Arthur, Terrance M; Ahmed, Rafiq; Chase-Topping, Margo; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Schmidt, John W; Bono, James L
Previous reports have indicated that a small proportion of cattle shedding high levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the main source for transmission of this organism between animals. Cattle achieving a fecal shedding status of 10(4) CFU of E. coli O157:H7/gram or greater are now referred to as supershedders. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of E. coli O157:H7 strain type to supershedding and to determine if supershedding was restricted to a specific set of E. coli O157:H7 strains. Fecal swabs (n = 5,086) were collected from cattle at feedlots or during harvest. Supershedders constituted 2.0% of the bovine population tested. Supershedder isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), phage typing, lineage-specific polymorphism assay (LSPA), Stx-associated bacteriophage insertion (SBI) site determination, and variant analysis of Shiga toxin, tir, and antiterminator Q genes. Isolates representing 52 unique PFGE patterns, 19 phage types, and 12 SBI clusters were obtained from supershedding cattle, indicating that there is no clustering to E. coli O157:H7 genotypes responsible for supershedding. While being isolated directly from cattle, this strain set tended to have higher frequencies of traits associated with human clinical isolates than previously collected bovine isolates with respect to lineage and tir allele, but not for SBI cluster and Q type. We conclude that no exclusive genotype was identified that was common to all supershedder isolates.
Pianciola, L; D'Astek, B A; Mazzeo, M; Chinen, I; Masana, M; Rivas, M
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important food-borne pathogens associated with human diseases. In Argentina, O157:H7 is the dominant serotype in hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) cases. Previously, we have described the almost exclusive circulation of human E. coli O157 strains belonging to the hypervirulent clade 8 in Neuquén Province. The aim of the present study was to investigate, by a broad molecular characterization, if this particular distribution of E. coli O157 clades in Neuquén is similar to the situation in other regions of the country and if it may be originated in a similar profile in cattle, its main reservoir. Two-hundred and eighty O157 strains (54 bovine and 226 human) isolated between 2006 and 2008 in different regions of Argentina were studied. All strains harbored rfbO157, fliCH7, eae, and ehxA genes. The predominant genotype was stx2a/stx2c in human (76.1%) and bovine (55.5%) strains. All human isolates tested by Lineage-Specific Polymorphism Assay (LSPA-6), were lineage I/II; among bovine strains, 94.1% belonged to lineage I/II and 5.9% to lineage I. No LSPA-6 lineage II isolates were detected. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis has revealed the existence of nine clade phylogenetic groups. In our clinical strains collection, 87.6% belonged to the hypervirulent clade 8, and 12.4% were classified as clade 4/5. In bovine isolates, 59.3% strains were clade 8, 33.3% clade 4/5 and 7.4% clade 3. More than 80% of human strains showed the presence of 6 of the 7 virulence determinants described in the TW14359 O157 strain associated with the raw spinach outbreak in the U.S. in 2006. More than 80% of bovine strains showed the presence of 3 of these factors. The q933 allele, which has been related to high toxin production, was present in 98.2% of clinical strains and 75.9% of the bovine isolates. The molecular characterization of human STEC O157 strains allows us to conclude that the particular situation previously described
Jakubczak, Aleksandra; Szych, Jolanta; Januszkiewicz, Kamil
Sorbitol-fermenting shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H- strains have emerged as a cause of human disease in many European and non-European countries. The role of SF VTEC O157:H- in the etiology of pediatric HUS and diarrhea is significant. We characterized the first SF VTEC O157:H- strain isolated from 9 year old patient in Poland. Strain possessed many traits characteristics for SF VTEC O157:H-. It fermented sorbitol after overnight incubation and produced beta-glucuronidase. It possessed the stx2, eae-gamma, EhlyA and sfpA genes and did not harbour plasmid-encoded katP and espP genes. Motility was not expressed but the strain possessed the chromosomal fliC locus for H7 antigen. The spread of SF VTEC O157:H- strains demonstrates the need for appropriate procedures for their microbiological diagnosis in Poland.
Wang, Rong; Kalchayanand, Norasak; King, David A; Luedtke, Brandon E; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Arthur, Terrance M
In the meat industry, a "high event period" (HEP) is defined as a time period during which commercial meat plants experience a higher than usual rate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination. Genetic analysis indicated that within a HEP, most of the E. coli O157:H7 strains belong to a singular dominant strain type. This was in disagreement with the current beef contamination model stating that contamination occurs when incoming pathogen load on animal hides, which consists of diverse strain types of E. coli O157:H7, exceeds the intervention capacity. Thus, we hypothesize that the HEP contamination may be due to certain in-plant colonized E. coli O157:H7 strains that are better able to survive sanitization through biofilm formation. To test our hypothesis, a collection of 45 E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from HEP beef contamination incidents and a panel of 47 E. coli O157:H7 strains of diverse genetic backgrounds were compared for biofilm formation and sanitizer resistance. Biofilm formation was tested on 96-well polystyrene plates for 1 to 6 days. Biofilm cell survival and recovery growth after sanitization were compared between the two strain collections using common sanitizers, including quaternary ammonium chloride, chlorine, and sodium chlorite. No difference in "early stage" biofilms was observed between the two strain collections after incubation at 22 to 25°C for 1 or 2 days. However, the HEP strains demonstrated significantly higher potency of "mature" biofilm formation after incubation for 4 to 6 days. Biofilms of the HEP strains also exhibited significantly stronger resistance to sanitization. These data suggest that biofilm formation and sanitization resistance could have a role in HEP beef contamination by E. coli O157:H7, which highlights the importance of proper and complete sanitization of food contact surfaces and food processing equipment in commercial meat plants.
Feng, Peter C H; Keys, Christine; Lacher, David W; Beutin, Lothar; Bentancor, Adriana; Heuvelink, Annet; Afset, Jan E; Rumi, Valeria; Monday, Steven
Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) is comprised of a large heterogeneous group of strains and serotypes that carry the intimin gene (eae) but no other EPEC virulence factors. In a previous study, we examined a few aEPEC strains of O157:H16 serotype from the U.S. and France and found these to be nearly homologous, and speculated that the same strain had been disseminated or perhaps they are part of a large clonal group that exists worldwide. To test that hypothesis, we examined additional 45 strains isolated from various sources from 4 other countries and determined that although there are a few eae-negative O157:H16 strains, most are aEPEC that carried eae and specifically, the ε-eae allele. Analysis by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing showed that as a whole, O157:H16 strains are phylogenetically diverse and have different sequence types and PFGE profiles. But the aEPEC strains within the O157:H16 serotype, regardless of the eae allele carried, are a highly conserved and homologous group of sequence type (ST)-171 strains that shared similar PFGE profiles. These aEPEC strains of O157:H16 serotype are not closely related to any of the major EPEC and enterohemorrhagic E. coli clonal lineages and appear to be part of a large clonal group that are prevalent worldwide.
Kim, Y B; Okuda, J; Matsumoto, C; Morigaki, T; Asai, N; Watanabe, H; Nishibuchi, M
Escherichia coli strains isolated from patients with diarrhea or hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) at Pusan University Hospital, South Korea, between 1990 and 1996 were examined for traits of the O157:H7 serogroup. One strain isolated from a patient with HUS belonged to the O157:H7 serotype, possessed a 60-MDa plasmid, the eae gene, and ability to produce Shiga toxin 1 but not Shiga toxin 2. Arbitrarily primed PCR analysis suggested that this strain is genetically very close to a O157:H7 strain isolated in Japan.
Ravva, Subbarao V.; Sarreal, Chester Z.; Cooley, Michael B.
We previously reported that the strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) that survived longer in austere soil environment lacked expression of curli, a fitness trait linked with intestinal colonization. In addition, the proportion of curli-positive variants of EcO157 decreased with repeated soil exposure. Here we evaluated 84 and 176 clinical strains from outbreaks and sporadic infections in the US, plus 211 animal fecal and environmental strains for curli expression. These shiga-toxigenic strains were from 328 different genotypes, as characterized by multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). More than half of the fecal strains (human and animal) and a significant proportion of environmental isolates (82%) were found to lack curli expression. EcO157 strains from several outbreaks linked with the consumption of contaminated apple juice, produce, hamburgers, steak, and beef were also found to lack curli expression. Phylogenetic analysis of fecal strains indicates curli expression is distributed throughout the population. However, a significant proportion of animal fecal isolates (84%) gave no curli expression compared to human fecal isolates (58%). In addition, analysis of environmental isolates indicated nearly exclusive clustering of curli expression to a single branch of the minimal spanning tree. This indicates that curli expression depends primarily upon the type of environmental exposure and the isolation source, although genotypic differences also contribute to clonal variation in curli. Furthermore, curli-deficient phenotype appears to be a selective trait for survival of EcO157 in agricultural environments. PMID:28066724
Shekarforoush, Shahram; Tahamtan, Yahya; Pourbakhsh, Ali
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli constitute a subset of serotypes (E. coli O157 and some other serogroups) of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli firmly associated with severe human illnesses like bloody diarrhoea and haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a zoonotic pathogen. They rarely cause disease in animals, live in the intestines of healthy sheep and ruminants are recognized as their main natural reservoir, so they can contaminate meat during slaughtering practices. The purpose of this study was epidemiological survey on the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7 in healthy sheep in Shiraz-Iran. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect the Stx2 gene the only bacterial factor that has been associated with more severe disease. During a period of 7 months (December 2005 to June 2006), 153 slaughtered sheep at Shiraz slaughterhouse, were randomly selected and examined for surface carriage of E. coli O157:H7 by conventional plating and Stx2 gene detection by PCR technique. E. coli O157:H7 was found in 6(3.92%) of 153 sheep. The bacteria were isolated from 5(3.34%) of 114 and 1(2.63%) of 38 sheep two or under two and more than 2 years old, respectively (p = 0.5). The contamination rate might vary depending on season, age and infection time. The higher frequency for younger animals may be due to differences in the composition of the gastrointestinal flora resulting from differences in diet. This is the first report of the presence of E. coli O157:H7 in sheep from Iran.
Lim, Ji Youn; Hong, Joon Bae; Sheng, Haiqing; Shringi, Smriti; Kaul, Rajinder; Hovde, Carolyn J.
Escherichia coli O157:H7, a food-borne pathogen, causes hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. A putative virulence factor of E. coli O157:H7 is a 60-MDa plasmid (pO157) found in 99% of all clinical isolates and many bovine-derived strains. The well characterized E. coli O157:H7 Sakai strain (Sakai) and its pO157-cured derivative (Sakai-Cu) were compared for phenotypic differences. Sakai-Cu had enhanced survival in synthetic gastric fluid, did not colonize cattle as well as wild-type Sakai, and had unchanged growth rates and tolerance to salt and heat. These results are consistent with our previous findings with another E. coli O157:H7 disease outbreak isolate ATCC 43894 and its pO157-cured (43894-Cu). However, despite the essentially sequence identical pO157 in these strains, Sakai-Cu had changes in antibiotic susceptibility and motility that did not occur in the 43894-Cu strain. This unexpected result was systematically analyzed using phenotypic microarrays testing 1,920 conditions with Sakai, 43894, and the plasmid-cured mutants. The influence of the pO157 differed between strains on a wide number of growth/survival conditions. Relative expression of genes related to acid resistance (gadA, gadX, and rpoS) and flagella production (fliC and flhD) were tested using quantitative real-time PCR and gadA and rpoS expression differed between Sakai-Cu and 43894-Cu. The strain-specific differences in phenotype that resulted from the loss of essentially DNA-sequence identical pO157 were likely due to the chromosomal genetic diversity between strains. The O157:H7 serotype diversity was further highlighted by phenotypic microarray comparisons of the two outbreak strains with a genotype 6 bovine E. coli O157:H7 isolate, rarely associated with human disease. PMID:20571953
Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains Isolated from High-Event Period Beef Contamination Have Strong Biofilm-Forming Ability and Low Sanitizer Susceptibility, Which Are Associated with High pO157 Plasmid Copy Number.
Wang, Rong; Luedtke, Brandon E; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Schmidt, John W; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Arthur, Terrance M
In the meat industry, a high-event period (HEP) is defined as a time period when beef processing establishments experience an increased occurrence of product contamination by Escherichia coli O157:H7. Our previous studies suggested that bacterial biofilm formation and sanitizer resistance might contribute to HEPs. We conducted the present study to further characterize E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated during HEPs for their potential to cause contamination and to investigate the genetic basis for their strong biofilm-forming ability and high sanitizer resistance. Our results show that, compared with the E. coli O157:H7 diversity control panel strains, the HEP strains had a significantly higher biofilm-forming ability on contact surfaces and a lower susceptibility to common sanitizers. No difference in the presence of disinfectant-resistant genes or the prevalence of antibiotic resistance was observed between the HEP and control strains. However, the HEP strains retained significantly higher copy numbers of the pO157 plasmid. A positive correlation was observed among a strain's high plasmid copy number, strong biofilm-forming ability, low sanitizer susceptibility, and high survival and recovery capability after sanitization, suggesting that these specific phenotypes could be either directly correlated to gene expression on the pO157 plasmid or indirectly regulated via chromosomal gene expression influenced by the presence of the plasmid. Our data highlight the potential risk of biofilm formation and sanitizer resistance in HEP contamination by E. coli O157:H7, and our results call for increased attention to proper and effective sanitization practices in meat processing facilities.
Background: Recent reports have indicated that a small sub-population of cattle shedding high levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the main source for transmission of the pathogen between animals. Cattle achieving a fecal shedding status of 104 CFU of E. coli O157:H7/gram are now referred to as su...
Bayles, Darrell O.; Alt, David P.; Looft, Torey
Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain 86-24 does not produce curli fimbriae, but gives rise to curli-positive isolates at a variable frequency. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of curli-negative and curli-positive isolates of strain 86-24. PMID:27979932
Ma, Jincai; Mark Ibekwe, A; Crowley, David E; Yang, Ching-Hong
Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 serogroups are known to cause serious diseases in human. However, research on the persistence of E. coli non-O157 serogroups in preharvest environment is limited. In the current study, we compared the survival behavior of E. coli O157 to that of non-O157 E. coli strains in agricultural soils collected from three major fresh produce growing areas of California (CA) and Arizona (AZ). Results showed that the nonpathogenic E. coli O157:H7 4554 survived longer than the pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 in Imperial Valley CA and Yuma AZ, but not in soils from the Salinas area. However, E. coli O157:NM was found to persist significantly longer than E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 in all soil tested from the three regions. Furthermore, two non-O157 (E. coli O26:H21 and E. coli O103:H2) survived significantly longer than E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 in all soils tested. Pearson correlation analysis showed that survival of the E. coli strains was affected by different environmental factors. Our data suggest that survival of E. coli O157 and non-O157 may be strain and soil specific, and therefore, care must be taken in data interpretation with respect to survival of this pathogen in different soils.
Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim; Mohammed, Mahmoud Ahmed; Ahdy, Asmaa Mohammed; Tamura, Tomohiro
Sorbitol-fermenting (SF) Escherichia coli O157:H- strains have emerged as important pathogens and have been associated with a higher incidence of progression to hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) than non-sorbitol fermenting (NSF) E. coli O157:H7. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of SF E. coli O157:H- and NSF E. coli O157:H7 strains in retail beef products in Mansoura, Egypt. The contamination rates with rfbEO157-positive E. coli O157 strains were 26.7% (8/30), 10% (3/30) and 3.7% (1/27) in ground beef, beef burger, and fresh beef samples, respectively with an overall mean of 13.8% (12/87) among all meat products tested. SF E. coli O157:H- were the most dominant among the isolated O157 strains. Of the fifteen O157 strains isolated, 11 (73.3%) were SF E. coli O157:H-, while the remaining 4 (26.7%) were NSF E. coli O157:H7. The 11 SF O157H- strains were genetically positive for sfpA gene. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis for fliC gene demonstrated a similar pattern for both SF and NSF O157 isolates. PCR assays verified the existence of stx1 gene in 7 (46.7%) and stx2 gene in 13 (86.7%) of the 15 O157 strains isolated. Unexpectedly, two of the 15 O157 strains isolated were negative for Shiga toxin genes. The eae gene was identified in all of the 15 O157 strains except in one NSF O157:H7 strain. EHEC-hlyA gene was detected in 14 (93.3%) of the 15 O157 isolates, nonetheless only 11 strains showed enterohemolytic phenotype on blood agar. A combination of the four virulence genes, stx1, stx2, eae and EHEC-hlyA were detected in 7 (46.7%) strains, while six (40%) strains were positive for stx2, eae and hlyA genes. This is the first record for isolation of E. coli O157: H- in Egypt as well as in the African continent.
Thompson, J S; Hodge, D S; Borczyk, A A
Fluorogenic procedures were used with the substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) to identify Escherichia coli. Most strains produced beta-glucuronidase and, thus, were MUG positive. A 20-min procedure was developed to detect glucuronidase activity in 1,295 bacterial cultures, representing 23 genera, of strains that were isolated from clinical specimens. Very few organisms other than E. coli were MUG positive. Of 682 E. coli strains that were isolated, 630 (92.4%) were MUG positive. When an additional 188 E. coli serotype O157 isolates were examined, 155 E. coli O157:H7, 10 E. coli O157:H-, and 1 E. coli O157:H (rough) isolate were MUG negative. All 166 cultures were verocytotoxin positive. Of the remaining 22 E. coli O157 isolates, 2 isolates were O157:H-, 1 isolate was O157:H (rough), and 19 isolates were other H types (H6, H16, H19, H25, H42, and H45); these 22 isolates were MUG positive. All 22 cultures were verocytotoxin negative. The rapid MUG procedure can be used to predict verocytotoxin-positive isolates of E. coli O157; that is, there is a very good likelihood that MUG-negative E. coli O157 isolates are verocytotoxin positive. PMID:2229338
Introduction: A “High Event Period” (HEP) is defined as a time period in which commercial plants experience a higher than usual rate of E. coli O157:H7 contamination of beef trims. Our previous studies suggested that instead of being a direct result of bacteria on animal hides, in-plant biofilm for...
Paoli, George C.; Zhang, Xinmin; Dudley, Edward G.; Figler, Hillary M.; Cottrell, Bryan J.; Andreozzi, Elisa
ABSTRACT Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 strain PA20 is a Pennsylvania Department of Health clinical isolate. It has been used to study biofilm formation in O157:H7 clinical isolates, where the high incidence of prophage insertions in the mlrA transcription factor disrupts traditional csgD biofilm regulation. Here, we report the complete PA20 genome sequence. PMID:28082498
Batra, Dhwani; Rowe, Lori; Loparev, Vladimir N.; Stripling, Devon; Garcia-Toledo, Lisley; Knipe, Kristen; Juieng, Phalasy; Sheth, Mili; Martin, Haley; Laufer Halpin, Alison
ABSTRACT Enterobacteriaceae carrying plasmid-mediated colistin resistance have been found around the world. We report here the high-quality whole-genome sequence of an Escherichia coli O157:H48 isolate (2016C-3936C1) from Connecticut that carried the mcr-1 resistance gene on an IncX4-type plasmid. PMID:28302788
Scotland, S M; Willshaw, G A; Cheasty, T; Rowe, B
AIMS: To determine whether 17 Escherichia coli O157:H8 strains isolated from patients with diarrhoea in the United Kingdom were putative pathogens. METHODS: The strains had been isolated by the use of O157 antiserum, available for the detection of Vero cytotoxin (VT) producing strains of E coli O157 that are usually of flagellar (H) type 7, but may also be non-motile. The strains were examined for VT production, for their ability to adhere to HEp-2 cells, and for hybridisation with several DNA probes that recognise pathogenic properties of E coli. Their ability to ferment sorbitol and to produce beta-glucuronidase was also investigated, as these tests are used to discriminate VT positive O157 strains. RESULTS: The O157:H8 strains did not produce VT. All gave localised attachment to HEp-2 cells, associated with a positive fluorescence-actin staining test, and all hybridised with the E coli attaching and effacing (eae) probe. In addition to the difference in VT production, O157:H8 strains could be distinguished from VT positive O157 strains by their beta-glucuronidase activity, their failure to produce enterohaemolysin, and their lack of hybridisation with the CVD419 probe derived from a plasmid in an O157:H7 strain. CONCLUSIONS: The 0157:H8 strains had in vitro properties characteristic of the class of E coli that causes attaching and effacing lesions in epithelial intestinal cells. They may therefore be considered a putative cause of diarrhoea but their prevalence remains to be established. Several O157:H8 strains failed to ferment sorbitol in agar plates and therefore could be misidentified as VT positive O157 strains. Confirmatory tests for VT production are needed when O157 strains are isolated from faeces. PMID:1479033
Cadona, Jimena S.; Bustamante, Ana V.; González, Juliana; Sanso, A. Mariel
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a foodborne pathogen responsible for severe disease in humans such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and cattle, the principal reservoir. Identification of the clones/lineages is important as several characteristics, among them propensity to cause disease varies with STEC phylogenetic origin. At present, we do not know what STEC clones, especially of non-O157:H7, are circulating in Argentina. To fill this knowledge gap we assessed the genetic diversity of STEC strains isolated in Argentina from various sources, mostly cattle and food, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Our objectives were to determine the phylogenetic relationships among strains and to compare them with strains from different geographic origins, especially with those from clinical human cases, in order to evaluate their potential health risk. A total of 59 STEC isolates from 41 serotypes were characterized by MLST. Analysis using EcMLST database identified 38 sequence types (ST), 17 (45%) of which were new STs detected in 18 serotypes. Fifteen out of 38 STs identified were grouped into 11 clonal groups (CGs) and, 23 not grouped in any of the defined CGs. Different STs were found in the same serotype. Results highlighted a high degree of phylogenetic heterogeneity among Argentinean strains and they showed that several cattle and food isolates belonged to the same STs that are commonly associated with clinical human cases in several geographical areas. STEC is a significant public health concern. Argentina has the highest incidence of HUS in the world and this study provides the first data about which STEC clones are circulating. Data showed that most of them might pose a serious zoonotic risk and this information is important for developing public health initiatives. However, the actual potential risk will be defined by the virulence profiles, which may differ among isolates belonging to the same ST. PMID:27625995
Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 EDL 933 is a ground beef isolate associated with a 1983 hemorrhagic colitis outbreak. Considered the prototype O157:H7 strain, its derived genome sequence is a standard reference strain for comparative genomic studies of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Here we...
Jure, María A; Condorí, Marina S; Pérez Terrazzino, Gabriela; Catalán, Mariana G; López Campo, Alejandro; Zolezzi, Gisella; Chinen, Isabel; Rivas, Marta; Castillo, Marta
Escherichia coli O157 is an emergent pathogen associated with diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Meat products constitute an important transmission source of this microorganism. The aims of this study were to characterize E. coli O157 isolated from cattle and meat products collected from abattoirs and retail stores, to establish the clonal relatedness among regional isolates and to compare them with those in the national database. Between 2004 and 2013, 169 minced meat, 35 sausage and 216 carcass samples were analyzed. Thirteen E. coli O157 isolates were identified; 6 of which were O157:H7 and characterized as stx2c(vh-a)/eae/ehxA (n = 5) and stx2/eae/ehxA (n = 1). The 7 remaining isolates were non-toxigenic E. coli strains, and serotyped as O157:NT (n = 4), O157:NM (n = 1), O157:ND (n = 1) and O157:H16 (n = 1). The strains yielded different XbaI-PFGE patterns. Compared to the E. coli O157 isolates in the National Database, none of these patterns have been previously detected in strains of different origin in Argentina.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated from High-Event Period beef contamination have strong biofilm-forming ability and low sanitizer susceptibility, which are associated with high pO157 plasmid copy number
In the meat industry, a “High Event Period” (HEP) is defined as a time period when beef processing establishments experience an increased occurrence of product contamination by E. coli O157:H7. Our previous studies suggested that bacterial biofilm formation and sanitizer resistance might contribute...
Paoli, George C; Wijey, Chandi; Uhlich, Gaylen A
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) is an important group of foodborne pathogens in the United States and worldwide. Nearly half of STEC-induced diarrheal disease in the United States is caused by serotype O157:H7, while non-O157 STEC account for the remaining illnesses. Thus, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service has instituted regulatory testing of beef products and has a zero-tolerance policy for regulatory samples that test positive for STEC O157:H7 and six other non-O157 STEC (serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145). In this study, positive control (PC) strains for the detection of STEC O157:H7 and the six USDA-regulated non-O157 STEC were constructed. To ensure that the food testing samples are not cross-contaminated by the PC sample, it is important that the STEC-PC strains are distinguishable from STEC isolated from test samples. The PC strains were constructed by integrating a unique DNA target sequence and a gene for spectinomycin (Sp) resistance into the chromosomes of the seven STEC strains. End-point and real-time PCR assays were developed for the specific detection of the PC strains and were tested using 93 strains of E. coli (38 STEC O157:H7, at least 6 strains of each of the USDA-regulated non-O157 STEC, and 2 commensal E. coli) and 51 strains of other bacteria (30 species from 20 genera). The PCR assays demonstrated high specificity for the unique target sequence. The target sequence was detectable by PCR after 10 culture passages (∼100 generations), demonstrating the stability of the integrated target sequence. In addition, the strains were tested for their potential use in modeling the growth of STEC. Plating the PC strains mixed with ground beef flora on modified rainbow agar containing Sp eliminated the growth of the background flora that grew on modified rainbow agar without Sp. Thus, these strains could be used to enumerate and model the growth of STEC in the presence of foodborne background
Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are important foodborne pathogens. Among these, E. coli O157:H7 is the most frequently isolated STEC serotype responsible for foodborne diseases. However, the non-O157 serotypes have been associated with serious outbreaks and sporadic diseases as...
Galli, Lucía; Brusa, Victoria; Singh, Pallavi; Cataldi, Angel Adrián; Manning, Shannon; Peral-García, Pilar; Leotta, Gerardo Aníbal
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an enteric pathogen associated with food safety threats and with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Argentina, post-enteric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is endemic, with >70% of cases associated with E. coli O157 infection. To date the biological basis behind the severity among E. coli O157 infections is unknown. However, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing has helped to define nine E. coli O157:H7 clades, of which clade 8 strains are associated with severe disease cases. The aim of this study was to characterize a collection of 20 STEC O157:H7 strains isolated between 2011 and 2013 from ground beef and different environmental samples from butcher shops of Argentina. All strains harbored the eae, ehxA, fliCH7, efa, iha, and toxB genes, with stx2a/stx2c as the predominant genotype (75%). The XbaI-PFGE analysis showed that the E. coli O157 strains had high genetic diversity. Nine strains were grouped in four XbaI-PFGE clusters, whereas 11 strains showed unique XbaI-PFGE patterns. In contrast, the SNP analysis allowed us to separate the strains in two distinct lineages representing clade 8 (70%) and clade 6 (30%). Our results show the molecular characterization of E. coli O157 strains isolated from ground beef and environmental samples from Argentinean butcher shops.
Bustamante, Ana V.; Lucchesi, Paula M.A.; Parma, Alberto E.
The aim of this work was to adapt described MLVA protocols to the molecular typing and characterization of VTEC O157:H7 isolates from Argentina. Nine VNTR loci were amplified by PCR showing diversity values from 0.49 to 0.73. Nine MLVA profiles were observed and the cluster analysis indicated both unrelated and closely related VTEC O157:H7 strains. In spite of the limited number of isolates studied, the panel of VNTR used made it possible to perform a first approach of the high genetic diversity of native strains of O157:H7 by MLVA. PMID:24031443
The PCR-based Escherichia coli O157 (O157) strain typing system, Polymorphic Amplified Typing Sequences (PATS), targets insertions-deletions (Indels) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the XbaI and AvrII(BlnI) restriction enzyme sites, respectively, besides amplifying four known virulenc...
Lu, Zhongjing; Breidt, Fred
A novel phage, Φ241, specific for Escherichia coli O157:H7 was isolated from an industrial cucumber fermentation where both acidity (pH ≤ 3.7) and salinity (≥5% NaCl) were high. The phage belongs to the Myoviridae family. Its latent period was 15 min and average burst size was 53 phage particles per infected cell. The phage was able to lyse 48 E. coli O157:H7 strains, but none of the 18 non-O157 strains (including E. coli O104:H7) or the 2 O antigen-negative mutants of O157:H7 strain, 43895Δper (also lacking H7 antigen) and F12 (still expressing H7 antigen). However, the phage was able to lyse a per-complemented strain (43895ΔperComp) which expresses O157 antigen. These results indicated that phage Φ241 is specific for O157 antigen, and E. coli strains lacking O157 antigen were resistant to the phage infection, regardless of the presence or absence of H7 antigen. SDS-PAGE profile revealed at least 13 structural proteins of the phage. The phage DNA was resistant to many commonly used restriction endonucleases, suggesting the presence of modified nucleotides in the phage genome. At the multiplicity of infection of 10, 3, or 0.3, the phage caused a rapid cell lysis within 1 or 2 h, resulting in 3.5- or 4.5-log-unit reduction in cell concentration. The high lytic activity, specificity and tolerance to low pH and high salinity make phage Φ241 a potentially ideal biocontrol agent of E. coli O157:H7 in various foods. To our knowledge, this is the first report on E. coli O157:H7 phage isolated from high acidity and salinity environment.
Lu, Zhongjing; Breidt, Fred
A novel phage, Φ241, specific for Escherichia coli O157:H7 was isolated from an industrial cucumber fermentation where both acidity (pH ≤ 3.7) and salinity (≥5% NaCl) were high. The phage belongs to the Myoviridae family. Its latent period was 15 min and average burst size was 53 phage particles per infected cell. The phage was able to lyse 48 E. coli O157:H7 strains, but none of the 18 non-O157 strains (including E. coli O104:H7) or the 2 O antigen-negative mutants of O157:H7 strain, 43895Δper (also lacking H7 antigen) and F12 (still expressing H7 antigen). However, the phage was able to lyse a per-complemented strain (43895ΔperComp) which expresses O157 antigen. These results indicated that phage Φ241 is specific for O157 antigen, and E. coli strains lacking O157 antigen were resistant to the phage infection, regardless of the presence or absence of H7 antigen. SDS-PAGE profile revealed at least 13 structural proteins of the phage. The phage DNA was resistant to many commonly used restriction endonucleases, suggesting the presence of modified nucleotides in the phage genome. At the multiplicity of infection of 10, 3, or 0.3, the phage caused a rapid cell lysis within 1 or 2 h, resulting in 3.5- or 4.5-log-unit reduction in cell concentration. The high lytic activity, specificity and tolerance to low pH and high salinity make phage Φ241 a potentially ideal biocontrol agent of E. coli O157:H7 in various foods. To our knowledge, this is the first report on E. coli O157:H7 phage isolated from high acidity and salinity environment. PMID:25741324
Kudva, I T; Hatfield, P G; Hovde, C J
The isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains from sheep are described. One flock was investigated for E. coli O157:H7 over a 16-month period that spanned two summer and two autumn seasons. Variation in the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7-positive sheep was observed, with animals being culture positive only in the summer months but not in the spring, autumn, or winter. E. coli O157:H7 isolates were distinguished by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of chromosomal DNA and toxin gene restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Ten PFGE patterns and five RFLP patterns, identified among the isolates, showed that multiple E. coli O157:H7 strains were isolated from one flock, that a single animal simultaneously shed multiple E. coli O157:H7 strains, and that the strains shed by individuals changed over time. E. coli O157:H7 was isolated only by selective enrichment culture off 10 g of ovine feces. In contrast, strains of eight STEC serotypes other than O157:H7 were cultured from feces of sheep from a separate flock without enrichment. The predominant non-O157 STEC serotype found was O91:NM (NM indicates nonmotile), and others included O128:NM, O88:NM, O6:H49, and O5:NM. Irrespective of serotype, 98% of the ovine STEC isolates possessed various combinations of the virulence-associated genes for Shiga toxin(s) and the attaching-and-effacing lesion (stx1, stx2, and eae), suggesting their potential for human pathogenicity. The most common toxin-eae genotype was positive for stx1, stx2, and eae. A Vero cell cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that 90% of the representative STEC isolates tested expressed the toxin gene. The report demonstrates that sheep transiently shed a variety of STEC strains, including E. coli O157:H7, that have potential as human pathogens. PMID:9157149
Paoli, George C.; Chen, Chin-Yi; Cottrell, Bryan J.; Zhang, Xinmin; Yan, Xianghe
The genome sequence of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 EDL933, a ground beef isolate from a 1983 hemorrhagic colitis outbreak, is a standard reference for comparative genomic studies of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains. Here, we report the genome sequence of a patient stool isolate from that outbreak, strain EDL932. PMID:27417834
Swift, Jacob M; Foster, Derek M; Rogers, Anna T; Sylvester, Hannah J; Griffith, Emily H; Jacob, Megan E
Small ruminants have been implicated in outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 at livestock exhibitions throughout the United States. Additionally, goat meat or milk may serve as a reservoir for foodborne transmission of the organism. These associations highlight the public health importance of an effective strategy to reduce E. coli O157:H7 shedding in goats. We examined the efficacy of the SRP(®) vaccine in goats orally challenged with E. coli O157:H7. Mixed-breed goats (n = 14) were randomly allocated into vaccinated and unvaccinated treatments (n = 7 per treatment). Goats were housed with a vaccinated and unvaccinated animal in each pen. Feces were collected for 3 weeks, then at necropsy, gastrointestinal contents were collected to determine the concentration of E. coli O157:H7. Three isolates per positive sample were saved and evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to assess strain persistence over time. The mean concentration of E. coli O157:H7 in the feces of goats was numerically reduced in the vaccinated treatment; however, it was not statistically significant. In addition, the total number of days goats were fecal positive for E. coli O157:H7 were not different between vaccinated and unvaccinated treatments. Pulsotypes of isolates revealed that goats initially shed two of the four challenge strains of E. coli O157:H7, after which there was a distinct shift to two different strains. Further work is needed to evaluate cost-effective intervention strategies that reliably reduce E. coli O157:H7 shedding in goats, particularly those that may reduce the risk of transmission at public events, including petting zoos and fairs.
Nagano, Hideki; Okui, Toyo; Fujiwara, Osamu; Uchiyama, Yasuhiro; Tamate, Naoto; Kumada, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Yo; Yano, Shoki
A total of 22 clonal phenotypic variants of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 was isolated from six different locations in Hokkaido, Japan. These isolates were negative for sorbitol fermentation but positive for beta-D-glucuronidase (GUD+). They carried eaeA, EHEC-hlyA, pas and etpD genes like typical E. coli O157:H7 and, in addition, st1 and stx2 genes. However, they were shown to lack katP and espP genes that are present in typical STEC O157:H7. All these atypical GUD+ STEC O157:H7 isolates had very similar antimicrobial susceptibilities. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis with XbaI, SfiI, SwaI, SpeI and NotI indicated that they were identical or closely related to one another. From their phenotypic and genotypic features, these GUD+ STEC O157:H7 isolates may represent a distinct clone among STEC O157.
Lupolova, Nadejda; Dallman, Timothy J; Matthews, Louise; Bono, James L; Gally, David L
Sequence analyses of pathogen genomes facilitate the tracking of disease outbreaks and allow relationships between strains to be reconstructed and virulence factors to be identified. However, these methods are generally used after an outbreak has happened. Here, we show that support vector machine analysis of bovine E. coli O157 isolate sequences can be applied to predict their zoonotic potential, identifying cattle strains more likely to be a serious threat to human health. Notably, only a minor subset (less than 10%) of bovine E. coli O157 isolates analyzed in our datasets were predicted to have the potential to cause human disease; this is despite the fact that the majority are within previously defined pathogenic lineages I or I/II and encode key virulence factors. The predictive capacity was retained when tested across datasets. The major differences between human and bovine E. coli O157 isolates were due to the relative abundances of hundreds of predicted prophage proteins. This finding has profound implications for public health management of disease because interventions in cattle, such a vaccination, can be targeted at herds carrying strains of high zoonotic potential. Machine-learning approaches should be applied broadly to further our understanding of pathogen biology.
Lupolova, Nadejda; Dallman, Timothy J.; Gally, David L.
Sequence analyses of pathogen genomes facilitate the tracking of disease outbreaks and allow relationships between strains to be reconstructed and virulence factors to be identified. However, these methods are generally used after an outbreak has happened. Here, we show that support vector machine analysis of bovine E. coli O157 isolate sequences can be applied to predict their zoonotic potential, identifying cattle strains more likely to be a serious threat to human health. Notably, only a minor subset (less than 10%) of bovine E. coli O157 isolates analyzed in our datasets were predicted to have the potential to cause human disease; this is despite the fact that the majority are within previously defined pathogenic lineages I or I/II and encode key virulence factors. The predictive capacity was retained when tested across datasets. The major differences between human and bovine E. coli O157 isolates were due to the relative abundances of hundreds of predicted prophage proteins. This finding has profound implications for public health management of disease because interventions in cattle, such a vaccination, can be targeted at herds carrying strains of high zoonotic potential. Machine-learning approaches should be applied broadly to further our understanding of pathogen biology. PMID:27647883
Toro, Magaly; Cao, Guojie; Rump, Lydia; Nagaraja, T. G.; Meng, Jianghong
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are human pathogens. Although >400 non-O157 serotypes have been involved in human disease, whole-genome sequencing information is missing for many serotypes. We sequenced 64 STEC strains comprising 38 serotypes, isolated from clinical sources, animals, and environmental samples, to improve the phylogenetic understanding of these important foodborne pathogens. PMID:26430026
Martin, I E; Tyler, S D; Tyler, K D; Khakhria, R; Johnson, W M
A total of 121 representative Escherichia coli O157:H7 and O157:NM (nonmotile) isolates were characterized by ribotype, phage type, verotoxin genotype, and genomic fingerprints generated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Ribotyping was not able to discriminate between O157:H7 isolates, and phage typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were the most valuable and discriminatory techniques. PMID:8904445
Lytle, Darren A.; Rice, Eugene W.; Johnson, Clifford H.; Fox, Kim R.
The electrophoretic mobilities (EPMs) of a number of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and wild-type E. coli strains were measured. The effects of pH and ionic strength on the EPMs were investigated. The EPMs of E. coli O157:H7 strains differed from those of wild-type strains. As the suspension pH decreased, the EPMs of both types of strains increased. PMID:10388724
Antimicrobial resistance in E. coli O157 and non-O157 strains is a matter of increasing concern, and the association with some virulence traits in the same bacteria remains unclear. Inappropriate antimicrobial use in human and animal therapy has been associated with selective pressure in enteric mi...
Amarillas, Luis; Chaidez, Cristobal; Lugo, Yadira
The bacteriophage phiJLA23 was isolated from an animal feces sample and lytic activity was demonstrated against the Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain. We report the complete nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phiJLA23, information which may be useful for determining whether this phage is a candidate for biocontrol or another biotechnological application. PMID:23469347
Varela-Hernández, J J; Cabrera-Diaz, E; Cardona-López, M A; Ibarra-Velázquez, L M; Rangel-Villalobos, H; Castillo, A; Torres-Vitela, M R; Ramírez-Alvarez, A
The contamination of beef carcasses with Shiga toxin-producing O157:H7 and non-O157 Escherichia coli (STEC) obtained from a slaughter plant in Guadalajara, Mexico was investigated. A total of 258 beef carcasses were sampled during a 12-month period. All samples were assayed for STEC by selective enrichment in modified tryptone soy broth supplemented with cefixime, cefsulodin and vancomycin, followed by plating on Sorbitol MacConkey Agar supplemented with cefixime and tellurite (CT-SMAC). Simultaneously, all samples were assayed by immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and plated on CT-SMAC and CHROMagar. The presence of the stx1, stx2, eaeA and hly933 genes, recognized as major virulence factors of STEC, was tested for O157:H7 and non-O157 E. coli isolates by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). STEC was detected in two (0.8%) samples. One of these STEC isolates corresponded to the serotype O157:H7 showing stx2, eaeA and hyl933 genes. The other isolate corresponded to non-O157 STEC and only had the stx1 gene. Thirteen carcasses (5%) were positive for nonmotile E. coli O157 and 7 (2.7%) were positive for E. coli O157:H7. The presence of O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC on beef carcasses in this slaughter plant in Guadalajara, Mexico, emphasizes the importance of implementing the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system, as well as the need for implementing, evaluating, and validating antimicrobial interventions to reduce the presence of potential pathogenic microorganisms.
Munns, Krysty D.; Zaheer, Rahat; Xu, Yong; Stanford, Kim; Laing, Chad R.; Gannon, Victor P. J.; Selinger, L. Brent; McAllister, Tim A.
Cattle are the primary reservoir of the foodborne pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7, with the concentration and frequency of E. coli O157:H7 shedding varying substantially among individual hosts. The term ‘‘super-shedder” has been applied to cattle that shed ≥104 cfu E. coli O157:H7/g of feces. Super-shedders have been reported to be responsible for the majority of E. coli O157:H7 shed into the environment. The objective of this study was to determine if there are phenotypic and/or genotypic differences between E. coli O157:H7 isolates obtained from super-shedder compared to low-shedder cattle. From a total of 784 isolates, four were selected from low-shedder steers and six isolates from super-shedder steers (4.01–8.45 log cfu/g feces) for whole genome sequencing. Isolates were phage and clade typed, screened for substrate utilization, pH sensitivity, virulence gene profiles and Stx bacteriophage insertion (SBI) sites. A range of 89–2473 total single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified when sequenced strains were compared to E. coli O157:H7 strain Sakai. More non-synonymous SNP mutations were observed in low-shedder isolates. Pan-genomic and SNPs comparisons did not identify genetic segregation between super-shedder or low-shedder isolates. All super-shedder isolates and 3 of 4 of low-shedder isolates were typed as phage type 14a, SBI cluster 3 and SNP clade 2. Super-shedder isolates displayed increased utilization of galactitol, thymidine and 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-D-arabinose when compared to low-shedder isolates, but no differences in SNPs were observed in genes encoding for proteins involved in the metabolism of these substrates. While genetic traits specific to super-shedder isolates were not identified in this study, differences in the level of gene expression or genes of unknown function may still contribute to some strains of E. coli O157:H7 reaching high densities within bovine feces. PMID:27018858
Janes, M E; Cobbs, T; Kooshesh, S; Johnson, M G
Differences in survival and growth among five different Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains in three apple varieties were determined at various temperatures. Jonathan, Golden Delicious, and Red Delicious apples were wounded and inoculated with E coli O157:H7 strains C7929 (apple cider isolate), 301C (chicken isolate), 204P (pork isolate), 933 (beef isolate), and 43890 (human isolate) at an initial level of 6 to 7 log CFU/g. The inoculated apples were stored at a constant temperature of 37, 25, 8, or 4 degrees C or at 37 degrees C for 24 h and then at 4 degrees C, and bacterial counts were determined every week for 28 days. By day 28, for Jonathan apples at 25 degrees C, the apple isolate counts were significantly higher than the chicken and human isolate counts. At 4 degrees C for 28 days, the human isolate inoculated into Jonathan, Golden Delicious, and Red Delicious apples was present in significantly smaller numbers than the other strains. The apple isolate survived significantly better at 4 degrees C, yielding the highest number of viable cells. By days 21 and 28, for apples stored at 37 degrees C for the first 24 h and then at 4 degrees C, the counts of viable E. coli O157:H7 apple and human isolates were 6.8 and 5.8 log CFU/g at the site of the wound, whereas for apples kept at 4 degrees C for the duration of storage, the respective counts were 5.6 and 1.5 log CFU/g. Our study shows that E. coli O157:H7 strains responded differentially to their ability to survive in these three apple varieties at 25 or 4 degrees C and produced higher viable counts when apples were temperature abused at 37 degrees C for 24 h and then stored at 4 degrees C for 27 days.
Adhikari, Achyut; Bary, Andy; Cogger, Craig; James, Caleb; Ünlü, Gülhan; Killinger, Karen
Pathogens exposed to agricultural production environments are subject to multiple stresses that may alter their survival under subsequent stress conditions. The objective of this study was to examine heat and starvation stress response of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated from agricultural matrices. Seven E. coli O157:H7 isolates from different agricultural matrices-soil, compost, irrigation water, and sheep manure-were selected, and two ATCC strains were used as controls. The E. coli O157:H7 isolates were exposed to heat stress (56°C in 0.1% peptone water for up to 1 h) and starvation (in phosphate-buffered saline at 37°C for 15 days), and their survival was examined. GInaFiT freeware tool was used to perform regression analyses of the surviving populations. The Weibull model was identified as the most appropriate model for response of the isolates to heat stress, whereas the biphasic survival curves during starvation were fitted using the double Weibull model, indicating the adaptation to starvation or a resistant subpopulation. The inactivation time during heating to achieve the first decimal reduction time (δ) calculated with the Weibull parameters was the highest (45 min) for a compost isolate (Comp60A) and the lowest (28 min) for ATCC strain 43895. Two of the nine isolates (ATCC 43895 and a manure isolate) had β < 1, indicating that surviving populations adapted to heat stress, and six strains demonstrated downward concavity (β > 1), indicating decreasing heat resistance over time. The ATCC strains displayed the longest δ2 (>1,250 h) in response to starvation stress, compared with from 328 to 812 h for the environmental strains. The considerable variation in inactivation kinetics of E. coli O157:H7 highlights the importance of evaluating response to stress conditions among individual strains of a specific pathogen. Environmental isolates did not exhibit more robust response to stress conditions in this study compared with ATCC strains.
Kimura, Richard; Mandrell, Robert E.; Galland, John C.; Hyatt, Doreene; Riley, Lee W.
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is an important food-borne pathogen in industrialized countries. We developed a rapid and simple test for detecting E. coli O157:H7 using a method based on restriction site polymorphisms. Restriction-site-specific PCR (RSS-PCR) involves the amplification of DNA fragments using primers based on specific restriction enzyme recognition sequences, without the use of endonucleases, to generate a set of amplicons that yield “fingerprint” patterns when resolved electrophoretically on an agarose gel. The method was evaluated in a blinded study of E. coli isolates obtained from environmental samples collected at beef cattle feedyards. The 54 isolates were all initially identified by a commonly used polyclonal antibody test as belonging to O157:H7 serotype. They were retested by anti-O157 and anti-H7 monoclonal antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The RSS-PCR method identified all 28 isolates that were shown to be E. coli O157:H7 by the monoclonal antibody ELISA as belonging to the O157:H7 serotype. Of the remaining 26 ELISA-confirmed non-O157:H7 strains, the method classified 25 strains as non-O157:H7. The specificity of the RSS-PCR results correlated better with the monoclonal antibody ELISA than with the polyclonal antibody latex agglutination tests. The RSS-PCR method may be a useful test to distinguish E. coli O157:H7 from a large number of E. coli isolates from environmental samples. PMID:10831431
Wang, Rong; Bono, James L; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Shackelford, Steven; Harhay, Dayna M
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are important foodborne pathogens. Among these, E. coli O157:H7 is the most frequently isolated STEC serotype responsible for foodborne diseases. However, the non-O157 serotypes have been associated with serious outbreaks and sporadic diseases as well. It has been shown that various STEC serotypes are capable of forming biofilms on different food or food contact surfaces that, when detached, may lead to cross-contamination. Bacterial cells at biofilm stage also are more tolerant to sanitizers compared with their planktonic counterparts, which makes STEC biofilms a serious food safety concern. In the present study, we evaluated the potency of biofilm formation by a variety of STEC strains from serotypes O157:H7, O26:H11, and O111:H8; we also compared biofilm tolerance with two types of common sanitizers, a quaternary ammonium chloride-based sanitizer and chlorine. Our results demonstrated that biofilm formation by various STEC serotypes on a polystyrene surface was highly strain-dependent, whereas the two non-O157 serotypes showed a higher potency of pellicle formation at air-liquid interfaces on a glass surface compared with serotype O157:H7. Significant reductions of viable biofilm cells were achieved with sanitizer treatments. STEC biofilm tolerance to sanitization was strain-dependent regardless of the serotypes. Curli expression appeared to play a critical role in STEC biofilm formation and tolerance to sanitizers. Our data indicated that multiple factors, including bacterial serotype and strain, surface materials, and other environmental conditions, could significantly affect STEC biofilm formation. The high potential for biofilm formation by various STEC serotypes, especially the strong potency of pellicle formation by the curli-positive non-O157 strains with high sanitization tolerance, might contribute to bacterial colonization on food contact surfaces, which may result in downstream product
Heuvelink, A. E.; van de Kar, N. C.; Meis, J. F.; Monnens, L. A.; Melchers, W. J.
