models of sugar maple mortality

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Perry; Patrick L. Zimmerman

    2012-01-01

    The decline of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in the northern United States is causing concern, and several studies have identified soil properties that are linked to the observation of dead/dying trees. Unfortunately, the sample of trees supporting these studies is purposive in nature; soil properties are assessed only on those plots where dead...

  8. Immunodetection of Two Curtoviruses Infecting Sugar Beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beet leafhopper-transmitted curly top virus is a serious problem in many different crops in the semiarid western U.S., including sugar beet, tomatoes and beans. Curly top is caused by a genetically diverse complex of phloem-limited curtoviruses. Due to the phloem restriction of curtoviruses and the ...

  9. Sap flow and sugar transport in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, K. H.; Berg-Sørensen, K.; Bruus, H.; Holbrook, N. M.; Liesche, J.; Schulz, A.; Zwieniecki, M. A.; Bohr, T.

    2016-07-01

    Green plants are Earth's primary solar energy collectors. They harvest the energy of the Sun by converting light energy into chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugar molecules. A multitude of carefully orchestrated transport processes are needed to move water and minerals from the soil to sites of photosynthesis and to distribute energy-rich sugars throughout the plant body to support metabolism and growth. The long-distance transport happens in the plants' vascular system, where water and solutes are moved along the entire length of the plant. In this review, the current understanding of the mechanism and the quantitative description of these flows are discussed, connecting theory and experiments as far as possible. The article begins with an overview of low-Reynolds-number transport processes, followed by an introduction to the anatomy and physiology of vascular transport in the phloem and xylem. Next, sugar transport in the phloem is explored with attention given to experimental results as well as the fluid mechanics of osmotically driven flows. Then water transport in the xylem is discussed with a focus on embolism dynamics, conduit optimization, and couplings between water and sugar transport. Finally, remarks are given on some of the open questions of this research field.

  10. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the latest trends in mosquito control is the use of insecticidal sugar baits (ISBs) to reduce adult mosquito populations. Tested here is the ability of ISB’s to knock-down the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis, a disease vector of bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, and vesicular sto...

  11. Production of ethyl alcohol from sugar beets

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, D.H.; Doney, D.L.; Orien, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    Various methods of processing sugar beets prior to fermentation of EtOH were compared. Water slurries of whole beets, expressed juice, and industrially produced diffusion juice were fermented readily by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without the addition of nutrient supplements. Yields of alcohol in both the slurries and juices were 43-47%. Heating the slurries or juices to boiling for 1 min often increased the yield of alcohol and the vigor of the fermentation; however, some yields of greater than 46% were obtained in unheated expressed juice. Difficulty in processing slurries of homogenized or ground whole beets, together with the restriction on the concentration of sugar in the slurry imposed by dilution with water, would probably favor some method of separating the beet tissues from the juice prior to fermentation in an industrial process. Alcohol yields of 4 cultivars varying in sugar content ranged from 38.4 to 46.0% of sugar and 18.0 to 26.1 gallon of alcohol per ton of fresh beets.

  12. Rhizoctonia seedling disease on sugar beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizoctonia seedling damping-off can cause losses in sugar beet as well as providing inoculum for later root rot. The disease is caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The pathogen has several subgroups, anastomosis groups (AG), of which AG-4 has historically been associated with damping-off, while AG-2-2 is...

  13. Bioethanol Production from Fermentable Sugar Juice

    PubMed Central

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

  14. Variability in Phoma species affecting sugar beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phoma betae can cause damage to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) at multiple growth stages. It has historically been an important seedling disease, but this is largely managed by ensuring clean seed for planting. The pathogen also can cause a root rot, a leaf spot, and rotting of beets during storage. In ...

  15. Postharvest Rhizopus rot on sugar beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizopus species have been reported as a minor post-harvest rot on sugar beet, particularly under temperatures above 5 deg C. In 2010, Rhizopus was isolated from beets collected from Michigan storage piles in February at a low frequency. However, recent evidence from Michigan has found a high incide...

  16. Sugar pine utilization: a 30-year transition.

    Treesearch

    Susan Willits; Thomas D. Fahey

    1991-01-01

    Utilization standards and measurement systems have changed since the first lumber recovery study was conducted on sugar pine in 1957. These changes prompted a new study to provide new information on lumber volume and value recovery and a comparison to older studies. Lumber volume and value recovery are presented for the recent study on a board- and cubic-foot bases....

  17. Extraction and characterization of sugar beet polysaccharides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar Beet Pulp (SBP), contains 65 to 80% (dry weight) of potentially valuable polysaccharides. We separated SBP into three fractions. The first fraction, extracted under acid conditions, was labeled pectin, the second was comprised of two sub fractions solubilized under alkaline conditions and wa...

  18. Artificial ripening of sugar pine seeds

    Treesearch

    Stanley L. Krugman

    1966-01-01

    Immature sugar pine seeds were collected and ripened either in the cone or in moist vermiculate. Seeds collected before the second week of August could not be artificially ripened and the causes for these failures were investigated. After the second week of August, immature seeds could be brought to maturity. A practical method for a commercial operation should be...

  19. Green chemistry: Biodiesel made with sugar catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Masakazu; Takagaki, Atsushi; Okamura, Mai; Kondo, Junko N.; Hayashi, Shigenobu; Domen, Kazunari; Hara, Michikazu

    2005-11-01

    The production of diesel from vegetable oil calls for an efficient solid catalyst to make the process fully ecologically friendly. Here we describe the preparation of such a catalyst from common, inexpensive sugars. This high-performance catalyst, which consists of stable sulphonated amorphous carbon, is recyclable and its activity markedly exceeds that of other solid acid catalysts tested for `biodiesel' production.

  20. Sugar pine management—an annotated bibliography

    Treesearch

    James L. Averell; John C. Crowell; Clarence R. Quick; Gilbert H. Schubert

    1955-01-01

    The purposes of this bibliography are to enumerate and describe publications that have a bearing on the growing of sugar pine for timber production. It is intended primarily for the information of forest managers, and it includes mainly those articles which appeared to pertain rather directly to management. Although a careful search was made for titles, no claim is...