Fifty verocytotoxin (VT)-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) strains of serogroup O157 were characterized by phage typing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for VT genes and the E. coli attaching and effacing (eae) gene, and random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) fingerprinting. The collection represented isolates obtained from patients with diarrhoea-associated haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (D+ HUS) and their family contacts, isolated in the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany between 1989 and 1993. Based on isolates from separate families (n = 27) seven different phage types were identified, types 2 (44%) and 4 (33%) were predominant. Eighty-five percent of the strains contained only VT2 gene sequences and 15% both VT1 and VT2. All strains of the dominant phage types 2 and 4 carried the VT2 gene. Strains that belonged to the minor phage types 8, 14, 32 carried both VT1 and VT2 genes, with the exception of two isolates identified as phage types 49 and 54 which contained only VT2 genes. All O157 VTEC strains possessed the chromosomally-located eae gene, which indicates its usefulness as virulence marker. RAPD-PCR fingerprinting identified four distinct banding patterns, with one profile found among 79% of the strains. Based on the combined results of all typing methods used in this study, the collection of 50 O157 VTEC strains could be divided into nine distinct groups. Strains isolated from different persons within one family could not be distinguished by any of these methods. The data suggest that O157 VTEC strains are members of one clone that has become widely distributed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7641823
Doyle, M P; Schoeni, J L
A total of 896 samples of retail fresh meats and poultry was assayed for Escherichia coli serogroup O157:H7 by a hydrophobic grid membrane filter-immunoblot procedure developed specifically to isolate the organism from foods. The procedure involves several steps, including selective enrichment, filtration of enrichment culture through hydrophobic grid membrane filters, incubation of each filter on nitrocellulose paper on selective agar, preparation of an immunoblot (by using antiserum to E. coli O157:H7 culture filtrate) of each nitrocellulose paper, selection from the filters of colonies which corresponded to immunopositive sites on blots, screening of isolates by a Biken test for precipitin lines from metabolites and antiserum to E. coli O157:H7 culture filtrate, and confirmation of isolates as Vero cell cytotoxic E. coli O157:H7 by biochemical, serological, and Vero cell cytotoxicity tests. E. coli O157:H7 was isolated from 6 (3.7%) of 164 beef, 4 (1.5%) of 264 pork, 4 (1.5%) of 263 poultry, and 4 (2.0%) of 205 lamb samples. One of 14 pork samples and 5 of 17 beef samples contaminated with the organism were from Calgary, Alberta, Canada, grocery stores, whereas all other contaminated samples were from Madison, Wis., retail outlets. This is the first report of the isolation of E. coli O157:H7 from food other than ground beef, and results indicate that the organism is not a rare contaminant of fresh meats and poultry. Images PMID:3322190
McConnel, Craig S; Stenkamp-Strahm, Chloe M; Rao, Sangeeta; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Hyatt, Doreene R
Escherichia coli O157 (EcO157) infections can lead to serious disease and death in humans. Although the ecology of EcO157 is complex, ruminant animals serve as an important reservoir for human infection. Dairy cattle are unique because they may be a source of contamination for milk, meat, and manure-fertilized crops. Foodborne dairy pathogens such as EcO157 are of primary importance to public health. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a complex phenomenon that complicates the treatment of serious bacterial infections and is of increasing concern. In the face of recommended use restrictions for antimicrobial agents in livestock operations, current AMR patterns in known foodborne pathogens should be documented. The objective of this study was to document AMR patterns in EcO157 isolates from dairies in northern Colorado using antimicrobial agents commonly found on dairies and representative of medically important antimicrobial drug classes. Seventy-five EcO157 isolates were recovered from three dairies. Six isolates were resistant to at least 1 of the 10 tested antimicrobial agents: four were resistant to streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline; one was resistant to streptomycin and tetracycline; and one was resistant to only tetracycline. All resistant isolates were from a single dairy. Overall, a low prevalence (8%) of AMR was observed among the 75 EcO157 isolates. No significant effects on AMR profiles due to virulence genes, parity, or previous antimicrobial treatments within the current lactation period were detected. The results of this study provide background information for future comparative studies investigating AMR trends. Future studies should include more participating farms and more samples and should control for potential confounding factors of AMR that may underlie individual farm variation.
Bidet, Philippe; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Grimont, Francine; Brahimi, Naïma; Courroux, Céline; Grimont, Patrick; Bingen, Edouard
Forty-seven non-epidemic Escherichia coli O157 : H7 isolates causing haemolytic uraemic syndrome in France were characterized. The isolates clustered into 36 clones using PFGE typing. All the isolates harboured eae and one or more copies of stx2 and belonged to phylogenetic group D. Nine per cent were resistant to amoxicillin.
Gilmour, Matthew W.; Tabor, Helen; Wang, Gehua; Clark, Clifford G.; Tracz, Dobryan M.; Olson, Adam B.; Mascarenhas, Mariola; Karmali, Mohamed A.; Mailman, Tim; Ng, Lai-King
A coinfection of O177:NM and O55:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) was identified for a child with acute bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome by using culture and serotype-specific molecular reagents. The profile of O157-related genetic islands revealed that the O55:H7 isolate was highly similar to O157 STEC whereas the O177:NM isolate lacked several fimbrial O islands and non-locus-of-enterocyte-effacement effector determinants. However, both STEC serotypes are known to cause serious disease, and the significant repertoire of virulence determinants in both strains made it impossible to determine their individual contributions to the clinical symptoms. PMID:17804662
Liu, Nancy T; Nou, Xiangwu; Lefcourt, Alan M; Shelton, Daniel R; Lo, Y Martin
Biofilm formation is a mechanism adapted by many microorganisms that enhances the survival in stressful environments. In food processing facilities, foodborne bacterial pathogens, which many are poor biofilm formers, could potentially take advantage of this protective mechanism by interacting with other strong biofilm producers. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of bacteria native to fresh produce processing environments on the incorporation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in biofilms. Bacteria strains representing 13 Gram-negative species isolated from two fresh produce processing facilities in a previous study were tested for forming dual-species biofilms with E. coli O157:H7. Strong biofilm producing strains of Burkholderia caryophylli and Ralstonia insidiosa exhibited 180% and 63% increase in biofilm biomass, and significant thickening of the biofilms (B. caryophylli not tested), when co-cultured with E. coli O157:H7. E. coli O157:H7 populations increased by approximately 1 log in dual-species biofilms formed with B. caryophylli or R. insidiosa. While only a subset of environmental isolates with strong biofilm formation abilities increased the presence of E. coli O157:H7 in biofilms, all tested E. coli O157:H7 exhibited higher incorporation in dual-species biofilms with R. insidiosa. These observations support the notion that E. coli O157:H7 and specific strong biofilm producing bacteria interact synergistically in biofilm formation, and suggest a route for increased survival potential of E. coli O157:H7 in fresh produce processing environments.
Tsuboi, Isami; Ida, Hirohisa; Yoshikawa, Eiji; Hiyoshi, Suehiro; Yamaji, Emiko; Nakayama, Issei; Nonomiya, Tomoko; Shigenobu, Fritz; Shimizu, Masaki; O’Hara, Koji; Sawai, Tetsuo; Mizuoka, Keiji
The antibiotic susceptibilities of 43 strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 identified in the summer of 1996 in Japan were investigated. Growth of 90% of O157 strains was inhibited at a concentration of ≤0.5 μg/ml by several agents including fosfomycin with glucose-6-phosphate. PMID:9527800
Solomakos, Nikolaos; Govaris, Alexandros; Angelidis, Apostolos S; Pournaras, Spyros; Burriel, Angeliki Rothi; Kritas, Spyridon K; Papageorgiou, Demetrios K
The examination of 2005 raw bovine (n = 950), caprine (n = 460) and ovine (n = 595) bulk milk samples collected throughout several regions in Greece for the presence of Escherichia coli serogroup O157 resulted in the isolation of 29 strains (1.4%) of which 21 were isolated from bovine (2.2%), 3 from caprine (0.7%) and 5 from ovine (0.8%) milk. Out of the 29 E. coli O157 isolates, only 12 (41.4%) could be classified as Shiga-toxigenic based on immunoassay and PCR results. All 12 Shiga-toxigenic E. coli serogroup O157 isolates belonged to the E. coli O157:H7 serotype. All except one of the 12 Shiga-toxin positive isolates were stx(2)-positive, five of which were also stx(1)-positive. The remaining isolate was positive only for the stx(1) gene. All stx-positive isolates (whether positive for stx(1), stx(2) or stx(1) and stx(2)) were also PCR-positive for the eae and ehxA genes. The remaining 17 E. coli O157 isolates (58.6%) were negative for the presence of the H7 flagellar gene by PCR, tested negative for Shiga-toxin production both by immunoassay and PCR, and among these, only four and three strains were PCR-positive for the eae and ehxA genes, respectively. All 29 E. coli O157 isolates displayed resistance to a wide range of antimicrobials, with the stx-positive isolates being, on average, resistant to a higher number of antibiotics than those which were stx-negative.
Ravva, Subbarao V.; Sarreal, Chester Z.; Mandrell, Robert E.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) associated with the 2006 spinach outbreak appears to have persisted as the organism was isolated, three months after the outbreak, from environmental samples in the produce production areas of the central coast of California. Survival in harsh environments may be linked to the inherent fitness characteristics of EcO157. This study evaluated the comparative fitness of outbreak-related clinical and environmental strains to resist protozoan predation and survive in soil from a spinach field in the general vicinity of isolation of strains genetically indistinguishable from the 2006 outbreak strains. Environmental strains from soil and feral pig feces survived longer (11 to 35 days for 90% decreases, D-value) with Vorticella microstoma and Colpoda aspera, isolated previously from dairy wastewater; these D-values correlated (P<0.05) negatively with protozoan growth. Similarly, strains from cow feces, feral pig feces, and bagged spinach survived significantly longer in soil compared to clinical isolates indistinguishable by 11-loci multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis. The curli-positive (C+) phenotype, a fitness trait linked with attachment in ruminant and human gut, decreased after exposure to protozoa, and in soils only C− cells remained after 7 days. The C+ phenotype correlated negatively with D-values of EcO157 exposed to soil (rs = −0.683; P = 0.036), Vorticella (rs = −0.465; P = 0.05) or Colpoda (rs = −0.750; P = 0.0001). In contrast, protozoan growth correlated positively with C+ phenotype (Vorticella, rs = 0.730, P = 0.0004; Colpoda, rs = 0.625, P = 0.006) suggesting a preference for consumption of C+ cells, although they grew on C− strains also. We speculate that the C− phenotype is a selective trait for survival and possibly transport of the pathogen in soil and water environments. PMID:25019377
Ravva, Subbarao V; Sarreal, Chester Z; Mandrell, Robert E
Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) associated with the 2006 spinach outbreak appears to have persisted as the organism was isolated, three months after the outbreak, from environmental samples in the produce production areas of the central coast of California. Survival in harsh environments may be linked to the inherent fitness characteristics of EcO157. This study evaluated the comparative fitness of outbreak-related clinical and environmental strains to resist protozoan predation and survive in soil from a spinach field in the general vicinity of isolation of strains genetically indistinguishable from the 2006 outbreak strains. Environmental strains from soil and feral pig feces survived longer (11 to 35 days for 90% decreases, D-value) with Vorticella microstoma and Colpoda aspera, isolated previously from dairy wastewater; these D-values correlated (P<0.05) negatively with protozoan growth. Similarly, strains from cow feces, feral pig feces, and bagged spinach survived significantly longer in soil compared to clinical isolates indistinguishable by 11-loci multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis. The curli-positive (C+) phenotype, a fitness trait linked with attachment in ruminant and human gut, decreased after exposure to protozoa, and in soils only C- cells remained after 7 days. The C+ phenotype correlated negatively with D-values of EcO157 exposed to soil (rs = -0.683; P = 0.036), Vorticella (rs = -0.465; P = 0.05) or Colpoda (rs = -0.750; P = 0.0001). In contrast, protozoan growth correlated positively with C+ phenotype (Vorticella, rs = 0.730, P = 0.0004; Colpoda, rs = 0.625, P = 0.006) suggesting a preference for consumption of C+ cells, although they grew on C- strains also. We speculate that the C- phenotype is a selective trait for survival and possibly transport of the pathogen in soil and water environments.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) associated with 2006 spinach outbreak appears to have persisted as the organism was later isolated from environmental samples in the produce production areas of central coast of California. Survival in harsh environments was often linked to the inherent fitness char...
Amigo, Natalia; Mercado, Elsa; Bentancor, Adriana; Singh, Pallavi; Vilte, Daniel; Gerhardt, Elisabeth; Zotta, Elsa; Ibarra, Cristina; Manning, Shannon D.; Larzábal, Mariano; Cataldi, Angel
The hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) whose main causative agent is enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a disease that mainly affects children under 5 years of age. Argentina is the country with the highest incidence of HUS in the world. Cattle are a major reservoir and source of infection with E. coli O157:H7. To date, the epidemiological factors that contribute to its prevalence are poorly understood. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing has helped to define nine E. coli O157:H7 clades and the clade 8 strains were associated with most of the cases of severe disease. In this study, eight randomly selected isolates of EHEC O157:H7 from cattle in Argentina were studied as well as two human isolates. Four of them were classified as clade 8 through the screening for 23 SNPs; the two human isolates grouped in this clade as well, while two strains were closely related to strains representing clade 6. To assess the pathogenicity of these strains, we assayed correlates of virulence. Shiga toxin production was determined by an ELISA kit. Four strains were high producers and one of these strains that belonged to a novel genotype showed high verocytotoxic activity in cultured cells. Also, these clade 8 and 6 strains showed high RBC lysis and adherence to epithelial cells. One of the clade 6 strains showed stronger inhibition of normal water absorption than E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 in human colonic explants. In addition, two of the strains showing high levels of Stx2 production and RBC lysis activity were associated with lethality and uremia in a mouse model. Consequently, circulation of such strains in cattle may partially contribute to the high incidence of HUS in Argentina. PMID:26030198
Amigo, Natalia; Mercado, Elsa; Bentancor, Adriana; Singh, Pallavi; Vilte, Daniel; Gerhardt, Elisabeth; Zotta, Elsa; Ibarra, Cristina; Manning, Shannon D; Larzábal, Mariano; Cataldi, Angel
The hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) whose main causative agent is enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a disease that mainly affects children under 5 years of age. Argentina is the country with the highest incidence of HUS in the world. Cattle are a major reservoir and source of infection with E. coli O157:H7. To date, the epidemiological factors that contribute to its prevalence are poorly understood. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing has helped to define nine E. coli O157:H7 clades and the clade 8 strains were associated with most of the cases of severe disease. In this study, eight randomly selected isolates of EHEC O157:H7 from cattle in Argentina were studied as well as two human isolates. Four of them were classified as clade 8 through the screening for 23 SNPs; the two human isolates grouped in this clade as well, while two strains were closely related to strains representing clade 6. To assess the pathogenicity of these strains, we assayed correlates of virulence. Shiga toxin production was determined by an ELISA kit. Four strains were high producers and one of these strains that belonged to a novel genotype showed high verocytotoxic activity in cultured cells. Also, these clade 8 and 6 strains showed high RBC lysis and adherence to epithelial cells. One of the clade 6 strains showed stronger inhibition of normal water absorption than E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 in human colonic explants. In addition, two of the strains showing high levels of Stx2 production and RBC lysis activity were associated with lethality and uremia in a mouse model. Consequently, circulation of such strains in cattle may partially contribute to the high incidence of HUS in Argentina.
Chigor, Vincent N; Umoh, Veronica J; Smith, Stella I; Igbinosa, Etinosa O; Okoh, Anthony I
We have assessed the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in diarrhoeal patients and surface waters from some selected sources in Zaria (Nigeria), evaluating the antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid profiles of 184 E. coli isolates, obtained from 228 water samples and 112 diarrhoeal stool specimens (collected from children aged <15 years), using standard methods. The detection rate of E. coli O157 in surface waters was 2.2% and its prevalence in children with diarrhoea was 5.4%. The most active antibiotics were gentamicin, chloramphenicol and fluoroquinolones. Seventy-nine (42.9%) of 184 E. coli isolates were resistant to four or more antibiotics. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was higher amongst aquatic isolates than the clinical isolates. Out of 35 MDR isolates (20 of which were O157 strains), 22 (62.9%) harboured plasmids all of which were no less than 2.1 kb in size. Amongst the 20 E. coli O157 strains, only seven (35.0%) contained multiple plasmids. An aquatic O157 isolate containing two plasmids was resistant to seven drugs, including ampicillin, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin and tetracycline. Loss of plasmid correlated with loss of resistance to antibiotics in cured (mutant) strains selected in tetracycline (50 μg/mL)-nutrient agar plates. Our findings revealed that plasmids were prevalent in both the aquatic and clinical isolates, and suggest that the observed MDR is plasmid-mediated. The occurrence of plasmid-mediated multidrug resistant E. coli O157 in surface waters used as sources for drinking, recreation and fresh produce irrigation heightens public health concern.
Benito, Amparo; Ventoura, Georgia; Casadei, Maria; Robinson, Tobin; Mackey, Bernard
Strains of Escherichia coli O157 isolated from patients with clinical cases of food-borne illness and other sources exhibited wide differences in resistance to high hydrostatic pressure. The most pressure-resistant strains were also more resistant to mild heat than other strains. Strain C9490, a representative pressure-resistant strain, was also more resistant to acid, oxidative, and osmotic stresses than the pressure-sensitive strain NCTC 12079. Most of these differences in resistance were observed only in stationary-phase cells, the only exception being acid resistance, where differences were also apparent in the exponential phase. Membrane damage in pressure-treated cells was revealed by increased uptake of the fluorescent dyes ethidium bromide and propidium iodide. When strains were exposed to the same pressure for different lengths of time, the pressure-sensitive strains took up stain sooner than the more resistant strain, which suggested that the differences in resistance may be related to susceptibility to membrane damage. Our results emphasize the importance of including stress-resistant strains of E. coli O157 when the efficacy of a novel or mild food preservation treatment is tested. PMID:10103251
Amigo, Natalia; Puebla, Andrea Fabiana; Farber, Marisa Diana
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major etiologic agent of diseases in humans that cause diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two strains isolated from cattle that had high levels of Shiga toxin 2 and high lethality in mice. PMID:26067964
Amadio, Ariel Fernando; Amigo, Natalia; Puebla, Andrea Fabiana; Farber, Marisa Diana; Cataldi, Angel Adrián
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major etiologic agent of diseases in humans that cause diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two strains isolated from cattle that had high levels of Shiga toxin 2 and high lethality in mice.
Freeman, R.; Sisson, P. R.; Jenkins, D. R.; Ward, A. C.; Lightfoot, N. F.; O'Brien, S. J.
Thirty-six encoded isolates of Escherichia coli. 32 of which were of serotype O157, were examined by pyrolysis mass spectrometry (PyMS). Thirty-one of the serotype O157 isolates possessed the flagellar antigen H7 and produced Verocytotoxin (VT), the other isolate serotyped as H45 and was non-toxigenic. Eighteen of the VT-producing E. coli (VTEC) isolates were from sporadic disease in residents of the Northern Region. Standard principal component (PC) and canonical variate (CV) analysis of the data distinguished only the four non-O157 isolates from the remainder which were indistinguishable by this approach. A similarity matrix based on differences between individual CV means distinguished a further ten isolates. The matrix correctly clustered 2 pairs of isolates from siblings and 4 isolates from an affected family. A further 5 clusters of 3 or more isolates and 6 pairs of isolates were defined. These groupings proved to be homogenous for toxin phenotype but occasionally entrained isolates of dissimilar phage type. However, in general, PyMS-derived clustering of apparently sporadic isolates accorded with geographical locations as determined by postcode. PyMS, which is a quick and high volume capacity phenotypic technique, may be a useful addition to existing methods in the investigation of the epidemiology of sporadic VTEC disease. PMID:7781731
Eppinger, Mark; Mammel, Mark K.; LeClerc, Joseph E.; Ravel, Jacques; Cebula, Thomas A.
Cattle comprise a main reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC). The significant differences in host prevalence, transmissibility, and virulence phenotypes among strains from bovine and human sources are of major interest to the public health community and livestock industry. Genomic analysis revealed divergence into three lineages: lineage I and lineage I/II strains are commonly associated with human disease, while lineage II strains are overrepresented in the asymptomatic bovine host reservoir. Growing evidence suggests that genotypic differences between these lineages, such as polymorphisms in Shiga toxin subtypes and synergistically acting virulence factors, are correlated with phenotypic differences in virulence, host ecology, and epidemiology. To assess the genomic plasticity on a genome-wide scale, we have sequenced the whole genome of strain EC869, a bovine-associated E. coli O157:H7 isolate. Comparative phylogenomic analysis of this key isolate enabled us to place accurately bovine lineage II strains within the genetically homogenous E. coli O157:H7 clade. Identification of polymorphic loci that are anchored both in the chromosomal backbone and horizontally acquired regions allowed us to associate bovine genotypes with altered virulence phenotypes and host prevalence. This study catalogued numerous novel lineage II-specific genome signatures, some of which appear to be associated intimately with the altered pathogenic potential and niche adaptation within the bovine rumen. The presented extended list of polymorphic markers is valuable in the development of a robust typing system critical for forensic, diagnostic, and epidemiological studies of this emerging human pathogen. PMID:21421787
Vasan, Akhila; Geier, Renae; Ingham, Steve C; Ingham, Barbara H
The non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups most commonly associated with illness are O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145. We compared the thermal tolerance (D55°C) of three or more strains of each of these six non-O157 STEC serogroups with five strains of O157:H7 STEC in 7% fat ground beef. D55°C was also determined for at least one heat-tolerant STEC strain per serogroup in 15 and 27% fat ground beef. D55°C of single-pathogen cocktails of O157 and non-O157 STEC, Salmonella, and potential pathogen surrogates, Pediococcus acidilactici and Staphylococcus carnosus, was determined in 7, 15, and 27% fat ground beef and in frankfurter batter. Samples (25 g) were heated for up to 120 min at 55°C, survivors were enumerated, and log CFU per gram was plotted versus time. There were significant differences in D55°C across all STEC strains heated in 7% fat ground beef (P < 0.05), but no non-O157 STEC strain had D55°C greater than the range observed for O157 STEC. D55°C was significantly different for strains within serogroups O45, O145, and O157 (P < 0.05). D55°C for non-O157 STEC strains in 15 and 27% fat ground beef were less than or equal to the range of D55°C for O157. D55°C for pathogen cocktails was not significantly different when measured in 7, 15, and 27% fat ground beef (P ≥ 0.05). D55°C of Salmonella in frankfurter batter was significantly less than for O157 and non-O157 STEC (P < 0.05). Thermal tolerance of pathogen cocktails in ground beef (7, 15, or 27% fat) and frankfurter batter was significantly less than for potential pathogen surrogates (P < 0.05). Results suggest that thermal processes in beef validated against E. coli O157:H7 have adequate lethality against non-O157 STEC, that thermal processes that target Salmonella destruction may not be adequate against STEC in some situations, and that the use of pathogen surrogates P. acidilactici and S. carnosus to validate thermal processing interventions in ground beef and
Garbaj, Aboubaker M.; Awad, Enas M.; Azwai, Salah M.; Abolghait, Said K.; Naas, Hesham T.; Moawad, Ashraf A.; Gammoudi, Fatim T.; Barbieri, Ilaria; Eldaghayes, Ibrahim M.
Aim: The aim of this work was to isolate and molecularly identify enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 in milk and dairy products in Libya, in addition; to clear the accuracy of cultural and biochemical identification as compared with molecular identification by partial sequencing of 16S rDNA for the existing isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 108 samples of raw milk (cow, she-camel, and goat) and locally made dairy products (fermented cow’s milk, Maasora, Ricotta and ice cream) were collected from some regions (Janzour, Tripoli, Kremiya, Tajoura and Tobruk) in Libya. Samples were subjected to microbiological analysis for isolation of E. coli that was detected by conventional cultural and molecular method using polymerase chain reaction and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA. Results: Out of 108 samples, only 27 isolates were found to be EHEC O157 based on their cultural characteristics (Tellurite-Cefixime-Sorbitol MacConkey) that include 3 isolates from cow’s milk (11%), 3 isolates from she-camel’s milk (11%), two isolates from goat’s milk (7.4%) and 7 isolates from fermented raw milk samples (26%), isolates from fresh locally made soft cheeses (Maasora and Ricotta) were 9 (33%) and 3 (11%), respectively, while none of the ice cream samples revealed any growth. However, out of these 27 isolates, only 11 were confirmed to be E. coli by partial sequencing of 16S rDNA and E. coli O157 Latex agglutination test. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that majority of local E. coli isolates were related to E. coli O157:H7 FRIK944 strain. Conclusion: These results can be used for further studies on EHEC O157 as an emerging foodborne pathogen and its role in human infection in Libya. PMID:27956766
Molecular epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains by bacteriophage lambda restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis: application to a multistate foodborne outbreak and a day-care center cluster.
Samadpour, M; Grimm, L M; Desai, B; Alfi, D; Ongerth, J E; Tarr, P I
Genomic DNAs prepared from 168 isolates of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were analyzed for restriction fragment length polymorphisms on Southern blots probed with bacteriophage lambda DNA. The isolates analyzed included strains from a recent large multistate outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 infection associated with consumption of poorly cooked beef in restaurants, a day-care center cluster, and temporally and geographically unrelated isolates. E. coli O157:H7 isolates recovered from the incriminated meat and from 61 (96.8%) of 63 patients from Washington and Nevada possessed identical lambda restriction fragment length patterns. The lambda restriction fragment length polymorphisms observed in 11 (91.7%) of 12 day-care center patients were identical, but they differed from that of the strain associated with the multistate outbreak. E. coli O157:H7 from 42 patients temporally or geographically unrelated to either cluster of infection possessed unique and different lambda restriction fragment length patterns, except for paired isolates from three separate clusters of infection. These data demonstrate that the hybridization of DNA digests of E. coli O157:H7 with radiolabelled bacteriophage lambda DNA can be a useful, stable, and discriminatory epidemiologic tool for analyzing the linkage between strains of E. coli O157:H7. Images PMID:7905882
Sargeant, J M; Shi, X; Sanderson, M W; Renter, D G; Nagaraja, T G
This study investigated the prevalence and distribution of Escherichia coli O157 genetic types within and among feedlots using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to separate XbaI-digested DNA. The study population consisted of 300 pens of cattle in 30 feedlots in Kansas that were sampled (feces, water, and water sediment) within a month of being shipped for slaughter. The prevalence of E. coli O157 was 8.5% in feces, 3.1% in water, and 4.5% in water sediment samples. A total of 424 E. coli O157 isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and 139 subtypes (100% Dice similarity with no band differences) were identified. The majority of subtypes (70/139) was identified only once, but nine were identified 10 or more times. Identical subtypes were recovered from both feces and water tanks in 10 feedlots. The majority of subtypes were identified in only one feedlot, and the number of subtypes ranged from one to 23 within a feedlot and from one to seven within a pen. There were 10 feedlots with at least 15 positive samples. In these 10 feedlots, the most common subtype accounted for 16.9-78.6% of the isolates. Common subtypes differed among feedlots. In eight of the 10 feedlots, the most common subtype was identified in multiple pens. The results support a complex ecology for E. coli O157 in feedlot operations, with factors associated with exposure and transmission likely acting at a common level for multiple feedlots, within feedlots, and within pens of cattle.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) is a zoonotic foodborne pathogen of major public health concern that results in considerable intestinal and extra-intestinal illness in humans. Asymptomatic cattle are the primary reservoir of O157 and harbor the pathogen at the terminal recto-an...
Kudva, Indira T; Carter, Michelle Q; Sharma, Vijay K; Stasko, Judith A; Giron, Jorge A
Our recent studies have shown that intimin and the locus of enterocyte effacement-encoded proteins do not play a role in Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) adherence to the bovine recto-anal junction squamous epithelial (RSE) cells. To define factors that play a contributory role, we investigated the role of curli, fimbrial adhesins commonly implicated in adherence to various fomites and plant and human epithelial cells, in O157 adherence to RSE cells. Specifically, we examined (i) wild-type strains of O157; (ii) curli variants of O157 strains; (iii) isogenic curli deletion mutants of O157; and (iv) adherence inhibition of O157 using anti-curlin sera. Results of these experiments conducted under stringent conditions suggest that curli do not solely contribute to O157 adherence to RSE cells and in fact demonstrate a modulating effect on O157 adherence to RSE cells in contrast to HEp-2 cells (human epidermoid carcinoma of the larynx cells with HeLa contamination). The absence of curli and presence of blocking anti-curli antibodies enhanced O157-RSE cell interactions among some strains, thus alluding to a spatial, tempering effect of curli on O157 adherence to RSE cells when present. At the same time, the presence or absence of curli did not alter RSE cell adherence patterns of another O157 strain. These observations are at variance with the reported role of curli in O157 adherence to human cell lines such as HEp-2 and need to be factored in when developing anti-adherence modalities for preharvest control of O157 in cattle.
Bai, Xiangning; Hu, Bin; Xu, Yanmei; Sun, Hui; Zhao, Ailan; Ba, Pengbin; Fu, Shanshan; Fan, Ruyue; Jin, Yujuan; Wang, Hong; Guo, Qiusheng; Xu, Xuebin; Lu, Shan; Xiong, Yanwen
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis with life-threatening complications, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the molecular epidemiologic features of non-O157 STEC strains from different resources in China and illustrate the role of animal reservoirs or animal-derived foodstuffs in human STEC infections. A collection of 301 non-O157 STEC isolates from domestic and wild animals (i.e., cattle, goat, pig, yak, pika, and antelope), raw meats (i.e., beef, pork, mutton, chicken, and duck), diarrheal patients, and healthy carriers in different regions of China were selected in this study. Of the 301 analyzed STEC isolates, 67 serogroups, and 118 serotypes were identified; this included some predominant serogroups associated with human disease, such as O26, O45, O103, O111, and O121. Eighteen different combinations of stx subtypes were found. Eleven isolates carried the intimin gene eae, 93 isolates contained ehxA, and 73 isolates carried astA. The prevalence of other putative adhesion genes saa, paa, efa1, and toxB was 28.90% (87), 6.98% (21), 2.31% (7), and 1% (3), respectively. The phylogenetic distribution of isolates was analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Ninety-four sequence types were assigned across the 301 isolates. A subset of isolates recovered from yak and pika residing in the similar wild environments, Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, showed similar genetic profiles and more tendencies to cluster together. Isolates from goat and mutton exhibited close genetic relatedness with those from human-derived isolates, providing evidence that transmission may have occurred locally within intraspecies or interspecies, and importantly, from animal reservoirs, or raw meats to humans. Comparing isolates in this study with highly virulent strains by MLST, along with serotyping and virulence profiles, it is conceivable that some of isolates from goat, yak, or raw meats may have potential
Baranzoni, Gian Marco; Reichenberger, Erin R.; Kim, Gwang-Hee; Breidt, Frederick; Kay, Kathryn; Oh, Deog-Hwan
The level of acid resistance among Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains varies, and strains with higher resistance to acid may have a lower infectious dose. The complete genome sequences belonging to two strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with different levels of acid resistance are presented here. PMID:27469964
Baranzoni, Gian Marco; Fratamico, Pina M; Reichenberger, Erin R; Kim, Gwang-Hee; Breidt, Frederick; Kay, Kathryn; Oh, Deog-Hwan
The level of acid resistance among Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains varies, and strains with higher resistance to acid may have a lower infectious dose. The complete genome sequences belonging to two strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with different levels of acid resistance are presented here.
The level of acid resistance among Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains varies, and strains with higher resistance to acid may have a lower infectious dose. The complete genome sequences belonging to two strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with different levels of acid resistance are presented....
In this study, the UV-C sensitivity of six pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 strains associated with recent outbreaks of foodborne illnesses and four attenuated E. coli O157:H7 strains was investigated. Futhermore, the mechanism of UV-C impact on two pathogenic E. coli strains with different UV-C sensitiv...
Bradford, Scott A.; Simunek, Jirka; Walker, Sharon L.
The transport and deposition behavior of pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 was studied under unfavorable electrostatic conditions in saturated quartz sands of various sizes (710, 360, 240, and 150 μm) and at several flow rates. At a given velocity, column effluent breakthrough values for E. coli tended to decrease in magnitude, and concentration curves became more asymmetric with decreasing sand size. In a given sand, experiments conducted at a higher velocity tended to produce higher effluent concentrations, especially for finer (240 and 150 μm) textured sands. The shape of the deposition profiles for E. coli was also highly dependent on the sand size and velocity. Coarser-textured sands and higher flow rates were associated with less deposition and gradually decreasing concentrations with depth. Conversely, finer-textured sands and lower flow rates tended to produce greater deposition and nonmonotonic deposition profiles that exhibited a peak in retained concentration. This deposition peak occurred nearer to the column inlet for finer-textured sands and at low flow rates. Microscopic observations of E. coli retention in these finer-textured sands (micromodel experiments) clearly indicated that straining was the dominant mechanism of deposition. Batch experiments also indicated minor amounts of E. coli attachment for the selected sands and solution chemistry. A conceptual and numerical model was developed and successfully used to describe the observed E. coli transport and deposition data. Our conceptual model assumes that E. coli can aggregate when large numbers of monodispersed E. coli are deposited at pore constrictions or straining sites. When the deposited E. coli reach a critical concentration at the straining site, the aggregated E. coli O157:H7 can be released into aqueous solution as a result of hydrodynamic shearing forces.
Yokoyama, Eiji; Hirai, Shinichiro; Ishige, Taichiro; Murakami, Satoshi
Nine Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7/H- (O157) strains were serially cultured three times on LB agar plates. After each sub-culture, five colonies were picked for DNA isolation and whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis. After exclusion of possible recombination-related SNPs, 11, 9, and 34 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in genes in the backbone, O-island, and mobile elements gene categories. This suggested that those SNPs due to cultivation could influence the threshold value set for molecular epidemiological studies of O157. Significant differences were observed by the Kruskal-Wallis test (P < 0.01) when the number of the SNPs in a strain was compared to that in other strains. This indicated that a specific number of strains could be used for setting the threshold value in molecular epidemiological studies. Due to cultivation, the SNPs were also detected in genes in a few core genome or core gene sets, suggesting that those SNPs could affect studies of phylogeny as well as molecular epidemiology. To improve the accuracy of phylogenetic and molecular epidemiological studies, genes in which the SNPs have arisen due to cultivation should be excluded from WGS data.
Monday, Steven R; Minnich, Scott A; Feng, Peter C H
An atypical, Stx2-producing, pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H(-) strain has been isolated with increasing frequency from hemolytic uremic syndrome patients in Germany. The lack of the H7 antigen coupled with the strain's ability to ferment sorbitol and express beta-glucuronidase have complicated its detection and identification. In this study, we have determined that the loss of motility in these German sorbitol-fermenting (SF) O157 strains is due to a 12-bp in-frame deletion in flhC that is required for transcriptional activation of genes involved in flagellum biosynthesis. Either complementation with a functional flhC or repair of this mutation restored H7 antigen expression and motility. PCR analysis of several nonmotile E. coli O157 strains from various geographical sources confirmed that the 12-bp flhC deletion is found only in the cluster of German SF O157 strains, providing a potentially useful marker by which these atypical strains can be identified. The loss of motility via mutations in the flhDC operon that we observed in the German SF O157 strains is consistent with a similar phenomenon currently observed in a significant subset of other important gram-negative pathogens.
Davis, M. A.; Hancock, D. D.; Besser, T. E.; Rice, D. H.; Hovde, C. J.; Digiacomo, R.; Samadpour, M.; Call, D. R.
Evidence from epidemiological and molecular studies of bovine Escherichia coli O157:H7 suggests that strains are frequently transmitted across wide geographic distances. To test this hypothesis, we compared the geographic and genetic distance of a set of international bovine Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates using the Mantel correlation. For a measure of genetic relatedness, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of six different restriction enzyme digests was used to generate an average Dice similarity coefficient for each isolate pair. Geographic distance was calculated using latitude and longitude data for isolate source locations. The Mantel correlation between genetic similarity and the logarithm of geographic distance in kilometers was -0.21 (P<0.001). The low magnitude of the Mantel correlation indicates that transmission over long distances is common. The occurrence of isolates from different continents on the same cluster of the dendrogram also supports the idea that Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains can be transferred with considerable frequency over global distances. PMID:14596534
Monaghan, Áine; Byrne, Brian; Fanning, Séamus; Sweeney, Torres; McDowell, David; Bolton, Declan J.
Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are clinically significant food-borne pathogens. However, there is a dearth of information on serotype prevalence and virulence gene distribution, data essential for the development of public health protection monitoring and control activities for the meat and dairy industries. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of non-O157 STEC on beef and dairy farms and to characterize the isolates in terms of serotype and virulence markers. Bovine fecal samples (n = 1,200) and farm soil samples (n = 600) were collected from 20 farms throughout Ireland over a 12-month period. Shiga toxin-positive samples were cultured and colonies examined for the presence of stx1 and/or stx2 genes by PCR. Positive isolates were serotyped and examined for a range of virulence factors, including eaeA, hlyA, tir, espA, espB, katP, espP, etpD, saa, sab, toxB, iha, lpfAO157/OI-141, lpfAO113, and lpfAO157/OI-154. Shiga toxin and intimin genes were further examined for known variants. Significant numbers of fecal (40%) and soil (27%) samples were stx positive, with a surge observed in late summer-early autumn. One hundred seven STEC isolates were recovered, representing 17 serotypes. O26:H11 and O145:H28 were the most clinically significant, with O113:H4 being the most frequently isolated. However, O2:H27, O13/O15:H2, and ONT:H27 also carried stx1 and/or stx2 and eaeA and may be emerging pathogens. PMID:22003024
Rump, Lydia V; Feng, Peter C H; Fischer, Markus; Monday, Steven R
The O-antigen (rfb) operon and related genes of MA6, an O rough:H7 Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli strain, were examined to determine the cause of the lack of O157 expression. A 1,310-bp insertion, homologous to IS629, was observed within its gne gene. trans complementation with a functional gne gene from O157:H7 restored O157 antigen expression in MA6.
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) are among the most important foodborne pathogens in the United States and worldwide. Nearly half of all STEC-induced diarrheal disease in the United States is caused by STEC O157:H7 while non-O157 STEC account for the remaining illnesses. Thus, the USDA Food Safe...
Yokoyama, Eiji; Uchimura, Masako
Ninety-five enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli serovar O157 strains, including 30 strains isolated from 13 intrafamily outbreaks and 14 strains isolated from 3 mass outbreaks, were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) typing, and the resulting data were subjected to cluster analysis. Cluster analysis of the VNTR typing data revealed that 57 (60.0%) of 95 strains, including all epidemiologically linked strains, formed clusters with at least 95% similarity. Cluster analysis of the PFGE patterns revealed that 67 (70.5%) of 95 strains, including all but 1 of the epidemiologically linked strains, formed clusters with 90% similarity. The number of epidemiologically unlinked strains forming clusters was significantly less by VNTR cluster analysis than by PFGE cluster analysis. The congruence value between PFGE and VNTR cluster analysis was low and did not show an obvious correlation. With two-step cluster analysis, the number of clustered epidemiologically unlinked strains by PFGE cluster analysis that were divided by subsequent VNTR cluster analysis was significantly higher than the number by VNTR cluster analysis that were divided by subsequent PFGE cluster analysis. These results indicate that VNTR cluster analysis is more efficient than PFGE cluster analysis as an epidemiological tool to trace the transmission of enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157.
High variability in the expression of csgD-dependent, biofilm-forming and adhesive properties is common among Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Although many strains of serotype O157:H7 form little biofilm, conversion to stronger biofilm phenotypes has been observed. In this study we sc...
Brudzinski, L; Harrison, M A
The increasing frequency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks, especially in acidic foods, raises the concern of an acid tolerance response (ATR). Organic acids can be present in processed and preserved foods: shifts in the acid levels of foods due to these acids may allow E. coli to adapt and later tolerate pH levels that would normally inactivate the organism. The effect of temperature and agitation on the ATRs of three E. coli O157:H7 and two non-O157:H7 isolates were determined. Triggered at pH 5.0, the adaptive system of the ATR allowed for up to nearly 1,000-fold enhanced survival of E. coli O157:H7 cells in some cases compared to survival of nonadapted cells at pH 4.0. E. coli O157:H7 isolates revealed greater acid tolerance responses when incubated statically at 32 degrees C, whereas the non-O157:H7 E. coli isolates exhibited a greater acid tolerance response with orbital agitation at 25 degrees C. The magnitude of response changed over the incubation period.
Madico, G; Akopyants, N S; Berg, D E
Arbitrarily primed PCR allows genetically different bacterial strains to be distinguished with great sensitivity and efficiency. We report that informative, reproducible arbitrarily primed PCR profiles can be obtained from Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains by using boiled stationary-phase cultures, without the need for time-consuming phenol extraction. This simple template preparation procedure should be especially useful in large epidemiologic studies when many strains must be typed. PMID:7650181
Brown, C A; Harmon, B G; Zhao, T; Doyle, M P
Nine weaned calves (6 to 8 weeks of age) were given 10(10) CFU of a five-strain mixture of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 by oral-gastric intubation. After an initial brief period of pyrexia in three calves and transient mild diarrhea in five calves, calves were clinically normal throughout the 13- to 27-day study. The population of E. coli O157:H7 in the faces decreased dramatically in all calves during the first 2 weeks after inoculation. Thereafter, small populations of E. coli O157:H7 persisted in all calves, where they were detected intermittently in the feces and rumen contents. While withholding food increased fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 by 1 to 2 log10/g in three of four calves previously shedding small populations of E. coli O157:H7, the effect of fasting on fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 was variable in calves shedding larger populations. At necropsy, E. coli O157:H7 was not isolated from sites outside the alimentary tract. E. coli O157:H7 was isolated from the forestomach or colon of all calves at necropsy. Greater numbers of E. coli O157:H7 were present in the gastrointestinal contents than in the corresponding mucosal sections, and there was no histologic or immunohistochemical evidence of E. coli O157:H7 adhering to the mucosa. In conclusion, under these experimental conditions, E. coli O157:H7 is not pathogenic in weaned calves, and while it does not appear to colonize mucosal surfaces for extended periods, E. coli O157:H7 persists in the contents of the rumen and colon as a source for fecal shedding. PMID:8979335
Raya, Raul R.; Varey, Peter; Oot, Rebecca A.; Dyen, Michael R.; Callaway, Todd R.; Edrington, Tom S.; Kutter, Elizabeth M.; Brabban, Andrew D.
Bacteriophage CEV1 was isolated from sheep resistant to Escherichia coli O157:H7 colonization. In vitro, CEV1 efficiently infected E. coli O157:H7 grown both aerobically and anaerobically. In vivo, sheep receiving a single oral dose of CEV1 showed a 2-log-unit reduction in intestinal E. coli O157:H7 levels within 2 days compared to levels in the controls. PMID:16957272
Introduction: Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) associated with 2006 spinach outbreak appears to have persisted as the organism was later isolated from environmental samples in the produce production areas of the central coast of California. Survival in harsh environments may be linked to the inhere...
A novel phage, (phi)241, specific for Escherichia coli O157:H7 was isolated from an industrial cucumber fermentation where both acidity (pH less than or equal to 3.7) and salinity (greater than or equal to 5% NaCl) were high. The phage belongs to the Myoviridae family. Its latent period was 15 min a...
Shiga Toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a subtype of pathogenic E. coli and, in particular, STEC isolates of E. coli serotype O157:H7 are recognized as a major foodborne pathogen that can cause infections ranging from having simple intestinal discomfort to bloody diarrhea and life threaten...
Clawson, Michael L; Keen, James E; Smith, Timothy PL; Durso, Lisa M; McDaneld, Tara G; Mandrell, Robert E; Davis, Margaret A; Bono, James L
Background Cattle are a reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC O157), and are known to harbor subtypes not typically found in clinically ill humans. Consequently, nucleotide polymorphisms previously discovered via strains originating from human outbreaks may be restricted in their ability to distinguish STEC O157 genetic subtypes present in cattle. The objectives of this study were firstly to identify nucleotide polymorphisms in a diverse sampling of human and bovine STEC O157 strains, secondly to classify strains of either bovine or human origin by polymorphism-derived genotypes, and finally to compare the genotype diversity with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), a method currently used for assessing STEC O157 diversity. Results High-throughput 454 sequencing of pooled STEC O157 strain DNAs from human clinical cases (n = 91) and cattle (n = 102) identified 16,218 putative polymorphisms. From those, 178 were selected primarily within genomic regions conserved across E. coli serotypes and genotyped in 261 STEC O157 strains. Forty-two unique genotypes were observed that are tagged by a minimal set of 32 polymorphisms. Phylogenetic trees of the genotypes are divided into clades that represent strains of cattle origin, or cattle and human origin. Although PFGE diversity surpassed genotype diversity overall, ten PFGE patterns each occurred with multiple strains having different genotypes. Conclusions Deep sequencing of pooled STEC O157 DNAs proved highly effective in polymorphism discovery. A polymorphism set has been identified that characterizes genetic diversity within STEC O157 strains of bovine origin, and a subset observed in human strains. The set may complement current techniques used to classify strains implicated in disease outbreaks. PMID:19463166
Silveyra, Ivana M; Pereyra, Adriana M; Alvarez, María G; Villagran, Mariana D; Baroni, Andrea B; Deza, Natalia; Carbonari, Claudia C; Miliwebsky, Elizabeth; Rivas, Marta
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major causative agent of acute diarrhea in children in developing countries. This pathotype is divided into typical EPEC (tEPEC) and atypical EPEC (aEPEC), based on the presence of the bfp virulence factor associated with adhesion, encoded in the pEAF plasmid. In the present study, the isolation of aEPEC O157:H16 from a bloody diarrhea case in a child and his household contacts (mother, father and sister) is described. The strain was characterized as E. coli O157:H16 eae-ɛ-positive, sorbitol fermenter with β-glucuronidase activity, susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, and negative for virulence factors stx1, stx2, ehxA and bfp. XbaI-PFGE performed on all isolates showed the AREXHX01.1040 macrorestriction pattern, with 100% similarity. These results highlight the importance of epidemiological surveillance of E. coli O157-associated diarrhea cases identified in children and their family contacts, as well as the incorporation of molecular techniques that allow the detection of the different E. coli pathotypes.
Carter, Michelle Q; Parker, Craig T; Louie, Jacqueline W; Huynh, Steven; Fagerquist, Clifton K; Mandrell, Robert E
Curli are adhesive fimbriae of Enterobactericaeae and are involved in surface attachment, cell aggregation, and biofilm formation. We reported previously that curli-producing (C(+)) variants of E. coli O157:H7 (EcO157) were much more acid sensitive than their corresponding curli-deficient (C(-)) variants; however, this difference was not linked to the curli fimbriae per se. Here, we investigated the underlying molecular basis of this phenotypic divergence. We identified large deletions in the rcsB gene of C(+) variants isolated from the 1993 U.S. hamburger-associated outbreak strains. rcsB encodes the response regulator of the RcsCDB two-component signal transduction system, which regulates curli biogenesis negatively but acid resistance positively. Further comparison of stress fitness revealed that C(+) variants were also significantly more sensitive to heat shock but were resistant to osmotic stress and oxidative damage, similar to C(-) variants. Transcriptomics analysis uncovered a large number of differentially expressed genes between the curli variants, characterized by enhanced expression in C(+) variants of genes related to biofilm formation, virulence, catabolic activity, and nutrient uptake but marked decreases in transcription of genes related to various types of stress resistance. Supplying C(+) variants with a functional rcsB restored resistance to heat shock and acid challenge in cells but blocked curli production, confirming that inactivation of RcsB in C(+) variants was the basis of fitness segregation within the EcO157 population. This study provides an example of how genome instability of EcO157 promotes intrapopulation diversification, generating subpopulations carrying an array of distinct phenotypes that may confer the pathogen with survival advantages in diverse environments.
Coleman, M E; Tamplin, M L; Phillips, J G; Marmer, B S
Foods may differ in at least two key variables from broth culture systems typically used to measure growth kinetics of enteropathogens: initial population density of the pathogen and agitation of the culture. The present study used nine Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated from beef and associated with human illness. Initial kinetic experiments with one E. coli O157:H7 strain in brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth at pH 5.5 were performed in a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial design, testing the effects of a low (ca. 1-10 colony-forming units [CFU]/ml) or high (ca. 1000 CFU/ml) initial population density, culture agitation or no culture agitation, and incubation temperatures of 10, 19, and 37 degrees C. Kinetic data were modeled using simple linear regression and the Baranyi model. Both model forms provided good statistical fit to the data (adjusted r(2)>0.95). Significant effects of agitation and initial population density were identified at 10 degrees C but not at 19 or 37 degrees C. Similar growth patterns were observed for two additional strains tested under the same experimental design. The lag, slope, and maximum population density (MPD) parameters were significantly different by treatment. Further tests were conducted in a 96-well microtiter plate system to determine the effect of initial population density and low pH (4.6-5.5) on the growth of E. coli O157:H7 strains in BHI at 10, 19, and 37 degrees C. Strain variability was more apparent at the boundary conditions of growth of low pH and low temperature. This study demonstrates the need for growth models that are specific to food products and environments for plausible extrapolation to risk assessment models.
Jordan, Dianna M; Sperandio, Vanessa; Kaper, James B; Dean-Nystrom, Evelyn A; Moon, Harley W
Gnotobiotic piglets inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, its luxS mutant derivative, or nonpathogenic E. coli were evaluated for attaching and effacing lesions. Although no differences in clinical symptoms were seen between pigs inoculated with the parent and those inoculated with the luxS mutant, the luxS mutant-inoculated pigs had a lower frequency of attaching and effacing lesions in the spiral colon than parent strain-inoculated pigs.
Introduction: E. coli O157:H7 was first recognized as a human pathogen in 1982 and until recently was the only E. coli strain mandated for testing by the USDA. In June 2012, the USDA declared six additional Shiga-toxin producing E. coli serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) as adulterant...
Oelschlaeger, T A; Barrett, T J; Kopecko, D J
Several enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains of serotype O157:H7 isolated from patients with hemorrhagic colitis, ischemic colitis, or hemolytic uremic syndrome were all found to be able to invade certain human epithelial cell lines in vitro. Their ability to gain entry into epithelial cells was compared with those of known invasive Shigella flexneri and Salmonella typhi strains and the noninvasive E. coli strain HB101 in invasion assays utilizing gentamicin to kill extracellular bacteria. All EHEC strains under investigation were efficiently internalized into T24 bladder and HCT-8 ileocecal cells. In striking contrast to shigellae, the same EHEC strains were not taken up into human embryonic intestinal INT407 cells or HEp-2 cells any more than the noninvasive E. coli strain HB101. The mechanism(s) of EHEC internalization was characterized by comparing the invasion efficiencies in the absence and presence of a variety of inhibitors acting on structures and processes of prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells. Also, wild-type, plasmid-containing EHEC strains were compared with their plasmid-cured isogenic derivative strains to determine if plasmid genes affect invasion ability. Plasmid-cured EHEC invaded as well as wild-type EHEC, indicating that invasion ability is chromosomally encoded. Inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis by simultaneous addition of bacteria and chloramphenicol to the monolayer blocked EHEC uptake dramatically, suggesting the presence of an invasion protein(s) with a short half-life. Studies utilizing inhibitors which act on eukaryotic cells demonstrated a strong dependence on microfilaments in the process of uptake of all EHEC strains into both T24 and HCT-8 cells. In general, depolymerization of microtubules as well as inhibition of receptor-mediated endocytosis reduced the efficiency of EHEC invasion of T24 cells, whereas interference with endosome acidification reduced EHEC entry into only HCT-8 cells. Taxol-induced stabilization of
Clavero, M R; Beuchat, L R; Doyle, M P
Rates of thermal inactivation of five strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolated from ground beef implicated in outbreaks of hemorrhagic colitis and five strains isolated from bovine feces were determined. Ground beef (22% fat, 10 g), inoculated with individual test strains at populations ranging from 6.85 to 7.40 log10 CFU g-1 of beef, was formed into patties (0.3 cm thick and 8.0 cm in diameter) and sealed in polyethylene bags. For each strain and treatment temperature (54.4, 58.9, 62.8, 65.6, or 68.3 degrees C), 6 bags were simultaneously immersed into a recirculating water bath. Viable cells in patties heated for various lengths of time were enumerated by plating diluted samples on sorbitol MacConkey agar supplemented with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MSMA) and modified eosin methylene blue (MEMB) agar. Regardless of strain or treatment temperature, higher numbers of E. coli O157:H7 cells were generally recovered on MEMB agar than on MSMA, indicating the inferiority of MSMA as a recovery medium for quantitative determination of E. coli O157:H7 cells in heat-processed ground beef. Significantly (P < or = 0.05) higher D values when enumeration was done using MEMB agar compared with MSMA. Mean D values for combined strain data at 54.4, 58.9, 62.8, and 65.6 degrees C from cultures on MEMB agar were 123.90, 6.47, 0.62, and 0.20 min, respectively, whereas D values of 25.5, 5.21, and 0.18 min were obtained at the same temperatures from cultures on MSMA. Results suggest that cooking ground beef patties to an internal temperature of 68.3 degrees C for 40 s will inactivate at least 99.99% of E. coli O157:H7 cells; z values of 4.0 and 5.1 degrees C were calculated from mean D values obtained from MEMB agar and MSMA, respectively, as recovery media. Differences in D values existed among strains but rates of thermal inactivation do not appear to be correlated with the sources of the isolates.
Perez Guzzi, J I; Folabella, A; Miliwebsky, E; Rivas, M; Fernandez Pascua, C; Gomez, D; Zamora, A; Zotta, C; Cordoba, M
The present study was focused on the isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli, particularly the serotype O157:H7, from five combined-sewer outflows waters, which drain into the beaches of Mar del Plata. Seventeen hemolytic uremic syndrome cases were reported in Mar del Plata during the sampling period (May 1995-April 1996) in children between 9 month- and 5 year-old, and 3 deaths were recorded. E. coli identification was carried out by biochemical tests. E. coli was detected in 75% of the samples and a total of 98 strains were selected, with 11 sorbol non-fermenting strains. The strains belonged to the O1, O6, O44, O86a, O119 and O168 serogroups. As none of the known virulence factors was detected, strains could not be grouped within any of the diarrheagenic E. coli categories. None of the E. coli strains belonged to the O157:H7 serotype, but E. coli isolation showed fecal contamination in the combined-sewer outflows. Since their waters drain into beaches for recreational use, it is necessary to emphasize the detection of E. coli that would cause severe human illness. Bacterial pollution in combined-sewer outflows draining into Mar del Plata coasts might represent a high risk for human health.
Ashton, Philip M.; Byrne, Lisa; Perry, Neil T.; Petrovska, Liljana; Ellis, Richard; Allison, Lesley; Hanson, Mary; Holmes, Anne; Gunn, George J.; Chase-Topping, Margo E.; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.; Grant, Kathie A.; Gally, David L.; Wain, John; Jenkins, Claire
Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 is a recently emerged zoonotic pathogen with considerable morbidity. Since the emergence of this serotype in the 1980s, research has focussed on unravelling the evolutionary events from the E. coli O55:H7 ancestor to the contemporaneous globally dispersed strains observed today. In this study, the genomes of over 1000 isolates from both human clinical cases and cattle, spanning the history of STEC O157:H7 in the UK, were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the ancestry, key acquisition events and global context of the strains. Dated phylogenies estimated the time to evolution of the most recent common ancestor of the current circulating global clone to be 175 years ago. This event was followed by rapid diversification. We show the acquisition of specific virulence determinates has occurred relatively recently and coincides with its recent detection in the human population. We used clinical outcome data from 493 cases of STEC O157:H7 to assess the relative risk of severe disease including haemolytic uraemic syndrome from each of the defined clades in the population and show the dramatic effect Shiga toxin repertoire has on virulence. We describe two strain replacement events that have occurred in the cattle population in the UK over the last 30 years, one resulting in a highly virulent strain that has accounted for the majority of clinical cases in the UK over the last decade. There is a need to understand the selection pressures maintaining Shiga-toxin-encoding bacteriophages in the ruminant reservoir and the study affirms the requirement for close surveillance of this pathogen in both ruminant and human populations.
Vidovic, Sinisa; Korber, Darren R
The prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 associated with feedlot cattle in Saskatchewan was determined in a 10-month longitudinal study (3 feedlots) and a point prevalence study (20 feedlots). The prevalence of E. coli O157 at the three different sites in the horizontal study varied from 2.5 to 45%. The point prevalence of E. coli O157 among Saskatchewan cattle from 20 different feedlots ranged from 0% to a high of 57%. A statistically significant (P = 0.003) positive correlation was determined to exist between the density of cattle and the E. coli O157 prevalence rate. A significant correlation (P = 0.006) was also found between the E. coli O157 percent prevalence and the number of cattle housed/capacity ratio. All 194 E. coli O157 isolates obtained were highly virulent, and random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR analysis revealed that the isolates grouped into 39 different E. coli O157 subtypes, most of which were indigenous to specific feedlots. Two of the most predominant subtypes were detected in 11 different feedlots and formed distinct clusters in two geographic regions in the province. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the E. coli O157 isolates revealed that 10 were multidrug resistant and that 73 and 5 were resistant to sulfisoxazole and tetracycline, respectively.
Vanaja, Sivapriya Kailasan; Springman, Amber C.; Besser, Thomas E.; Whittam, Thomas S.; Manning, Shannon D.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains can be classified into different genotypes based on the presence of specific Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophage insertion sites. Certain O157:H7 genotypes predominate among human clinical cases (clinical genotypes), while others are more frequently found in bovines (bovine-biased genotypes). To determine whether inherent differences in gene expression explain the variation in infectivity of these genotypes, we compared the expression patterns of clinical genotype 1 strains with those of bovine-biased genotype 5 strains using microarrays. Important O157:H7 virulence factors, including locus of enterocyte effacement genes, the enterohemolysin, and several pO157 genes, showed increased expression in the clinical versus bovine-biased genotypes. In contrast, genes essential for acid resistance (e.g., gadA, gadB, and gadC) and stress fitness were upregulated in bovine-biased genotype 5 strains. Increased expression of acid resistance genes was confirmed functionally using a model stomach assay, in which strains of bovine-biased genotype 5 had a 2-fold-higher survival rate than strains of clinical genotype 1. Overall, these results suggest that the increased prevalence of O157:H7 illness caused by clinical genotype 1 strains is due in part to the overexpression of key virulence genes. The bovine-biased genotype 5 strains, however, are more resistant to adverse environmental conditions, a characteristic that likely facilitates O157:H7 colonization of bovines. PMID:19880650
Amigo, Natalia; Zhang, Qi; Amadio, Ariel; Zhang, Qunjie; Silva, Wanderson M.; Cui, Baiyuan; Chen, Zhongjian; Larzabal, Mariano; Bei, Jinlong; Cataldi, Angel
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is responsible for severe diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), and predominantly affects children under 5 years. The major virulence traits are Shiga toxins, necessary to develop HUS and the Type III Secretion System (T3SS) through which bacteria translocate effector proteins directly into the host cell. By SNPs typing, E. coli O157:H7 was separated into nine different clades. Clade 8 and clade 6 strains were more frequently associated with severe disease and HUS. In this study, we aimed to identify differentially expressed proteins in two strains of E. coli O157:H7 (clade 8 and clade 6), obtained from cattle and compared them with the well characterized reference EDL933 strain (clade 3). Clade 8 and clade 6 strains show enhanced pathogenicity in a mouse model and virulence-related properties. Proteins were extracted and analyzed using the TMT-6plex labeling strategy associated with two dimensional liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry in tandem. We detected 2241 proteins in the cell extract and 1787 proteins in the culture supernatants. Attention was focused on the proteins related to virulence, overexpressed in clade 6 and 8 strains compared to EDL933 strain. The proteins relevant overexpressed in clade 8 strain were the curli protein CsgC, a transcriptional activator (PchE), phage proteins, Stx2, FlgM and FlgD, a dienelactone hydrolase, CheW and CheY, and the SPATE protease EspP. For clade 6 strain, a high overexpression of phage proteins was detected, mostly from Stx2 encoding phage, including Stx2, flagellin and the protease TagA, EDL933_p0016, dienelactone hydrolase, and Haemolysin A, amongst others with unknown function. Some of these proteins were analyzed by RT-qPCR to corroborate the proteomic data. Clade 6 and clade 8 strains showed enhanced transcription of 10 out of 12 genes compared to EDL933. These results may provide new insights in E. coli O157:H7 mechanisms of pathogenesis. PMID:27880834
Kase, Julie A; Maounounen-Laasri, Anna; Son, Insook; Deer, Deanne M; Borenstein, Stacey; Prezioso, Samantha; Hammack, Thomas S
The FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) method for the detection/isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) involves enrichment of produce rinses, blended homogenates or stomached homogenates. However, the effectiveness of rinsing produce to remove attached bacteria is largely unknown. Moreover, PCR inhibitors can be released under physical treatment. The study objective was to determine the relative effectiveness of recovery methods for STEC contaminated produce. Spinach, lettuce, and cilantro were contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 or a non-O157 STEC, subjected to both the BAM method and a soak method, and tested by real-time PCR and cultural methods. For O157:H7 and non-O157:H7 STECs, the soak method was significantly more productive than leafy green rinses. Of 320 test portions, PCR of recovered colonies confirmed 148 were positive by rinsing and 271 were positive by soaking (an 83% increase in sensitivity). For recovery of O157:H7 from cilantro, of 60 test portions, positives were 38 by soaking, 41 by stomaching, and 28 by blending. Soaking and stomaching were significantly more productive than blending, although soaking was only arithmetically superior to stomaching. Based upon these results, it is recommended that a soak method replace the current BAM procedures.
Zangari, T; Melton-Celsa, A R; Panda, A; Smith, M A; Tatarov, I; De Tolla, L; O'Brien, A D
Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). STEC strains may produce Stx1a and/or Stx2a or variants of either toxin. A 2006 spinach-associated outbreak of STEC O157:H7 resulted in higher hospitalization and HUS rates than previous STEC outbreaks. The spinach isolate, strain K3995, contains both stx2a and stx2c. We hypothesized that the enhanced virulence of K3995 reflects the combination of stx2 alleles (carried on lysogenic phages) and/or the amount of Stx2 made by that strain. We compared the virulence of K3995 to those of other O157:H7 isolates and an isogenic Stx2 mutant in rabbits and mice. We also measured the relative levels of Stx2 produced from those strains with or without induction of the stx-carrying phage. Some rabbits infected with K3995 exhibited intestinal pathology and succumbed to infection, while none of those infected with O157:H7 strain 2812 (Stx1a(+) Stx2a(+)) died or showed pathological signs. Rabbits infected with the isogenic Stx2a mutant K3995 stx2a::cat were not colonized as well as those infected with K3995 and exhibited no signs of disease. In the streptomycin-treated mouse model, more animals infected with K3995 died than did those infected with O157:H7 strain 86-24 (Stx2a(+)). Additionally, K3995 produced higher levels of total Stx2 and toxin phage DNA in cultures after phage induction than did 86-24. Our results demonstrate the greater virulence of K3995 compared to other O157:H7 strains in rabbits and mice. We conclude that this enhanced virulence is linked to higher levels of Stx2 expression as a consequence of increased phage induction.
Zangari, T.; Melton-Celsa, A. R.; Panda, A.; Smith, M. A.; Tatarov, I.; De Tolla, L.
Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). STEC strains may produce Stx1a and/or Stx2a or variants of either toxin. A 2006 spinach-associated outbreak of STEC O157:H7 resulted in higher hospitalization and HUS rates than previous STEC outbreaks. The spinach isolate, strain K3995, contains both stx2a and stx2c. We hypothesized that the enhanced virulence of K3995 reflects the combination of stx2 alleles (carried on lysogenic phages) and/or the amount of Stx2 made by that strain. We compared the virulence of K3995 to those of other O157:H7 isolates and an isogenic Stx2 mutant in rabbits and mice. We also measured the relative levels of Stx2 produced from those strains with or without induction of the stx-carrying phage. Some rabbits infected with K3995 exhibited intestinal pathology and succumbed to infection, while none of those infected with O157:H7 strain 2812 (Stx1a+ Stx2a+) died or showed pathological signs. Rabbits infected with the isogenic Stx2a mutant K3995 stx2a::cat were not colonized as well as those infected with K3995 and exhibited no signs of disease. In the streptomycin-treated mouse model, more animals infected with K3995 died than did those infected with O157:H7 strain 86-24 (Stx2a+). Additionally, K3995 produced higher levels of total Stx2 and toxin phage DNA in cultures after phage induction than did 86-24. Our results demonstrate the greater virulence of K3995 compared to other O157:H7 strains in rabbits and mice. We conclude that this enhanced virulence is linked to higher levels of Stx2 expression as a consequence of increased phage induction. PMID:25225244
We characterized nineteen O157 non-H7 strains that were isolated from food, water, and both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients in various countries. All the isolates were serologically and genetically confirmed to be O157 non-H7 strains, but could not be H serotyped. None of the strains had tra...
Li, Fan; Zhao, Chunyan; Zhang, Wandi; Cui, Shenghui; Meng, Jianghong; Wu, Josephine; Zhang, David Y
Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains are important human pathogens that are mainly transmitted through the food chain. These pathogens have a low infectious dose and may cause life-threatening illnesses. However, detection of this microorganism in contaminated food or a patient's stool specimens presents a diagnostic challenge because of the low copy number in the sample. Often, a more sensitive nucleic acid amplification method, such as PCR, is required for rapid detection of this microorganism. Ramification amplification (RAM) is a recently introduced isothermal DNA amplification technique that utilizes a circular probe for target detection and achieves exponential amplification through the mechanism of primer extension, strand displacement, and ramification. In this study, we synthesized a circular probe specific for the Shiga toxin 2 gene (stx(2)). Our results showed that as few as 10 copies of stx(2) could be detected, indicating that the RAM assay was as sensitive as conventional PCR. We further tested 33 isolates of E coli O157:H7, STEC, Shigella dysenteriae, and nonpathogenic E. coli by RAM assay. Results showed that all 27 STEC isolates containing the stx(2) gene were identified by RAM assay, while S. dysenteriae and nonpathogenic E. coli isolates were undetected. The RAM results were 100% in concordance with those of PCR. Because of its simplicity and isothermal amplification, the RAM assay could be a useful method for detecting STEC in food and human specimens.
The presence of strong biofilm forming microflora could potentially enhance the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) in harsh environment. One strain of Ralstonia insidiosa isolated from produce processing environments, previously displayed a synergistic interaction with EcO157 in dual-spec...
Verstraete, K; Robyn, J; Del-Favero, J; De Rijk, P; Joris, M-A; Herman, L; Heyndrickx, M; De Zutter, L; De Reu, K
The aim of the current study was to evaluate a multiplex PCR (mPCR) detection test combined with the evaluation of a previously described isolation method. Minced beef, raw-milk cheese and sprouted seed samples were inoculated with low amounts (7-58 cfu 25 g(-1)) of non-stressed, cold-stressed or freeze-stressed clinical STEC strains, including serogroups O26, O103, O111, O145, sorbitol fermenting (SF) O157 and non-sorbitol fermenting (NSF) O157. The inoculated pathogen was detected using a 24 h-enrichment followed by an mPCR protocol, and in parallel isolated using an enrichment step of 6 and 24 h, followed by selective plating of the enriched broth and selective plating of the immunomagnetic separation (IMS) product. Recovery results were evaluated and compared. Successful mPCR detection and isolation was obtained for non-stressed and cold-stressed STEC cells in minced beef and raw-milk cheese samples, except for serogroups O111 and SF O157. For freeze-stressed cells and sprouted seed samples, false negatives were often found. Isolation was better after 24 h-enrichment compared to 6 h-enrichment. IMS improved in some cases the isolation of non-stressed and cold-stressed cells belonging to serogroups O111 and O157 from minced beef and raw-milk cheese and freeze-stressed cells of all tested serogroups from minced beef.
Bosilevac, Joseph M.; Koohmaraie, Mohammad
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a Shiga toxin (stx)-producing E. coli (STEC) strain that has been classified as an adulterant in U.S. beef. However, numerous other non-O157 STEC strains are associated with diseases of various severities and have become an increasing concern to the beef industry, regulatory officials, and the public. This study reports on the prevalence and characterization of non-O157 STEC in commercial ground beef samples (n = 4,133) obtained from numerous manufacturers across the United States over a period of 24 months. All samples were screened by DNA amplification for the presence of Shiga toxin genes, which were present in 1,006 (24.3%) of the samples. Then, culture isolation of an STEC isolate from all samples that contained stx1 and/or stx2 was attempted. Of the 1,006 positive ground beef samples screened for stx, 300 (7.3% of the total of 4,133) were confirmed to have at least one strain of STEC present by culture isolation. In total, 338 unique STEC isolates were recovered from the 300 samples that yielded an STEC isolate. All unique STEC isolates were serotyped and were characterized for the presence of known virulence factors. These included Shiga toxin subtypes, intimin subtypes, and accessory virulence factors related to adherence (saa, iha, lifA), toxicity (cnf, subA, astA), iron acquisition (chuA), and the presence of the large 60-MDa virulence plasmid (espP, etpD, toxB, katP, toxB). The isolates were also characterized by use of a pathogenicity molecular risk assessment (MRA; based on the presence of various O-island nle genes). Results of this characterization identified 10 STEC isolates (0.24% of the 4,133 total) that may be considered a significant food safety threat, defined by the presence of eae, subA, and nle genes. PMID:21257806
Tahamtan, Yahya; Namavari, Mehdi
The aim of the present study was the isolation of both E. coli O157 and non-O157 in sheep. Verotoxins (VT) 1, 2 and eae genes were tested for this propose. Sheep faces are an important source of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a highly virulent food-borne pathogen and threat to public health. Rectal swab samples from sheep were collected during 2009-2010. Conventional plating and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were carried out according to virulence factors (Stx1, Stx2 and eaeA).There significant differences between prevalence of STEC and session were observed. It was at highest in spring and late summer. Six (3.92%) sheep carcasses were contaminated by E. coli O157:H7.Only six samples were positive by PCR specific for the VT2 gene and produced verocytotoxin VT2, whereas all isolates were negative for the presence of VT1 and eae virulence genes considered. Geographical variations and season may be influenced in the prevalence rate. The composition of the gastrointestinal flora may be changed by different diet and, therefore O157 STEC rate in sheep and lamb was different. Iranian sheep indicated as a natural host of E. coli O157 strains therefore, may be potentially pathogenic for humans. This is the first report of E. coli O157 detection from sheep in Iran.
Shiga toxin-containing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC O157:H7) is an important zoonotic pathogen which can be transmitted to humans by ingestion of contaminated water or food. Cattle are a common reservoir for STEC O157:H7. This microorganism may cause diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, and hemolytic-uremic...
Espié, E; Vaillant, V; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Grimont, F; Martin-Schaller, R; De Valk, H; Vernozy-Rozand, C
A family cluster of three cases of Escherichia coli O157 infection was identified in France. Two cases developed haemolytic-uraemic syndrome. The source was fresh unpasteurized goats' cheese, produced by an independent producer. Three E. coli O157 strains, isolated from one HUS case and faeces of one cow and one goat, were indistinguishable by toxin type and PFGE pattern.
Background: Escherichia coli O157:H7 and related serotype strains have previously been shown to vary in acid resistance, however, little is known about strain specific mechanisms of acid resistance. We examined sensitive and resistant E. coli strains to determine the effects of growth in minimal and...
The disinfectant and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 144 non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STECs) from food animals and humans were determined. An overall moderate prevalence of 38.9% antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was observed in these strains. Animal strains had a lower p...
Jenke, Christian; Leopold, Shana R.; Weniger, Thomas; Rothgänger, Jörg; Harmsen, Dag; Karch, Helge
Highly pathogenic enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 cause a spectrum of clinical signs that include diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. The current evolutionary model of EHEC O157:H7/H– consists of a stepwise evolution scenario proceeding from O55:H7 to a node (hypothetical intermediate) that then branches into sorbitol-fermenting (SF) O157:H– and non-SF (NSF) O157:H7. To identify this hypothetical intermediate, we performed single nucleotide polymorphism analysis by sequencing of 92 randomly distributed backbone genomic regions of 40 O157:H7/H– isolates. Overall, 111 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in 75/92 partial open reading frames after sequencing 51,041 nt/strain. The EHEC O157:H7 strain LSU-61 from deer occupied an intermediate position between O55:H7 and both O157 branches (SF and NSF O157), complementing the stepwise evolutionary model of EHEC O157:H7/H–. The animal origin of this intermediate emphasizes the value of nonhuman reservoirs in the clarification of the evolution of human pathogens. PMID:22469031
Zhang, Xin; Li, Yuxia; Li, Bingjuan; Mao, Yan; Wu, Xun; Zou, Xiaohua; Gao, Peng; Yan, Hexin; Yang, Dan; Ling, Yan; Chen, Huipeng
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strain and a major food-borne pathogen, causing severe disease in humans worldwide. Multiple sensitive, accurate, and quantitative methods are needed to provide a comprehensive analysis of cell damage caused by O157:H7. However, the current, universally adopted methods for O157:H7 virulence assessment fail to investigate the interactive effects of O157:H7 and its host cells, neglect the effects of infection of host cells by O157:H7, and fail to comprehensively and accurately reflect the true pathogenicity of O157:H7. In this study, three different accurate, sensitive, and quantifiable methods were supplementary to provide standard operating procedures to analyze the cytotoxicity of O157:H7. This set of methods can be applied to toxicity studies of newly discovered O157:H7 clinical isolates and used to study how a clinical isolate's toxicity correlates with its pathogenicity. These methods can also be used in future studies of latent virulence factors and to explore the pathogenic mechanisms of O157:H7.
Chen, Yahui; Lin, Jianhan; Jiang, Qin; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Shengjun; Li, Li
The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a nucleic acid isolation and purification instrument using Escherichia coli O157:H7 as the model. The instrument was developed with magnetic nanoparticles for efficiently capturing nucleic acids and an intelligent mechanical unit for automatically performing the whole nucleic acid extraction process. A commercial DNA extraction kit from Huier Nano Company was used as reference. Nucleic acids in 1 ml of E. coli O157: H7 at a concentration of 5 x 10(8) CFU/mL were extracted by using this instrument and the kit in parallel and then detected by an ultraviolet spectrophotometer to obtain A260 values and A260/A280 values for the determination of the extracted DNA's quantity and purity, respectively. The A260 values for the instrument and the kit were 0.78 and 0.61, respectively, and the A260/A280 values were 1.98 and 1.93. The coefficient of variations of these parallel tests ranged from 10.5% to 16.7%. The results indicated that this nucleic acid isolation and purification instrument could extract a comparable level of nucleic acid within 50 min compared to the commercial DNA extraction kit.
Ghanbarpour, Reza; Kiani, Mojtaba
The objectives of this study were to determine the presence and prevalence of non-O157 shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolates from faeces of healthy fat-tailed sheep and detection of phylogenetic background and antibiotic resistance profile of isolates. One hundred ninety-two E. coli isolates were recovered from obtained rectal swabs and were confirmed by biochemical tests. Antibiotic resistance profiles of isolates were detected and phylogenetic background of isolates was determined according to the presence of the chuA, yjaA and TspE4.C2 genetic markers. The isolates were examined to determine stx (1), stx (2) and eae genes. Non-O157 STEC isolates were identified by using O157 specific antiserum. Forty-three isolates (22.40 %) were positive for one of the stx (1), stx (2) and eae genes, whereas 10.42 % were positive for stx (1), 19.38 % for eae and 2.60 % for stx (2) gene. None of the positive isolates belonged to O157 serogroup. Twenty isolates possessed stx ( 1 ) were distributed in A (six isolates), B1 (13) and D (one) phylogroups, whereas stx (2) positive isolates fell into A (three isolates) and B1 (two) phylogenetic groups. Eighteen isolates contained eae gene belonged to A (five isolates), B1 (seven) and D (six) phylogroups. The maximum and minimum resistance rates were recorded against to penicillin and co-trimoxazole respectively. The positive isolates for stx (1), stx (2) and eae genes showed several antibiotic resistance patterns, whereas belonged to A, B1 and D phylogroups. In conclusion, faeces of healthy sheep could be considered as the important sources of non-O157 STEC and also multidrug-resistant E. coli isolates.
Manafi, M; Kremsmaier, B
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a serious and common human pathogen that can cause diarrhoea, haemorrhagic colitis, and haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). This study evaluated the enrichment, detection and confirmation procedures for the isolation of E. coli O157:H7 from raw ground beef and raw drinking milk. The purpose of this investigation was to compare Rainbow Agar O157 (RB; Biolog, Hayward, USA), Biosynth Culture Medium O157:H7 (BCM O157:H7; Biosynth, Staad, Switzerland) and Fluorocult HC (HC; Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) with the conventional Sorbitol MacConkey Agar (SMAC, Merck) using mEC + n (raw ground beef) and mTSB + n (raw milk) enrichment media. Single-path GLISA test (Gold Labeled Immuno Sorbent Assay; Merck) was used as the confirmation test. Growth of 466 strains of gram-negative rods isolated from food samples and 46 known E. coli strains from type culture and other collections (34 E. coli O157:H7 strains and 12 serotypes other than E. coli O157:H7) was examined on the agar media. The E. coli O157:H7 strains could readily be isolated and recognized uniquely by their typical black/grey colonies on RB and blue/black colonies on BCM O157:H7. Examination of the 46 known strains of E. coli reference strains showed false negative results on BCM O157:H7 (3.0%), RB (8.8%), HC (5.9%) and SMAC (5.9%) agars. On BCM O157:H7 no false negative results were found with the typical E. coli O157:H7 (beta-D-glucuronidase and sorbitol negative strains). One of two atypical E. coli O157:H7 strains (beta-D-glucuronidase positive) showed similar colouration to the typical strains and was mis-identified by each of the three media (RB, BCM O157:H7, and SMAC agar media). None of the 60 food samples tested yielded E. coli O157:H7. Examination of the food samples, showed that RB gave the lowest number of false positives. The percentages were RB (2.1%), BCM O157:H7 (3.3%), HC (6.2%), and SMAC (57.3%).
Zhou, Yijing; Karwe, Mukund V; Matthews, Karl R
High pressure processing (HPP) is a safe non-thermal processing method to effectively improve food safety. In this study, HPP treatment followed by cold storage was investigated to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef. Experiments were conducted using ground beef contaminated with six E. coli O157:H7 strains one at a time or as a cocktail. Control and inoculated ground beef samples were HPP at 25 °C, 35 °C, and 45 °C, at 400 MPa and pre-determined number of pressure cycles totaling a holding time of 15 min. Optimum HPP parameters were 25 °C, 400 MPa at five pressure cycles of 3 min each which achieved a 5-log reduction of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef. Storing HPP processed ground beef at 4 °C or -20 °C further decreased (P < 0.05) the E. coli O157:H7 population. An effective HPP treatment (5-log reduction) was developed that could be used post-processing to reduce the risk associated with E. coli O157:H7 contamination in ground beef.
Besser, Thomas E.; Shaikh, Nurmohammad; Holt, Nicholas J.; Tarr, Phillip I.; Konkel, Michael E.; Malik-Kale, Preeti; Walsh, Coilin W.; Whittam, Thomas S.; Bono, James L.
Escherichia coli O157:H7, a zoonotic human pathogen for which domestic cattle are a reservoir host, produces a Shiga toxin(s) (Stx) encoded by bacteriophages. Chromosomal insertion sites of these bacteriophages define three principal genotypes (clusters 1 to 3) among clinical isolates of E. coli O157:H7. Stx-encoding bacteriophage insertion site genotypes of 282 clinical and 80 bovine isolates were evaluated. A total of 268 (95.0%) of the clinical isolates, but only 41 (51.3%) of the bovine isolates, belonged to cluster 1, 2, or 3 (P < 0.001). Thirteen additional genotypes were identified in isolates from both cattle and humans (four genotypes), from only cattle (seven genotypes), or from only humans (two genotypes). Two other markers previously associated with isolates from cattle or with clinical isolates showed similar associations with genotype groups within bovine isolates; the tir allele sp-1 and the Q933W allele were under- and overrepresented, respectively, among cluster 1 to 3 genotypes. Stx-encoding bacteriophage insertion site typing demonstrated that there is broad genetic diversity of E. coli O157:H7 in the bovine reservoir and that numerous genotypes are significantly underrepresented among clinical isolates, consistent with the possibility that there is reduced virulence or transmissibility to humans of some bovine E. coli O157:H7 genotypes. PMID:17142358
Goswami, Kakolie; Chen, Chun; Xiaoli, Lingzi; Eaton, Kathryn A; Dudley, Edward G
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a notorious foodborne pathogen due to its low infectious dose and the disease symptoms it causes, which include bloody diarrhea and severe abdominal cramps. In some cases, the disease progresses to hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), due to the expression of one or more Shiga toxins (Stx). Isoforms of Stx, including Stx2a, are encoded within temperate prophages. In the presence of certain antibiotics, phage induction occurs, which also increases the expression of toxin genes. Additionally, increased Stx2 accumulation has been reported when O157:H7 was cocultured with phage-susceptible nonpathogenic E. coli. This study characterized an E. coli O157:H7 strain, designated PA2, that belongs to the hypervirulent clade 8 cluster. Stx2a levels after ciprofloxacin induction were lower for PA2 than for the prototypical outbreak strains Sakai and EDL933. However, during coculture with the nonpathogenic strain E. coli C600, PA2 produced Stx2a levels that were 2- to 12-fold higher than those observed during coculture with EDL933 and Sakai, respectively. Germfree mice cocolonized by PA2 and C600 showed greater kidney damage, increased Stx2a accumulation in feces, and more visible signs of disease than mice given PA2 or C600 alone. These data suggest one mechanism by which microorganisms associated with the colonic microbiota could enhance the virulence of E. coli O157:H7, particularly a subset of clade 8 strains.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 cause foodborne infections and cattle are the primary reservoir. Some animals, known as supershedders, excrete orders of magnitude more E. coli O157:H7 in the feces than normal. We here report the complete genome sequence of the SS52 supershedder stra...
Isogai, Emiko; Isogai, Hiroshi; Kimura, Koichi; Hayashi, Shunji; Kubota, Toru; Fujii, Nobuhiro; Takeshi, Koichi
Gnotobiotic mice inoculated with an enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 strain developed a flaccid paresis, usually culminating in death. The bacteria colonized feces at 109 to 1010 CFU per g (inoculum size: 2.0 × 109 CFU/mouse), and Shiga-like toxins (SLTs) were detected in the feces. A microscopic examination of colons showed mild inflammatory cell infiltration, thinning of the intestinal wall, or necrotic foci. Necrosis of tubular cells was noted in these symptomatic mice. Microhemorrhage, thrombosis, and edematous changes of the brain were also seen. Inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1α (IL-1α), and IL-6, were detected in the kidney after EHEC infection, but not in the serum. In the brain, only TNF-α was detected. When 2.0 × 102 CFU of EHEC O157:H7 was fed to germ-free mice, the number of bacteria began to rise rapidly on day 1 and was maintained at 108 to 109 CFU/g of feces. SLTs were detected in the feces of the mice. However, the mice showed no histological changes and no cytokine responses, similar to what was found for controls. Treatment with TNF-α modified the clinical neural signs, histopathological changes, and cytokine responses; mice treated with TNF-α developed severe neurotoxic symptoms and had higher frequencies of systemic symptoms and glomerular pathology. Strong cytokine responses were seen in the kidney and brain. Serum cytokines were also detected in this group. In contrast, a TNF-α inhibitor (protease inhibitor) inhibited these responses, especially in the brain. However, local synthesis of the cytokines was observed in the kidney. Thus, TNF-α and the other proinflammatory cytokines could be important in modifying the disease caused by EHEC. PMID:9423858
Shen, Jinling; Rump, Lydia; Ju, Wenting; Shao, Jingdong; Zhao, Shaohua; Brown, Eric; Meng, Jianghong
A total of 359 non-O157 STEC isolates from food, humans and animals were examined for serotypes, Shiga toxin subtypes and intimin subtypes. Isolates solely harboring stx2 from the three sources were selected for Vero cell cytotoxicity test. stx subtypes in eae negative isolates were more diverse than in eae positive isolates primarily carrying stx2a. Four eae subtypes (eaeβ,eaeε1,eaeγ1 and eaeγ2/θ) were observed and correlated with serotypes and flagella. Food isolates showed more diverse serotypes, virulence factors and cell cytotoxicities than human isolates. Some isolates from produce belonged to serotypes that have been implicated in human diseases, carried stx2a or/and stx2dact and exhibited high cell cytotoxicity similar to human isolates. This indicates that foods can be contaminated with potentially pathogenic STEC isolates that may cause human diseases. Given the increased produce consumption and growing burden of foodborne outbreaks due to produce, produce safety should be given great importance.
Galland, J C; Hyatt, D R; Crupper, S S; Acheson, D W
Prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility, and genetic diversity were determined for Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolated over 11 months from four beef cattle feedlots in southwest Kansas. From the fecal pat (17,050) and environmental (7,134) samples collected, 57 isolates of E. coli O157:H7 were identified by use of bacterial culture and latex agglutination (C/LA). PCR showed that 26 isolates were eaeA gene positive. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was identified in at least one of the four feedlots in 14 of the 16 collections by C/LA and in 9 of 16 collections by PCR, but consecutive positive collections at a single feedlot were rare. Overall prevalence in fecal pat samples was low (0.26% by C/LA, and 0.08% by PCR). No detectable differences in prevalence or antibiotic resistance were found between isolates collected from home pens and those from hospital pens, where antibiotic use is high. Resistant isolates were found for six of the eight antibiotics that could be used to treat E. coli infections in food animals, but few isolates were multidrug resistant. The high diversity of isolates as measured by random amplification of polymorphic DNA and other characteristics indicates that the majority of isolates were unique and did not persist at a feedlot, but probably originated from incoming cattle. The most surprising finding was the low frequency of virulence markers among E. coli isolates identified initially by C/LA as E. coli O157:H7. These results demonstrate that better ways of screening and confirming E. coli O157:H7 isolates are required for accurate determination of prevalence.
Basaran, N.; Quintero-Ramos, A.; Moake, M. M.; Churey, J. J.; Worobo, R. W.
This study examined the effect of different apple cultivars upon the UV inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains within unfiltered apple cider. Apple cider was prepared from eight different apple cultivars, inoculated with approximately 106 to 107 CFU of three strains of E. coli O157:H7 per ml (933, ATCC 43889, and ATCC 43895), and exposed to 14 mJ of UV irradiation per cm2. Bacterial populations for treated and untreated samples were then enumerated by using nonselective media. E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43889 showed the most sensitivity to this disinfection process with an average 6.63-log reduction compared to an average log reduction of 5.93 for both strains 933 and ATCC 43895. The highest log reduction seen, 7.19, occurred for strain ATCC 43889 in Rome cider. The same cider produced the lowest log reductions: 5.33 and 5.25 for strains 933 and ATCC 43895, respectively. Among the apple cultivars, an average log reduction range of 5.78 (Red Delicious) to 6.74 (Empire) was observed, with two statistically significant (α ≤ 0.05) log reduction groups represented. Within the paired cultivar-strain analysis, five of eight ciders showed statistically significant (α ≤ 0.05) differences in at least two of the E. coli strains used. Comparison of log reductions among the E. coli strains to the cider parameters of °Brix, pH, and malic acid content failed to show any statistically significant relationship (R2 ≥ 0.95). However, the results of this study indicate that regardless of the apple cultivar used, a minimum 5-log reduction is achieved for all of the strains of E. coli O157:H7 tested. PMID:15466551
Basaran, N; Quintero-Ramos, A; Moake, M M; Churey, J J; Worobo, R W
This study examined the effect of different apple cultivars upon the UV inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains within unfiltered apple cider. Apple cider was prepared from eight different apple cultivars, inoculated with approximately 10(6) to 10(7) CFU of three strains of E. coli O157:H7 per ml (933, ATCC 43889, and ATCC 43895), and exposed to 14 mJ of UV irradiation per cm(2). Bacterial populations for treated and untreated samples were then enumerated by using nonselective media. E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43889 showed the most sensitivity to this disinfection process with an average 6.63-log reduction compared to an average log reduction of 5.93 for both strains 933 and ATCC 43895. The highest log reduction seen, 7.19, occurred for strain ATCC 43889 in Rome cider. The same cider produced the lowest log reductions: 5.33 and 5.25 for strains 933 and ATCC 43895, respectively. Among the apple cultivars, an average log reduction range of 5.78 (Red Delicious) to 6.74 (Empire) was observed, with two statistically significant (alpha < or = 0.05) log reduction groups represented. Within the paired cultivar-strain analysis, five of eight ciders showed statistically significant (alpha < or = 0.05) differences in at least two of the E. coli strains used. Comparison of log reductions among the E. coli strains to the cider parameters of (o)Brix, pH, and malic acid content failed to show any statistically significant relationship (R(2) > or = 0.95). However, the results of this study indicate that regardless of the apple cultivar used, a minimum 5-log reduction is achieved for all of the strains of E. coli O157:H7 tested.
We report the isolation of Campylobacter species from the same population of feral swine that was investigated in San Benito County, California during the 2006 spinach-related Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak. This is the first survey of Campylobacter in a free-ranging feral swine population in the...
The objective of this study was to compare the acid resistance (AR) of seven non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains belonging to serogroups O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121 and O145 with O157:H7 STEC isolated from various sources in 400 mM acetic acid solutions (AAS) at pH 3.2 and 30°...
The objective of this study was to compare the acid resistance (AR) of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains belonging to serogroups O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, and O145 with O157:H7 STEC isolated from various sources in 400 mM acetic acid solutions (AAS) at pH 3.2 and...
Trueba, Gabriel; Garcés, Verónica; V, Verónica Barragan; Colman, Rebecca E; Seymour, Meagan; Vogler, Amy J; Keim, Paul
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is frequently isolated from cases of diarrhea in many industrialized countries; however, it is seldom found in developing countries. The present manuscript reports the presence of E. coli O157:H7 in Ecuadorian livestock, a country where enterohemorrhagic E. coli disease in humans has never been reported. The Ecuadorian isolates were genetically related to some strains linked to clinical cases in the United States as assessed by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis.
Guzman-Hernandez, Rosa; Contreras-Rodriguez, Araceli; Hernandez-Velez, Rosa; Perez-Martinez, Iza; Lopez-Merino, Ahide; Zaidi, Mussaret B; Estrada-Garcia, Teresa
Fresh cheeses are a main garnish of Mexican food. Consumption of artisanal fresh cheeses is very common and most of them are made from unpasteurised cow milk. A total of 52 fresh unpasteurised cheeses of five different types were purchased from a variety of suppliers from Tabasco, Mexico. Using the most probable number method, 67% and 63% of samples were positive for faecal coliforms and E. coli, respectively; revealing their low microbiological quality. General hygienic conditions and practices of traditional cheese manufacturers were poor; most establishments had unclean cement floors, all lacked windows and doors screens, and none of the food-handlers wore aprons, surgical masks or bouffant caps. After analysing all E. coli isolates (121 strains) for the presence of 26 virulence genes, results showed that 9 (17%) samples were contaminated with diarrheagenic E. coli strains, 8 harboured non-O157 Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC), and one sample contained both STEC and diffusely adherent E. coli strains. All STEC strains carried the stx1 gene. Potential uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains were isolated from 15 (29%) samples; the most frequent gene combination was fimA-agn43. Two samples were contaminated with Salmonella. The results demonstrated that unpasteurised fresh cheeses produced in Tabasco are of poor microbiological quality and may frequently harbour foodborne pathogens. Food safety authorities in Mexico need to conduct more rigorous surveillance of fresh cheeses. Furthermore, simple and inexpensive measures as establishing programs emphasizing good hand milking practices and hygienic manufacturing procedures may have a major effect on improving the microbiological quality of these food items.
Duan, Hui-Li; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Xin-Wei; Chao, Fu-Huan; Li, Jun-Wen
AIM: To prepare a kind of magnetic iron-dextran nanoparticles that was coated with anti-E.coli O157:H7 IgG, analyze its application conditions, and try to use it to isolate E.coli O157:H7 from foods. METHODS: Magnetic iron-dextran nanoparticles were prepared by the reaction of a mixture of ferric and ferrous ions with dextran polymers under alkaline conditions. The particles were coated with antiserum against E.coli O157:H7 by the periodate oxidation-borohydride reduction procedure. The oxidation time, amount of antibody coating the particles, amount of nanoparticles, incubation time and isolation time were varied to determine their effects on recovery of the organisms. Finally, the optimum conditions for isolating E.coli O157:H7 from food samples were established. RESULTS: E.coli O157:H7 can be isolated from samples within 15 min with the sensitivity of 101 CFU/mL or even less. In the presence of 108 CFU/mL of other organisms, the sensitivity is 101-102 CFU/mL. Nonspecific binding of other bacteria to the particles was not observed. Two and a half hours of enrichment is enough for the particles to detect the target from the food samples inoculated with 1 CFU/g. CONCLUSION: Isolation of target bacteria by immuno-magnetic nanoparticles is an efficient method with high sensitivity and specificity. The technique is so simple that it can be operated in lab and field even by untrained personnel. PMID:15968716
Ferdous, Mithila; Kooistra-Smid, Anna M. D.; Zhou, Kai; Rossen, John W. A.; Friedrich, Alexander W.
Escherichia coli (E.coli) O157 that do not produce Shiga toxin and do not possess flagellar antigen H7 are of diverse H serotypes. In this study, the antibiotic resistance properties, genotype of a set of virulence associated genes and the phylogenetic background of E. coli O157:non-H7 groups were compared. Whole genome sequencing was performed on fourteen O157:non-H7 isolates collected in the STEC-ID-net study. The genomes were compared with E. coli O157 genomes and a typical Enteropathogenic E. coli (tEPEC) genome downloaded from NCBI. Twenty-six (86%) of the analyzed genomes had the intimin encoding gene eae but of different types mostly correlating with their H types, e.g., H16, H26, H39, and H45 carried intimin type ε, β, κ, and α, respectively. They belonged to several E. coli phylogenetic groups, i.e., to phylogenetic group A, B1, B2, and D. Seven (50%) of our collected O157:non-H7 isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Several mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, insertion elements, and pathogenicity islands, carrying a set of virulence and resistance genes were found in the E. coli O157:non-H7 isolates. Core genome phylogenetic analysis showed that O157:non-H7 isolates probably evolved from different phylogenetic lineages and were distantly related to the E. coli O157:H7 lineage. We hypothesize that independent acquisition of mobile genetic elements by isolates of different lineages have contributed to the different molecular features of the O157:non-H7 strains. Although distantly related to the STEC O157, E. coli O157:non-H7 isolates from multiple genetic background could be considered as pathogen of concern for their diverse virulence and antibiotic resistance properties. PMID:27733849
Ravva, Subbarao V.; Sarreal, Chester Z.; Mandrell, Robert E.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157), an agent of life threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome, resides in ruminants and is released in feces at numbers as high as 10 million cells/gram. EcO157 could survive in manure for as long as 21 months, but we observed a 90% decrease in cells of an outbreak strain of EcO157 within half a day in wastewater from dairy lagoons. Although chemical, environmental and biological factors may be responsible for this decrease, we observed an 11-fold increase in native protozoa when wastewater was re-inoculated with 2×107 cells of EcO157/mL. These protozoa engulfed the green fluorescent protein labeled EcO157 within 2 hours after inoculation, but expelled vacuoles filled with live EcO157 cells within 3 days into surrounding wastewater, whereas other protozoa retained the EcO157-filled vacuoles for 7 days. EcO157 was not detected by confocal microscopy either inside or outside protozoa after 7 days. Mixed cultures of protozoa enriched from wastewater consumed EcO157 preferentially as compared to native aerobic bacteria, but failed to eliminate them when EcO157 cells declined to 104/mL. We isolated three protozoa from mixed cultures and typed them by 18S sequencing as Vorticella microstoma, Platyophyra sp. and Colpoda aspera. While all three protozoa internalized EcO157, only Platyophyra and Colpoda acted as predators. Similar to mixed cultures, these protozoa failed to eliminate EcO157 from PBS containing no other supplemental nutrients or prey. However, spiking PBS with cereal grass medium as nutrients induced predation of EcO157 by Platyophyra sp. after 3 days or enhanced predation by Colpoda after 5 days. Therefore, attempts to enrich protozoa to decrease EcO157 from dairy lagoons, may correspond to an increase in protozoa similar to Vorticella and possibly facilitate transport of bacterial pathogens to food crops grown in proximity. PMID:21187934
Ravva, Subbarao V; Sarreal, Chester Z; Mandrell, Robert E
Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157), an agent of life threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome, resides in ruminants and is released in feces at numbers as high as 10 million cells/gram. EcO157 could survive in manure for as long as 21 months, but we observed a 90% decrease in cells of an outbreak strain of EcO157 within half a day in wastewater from dairy lagoons. Although chemical, environmental and biological factors may be responsible for this decrease, we observed an 11-fold increase in native protozoa when wastewater was re-inoculated with 2×10(7) cells of EcO157/mL. These protozoa engulfed the green fluorescent protein labeled EcO157 within 2 hours after inoculation, but expelled vacuoles filled with live EcO157 cells within 3 days into surrounding wastewater, whereas other protozoa retained the EcO157-filled vacuoles for 7 days. EcO157 was not detected by confocal microscopy either inside or outside protozoa after 7 days. Mixed cultures of protozoa enriched from wastewater consumed EcO157 preferentially as compared to native aerobic bacteria, but failed to eliminate them when EcO157 cells declined to 10(4)/mL. We isolated three protozoa from mixed cultures and typed them by 18S sequencing as Vorticella microstoma, Platyophyra sp. and Colpoda aspera. While all three protozoa internalized EcO157, only Platyophyra and Colpoda acted as predators. Similar to mixed cultures, these protozoa failed to eliminate EcO157 from PBS containing no other supplemental nutrients or prey. However, spiking PBS with cereal grass medium as nutrients induced predation of EcO157 by Platyophyra sp. after 3 days or enhanced predation by Colpoda after 5 days. Therefore, attempts to enrich protozoa to decrease EcO157 from dairy lagoons, may correspond to an increase in protozoa similar to Vorticella and possibly facilitate transport of bacterial pathogens to food crops grown in proximity.
Mohammed Hamzah, Aseel; Mohammed Hussein, Aseel; Mahmoud Khalef, Jenan
The isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains from 22 out of 174 fecal samples from petting zoo animals representing twenty-two different species (camel, lion, goats, zebra, bear, baboon monkey, Siberian monkey, deer, elk, llama, pony, horses, fox, kangaroo, wolf, porcupine, chickens, tiger, ostrich, hyena, dogs, and wildcats) were investigated. One petting Al-Zawraa zoological society of Baghdad was investigated for E. coli O157:H7 over a 16-month period that spanned two summer and two autumn seasons. Variation in the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7-positive petting zoo animals was observed, with animals being culture positive only in the summer months but not in the spring, autumn, or winter. E. coli O157:H7 isolates were distinguished by agglutination with E. coli O157:H7 latex reagent (Oxoid), identified among the isolates, which showed that multiple E. coli strains were isolated from one petting zoo animal, in which a single animal simultaneously shed multiple E. coli strains; E. coli O157:H7 was isolated only by selective enrichment culture of 2 g of petting zoo animal feces. In contrast, strains other than O157:H7 were cultured from feces of petting zoo animals without enrichment. PMID:24489514
Disassa, Nigatu; Sibhat, Berhanu; Muktar, Yimer; Belina, Dinaol
A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2014 to July 2015 to determine the prevalence and populations of E. coli as well as the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from raw milk. Biochemical and serological tests methods were used to confirm E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 and isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test using the agar disc diffusion method. Out of 380 raw milk samples examined, 129 (33.9%) and 11 (2.9%) were contaminated with E. coli and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. The highest prevalence was recorded in samples obtained from vendors (39.1%, 4.978 ± 0.180 log10/ml) compared with samples from farmers (28.1%, 3.93 ± 0.01 log10/ml) with significant differences (P = 0.02). The frequency of contamination was higher in the samples collected from milk that was stored and transported in plastic containers (39.4%) than in the containers made of stainless steel (23.0%) (P = 0.002). The antimicrobial susceptibility profile showed that E. coli O157:H7 were resistant to tetracycline (81.8%), streptomycin (81.8%), and kanamycin (63.6%). Milk samples were produced and handled under poor hygienic conditions, stored, and transported in inappropriate containers and under temperature abuse conditions leading to high health risk to the consumers. Additional studies would be needed to establish association between the occurrences of E. coli O157:H7 in raw milk and all the risk factors involved in and around Asosa town. PMID:28316862
Disassa, Nigatu; Sibhat, Berhanu; Mengistu, Shimelis; Muktar, Yimer; Belina, Dinaol
A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2014 to July 2015 to determine the prevalence and populations of E. coli as well as the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from raw milk. Biochemical and serological tests methods were used to confirm E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 and isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test using the agar disc diffusion method. Out of 380 raw milk samples examined, 129 (33.9%) and 11 (2.9%) were contaminated with E. coli and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. The highest prevalence was recorded in samples obtained from vendors (39.1%, 4.978 ± 0.180 log10/ml) compared with samples from farmers (28.1%, 3.93 ± 0.01 log10/ml) with significant differences (P = 0.02). The frequency of contamination was higher in the samples collected from milk that was stored and transported in plastic containers (39.4%) than in the containers made of stainless steel (23.0%) (P = 0.002). The antimicrobial susceptibility profile showed that E. coli O157:H7 were resistant to tetracycline (81.8%), streptomycin (81.8%), and kanamycin (63.6%). Milk samples were produced and handled under poor hygienic conditions, stored, and transported in inappropriate containers and under temperature abuse conditions leading to high health risk to the consumers. Additional studies would be needed to establish association between the occurrences of E. coli O157:H7 in raw milk and all the risk factors involved in and around Asosa town.
Ferens, Witold A.
Abstract This review surveys the literature on carriage and transmission of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 in the context of virulence factors and sampling/culture technique. EHEC of the O157:H7 serotype are worldwide zoonotic pathogens responsible for the majority of severe cases of human EHEC disease. EHEC O157:H7 strains are carried primarily by healthy cattle and other ruminants, but most of the bovine strains are not transmitted to people, and do not exhibit virulence factors associated with human disease. Prevalence of EHEC O157:H7 is probably underestimated. Carriage of EHEC O157:H7 by individual animals is typically short-lived, but pen and farm prevalence of specific isolates may extend for months or years and some carriers, designated as supershedders, may harbor high intestinal numbers of the pathogen for extended periods. The prevalence of EHEC O157:H7 in cattle peaks in the summer and is higher in postweaned calves and heifers than in younger and older animals. Virulent strains of EHEC O157:H7 are rarely harbored by pigs or chickens, but are found in turkeys. The bacteria rarely occur in wildlife with the exception of deer and are only sporadically carried by domestic animals and synanthropic rodents and birds. EHEC O157:H7 occur in amphibian, fish, and invertebrate carriers, and can colonize plant surfaces and tissues via attachment mechanisms different from those mediating intestinal attachment. Strains of EHEC O157:H7 exhibit high genetic variability but typically a small number of genetic types predominate in groups of cattle and a farm environment. Transmission to people occurs primarily via ingestion of inadequately processed contaminated food or water and less frequently through contact with manure, animals, or infected people. PMID:21117940
Eshamah, Hanan; Han, Inyee; Naas, Hesham; Acton, James; Dawson, Paul
This study determined the efficacy of actinidin and papain on reducing Listeria monocytogenes and three mixed strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations on beef. The average reduction of E. coli O157:H7 was greater than that of L. monocytogenes and higher concentrations of either protease yielded greater reduction in bacterial populations. For instance, actinidin at 700 mg/ml significantly (p≤0.05) reduced the population of L. monocytogenes by 1.49 log cfu/ml meat rinse after 3h at 25 & 35 °C, and by 1.45 log cfu/ml rinse after 24h at 5 °C, while the same actinidin concentration significantly reduced the populations of three mixed strains of E. coli O157:H7 by 1.81 log cfu/ml rinse after 3h at 25 & 35 °C, and 1.94 log cfu/ml rinse after 24h at 5 °C. These findings suggest that, in addition to improving the sensory attributes of beef, proteolytic enzymes can enhance meat safety when stored at suitable temperatures.
Kroj, Andrea; Schmidt, Herbert
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains are important foodborne pathogens that are often transmitted to humans by the ingestion of raw or undercooked meat of bovine origin. To investigate adaptation of this pathogen during persistence and growth in ground meat, we established an in vivo expression technology model to identify genes that are expressed during growth in this food matrix under elevated temperatures (42°C). To improve on the antibiotic-based selection method, we constructed the promoter trap vector pAK-1, containing a promoterless kanamycin resistance gene. A genomic library of E. coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 was constructed in pAK-1 and used for promoter selection in ground meat. The 20 in vivo expressed genes identified were associated with transport processes, metabolism, macromolecule synthesis, and stress response. For most of the identified genes, only hypothetical functions could be assigned. The results of our study provide the first insights into the complex response of E. coli O157:H7 to a ground meat environment under elevated temperatures and establish a suitable vector for promoter studies or selection of in vivo induced promoters in foods such as ground meat.
Noma, Seiji; Kajiyama, Daiki; Igura, Noriyuki; Shimoda, Mitsuya; Hayakawa, Isao
The tailing in pressure inactivation curve of clinically isolated Escherichia coli O157:H7 was investigated. A typical tailing was observed after the treatment period for 30min when 10(7) CFU/ml of the cell suspension was subjected to pressure treatment at 300MPa and 25 degrees Celsius. There was no effect on the tailing profiles by the addition of pressure-killed cells and released cellular components. When cells survived at a tail portion were re-propagated (tail-culture) and subjected to second pressure treatment, the cells of the tail-culture exhibited eminently higher barotolerance compared to those of the original-culture, suggesting that the presence of genetically pressure-resistant subpopulation was responsible for the tailing. The cytoplasmic membrane of the tail-culture cells had higher stability to a pressure treatment at 100MPa for 10min than that of the original-culture, which was evidenced by lower permeability to ethidium bromide. The addition of non-ionic surfactants including 0.5microl/ml polyoxyethylene p-t-octylphenyl ester (Triton X-100) and 0.53mg/ml lauric sugar ester dramatically reduced the level of tailing and made the inactivation curve linear.
Introduction: Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks of infections associated with the consumption of fresh produce have increased in recent years. Bacterial cell surface appendages such as curli and the spinach leaf structure topography influence pathogen attachment and subsequent survival on spinach ...
Beier, Ross C; Poole, Toni L; Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M; Anderson, Robin C; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Hernandez, Charles A; Bono, James L; Arthur, Terrance M; Nagaraja, T G; Crippen, Tawni L; Sheffield, Cynthia L; Nisbet, David J
The disinfectant and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of 344 Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains from cattle carcasses, feces, and hides and ground beef from the United States were determined. A low prevalence of antibiotic resistance was observed (14%). The highest prevalences of resistance were to sulfisoxazole (10.5%), tetracycline (9.9%), streptomycin (7%), and chloramphenicol (4.9%). Four strains were resistant to eight antibiotics (two strains from ground beef and one strain each from hide and preevisceration carcass swabs of cull cattle at harvest). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the E. coli O157:H7 strains revealed two major groups (designated 1 and 2) composed of 17 and 20 clusters, respectively. Clusters 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1G.1 were associated with multidrug-resistant strains. There was no observed correlation between disinfectant resistance and antibiotic resistance. Sixty-nine (20%) of the 344 strains were resistant to chlorhexidine or benzalkonium chloride or the MICs of benzyldimethyldodecylammonium chloride were elevated. Inducible resistance was observed at elevated concentrations of antibiotics (1.4%) and disinfectants (6.1%). The highest rate of disinfectant inducible resistance was to OdoBan, quaternary ammonium chlorides, and the surface disinfectants F25, FS512, and MG, which are used in dairies, restaurants, and food processing plants. High MICs (1,024 to 4,096 m g/ml) of acetic, lactic, and citric acids were found. The decreasing order of acid potency based on molar MICs (MICs(molar)) was acetic, citric, and lactic acid. The correlation of the concentration of dissociated organic acids and MICs(molar) strongly suggests that the observed inhibition of E. coli O157:H7 was primarily due to dissociated forms of the acids.
Dulo, Fitsum; Feleke, Aklilu; Szonyi, Barbara; Fries, Reinhard; Baumann, Maximilian P. O.; Grace, Delia
Toxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) are an important cause of gastroenteritis in developing countries. In Ethiopia, gastroenteritis due to food-borne disease is a leading cause of death. Yet, there is no surveillance for E. coli O157 and little is known about the carriage of this pathogen in Ethiopia’s livestock. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and levels of antimicrobial resistance of E. coli O157 in goat meat, feces, and environmental samples collected at a large abattoir in the Somali region of Ethiopia. The samples were enriched in modified tryptone broth containing novobiocin, and plated onto sorbitol MacConkey agar. Isolates were confirmed using indole test and latex agglutination. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using the disk diffusion method. A total of 235 samples, including 93 goat carcass swabs, 93 cecal contents, 14 water, 20 hand, and 15 knife swabs were collected. Overall, six (2.5%) samples were contaminated with E. coli O157 of which two (2.1%) were isolated from cecal contents, three (3.2%) from carcass swabs, and one (7.1%) from water. All isolates were resistant to at least two of the 18 antimicrobials tested. Two isolates (33.3%) were resistant to more than five antimicrobials. Abattoir facilities and slaughter techniques were conducive to carcass contamination. This study highlights how poor hygiene and slaughter practice can result in contaminated meat, which is especially risky in Ethiopia because of the common practice of eating raw meat. We detect multi-resistance to drugs not used in goats, suggesting that drugs used to treat human infections may be the originators of antimicrobial resistance in livestock in this ecosystem. The isolation of multidrug-resistant E. coli O157 from goats from a remote pastoralist system highlights the need for global action on regulating and monitoring antimicrobial use in both human and animal populations. PMID:26561414
Methods based on sequence data analysis facilitate the tracking of disease outbreaks, allow relationships between strains to be reconstructed and virulence factors to be identified. However, these methods are used postfactum after an outbreak has happened. Here, we show that support vector machine a...
Beier, Ross C; Franz, Eelco; Bono, James L; Mandrell, Robert E; Fratamico, Pina M; Callaway, Todd R; Andrews, Kathleen; Poole, Toni L; Crippen, Tawni L; Sheffield, Cynthia L; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J
The disinfectant and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 138 non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains (STECs) from food animals and humans were determined. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was moderate (39.1% of strains) in response to 15 antimicrobial agents. Animal strains had a lower AMR prevalence (35.6%) than did human strains (43.9%) but a higher prevalence of the resistance profile GEN-KAN-TET. A decreasing prevalence of AMR was found among animal strains from serogroups O45 > O145 > O121 > O111 > O26 > O103 and among human strains from serogroups O145 > O103 > O26 > O111 > O121 > O45. One animal strain from serogroups O121 and O145 and one human strain from serogroup O26 had extensive drug resistance. A high prevalence of AMR in animal O45 and O121 strains and no resistance or a low prevalence of resistance in human strains from these serogroups suggests a source other than food animals for human exposure to these strains. Among the 24 disinfectants evaluated, all strains were susceptible to triclosan. Animal strains had a higher prevalence of resistance to chlorhexidine than did human strains. Both animal and human strains had a similar low prevalence of low-level benzalkonium chloride resistance, and animal and human strains had similar susceptibility profiles for most other disinfectants. Benzyldimethylammonium chlorides and C10AC were the primary active components in disinfectants DC&R and P-128, respectively, against non-O157 STECs. A disinfectant FS512 MIC ≥ 8 μg/ml was more prevalent among animal O121 strains (61.5%) than among human O121 strains (25%), which may also suggest a source of human exposure to STEC O121 other than food animals. Bacterial inhibition was not dependent solely on pH but was correlated with the presence of dissociated organic acid species and some undissociated acids.
Maal-Bared, Rasha; Bartlett, Karen H; Bowie, William R; Hall, Eric R
This study examined the distribution of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli and E. coli O157 isolated from water, sediment and biofilms in an intensive agricultural watershed (Elk Creek, British Columbia) between 2005 and 2007. It also examined physical and chemical water parameters associated with antibiotic resistance. Broth microdilution techniques were used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for E. coli (n=214) and E. coli O157 (n=27) recovered isolates for ampicillin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin and tetracycline. Both E. coli and E. coli O157 isolates showed highest frequency of resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin, streptomycin and nalidixic acid; respectively. For E. coli, the highest frequency of resistance was observed at the most agriculturally-impacted site, while the lowest frequency of resistance was found at the headwaters. Sediment and river rock biofilms were the most likely to be associated with resistant E. coli, while water was the least likely. While seasonality (wet versus dry) had no relationship with resistance frequency, length of biofilm colonization of the substratum in the aquatic environment only affected resistance frequency to nalidixic acid and tetracycline. Multivariate logistic regressions showed that water depth, nutrient concentrations, temperature, dissolved oxygen and salinity had statistically significant associations with frequency of E. coli resistance to nalidixic acid, streptomycin, ampicillin and tetracycline. The results indicate that antibiotic resistant E. coli and E. coli O157 were prevalent in an agricultural stream. Since E. coli is adept at horizontal gene transfer and prevalent in biofilms and sediment, where ample opportunities for genetic exchange with potential environmental pathogens present themselves, resistant isolates may present a risk to ecosystem, wildlife and public health.
This study evaluated the effects of free chlorine (FC) concentration, contact time, and organic load on the inactivation of Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC in suspension. Four strains each of Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, or non-O157 STEC cells were inoculated separately or as a multi-...
Monday, Steven R; Weagant, Stephen D; Feng, Peter
The gfp gene was manipulated from a commercially available, high copy vector into endogenous plasmids of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Shigella sonnei to yield stable GFP strains that required neither high copy number for visualization nor antibiotics for stable maintenance of the phenotype. The GFP phenotype of these strains remained stable after repeated passages in media and conditions that enhance plasmid instability and loss from bacterial cells. These results demonstrate the utility of the endogenous plasmids in selectively marking bacteria without altering host cellular function or biochemical properties.
Wang, Rong; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Bono, James L
Bacterial biofilms are one of the potential sources of cross-contamination in food processing environments. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 and O111:H8 are important foodborne pathogens capable of forming biofilms, and the coexistence of these two STEC serotypes has been detected in various food samples and in multiple commercial meat plants throughout the United States. Here, we investigated how the coexistence of these two STEC serotypes and their sequence of colonization could affect bacterial growth competition and mixed biofilm development. Our data showed that E. coli O157:H7 strains were able to maintain a higher cell percentage in mixed biofilms with the co-inoculated O111:H8 companion strains, even though the results of planktonic growth competition were strain dependent. On solid surfaces with preexisting biofilms, the sequence of colonization played a critical role in determining the composition of the mixed biofilms because early stage precolonization significantly affected the competition results between the E. coli O157:H7 and O111:H8 strains. The precolonizer of either serotype was able to outgrow the other serotype in both planktonic and biofilm phases. The competitive interactions among the various STEC serotypes would determine the composition and structure of the mixed biofilms as well as their potential risks to food safety and public health, which is largely influenced by the dominant strains in the mixtures. Thus, the analysis of mixed biofilms under various conditions would be of importance to determine the nature of mixed biofilms composed of multiple microorganisms and to help implement the most effective disinfection operations accordingly.
Farahmandfar, Maryam; Moori-Bakhtiari, Naghmeh; Gooraninezhad, Saad; Zarei, Mehdi
Background and Objectives: The most common serotype of enterohaemorrhagic Esherichia coli group or Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli is O157:H7. Domestic and wild ruminants are regarded as the main natural reservoirs. O157:H7 serotype is the major cause of gastrointestinal infections in developed countries. In this study was conducted to survey on the toxigenic E. coli O157: H7 strains in milk of industrial dairy farms. Materials and Methods: A total number of 150 milk samples were collected from dairy industry in Khuzestan, over a period of 6 months and were evaluated by cultivation in selective media (CT-SMAC) and multiplex PCR. Results: Two isolates were identified as E. coli using biochemical tests, none of them were toxigenic E. coli O157:H7 as determined by multiplex PCR. Using direct PCR on milk samples, 45 samples contained at least one gene of the studied genes in this investigation (rfb, flic, stx1, stx2). With direct PCR, 2 milk samples were positive for toxigenic O157:H7. Conclusion: E. coli O157:H7 is present in this region and so the necessity for strict compliance of health standards is recommended. This is the first study on O157: H7 E. coli milk contamination in Khuzestan province. Based on these results, direct PCR is more accurate than indirect PCR. PMID:28149486
Carter, Michelle Qiu; Louie, Jacqueline W; Huynh, Steven; Parker, Craig T
We previously reported significantly different acid resistance between curli variants derived from the same Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain, although the curli fimbriae were not associated with this phenotypic divergence. Here we investigated the underlying molecular mechanism by examining the genes encoding the common transcriptional regulators of curli biogenesis and acid resistance. rpoS null mutations were detected in all curli-expressing variants of the 2006 spinach-associated outbreak strains, whereas a wild-type rpoS was present in all curli-deficient variants. Consequently curli-expressing variants were much more sensitive to various stress challenges than curli-deficient variants. This loss of general stress fitness appeared solely to be the result of rpoS mutation since the stress resistances could be restored in curli-expressing variants by a functional rpoS. Comparative transcriptomic analyses between the curli variants revealed a large number of differentially expressed genes, characterized by the enhanced expression of metabolic genes in curli-expressing variants, but a marked decrease in transcription of genes related to stress resistances. Unlike the curli-expressing variants of the 1993 US hamburger-associated outbreak strains (Applied Environmental Microbiology 78: 7706-7719), all curli-expressing variants of the 2006 spinach-associated outbreak strains carry a functional rcsB gene, suggesting an alternative mechanism governing intra-strain phenotypic divergence in E. coli O157:H7.
Jay-Russell, M T; Bates, A; Harden, L; Miller, W G; Mandrell, R E
We report the isolation of Campylobacter species from the same population of feral swine that was investigated in San Benito County, California, during the 2006 spinach-related Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak. This is the first survey of Campylobacter in a free-ranging feral swine population in the United States. Campylobacter species were cultured from buccal and rectal-anal swabs, colonic faeces and tonsils using a combination of selective enrichment and antibiotic-free membrane filtration methods. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS, Bruker Daltonics, Inc., Billerica, MA, USA) was used to identify species followed by confirmatory multiplex PCR or 16S rRNA sequencing. Genetic relatedness of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains was determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and porA allele sequencing. Altogether, 12 (40%) of 30 feral swine gastrointestinal and oral cavity specimens were positive, and six species were isolated: Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter fetus, Campylobacter hyointestinalsis, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter lanienae and Campylobacter sputorum. Campylobacter jejuni subtypes were closely related to MLST sequence type 21 (ST-21) and had identical porA sequences. Campylobacter coli subtypes were unrelated to isolates in the pubMLST/porA database. This feral swine population lived in close association with a 'grassfed' beef cattle herd adjacent to spinach and other leafy green row crop fields. The findings underscore the importance of protecting raw vegetable crops from faecal contamination by wild or feral animals. The study also illustrates a potential risk of Campylobacter exposure for hunters during handling and processing of wild swine meat.
Escherichia coli O157 (O157) is frequently isolated from bison retail meat, a fact that is important given that bison meat has also been implicated in an O157-multistate outbreak. In addition, O157 has also been isolated from bison feces at slaughter and on farms. Cattle are well documented as O15...
Maltby, Rosalie; Leatham-Jensen, Mary P; Gibson, Terri; Cohen, Paul S; Conway, Tyrrell
Escherichia coli is a single species consisting of many biotypes, some of which are commensal colonizers of mammals and others that cause disease. Humans are colonized on average with five commensal biotypes, and it is widely thought that the commensals serve as a barrier to infection by pathogens. Previous studies showed that a combination of three pre-colonized commensal E. coli strains prevents colonization of E. coli O157:H7 in a mouse model (Leatham, et al., 2010, Infect Immun 77: 2876-7886). The commensal biotypes included E. coli HS, which is known to successfully colonize humans at high doses with no adverse effects, and E. coli Nissle 1917, a human commensal strain that is used in Europe as a preventative of traveler's diarrhea. We hypothesized that commensal biotypes could exert colonization resistance by consuming nutrients needed by E. coli O157:H7 to colonize, thus preventing this first step in infection. Here we report that to colonize streptomycin-treated mice E. coli HS consumes six of the twelve sugars tested and E. coli Nissle 1917 uses a complementary yet divergent set of seven sugars to colonize, thus establishing a nutritional basis for the ability of E. coli HS and Nissle 1917 to occupy distinct niches in the mouse intestine. Together these two commensals use the five sugars previously determined to be most important for colonization of E. coli EDL933, an O157:H7 strain. As predicted, the two commensals prevented E. coli EDL933 colonization. The results support a model in which invading pathogenic E. coli must compete with the gut microbiota to obtain the nutrients needed to colonize and establish infection; accordingly, the outcome of the challenge is determined by the aggregate capacity of the native microbiota to consume the nutrients required by the pathogen.
Tanaro, José D; Piaggio, Mercedes C; Galli, Lucía; Gasparovic, Alejandra M C; Procura, Francisco; Molina, Demián A; Vitón, Mauro; Zolezzi, Gisela; Rivas, Marta
Between April 2009 and July 2011, 311 surface water samples in 48 cattle feedlots distributed in an area of about 67,000 km(2) were analyzed to examine the environmental dissemination of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Samples were taken inside and outside the pens, exposed and not exposed to runoff from corrals, near the feedlots. Two types of samples were defined: (1) exposed surface waters (ESW; n=251), downstream from cattle pens; and (2) nonexposed surface waters (NESW; n=60), upstream from cattle pens. By multiplex PCR, 177 (70.5%) ESW samples were rfb(O157)-positive, and 62 (24.7%) E. coli O157, and 32 (12.7%) Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O157:H7 strains were isolated. In the NESW samples, 36 (60.0%) were rfb(O157)- positive, and 9 (15.0%) E. coli O157, and 6 (10.0%) STEC O157:H7 strains were isolated. These results showed that the environmental surface waters exposed to liquid discharges from intensive livestock operations tended to be contaminated with more STEC O157:H7 than NESW. However, no significant difference was found. This fact emphasizes the relevance of other horizontal routes of transmission, as the persistence of E. coli in the environment resulting from extensive livestock farming. By XbaI-PFGE, some patterns identified are included in the Argentine Database of E. coli O157, corresponding to strains isolated from hemolytic uremic syndrome and diarrhea cases, food, and animals, such as AREXHX01.0022, second prevalent pattern in Argentina, representing 5.5% of the total database. In the study area, characterized by the abundance of waterways, pathogens contained in feedlot runoff could reach recreational waters and also contaminate produce through irrigation, increasing the potential dissemination of STEC O157:H7 and the risk of human infections. The control of runoff systems from intensive livestock is necessary, but other alternatives should be explored to solve the problem of the presence of E. coli O157 in the aquatic rural environment.
Wang, G; Zhao, T; Doyle, M P
Dairy cattle have been identified as a principal reservoir of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The fate of this pathogen in bovine feces at 5, 22, and 37 degrees C was determined. Two levels of inocula (10(3) and 10(5) CFU/g) of a mixture of five nalidixic acid-resistant E. coli O157:H7 strains were used. E. coli O157:H7 survived at 37 degrees C for 42 and 49 days with low and high inocula, respectively, and at 22 degrees C for 49 and 56 days with low and high inocula, respectively. Fecal samples at both temperatures had low moisture contents (about 10%) and water activities ( < 0.5) near the end of the study. E. coli O157:H7 at 5 degrees C survived for 63 to 70 days, with the moisture content (74%) of feces remaining high through the study. Chromosomal DNA fingerprinting of E. coli O157:H7 isolates surviving near the completion of the study revealed that the human isolate strain 932 was the only surviving strain at 22 or 37 degrees C. All five strains were isolated near the end of incubation from feces held at 5 degrees C. Isolates at each temperature were still capable of producing both verotoxin 1 and verotoxin 2. Results indicate that E. coli O157:H7 can survive in feces for a long period of time and retain its ability to produce verotoxins. Hence, bovine feces are a potential vehicle for transmitting E. coli O157:H7 to cattle, food, and the environment. Appropriate handling of bovine feces is important to control the spread of this pathogen. PMID:8779595
Perrin, Frédérique; Tenenhaus-Aziza, Fanny; Michel, Valérie; Miszczycha, Stéphane; Bel, Nadège; Sanaa, Moez
Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains may cause human infections ranging from simple diarrhea to Haemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS). The five main pathogenic serotypes of STEC (MPS-STEC) identified thus far in Europe are O157:H7, O26:H11, O103:H2, O111:H8, and O145:H28. Because STEC strains can survive or grow during cheese making, particularly in soft cheeses, a stochastic quantitative microbial risk assessment model was developed to assess the risk of HUS associated with the five MPS-STEC in raw milk soft cheeses. A baseline scenario represents a theoretical worst-case scenario where no intervention was considered throughout the farm-to-fork continuum. The risk level assessed with this baseline scenario is the risk-based level. The impact of seven preharvest scenarios (vaccines, probiotic, milk farm sorting) on the risk-based level was expressed in terms of risk reduction. Impact of the preharvest intervention ranges from 76% to 98% of risk reduction with highest values predicted with scenarios combining a decrease of the number of cow shedding STEC and of the STEC concentration in feces. The impact of postharvest interventions on the risk-based level was also tested by applying five microbiological criteria (MC) at the end of ripening. The five MCs differ in terms of sample size, the number of samples that may yield a value larger than the microbiological limit, and the analysis methods. The risk reduction predicted varies from 25% to 96% by applying MCs without preharvest interventions and from 1% to 96% with combination of pre- and postharvest interventions.
Ahmed, Ashraf M; Shimamoto, Tadashi
Foodborne pathogens are a major threat to food safety, especially in developing countries where hygiene and sanitation facilities are often poor. Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Shigella spp. are among the major causes of outbreaks of foodborne diseases. This large-scale study investigated the prevalence of these foodborne pathogens in meat (beef and chicken) and dairy products collected from street vendors, butchers, retail markets and slaughterhouses in Egypt. A total of 1600 food samples (800 meat products and 800 dairy products) were analyzed using culture and PCR based methods. S. enterica, E. coli O157:H7 and Shigella spp. were detected in 69 (4.3%), 54 (3.4%) and 27 (1.7%) samples respectively. S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. enterica serovar Enteritidis, S. enterica serovar Infantis and non-typable serovars were detected in 28 (1.8%), 22 (1.4%), 16 (1.0%) and 3 (0.1%) samples respectively. All E. coli O157:H7 isolates were positive for stx1 and/or stx2 virulence toxin genes. Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei and Shigella dysenteriae were detected in 18 (1.2%), 7 (0.4%) and 2 (0.1%) samples respectively. The incidences of S. enterica and Shigella spp. were higher in meat products (53; 6.6% and 16; 2.0%, respectively) than in dairy products (16; 2.0% and 11; 1.4%, respectively), while, E. coli O157:H7 was higher in dairy products (29; 3.6%) than in meat products (25; 3.1%). The incidence of foodborne pathogens in meat and dairy products was determined in a large-scale survey in Africa.
Dean-Nystrom, Evelyn A; Gansheroff, Lisa J; Mills, Melody; Moon, Harley W; O'Brien, Alison D
Cattle are important reservoirs of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 that cause disease in humans. Both dairy and beef cattle are asymptomatically and sporadically infected with EHEC. Our long-term goal is to develop an effective vaccine to prevent cattle from becoming infected and transmitting EHEC O157:H7 to humans. We used passive immunization of neonatal piglets (as a surrogate model) to determine if antibodies against EHEC O157 adhesin (intimin(O157)) inhibit EHEC colonization. Pregnant swine (dams) with serum anti-intimin titers of < or =100 were vaccinated twice with purified intimin(O157) or sham-vaccinated with sterile buffer. Intimin(O157)-specific antibody titers in colostrum and serum of dams were increased after parenteral vaccination with intimin(O157). Neonatal piglets were allowed to suckle vaccinated or sham-vaccinated dams for up to 8 h before they were inoculated with 10(6) CFU of a Shiga toxin-negative (for humane reasons) strain of EHEC O157:H7. Piglets were necropsied at 2 to 10 days after inoculation, and intestinal samples were collected for determination of bacteriological counts and histopathological analysis. Piglets that ingested colostrum containing intimin(O157)-specific antibodies from vaccinated dams, but not those nursing sham-vaccinated dams, were protected from EHEC O157:H7 colonization and intestinal damage. These results establish intimin(O157) as a viable candidate for an EHEC O157:H7 antitransmission vaccine.
Lefebvre, Brigitte; Diarra, Moussa S; Giguère, Karine; Roy, Gabriel; Michaud, Sophie; Malouin, François
In a longitudinal study (165 days), we investigated the effect of growth-promoting agents (monensin and trenbolone acetate-estradiol) and an antibiotic (oxytetracycline) on the incidence in feedlot steers of Escherichia coli O157, including antibiotic-resistant and hypermutable isolates. Eighty steers in 16 pens were treated with eight combinations of promoters, and each treatment was duplicated. Fecal samples were collected at nine different sampling times for detection of E. coli O157. Overall, 50 E. coli O157 isolates were detected in treated animals, and none were found in untreated animals. Compared with untreated controls, there was a significant association between the utilization of growth-promoting agents or antibiotics and the shedding of E. coli O157 at day 137 (P = 0.03), when a prevalence peak was observed and 50% of the isolates were detected. Multiplex PCR assays were conducted for some virulence genes. PCR results indicated that all except one isolate possessed at least the Shiga toxin gene stx2. MICs for 12 antibiotics were determined, and eight oxytetracycline-resistant E. coli O157 strains were identified. Antibiotic-resistant strains were considered a distinct subpopulation of E. coli O157 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing. Seven of these antibiotic-resistant strains were isolated early in the study (on or before day 25), and among them two were also hypermutable as determined by rifampin mutation frequencies. The proportion of hypermutable strains among E. coli O157 isolates remained relatively constant throughout the study period. These results indicate that the use of growth-promoting agents and antibiotics in beef production may increase the risk of environmental contamination by E. coli O157.
Johnson, R. P.; Holtslander, B.; Mazzocco, A.; Roche, S.; Thomas, J. L.; Pollari, F.
Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) strains are the cause of food-borne and waterborne illnesses around the world. Traditionally, surveillance of the human population as well as the environment has focused on the detection of E. coli O157:H7. Recently, increasing recognition of non-O157 VTEC strains as human pathogens and the German O104:H4 food-borne outbreak have illustrated the importance of considering the broader group of VTEC organisms from a public health perspective. This study presents the results of a comparison of three methods for the detection of VTEC in surface water, highlighting the efficacy of a direct VT immunoblotting method without broth enrichment for detection and isolation of O157 and non-O157 VTEC strains. The direct immunoblot method eliminates the need for an enrichment step or the use of immunomagnetic separation. This method was developed after 4 years of detecting low frequencies (1%) of E. coli O157:H7 in surface water in a Canadian watershed, situated within one of the FoodNet Canada integrated surveillance sites. By the direct immunoblot method, VTEC prevalence estimates ranged from 11 to 35% for this watershed, and E. coli O157:H7 prevalence increased to 4% (due to improved method sensitivity). This direct testing method provides an efficient means to enhance our understanding of the prevalence and types of VTEC in the environment. This study employed a rapid evidence assessment (REA) approach to frame the watershed findings with watershed E. coli O157:H7 prevalences reported in the literature since 1990 and the knowledge gap with respect to VTEC detection in surface waters. PMID:24487525
Nam, H M; Murinda, S E; Nguyen, L T; Oliver, S P
Use of universal pre-enrichment broth (UPB) as a primary enrichment medium for detection of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes from dairy farm environmental samples was evaluated. There were no differences in bacterial growth between UPB and selective primary enrichment broths for each pathogen inoculated individually or in combination at 10(1) and 10(2) colony forming units/mL. In addition, no differences were observed when UPB and selective primary enrichment broths were compared for detection efficiency of pathogens in artificially contaminated raw milk and fecal samples. Listeria enrichment broth (LEB) was compared with UPB to support growth of L. monocytogenes from naturally contaminated environmental samples. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from seven of 30 samples enriched in UPB and six of 30 samples enriched in LEB. Dairy farm environmental samples were examined for recovery of the three pathogens using UPB. Subsequent isolation was achieved using selective secondary enrichment of each pathogen. Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and E. coli O157:H7 were isolated in 13.4% (30 of 224), 8.9% (20 of 224), and 2.2% (five of 224) of samples, respectively. Isolation rates of the three pathogens were somewhat higher than in previous reports. Overall, UPB supported growth of test pathogens to detectable levels within 24 h. Our results demonstrate that UPB has potential for routine use in isolation of foodborne pathogens from diverse environmental samples.
Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Torres-Vitela, M Del Refugio; Villarruel-López, Angélica; Castro-Rosas, Javier
Data about the behavior of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (non-O157 STEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) on seeds and alfalfa sprouts are not available. The behavior of STEC, EIEC, ETEC, and EPEC was determined during germination and sprouting of alfalfa seeds at 20 ± 2°C and 30 ± 2°C and on alfalfa sprouts at 3 ± 2°C. When alfalfa seeds were inoculated with STEC, EIEC, ETEC, or EPEC strains, all these diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs) grew during germination and sprouting of seeds, reaching counts of approximately 5 and 6 log CFU/g after 1 day at 20 ± 2°C and 30 ± 2°C, respectively. However, when the sprouts were inoculated after 1 day of seed germination and stored at 20 ± 2°C or 30 ± 2°C, no growth was observed for any DEP during sprouting at 20 ± 2°C or 30 ± 2°C for 9 days. Refrigeration reduced significantly (P < 0.0.5) the number of viable DEPs on sprouts after 20 days in storage; nevertheless, these decreases have no practical significance for the safety of the sprouts.
Kim, Gwang-Hee; Breidt, Frederick; Fratamico, Pina; Oh, Deog-Hwan
The objective of this study was to compare the acid resistance (AR) of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains belonging to serogroups O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, and O145 with O157:H7 STEC isolated from various sources in 400 mM acetic acid solutions (AAS) at pH 3.2 and 30 °C for 25 min with or without glutamic acid. Furthermore, the molecular subgrouping of the STEC strains was analyzed with the repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) method using a DiversiLab(TM) system. Results for a total of 52 strains ranged from 0.31 to 5.45 log reduction CFU/mL in the absence of glutamic acid and 0.02 to 0.33 CFU/mL in the presence of glutamic acid except for B447 (O26:H11), B452 (O45:H2), and B466 (O104:H4) strains. Strains belonging to serogroups O111, O121, and O103 showed higher AR than serotype O157:H7 strains in the absence of glutamic acid. All STEC O157:H7 strains exhibited a comparable DNA pattern with more than 95% similarity in the rep-PCR results, as did the strains belonging to serogroups O111 and O121. Surprisingly, the DNA pattern of B458 (O103:H2) was similar to that of O157:H7 strains with 82% similarity, and strain B458 strain showed the highest AR to AAS among the O103 strains with 0.44 log reduction CFU/mL without glutamic acid. In conclusion, STEC serotypes isolated from different sources exhibited diverse AR and genetic subtyping patterns. Results indicated that some non-O157 STEC strains may have higher AR than STEC O157:H7 strains under specific acidic conditions, and the addition of glutamic acid provided enhanced protection against exposure to AAS.
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC O157) is a major cause of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) worldwide, although the annual reported incidence of EHEC O157 associated HUS in various countries ranges forty-fold (0.01 to 0.41 cases per 100,000 population). Cattle are ...
Mei, Gui-Ying; Tang, Joshua; Bach, Susan; Kostrzynska, Magdalena
Disease outbreaks of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157:H7 and non-O157 serotypes associated with leafy green vegetables are becoming a growing concern. A better understanding of the behavior of VTEC, particularly non-O157 serotypes, on lettuce under stress conditions is necessary for designing more effective control strategies. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can be used as a sanitizer to reduce the microbial load in leafy green vegetables, particularly in fresh produce destined for the organic market. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that H2O2 treatment of contaminated lettuce affects in the same manner transcription of stress-associated and virulence genes in VTEC strains representing O157 and non-O157 serotypes. Six VTEC isolates representing serotypes O26:H11, O103:H2, O104:H4, O111:NM, O145:NM, and O157:H7 were included in this study. The results indicate that 50 mM H2O2 caused a population reduction of 2.4–2.8 log10 (compared to non-treated control samples) in all six VTEC strains present on romaine lettuce. Following the treatment, the transcription of genes related to oxidative stress (oxyR and sodA), general stress (uspA and rpoS), starvation (phoA), acid stress (gadA, gadB, and gadW), and virulence (stx1A, stx2A, and fliC) were dramatically downregulated in all six VTEC serotypes (P ≤ 0.05) compared to not treated control samples. Therefore, VTEC O157:H7 and non-O157 serotypes on lettuce showed similar survival rates and gene transcription profiles in response to 50 mM H2O2 treatment. Thus, the results derived from this study provide a basic understanding of the influence of H2O2 treatment on the survival and virulence of VTEC O157:H7 and non-O157 serotypes on lettuce. PMID:28377761
Sheldon, Jessica R.; Yim, Mi-Sung; Saliba, Jessica H.; Chung, Wai-Hong; Wong, Kwok-Yin
The protein RpoS is responsible for mediating cell survival during the stationary phase by conferring cell resistance to various stressors and has been linked to biofilm formation. In this study, the role of the rpoS gene in Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilm formation and survival in water was investigated. Confocal scanning laser microscopy of biofilms established on coverslips revealed a nutrient-dependent role of rpoS in biofilm formation, where the biofilm biomass volume of the rpoS mutant was 2.4- to 7.5-fold the size of its rpoS+ wild-type counterpart in minimal growth medium. The enhanced biofilm formation of the rpoS mutant did not, however, translate to increased survival in sterile double-distilled water (ddH2O), filter-sterilized lake water, or unfiltered lake water. The rpoS mutant had an overall reduction of 3.10 and 5.30 log10 in sterile ddH2O and filter-sterilized lake water, respectively, while only minor reductions of 0.53 and 0.61 log10 in viable counts were observed for the wild-type form in the two media over a 13-day period, respectively. However, the survival rates of the detached biofilm-derived rpoS+ and rpoS mutant cells were comparable. Under the competitive stress conditions of unfiltered lake water, the advantage conferred by the presence of rpoS was lost, and both the wild-type and knockout forms displayed similar declines in viable counts. These results suggest that rpoS does have an influence on both biofilm formation and survival of E. coli O157:H7 and that the advantage conferred by rpoS is contingent on the environmental conditions. PMID:23001657
Effects of environmental parameters on the dual-species biofilms formed by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Ralstonia insidiosa, a strong biofilm producer isolated from a fresh-cut produce processing plant.
Liu, Nancy T; Nou, Xiangwu; Bauchan, Gary R; Murphy, Charles; Lefcourt, Alan M; Shelton, Daniel R; Lo, Y Martin
Biofilm-forming bacteria resident to food processing facilities are a food safety concern due to the potential of biofilms to harbor foodborne bacterial pathogens. When cultured together, Ralstonia insidiosa, a strong biofilm former frequently isolated from produce processing environments, has been shown to promote the incorporation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into dual-species biofilms. In this study, interactions between E. coli O157:H7 and R. insidiosa were examined under different incubating conditions. Under static culture conditions, the incorporation of E. coli O157:H7 into biofilms with R. insidiosa was not significantly affected by either low incubating temperature (10°C) or by limited nutrient availability. Greater enhancement of E. coli O157:H7 incorporation in dual-species biofilms was observed by using a continuous culture system with limited nutrient availability. Under the continuous culture conditions used in this study, E coli O157:H7 cells showed a strong tendency of colocalizing with R. insidiosa on a glass surface at the early stage of biofilm formation. As the biofilms matured, E coli O157:H7 cells were mostly found at the bottom layer of the dual-species biofilms, suggesting an effective protection by R. insidiosa in the mature biofilms.
González Garcia, E A
strains cause haemorrhagic colitis (HC), haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura (TP) in humans. They synthetize shigatoxins (verotoxins) which are potent cytotoxic substances, adherence factors and enterohaemolysin. EHEC are responsible for many outbreaks of bloody diarrhoea caused by contaminated foods: beef, milk, fruits, juice, water, etc. The most important serogroups among EHEC are O26, O111 and O157, being O157:H7 the most relevant serotype in foodborne outbreaks. The normal intestinal microflora of cattle was found to be the most relevant reservoir of EHEC strains.
Miszczycha, Stéphane D; Ganet, Sarah; Duniere, Lysiane; Rozand, Christine; Loukiadis, Estelle; Thevenot-Sergentet, Delphine
Raw milk, raw milk cheeses, and raw ground meat have been implicated in Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks. Developing methods to detect these bacteria in raw milk and meat products is a major challenge for food safety. The aim of our study was to develop a real-time PCR assay to detect E. coli O157:H7 in raw milk cheeses and raw ground meat. Well-known primers targeting a mutation at position +93 of the uidA gene in E. coli O157:H7 were chosen, and a specific TaqMan-minor groove binder probe was designed. This probe targets another mutation, at position +191 of the uidA gene in E. coli O157:H7. The first step in the study was to evaluate the specificity of this probe with 156 different O157:H7/NM strains and 48 non-O157:H7/NM strains of E. coli. The sensitivity of the method was evaluated by pre- and postinoculation of cheeses and meat enrichments with different E. coli O157:H7 strains. All the E. coli O157:H7 isolates tested were positive, and none of the other bacteria were detected. Our results indicate that this method is sensitive enough to detect 10(2) E. coli O157:H7 isolates per ml of cheese or meat enrichment broth (24 h at 41.5° C) and is more sensitive than the International Organization for Standardization reference method. We can conclude that this new real-time PCR protocol is a useful tool for rapid, specific, and sensitive detection of E. coli O157:H7 in raw milk and raw ground meat products.
Sproston, Emma L.; Macrae, M.; Ogden, Iain D.; Wilson, Michael J.; Strachan, Norval J. C.
Field and laboratory studies were performed to determine whether slugs could act as novel vectors for pathogen (e.g., Escherichia coli O157) transfer from animal feces to salad vegetables. Escherichia coli O157 was isolated from 0.21% of field slugs from an Aberdeenshire sheep farm. These isolates carried the verocytotoxin genes (vt1 and vt2) and the attaching and effacing gene (eae), suggesting that they are potentially pathogenic to humans. Strain typing using multilocus variable number tandem repeats analysis showed that slug and sheep isolates were indistinguishable. Laboratory experiments using an E. coli mutant resistant to nalidixic acid showed that the ubiquitous slug species Deroceras reticulatum could carry viable E. coli on its external surface for up to 14 days. Slugs that had been fed E. coli shed viable bacteria in their feces with numbers showing a short but statistically significant linear log decline. Further, it was found that E. coli persisted for up to 3 weeks in excreted slug feces, and hence, we conclude that slugs have the potential to act as novel vectors of E. coli O157. PMID:16391036
Variability in growth/no growth boundaries of 188 different Escherichia coli strains reveals that approximately 75% have a higher growth probability under low pH conditions than E. coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 43888.
Haberbeck, L U; Oliveira, R C; Vivijs, B; Wenseleers, T; Aertsen, A; Michiels, C; Geeraerd, A H
This study investigated the variation in growth/no growth boundaries of 188 Escherichia coli strains. Experiments were conducted in Luria-Bertani media under 36 combinations of lactic acid (LA) (0 and 25 mM), pH (3.8, 3.9, 4.0, 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3 for 0 mM LA and 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7 and 4.8 for 25 mM LA) and temperature (20, 25 and 30 °C). After 3 days of incubation, growth was monitored through optical density measurements. For each strain, a so-called purposeful selection approach was used to fit a logistic regression model that adequately predicted the likelihood for growth. Further, to assess the growth/no growth variability for all the strains at once, a generalized linear mixed model was fitted to the data. Strain was fitted as a fixed factor and replicate as a random blocking factor. E. coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 43888 was used as reference strain allowing a comparison with the other strains. Out of the 188 strains tested, 140 strains (∼75%) presented a significantly higher probability of growth under low pH conditions than the O157:H7 strain ATCC 43888, whereas 20 strains (∼11%) showed a significantly lower probability of growth under high pH conditions.
Radu, Son; Mutalib, Shahilah Abdul; Rusul, Gulam; Ahmad, Zainori; Morigaki, Tadaaki; Asai, Norio; Kim, Yung Bu; Okuda, Jun; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki
Twelve strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were isolated from 9 of 25 beef samples purchased from retail stores in Malaysia. These strains produced Shiga toxin 2 with or without Shiga toxin 1 and had the eae gene and a 60-MDa plasmid. The antibiograms and the profiles of the arbitrarily primed PCR of the strains were diverse, suggesting that the strains may have originated from diverse sources. PMID:9501454
Gomes, P.A.D.P.; Bentancor, L.V.; Paccez, J.D.; Sbrogio-Almeida, M.E.; Palermo, M.S.; Ferreira, R.C.C.; Ferreira, L.C.S.
No effective vaccine or immunotherapy is presently available for patients with the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) induced by Shiga-like toxin (Stx) produced by enterohaemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains, such as those belonging to the O157:H7 serotype. In this work we evaluated the performance of Bacillus subtilis strains, a harmless spore former gram-positive bacterium species, as a vaccine vehicle for the expression of Stx2B subunit (Stx2B). A recombinant B. subtilis vaccine strain expressing Stx2B under the control of a stress inducible promoter was delivered to BALB/c mice via oral, nasal or subcutaneous routes using both vegetative cells and spores. Mice immunized with vegetative cells by the oral route developed low but specific anti-Stx2B serum IgG and fecal IgA responses while mice immunized with recombinant spores developed anti-Stx2B responses only after administration via the parenteral route. Nonetheless, serum anti-Stx2B antibodies raised in mice immunized with the recombinant B. subtilis strain did not inhibit the toxic effects of the native toxin, both under in vitro and in vivo conditions, suggesting that either the quantity or the quality of the induced immune response did not support an effective neutralization of Stx2 produced by EHEC strains. PMID:24031368
Jenke, Christian; Harmsen, Dag; Weniger, Thomas; Rothgänger, Jörg; Hyytiä-Trees, Eija; Bielaszewska, Martina; Karch, Helge
Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is a subtyping technique for characterizing human pathogenic bacteria such as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157. We determined the phylogeny of 202 epidemiologically unrelated EHEC O157:H7/H– clinical isolates through 8 MLVA loci obtained in Germany during 1987–2008. Biodiversity in the loci ranged from 0.66 to 0.90. Four of 8 loci showed null alleles and a frequency <44.1%. These loci were distributed among 48.5% of all strains. Overall, 141 MLVA profiles were identified. Phylogenetic analysis assigned 67.3% of the strains to 19 MLVA clusters. Specific MLVA profiles with an evolutionary persistence were identified, particularly within sorbitol-fermenting EHEC O157:H–.These pathogens belonged to the same MLVA cluster. Our findings indicate successful persistence of this clone. PMID:20350374
Guyon, R; Dorey, F; Malas, J P; Leclercq, A
To identify hazard points and critical points during beef slaughtering, which is a necessary first step toward developing a hazard analysis and critical control point system to control meat contamination by Escherichia coli O157:H7, samples (n = 192) from surfaces, work tops, worker's hands, and beef carcasses were collected from a slaughterhouse in Calvados, France. Five strains of E. coli O157:H7 were isolated from a footbridge and a worker's apron at the preevisceration post and from a worker's hand at the defatting post. Three isolates carried stx2c, eae, and EHEC-hlyA genes and showed similar molecular types by random amplified polymorphic DNA, polymerase chain reaction IS3, and XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Thus, this study has shown that preevisceration and defatting post and associated worker's materials are critical points for carcasses contamination by E. coli O157:H7 during beef slaughtering.
Lukásová, J; Abraham, B; Cupáková, S
The study was carried out to investigate the incidence of Escherichia coli O157 in raw materials, foodstuffs and the agricultural environment. Of a total of 987 samples examined, 22 strains (2.2%) were identified as E. coli O157 and 10 of them as E. coli O157:H7. Cefixime-Tellurite MacConkey sorbitol agar (CT-SMAC) agar and Biosynth culture medium (BCM) E. coli O157:7 medium were used for the isolation. The virulence factors (stx1, stx2, eae, and ehxA genes) were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Most strains were isolated from the mechanically deboned poultry meat (nine), minced meat (six) and raw milk (four). One strain was isolated from beef carcass and two strains from waste water. No strains were were found in mass for sausages, refreshment salads, swabs of pork and poultry carcasses and faeces of cattle and pigs. Ten strains from the 22 identified proved to be positive for all factors of virulence. They were isolated from minced meat (four), raw milk (four), waste water (one) and swab from beef carcass (one). Sensitivity to the antimicrobial drugs ampicillin (AMS), ampicillin-sublactam (SAM), tetracycline (TET), ofloxacine (OFL), cefuroxime (CRX), chloramphenicol (CPM), gentamicine (GEN), colistin (COL), cephalozine (CLZ), cefoxitin (CXT), aztreonam (AZT), and sulphamethoxazole + trimethoprim (COT) was tested using the standard dilution technique and disc diffusion test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) characteristics (MIC(50), MIC(90), MIC range) and inhibitory zone diameter were determined for each strain. As determined by MICs, the resistance to tested antibiotics in E. coli O157 isolates was found to AMS (90.9%), CLZ (81.8%), CRX (63.6%), CXT (72.7%), CPM (72.7%), TET (81.8%), SAM (59.1%), COT (9.1%), COL (63.61%), AZT (9%) and GEN (4.5%). The similar results were obtained using the disc diffusion method. The differences were found relating to SAM, CXT, CMO and TET. Resistance against one or more antibiotics was found in 95.4% of E
Curli are adhesive fimbriae of Enterobactericaeae and are involved in surface attachment, cell aggregation and biofilm formation. We previously reported that natural curli variants of E. coli O157:H7 (EcO157) displayed distinct acid resistance; however, this difference was not linked to the curli fi...
Stromberg, Loreen R; Stromberg, Zachary R; Banisadr, Afsheen; Graves, Steven W; Moxley, Rodney A; Mukundan, Harshini
Certain Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are virulent human pathogens that are most often acquired through contaminated food. The United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service has declared several serogroups of STEC as adulterants in non-intact raw beef products. Hence, sensitive and specific tests for the detection of these STEC are a necessity for implementation in food safety programs. E. coli serogroups are identified by their respective O-antigen moiety on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) macromolecule. We propose that the development of O-antigen-specific immunological assays can facilitate simple and rapid discriminatory detection of STEC in beef. However, the resources (antigens and antibodies) required for such development are not readily available. To overcome this, we extracted and characterized LPS and O-antigen from six STEC strains. Using hot phenol extraction, we isolated the LPS component from each strain and purified it using a series of steps to eliminate proteins, nucleic acids, and lipid A antigens. Antigens and crude LPS extracts were characterized using gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and modified Western blotting with commercially available antibodies, thus assessing the serogroup specificity and sensitivity of available ligands as well. The results indicate that, while many commercially available antibodies bind LPS, their activities and specificities are highly variable, and often not as specific as those required for serogroup discrimination. This variability could be minimized by the production of antibodies specific for the O-antigen. Additionally, the antigens generated from this study provide a source of characterized LPS and O-antigen standards for six serogroups of STEC.
Erickson, Marilyn C; Webb, Cathy C; Díaz-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Davey, Lindsey E; Payton, Alison S; Flitcroft, Ian D; Phatak, Sharad C; Doyle, Michael P
Both growth chamber and field studies were conducted to investigate the potential for Escherichia coli O157:H7 to be internalized into leafy green tissue when seeds were germinated in contaminated soil. Internalized E. coli O157:H7 was detected by enrichment in both spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings when seeds were germinated within the growth chamber in autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil, respectively, contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 at 2.0 and 3.8 log CFU/g, respectively. Internalized E. coli O157:H7 populations could be detected by enumeration within leafy green tissues either by increasing the pathogen levels in the soil or by autoclaving the soil. Attempts to maximize the exposure of seed to E. coli O157:H7 by increasing the mobility of the microbe either through soil with a higher moisture content or through directly soaking the seeds in an E. coli O157:H7 inoculum did not increase the degree of internalization. Based on responses obtained in growth chamber studies, internalization of E. coli O157:H7 surrogates (natural isolates of Shiga toxin-negative E. coli O157:H7 or recombinant [stx- and eae-negative] outbreak strains of E. coli O157:H7) occurred to a slightly lesser degree than did internalization of the virulent outbreak strains of E. coli O157:H7. The apparent lack of internalized E. coli O157:H7 when spinach and lettuce were germinated from seed in contaminated soil (ca. 3 to 5 log CFU/g) in the field and the limited occurrence of surface contamination on the seedlings suggest that competition from indigenous soil bacteria and environmental stresses were greater in the field than in the growth chamber. On the rare occasion that soil contamination with E. coli O157:H7 exceeded 5 log CFU/g in a commercial field, this pathogen probably would not be internalized into germinating leafy greens and/or would not still be present at the time of harvest.
Determination of the genetic similarities of fingerprints from Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolated from different sources in the North West Province, South Africa using ISR, BOXAIR and REP-PCR analysis.
Ateba, Collins Njie; Mbewe, Moses
The aim of this study was to determine the genetic relationships of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolated from pigs, cattle, pork, beef, humans and water samples using REP, ISR and BOXAIR PCR analysis. A total of 94 isolates were subjected to the REP-PCR analysis while 95 were screened for ISR and BOXAIR PCR fingerprints. The band sizes for amplicons from the ISR-PCR analysis ranged from 0.173kb to 0.878kb. However, a large proportion of the isolates had four bands ranging from 0.447kb to 0.878kb. Cluster analysis of the BOXAIR PCR profiles based on banding patterns revealed seven main clusters. It was identified in the clusters III, IV and VII in the BOXAIR PCR that 17.9%, 16.8% and 18.9%, of E. coli O157:H7 isolates respectively were present from all the animal species, meat and water samples. REP-PCR analysis produced 9 different patterns with bands ranging from 0 to 12 per isolate. The band sizes ranged from 200bp to 8000bp. Nine major clusters (I-IX) were identified. From the three different species sampled cluster eight was the largest and a mixed cluster with 23.4% (22/94) of the E. coli O157:H7 isolates. These indicate that food products obtained from supermarkets in the study area are contaminated with E. coli O157:H7.
Dallman, Timothy J.; Byrne, Lisa; Ashton, Philip M.; Cowley, Lauren A.; Perry, Neil T.; Adak, Goutam; Petrovska, Liljana; Ellis, Richard J.; Elson, Richard; Underwood, Anthony; Green, Jonathan; Hanage, William P.; Jenkins, Claire; Grant, Kathie; Wain, John
Background. National surveillance of gastrointestinal pathogens, such as Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157), is key to rapidly identifying linked cases in the distributed food network to facilitate public health interventions. In this study, we used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) as a tool to inform national surveillance of STEC O157 in terms of identifying linked cases and clusters and guiding epidemiological investigation. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed 334 isolates randomly sampled from 1002 strains of STEC O157 received by the Gastrointestinal Bacteria Reference Unit at Public Health England, Colindale, in 2012. The genetic distance between each isolate, as estimated by WGS, was calculated and phylogenetic methods were used to place strains in an evolutionary context. Results. Estimates of linked clusters representing STEC O157 outbreaks in England and Wales increased by 2-fold when WGS was used instead of traditional typing techniques. The previously unidentified clusters were often widely geographically distributed and small in size. Phylogenetic analysis facilitated identification of temporally distinct cases sharing common exposures and delineating those that shared epidemiological and temporal links. Comparison with multi locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) showed that although MLVA is as sensitive as WGS, WGS provides a more timely resolution to outbreak clustering. Conclusions. WGS has come of age as a molecular typing tool to inform national surveillance of STEC O157; it can be used in real time to provide the highest strain-level resolution for outbreak investigation. WGS allows linked cases to be identified with unprecedented specificity and sensitivity that will facilitate targeted and appropriate public health investigations. PMID:25888672
Cattle are the main reservoirs for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains. E. coli O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 are among the STEC serogroups that cause severe foodborne illness and have been declared as adulterants by the United States Department of Agriculture, Food Sa...
Reliable detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in test-and-hold programs requires the detection of as little as 1 CFU E. coli O157:H7 in a sample of beef trim or ground beef that is up to 375 grams in size. We present a reliable protocol for generating a control inoculum for verification testing at...
Díaz, Sandra; Vidal, Dolors; Herrera-León, Silvia; Sánchez, Sergio
We investigated the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in free-ranging red deer in south-central Spain, to assess their potential as reservoir hosts of sorbitol-fermenting (SF) E. coli O157:H7 strains, which are emerging causes of hemolytic uremic syndrome in Europe. Fecal samples from 264 hunter-harvested Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus) were collected in 25 different game estates and examined for E. coli O157:H7 by culture and PCR. E. coli O157:H7 was detected and isolated in 4 of the 25 game estates sampled (16%) and the isolates obtained (four in total) were further phenogenotypically characterized. One of them was biochemically typical of E. coli O157:H7, that is, neither fermented sorbitol nor exhibited β-glucuronidase (GUD) activity, and carried genes encoding Shiga toxins (Stx) 1 and 2, the intimin subtype γ1, the enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)-hemolysin, and the ter gene cluster. The rest of the isolates (three of four) fermented sorbitol, exhibited GUD activity after 18-24 h incubation, and carried genes encoding the intimin subtype γ1 and the EHEC-hemolysin, although no Stx-encoding genes were detected. All these atypical isolates carried the sfp gene cluster, lacked the ter gene cluster, and were unable to grow on cefixime tellurite sorbitol MacConkey agar, which are typical features of SF E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from patients. In total, SF, GUD-positive, Stx-negative E. coli O157:H7 strains were isolated in 3 of the 25 game estates sampled (12%), with an overall sample-level prevalence of 1.1% (3/264). Our findings indicate that free-ranging red deer may be one of the possible reservoir hosts of Stx-negative derivatives of SF E. coli O157:H7.
Elhadidy, Mohamed; Elkhatib, Walid F; Piérard, Denis; De Reu, Koen; Heyndrickx, Marc
This study addresses the potential association of Escherichia coli O157:H7 genetic clusters with severe clinical manifestations in humans. The genotypes used in this model-based clustering had been delineated on the basis of lineage-specific polymorphism assay, Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophage insertion site assay, clade typing, tir (A255T) polymorphism, variant analysis of Shiga toxin 2 gene, and antiterminator Q genes. Based on this model, the distribution of genotypes among tested strains suggested the presence of 6 main genetic clusters of E. coli O157:H7 strains. Clusters 1 and 3 were observed to be more frequent among E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome, respectively. Consequently, our findings supported the growing evidence of the existence of distinct genotypes of E. coli O157:H7 that differ in their virulence levels to human.
Fullerton, Marjorie; Khatiwada, Janak; Johnson, Jacqueline U.; Davis, Shurrita
Abstract The use of medicinal plants as natural antimicrobial agents is gaining popularity. Sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is widely used for the treatment of diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of sorrel on Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates from food, veterinary, and clinical samples. Phenolics of the calyces were extracted from 10 g of ground, freeze-dried samples using 100 mL of 80% aqueous methanol. Concentrations of 10%, 5%, and 2.5% methanol extract of sorrel were investigated for its antimicrobial activity. Inhibition zones were indicated by a lack of microbial growth due to inhibitory concentrations of sorrel diffused into semisolid culture medium beneath the sorrel-impregnated disk. The results of this experiment showed that the most potent sorrel concentration was 10%, then 5%, and finally 2.5%. The overall mean zone of inhibition for the sorrel extract was 12.66 mm for 10%, 10.75 mm for 5%, and 8.9 mm for 2.5%. The highest inhibition zones (11.16 mm) were observed in veterinary samples, and the lowest (10.57 mm) in the food samples. There were significant (P<.05) differences among mean zones of inhibition found in the food, veterinary, and clinical sources. Based on the source of samples and concentration of sorrel extract, the lowest mean inhibition was 7.00±0.04 mm from clinical samples, and the highest was 15.37±0.61 mm from a food source. These findings indicated that sorrel was effective at all levels in inhibiting E. coli O157:H7; thus it possesses antimicrobial activity and hold great promise as an antimicrobial agent. PMID:21548802
Fullerton, Marjorie; Khatiwada, Janak; Johnson, Jacqueline U; Davis, Shurrita; Williams, Leonard L
The use of medicinal plants as natural antimicrobial agents is gaining popularity. Sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is widely used for the treatment of diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of sorrel on Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates from food, veterinary, and clinical samples. Phenolics of the calyces were extracted from 10 g of ground, freeze-dried samples using 100 mL of 80% aqueous methanol. Concentrations of 10%, 5%, and 2.5% methanol extract of sorrel were investigated for its antimicrobial activity. Inhibition zones were indicated by a lack of microbial growth due to inhibitory concentrations of sorrel diffused into semisolid culture medium beneath the sorrel-impregnated disk. The results of this experiment showed that the most potent sorrel concentration was 10%, then 5%, and finally 2.5%. The overall mean zone of inhibition for the sorrel extract was 12.66 mm for 10%, 10.75 mm for 5%, and 8.9 mm for 2.5%. The highest inhibition zones (11.16 mm) were observed in veterinary samples, and the lowest (10.57 mm) in the food samples. There were significant (P<.05) differences among mean zones of inhibition found in the food, veterinary, and clinical sources. Based on the source of samples and concentration of sorrel extract, the lowest mean inhibition was 7.00±0.04 mm from clinical samples, and the highest was 15.37±0.61 mm from a food source. These findings indicated that sorrel was effective at all levels in inhibiting E. coli O157:H7; thus it possesses antimicrobial activity and hold great promise as an antimicrobial agent.
Cobbold, R N; Davis, M A; Rice, D H; Szymanski, M; Tarr, P I; Besser, T E; Hancock, D D
A survey for Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli in raw milk and beef was conducted within a defined geographic region of the United States. Prevalence rates based on detection of Shiga toxin gene (stx) were 36% for retail beef, 23% for beef carcasses, and 21% for raw milk samples, which were significantly higher than were Shiga toxigenic E. coli isolation rates of 7.5, 5.8, and 3.2%, respectively. Seasonal prevalence differences were significant for stx positivity among ground beef and milk samples. Distribution of stx subtypes among isolates varied according to sample type, with stx1 predominating in milk, stx2 on carcasses, and the combination of both stx1 and stx2 in beef. Ancillary virulence markers eae and ehx were evident in 23 and 15% of isolates, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated associations between food isolates and sympatric bovine fecal, and human clinical isolates. These data demonstrate that non-O157 Shiga toxigenic E. coli is present in the food chain in the Pacific Northwest, and its risk to health warrants critical assessment.
Bielaszewska, M.; Janda, J.; Bláhová, K.; Minaríková, H.; Jíková, E.; Karmali, M. A.; Laubová, J.; Sikulová, J.; Preston, M. A.; Khakhria, R.; Karch, H.; Klazarová, H.; Nyc, O.
A cluster of four cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome in children occurred in Northern Bohemia, Czech Republic, between 15 June and 7 July, 1995. All the cases had significantly elevated titres of anti-O157 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antibodies as detected by the indirect haemagglutination assay. All but one of them had drunk unpasteurized goat's milk from the same farm within the week before the disease. Evidence of E. coli O157 infection was subsequently found in 5 of 15 regular drinkers of the farm's raw goat's milk; four of them were asymptomatic, 1 had mild diarrhoea at the end of June. Verocytotoxin 2-producing E. coli O157:H7 strains of phage type 2 and of identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were isolated from 1 of 2 farm goats and from 1 of the asymptomatic goat's milk drinkers. The frequency of anti-O157 LPS antibodies found among regular drinkers of the farm's raw goat's milk (33%; 5 of 15) was significantly higher than that found in control population (0%; none of 45) (P = 0.0005; Fisher's exact test). Our findings indicate that goats may be a reservoir of E. coli O157:H7 and a source of the infection for humans; raw goat's milk may serve as a vehicle of the pathogen transmission. PMID:9440432
Voravuthikunchai, Supayang; Lortheeranuwat, Amornrat; Jeeju, Wanpen; Sririrak, Trechada; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Supawita, Thanomjit
The stimulating effect of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics on the production of verocytotoxin (VT) by enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 has been claimed. The purpose of this study was to find an alternative, but bioactive medicine for the treatment of this organism. Fifty-eight preparations of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 38 medicinal plant species commonly used in Thailand to cure gastrointestinal infections were tested for their antibacterial activity against different strains of Escherichia coli, including 6 strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Escherichia coli O26:H11, Escherichia coli O111:NM, Escherichia coli O22; 5 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from bovine; and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Inhibition of growth was primarily tested by the paper disc agar diffusion method. Among the medicinal plants tested, only 8 species (21.05%) exhibited antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Acacia catechu, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Psidium guajava, Punica granatum, Quercus infectoria, Uncaria gambir, and Walsura robusta demonstrated antibacterial activity with inhibition zones ranging from 7 to 17 mm. The greatest inhibition zone against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (RIMD 05091083) was produced from the ethanolic extract of Quercus infectoria. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by the agar microdilution method and agar dilution method in petri dishes with millipore filter. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Quercus infectoria and aqueous extract of Punica granatum were highly effective against Escherichia coli O157:H7 with the best MIC and MBC values of 0.09, 0.78, and 0.19, 0.39 mg/ml, respectively. These plant species may provide alternative but bioactive medicines for the treatment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection.
Ibekwe, Abasiofiok M; Ma, Jincai; Crowley, David E; Yang, Ching-Hong; Johnson, Alexis M; Petrossian, Tanya C; Lum, Pek Y
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 have been implicated in many foodborne illnesses caused by the consumption of contaminated fresh produce. However, data on their persistence in soils are limited due to the complexity in datasets generated from different environmental variables and bacterial taxa. There is a continuing need to distinguish the various environmental variables and different bacterial groups to understand the relationships among these factors and the pathogen survival. Using an approach called Topological Data Analysis (TDA); we reconstructed the relationship structure of E. coli O157 and non-O157 survival in 32 soils (16 organic and 16 conventionally managed soils) from California (CA) and Arizona (AZ) with a multi-resolution output. In our study, we took a community approach based on total soil microbiome to study community level survival and examining the network of the community as a whole and the relationship between its topology and biological processes. TDA produces a geometric representation of complex data sets. Network analysis showed that Shiga toxin negative strain E. coli O157:H7 4554 survived significantly longer in comparison to E. coli O157:H7 EDL 933, while the survival time of E. coli O157:NM was comparable to that of E. coli O157:H7 EDL 933 in all of the tested soils. Two non-O157 strains, E. coli O26:H11 and E. coli O103:H2 survived much longer than E. coli O91:H21 and the three strains of E. coli O157. We show that there are complex interactions between E. coli strain survival, microbial community structures, and soil parameters.
King, Thea; Lucchini, Sacha; Hinton, Jay C D; Gobius, Kari
The food-borne pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 is commonly exposed to organic acid in processed and preserved foods, allowing adaptation and the development of tolerance to pH levels otherwise lethal. Since little is known about the molecular basis of adaptation of E. coli to organic acids, we studied K-12 MG1655 and O157:H7 Sakai during exposure to acetic, lactic, and hydrochloric acid at pH 5.5. This is the first analysis of the pH-dependent transcriptomic response of stationary-phase E. coli. Thirty-four genes and three intergenic regions were upregulated by both strains during exposure to all acids. This universal acid response included genes involved in oxidative, envelope, and cold stress resistance and iron and manganese uptake, as well as 10 genes of unknown function. Acidulant- and strain-specific responses were also revealed. The acidulant-specific response reflects differences in the modes of microbial inactivation, even between weak organic acids. The two strains exhibited similar responses to lactic and hydrochloric acid, while the response to acetic acid was distinct. Acidulant-dependent differences between the strains involved induction of genes involved in the heat shock response, osmoregulation, inorganic ion and nucleotide transport and metabolism, translation, and energy production. E. coli O157:H7-specific acid-inducible genes were identified, suggesting that the enterohemorrhagic E. coli strain possesses additional molecular mechanisms contributing to acid resistance that are absent in K-12. While E. coli K-12 was most resistant to lactic and hydrochloric acid, O157:H7 may have a greater ability to survive in more complex acidic environments, such as those encountered in the host and during food processing.
Stephan, R.; Untermann, F.
Fourteen verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from stool samples of 14 different asymptomatic human carriers were further characterized. A variety of serotypes was found, but none of the strains belonged to serogroup O157. Only one isolate carried most of the virulence genes that are associated with increased pathogenicity. PMID:10203524
Paddock, Zac D; Renter, David G; Cull, Charley A; Shi, Xiarong; Bai, Jianfa; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G
Escherichia coli O26 is second only to O157 in causing foodborne, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) infections. Our objectives were to determine fecal prevalence and characteristics of E. coli O26 in commercial feedlot cattle (17,148) that were enrolled in a study to evaluate an E. coli O157:H7 siderophore receptor and porin (SRP(®)) vaccine (VAC) and a direct-fed microbial (DFM; 10(6) colony-forming units [CFU]/animal/day of Lactobacillus acidophilus and 10(9) CFU/animal/day of Propionibacterium freudenreichii). Cattle were randomly allocated to 40 pens within 10 complete blocks; pens were randomly assigned to control, VAC, DFM, or VAC+DFM treatments. Vaccine was administered on days 0 and 21, and DFM was fed throughout the study. Pen-floor fecal samples (30/pen) were collected weekly for the last 4 study weeks. Samples were enriched in E. coli broth and subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) designed to detect O26-specific wzx gene and four major virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae, and ehxA) and to a culture-based procedure that involved immunomagnetic separation and plating on MacConkey agar. Ten presumptive E. coli colonies were randomly picked, pooled, and tested by the multiplex PCR. Pooled colonies positive for O26 serogroup were streaked on sorbose MacConkey agar, and 10 randomly picked colonies per sample were tested individually by the multiplex PCR. The overall prevalence of E. coli O26 was higher (p<0.001) by the culture-based method compared to the PCR assay (22.7 versus 10.5%). The interventions (VAC and or DFM) had no impact on fecal shedding of O26. Serogroup O26 was recovered in pure culture from 23.9% (260 of 1089) of O26 PCR-positive pooled colonies. Only 7 of the 260 isolates were positive for the stx gene and 90.1% of the isolates possessed an eaeβ gene that codes for intimin subtype β, but not the bfpA gene, which codes for bundle-forming pilus. Therefore, the majority of the O26 recovered from feedlot cattle feces was
Ngwa, G A; Schop, R; Weir, S; León-Velarde, C G; Odumeru, J A
The performances of three chromogenic agars were evaluated for the recovery of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from spiked dechlorinated tap, ground and surface water, and treated drinking water samples. The chromogenic agars: ChromAgar O157 (CHROM), Rainbow Agar O157 (RB) and HiCrome EC O157 (HC) were compared to cefixime-tellurite Sorbitol MacConkey (CT-SMAC), commonly used for the isolation of E. coli O157:H7. Confirmation of suspect E. coli O157:H7 colonies were performed by colony real-time PCR (C-RTi-PCR) based on the presence of Shiga-toxin genes (stx1 and stx2). Recovery of inoculated E. coli O157:H7 from dechlorinated tap water indicated that RB and CHROM agars demonstrated improved recovery when compared to HC or CT-SMAC. There was a significant drop in recovery on all agars tested after 120h (day 5). Twenty dechlorinated tap and/or treated drinking water samples were inoculated with a pure culture of E. coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43894), and a mixed culture of E. coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43894), E. coli strain K-12, and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 063589). After a 48-hour holding time, the recovery using CHROM (99%) and HC (12%) from samples contaminated with the pure culture were found to be significantly different (p<0.05). Recovery results using CHROM (39%) and CT-SMAC (32%) from samples contaminated with the mixed culture after a 48-hour holding time were not significantly different (p>0.05). Analysis by C-RTi-PCR of forty five environmental water samples (surface, sewage, and final effluents) which were negative for E. coli O157:H7 showed an incidence of false suspect positive colonies of 38% (CHROM), 53% (RB), 58% (HC), and 91% (CT-SMAC). Further analysis of eight of the environmental samples inoculated with E. coli (ATCC 43894) showed 100% recovery when utilizing CHROM, 50% when using RB and 40% when using HC. In addition, the C-RTi-PCR positive confirmation rate was 100% for CHROM and HC and 65% for RB. CHROM demonstrated improved recovery of E. coli O157:H7 over RB
Hessain, Ashgan M.; Al-Arfaj, Abdullah A.; Zakri, Adel M.; El-Jakee, Jakeen K.; Al-Zogibi, Onizan G.; Hemeg, Hassan A.; Ibrahim, Ihab M.
Raw meat can harbor pathogenic bacteria, potentially harmful to humans such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 causing diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HS). Therefore, the current study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence and the molecular detection characterization of E. coli serotype O157:H7 recovered from raw meat and meat products collected from Saudi Arabia. During the period of 25th January 2013 to 25th March 2014, 370 meat samples were collected from abattoirs and markets located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia “200 raw meat samples and 170 meat products”. Bacteriological analysis of the meat samples and serotyping of the isolated E. coli revealed the isolation of 11 (2.97%) strains of E. coli O157:H7. Isolation of E. coli O157:H7 in raw beef, chicken and mutton were 2%, 2.5%, and 2.5%, respectively, however, there was no occurrence in raw turkey. The incidences of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef, beef burgers, beef sausage, ground chicken and chicken burgers were 5%, 10%, 0.0%, 5% and 0.0%, respectively. The multiplex PCR assay revealed that 3 (27.27%) out of 11 E. coli O157:H7 isolates from raw beef, chicken and mutton had stx1, stx2, and eae while 5 (45.45%) E. coli O157:H7 isolates from ground beef, ground chicken, and raw beef had both stx1 and stx2. However, from beef burgers, only one E. coli O157:H7 isolate had stx1 while two were positive for hlyA gene. These results call for urgent attention toward appropriate controls and good hygienic practices in dealing with raw meat. PMID:26587000
Hessain, Ashgan M; Al-Arfaj, Abdullah A; Zakri, Adel M; El-Jakee, Jakeen K; Al-Zogibi, Onizan G; Hemeg, Hassan A; Ibrahim, Ihab M
Raw meat can harbor pathogenic bacteria, potentially harmful to humans such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 causing diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HS). Therefore, the current study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence and the molecular detection characterization of E. coli serotype O157:H7 recovered from raw meat and meat products collected from Saudi Arabia. During the period of 25th January 2013 to 25th March 2014, 370 meat samples were collected from abattoirs and markets located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia "200 raw meat samples and 170 meat products". Bacteriological analysis of the meat samples and serotyping of the isolated E. coli revealed the isolation of 11 (2.97%) strains of E. coli O157:H7. Isolation of E. coli O157:H7 in raw beef, chicken and mutton were 2%, 2.5%, and 2.5%, respectively, however, there was no occurrence in raw turkey. The incidences of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef, beef burgers, beef sausage, ground chicken and chicken burgers were 5%, 10%, 0.0%, 5% and 0.0%, respectively. The multiplex PCR assay revealed that 3 (27.27%) out of 11 E. coli O157:H7 isolates from raw beef, chicken and mutton had stx1, stx2, and eae while 5 (45.45%) E. coli O157:H7 isolates from ground beef, ground chicken, and raw beef had both stx1 and stx2. However, from beef burgers, only one E. coli O157:H7 isolate had stx1 while two were positive for hlyA gene. These results call for urgent attention toward appropriate controls and good hygienic practices in dealing with raw meat.
Weaned 3-to- 4-month-old calves were fasted 48 h, inoculated with 10**10 CFU of Shiga toxin-positive Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 strain 86-24 (STEC O157) or STEC O91:H21 strain B2F1 (STEC O91), Shiga toxin-negative E. coli O157:H7 strain 87-23 (Stx**- O157), or non-pathogenic control E. coli, ne...
Januszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Podsiadły, Edyta; Szych, Jolanta; Semkowicz-Chmielewska, Anna; Demkow, Urszula; Pierzchlewicz, Anna; Rastawicki, Waldemar
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157 and non-O157 are important emergance pathogens that can cause diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis with life-threatening complications, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). A few cases of EHEC infections are documented per year in Poland. Among them only one patient with EHEC O157 infection developed HUS. We characterized the first VTEC non-O157 strain isolated from child with HUS in Poland. The VTEC O111 strain produced Stx2 which was cytotoxic for Vero cell. Using DNA microarray analysis we have found set of virulence genes in VTEC O111 strain as: stx2A, stx2B, ehly, eae, tir tccP espA, espJ, cif nleA, nleB, lpfA, iha, efa1, cba. The strain was fenotypic resistant to streptomycin, tetracyclin and sulphonamides (strA, tetA, sul2 genes were detected).
Dean-Nystrom, Evelyn A; Stoffregen, William C; Bosworth, Brad T; Moon, Harley W; Pohlenz, Joachim F
Weaned 3- to 4-month-old calves were fasted for 48 h, inoculated with 10(10) CFU of Shiga toxin-positive Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 strain 86-24 (STEC O157) or STEC O91:H21 strain B2F1 (STEC O91), Shiga toxin-negative E. coli O157:H7 strain 87-23 (Stx(-) O157), or a nonpathogenic control E. coli strain, necropsied 4 days postinoculation, and examined bacteriologically and histologically. Some calves were treated with dexamethasone (DEX) for 5 days (3 days before, on the day of, and 1 day after inoculation). STEC O157 bacteria were recovered from feces, intestines, or gall bladders of 74% (40/55) of calves 4 days after they were inoculated with STEC O157. Colon and cecum were sites from which inoculum-type bacteria were most often recovered. Histologic lesions of attaching-and-effacing (A/E) O157(+) bacteria were observed in 69% (38/55) of the STEC O157-inoculated calves. Rectum, ileocecal valve, and distal colon were sites most likely to contain A/E O157(+) bacteria. Fecal and intestinal levels of STEC O157 bacteria were significantly higher and A/E O157(+) bacteria were more common in DEX-treated calves than in nontreated calves inoculated with STEC O157. Fecal STEC O157 levels were significantly higher than Stx(-) O157, STEC O91, or control E. coli; only STEC O157 cells were recovered from tissues. Identifying the rectum, ileocecal valve, and distal colon as early STEC O157 colonization sites and finding that DEX treatment enhances the susceptibility of weaned calves to STEC O157 colonization will facilitate the identification and evaluation of interventions aimed at reducing STEC O157 infection in cattle.
Marzocca, M A; Marucci, P L; Sica, M G; Alvarez, E E
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an emergent pathogen associated with food transmitted diseases. In 1982, Escherichia coli O157:H7 was for the first time identified as the cause of two hemorrhagic colitis outbreaks in the United States. It is now well known that most cases of hemolytic uremic syndrome are caused by these bacteria. The objective of this work was to detect the microorganism in fresh ground beef and hamburgers. From April 2003 to August 2004 samples were taken at sale points of our supermarket chain, totalling 37 and 43, respectively. These samples were processed using the EC selective enrichment broth containing novobiocin, then followed by the application of an immunocapture method (TECRA E. COLI O157 IMMUNOCAPTURE ECOICM 20), and later isolation in MacConkey sorbitol agar with cefixime and potassium tellurite, in a chromogenic medium. The suspected strains were genotypically characterized by PCR detection of the stx1, stx2, eaeA, and EHEC-hlyA genes, and by a colony blot hybridization assay. Serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and production of Stx by a specific cytotoxicity assay on Vero cells were also determined. E coli O157:H7 was isolated in only one fresh ground beef sample (2,7%), identified as gene eae (+)/ stx2/EHEC-hlyA.
Bacterial biofilms are one of the potential sources of cross-contamination in food processing environments. Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 and O111:H8 are important foodborne pathogens capable of forming biofilms, and the coexistence of these two STEC serotypes has been detec...
The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on inactivation, injury and recovery of Salmonella Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 cocktail inoculated in tomato juice (pH 4.1) and phosphate buffer saline (PBS. pH 7.2) at 8.0 log CFU/ml and treated at 350, 400, 450 MPa for 20 min at ...
The qseBC encoded quorum-sensing system (QS) regulates motility of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 in response to bacterial autoinducer-3 (AI-3) and mammalian stress hormones epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE). The qseC gene encodes a sensory kinase that post-autophosphorylati...
Ravva, Subbarao V.; Sarreal, Chester Z.; Mandrell, Robert E.
Surviving predation is a fitness trait of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) that provides ample time for the pathogen to be transported from reservoirs (e.g. dairies and feedlots) to farm produce grown in proximity. Ionophore dietary supplements that inhibit rumen protozoa may provide such a selective advantage for EcO157 to proliferate in lagoons as the pathogen is released along with the undigested supplement as manure washings. This study evaluated the fate of an outbreak strain of EcO157, protozoan and bacterial communities in wastewater treated with monensin. Although total protozoa and native bacteria were unaffected by monensin, the time for 90% decrease in EcO157 increased from 0.8 to 5.1 days. 18S and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of wastewater samples revealed that monensin eliminated almost all colpodean and oligohymenophorean ciliates, probably facilitating the extended survival of EcO157. Total protozoan numbers remained high in treated wastewater as monensin enriched 94% of protozoan sequences undetected with untreated wastewater. Monensin stimulated 30-fold increases in Cyrtohymena citrina, a spirotrichean ciliate, and also biflagellate bicosoecids and cercozoans. Sequences of gram-negative Proteobacteria increased from 1% to 46% with monensin, but gram-positive Firmicutes decreased from 93% to 46%. It is noteworthy that EcO157 numbers increased significantly (P<0.01) in Sonneborn medium containing monensin, probably due to monensin-inhibited growth of Vorticella microstoma (P<0.05), a ciliate isolated from wastewater. We conclude that dietary monensin inhibits ciliate protozoa that feed on EcO157. Feed supplements or other methods that enrich these protozoa in cattle manure could be a novel strategy to control the environmental dissemination of EcO157 from dairies to produce production environments. PMID:23349969
Ravva, Subbarao V; Sarreal, Chester Z; Mandrell, Robert E
Surviving predation is a fitness trait of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) that provides ample time for the pathogen to be transported from reservoirs (e.g. dairies and feedlots) to farm produce grown in proximity. Ionophore dietary supplements that inhibit rumen protozoa may provide such a selective advantage for EcO157 to proliferate in lagoons as the pathogen is released along with the undigested supplement as manure washings. This study evaluated the fate of an outbreak strain of EcO157, protozoan and bacterial communities in wastewater treated with monensin. Although total protozoa and native bacteria were unaffected by monensin, the time for 90% decrease in EcO157 increased from 0.8 to 5.1 days. 18S and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of wastewater samples revealed that monensin eliminated almost all colpodean and oligohymenophorean ciliates, probably facilitating the extended survival of EcO157. Total protozoan numbers remained high in treated wastewater as monensin enriched 94% of protozoan sequences undetected with untreated wastewater. Monensin stimulated 30-fold increases in Cyrtohymena citrina, a spirotrichean ciliate, and also biflagellate bicosoecids and cercozoans. Sequences of gram-negative Proteobacteria increased from 1% to 46% with monensin, but gram-positive Firmicutes decreased from 93% to 46%. It is noteworthy that EcO157 numbers increased significantly (P<0.01) in Sonneborn medium containing monensin, probably due to monensin-inhibited growth of Vorticella microstoma (P<0.05), a ciliate isolated from wastewater. We conclude that dietary monensin inhibits ciliate protozoa that feed on EcO157. Feed supplements or other methods that enrich these protozoa in cattle manure could be a novel strategy to control the environmental dissemination of EcO157 from dairies to produce production environments.
Sawamura, S; Tanaka, K; Koga, Y
Though O157 can cause a life-threatening diseases, the therapeutic protocol using antibiotics for the infection is still controversial. Main reasons for hesitating the uses of antibiotics for the infection is their possibility to enhance the release of verotoxins (VT). We have recently established the mouse model of O157 infection using germfree mice. Using this animal model of O157 infection, we examined therapeutic efficacy of antibiotics. Fosfomycin (FOM) and norfloxacin (NFLX) were selected for in vivo examination, because of their lower MIC under anaerobic condition (MIC:FOM = 0.78; NFLX = 0.10 microgram/ml) than those of the other antibiotics including kanamycin, doxycycline, minocycline, choramphenicol, cefaclor and ampicilin. When germfree BALB/c mice were orally infected with 1 x 10(5)CFU of O157 (clinically-isolated strain, TI001) at day 0, all mice died at 8 to 9 d after the infection. Oral treatment of the mice with FOM (500 mg/kg/d, twice a day) or NFLX (50 mg/kg/d, twice a day) everyday for 5 days starting at 3 hr after the infection significantly improved the survival rate from 0% to 83.3%, and 100%, respectively. VT could not be detected in the feces of the mice in either groups, suggesting that neither of these antibiotics enhanced the release of VT. Interestingly, when FOM treatment was started at 3, 6, 12 or 24 hr after the infection, the survival rate was 100%, 100%, 0% and 0%, respectively. Thus, in conclusion, FOM and NFLX are both useful as the therapeutic agents for O157 infection. However, the treatment should be started in the early phase after the infection.
We determined the role of native protozoa in controlling the populations of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) in wastewater from dairy lagoons as both protozoa and EcO157 are released into lagoons through manure washings. We monitored the fate of an outbreak strain of EcO157 in wastewater treated wi...
Cooley, Michael; Carychao, Diana; Crawford-Miksza, Leta; Jay, Michele T.; Myers, Carol; Rose, Christopher; Keys, Christine; Farrar, Jeff; Mandrell, Robert E.
Fresh vegetables have become associated with outbreaks caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157). Between 1995–2006, 22 produce outbreaks were documented in the United States, with nearly half traced to lettuce or spinach grown in California. Outbreaks between 2002 and 2006 induced investigations of possible sources of pre-harvest contamination on implicated farms in the Salinas and San Juan valleys of California, and a survey of the Salinas watershed. EcO157 was isolated at least once from 15 of 22 different watershed sites over a 19 month period. The incidence of EcO157 increased significantly when heavy rain caused an increased flow rate in the rivers. Approximately 1000 EcO157 isolates obtained from cultures of>100 individual samples were typed using Multi-Locus Variable-number-tandem-repeat Analysis (MLVA) to assist in identifying potential fate and transport of EcO157 in this region. A subset of these environmental isolates were typed by Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) in order to make comparisons with human clinical isolates associated with outbreak and sporadic illness. Recurrence of identical and closely related EcO157 strains from specific locations in the Salinas and San Juan valleys suggests that transport of the pathogen is usually restricted. In a preliminary study, EcO157 was detected in water at multiple locations in a low-flow creek only within 135 meters of a point source. However, possible transport up to 32 km was detected during periods of higher water flow associated with flooding. During the 2006 baby spinach outbreak investigation, transport was also detected where water was unlikely to be involved. These results indicate that contamination of the environment is a dynamic process involving multiple sources and methods of transport. Intensive studies of the sources, incidence, fate and transport of EcO157 near produce production are required to determine the mechanisms of pre-harvest contamination and potential risks for human
Markell, James A.; Koziol, Adam G.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains, occasionally isolated from food, are of public health importance. Here, we report on the 5.30-Mbp draft genome sequence of E. coli O157:H7 EDL931 (strain ATCC 35150) and the 5.32-Mbp draft genome sequence of a nalidixic acid-resistant mutant derivative used as a distinguishable control strain in food-testing laboratories. PMID:26205873
Carbonari, Claudia Carolina; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Teatero, Sarah; Athey, Taryn B T; Pianciola, Luis; Masana, Marcelo; Melano, Roberto G; Rivas, Marta; Chinen, Isabel
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains are worldwide associated with sporadic human infections and outbreaks. In this work, we report the availability of high-quality draft whole-genome sequences for 19 O157:H7 strains isolated in Argentina.
Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Teatero, Sarah; Athey, Taryn B. T.; Pianciola, Luis; Masana, Marcelo; Melano, Roberto G.; Rivas, Marta; Chinen, Isabel
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains are worldwide associated with sporadic human infections and outbreaks. In this work, we report the availability of high-quality draft whole-genome sequences for 19 O157:H7 strains isolated in Argentina. PMID:27908998
Blanco, Jorge; Blanco, Miguel; Blanco, Jesus E; Mora, Azucena; González, Enrique A; Bernárdez, Maria I; Alonso, Maria P; Coira, Amparo; Rodriguez, Asuncion; Rey, Joaquin; Alonso, Juan M; Usera, Miguel A
In Spain, as in many other countries, verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) strains have been frequently isolated from cattle, sheep, and foods. VTEC strains have caused seven outbreaks in Spain (six caused by E. coli O157:H7 and one by E. coli O111:H- [nonmotile]) in recent years. An analysis of the serotypes indicated serological diversity. Among the strains isolated from humans, serotypes O26:H11, O111:H-, and O157:H7 were found to be more prevalent. The most frequently detected serotypes in cattle were O20:H19, O22:H8, O26:H11, O77:H41, O105:H18, O113:H21, O157:H7, O171:H2, and OUT (O untypeable):H19. Different VTEC serotypes (e.g., O5:H-, O6:H10, O91:H-, O117:H-, O128:H-, O128:H2, O146:H8, O146:H21, O156:H-, and OUT:H21) were found more frequently in sheep. These observations suggest a host serotype specificity for some VTEC. Numerous bovine and ovine VTEC serotypes detected in Spain were associated with human illnesses, confirming that ruminants are important reservoirs of pathogenic VTEC. VTEC can produce one or two toxins (VT1 and VT2) that cause human illnesses. These toxins are different proteins encoded by different genes. Another virulence factor expressed by VTEC is the protein intimin that is responsible for intimate attachment of VTEC and effacing lesions in the intestinal mucosa. This virulence factor is encoded by the chromosomal gene eae. The eae gene was found at a much less frequency in bovine (17%) and ovine (5%) than in human (45%) non-O157 VTEC strains. This may support the evidence that the eae gene contributes significantly to the virulence of human VTEC strains and that many animal non-O157 VTEC strains are less pathogenic to humans.
Cheng, Song; Chen, Ming-Hui; Zhang, Gang-Gang; Yu, Zhi-Biao; Liu, Dao-Feng; Xiong, Yong-Hua; Wei, Hua; Lai, Wei-Hua
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is known to cause serious diseases including hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. A gold nanoparticle lateral flow immunoassay (Au-LFIA) was used to detect Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground pork samples. False-positive results were detected using Au-LFIA; a Citrobacterfreundii strain was isolated from the ground pork samples and identified by using CHROmagar(TM) plates, API 20E, and 16S RNA sequencing. Since C.freundii showed cross-reactivity with E. coli O157:H7 when Au-LFIA test strips were used, a novel method combining modified enrichment with a lateral flow immunoassay for accurate and convenient detection of E. coli O157:H7 in ground pork was developed in this study to minimize these false positives. MacConkey broth was optimized for E. coli O157:H7 enrichment and C.freundii inhibition by the addition of 5 mg/L potassium tellurite and 0.10 mg/L cefixime. Using the proposed modified enrichment procedure, the false-positive rate of ground pork samples spiked with 100 CFU/g C.freundii decreased to 5%.
Tarifa, María Clara; Lozano, Jorge Enrique; Brugnoni, Lorena Inés
To clarify the interactions between a common food spoilage yeast and two pathogenic bacteria involved in outbreaks associated with fruit juices, the present paper studies the effect of the interplay of Candida krusei, collected from UF membranes, with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in the overall process of adhesion and colonization of abiotic surfaces. Two different cases were tested: a) co-adhesion by pathogenic bacteria and yeasts, and b) incorporation of bacteria to pre-adhered C. krusei cells. Cultures were made on stainless steel at 25°C using apple juice as culture medium. After 24 h of co-adhesion with C. krusei, both E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica increased their counts 1.05 and 1.11 log CFU cm(2), respectively. Similar increases were obtained when incorporating bacteria to pre-adhered cells of Candida. Nevertheless C. krusei counts decreased in both experimental conditions, in a) 0.40 log CFU cm(2) and 0.55 log CFU cm(2) when exposed to E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica and in b) 0.18 and 0.68 log CFU cm(2), respectively. This suggests that C. krusei, E. coli O157:H7, and S. enterica have a complex relationship involving physical and chemical interactions on food contact surfaces. This study supports the possibility that pathogen interactions with members of spoilage microbiota, such as C. krusei, might play an important role for the survival and dissemination of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in food-processing environments. Based on the data obtained from the present study, much more attention should be given to prevent the contamination of these pathogens in acidic drinks.
The purpose of this study was to assess a simplified method for interstrain differentiation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other Shiga-like toxin-producing E. coli (SLTEC) strains. A method based on the use of nucleic acid probes from Shiga-like toxin (SLT) I and II structural genes was used to generate restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns of SLTEC strains, (SLT-RFLP patterns) resulting from digestion of isolated genomic DNA with four different restriction enzymes (BamHI, EcoRI, HindIII, and PvuII) used separately. A total of 165 SLTEC strains from clinical, food, and environmental sources, including O157:H7 isolates from four food-borne outbreaks in Canada and the United States, were analyzed in the study. SLT-RFLP demonstrated that E. coli O157:H7 strains from each food-borne outbreak had the same unique SLT-RFLP pattern. Fifty-two SLT-RFLP types were found among 96 E. coli O157:H7 isolates from sporadic cases of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in Washington state. The use of the SLT probes proved to be a very powerful method for interstrain differentiation of SLTEC strains. Although the use of each of the enzymes alone did not give enough differentiative power to be used in epidemiological studies, the combination of patterns generated by two restriction enzymes (EcoRI and PvuII, used separately) provided the desired sensitivity for such studies. The results clearly demonstrate the usefulness of the method for studying the molecular epidemiology of E. coli O157:H7. The method is also suitable for establishing an epidemiological database, in terms of both sensitivity and ease of compilation and interpretation of results. PMID:7559966
Sharapov, Umid M; Wendel, Arthur M; Davis, Jeffrey P; Keene, William E; Farrar, Jeffrey; Sodha, Samir; Hyytia-Trees, Eija; Leeper, Molly; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Griffin, Patricia M; Braden, Chris
During September to October, 2006, state and local health departments and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated a large, multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections. Case patients were interviewed regarding specific foods consumed and other possible exposures. E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from human and food specimens were subtyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analyses (MLVA). Two hundred twenty-five cases (191 confirmed and 34 probable) were identified in 27 states; 116 (56%) case patients were hospitalized, 39 (19%) developed hemolytic uremic syndrome, and 5 (2%) died. Among 176 case patients from whom E. coli O157:H7 with the outbreak genotype (MLVA outbreak strain) was isolated and who provided details regarding spinach exposure, 161 (91%) reported fresh spinach consumption during the 10 days before illness began. Among 116 patients who provided spinach brand information, 106 (91%) consumed bagged brand A. E. coli O157:H7 strains were isolated from 13 bags of brand A spinach collected from patients' homes; isolates from 12 bags had the same MLVA pattern. Comprehensive epidemiologic and laboratory investigations associated this large multistate outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 infections with consumption of fresh bagged spinach. MLVA, as a supplement to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotyping of case patient isolates, was important to discern outbreak-related cases. This outbreak resulted in enhanced federal and industry guidance to improve the safety of leafy green vegetables and launched an independent collaborative approach to produce safety research in 2007.
Behavior of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli, non-O157-shiga toxin-producing E. coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli strains on mung bean seeds and sprout.
Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Bautista-De León, Haydee; Vázquez-Barrios, Ma Estela; Gordillo-Martínez, Alberto J; Castro-Rosas, Javier
The behavior of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), non-O157 shiga toxin-producing E. coli (non-O157-STEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) on mung bean seeds at 25±2 °C and during germination and sprouting of mung bean seeds at 20±2 ° and 30±2 °C and on mung bean sprouts at 3±2 °C was determined. When mung bean seeds were inoculated with EAEC, non-O157 STEC, EIEC, EPEC or ETEC strains, all these diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs) survived at least 90 days on mung bean seeds at 25±2 °C. All DEPs grew during germination and sprouting of seeds, reaching counts of approximately 5 Log and 7 Log CFU/g after 2 days at 20±2 ° and 30±2 °C, respectively. However, when the sprouts were inoculated after 1 day of seeds germination and stored at 20±2 ° or 30±2 °C, no growth was observed for any DEPs during sprouting at 20±2 °C per 9 d; however, a significant increase in the concentration of DEPs of approximately 0.7 log CFU/g was observed during sprouting at 30±2 °C after 1 day of sprout contamination. Refrigeration reduced the number of viable DEPs strains on sprouts after 10 days in storage; nevertheless, these decreases have no practical significance in the safety of the sprouts.
Background Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 is a virulent zoonotic strain of enterohaemorrhagic E. coli. In Scotland (1998-2008) the annual reported rate of human infection is 4.4 per 100,000 population which is consistently higher than other regions of the UK and abroad. Cattle are the primary reservoir. Thus understanding infection dynamics in cattle is paramount to reducing human infections. A large database was created for farms sampled in two cross-sectional surveys carried out in Scotland (1998 - 2004). A statistical model was generated to identify risk factors for the presence of E. coli O157 on farms. Specific hypotheses were tested regarding the presence of E. coli O157 on local farms and the farms previous status. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles were further examined to ascertain whether local spread or persistence of strains could be inferred. Results The presence of an E. coli O157 positive local farm (average distance: 5.96km) in the Highlands, North East and South West, farm size and the number of cattle moved onto the farm 8 weeks prior to sampling were significant risk factors for the presence of E. coli O157 on farms. Previous status of a farm was not a significant predictor of current status (p = 0.398). Farms within the same sampling cluster were significantly more likely to be the same PFGE type (p < 0.001), implicating spread of strains between local farms. Isolates with identical PFGE types were observed to persist across the two surveys, including 3 that were identified on the same farm, suggesting an environmental reservoir. PFGE types that were persistent were more likely to have been observed in human clinical infections in Scotland (p < 0.001) from the same time frame. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate the spread of E. coli O157 between local farms and highlight the potential link between persistent cattle strains and human clinical infections in Scotland. This novel insight into the epidemiology of
Comparative analysis of super-shedder strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 reveals distinctive genomic features and a strongly aggregative adherent phenotype on bovine rectoanal junction squamous epithelial cells
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) are significant foodborne pathogens and a serious threat to public health worldwide. The major reservoirs of O157 are asymptomatic cattle which harbor the organism in the terminal recto-anal junction (RAJ). Some colonized animals, referred to as ...
Cookson, Adrian L.; Campbell, Donald M.; Duncan, Gail E.; Prattley, Deborah; Carter, Philip; Besser, Thomas E.; Shringi, Smriti; Hathaway, Steve; Marshall, Jonathan C.; French, Nigel P.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 is a zoonotic pathogen of public health concern worldwide. To compare the local and large-scale geographic distributions of genotypes of STEC O157:H7 isolates obtained from various bovine and human sources during 2008–2011, we used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Shiga toxin–encoding bacteriophage insertion (SBI) typing. Using multivariate methods, we compared isolates from the North and South Islands of New Zealand with isolates from Australia and the United States. The STEC O157:H7 population structure differed substantially between the 2 islands and showed evidence of finer scale spatial structuring, which is consistent with highly localized transmission rather than disseminated foodborne outbreaks. The distribution of SBI types differed markedly among isolates from New Zealand, Australia, and the United States. Our findings also provide evidence for the historic introduction into New Zealand of a subset of globally circulating STEC O157:H7 strains that have continued to evolve and be transmitted locally between cattle and humans. PMID:25568924
Cabal, A; Gómez-Barrero, S; Porrero, C; Bárcena, C; López, G; Cantón, R; Gortázar, C; Domínguez, L; Álvarez, J
The distribution of virulence factors (VFs) typical of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles were assessed in 780 isolates from healthy pigs, broilers, and cattle from Spain. VF distribution was broader than expected, although at low prevalence for most genes, with AMR being linked mainly to host species.
Cabal, A.; Gómez-Barrero, S.; Porrero, C.; Bárcena, C.; López, G.; Cantón, R.; Gortázar, C.; Domínguez, L.
The distribution of virulence factors (VFs) typical of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles were assessed in 780 isolates from healthy pigs, broilers, and cattle from Spain. VF distribution was broader than expected, although at low prevalence for most genes, with AMR being linked mainly to host species. PMID:23603685
Polifroni, Rosana; Etcheverría, Analía I; Arroyo, Guillermo H; Padola, Nora L
Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) is the etiologic agent of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), which typically affects children ranging in age from six months to five years old. Transmission is produced by consumption of contaminated food, by direct contact with animals or the environment and from person to person. In previous studies we determined that the environment of a dairy farm is a non-animal reservoir; thus, we proposed to study the survival of 4 VTEC isolates (O20:H19; O91:H21; O157:H7 and O178:H19) in sterile water troughs and bovine feces by viable bacteria count and detection of virulence genes by PCR. It was demonstrated that the survival of different VTEC isolates (O157 and non-O157) varied in terms of their own characteristics as well as of the environmental conditions where they were found. The main differences between isolates were their survival time and the maximal counts reached. The competitive and adaptive characteristics of some isolates increase the infection risk for people that are visiting or working on a farm, as well as the risk for reinfection of the animals and food contamination.
Jordan, Dianna M; Cornick, Nancy; Torres, Alfredo G; Dean-Nystrom, Evelyn A; Kaper, James B; Moon, Harley W
The contribution of long polar fimbriae to intestinal colonization by Escherichia coli O157:H7 was evaluated in sheep, conventional pigs, and gnotobiotic piglets. E. coli O157:H7 strains with lpfA1 and lpfA2 mutated were recovered in significantly lower numbers and caused fewer attachment and effacement lesions than the parent strain.
King, L A; Loukiadis, E; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Haeghebaert, S; Weill, F-X; Baliere, C; Ganet, S; Gouali, M; Vaillant, V; Pihier, N; Callon, H; Novo, R; Gaillot, O; Thevenot-Sergentet, D; Bingen, E; Chaud, P; de Valk, H
Sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:[H7] is a particularly virulent clone of E. coli O157:H7 associated with a higher incidence of haemolytic uraemic syndrome and a higher case fatality rate. Many fundamental aspects of its epidemiology remain to be elucidated, including its reservoir and transmission routes and vehicles. We describe an outbreak of sorbitol-fermenting E. coli O157:[H7] that occurred in France in 2011. Eighteen cases of paediatric haemolytic uraemic syndrome with symptom onset between 6 June and 15 July 2011 were identified among children aged 6 months to 10 years residing in northern France. A strain of sorbitol-fermenting E. coli O157:[H7] stx2a eae was isolated from ten cases. Epidemiological, microbiological and trace-back investigations identified multiply-contaminated frozen ground beef products bought in a supermarket chain as the outbreak vehicle. Strains with three distinct pulsotypes that were isolated from patients, ground beef preparations recovered from patients' freezers and from stored production samples taken at the production plant were indistinguishable upon molecular comparison. This investigation documents microbiologically confirmed foodborne transmission of sorbitol-fermenting of E. coli O157 via beef and could additionally provide evidence of a reservoir in cattle for this pathogen.
Oie, S; Kamiya, A; Tomita, M; Katayama, A; Iwasaki, A; Miyamura, S
The bactericidal activity of disinfectants and hot water against ten Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains, which were isolated from faeces of patients with enterohaemorrhagic E. coli infection, were evaluated and showed different DNA patterns. After exposure to 0.1% benzalkonium chloride, 0.1% chlorhexidine gluconate containing a nonionic surfactant, and 80% (v/v) ethanol, 99.99% of viable bacterial cells were killed at 20 degrees C within 15 s irrespective of the presence or absence of 0.1% albumin. On the other hand, after exposure to hot water, 99.99% of the bacterial cells were killed within 15 s at 70 degrees C. These results suggest that benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine gluconate containing a nonionic surfactant, ethanol, and hot water at 70 degrees C or more are effective for disinfection of E. coli O157:H7 in hospitals.
Johnson, J M; Weagant, S D; Jinneman, K C; Bryant, J L
Food and patient isolates from an Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak associated with undercooked ground beef were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Shiga-like toxin genotype. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis confirmed the epidemiologically implicated source of the two-state outbreak and differentiated between outbreak and sporadic strains. PMID:7618896
Chae, Su-Jin; Kwon, Taesoo; Lee, Sunjin; Kang, Yeon Ho; Chung, Gyung Tae
We report here a new virulent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) bacteriophage, GG32, which was isolated from the Guem River in the Republic of Korea. The strain can infect both S. Typhimurium and Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 and may be a good candidate for a bio-control agent. PMID:27932635
Shringi, Smriti; García, Alexis; Lahmers, Kevin K.; Potter, Kathleen A.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Swennes, Alton G.; Hovde, Carolyn J.; Call, Douglas R.; Fox, James G.
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC O157) is an important cause of food and waterborne illness in the developed countries. Cattle are a reservoir host of EHEC O157 and a major source of human exposure through contaminated meat products. Shiga toxins (Stxs) are an important pathogenicity trait of EHEC O157. The insertion sites of the Stx-encoding bacteriophages differentiate EHEC O157 isolates into genogroups commonly isolated from cattle but rarely from sick humans (bovine-biased genotypes [BBG]) and those commonly isolated from both cattle and human patients (clinical genotypes [CG]). Since BBG and CG share the cardinal virulence factors of EHEC O157 and are carried by cattle at similar prevalences, the infrequent occurrence of BBG among human disease isolates suggests that they may be less virulent than CG. We compared the virulence potentials of human and bovine isolates of CG and BBG in newborn conventional pig and weaned Dutch Belted rabbit models. CG-challenged piglets experienced severe disease accompanied by early and high mortality compared to BBG-challenged piglets. Similarly, CG-challenged rabbits were likely to develop lesions in kidney and intestine compared with the BBG-challenged rabbits. The CG strains used in this study carried stx2 and produced significantly higher amounts of Stx, whereas the BBG strains carried the stx2c gene variant only. These results suggest that BBG are less virulent than CG and that this difference in virulence potential is associated with the Stx2 subtype(s) carried and/or the amount of Stx produced. PMID:22025512
Basaran-Akgul, N; Churey, J J; Basaran, P; Worobo, R W
Escherichia coli has been identified as the causative agent in numerous foodborne illness outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh apple cider. Apple cider has a pH which is normally below 4.0 and would not be considered a medium capable of supporting the growth of foodborne pathogens. The association of unpasteurized apple cider with foodborne illness due to E. coli O157:H7 has however, led to increased interest in potential alternative methods to produce pathogen free cider. Apple cider was prepared from eight different apple cultivars, inoculated with approximately 10(6)-10(7) CFU of three strains of E. coli O157:H7 per ml (933, ATCC 43889, and ATCC 43895) and tested to determine the effectiveness of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC). Bacterial populations for treated and untreated samples were then enumerated by using non-selective media. Eight different ciders were treated with DMDC (125 and 250 ppm) and SO(2) (25, 50, 75, 100 ppm). Greater than a 5-log reduction was achieved at room temperature with 250 ppm of DMDC and 50 ppm of SO(2) after the incubation time of 6h and 24h, respectively. Addition of DMDC and/or SO(2) may offer an inexpensive alternative to thermal pasteurization for the production of safe apple cider for small apple cider producers.
Bian, Xin; Wang, Ting-Ting; Xu, Min; Evivie, Smith Etareri; Luo, Guang-Wen; Liang, Hong-Zhang; Yu, Shang-Fu; Huo, Gui-Cheng
This study investigated the effects of KLDS 1.8701 and AD1 administrations by gavage on intestinal microflora and mucosal immunity in diarrhea mice infected by Escherichia coli O157:H7 compared to normal mice. The levels of E. coli, Enterobacteria, and Enterococcus decreased significantly (P < 0.05), while viable counts of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium increased in diarrhea mice. Moreover, KLDS 1.8701 and AD1 improved secretion of secretory immunoglobulin A and enhanced the levels of interferon-γ and interleukin. Results indicate that KLDS 1.8701 and AD1 could effectively alleviate diarrhea in mice via modulation of intestinal microflora and improve the function of immune system. The study on the effect of KLDS1.8701 and AD1 supplementation in human flora-associated animal models was recommended.
Biofilms formed by resident microflora may provide a microenvironment for foodborne bacterial pathogens to survive and cause cross-contamination in fresh-cut processing and handling facilities. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of individual bacteria strains isolated from two l...
Gunzer, F; Böhm, H; Rüssmann, H; Bitzan, M; Aleksic, S; Karch, H
Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains of serogroup O157 were identified in 26 of 104 patients with hemolytic-uremic syndrome and in 18 of 668 patients with diarrhea. All strains were identified by colony hybridization with DNA probes complementary to Shiga-like toxin I and Shiga-like toxin II gene sequences and characterized by biochemical tests and serotyping. Seventeen of these 44 patients had E. coli O157 strains which were unusual because they fermented sorbitol within 24 h of incubation and were positive for beta-glucuronidase activity. Culture filtrates of these sorbitol-fermenting strains were highly toxic to Vero cells in culture. Serological tests and DNA analysis performed by restriction endonuclease digestion of B-subunit toxin genes revealed that all 17 isolates produced Shiga-like toxin II. Although by using molecular probes we established a high frequency of sorbitol-fermenting E. coli O157 strains in the patients we examined, further studies on the prevalence of such isolates in other areas of endemic disease are clearly warranted. Images PMID:1629338
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide. To evaluate better methods to rapidly detect and genotype E. coli O157 strains, the present study evaluated the use of ampliPHOX, a novel colorimetric detection method based on photopolymerization, for...
The in vitro antimicrobial effect of cinnamaldehyde and Sporan in combination with acetic acid against E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella was investigated. A five strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were inoculated in Luria-Bertoni broth (LB broth, 7 log CFU ml-1) containing cinnamaldehyde...
Cray, W C; Moon, H W
Preweaned calves and adult cattle were inoculated with 10(10) CFU of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain 3081, a calf isolate which produces Shiga-like toxin, to define the magnitude and duration of fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 for each age group. Fecal samples of eight of eight, eight of eight, three of eight, and two of eight calves were positive at 2, 7, 14, and 20 weeks, respectively. In contrast, nine of nine, two of nine, and one of nine steers were positive at 2, 7, and 14 weeks, respectively. The magnitude of shedding (CFU per gram) by individual animals at any one time postinoculation varied widely within each age group but was greater for calves as a group. The differences in shedding patterns between adults and calves were statistically significant. After inoculation, 25 of 29 animals remained healthy and 4 of 17 calves had transient diarrhea. Histologic sections of the brain, kidney, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon taken at necropsy from nine calves either 3, 14, or 18 days postinoculation or three adults either 2, 3, or 4 days postinoculation were normal. E. coli O157:H7 was recovered from the alimentary tracts of all of the animals necropsied, and there was no evidence of spread to the liver, spleen, or kidneys. Four calves that had ceased shedding were reinfected when inoculated again with the same strain. E. coli O157:H7 was recovered from none of five and two of five adults inoculated with 10(4) and 10(7) CFU, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7747972
Sanjar, Fatemeh; Rusconi, Brigida; Hazen, Tracy H.; Koenig, Sara S.K.; Mammel, Mark K.; Feng, Peter C.H.; Rasko, David A.; Eppinger, Mark
Escherichia coli of the O157 serogroup are comprised of a diverse collection of more than 100 O157:non-H7 serotypes that are found in the environment, animal reservoir and infected patients and some have been linked to severe outbreaks of human disease. Among these, the enteropathogenic E. coli O157:non-H7 serotypes carry virulence factors that are hallmarks of enterohemorrhagic E. coli, such as causing attaching and effacing lesions during human gastrointestinal tract infections. Given the shared virulence gene pool between O157:H7 and O157:non-H7 serotypes, our objective was to examine the prevalence of virulence traits of O157:non-H7 serotypes within and across their H-serotype and when compared to other E. coli pathovars. We sequenced six O157:non-H7 genomes complemented by four genomes from public repositories in an effort to determine their virulence state and genetic relatedness to the highly pathogenic enterohemorrhagic O157:H7 lineage and its ancestral O55:H7 serotype. Whole-genome-based phylogenomic analysis and molecular typing is indicative of a non-monophyletic origin of the heterogeneous O157:non-H7 serotypes that are only distantly related to the O157:H7 serotype. The availability of multiple genomes enables robust phylogenomic placement of these strains into their evolutionary context, and the assessment of the pathogenic potential of the O157:non-H7 strains in causing human disease. PMID:25962987
Sanjar, Fatemeh; Rusconi, Brigida; Hazen, Tracy H; Koenig, Sara S K; Mammel, Mark K; Feng, Peter C H; Rasko, David A; Eppinger, Mark
Escherichia coli of the O157 serogroup are comprised of a diverse collection of more than 100 O157:non-H7 serotypes that are found in the environment, animal reservoir and infected patients and some have been linked to severe outbreaks of human disease. Among these, the enteropathogenic E. coli O157:non-H7 serotypes carry virulence factors that are hallmarks of enterohemorrhagic E. coli, such as causing attaching and effacing lesions during human gastrointestinal tract infections. Given the shared virulence gene pool between O157:H7 and O157:non-H7 serotypes, our objective was to examine the prevalence of virulence traits of O157:non-H7 serotypes within and across their H-serotype and when compared to other E. coli pathovars. We sequenced six O157:non-H7 genomes complemented by four genomes from public repositories in an effort to determine their virulence state and genetic relatedness to the highly pathogenic enterohemorrhagic O157:H7 lineage and its ancestral O55:H7 serotype. Whole-genome-based phylogenomic analysis and molecular typing is indicative of a non-monophyletic origin of the heterogeneous O157:non-H7 serotypes that are only distantly related to the O157:H7 serotype. The availability of multiple genomes enables robust phylogenomic placement of these strains into their evolutionary context, and the assessment of the pathogenic potential of the O157:non-H7 strains in causing human disease.
Datz, M; Janetzki-Mittmann, C; Franke, S; Gunzer, F; Schmidt, H; Karch, H
In this study, we determined the nucleotide sequence of the p gene contained within a 5-kb EcoRI restriction fragment cloned from Shiga-like toxin II (SLT-II)-converting phage 933W of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933. The p gene was 702 bp long and had 95.3% sequence similarity to the p gene of phage lambda. Multiple hybridization patterns were obtained when genomic DNA fragments were hybridized with both p and slt-I, slt-II, or slt-IIc sequences. All O157 isolates also possessed an analog of lambda gene p which was not linked with either slt-I or slt-II. Restriction fragment length polymorphism comparisons of clinical O157 isolates and derivates undergoing genotype turnover during infection were made, and loss of large DNA fragments that hybridized with slt-II and p sequences was observed. To further analyze the DNA region containing the p and slt genes, we amplified fragments by using a PCR with one primer complementary to p and the other complementary to either the slt-I or the slt-II gene. PCR analysis with enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157 and non-O157 strains yielded PCR products that varied in size between 5.1 and 7.8 kb. These results suggest that even within O157 isolates, the genomes of SLT-converting phages differ. The methods described here may assist in further investigation of SLT-encoding phages and their role in the epidemiology of infection with enterohemorrhagic E. coli. PMID:8975608
Ashton, Philip M.; Perry, Neil; Ellis, Richard; Petrovska, Liljana; Wain, John; Grant, Kathie A.; Jenkins, Claire
The ability of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) to cause severe illness in humans is determined by multiple host factors and bacterial characteristics, including Shiga toxin (Stx) subtype. Given the link between Stx2a subtype and disease severity, we sought to identify the stx subtypes present in whole genome sequences (WGS) of 444 isolates of STEC O157. Difficulties in assembling the stx genes in some strains were overcome by using two complementary bioinformatics methods: mapping and de novo assembly. We compared the WGS analysis with the results obtained using a PCR approach and investigated the diversity within and between the subtypes. All strains of STEC O157 in this study had stx1a, stx2a or stx2c or a combination of these three genes. There was over 99% (442/444) concordance between PCR and WGS. When common source strains were excluded, 236/349 strains of STEC O157 had multiple copies of different Stx subtypes and 54 had multiple copies of the same Stx subtype. Of those strains harbouring multiple copies of the same Stx subtype, 33 had variants between the alleles while 21 had identical copies. Strains harbouring Stx2a only were most commonly found to have multiple alleles of the same subtype (42%). Both the PCR and WGS approach to stx subtyping provided a good level of sensitivity and specificity. In addition, the WGS data also showed there were a significant proportion of strains harbouring multiple alleles of the same Stx subtype associated with clinical disease in England. PMID:25737808
Mobley, Ray; Madden, Uford; Brooks-Walter, Alexis
Studies have reported the isolation of Escherichia coli (E. coli)O157:H7 from pork, lamb and poultry products, and from other animals including deer, horses, dogs, birds and humans. There is limited or no information on the presence of the organism in goats. The objectives of this study were to determine if E. coli O157:H7 was naturally occurring…
Putaala, Heli; Salusjärvi, Tuomas; Nordström, Malin; Saarinen, Markku; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Bech Hansen, Egon; Rautonen, Nina
Controversy exists as to whether contact between a probiotic bacterial cell and an epithelial cell in the gut is needed to confer beneficial effects of probiotics, or whether metabolites from probiotics are sufficient to cause this effect. To address this question, Caco-2 cells were treated with cell-free supernatants of four probiotics, Bifidobacterium lactis 420, Bifidobacterium lactis HN019, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33, and by a cell-free supernatant of a pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC). Tight junction integrity as well as expression of cyclo-oxygenases, which are prostaglandin-producing enzymes, were measured. Probiotic-specific as well as EHEC-specific effects on tight junction integrity and cyclo-oxygenase expression were evident, indicating that live bacterial cells were not necessary for the manifestation of the effects. B. lactis 420 cell-free supernatant increased tight junction integrity, while EHEC cell-free supernatant induced damage on tight junctions. In general, EHEC and probiotics had opposite effects upon cyclo-oxygenase expression. Furthermore, B. lactis 420 cell-free supernatant protected the tight junctions from EHEC-induced damage when administered prior to the cell-free supernatant of EHEC. These results indicate that probiotics produce bioactive metabolites, suggesting that consumption of specific probiotic bacteria might be beneficial in protecting intestinal epithelial cells from the deleterious effects of pathogenic bacteria.
Barrett, T J; Lior, H; Green, J H; Khakhria, R; Wells, J G; Bell, B P; Greene, K D; Lewis, J; Griffin, P M
Two hundred thirty-three isolates of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were analyzed by both pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and bacteriophage typing. All 26 isolates from persons whose illness was associated with a recent multistate outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 infections linked to the consumption of undercooked hamburgers and all 27 isolates from incriminated lots of hamburger meat had the same phage type and the same PFGE pattern. Twenty-five of 74 E. coli O157:H7 isolates from Washington State and 10 of 27 isolates from other states obtained during the 6 months before the outbreak had the same phage type as the outbreak strain, but only 1 isolate had the same PFGE pattern. PFGE thus appeared to be a more sensitive method than bacteriophage typing for distinguishing outbreak and non-outbreak-related strains. The PFGE patterns of seven preoutbreak sporadic isolates and five sporadic isolates from the outbreak period differed from that of the outbreak strain by a single band, making it difficult to identify these isolates as outbreak or non-outbreak related. Phage typing and PFGE with additional enzymes were helpful in resolving this problem. While not as sensitive as PFGE, phage typing was helpful in interpreting PFGE data and could have been used as a simple, rapid screen to eliminate the need for performing PFGE on unrelated isolates. Images PMID:7883892
The chromosomal integration of the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene was successfully accomplished into four nalidixic acid resistant E. coli strains: two O157:H7 strains from produce outbreaks, 4407 and 5279, one O157:H7 strain from a beef-associated outbreak, 86-24h11, and a non-pathogenic comm...
Kim, Nam Hee
The synergistic antimicrobial effects of phytic acid (PA), a natural extract from rice bran, plus sodium chloride against Escherichia coli O157:H7 were examined. Exposure to NaCl alone at concentrations up to 36% (wt/wt) for 5 min did not reduce bacterial populations. The bactericidal effects of PA alone were much greater than those of other organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic, and malic acids) under the same experimental conditions (P < 0.05). Combining PA and NaCl under conditions that yielded negligible effects when each was used alone led to marked synergistic effects. For example, whereas 0.4% PA or 3 or 4% NaCl alone had little or no effect on cell viability, combining the two completely inactivated both nonadapted and acid-adapted cells, reducing their numbers to unrecoverable levels (>7-log CFU/ml reduction). Flow cytometry confirmed that PA disrupted the cell membrane to a greater extent than did other organic acids, although the cells remained viable. The combination of PA and NaCl induced complete disintegration of the cell membrane. By comparison, none of the other organic acids acted synergistically with NaCl, and neither did NaCl-HCl solutions at the same pH values as the test solutions of PA plus NaCl. These results suggest that PA has great potential as an effective bacterial membrane-permeabilizing agent, and we show that the combination is a promising alternative to conventional chemical disinfectants. These findings provide new insight into the utility of natural compounds as novel antimicrobial agents and increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the antibacterial activity of PA. PMID:26637600
Kim, Nam Hee; Rhee, Min Suk
The synergistic antimicrobial effects of phytic acid (PA), a natural extract from rice bran, plus sodium chloride against Escherichia coli O157:H7 were examined. Exposure to NaCl alone at concentrations up to 36% (wt/wt) for 5 min did not reduce bacterial populations. The bactericidal effects of PA alone were much greater than those of other organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic, and malic acids) under the same experimental conditions (P < 0.05). Combining PA and NaCl under conditions that yielded negligible effects when each was used alone led to marked synergistic effects. For example, whereas 0.4% PA or 3 or 4% NaCl alone had little or no effect on cell viability, combining the two completely inactivated both nonadapted and acid-adapted cells, reducing their numbers to unrecoverable levels (>7-log CFU/ml reduction). Flow cytometry confirmed that PA disrupted the cell membrane to a greater extent than did other organic acids, although the cells remained viable. The combination of PA and NaCl induced complete disintegration of the cell membrane. By comparison, none of the other organic acids acted synergistically with NaCl, and neither did NaCl-HCl solutions at the same pH values as the test solutions of PA plus NaCl. These results suggest that PA has great potential as an effective bacterial membrane-permeabilizing agent, and we show that the combination is a promising alternative to conventional chemical disinfectants. These findings provide new insight into the utility of natural compounds as novel antimicrobial agents and increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the antibacterial activity of PA.
Cordeiro, Roniele P; Doria, Juan H; Zhanel, George G; Sparling, Richard; Holley, Richard A
This work examined Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain 02-0304 for putative genes responsible for sinigrin hydrolysis. Sinigrin is a glucosinolate present in Oriental mustard (Brassica juncea), and its hydrolysis is mediated in plants by the enzyme myrosinase. Sinigrin hydrolysis by plant or bacterial myrosinase yields allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) which is bactericidal. In silico analysis using public databases found sequence similarity between plant myrosinase and enzymes encoded by genes from β-glucosidase families in E. coli O157:H7. Specifically, 6-phospho-β-glucosidase encoded by the genes bglA and ascB (family 1), and chbF (family 4) present in E. coli O157:H7 showed the highest similarity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed the presence of bglA, ascB, and chbF in the clinical E. coli strain tested. Disruption of these genes in wild-type E. coli O157:H7 strain 02-0304 using lambda-red replacement created single and double mutants. The relative importance of each gene in the hydrolysis of sinigrin by E. coli O157:H7 was also assessed by comparing gene expression and sinigrin degradation rates among the E. coli O157:H7 wild-type strain and its mutants. The results suggested that the genes bglA and ascB play a substantial role in the degradation of sinigrin by E. coli O157:H7 strain 02-0304.
Tolokan, R. P.; Brady, J. B.; Jarrabet, G. P.
Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are used in gas turbine engines to improve component temperature capability and cooling air efficiency. A compliant metal fiber strain isolator between a plasma sprayed ceramic coating and a metal substrate improves ceramic durability while allowing thicker coatings for better insulation. Development of strain isolated coatings has concentrated on design and fabrication of coatings and coating evaluation via thermal shock testing. In thermal shock testing, five types of failure are possible: buckling failure im compression on heat up, bimetal type failure, isothermal expansion mismatch failure, mudflat cracking during cool down, and long term fatigue. A primary failure mode for thermally cycled coatings is designated bimetal type failure. Bimetal failure is tensile failure in the ceramic near the ceramic-metal interface. One of the significant benefits of the strain isolator is an insulating layer protecting the metal substrate from heat deformation and thereby preventing bimetal type failure.
James, Gordon E. (Inventor)
Certain devices such as optical instruments must preserve their alignmental integrity while being subjected to mechanical strain. A mechanical strain isolator mount is provided to preserve the alignmental integrity of an alignment sensitive instrument. An alignment sensitive instrument is mounted on a rectangular base. Flexural legs are connected at their proximal ends to the rectangular base. Flexural legs are also spaced parallel to the sides. Mounting pads are connected to the legs at the distal end and the mechanical strain isolator mount is attached to the substrate by means of threaded bolts. When a mounting pad and its respective leg is subjected to lateral strain in either the X or Y direction via the substrate, the respective leg relieves the strain by bending in the direction of the strain. An axial strain on a mounting pad in the Z direction is relieved by a rotational motion of the legs in the direction of the strain. When the substrate is stress free, the flexural legs return to their original condition and thus preserve the original alignment integrity of the alignment sensitive instrument.
Shecho, Mude; Muktar, Yimer
A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine antimicrobial drug resistance patterns of E. coli O157:H7 isolates and estimate the level of the pathogen. A total of 194 cloacae swab samples were collected randomly in two poultry farms. Standard cultural, biochemical, and serological (latex agglutination) methods were used to isolate E. coli O157:H7. The isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using disc diffusion method. Out of 194 cloacae samples examined, 13.4% (n = 26) were found to be positive for E. coli O157:H7. The finding indicated differences in E. coli O157:H7 infection among the different risk factors. Chicken from Adele Poultry Farm showed higher E. coli O157:H7 infection (OR = 3.89) than Haramaya University poultry farm and young birds had more infection (OR = 4.62) than adult birds. Of the total 14 antimicrobials included in the panel of study, the susceptibility results were varied with 96.15% and 0% E. coli O157:H7 isolates expressing resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, spectinomycin, and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Multidrug resistance to more than two antimicrobial agents was detected in 24 (92.30%) of the isolates. The study showed high presence of antimicrobial resistant isolates of E. coli O157:H7. Further study is required to better understand the ecology and evolution of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents. PMID:28349121
Background: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 is a public health threat and outbreaks occur worldwide. STEC O157 has a mosaic genome with extensive prophage integration, including bacteriophage-encoded Shiga toxins. Here, we investigate genomic differences in a strain of STEC O157 t...
Abong`O, B. O.; Momba, M. N. B.; Rodda, N.
The current study explored the health risk of E. coli O157:H7 to diarrhoeic confirmed and non-confirmed HIV/AIDS patients due to their exposure to presumed ingestion of water, meat products and vegetables ostensibly contaminated with E. coli O157:H7. Strains of E. coli O157:H7 were isolated by enrichment culture and on Cefixime-Telurite Sorbitol MacConkey agar. Average counts of presumptive E. coli O157 were used for dose-response assessment. Probability of infection to confirmed and non-confirmed HIV/AIDS patients was 20 and 27% from meat and meat products, 21% and 15% from vegetables and 100% due to ingestion of 1500 mL person-1 day-1 of water. Drinking water had higher probability of transmitting E. coli O157:H7 infections than meat and meat products and vegetables. Probability of E. coli O157:H7 infections were high for confirmed HIV/AIDS patients than for non-confirmed patients. Water and foods consumed by HIV/AIDS patients should be safe of any microbial contaminants, these waters and foods should as well be investigated for other enteric pathogens to establish their safety.
Bilge, S S; Vary, J C; Dowell, S F; Tarr, P I
Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli strains belonging to serotype O157 are important human pathogens, but the genetic basis of expression of the O157 antigen and the role played by the lipopolysaccharide O side chain in the adherence of this organism to epithelial cells are not understood. We performed TnphoA mutagenesis on E. coli O157:H7 strain 86-24 to identify a mutant (strain F12) deficient in O-antigen expression. Nucleotide sequence analysis demonstrated that the transposon inserted within an open reading frame with significant homology to rfbE of Vibrio cholerae O1 (U. H. Stroeher, L. E. Karageorgos, R. Morona, and P. A. Manning, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:2566-2570, 1992), which is postulated to encode perosamine synthetase. This open reading frame was designated rfbE(EcO157:H7). The guanine-plus-cytosine fraction (0.35) suggests that rfbE(EcO157:H7) may have originated in a species other than E. coli. rfbE(EcO157:H7) is conserved in nontoxigenic E. coli O157 strains expressing a variety of other flagellar antigens but is not found in E. coli O55:H7 strains, which are more closely related to E. coli O157:H7. Strain F12 was significantly more adherent to HeLa cells in a quantitative adherence assay than was its E. coli O157:H7 parent, but they did not differ in other phenotypes. Restoration of the expression of the O side chain by complementation of the TnphoA mutation in strain F12 by a plasmid expressing intact rfbE(EcO157:H7) reduced the adherence of the hyperadherent strain F12. We conclude that rfbE(EcO157:H7) is necessary for the expression of the O157 antigen, that acquisition of E. coli rfb genes occurred independently in E. coli O157:H7 and unrelated O157 strains, and that the O side chain of E. coli O157:H7 lipopolysaccharide interferes with the adherence of E. coli O157:H7 to epithelial cells. PMID:8890241
Jenkins, Claire; Dallman, Timothy J; Launders, Naomi; Willis, Caroline; Byrne, Lisa; Jorgensen, Frieda; Eppinger, Mark; Adak, Goutam K; Aird, Heather; Elviss, Nicola; Grant, Kathie A; Morgan, Dilys; McLauchlin, Jim
An increase in the number of cases of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 phage type 2 (PT2) in England in September 2013 was epidemiologically linked to watercress consumption. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) identified a phylogenetically related cluster of 22 cases (outbreak 1). The isolates comprising this cluster were not closely related to any other United Kingdom strain in the Public Health England WGS database, suggesting a possible imported source. A second outbreak of STEC O157 PT2 (outbreak 2) was identified epidemiologically following the detection of outbreak 1. Isolates associated with outbreak 2 were phylogenetically distinct from those in outbreak 1. Epidemiologically unrelated isolates on the same branch as the outbreak 2 cluster included those from human cases in England with domestically acquired infection and United Kingdom domestic cattle. Environmental sampling using PCR resulted in the isolation of STEC O157 PT2 from irrigation water at one implicated watercress farm, and WGS showed this isolate belonged to the same phylogenetic cluster as outbreak 2 isolates. Cattle were in close proximity to the watercress bed and were potentially the source of the second outbreak. Transfer of STEC from the field to the watercress bed may have occurred through wildlife entering the watercress farm or via runoff water. During this complex outbreak investigation, epidemiological studies, comprehensive testing of environmental samples, and the use of novel molecular methods proved invaluable in demonstrating that two simultaneous outbreaks of STEC O157 PT2 were both linked to the consumption of watercress but were associated with different sources of contamination.
Saile, Nadja; Voigt, Anja; Kessler, Sarah; Stressler, Timo; Fischer, Lutz
ABSTRACT Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 strain EDL933 harbors multiple prophage-associated open reading frames (ORFs) in its genome which are highly homologous to the chromosomal nanS gene. The latter is part of the nanCMS operon, which is present in most E. coli strains and encodes an esterase which is responsible for the monodeacetylation of 5-N-acetyl-9-O-acetyl neuraminic acid (Neu5,9Ac2). Whereas one prophage-borne ORF (z1466) has been characterized in previous studies, the functions of the other nanS-homologous ORFs are unknown. In the current study, the nanS-homologous ORFs of EDL933 were initially studied in silico. Due to their homology to the chromosomal nanS gene and their location in prophage genomes, we designated them nanS-p and numbered the different nanS-p alleles consecutively from 1 to 10. The two alleles nanS-p2 and nanS-p4 were selected for production of recombinant proteins, their enzymatic activities were investigated, and differences in their temperature optima were found. Furthermore, a function of these enzymes in substrate utilization could be demonstrated using an E. coli C600ΔnanS mutant in a growth medium with Neu5,9Ac2 as the carbon source and supplementation with the different recombinant NanS-p proteins. Moreover, generation of sequential deletions of all nanS-p alleles in strain EDL933 and subsequent growth experiments demonstrated a gene dose effect on the utilization of Neu5,9Ac2. Since Neu5,9Ac2 is an important component of human and animal gut mucus and since the nutrient availability in the large intestine is limited, we hypothesize that the presence of multiple Neu5,9Ac2 esterases provides them a nutrient supply under certain conditions in the large intestine, even if particular prophages are lost. IMPORTANCE In this study, a group of homologous prophage-borne nanS-p alleles and two of the corresponding enzymes of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7 strain EDL933 that may be important to provide
Gill, Alexander; Huszczynski, George
An outbreak of five cases of Escherichia coli O157 infection that occurred in Canada in 2012 was linked to frozen beef patties seasoned with garlic and peppercorn. Unopened retail packs of beef patties from the implicated production lot were recovered and analyzed to enumerate E. coli O157, other E. coli strains, and total coliforms. E. coli O157 was not recovered by direct enumeration on selective agar media. E. coli O157 in the samples was estimated at 3.1 most probable number per 140 g of beef patty, other E. coli was 11 CFU/g, and coliforms were 120 CFU/g. These results indicate that the presence of E. coli O157 in ground beef at levels below 0.1 CFU/g may cause outbreaks. However, the roles of temperature abuse, undercooking, and crosscontamination in amplifying the risk are unknown.
Grimm, L M; Goldoft, M; Kobayashi, J; Lewis, J H; Alfi, D; Perdichizzi, A M; Tarr, P I; Ongerth, J E; Moseley, S L; Samadpour, M
We studied the molecular epidemiology of the recent fast-food restaurant chain-associated Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak in Washington State. Genomic DNAs prepared from strains isolated from 433 patients were probed with radiolabelled Shiga-like toxin (SLT) I and SLT II genes and bacteriophage lambda DNA and were subsequently analyzed for their restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns. The SLT RFLP and lambda RFLP profiles of an E. coli O157:H7 strain isolated from the incriminated beef and prototype patient were compared with those of the patient isolates for determination of the concordance between patterns. Of the 377 patients with primary and secondary cases of infection epidemiologically linked to the outbreak, isolates from 367 (97.3%) of the patients displayed SLT RFLP and lambda RFLP profiles identical to those of the outbreak strains. Isolates from 10 of the 377 (2.6%) patients possessed SLT RFLP and lambda RFLP profiles different from those of the outbreak strains, and the patients from whom those isolates were obtained were subsequently characterized as having non-outbreak-related infections. The E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from 31 of 44 (70.4%) patients who were epidemiologically excluded from the outbreak were linked to the outbreak by RFLP typing. Our results indicate that SLT RFLP and lambda RFLP analyses are stable and sensitive methods, and when they are used in conjunction with an epidemiological investigation they could result in an earlier recognition of outbreaks and their sources, hence prompting measures to prevent the continued transmission of E. coli O157:H7. PMID:7559967
Youn, Min; Lee, Kang-Mu; Kim, So Hyun; Lim, Jeesun; Yoon, Jang W; Park, Sungsu
As a model host, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been used for studying unknown pathogen-host interactions and identifying novel virulence factors in bacterial pathogens. Among the bacterial pathogens that can induce death of C. elegans is enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7, a major serotype of EHEC that causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans and animals. However, it is unknown which EHEC O157:H7 factors are required for nematode death. In this study, bacterial ability to kill C. elegans was tested for several EHEC O157:H7 wild-type and mutant strains missing one virulence-associated factor, including Shiga toxins, enterohemolysin, pO157 (a large virulence plasmid in EHEC O157:H7), Type 3 secretion system, LuxS, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-side chains. Our results demonstrate that only mutants lacking either pO157 or LPS O-side chains cause full attenuation in killing C. elegans. The LPS O-side chain-defective ΔperA mutant strain was not able to colonize in the intestine even at 24h post-feeding with C. elegans, while the wild-type strain began to accumulate and colonize in the intestine as early as 3h post-feeding. A simple complementation of the mutant strain with the plasmid carrying the intact perA gene in trans completely restored the production of LPS O-side chains, as well as the ability to kill C. elegans. Our results show that pO157 and PerA are required for EHEC O157:H7 to kill C. elegans.
Lee, Heyn; Ku, Hye-Jin; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Kim, You-Tae; Shin, Hakdong; Ryu, Sangryeol; Lee, Ju-Hoon
Background Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Shigella flexneri are well-known food-borne pathogens causing severe food poisoning at low infectious doses. Bacteriophages have been approved for food applications by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and have been suggested as natural food preservatives to control specific food-borne pathogens. To develop a novel natural food preservative against E. coli O157:H7 and S. flexneri, a new bacteriophage needs to be isolated and characterized. Methodology/Principal Findings Bacteriophage HY01 infecting both E. coli O157:H7 and S. flexneri was isolated from a swine fecal sample. HY01 belongs to the family Myoviridae and is stable under various temperature and pH conditions. One-step growth curve analysis showed relatively short eclipse and latent periods as well as large burst size. The 167-kb genome sequence of HY01 was sequenced, and a comparative genome analysis with T4 for non-O157:H7 E. coli suggests that the receptor recognition protein of HY01 plays an important role in determination of host recognition and specificity. In addition, food applications using edible cabbage were conducted with two E. coli O157:H7 strains (ATCC 43890 and ATCC 43895), showing that treatment with HY01 inhibits these clinical and food isolates with >2 log reductions in bacterial load during the first 2 h of incubation. Conclusions/Significance HY01 can inhibit both E. coli O157:H7 and S. flexneri with large burst size and stability under stress conditions. The ability of HY01 to infect both E. coli O157:H7 and S. flexneri may be derived from the presence of two different host specificity-associated tail genes in the genome. Food applications revealed the specific ability of HY01 to inhibit both pathogens in food, suggesting its potential as a novel biocontrol agent or novel natural food preservative against E. coli O157:H7 and potentially S. flexneri. PMID:28036349
Kase, Julie A; Maounounen-Laasri, Anna; Son, Insook; Lin, Andrew; Hammack, Thomas S
The FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Chapter 4a recommends several agars for isolating non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC); not all have been thoroughly tested for recovering STECs from food. Using E. coli strains representing ten clinically relevant O serogroups (O26, O45, O91, O103, O104, O111, O113, O121, O128, O145) in artificially-contaminated fresh produce--bagged baby spinach, alfalfa sprouts, cilantro, and raw milk--we evaluated the performance of 8 different agars. Performance was highly dependent upon strain used and the presence of inhibitors, but not necessarily dependent on food matrix. Tellurite resistant-negative strains, O91:-, O103:H6, O104:H21, O113:H21, and O128, grew poorly on CHROMagar STEC, Rainbow agar O157, and a modified Rainbow O157 (mRB) agar. Although adding washed sheep's blood to CHROMagar STEC and mRB agars improved overall performance; however, this also reversed the inhibition of non-target bacteria provided by original formulations. Variable colony coloration made selecting colonies from Rainbow agar O157 and mRB agars difficult. Study results support a strategy using inclusive agars (e.g. L-EMB, SHIBAM) in combination with selective agars (R & F E. coli O157:H7, CHROMagar STEC) to allow for recovery of the most STECs while increasing the probability of recovering STEC in high bacterial count matrices.
4.1. Bacterial strains and growth conditions A nalidixic acid-resistant derivative of E. coli 0157:H7 strain 86-24, referred to as 86-24NalR. was used...dilution of rabbit anti-intimin polyclonal antibody  followed by a 1:5000 dilution of horse radish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled donkey anti-rabbit
Fischer, John R.; Zhao, Tong; Doyle, Michael P.; Goldberg, Martin R.; Brown, Cathy A.; Sewell, Christopher T.; Kavanaugh, Darrell M.; Bauman, Christopher D.
Studies were conducted to evaluate fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a small group of inoculated deer, determine the prevalence of the bacterium in free-ranging white-tailed deer, and elucidate relationships between E. coli O157:H7 in wild deer and domestic cattle at the same site. Six young, white-tailed deer were orally administered 108 CFU of E. coli O157:H7. Inoculated deer were shedding E. coli O157:H7 by 1 day postinoculation (DPI) and continued to shed decreasing numbers of the bacteria throughout the 26-day trial. Horizontal transmission to an uninoculated deer was demonstrated. Although E. coli O157:H7 bacteria were recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of deer necropsied from 4 to 26 DPI, attaching and effacing lesions were not apparent in any deer. Results are similar to those of inoculation studies in calves and sheep. In field studies, E. coli O157 was not detected in 310 fresh deer fecal samples collected from the ground. It was detected in feces, but not in meat, from 3 of 469 free-ranging deer in 1997. In 1998, E. coli O157 was not detected in 140 deer at the single positive site found in 1997; however, it was recovered from 13 of 305 dairy and beef cattle at the same location. Isolates of E. coli O157:H7 from deer and cattle at this site differed with respect to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and genes encoding Shiga toxins. The low overall prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and the identification of only one site with positive deer suggest that wild deer are not a major reservoir of E. coli O157:H7 in the southeastern United States. However, there may be individual locations where deer sporadically harbor the bacterium, and venison should be handled with the same precautions recommended for beef, pork, and poultry. PMID:11229913
Chattaway, Marie A.; Dallman, Timothy J.; Gentle, Amy; Wright, Michael J.; Long, Sophie E.; Ashton, Philip M.; Perry, Neil T.; Jenkins, Claire
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are considered to be a significant threat to public health due to the severity of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with human infection. In England STEC O157 is the most commonly detected STEC serogroup, however, the implementation of PCR at local hospital laboratories has resulted in an increase in the detection of non-O157 STEC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of whole genome sequencing (WGS) for routine public health surveillance of non-O157 STEC by comparing this approach to phenotypic serotyping and PCR for subtyping the stx-encoding genes. Of the 102 isolates where phenotypic and genotypic serotyping could be compared, 98 gave fully concordant results. The most common non-O157 STEC serogroups detected were O146 (22) and O26 (18). All but one of the 38 isolates that could not be phenotypically serotyped (designated O unidentifiable or O rough) were serotyped using the WGS data. Of the 73 isolates where a flagella type was available by traditional phenotypic typing, all results matched the H-type derived from the WGS data. Of the 140 sequenced non-O157 isolates, 52 (37.1%) harboured stx1 only, 42 (30.0%) had stx2 only, 46 (32.9%) carried stx1 and stx2. Of these, stx subtyping PCR results were available for 131 isolates and 121 of these had concordant results with the stx subtype derived from the WGS data. Of the 10 discordant results, non-specific primer binding during PCR amplification, due to the similarity of the stx2 subtype gene sequences was the most likely cause. The results of this study showed WGS provided a reliable and robust one-step process for characterization of STEC. Deriving the full serotype from WGS data in real time has enabled us to report a higher level of strain discrimination while stx subtyping provides data on the pathogenic potential of each isolate, enabling us to predict clinical outcome of each case and to monitor the emergence of hyper-virulent strains. PMID:26973632
Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Ostadgavahi, Ali Toloue; Ghotaslou, Reza; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Pirzadeh, Tahereh; Sorayaei Sowmesarayi, Vida; Memar, Mohammad Yousef
Background: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a food-borne pathogen and infection with this organism causes illnesses such as bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Objectives: Considering the lack of any information about the prevalence rate and the antibiotic resistance pattern of O157:H7 serotype in Tabriz, finding answers to the above mentioned subjects was among the goals of this study. Materials and Methods: Two hundred E. coli strains from diarrheal or non-diarrheal stools of outpatients and hospitalized cases in Tabriz Imam Reza hospital were isolated between September and December 2014 using MacConkey agar and standard biochemical tests and then cultured on sorbitol MacConkey agar. The sorbitol-negative isolates were confirmed as the O157 serotype using O157 antisera. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used for the detection of stx-1, stx-2, eae, and mdh genes and the antibiotic resistance pattern of these isolates was determined using Kirby-Bauer method and clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) standards. Results: Of the isolates 11 (5.5%) were sorbitol-negative, which were later analyzed by multiplex PCR and the results revealed that 2 (18.18%) isolates contained the stx-1 gene, 10 (90.91%) contained the stx-2 gene, and 5 (45.45%) contained the eae gene. The stx-2 and eae genes were the most commonly encountered virulence factors. All or most of the isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime (100%), gentamicin (100%), ciprofloxacin (100%), nalidixic acid (90.9%), trimetoprim sulfamethoxazole (90.9%), chloramphenicol (90.9%), ampicillin (81.8%), and cephalothin (72.7%). On the contrary, moderate susceptibility of the isolates to doxycycline (54.5%) was observed. Conclusions: Due to the low frequency of STEC O157 and the high susceptibility rates of the isolates to the tested antibiotics in this study, STEC O157 has not become a major problem in Tabriz yet, but comprehensive
Elhadidy, Mohamed; Elkhatib, Walid F; Elfadl, Eman A Abo; Verstraete, Karen; Denayer, Sarah; Barbau-Piednoir, Elodie; De Zutter, Lieven; Verhaegen, Bavo; De Rauw, Klara; Piérard, Denis; De Reu, Koen; Heyndrickx, Marc
The aim of this study was to identify an epidemiological association between Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 : H7 strains associated with human infection and with food sources. Frequency distributions of different genetic markers of E. coli O157 : H7 strains recovered from human and food sources were compared using molecular assays to identify E. coli O157 : H7 genotypes associated with variation in pathogenic potential and host specificity. Genotypic characterization included: lineage-specific polymorphism assay (LSPA-6), clade typing, tir (A255T) polymorphism, Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophage insertion site analysis and variant analysis of Shiga toxin 2 gene (stx2a and stx2c) and antiterminator Q genes (Q933 and Q21). The intermediate lineage (LI/II) dominated among both food and human strains. Compared to other clades, clades 7 and 8 were more frequent among food and human strains, respectively. The tir (255T) polymorphism occurred more frequently among human strains than food strains. Q21 and Q933 + Q21 were found at significantly higher frequencies among food and human strains, respectively. Moreover, stx2a and stx2a+c were detected at significantly higher frequencies among human strains compared to food strains. Bivariate analysis revealed significant concordance (P<0.05) between the LSPA-6 assay and the other typing methods. Multivariable regression analysis suggested that tir (255T) was the most distinctive genotype that can be used to detect bacterial clones with potential risk for human illness from food sources. This study supported previous reports of the existence of diversity in genetic markers among different isolation sources by including E. coli O157 : H7 strains from both food and human sources. This might enable tracking genotypes with potential risk for human illness from food sources.
Carson, C A; Keller, J M; McAdoo, K K; Wang, D; Higgins, B; Bailey, C W; Thorne, J G; Payne, B J; Skala, M; Hahn, A W
An artificial neural network model for the recognition of Escherichia coli O157:H7 restriction patterns was designed. In the training phase, images of two classes of E. coli isolates (O157:H7 and non-O157:H7) were digitized and transmitted to the neural network. The system was then tested for recognition of images not included in the training set. Promising results were achieved with the designed network configuration, providing a basis for further study. This application of a new generation of computation technology serves as an example of its usefulness in microbiology. PMID:8576341
Doregiraee, Fatemeh; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Nayeri Fasaei, Bahar; Charkhkar, Saeed; Tajedin, Elahe; Zali, Mohammad Reza
Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) strains in healthy broilers in Iran. Background: STEC and EPEC strains as diarrheagenic E. coli are among the most prevalent causative agents in acute diarrhea. Domestic animals, mainly cattle and sheep, have been implicated as the principal reservoirs of these pathotypes; however their prevalence among the broilers is varied among different countries. Patients and methods: A total of 500 cloacal swab samples from broilers of five different poultry houses (A-E) were collected to investigate the presence of stx1, stx2, hly, eae, and bfp virulence genes among the E. coli isolates by polymerase chain reaction. The shiga toxin encoding strains were evaluated serologically to detect their interaction with a commercial antiserum against O157 antigen. Results: Out of the 500 collected samples, 444 E. coli strains were isolated. Three strains (0.67%) presented at least one of the studied virulence genes (stx2, hly and eae), two strains were identified as STEC (stx2+, O157:nonH7) and one as an atypical EPEC strains (eae+ bfp-). Conclusion: The study established the presence of STEC and atypical EPEC in healthy broilers in Iran. Poultry might serve as vectors for transmission of pathogenic E. coli to human populations. PMID:26744615
Escherichia coli K12 defends against peroxide mediated oxidative damage using two catalases, hydroperoxidase I (katG) and hydroperoxidase II (katE) and the peroxiredoxin, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (ahpC). In E. coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 43895 (EDL933), plasmid pO157 encodes for an additional cata...
This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of non-O157 STEC in products of meat animals. There is a wide range in pathogenicity of STEC strains. Potential regulation in meat products is currently focused on the group of six O groups the CDC indicates accounts of 71% of non-O157 STEC illness...
The effect of an E. coli O157:H7-specific bacteriophage cocktail (EcoShield™) was evaluated against nalidixic acid resistant (NalR) E. coli O157:H7 strains in either a) laboratory medium or b) on leafy greens. Laboratory medium cultures were inoculated with 5 log CFU/ml and treated with 7 log PFU/ml...
A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of ergot alkaloids (dihydroergotamine, ergonovine, and ergotamine) on E. coli O157:H7 in both pure and mixed ruminal fluid culture. Alkaloids were added to solutions of E. coli O157:H7 strains 933 (pure and ruminal cultures) and 6058 (r...
Caprylic acid (CA) was evaluated for reducing E. coli O157: H7 and Salmonella on spinach and lettuce leaves. Spinach, Romaine lettuce and Iceberg lettuce leaves were inoculated with a cocktail of five E. coli O157: H7 or Salmonella strains, air dried for 30 min, and then dipped in caprylic acid (10,...
This study investigated the effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde, an active ingredient in cinnamon, for inactivating E. coli O157:H7 in undercooked ground beef patties. A five-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 was inoculated into ground beef (90% lean and 10% fat) at approximately 7.0 log CFU/g, followed ...
Johnson, R P; Cray, W C; Johnson, S T
Oral inoculation of calves and steers with 10(10) CFU of Escherichia coli O157:H7 induced prompt and sustained increases in serum antibodies to O157 lipopolysaccharide. Neutralizing antibodies to verotoxin 1 also increased rapidly in most steers but more gradually in calves. None of the animals developed neutralizing antibodies to verotoxin 2. These serological responses were not correlated with elimination of infection in calves or steers or protection of calves against reinfection with the same strain. PMID:8613410
Dean-Nystrom, E A; Bosworth, B T; Moon, H W; O'Brien, A D
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains require intimin to induce attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions in newborn piglets. Infection of newborn calves with intimin-positive or intimin-negative EHEC O157:H7 demonstrated that intimin is needed for colonization, A/E lesions, and disease in cattle. These results suggest that experiments to determine if intimin-based vaccines reduce O157:H7 levels in cattle are warranted.
Background To obtain insights into Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) survival mechanisms in the bovine rumen, we defined the growth characteristics and proteome of O157 cultured in rumen fluid (RF; pH 6.0-7.2 and low volatile fatty acid content) obtained from rumen-fistulated cattle fed low protein content “maintenance diet” under diverse in vitro conditions. Results Bottom-up proteomics (LC-MS/MS) of whole cell-lysates of O157 cultured under anaerobic conditions in filter-sterilized RF (fRF; devoid of normal ruminal microbiota) and nutrient-depleted and filtered RF (dRF) resulted in an anaerobic O157 fRF-and dRF-proteome comprising 35 proteins functionally associated with cell structure, motility, transport, metabolism and regulation, but interestingly, not with O157 virulence. Shotgun proteomics-based analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation used to further study differential protein expression in unfiltered RF (uRF; RF containing normal rumen microbial flora) complemented these results. Conclusions Our results indicate that in the rumen, the first anatomical compartment encountered by this human pathogen within the cattle gastrointestinal tract (GIT), O157 initiates a program of specific gene expression that enables it to adapt to the in vivo environment, and successfully transit to its colonization sites in the bovine GIT. Further experiments in vitro using uRF from animals fed different diets and with additional O157 strains, and in vivo using rumen-fistulated cattle will provide a comprehensive understanding of the adaptive mechanisms involved, and help direct evolution of novel modalities for blocking O157 infection of cattle. PMID:24559513
Introduction: Ralstonia spp., a heterotrophic bacterium that are isolated from produce processing environments as part of the native microflora, have strong potentials for formaing biofilms on various surfaces. When co-cultured, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) and Ralstonia spp. displayed a synerg...
Ogawa, Michinaga; Shimizu, Kensuke; Nomoto, Koji; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Watanuki, Masaaki; Tanaka, Ryuichiro; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Hamabata, Takashi; Yamasaki, Shinji; Takeda, Yoshifumi
We examined colonization patterns of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), concentrations of Shiga toxins (Stxs) and specific immunoglobulin A (lgA) against Stxs and STEC bacterial cell surface antigen in various portions of the gastrointestinal tract in an infant rabbit infection model. After inoculation of 3-day-old infant rabbits with STEC strain 89020087 at low doses (∼103 CFU/body), numbers of colonizing STEC bacteria and concentrations of Stxs in the intestine increased dramatically and the animals developed diarrhea within a couple of days after infection. Daily administration of Lactobacillus casei from the day of birth dramatically decreased the severity of diarrhea and lowered STEC colonization levels in the gastrointestinal tract 100-fold day 7 after infection. Both Stx1 and Stx2 concentrations in the intestines and histological damage to the intestinal mucus induced by STEC infection were decreased by the administration of L. casei. Examination of the concentrations of volatile fatty acids and pH of the intestinal contents revealed that the protective effect of L. casei administration against STEC infection was not due to fermented products such as lactic acid in the gastrointestinal tract. Administration of L. casei increased levels of lgAs against Stx1, Stx2, and formalin-killed STEC cells in the colon approximately two-, four-, and threefold, respectively, compared with those of the untreated controls by day 7 after infection. These results suggest that administration of L. casei strain Shirota enhances the local immune responses to STEC cells and Stxs and leads to elimination of STEC and thus decreases Stx concentrations in the intestines. PMID:11160007
Biofilm formation is a mechanism adapted by many microorganisms that enhances the survival in stressful environments. In food processing facilities, bacterial strains with strong biofilm forming capacities are more likely to survive the daily cleaning and disinfection. Foodborne bacterial pathogens,...
Amézquita-López, Bianca A.; Quiñones, Beatriz; Cooley, Michael B.; León-Félix, Josefina; Castro-del Campo, Nohelia; Mandrell, Robert E.; Jiménez, Maribel; Chaidez, Cristóbal
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are zoonotic enteric pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. Cattle and small ruminants are important animal reservoirs of STEC. The present study investigated animal reservoirs for STEC in small rural farms in the Culiacan Valley, an important agricultural region located in Northwest Mexico. A total of 240 fecal samples from domestic animals were collected from five sampling sites in the Culiacan Valley and were subjected to an enrichment protocol followed by either direct plating or immunomagnetic separation before plating on selective media. Serotype O157:H7 isolates with the virulence genes stx2, eae, and ehxA were identified in 40% (26/65) of the recovered isolates from cattle, sheep and chicken feces. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis grouped most O157:H7 isolates into two clusters with 98.6% homology. The use of multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) differentiated isolates that were indistinguishable by PFGE. Analysis of the allelic diversity of MLVA loci suggested that the O157:H7 isolates from this region were highly related. In contrast to O157:H7 isolates, a greater genotypic diversity was observed in the non-O157 isolates, resulting in 23 PFGE types and 14 MLVA types. The relevant non-O157 serotypes O8:H19, O75:H8, O111:H8 and O146:H21 represented 35.4% (23/65) of the recovered isolates. In particular, 18.5% (12/65) of all the isolates were serotype O75:H8, which was the most variable serotype by both PFGE and MLVA. The non-O157 isolates were predominantly recovered from sheep and were identified to harbor either one or two stx genes. Most non-O157 isolates were ehxA-positive (86.5%, 32/37) but only 10.8% (4/37) harbored eae. These findings indicate that zoonotic STEC with genotypes associated with human illness are present in animals on small farms within rural communities in the Culiacan Valley and emphasize the need for the development of control
Chapman, P A; Cerdán Malo, A T; Ellin, M; Ashton, R; Harkin
A 1 year study of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle and sheep at slaughter, on beef and lamb carcasses and in raw beef and lamb products from retail butchers' shops was performed in the Sheffield area. Each month, samples of rectal faeces were collected immediately after slaughter from 400 cattle and 600 sheep, and 400-430 samples of raw meat products were purchased from butchers' shops. Meat samples were also obtained from 1500 beef and 1500 lamb carcasses. All samples were examined for E. coli O157 by enrichment culture, immunomagnetic separation and culture of magnetic particles onto cefixime tellurite sorbitol MacConkey agar. Raw meat products were also examined for numbers of generic E. coli by a standard membrane culture method. E. coli O157 was isolated from 620 (12.9%) of 4800 cattle, 100 (7.4%) of 7200 sheep, 21 (1.4%) of 1500 beef carcasses, 10 (0.7%) of 1500 lamb carcasses and from 22 (0.44%) of 4983 raw meat products. E. coli O157 was isolated more frequently from lamb products (0.8%) than from beef products (0.4%). Numbers of generic E. coli in meat products reached seasonal peaks in July and August with counts of > 10(4)/g occurring more frequently in lamb products (50.8 and 42.4%, respectively) than in beef products (19.3 and 23.8%, respectively). The majority of E. coli O157 strains, from animals, carcasses and meat samples, were isolated during the summer. Most were verocytotoxigenic as determined by Vero cell assay and DNA hybridisation, eaeA gene positive and contained a 92 kb plasmid. The isolates were compared with 66 isolates from human cases over the same period. A combination of phage type, toxin genotype and plasmid analysis allowed subdivision of all the E. coli O157 isolates into 96 subtypes. Of these subtypes, 53 (55%) were isolated only from bovine faecal samples. However, 61 (92%) of the 66 isolates from humans belonged to 13 subtypes which were also found in the animal population.
Douëllou, T; Delannoy, S; Ganet, S; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Fach, P; Loukiadis, E; Montel, Mc; Thevenot-Sergentet, D
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are widely recognized as pathogens causing food borne disease. Here we evaluate the genetic diversity of 197 strains, mainly STEC, from serotypes O157:H7, O26:H11, O103:H2, O111:H8 and O145:28 and compared strains recovered in dairy products against strains from human, meat and environment cases. For this purpose, we characterized a set of reference-collection STEC isolates from dairy products by PFGE DNA fingerprinting and a subset of these by virulence-gene profiling. PFGE profiles of restricted STEC total DNA showed high genomic variability (0.9976 on Simpson's discriminatory index), enabling all dairy isolates to be differentiated. High-throughput real-time PCR screening of STEC virulence genes were applied on the O157:H7 and O26:H11 STEC isolates from dairy products and human cases. The virulence gene profiles of dairy and human STEC strains were similar. Nevertheless, frequency-wise, stx1 was more prevalent among dairy O26:H11 isolates than in human cases ones (87% vs. 44%) while stx2 was more prevalent among O26:H11 human isolates (23% vs. 81%). For O157:H7 isolates, stx1 (0% vs. 39%), nleF (40% vs 94%) and Z6065 (40% vs 100%) were more prevalent among human than dairy strains. Our data point to differences between human and dairy strains but these differences were not sufficient to associate PFGE and virulence gene profiles to a putative lower pathogenicity of dairy strains based on their lower incidence in disease. Further comparison of whole-genome expression and virulence gene profiles should be investigated in cheese and intestinal tract samples.
Böhnlein, Christina; Kabisch, Jan; Meske, Diana; Franz, Charles M A P; Pichner, Rohtraud
In 2011, one of the world's largest outbreaks of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) occurred, caused by a rare Escherichia coli serotype, O104:H4, that shared the virulence profiles of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC)/enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). The persistence and fitness factors of the highly virulent EHEC/EAEC O104:H4 strain, grown either in food or in vitro, were compared with those of E. coli O157 outbreak-associated strains. The log reduction rates of the different EHEC strains during the maturation of fermented sausages were not significantly different. Both the O157:NM and O104:H4 serotypes could be shown by qualitative enrichment to be present after 60 days of sausage storage. Moreover, the EHEC/EAEC O104:H4 strain appeared to be more viable than E. coli O157:H7 under conditions of decreased pH and in the presence of sodium nitrite. Analysis of specific EHEC strains in experiments with an EHEC inoculation cocktail showed a dominance of EHEC/EAEC O104:H4, which could be isolated from fermented sausages for 60 days. Inhibitory activities of EHEC/EAEC O104:H4 toward several E. coli strains, including serotype O157 strains, could be determined. Our study suggests that EHEC/EAEC O104:H4 is well adapted to the multiple adverse conditions occurring in fermented raw sausages. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that STEC strain cocktails composed of several serotypes, instead of E. coli O157:H7 alone, be used in food risk assessments. The enhanced persistence of EHEC/EAEC O104:H4 as a result of its robustness, as well as the production of bacteriocins, may account for its extraordinary virulence potential.
Booher, S L; Cornick, N A; Moon, H W
These experiments determined the ability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to colonize and persist in pigs simultaneously inoculated with other pathogenic E. coli strains. Three-months-old pigs were inoculated with a mixture of five E. coli strains. The mixture included two Shiga toxigenic E. coli (STEC) O157:H7 strains, two enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) strains and one enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strain. A high dose mixture with all five strains at 10(10)CFU/animal (CFU: colony forming units) and a low dose mixture with the STEC strains at 10(7)CFU and the EPEC and ETEC strains remaining at 10(10)CFU were used. The STEC strains persisted in the alimentary tracts of some pigs at 2 months post-inoculation, following inoculation with both the high and low dose mixtures. When all strains were given at 10(10)CFU (high dose) the STEC strains persisted in greater numbers and in more pigs than did the other E. coli strains. The results demonstrated that persistent colonization (> or =2 months) by E. coli O157:H7 can occur in pigs. These findings were similar to those reported from sheep inoculated with the same mixture of E. coli strains. The results are consistent with reports suggesting that pigs have the potential to be reservoir hosts for STEC O157:H7.
Ferguson, Sean; Roberts, Cheryl; Handy, Eric; Sharma, Manan
The role of lytic bacteriophages in preventing cross contamination of produce has not been evaluated. A cocktail of three lytic phages specific for E. coli O157:H7 (EcoShield™) or a control (phosphate buffered saline, PBS) was applied to lettuce by either; (1) immersion of lettuce in 500 ml of EcoShield™ 8.3 log PFU/ml or 9.8 log PFU/ml for up to 2 min before inoculation with E. coli O157:H7; (2) spray-application of EcoShield™ (9.3 log PFU/ml) to lettuce after inoculation with E. coli O157:H7 (4.10 CFU/cm2) following exposure to 50 μg/ml chlorine for 30 sec. After immersion studies, lettuce was spot-inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (2.38 CFU/cm2). Phage-treated, inoculated lettuce pieces were stored at 4°C for and analyzed for E. coli O157:H7 populations for up to 7 d. Immersion of lettuce in 9.8 log PFU/ml EcoShield™ for 2 min significantly (p < 0.05) reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations after 24 h when stored at 4°C compared with controls. Immersion of lettuce in suspensions containing high concentrations of EcoShield™ (9.8 log PFU/ml) resulted in the deposition of high concentrations (7.8 log log PFU/cm2) of bacteriophages on the surface of fresh cut lettuce, potentially contributing to the efficacy of the lytic phages on lettuce. Spraying phages on to inoculated fresh cut lettuce after being washed in hypochlorite solution was significantly more effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations (2.22 log CFU/cm2) on day 0 compared with control treatments (4.10 log CFU/cm2). Both immersion and spray treatments provided protection from E. coli O157:H7 contamination on lettuce, but spray application of lytic bacteriophages to lettuce was more effective in immediately reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations fresh cut lettuce. PMID:23819106
Mayerhauser, C M
Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival in acid foods such as unpasteurized apple cider and fermented sausage is well documented. Researchers have determined that E. coli O157:H7 can survive in refrigerated acid foods for weeks. The potential of acid foods to serve as a vector of E. coli O157:H7 foodborne illness prompted this study to determine the fate of this organism in retail mustard containing acetic acid when stored at room and refrigerated temperatures. Various retail brands of dijon, yellow, and deli style mustard, pH ranging from 3.17 to 3.63, were inoculated individually with three test strains of E. coli O157:H7. Samples were inoculated with approximately 1.0 x 10(6) CFU/g, incubated at room (25+/-2.5 degrees C) and refrigerated (5+/-3 degrees C) temperatures, and assayed for surviving test strains at predetermined time intervals. An aliquot was appropriately diluted and plated using sorbitol MacConkey agar (SMAC). When the test strain was not recoverable by direct plating, the sample was assayed by enrichment in modified tryptic soy broth and recovered using SMAC. Growth of E. coli O157:H7 test strains was inhibited in all retail mustard styles. E. coli O157:H7 was not detected in dijon style mustard beyond 3 h at room and 2 days at refrigerated temperatures. Survival in yellow and deli style mustard was not detected beyond 1 h. Overall, test strain survival was greater at refrigerated than room temperature. Retail mustard demonstrated the ability to eliminate effectively any chance contamination by this organism within hours to days, suggesting that these products are not a likely factor in E. coli O157:H7 foodborne illness.
Tang, Yanjie; Kim, Huisung; Singh, Atul K.; Aroonnual, Amornrat; Bae, Euiwon; Rajwa, Bartek; Fratamico, Pina M.; Bhunia, Arun K.
Background Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) have emerged as important foodborne pathogens, among which seven serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, O157) are most frequently implicated in human infection. The aim was to determine if a light scattering sensor can be used to rapidly identify the colonies of STEC serogroups on selective agar plates. Methodology/Principal Findings Initially, a total of 37 STEC strains representing seven serovars were grown on four different selective agar media, including sorbitol MacConkey (SMAC), Rainbow Agar O157, BBL CHROMagarO157, and R&F E. coli O157:H7, as well as nonselective Brain Heart Infusion agar. The colonies were scanned by an automated light scattering sensor, known as BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology), to acquire scatter patterns of STEC serogroups, and the scatter patterns were analyzed using an image classifier. Among all of the selective media tested, both SMAC and Rainbow provided the best differentiation results allowing multi-class classification of all serovars with an average accuracy of more than 90% after 10–12 h of growth, even though the colony appearance was indistinguishable at that early stage of growth. SMAC was chosen for exhaustive scatter image library development, and 36 additional strains of O157:H7 and 11 non-O157 serovars were examined, with each serogroup producing unique differential scatter patterns. Colony scatter images were also tested with samples derived from pure and mixed cultures, as well as experimentally inoculated food samples. BARDOT accurately detected O157 and O26 serovars from a mixed culture and also from inoculated lettuce and ground beef (10-h broth enrichment +12-h on-plate incubation) in the presence of natural background microbiota in less than 24 h. Conclusions BARDOT could potentially be used as a screening tool during isolation of the most important STEC serovars on selective agar plates from food samples in
Biofilm formation, which is an important bacterial survival and virulence attribute, is controlled by intricate regulatory networks. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important foodborne pathogen because infections with this agent could lead to hemorrhagic colitis, kidney dysfunction,...
Albanese, Adriana; Gerhardt, Elizabeth; García, Hugo; Amigo, Natalia; Cataldi, Angel; Zotta, Elsa; Ibarra, Cristina
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are responsible for a variety of clinical syndromes including bloody and non-bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Although multiple serotypes of STEC have been isolated from hemorrhagic colitis cases, E. coli O157:H7 is by far the most prevalent serotype associated with HUS. Shiga toxin is the major virulence factor of E. coli O157:H7 and is responsible for the more severe symptoms of the infection. However, the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diarrhea mediated by Stx2 are not well known. In this study, we have determined the effects of E. coli O157:H7 strain 125/99 wild type (wt) on the human colonic mucosa mounted in an Ussing chamber. In response to 125/99wt, an inhibition of water absorption across human colonic mucosa was observed. Histological sections showed severe necrosis with detachment of the surface epithelium, mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate and loss of goblet cells after 1h of incubation with 125/99wt. These alterations were not observed with the isogenic mutant strain lacking stx2 or with the filter-sterilized culture supernatant from the 125/99wt strain. These results indicate that the cell damages in human colon are induced by Stx2, and that Stx2 production is increased by the interaction with bacterial cells. Identification of host cell-derived factors responsible for increasing Stx2 can lead to new strategies for modulating STEC infections.
Kolling, Glynis L.; Matthews, Karl R.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 (strains ATCC 43895 and FO46) became nonculturable in sterile, distilled, deionized water or after exposure to chlorine. Recovery of nonculturable E. coli O157:H7 was examined by in vitro and in vivo methods. The decline in culturability of starved E. coli O157:H7 was measured by plate count on rich medium. Recovery in vitro of nonculturable cells was conducted with media amended with catalase or sodium pyruvate; however, there was no apparent increase over culturable cell counts on amended versus nonamended media. Although nonculturable E. coli O157:H7 did not recover under in vitro conditions, a mouse model was used to determine if in vivo conditions would provide sufficient conditions for recovery of nonculturable E. coli O157:H7. In separate studies, mice were orally challenged with starvation-induced nonculturable cells (FO46) or chlorine-induced nonculturable cells (43895 and FO46). Passage through the mouse gastrointestinal tract had no effect on recovery of nonculturable (starvation or chlorine induced) E. coli O157:H7 (43895 or FO46), based on analysis of fecal samples. Mouse kidneys were assayed for the presence of Shiga toxin using the Vero cell assay. Differences in cytotoxicity towards Vero cells from kidney samples of mice receiving nonculturable cells and control mice were not significant, suggesting a loss of virulence. PMID:11525987
Yekta, M Atef; Cox, E; Goddeeris, B M; Vanrompay, D
Ruminants are an important reservoir of Escherichia coli O157:H7, therefore reducing E. coli O157:H7 excretion by these animals could play a key role in reducing human infections. The present study investigates the potential of bovine lactoferrin, a natural antimicrobial-immunomodulatory protein of milk, to prevent colonization and excretion of E. coli O157:H7 in sheep. The effect of two different doses of lactoferrin (1.5 g or 0.15 g per 12h) was evaluated on colonization of sheep intestine and faecal excretion of the NCTC12900 strain. Hereto, lactoferrin was orally administered to sheep during 30 consecutive days and sheep were experimentally infected with E. coli O157:H7 on the second day of the lactoferrin administration. Interestingly, both lactoferrin dosages significantly reduced the number of E. coli O157:H7 in faeces as well as the duration of faecal excretion. The high dose group showed a significantly higher antibody response against EspA and EspB, two structural proteins of the bacterial type III secretion system (TTSS), than the colonization control group. The results suggest that oral lactoferrin administration could be used to prevent persistent colonization of sheep with E. coli O157:H7.
Wang, Jinliang; Katani, Robab; Li, Lingling; Hegde, Narasimha; Roberts, Elisabeth L.; Kapur, Vivek; DebRoy, Chitrita
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC) cause food-borne illness that may be fatal. STEC strains enumerate two types of potent Shiga toxins (Stx1 and Stx2) that are responsible for causing diseases. It is important to detect the E. coli O157 and Shiga toxins in food to prevent outbreak of diseases. We describe the development of two multi-analyte antibody-based lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA); one for the detection of Stx1 and Stx2 and one for the detection of E. coli O157 that may be used simultaneously to detect pathogenic E. coli O157:H7. The LFIA strips were developed by conjugating nano colloidal gold particles with monoclonal antibodies against Stx1 and Stx2 and anti-lipid A antibodies to capture Shiga toxins and O157 antigen, respectively. Our results indicate that the LFIA for Stx is highly specific and detected Stx1 and Stx2 within three hours of induction of STEC with ciprofloxacin at 37 °C. The limit of detection for E. coli O157 LFIA was found to be 105 CFU/mL in ground beef spiked with the pathogen. The LFIAs are rapid, accurate and easy to use and do not require sophisticated equipment or trained personnel. Following the assay, colored bands on the membrane develop for end-point detection. The LFIAs may be used for screening STEC in food and the environment. PMID:27023604
Käppeli, U; Hächler, H; Giezendanner, N; Cheasty, T; Stephan, R
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), an important foodborne pathogen, can cause mild to severe bloody diarrhoea (BD), sometimes followed by life-threatening complications such as haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). A total of 44 O157 strains isolated from different patients from 2000 through 2009 in Switzerland were further characterized and linked to medical history data. Non-bloody diarrhoea was experienced by 15.9%, BD by 61.4% of the patients, and 29.5% developed HUS. All strains belonged to MLST type 11, were positive for stx2 variants (stx2 and/or stx2c), eae and ehxA, and only two strains showed antibiotic resistance. Of the 44 strains, nine phage types (PTs) were detected the most frequent being PT32 (43.2%) and PT8 (18.2%). By PFGE, 39 different patterns were found. This high genetic diversity within the strains leads to the conclusion that STEC O157 infections in Switzerland most often occur as sporadic cases.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a food-borne pathogen that causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Positive identification of E. coli O157:H7 is made using biochemical tests and latex agglutination using specific antisera. However, under certain conditions, some E. coli O157:H7 isolate...
Hong, Y; Pan, Y; Ebner, P D
Escherichia coli O157:H7 remains a foodborne pathogen of concern with infections associated with products ranging from ground beef to produce to processed foods. We previously demonstrated that phage-based technologies could reduce foodborne pathogen colonization in live animals. Here, we examined if a 3-phage cocktail could reduce E. coli O157:H7 in experimentally contaminated ground beef, spinach, and cheese. The 3 phages were chosen from our E. coli O157:H7 phage library based on their distinct origins of isolation, lytic ranges, and rapid growth (40- to 50-min life cycle). Two phages belonged to the Myoviridae family and the other phage belonged to the Siphoviridae family. The phage cocktail was added to ground beef, spinach leaves, and cheese slices contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 (10(7) cfu) at a multiplicity of infection of 1. Phage treatment reduced (P < 0.05) the concentrations of E. coli O157:H7 by 1.97 log10 cfu/mL in ground beef when stored at room temperature (24 °C) for 24 h, 0.48 log10 cfu/mL at refrigeration (4 °C), and 0.56 log10 cfu/mL in undercooked condition (internal temperature of 46 °C). Likewise, phage treatment reduced (P < 0.05) E. coli O157:H7 by 3.28, 2.88, and 2.77 log10 cfu/mL in spinach when stored at room temperature for 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Phage treatment, however, did not reduce E. coli O157:H7 concentrations in contaminated cheese. Additionally, 3 phage-resistant E. coli O157:H7 strains (309-PR [phage resistant] 1, 309-PR4, and 502-PR5) were isolated and characterized to test if phage resistance could limit long-term use of phages as biocontrol agents. Growth kinetics and adsorption assays indicated that phage resistance in strains 309-PR4 and 502-PR5 was mediated, at least in part, by prevention of phage adsorption. Phage resistance in strain 309-PR1 was the result of limited phage proliferation. Phage resistance was stably maintained in vitro throughout a 4-d subculture period in the absence of phage. No
Eichhorn, Inga; Heidemanns, Katrin; Semmler, Torsten; Kinnemann, Bianca; Mellmann, Alexander; Harmsen, Dag; Anjum, Muna F.; Schmidt, Herbert; Fruth, Angelika; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Heesemann, Jürgen; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Karch, Helge
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is the causative agent of bloody diarrhea and extraintestinal sequelae in humans, most importantly hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Besides the bacteriophage-encoded Shiga toxin gene (stx), EHEC harbors the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), which confers the ability to cause attaching and effacing lesions. Currently, the vast majority of EHEC infections are caused by strains belonging to five O serogroups (the “big five”), which, in addition to O157, the most important, comprise O26, O103, O111, and O145. We hypothesize that these four non-O157 EHEC serotypes differ in their phylogenies. To test this hypothesis, we used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to analyze a large collection of 250 isolates of these four O serogroups, which were isolated from diseased as well as healthy humans and cattle between 1952 and 2009. The majority of the EHEC isolates of O serogroups O26 and O111 clustered into one sequence type complex, STC29. Isolates of O103 clustered mainly in STC20, and most isolates of O145 were found within STC32. In addition to these EHEC strains, STC29 also included stx-negative E. coli strains, termed atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC), yet another intestinal pathogenic E. coli group. The finding that aEPEC and EHEC isolates of non-O157 O serogroups share the same phylogeny suggests an ongoing microevolutionary scenario in which the phage-encoded Shiga toxin gene stx is transferred between aEPEC and EHEC. As a consequence, aEPEC strains of STC29 can be regarded as post- or pre-EHEC isolates. Therefore, STC29 incorporates phylogenetic information useful for unraveling the evolution of EHEC. PMID:26231647
Zhao, T; Doyle, M P; Shere, J; Garber, L
The prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dairy herds is poorly understood, even though young dairy animals have been reported to be a host. From February to May 1993, 662 fecal samples from 50 control herds in 14 states, and from June to August 1993, 303 fecal samples from 14 case herds in 11 states were collected for isolation of E. coli O157:H7. Case herds were those in which E. coli O157:H7 was isolated from preweaned calves in a previous U.S. Department of Agriculture study, whereas control herds from which E. coli O157:H7 had not been isolated previously were randomly selected from the same states as case herds. Among the control herds, E. coli O157:H7 was isolated from 6 of 399 calves (1.5%) that were between 24 h old and the age of weaning and from 13 of 263 calves (4.9%) that were between the ages of weaning and 4 months. Eleven of 50 control herds (22%) were positive. Among the case herds, E. coli O157:H7 was isolated from 5 of 171 calves (2.9%) that were between 24 h old and the age of weaning and from 7 of 132 calves (5.3%) that were between the ages of weaning and 4 months. Seven of 14 case herds (50%) were positive. Sixteen of 31 isolates were obtained by direct plating, with populations ranging from 10(3) to 10(5) CFU/g. Fifteen of 31 isolates were isolated by enrichment only. Nineteen of the isolates produced both verocytotoxin 1 (VT-1) and VT-2, whereas 12 produced VT-2 only. PMID:7747951
Efficacy of integrated treatment of UVC and low dose Gamma irradiation to inactivate mixed Strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica inoculated on whole Grape tomatoes was evaluated. A mixed bacterial cocktail composed of a three strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 (C9490, E02128 an...
Mead, P S; Griffin, P M
Escherichia coli O157 was first identified as a human pathogen in 1982. One of several Shiga toxin-producing serotypes known to cause human illness, the organism probably evolved through horizontal acquisition of genes for Shiga toxins and other virulence factors. E. coli O157 is found regularly in the faeces of healthy cattle, and is transmitted to humans through contaminated food, water, and direct contact with infected people or animals. Human infection is associated with a wide range of clinical illness, including asymptomatic shedding, non-bloody diarrhoea, haemorrhagic colitis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome, and death. Since laboratory practices vary, physicians need to know whether laboratories in their area routinely test for E. coli O157 in stool specimens. Treatment with antimicrobial agents remains controversial: some studies suggest that treatment may precipitate haemolytic uraemic syndrome, and other studies suggest no effect or even a protective effect. Physicians can help to prevent E. coli O157 infections by counselling patients about the hazards of consuming undercooked ground meat or unpasteurised milk products and juices, and about the importance of handwashing to prevent the spread of diarrhoeal illness, and by informing public-health authorities when they see unusual numbers of cases of bloody diarrhoea or haemolytic uraemic syndrome.
Ferdous, Mithila; Zhou, Kai; Morabito, Stefano; Croughs, Peter D.; de Boer, Richard F.; Kooistra-Smid, Anna M. D.; Friedrich, Alexander W.
The ability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to induce cellular damage leading to disease in humans is related to numerous virulence factors, most notably the stx gene, encoding Shiga toxin (Stx) and carried by a bacteriophage. Loss of the Stx-encoding bacteriophage may occur during infection or culturing of the strain. Here, we collected stx-positive and stx-negative variants of E. coli O157:H7/NM (nonmotile) isolates from patients with gastrointestinal complaints. Isolates were characterized by whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and their virulence properties and phylogenetic relationship were determined. Because of the presence of the eae gene but lack of the bfpA gene, the stx-negative isolates were considered atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC). However, they had phenotypic characteristics similar to those of the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) isolates and belonged to the same sequence type, ST11. Furthermore, EPEC and STEC isolates shared similar virulence genes, the locus of enterocyte effacement region, and plasmids. Core genome phylogenetic analysis using a gene-by-gene typing approach showed that the sorbitol-fermenting (SF) stx-negative isolates clustered together with an SF STEC isolate and that one non-sorbitol-fermenting (NSF) stx-negative isolate clustered together with NSF STEC isolates. Therefore, these stx-negative isolates were thought either to have lost the Stx phage or to be a progenitor of STEC O157:H7/NM. As detection of STEC infections is often based solely on the identification of the presence of stx genes, these may be misdiagnosed in routine laboratories. Therefore, an improved diagnostic approach is required to manage identification, strategies for treatment, and prevention of transmission of these potentially pathogenic strains. PMID:26311863
Ferdous, Mithila; Zhou, Kai; Mellmann, Alexander; Morabito, Stefano; Croughs, Peter D; de Boer, Richard F; Kooistra-Smid, Anna M D; Rossen, John W A; Friedrich, Alexander W
The ability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to induce cellular damage leading to disease in humans is related to numerous virulence factors, most notably the stx gene, encoding Shiga toxin (Stx) and carried by a bacteriophage. Loss of the Stx-encoding bacteriophage may occur during infection or culturing of the strain. Here, we collected stx-positive and stx-negative variants of E. coli O157:H7/NM (nonmotile) isolates from patients with gastrointestinal complaints. Isolates were characterized by whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and their virulence properties and phylogenetic relationship were determined. Because of the presence of the eae gene but lack of the bfpA gene, the stx-negative isolates were considered atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC). However, they had phenotypic characteristics similar to those of the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) isolates and belonged to the same sequence type, ST11. Furthermore, EPEC and STEC isolates shared similar virulence genes, the locus of enterocyte effacement region, and plasmids. Core genome phylogenetic analysis using a gene-by-gene typing approach showed that the sorbitol-fermenting (SF) stx-negative isolates clustered together with an SF STEC isolate and that one non-sorbitol-fermenting (NSF) stx-negative isolate clustered together with NSF STEC isolates. Therefore, these stx-negative isolates were thought either to have lost the Stx phage or to be a progenitor of STEC O157:H7/NM. As detection of STEC infections is often based solely on the identification of the presence of stx genes, these may be misdiagnosed in routine laboratories. Therefore, an improved diagnostic approach is required to manage identification, strategies for treatment, and prevention of transmission of these potentially pathogenic strains.
Ma, Jincai; Ibekwe, A Mark; Yi, Xuan; Wang, Haizhen; Yamazaki, Akihiro; Crowley, David E; Yang, Ching-Hong
The persistence of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7 in the environment poses a serious threat to public health. However, the role of Shiga toxins and other virulence factors in the survival of E. coli O157:H7 is poorly defined. The aim of this study was to determine if the virulence factors, stx₁, stx₂, stx₁₋₂, and eae in E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 play any significant role in the growth of this pathogen in rich media and in soils. Isogenic deletion mutants that were missing one of four virulence factors, stx₁, stx₂, stx₁₋₂, and eae in E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 were constructed, and their growth in rich media and survival in soils with distinct texture and chemistry were characterized. The survival data were successfully analyzed using Double Weibull model, and the modeling parameters of the mutant strains were not significantly different from those of the wild type. The calculated T(d) (time needed to reach the detection limit, 100 CFU/g soil) for loamy sand, sandy loam, and silty clay was 32, 80, and 110 days, respectively. It was also found that T(d) was positively correlated with soil structure (e.g. clay content), and soil chemistry (e.g. total nitrogen, total carbon, and water extractable organic carbon). The results of this study showed that the possession of Shiga toxins and intimin in E. coli O157:H7 might not play any important role in its survival in soils. The double deletion mutant of E. coli O157:H7 (stx₁⁻stx₂⁻) may be a good substitute to use for the investigation of transport, fate, and survival of E. coli O157:H7 in the environment where the use of pathogenic strains are prohibited by law since the mutants showed the same characteristics in both culture media and environmental samples.
Ma, Jincai; Ibekwe, A. Mark; Yi, Xuan; Wang, Haizhen; Yamazaki, Akihiro; Crowley, David E.; Yang, Ching-Hong
The persistence of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7 in the environment poses a serious threat to public health. However, the role of Shiga toxins and other virulence factors in the survival of E. coli O157:H7 is poorly defined. The aim of this study was to determine if the virulence factors, stx1, stx2, stx1–2, and eae in E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 play any significant role in the growth of this pathogen in rich media and in soils. Isogenic deletion mutants that were missing one of four virulence factors, stx1, stx2, stx1–2, and eae in E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 were constructed, and their growth in rich media and survival in soils with distinct texture and chemistry were characterized. The survival data were successfully analyzed using Double Weibull model, and the modeling parameters of the mutant strains were not significantly different from those of the wild type. The calculated Td (time needed to reach the detection limit, 100 CFU/g soil) for loamy sand, sandy loam, and silty clay was 32, 80, and 110 days, respectively. It was also found that Td was positively correlated with soil structure (e.g. clay content), and soil chemistry (e.g. total nitrogen, total carbon, and water extractable organic carbon). The results of this study showed that the possession of Shiga toxins and intimin in E. coli O157:H7 might not play any important role in its survival in soils. The double deletion mutant of E. coli O157:H7 (stx1−stx2−) may be a good substitute to use for the investigation of transport, fate, and survival of E. coli O157:H7 in the environment where the use of pathogenic strains are prohibited by law since the mutants showed the same characteristics in both culture media and environmental samples. PMID:21826238
Branchu, Priscilla; Hindré, Thomas; Fang, Xin; Thomas, Robynn; Gomelsky, Mark; Claret, Laurent; Harel, Josée; Gobert, Alain P; Martin, Christine
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen that resists the acidic gastric environment, colonizes the gut epithelium, and causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome, especially in children. The genomic island OI-47 of E. coli O157:H7 contains a gene, z1528, encoding an EAL-domain protein potentially involved in c-di-GMP hydrolysis that is absent in non-pathogenic E. coli. This gene, designated vmpA, is co-transcribed with ycdT, which is present in non pathogenic E. coli and encodes a diguanylate cyclase involved in c-di-GMP synthesis. To test for vmpA function, we constructed a vmpA knockout mutant. We also overexpressed vmpA, purified the VmpA protein and assayed for its activity in vitro. We found that VmpA possesses c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity and that the vmpA mutation results in increased biofilm formation, and reduced swimming motility, which is consistent with the function determined in vitro. Unexpectedly, suppressor mutations arise frequently in the vmpA background suggesting that VmpA plays an important regulatory role in E. coli O157:H7. These findings represent an example of remarkable flexibility in the organization of c-di-GMP signaling pathways in closely related species.
Gagnon, Mélanie; Kheadr, Ehab E; Dabour, Nassra; Richard, Denis; Fliss, Ismaïl
The effectiveness of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum RBL 71 as a probiotic against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection was studied using a murine model. BALB/c mice were fed the probiotic for 7 days before or after single challenge with E. coli O157:H7. Fecal B. thermacidophilum RBL 71 and E. coli O157:H7 counts obtained by selective culturing methods were assessed for 1 week before and after infection while feed intake, body weight and composition were monitored during 1 week after infection. Histology of gut tissue (jejunum, ileum and colon) and production of fecal IgA antibodies and serum IgG+IgM antibodies to E. coli O157:H7 were analyzed until 1 and 2 weeks post-infection, respectively. The pathogenicity of E. coli O157:H7, marked by body weight loss and intestinal histopathological changes in the infected group, was significantly reduced in the B. thermacidophilum-treated group. Feeding B. thermacidophilum RBL 71 for 7 days before infection resulted in greater post-challenge feed intake and weight gain and lower fecal levels of E. coli O157:H7. Post-infection levels of anti-E. coli O157:H7-specific IgA in feces and IgG+IgM in serum were higher in mice fed bifidobacteria. Intestinal injuries were also attenuated and reaction of the lymphoid component in the mucosa of the ileum was greater in the bifidobacteria-fed group. A lesser degree of protection against E. coli O157:H7 infection was observed when bifidobacteria were given during the 7 days after E. coli O157:H7 infection. These results demonstrate that feeding the probiotic B. thermacidophilum RBL 71 to mice can reduce the severity of E. coli O157:H7 infection, and suggest that this strain represents a good candidate for the prevention of enteric infections in human.
Lee, Ken-ichi; Kobayashi, Naoki; Watanabe, Maiko; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Kumagai, Susumu; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko
To elucidate the effect of fungal hyphae on the behaviour of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, the spread and change in stress resistance of the bacterium were evaluated after coculture with 11 species of food-related fungi including fermentation starters. Spread distances of STEC O157 varied depending on the co-cultured fungal species, and the motile bacterial strain spread for longer distances than the non-motile strain. The population of STEC O157 increased when co-cultured on colonies of nine fungal species but decreased on colonies of Emericella nidulans and Aspergillus ochraceus. Confocal scanning microscopy visualization of green fluorescent protein-tagged STEC O157 on fungal hyphae revealed that the bacterium colonized in the water film that existed on and between hyphae. To investigate the physiological changes in STEC O157 caused by co-culturing with fungi, the bacterium was harvested after 7 days of co-culturing and tested for acid resistance. After co-culture with eight fungal species, STEC O157 showed greater acid resistance compared to those cultured without fungi. Our results indicate that fungal hyphae can spread the contamination of STEC O157 and can also enhance the stress resistance of the bacteria. PMID:23919289
Sharafi, Hakimeh; Derakhshan, Venos; Paknejad, Mojgan; Alidoust, Leila; Tohidi, Azadeh; Pornour, Majid; Hajfarajollah, Hamidreza; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari
In recent years, exploring novel probiotic strains for therapeutic intervention has been raised due to the significant increase in market demand. This study aimed to investigate the certain probiotic properties of 15 Lactobacillus isolates from Iranian traditional dairy products. Among them, a novel potential probiotic strain was isolated and identified as Lactobacillus crustorum. The characteristics of potential probiotics were examined in terms of resistance to acidity, bile, and salinity as well as antibiotic tolerance and antibacterial activity. L. crustorum KH has shown tolerance property to bile (0.3 % w), acidity (pH 2-9), and salinity (1-5 % NaCl) and strong antibacterial activity against tested enteropathogens by well-diffusion assay. Furthermore, in vivo study and histological assays were performed to study whether live and heat-killed cells of L. crustorum KH are able to protect against the challenge of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the gastrointestinal tract of mice used as an experimental model. Therefore, heat-killed and live cells of L. crustorum KH were inoculated by gavage to different groups of 4-6-week-old female BALB/c mice in doses of 10(8) colony-forming unit (CFU)/dose. Thereafter, these mice were challenged with E. coli O157:H7 also inoculated in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of the animals. The results showed that heat-killed cells of L. crustorum KH exert a protective effect against E. coli O157:H7 colonization at different degrees, being lower than that produced by viable cells.
Wang, Jiaying; Niu, Yan D; Chen, Jinding; Anany, Hany; Ackermann, Hans-W; Johnson, Roger P; Ateba, Collins N; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A
This study aimed to isolate and characterize bacteriophages that lyse non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from cattle feces. Of 37 non-O157 STEC-infecting phages isolated, those targeting O26 (AXO26A, AYO26A, AYO26B), O103 (AXO103A, AYO103A), O111 (AXO111A, AYO111A), O121 (AXO121A, AXO121B), and O145 (AYO145A, AYO145B) were further characterized. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the 11 isolates belonged to 3 families and 6 genera: the families Myoviridae (types rV5, T4, ViI, O1), Siphoviridae (type T5), and Podoviridae (type T7). Genome size of the phages as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis ranged from 38 to 177 kb. Excluding phages AXO26A, AYO103A, AYO145A, and AYO145B, all other phages were capable of lysing more than 1 clinically important strain from serogroups of O26, O91, O103, O111, O113, O121, and O128, but none exhibited infectivity across all serogroups. Moreover, phages AYO26A, AXO121A, and AXO121B were also able to lyse 4 common phage types of STEC O157:H7. Our findings show that a diversity of non-O157 STEC-infecting phages are harbored in bovine feces. Phages AYO26A, AYO26B, AXO103A, AXO111A, AYO111A, AXO121A, and AXO121B exhibited a broad host range against a number of serogroups of STEC and have potential for the biocontrol of STEC in the environment.
Junge, Benjamin; Grönewald, Cordt; Berghof-Jäger, Kornelia
The method describes the detection of Escherichia coli O157 in food. The method is based on real-time PCR using hydrolysis probes (5' Nuclease). This advanced PCR method was designed to reduce the time necessary to achieve results from PCR reactions and enable the user to monitor the amplification of the PCR product simultaneously in real time. After DNA isolation using the BIOTECON foodproof ShortPrep II Kit designed for the rapid preparation of E. coli O157 DNA for direct use in PCR, the real-time detection of E. coli O157 DNA is carried out using the foodproof E. coli O157 Detection Kit. The kit provides primers and hydrolysis probes for sequence-specific detection, convenient premixed reagents, and controls for reliable interpretation of results. For repeatability studies three different foods (egg salad, large bockwurst/frankfurter, and apple juice) were analyzed, chosen from the 15 food groups recommended by the AOAC Research Institute for E. coli O157 detection. From each food, 20 samples were inoculated with a low level (1-10 CFU/25 g) and 20 samples with a high level (10-50 CFU/25 g) ofE. coli O157. Additionally, five nonspiked samples were prepared from each food. Depending on the matrix, the food samples were examined with the test kits and compared with the cultural methods according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual or the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook.
Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Olaimat, Amin N; Shaker, Reyad R; Taha, Mohammad; Holley, Richard A
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major foodborne pathogen that causes severe disease in humans. Survival of E. coli O157:H7 during processing and storage of white brined cheese was investigated. Cheeses were prepared using pasteurized milk inoculated with a 4 strain E. coli O157:H7 cocktail (7 log(10) CFU/g) with or without yogurt starter culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus) and stored in 10% or 15% NaCl brine at 10 and 21 ºC for 28 d. NaCl concentration, water activity (a(w)), pH, and numbers of E. coli O157:H7 and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were determined in cheese and brine. E. coli O157:H7 was able to survive in cheese stored in both brines at 10 and 21 ºC regardless of the presence of starter LAB, although the latter significantly enhanced E. coli O157:H7 reduction in cheese or its brine at 10 ºC. E. coli O157:H7 numbers were reduced by 2.6 and 3.4 log(10) CFU/g in cheese stored in 10% and 15% NaCl brine, respectively, in the presence of starter LAB and by 1.4 and 2.3 log(10) CFU/g, respectively, in the absence of starter LAB at 10 ºC. The pathogen survived, but at lower numbers in the brines. The salt concentration of cheese stored in 10% brine remained about 5% during ripening, but in 15% brine, the NaCl level increased 1.6% to 8.1% (w/w) by 28 d. Values of pH and a(w) slightly decreased 1 d after exposure to brine and reached 5.5 to 6.6 and 0.88 to 0.94, respectively, in all treatments.
Makino, K; Ishii, K; Yasunaga, T; Hattori, M; Yokoyama, K; Yutsudo, C H; Kubota, Y; Yamaichi, Y; Iida, T; Yamamoto, K; Honda, T; Han, C G; Ohtsubo, E; Kasamatsu, M; Hayashi, T; Kuhara, S; Shinagawa, H
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7, derived from an outbreak in Sakai city, Japan in 1996, possesses two kinds of plasmids: a 93-kb plasmid termed pO157, found in clinical EHEC isolates world-wide and a 3.3-kb plasmid termed pOSAK1, prevalent in EHEC strains isolated in Japan. Complete nucleotide sequences of both plasmids have been determined, and the putative functions of the encoded proteins and the cis-acting DNA sequences have been analyzed. pO157 shares strikingly similar genes and DNA sequences with F-factor and the transmissible drug-resistant plasmid R100 for DNA replication, copy number control, plasmid segregation, conjugative functions and stable maintenance in the host, although it is defective in DNA transfer by conjugation due to the truncation and deletion of the required genes and DNA sequences. In addition, it encodes several proteins implicated in EHEC pathogenicity such as an EHEC hemolysin (HlyA), a catalase-peroxidase (KatP), a serine protease (EspP) and type II secretion system. pOSAK1 possesses a ColE1-like replication system, and the DNA sequence is extremely similar to that of a drug-resistant plasmid, NTP16, derived from Salmonella typhimurium except that it lacks drug resistance transposons.
Ravva, Subbarao V; Korn, Anna
Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) shed in cattle manure can survive for extended periods of time and intervention strategies to control this pathogen at the source are critical as produce crops are often grown in proximity to animal raising operations. This study evaluated whether neem (Azadirachta indica), known for its antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, can be used to amend manure to control EcO157. The influence of neem materials (leaf, bark, and oil) on the survival of an apple juice outbreak strain of EcO157 in dairy manure was monitored. Neem leaf and bark supplements eliminated the pathogen in less than 10 d with a D-value (days for 90% elimination) of 1.3 d. In contrast, nearly 4 log CFU EcO157/g remained after 10 d in neem-free manure control. The ethyl acetate extractable fraction of neem leaves was inhibitory to the growth of EcO157 in LB broth. Azadirachtin, a neem product with insect antifeedant properties, failed to inhibit EcO157. Application of inexpensive neem supplements to control pathogens in manure and possibly in produce fields may be an option for controlling the transfer of foodborne pathogens from farm to fork.
Pradel, Nathalie; Boukhors, Karima; Bertin, Yolande; Forestier, Christiane; Martin, Christine; Livrelli, Valérie
A detailed analysis of the molecular epidemiology of non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) was performed by using isolates from sporadic cases of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), animal reservoirs, and food products. The isolates belonged to the O91 and OX3 serogroups and were collected in the same geographical area over a short period of time. Five typing methods were used; some of these were used to explore potentially mobile elements like the stx genes or the plasmids (stx2-restriction fragment length polymorphism [RFLP], stx2 gene variant, and plasmid analyses), and others were used to study the whole genome (ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE]). The techniques revealed that there was great diversity among the O91 and OX3 STEC strains isolated in central France. A close relationship between strains of the same serotype having the same virulence factor pattern was first suggested by ribotyping. However, stx2-RFLP and stx2 variant analyses differentiated all but 5 of 21 isolates, and plasmid analysis revealed further heterogeneity; a unique combination of characteristics was obtained for all strains except two O91:H21 isolates from beef. The latter strains were shown by PFGE to be the most closely related isolates, with >96% homology, and hence may be subtypes of the same strain. Overall, our results indicate that the combination of stx2-RFLP, stx2 variant, and plasmid profile analyses is as powerful as PFGE for molecular investigation of STEC diversity. Finally, the non-O157:H7 STEC strains isolated from HUS patients were related to but not identical to those isolated from cattle and food samples in the same geographical area. The possibility that there are distinct lineages of non-O157:H7 STEC, some of which are more virulent for humans, should be investigated further. PMID:11375151
Internalization of E. coli O157:H7 into spinach plants through root uptake is a potential route of contamination. A Tn7-based plasmid vector was used to insert the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene into the attTn7 site in the E. coli chromosome. Three gfp-labeled E. coli inocula, O157:H7 strains ...
Hou, Zhe; Fink, Ryan C; Sugawara, Masayuki; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Sadowsky, Michael J
Lettuce and spinach are increasingly implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks due to contamination by Escherichia coli O157:H7. While this bacterium has been shown to colonize and survive on lettuce leaf surfaces, little is known about its interaction with the roots of growing lettuce plants. In these studies, a microarray analyses, mutant construction and confocal microscopy were used to gain an understanding of structure and function of bacterial genes involved in the colonization and growth of E. coli O157:H7 on lettuce roots. After three days of interaction with lettuce roots, 94 and 109 E. coli O157:H7 genes were significantly up- and down-regulated at least 1.5 fold, respectively. While genes involved in biofilm modulation (ycfR and ybiM) were significantly up-regulated, 40 of 109 (37%) of genes involved in protein synthesis were significantly repressed. E. coli O157:H7 was 2 logs less efficient in lettuce root colonization than was E. coli K12. We also unambiguously showed that a ΔycfR mutant of E. coli O157:H7 was unable to attach to or colonize lettuce roots. Taken together these results indicate that bacterial genes involved in attachment and biofilm formation are likely important for contamination of lettuce plants with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains.
Senhaji, Ouafae; Faid, Mohamed; Kalalou, Ichraq
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a pathogen strain, which causes hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in humans. The control of bacterial cells in foods is an important factor to reduce foodborne diseases due to E. coli O157:H7. Assays to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 were carried out by using the cinnamon oil obtained by steam distillation for 6 hours. When E. coli O157:H7 cells were incubated at 37 degrees C for 2 hours in the presence of 0.025% of the essential oil from cinnamon, a dramatic decrease was observed in the viable counts (from 10(7) to 3.10(4) CFU/mL-1). In the presence of 0.05% of the oil, most of cells were killed after 30 min, suggesting that the antimicrobial activity of essential oil is bactericidal against E. coli. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the essential oil from cinnamon was around 625 ppm against E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli ATCC 25921, around 1250 ppm against E. coli ATCC25922 and around 2500 ppm against E. coli ATCC11105.
Jiang, X; Doyle, M P
The fate of foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis on coin surfaces was determined at room temperature (25 degrees C). A five-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella Enteritidis of approximately 5 x 10(4) CFU was applied to the surfaces of sterile U.S. coins (pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters) and to the surfaces of two control substrata (Teflon and glass coverslips). During storage at room temperature, E. coli O157:H7 survived for 7, 9, and 11 days on the surfaces of pennies, nickels, and dimes and quarters, respectively. However, the pathogen died off within 4 to 7 days on both the Teflon and glass surfaces. Salmonella Enteritidis survived for 1, 2, 4, and 9 days on the surfaces of pennies, nickels, quarters, and dimes, respectively. Unlike E. coli O157:H7, survival of Salmonella Enteritidis was greatest on both Teflon and glass coverslips, with more than 100 cells per substratum detected at the 17th day of storage. Results indicate that coins could serve as potential vehicles for transmitting both E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis.
The replication of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on the resident peritoneal macrophages of four mice strains (BALB/c, CD1, C57BL, and Swiss) has been investigated. Macrophagial bactericidal killing activity was estimated via studying their ability to internalize (gentamicin-protected) E. coli during 2, 4, 24, and 48 h assays. Host genetic background has been found to show no significant effect on the ability of resident peritoneal macrophages to kill E. coli O157:H7. PMID:24031167
It is hypothesized that the presence of strong biofilm forming microflora could potentially enhance the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) in harsh environment. In this study, a strong biofilm forming bacterium, Ralstonia insidiosa, previously isolated from a fresh-cut produce plant was c...
Dallman, Timothy J.; Fitzgerald, Stephen; Irvine, Neil; Rooney, Paul J.; McAteer, Sean P.; Day, Martin; Perry, Neil T.; Bono, James L.; Jenkins, Claire; Gally, David L.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 is a public health threat and outbreaks occur worldwide. Here, we investigate genomic differences between related STEC O157:H7 that caused two outbreaks, eight weeks apart, at the same restaurant. Short-read genome sequencing divided the outbreak strains into two sub-clusters separated by only three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the core genome while traditional typing identified them as separate phage types, PT8 and PT54. Isolates did not cluster with local strains but with those associated with foreign travel to the Middle East/North Africa. Combined long-read sequencing approaches and optical mapping revealed that the two outbreak strains had undergone significant microevolution in the accessory genome with prophage gain, loss and recombination. In addition, the PT54 sub-type had acquired a 240 kbp multi-drug resistance (MDR) IncHI2 plasmid responsible for the phage type switch. A PT54 isolate had a general fitness advantage over a PT8 isolate in rich medium, including an increased capacity to use specific amino acids and dipeptides as a nitrogen source. The second outbreak was considerably larger and there were multiple secondary cases indicative of effective human-to-human transmission. We speculate that MDR plasmid acquisition and prophage changes have adapted the PT54 strain for human infection and transmission. Our study shows the added insights provided by combining whole-genome sequencing approaches for outbreak investigations. PMID:28348875
Vanlint, Dietrich; Pype, Brecht J Y; Rutten, Nele; Vanoirbeek, Kristof G A; Michiels, Chris W; Aertsen, Abram
Application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) constitutes a valuable non-thermal pasteurization process in modern food conservation. Triggered by our interest in the rapid adaptive evolution towards HHP resistance in the food-borne pathogen E. coli O157:H7 (strain ATCC 43888) that was demonstrated earlier, we used genetic screening to identify specific loci in which a loss-of-function mutation would be sufficient to markedly increase HHP survival. As such, individual loss of RssB (anti RpoS-factor), CRP (catabolite response protein) and CyaA (adenylate cyclase) were each found to confer significant HHP resistance in the 300MPa range (i.e. >1,000-fold), and this phenotype invariably coincided with increased resistance against heat as well. In contrast to loss of RssB, however, loss of CRP or CyaA also conferred significantly increased resistance to 600MPa (i.e. >10,000-fold), suggesting cAMP/CRP homeostasis to affect extreme HHP resistance independently of increased RpoS activity. Surprisingly, none of the rapidly emerging HHP-resistant mutants of ATCC 43888 that were isolated previously did incur any mutations in rssB, crp or cyaA, indicating that a number of other loci can guide the rapid emergence of HHP resistance in E. coli O157:H7 as well. The inability of spontaneous rssB, crp or cyaA mutants to emerge during selective enrichment under HHP selection likely stems from their decreased competitive fitness during growth. Overall, this study is the first to shed light on the possible genetic strategies supporting the acquisition of HHP resistance in E. coli O157:H7.
Visvalingam, Jeyachchandran; Liu, Yang; Yang, Xianqin
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dry chilling on the genetic diversity of naturally occurring Escherichia coli on beef carcasses, and to examine whether two populations of E. coli recovered from carcasses during chilling and E. coli O157 differed in their response to desiccation. Isolates of E. coli were obtained from beef carcasses during a 67h dry chilling process and were genotyped using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). Ten E. coli genotypes found only at 0h (group A) and found more than once (group B), as well as five strains of E. coli O157 (group C) were inoculated on stainless steel coupons and their survival was examined after exposure to 75 and 100% relative humidity (RH) at 0 or 35°C for 67h. A total of 450 E. coli isolates were obtained, with 254, 49, 49, 51, 23, 20, and 4 from 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24h of chilling, respectively. No E. coli were recovered at 67h. MLVA of the isolates revealed 173 distinct genotypes. Genetic diversity of E. coli isolates, defined as ratio of the number of isolates to the number of genotypes, remained between 2.3 and 1.3 during the 24h of chilling. All strains inoculated on stainless steel coupons and exposed to 75% RH at 35°C were completely inactivated, irrespective of their groups. Inactivation of E. coli of the three groups was not significantly (P>0.05) different by exposure to 75% RH at 0°C. The findings indicate that the genetic diversity of E. coli on beef carcasses was not affected by dry chilling. In addition, inactivation of E. coli genotypes and E. coli O157 by desiccation on stainless steel simulating dry chilling conditions did not differ significantly (P>0.05). Thus, dry chilling may be used as an effective antimicrobial intervention for beef carcasses.
Walker, Callie; Shi, Xiaorong; Sanderson, Mike; Sargeant, Jan; Nagaraja, T G
Fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cattle, except those that shed transiently, is due to the organism's ability to persist in the gut. Site of prevalence in the gut is important for understanding the mechanisms and factors affecting gut persistence and fecal shedding and is a potential target for intervention. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in the rumen, cecum, colon, and rectum was determined with contents collected from slaughtered cattle (n = 815) at an abattoir. Isolation and identification of E. coli O157:H7 were by selective enrichment, immunomagnetic separation, plating on selective medium, agglutination for O157 antigen, and presence of virulence genes. Prevalence in the rumen, cecum, colon, and rectum was 4.9%, 9.9%, 7.6%, and 11.1%, respectively. The overall prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in the cattle sampled, based on being positive in any one gut location, was 20.3%. E. coli O157:H7 in rectal contents was positively associated (p < 0.01) with presence in the rumen or colon but not in the cecum. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to compare the clonal similarity of isolates (n = 144) obtained from the rectum with that of rumen, cecum, or colon within cattle (n = 77). The majority (79-90%) of isolates obtained within the same animal shared a common PFGE type. There were no significant differences in PFGE type between positive samples from the rectum and samples from other locations within the same animal. Acid tolerance for cattle with positive rumen (pregastric) isolates and with at least one other positive hindgut (postgastric) isolate within the same animal was determined. There was no significant difference between gut locations in log reduction following acid challenge. The hindgut was the major site of prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle, a majority of the isolates within the same animal were clonally similar, and acid tolerance of hindgut isolates were not different from that of ruminal isolates.
Phage vB_EcoM_CBA120 (CBA120) isolated against Escherichia coli O157:H7 from a cattle feedlot is morphologically very similar to the classic phage ViI of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Until recently, little was known genetically or physiologically about the ViI-like phages, and non targeting E...
Callaway, T R; Anderson, R C; Edrington, T S; Bischoff, K M; Genovese, K J; Poole, T L; Byrd, J A; Harvey, R B; Nisbet, D J
The spread of antibiotic resistance from farm animals to human pathogens has become a matter of great public health significance, and methods to reduce foodborne pathogenic bacteria without utilizing traditional antibiotics have been sought. Chlorate kills Escherichia coli O157:H7 in vitro and in vivo and has been proposed as a feed additive to be included in food animal rations immediately prior to slaughter to reduce E. coli O157:H7 populations in the animal gastrointestinal tract. This study was designed to examine the effect that the development of chlorate resistance in E. coli O157:H7 has on resistance to 32 medically important antibiotics. Chlorate resistance numerically increased antibiotic resistance in E. coli O157:H7 strain 6058 and strain 933 to six and four antibiotics, respectively, but chlorate resistance affected resistance to only two antibiotics (cefoxotin and sulfadimethoxine) in both strains examined. Based on the fact that chlorate resistant mutants do not appear to compete well in vivo and based on the results of the current study, it appears unlikely that chlorate treatment will result in a dissemination of antibiotic resistance. However, further research is needed to confirm these results.
Carter, Michelle Qiu; Louie, Jacqueline W; Feng, Doris; Zhong, Wayne; Brandl, Maria T
Several species of enteric pathogens produce curli fimbriae, which may affect their interaction with surfaces and other microbes in nonhost environments. Here we used two Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak strains with distinct genotypes to understand the role of curli in surface attachment and biofilm formation in several systems relevant to fresh produce production and processing. Curli significantly enhanced the initial attachment of E. coli O157:H7 to spinach leaves and stainless steel surfaces by 5-fold. Curli was also required for E. coli O157:H7 biofilm formation on stainless steel and enhanced biofilm production on glass by 19-27 fold in LB no-salt broth. However, this contribution was not observed when cells were grown in sterile spinach lysates. Furthermore, both strains of E. coli O157:H7 produced minimal biofilms on polypropylene in LB no-salt broth but considerable amounts in spinach lysates. Under the latter conditions, curli appeared to slightly increase biofilm production. Importantly, curli played an essential role in the formation of mixed biofilm by E. coli O157:H7 and plant-associated microorganisms in spinach leaf washes, as revealed by confocal microscopy. Little or no E. coli O157:H7 biofilms were detected at 4 °C, supporting the importance of temperature control in postharvest and produce processing environments.
Semanchek, J J; Golden, D A
The influence of growth temperature on heat-, lactic acid-, and freeze-induced inactivation and injury of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in 0.1% peptone water was investigated. Three strains of E. coli O157:H7 isolated respectively from salami, apple cider, and ground beef were evaluated. Growth of strains at 10 degrees C compared with growth at 37 degrees C had a significant impact on reducing (P < 0.01) D values obtained for heating (DH value), acid exposure (DA value), with the exception of the cider strain stored in lactic acid solutions. When strains were cultivated at 10 and 37 degrees C and heated at 54 and 56 degrees C, the salami strain possessed the highest (P < 0.01) DH values (5.9 to 59.7 min). When grown at 10 degrees C, the beef strain had the lowest (P < 0.01) DH values after heating at 52, 54, and 56 degrees C (11.2, 4.1 and 2.5 min, respectively). The salami strain grown at 10 degrees C had the highest (P < 0.01) DA values in all concentrations of lactic acid. When grown at 37 degrees C, the salami strain had the highest (P < 0.01) DA values after storage in 0.1 and 0.25% lactic acid, while DA values for the salami and beef strains did not differ (P > 0.05) when stored in 0.5% lactic acid. Portions of strain populations were sublethally injured by heat and lactic acid treatments, as evidenced by the inability of injured organisms to form colonies on tryptone soy agar containing 2% NaCl. Strains cultured at 10 degrees C were more susceptible to sublethal heat injury than the strains cultured at 37 degrees C. Storage of test strains at -20 degrees C for 7 months resulted in a 4- to 6-log CFU/ml reduction in viable population, but induced only minimal sublethal injury. After 5 months at -20 degrees C, strains cultured at 10 degrees C were more sensitive to freeze inactivation than strains cultured at 37 degrees C. When grown at 10 and cultured at 37 degrees C. When grown at 10 and 37 degrees C and stored at -20 degrees C for 7 months, the cider strain
Zhao, Tong; Doyle, Michael P.; Harmon, Barry G.; Brown, Cathy A.; Mueller, P. O. Eric; Parks, Andrew H.
Bacteria inhibitory to Escherichia coli O157:H7 were isolated from cattle and evaluated for their potential for reducing carriage of E. coli O157:H7 in calves. Eighteen of 1,200 bacterial isolates from cattle feces and intestinal tissue samples were screened and determined to inhibit the growth of E. coli O157:H7 in vitro. Seventeen of the isolates were E. coli and one was Proteus mirabilis. None produced Shiga toxin. Genomic DNA fingerprinting by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed 13 distinguishable profiles among the 18 isolates. Two calves inoculated perorally with a mixture of all 18 isolates (1010 CFU) appeared to be normal and did not develop signs of clinical disease throughout a 25- to 27-day observation period. These bacteria colonized segments of the gastrointestinal tract and were in feces at the termination of the experiment (25 and 27 days postinoculation) at levels of 50 to 200 CFU/g. Fifteen cannulated calves were studied to determine the efficiency of the probiotic bacteria in reducing or eliminating the carriage of E. coli O157:H7. Nine calves served as controls, with each animal receiving perorally 1010 CFU of E. coli O157:H7. E. coli O157:H7 was detected intermittently in the rumen samples from all control animals throughout 3 weeks postinoculation, whereas E. coli O157:H7 was shed at various levels in feces continuously throughout the experiment (mean, 28 days). E. coli O157:H7 was isolated from the rumens and colons of eight of nine and nine of nine calves, respectively, at the termination of the study. Six calves each received perorally 1010 CFU of probiotic bacteria and then 2 days later received 1010 CFU of E. coli O157:H7. E. coli O157:H7 was detected in the rumen for only 9 days postinoculation in two animals, for 16 days in one animal, for 17 days in two animals, and for 29 days in one animal. E. coli O157:H7 was detected in feces for only 11 days postinoculation in one animal, for 15 days in one animal, for 17 days in one animal
Wales, A D; Pearson, G R; Roe, J M; Hayes, C M; La Ragione, R M; Woodward, M J
Four conventionally reared goats aged 6 days were inoculated orally with approximately 10(10) colony-forming units (cfu) of a non-verotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7. All remained clinically normal. Tissues were sampled under terminal anaesthesia at 24 (two animals), 48 and 72 h post-inoculation (hpi). E. coli O157:H7 was cultured from the ileum, caecum, colon and rectum of all animals, but the number of bacteria recovered at these sites varied between animals. Attaching-effacing (AE) lesions associated with O157 organisms, as confirmed by immunolabelling, were observed in the ileum of one of the two animals examined at 24 hpi, and in the ileum, caecum and proximal colon of an animal examined at 72 hpi. E. coli O157 organisms were detected at > or =10(5) cfu/g of tissue at these sites. In addition, AE lesions associated with unidentified bacteria were observed at various sites in the large bowel of the same animals. Lesions containing both E. coli O157 and unidentified bacteria (non-O157) were not observed. Non-O157 AE lesions were also observed in the large bowel of one of two uninoculated control animals. This indicated that three (one control and two inoculated) animals were colonized with an unidentified AE organism before the commencement of the experiment. The O157-associated AE lesions were observed only in animals colonized by non-O157 AE organisms and this raises questions about individual host susceptibility to AE lesions and whether non-O157 AE organisms influence colonization by E. coli O157.
Rusconi, Brigida; Sanjar, Fatemeh; Koenig, Sara S. K.; Mammel, Mark K.; Tarr, Phillip I.; Eppinger, Mark
Multi isolate whole genome sequencing (WGS) and typing for outbreak investigations has become a reality in the post-genomics era. We applied this technology to strains from Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks. These include isolates from seven North America outbreaks, as well as multiple isolates from the same patient and from different infected individuals in the same household. Customized high-resolution bioinformatics sequence typing strategies were developed to assess the core genome and mobilome plasticity. Sequence typing was performed using an in-house single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery and validation pipeline. Discriminatory power becomes of particular importance for the investigation of isolates from outbreaks in which macrogenomic techniques such as pulse-field gel electrophoresis or multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis do not differentiate closely related organisms. We also characterized differences in the phage inventory, allowing us to identify plasticity among outbreak strains that is not detectable at the core genome level. Our comprehensive analysis of the mobilome identified multiple plasmids that have not previously been associated with this lineage. Applied phylogenomics approaches provide strong molecular evidence for exceptionally little heterogeneity of strains within outbreaks and demonstrate the value of intra-cluster comparisons, rather than basing the analysis on archetypal reference strains. Next generation sequencing and whole genome typing strategies provide the technological foundation for genomic epidemiology outbreak investigation utilizing its significantly higher sample throughput, cost efficiency, and phylogenetic relatedness accuracy. These phylogenomics approaches have major public health relevance in translating information from the sequence-based survey to support timely and informed countermeasures. Polymorphisms identified in this work offer robust phylogenetic signals that index both short- and
Jacob, Megan E; Shi, Xiaorong; An, Baoyan; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Bai, Jianfa
Cattle are asymptomatic reservoirs for Escherichia coli O157, a major foodborne pathogen. The organism generally colonizes the hindgut of cattle and is shed in the feces at low concentrations. The objective of this research was to evaluate a multiplex, real-time polymerase chain reaction (mqPCR) assay for quantification of E. coli O157 in cattle feces using stx1, stx2, and rfbE gene targets. Primer efficiency and analytical sensitivity of the assay were evaluated with a single or pooled (five strain) culture of E. coli O157. In pure culture, the minimum detection limit of the assay was 1.4×10(3) CFU/mL and 3.6×10(3) CFU/mL for the single and five-strain mixture of E. coli O157, respectively. Diagnostic sensitivity was analyzed using DNA extracted from cattle feces spiked with E. coli O157. In feces spiked with the pooled mixture of five E. coli O157 strains, the minimum detection limit was 3.6×10(4) CFU/g. We also evaluated the assay with feces from cattle experimentally inoculated with E. coli O157 by comparing the results to a culture-based method. For the majority of samples tested, the concentration of E. coli O157 detected by the real-time and culture methods was within one log difference. However, the assay could only be evaluated for cattle shedding high concentrations of E. coli O157. In conclusion, the mqPCR quantifying E. coli O157 in cattle feces using stx1, stx2, and rfbE gene targets may have use in detecting and quantifying super shedders, but is not applicable for quantification in animals shedding low concentrations (10(2) to 10(3) CFU/g feces).
Tanaro, José D; Galli, Lucía; Lound, Liliana H; Leotta, Gerardo A; Piaggio, Mercedes C; Carbonari, Carolina C; Irino, Kinue; Rivas, Marta
The purposes of this study were to detect non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in bovine rectums and water in a beef cattle farm in Argentina, and to determine the pathogenic potential of the circulating strains. During the study, 292 rectal swabs from healthy animals and 79 environmental water samples were collected. The rectal swabs and one loop of the Moore swabs, enriched in Escherichia coli broth for 24 h at 37°C, were streaked on MacConkey agar plates and incubated overnight at 37°C. The isolates were characterized by biochemical tests and serotyped. Nonmotile STEC strains were typed for their H-specific (fliC) antigens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Isolates were characterized by detection of stx1, stx2, and their variants, eae, ehxA, and saa genes. Macrorestriction fragment analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed using the PulseNet standardized protocol. From 371 samples analyzed, 36.6% of rectal swabs and 34.2% of water samples were non-O157 STEC-positive by PCR, and 110 strains from rectal swabs, but only three from water, were isolated. The strains were grouped into 24 different serotypes, from which, O103:[H2] (n = 12), O136:H12 (n = 8), O178:H19 (n = 8), and O103:NM (n = 5) were most prevalent, representing 29.2% of the isolates. Predominant genotypes were stx1/eae/ehxA (16.8%) and stx2/saa/ehxA (15.9%). PFGE analysis revealed 56 different patterns, with 65 strains grouped in 19 clusters of 100% similarity. Two STEC O124:H19 strains isolated from rectal swabs and water with a 5-month interval harbored the stx1/stx2/saa/ehxA genotype, and showed an indistinguishable PFGE profile. By comparison, some XbaI-PFGE patterns identified in the present study were identical to the profiles of strains isolated from human, food, and animal sources included in the Argentine PulseNet database. By PCR, similar non-O157 detection rates were found in rectal swabs and water. However, the methodology for water samples
Lee, Sun-Young; Kang, Dong-Hyun
The combination of salt and acid is commonly used in the production of many foods, including pickles and fermented foods. However, in our previous studies, the addition of salt significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of acetic acid on Escherichia coli O157:H7 in laboratory media and pickled cucumbers. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the mechanism by which salt confers resistance against acetic acid in E. coli O157:H7. The addition of high concentrations (up to 9% or 15% [w/v]) of salt increased the resistance of E. coli O157:H7 to acetic acid treatment. Combined treatment with acetic acid and salt showed varying results among different bacterial strains (an antagonistic effect for E. coli O157:H7 and Shigella and a synergistic effect for Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). The addition of salt increased the cytoplasmic pH of E. coli O157:H7, but decreased the cytoplasmic pH of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus on treatment with acetic acid. Therefore, the addition of salt increases the acid resistance of E. coli O157:H7 possibly by increasing its acid resistance response and consequently preventing the acidification of its cytoplasm by organic acids.
Roberts, C. L.; Mshar, P. A.; Cartter, M. L.; Hadler, J. L.; Sosin, D. M.; Hayes, P. S.; Barrett, T. J.
After instituting laboratory screening for Escherichia coli O157.H7, a Connecticut hospital isolated the organism from four persons in September 1993. As a result, an outbreak of E. coli O157.H7 associated with a country club was detected. The club had served hamburger from the same shipment at two picnics. Attendees of two picnics were interviewed, stool cultures were obtained from symptomatic persons, and the remaining hamburger was cultured. Twenty (22%) of 89 persons who ate hamburger became ill, compared with 1 of 60 who did not eat hamburger (relative risk = 13.5, 95% confidence interval 3.2-56.3). Among persons who ate hamburgers, illness was strongly associated with eating hamburger that was not thoroughly cooked (P < 0.001). All 20 samples from 5 remaining boxes of patties yielded E. coli O157.H7. Isolates from hamburger and case-patients were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Heightened surveillance can rapidly identify outbreaks and may mitigate their impact. However, continued review of food safety issues is necessary if E. coli O157.H7 outbreaks are to be prevented. PMID:8557076
Roberts, C L; Mshar, P A; Cartter, M L; Hadler, J L; Sosin, D M; Hayes, P S; Barrett, T J
After instituting laboratory screening for Escherichia coli O157.H7, a Connecticut hospital isolated the organism from four persons in September 1993. As a result, an outbreak of E. coli O157.H7 associated with a country club was detected. The club had served hamburger from the same shipment at two picnics. Attendees of two picnics were interviewed, stool cultures were obtained from symptomatic persons, and the remaining hamburger was cultured. Twenty (22%) of 89 persons who ate hamburger became ill, compared with 1 of 60 who did not eat hamburger (relative risk = 13.5, 95% confidence interval 3.2-56.3). Among persons who ate hamburgers, illness was strongly associated with eating hamburger that was not thoroughly cooked (P < 0.001). All 20 samples from 5 remaining boxes of patties yielded E. coli O157.H7. Isolates from hamburger and case-patients were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Heightened surveillance can rapidly identify outbreaks and may mitigate their impact. However, continued review of food safety issues is necessary if E. coli O157.H7 outbreaks are to be prevented.
Call, Douglas R.; Brockman, Fred J.; Chandler, Darrell P.
Rapid detection and characterization of food borne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 is crucial for epidemiological investigations and food safety surveillance. As an alternative to conventional technologies, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of nucleic acid microarrays for detecting and genotyping E. coli O157:H7. The array was composed of oligonucleotide probes (25-30 mer) complementary to four virulence loci (intimin, Shiga-like toxins I and II, and hemolysin A). Target DNA was amplified from whole cells or from purified DNA via single or multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and PCR products were hybridized to the array without further modification or purification. The array was 32-fold more sensitive than gel electrophoresis and capable of detecting amplification products from < 1 cell equivalent of genomic DNA (1 fg). Immunomagnetic capture, PCR and a microarray were subsequently used to detect 55 CFUs ml-1 (E. coli O157:H7) from chicken rinsate without the aid of pre-enrichment. Four isolates of E. coli O157:H7 and one isolate of O91:H2, for which genotypic data were available, were unambiguously genotyped with this array. Glass based microarrays are relatively simple to construct and provide a rapid and sensitive means to detect multiplexed PCR products and the system is amenable to automation.
MacDonald, D. M.; Fyfe, M.; Paccagnella, A.; Trinidad, A.; Louie, K.; Patrick, D.
An outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 infections was identified in November 1999 with a fivefold increase in the occurrence of laboratory-confirmed cases of E. coli O157:H7 infection. A matched case-control study was conducted. Samples of food from cases and from retailers were analysed for the presence of E. coli O157:H7. A total of 143 cases were identified over a 12-week period with the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern. The case-control study found that Company A salami was significantly associated with illness (Mantel-Haenszel matched odds ratio 10.0%, 95% CI 1.4-434, P=0.01). Company A salami tested positive for E. coli O157:H7 and isolates had the same PFGE pattern as case isolates. An immediate voluntary national recall of Company A dry fermented meat products took place. Findings from the investigation of this outbreak suggest that the hold-and-test option may not be adequate to prevent shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) infection in salami consumers. PMID:15061503
Evaluation of lactic acid as an initial and secondary subprimal intervention for Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, and a nonpathogenic E. coli surrogate for E. coli O157:H7.
Pittman, C I; Geornaras, I; Woerner, D R; Nightingale, K K; Sofos, J N; Goodridge, L; Belk, K E
Lactic acid can reduce microbial contamination on beef carcass surfaces when used as a food safety intervention, but effectiveness when applied to the surface of chilled beef subprimal sections is not well documented. Studies characterizing bacterial reduction on subprimals after lactic acid treatment would be useful for validations of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems. The objective of this study was to validate initial use of lactic acid as a subprimal intervention during beef fabrication followed by a secondary application to vacuum-packaged product that was applied at industry operating parameters. Chilled beef subprimal sections (100 cm(2)) were either left uninoculated or were inoculated with 6 log CFU/cm(2) of a 5-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7, a 12-strain mixture of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), or a 5-strain mixture of nonpathogenic (biotype I) E. coli that are considered surrogates for E. coli O157:H7. Uninoculated and inoculated subprimal sections received only an initial or an initial and a second "rework" application of lactic acid in a custombuilt spray cabinet at 1 of 16 application parameters. After the initial spray, total inoculum counts were reduced from 6.0 log CFU/cm(2) to 3.6, 4.4, and 4.4 log CFU/cm(2) for the E. coli surrogates, E. coli O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC inoculation groups, respectively. After the second (rework) application, total inoculum counts were 2.6, 3.2, and 3.6 log CFU/cm(2) for the E. coli surrogates, E. coli O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC inoculation groups, respectively. Both the initial and secondary lactic acid treatments effectively reduced counts of pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of E. coli and natural microflora on beef subprimals. These data will be useful to the meat industry as part of the HACCP validation process.
Laing, Chad; Pegg, Crystal; Yawney, Davis; Ziebell, Kim; Steele, Marina; Johnson, Roger; Thomas, James E; Taboada, Eduardo N; Zhang, Yongxiang; Gannon, Victor P J
In this study, variably absent or present (VAP) regions discovered through comparative genomics experiments were targeted for the development of a rapid, PCR-based method to subtype and fingerprint Escherichia coli O157:H7. Forty-four VAP loci were analyzed for discriminatory power among 79 E. coli O157:H7 strains of 13 phage types (PT). Twenty-three loci were found to maximize resolution among strains, generating 54 separate fingerprints, each of which contained strains of unique PT. Strains from the three previously identified major E. coli O157:H7 lineages, LSPA6-LI, LSPA6-LI/II, and LSPA6-LII, formed distinct branches on a dendrogram obtained by hierarchical clustering of comparative genomic fingerprinting (CGF) data. By contrast, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing generated 52 XbaI digestion profiles that were not unique to PT and did not cluster according to O157:H7 lineage. Our analysis identified a subpopulation comprised of 25 strains from a closed herd of cattle, all of which were of PT87 and formed a cluster distinct from all other E. coli O157:H7 strains examined. CGF found five related but unique fingerprints among the highly clonal herd strains, with two dominant subtypes characterized by a shift from the presence of locus fprn33 to its absence. CGF had equal resolution to PFGE typing but with greater specificity, generating fingerprints that were unique among phenotypically related E. coli O157:H7 lineages and PT. As a comparative genomics typing method that is amenable for use in high-throughput platforms, CGF may be a valuable tool in outbreak investigations and strain characterization.
Shaaban, Sharif; Cowley, Lauren A.; McAteer, Sean P.; Jenkins, Claire; Dallman, Timothy J.; Bono, James L.
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 is a zoonotic pathogen for which colonization of cattle and virulence in humans is associated with multiple horizontally acquired genes, the majority present in active or cryptic prophages. Our understanding of the evolution and phylogeny of EHEC O157 continues to develop primarily based on core genome analyses; however, such short-read sequences have limited value for the analysis of prophage content and its chromosomal location. In this study, we applied Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing, using the Pacific Biosciences long-read sequencing platform, to isolates selected from the main sub-clusters of this clonal group. Prophage regions were extracted from these sequences and from published reference strains. Genome position and prophage diversity were analysed along with genetic content. Prophages could be assigned to clusters, with smaller prophages generally exhibiting less diversity and preferential loss of structural genes. Prophages encoding Shiga toxin (Stx) 2a and Stx1a were the most diverse, and more variable compared to prophages encoding Stx2c, further supporting the hypothesis that Stx2c-prophage integration was ancestral to acquisition of other Stx types. The concept that phage type (PT) 21/28 (Stx2a+, Stx2c+) strains evolved from PT32 (Stx2c+) was supported by analysis of strains with excised Stx-encoding prophages. Insertion sequence elements were over-represented in prophage sequences compared to the rest of the genome, showing integration in key genes such as stx and an excisionase, the latter potentially acting to capture the bacteriophage into the genome. Prophage profiling should allow more accurate prediction of the pathogenic potential of isolates. PMID:28348836
Todd, E C; Szabo, R A; Peterkin, P; Sharpe, A N; Parrington, L; Bundle, D; Gidney, M A; Perry, M B
An O-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody, labeled by horseradish peroxidase-protein A, was used in a hydrophobic grid membrane filter-enzyme-labeled antibody method for rapid detection of Escherichia coli O157 in foods. The method yielded presumptive identification within 24 h and recovered, on average, 95% of E. coli O157:H7 artificially inoculated into comminuted beef, veal, pork, chicken giblets, and chicken carcass washings. In food samples from two outbreaks involving E. coli O157:H7, the organism was isolated at levels of up to 10(3)/g. The lower limit of sensitivity was 10 E. coli O157 per g of meat. Specific typing for E. coli O157:H7 can be achieved through staining with labeled H7 antiserum or tube agglutination. Images PMID:3060018
Berenger, Byron M; Berry, Chrystal; Peterson, Trevor; Fach, Patrick; Delannoy, Sabine; Li, Vincent; Tschetter, Lorelee; Nadon, Celine; Honish, Lance; Louie, Marie; Chui, Linda
A standardised method for determining Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain relatedness using whole genome sequencing or virulence gene profiling is not yet established. We sought to assess the capacity of either high-throughput polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of 49 virulence genes, core-genome single nt variants (SNVs) or k-mer clustering to discriminate between outbreak-associated and sporadic E. coli O157:H7 isolates. Three outbreaks and multiple sporadic isolates from the province of Alberta, Canada were included in the study. Two of the outbreaks occurred concurrently in 2014 and one occurred in 2012. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) were employed as comparator typing methods. The virulence gene profiles of isolates from the 2012 and 2014 Alberta outbreak events and contemporary sporadic isolates were mostly identical; therefore the set of virulence genes chosen in this study were not discriminatory enough to distinguish between outbreak clusters. Concordant with PFGE and MLVA results, core genome SNV and k-mer phylogenies clustered isolates from the 2012 and 2014 outbreaks as distinct events. k-mer phylogenies demonstrated increased discriminatory power compared with core SNV phylogenies. Prior to the widespread implementation of whole genome sequencing for routine public health use, issues surrounding cost, technical expertise, software standardisation, and data sharing/comparisons must be addressed.
Wright, Kathryn M; Chapman, Sean; McGeachy, Kara; Humphris, Sonia; Campbell, Emma; Toth, Ian K; Holden, Nicola J
The foodborne pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 is increasingly associated with fresh produce (fruit and vegetables). Bacterial colonization of fresh produce plants can occur to high levels on the external tissue but bacteria have also been detected within plant tissue. However, questions remain about the extent of internalization, its molecular basis, and internal location of the bacteria. We have determined the extent of internalization of E. coli O157:H7 in live spinach and lettuce plants and used high-resolution microscopy to examine colony formation in roots and pathways to internalization. E. coli O157:H7 was found within internal tissue of both produce species. Colonization occurred within the apoplast between plant cells. Furthermore, colonies were detected inside the cell wall of epidermal and cortical cells of spinach and Nicotiana benthamiana roots. Internal colonization of epidermal cells resembled that of the phytopathogen Pectobacterium atrosepticum on potato. In contrast, only sporadic cells of the laboratory strain of E. coli K-12 were found on spinach, with no internal bacteria evident. The data extend previous findings that internal colonization of plants appears to be limited to a specific group of plant-interacting bacteria, including E. coli O157:H7, and demonstrates its ability to invade the cells of living plants.
Hsu, HsinYun; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Sites, Joseph; Cassidy, Jennifer; Scullen, Butch; Sommers, Christopher
High pressure processing (HPP) is a safe and effective technology for improving food safety. Non-O157:H7 Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) have been increasingly implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks and recalls, and the USDA Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) has designated them as adulterants in meat (e.g. ground beef). In this study we compared the inactivation of multi-isolate cocktails of E. coli O157:H7 versus the non-O157:H7 STEC "Big Six" (i.e. O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) in ground beef (83% lean) using HPP at refrigeration temperature (4-7 °C). A >5-log CFU/g inactivation of both the Big Six and O157:H7 cocktails were observed at 450 MPa for 15 min. In general, the Big Six cocktail was found more sensitive to pressure stress (p < 0.05). In contrast, HPP treatment at 250 MPa (30 min) inactivated only 2.3 log of the Big Six versus 1.0 log of O157:H7. HPP treatment at 350 MPa (30 min) inactivated 4.7 log of the Big Six vs. 3.2 log of O157:H7. Multiple-cycle HPP cycles (250 or 350 MPa, three 5 min treatments) did not result in a 5 log reduction of the non-O157:H7 or O157:H7 STEC. Our results indicate that HPP inactivation parameters which are effective for O157:H7 STEC can be used for the non-O157:H7 Big Six isolates in ground beef.
Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Díaz-Cruz, Claudio A; Villarruel-López, Angelica; Del Refugio Torres-Vitela, M; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Castro-Rosas, Javier
Pulque is a traditional Mexican fermented alcoholic beverage produced from the nectar of maguey agave plants. No data exist on the behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in agave nectar and pulque. An initial trial was done of the behavior of E. coli O157:H7 during fermentation of nectar from a single producer, a nectar mixture from different producers and "seed" pulque. A second trial simulating artisanal pulque production was done by contaminating fresh nectar with a cocktail of three E. coli O157:H7 strains, storing at 16 ° and 22 °C for 14 h, adding seed pulque and fermenting until pulque was formed. A third trial used pulque from the second trial stored at 22 °C as seed to ferment fresh nectar at 22 °C for 48 h (fermentation cycle). This procedure was repeated for an additional two fermentation cycles. During incubation at 16 ° or 22 °C in the first trial, the E. coli O157:H7 strains multiplied in both the single producer nectar and nectar mixture, reaching maximum concentration at 12h. E. coli O157:H7 cell concentration then decreased slowly, although it survived at least 72 h in both fermented nectars. E. coli O157:H7 did not multiply in the seed pulque but did survive at least 72 h. In the second trial, the numbers of E. coli O157:H7 increased approximately 1.5 log CFU/ml at 22 °C and 1.2 log CFU/ml at 16 °C after 14 h. After seed pulque was added, E. coli O157:H7 concentration decreased to approximately 2 log CFU/ml, and then remained constant until pulque was produced. In the third trial, the E. coli O157:H7 cells multiplied and survived during at least three nectar fermentation cycles. The results suggest that E. coli O157:H7 can develop acid and alcohol tolerance in pulque, and constitutes a public health risk for pulque consumers.
Setterington, Emma B; Alocilja, Evangelyn C
There is a high demand for rapid, sensitive, and field-ready detection methods for Escherichia coli O157:H7, a highly infectious and potentially fatal food and water borne pathogen. In this study, E. coli O157:H7 cells are isolated via immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and labeled with biofunctionalized electroactive polyaniline (immuno-PANI). Labeled cell complexes are deposited onto a disposable screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) sensor and pulled to the electrode surface by an external magnetic field, to amplify the electrochemical signal generated by the polyaniline. Cyclic voltammetry is used to detect polyaniline and signal magnitude indicates the presence or absence of E. coli O157:H7. As few as 7CFU of E. coli O157:H7 (corresponding to an original concentration of 70 CFU/ml) were successfully detected on the SPCE sensor. The assay requires 70 min from sampling to detection, giving it a major advantage over standard culture methods in applications requiring high-throughput screening of samples and rapid results. The method can be performed with portable, handheld instrumentation and no biological modification of the sensor surface is required. Potential applications include field-based pathogen detection for food and water safety, environmental monitoring, healthcare, and biodefense.
Wang, Siyun; Deng, Kaiping; Zaremba, Sam; Deng, Xiangyu; Lin, Chiahui; Wang, Qian; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Zhang, Wei
Chlorinated water is commonly used in industrial operations to wash and sanitize fresh-cut, minimally processed produce. Here we compared 42 human outbreak strains that represented nine distinct Escherichia coli O157:H7 genetic lineages (or clades) for their relative resistance to chlorine treatment. A quantitative measurement of resistance was made by comparing the extension of the lag phase during growth of each strain under exposure to sublethal concentrations of sodium hypochlorite in Luria-Bertani or brain heart infusion broth. Strains in clade 8 showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher resistance to chlorine than strains from other clades of E. coli O157:H7. To further explore how E. coli O157:H7 responds to oxidative stress at transcriptional levels, we analyzed the global gene expression profiles of two strains, TW14359 (clade 8; associated with the 2006 spinach outbreak) and Sakai (clade 1; associated with the 1996 radish sprout outbreak), under sodium hypochlorite or hydrogen peroxide treatment. We found over 380 genes were differentially expressed (more than twofold; P < 0.05) after exposure to low levels of chlorine or hydrogen peroxide. Significantly upregulated genes included several regulatory genes responsive to oxidative stress, genes encoding putative oxidoreductases, and genes associated with cysteine biosynthesis, iron-sulfur cluster assembly, and antibiotic resistance. Identification of E. coli O157:H7 strains with enhanced resistance to chlorine decontamination and analysis of their transcriptomic response to oxidative stress may improve our basic understanding of the survival strategy of this human enteric pathogen on fresh produce during minimal processing.
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 have been implicated in many foodborne illnesses caused by the consumption of contaminated fresh produce. However, data on their persistence in major fresh produce-growing soils are limited due to the complexity in datasets generated from different ...
Dowd, Scot E; Ishizaki, Hiroshi
Background Previous research has identified the potential for the existence of two separate lineages of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Clinical isolates tended to cluster primarily within one of these two lineages. To determine if there are virulence related genes differentially expressed between the two lineages we chose to utilize microarray technology to perform an initial screening. Results Using a 610 gene microarray, designed against the E. coli O157 EDL 933 transcriptome, targeting primarily virulence systems, we chose 3 representative Lineage I isolates (LI groups mostly clinical isolates) and 3 representative Lineage II isolates (LII groups mostly bovine isolates). Using standard dye swap experimental designs, statistically different expression (P < 0.05) of 73 genes between the two lineages was revealed. Result highlights indicate that under in vitro anaerobic growth conditions, there is up-regulation of stx2b, ureD, curli (csgAFEG), and stress related genes (hslJ, cspG, ibpB, ibpA) in Lineage I, which may contribute to enhanced virulence or transmission potential. Lineage II exhibits significant up-regulation of type III secretion apparatus, LPS, and flagella related transcripts. Conclusion These results give insight into comparative regulation of virulence genes as well as providing directions for future research. Ultimately, evaluating the expression of key virulence factors among different E. coli O157 isolates has inherent value and the interpretation of such expression data will continue to evolve as our understanding of virulence, pathogenesis and transmission improves. PMID:16539702
Lee, Shiao Mei; Chen, Jinru
Previous studies conducted in our laboratory revealed that Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells capable of producing colanic acid (CA), the acidic polysaccharide of mucoid slime, had increased tolerance to sublethal heat and the extreme pH of microbiological culture media. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of CA on the fate of E. coli O157:H7 during the processing and storage of an acid food: yogurt. Pasteurized and homogenized whole milk was inoculated with a wild-type E. coli O157:H7, its CA-deficient mutant, or a mixture (1:1) of the two strains. Set yogurt was processed from the contaminated milk and stored at 4 degrees and 15 degrees C for 3 weeks. Samples of milk and yogurt were withdrawn during processing and storage and analyzed for total plate counts and populations of E. coli O157:H7 and starter cultures. The results showed that E. coli O157:H7 survived longer in yogurt stored at 15 degrees C than at 4 degrees C. Cells of E. coli O157:H7 deficient in CA production died off more rapidly than those of the parent strain. This suggests that CA plays a role in protecting cells of E. coli O157:H7 from stress during the processing and storage of set yogurt.
Jensen, Dane A; Friedrich, Loretta M; Harris, Linda J; Danyluk, Michelle D; Schaffner, Donald W
Lettuce and leafy greens have been implicated in multiple foodborne disease outbreaks. This study quantifies cross contamination between lettuce pieces in a small-scale home environment. A five-strain cocktail of relevant Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains was used. Bacterial transfer between single inoculated lettuce leaf pieces to 10 non-inoculated lettuce leaf pieces that were washed in a stainless steel bowl of water for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, and 5 min was quantified. Regardless of washing time, the wash water became contaminated with 90-99% of bacteria originally present on the inoculated lettuce leaf piece. The E. coli O157:H7 concentration on initially inoculated leaf pieces was reduced ∼ 2 log CFU. Each initially uncontaminated lettuce leaf piece had ∼ 1% of the E. coli O157:H7 from the inoculated lettuce piece transferred to it after washing, with more transfer occurring during the shortest (30 s) and longest (5 min) wash times. In all cases the log percent transfer rates were essentially normally distributed. In all scenarios, most of the E. coli O157:H7 (90-99%) transferred from the inoculated lettuce pieces to the wash water. Washing with plain tap water reduces levels of E. coli O157:H7 on the inoculated lettuce leaf pieces, but also spreads contamination to previously uncontaminated leaf pieces.
Adams, Natalie L; Byrne, Lisa; Smith, Geraldine A; Elson, Richard; Harris, John P; Salmon, Roland; Smith, Robert; O'Brien, Sarah J; Adak, Goutam K; Jenkins, Claire
We evaluated clinical Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 infections in England and Wales during 1983-2012 to describe changes in microbiological and surveillance methods. A strain replacement event was captured; phage type (PT) 2 decreased to account for just 3% of cases by 2012, whereas PT8 and PT21/28 strains concurrently emerged, constituting almost two thirds of cases by 2012. Despite interventions to control and reduce transmission, incidence remained constant. However, sources of infection changed over time; outbreaks caused by contaminated meat and milk declined, suggesting that interventions aimed at reducing meat cross-contamination were effective. Petting farm and school and nursery outbreaks increased, suggesting the emergence of other modes of transmission and potentially contributing to the sustained incidence over time. Studies assessing interventions and consideration of policies and guidance should be undertaken to reduce Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157 infections in England and Wales in line with the latest epidemiologic findings.
Hsu, Hsin-Yun; Huang, Lihan; Wu, James Swi-Bea
Raw whole strawberries, if contaminated with pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, must be pasteurized prior to consumption. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the thermal inactivation kinetics of E. coli O157:H7 in strawberry puree (SP), and evaluate the changes in anthocyanins and color, and the survival of yeasts and molds (YM) after thermal processing. Inoculated with a 5-strain cocktail, fresh SP, with or without added sugar (20 and 40 °Brix), was heated at 50, 52, 54, 57.5, 60, and 62.5 °C to determine the thermal resistance of E. coli O157:H7. In raw SP, the average D-values of E. coli O157:H7 were 909.1, 454.6, 212.8, 46.1, and 20.2 s at 50, 52, 54, 57.5, and 60 °C, respectively, with a z-value of 5.9 °C. While linearly decreasing with temperature, the log D-values of E. coli O157:H7 increased slightly with sugar concentration. The log degradation rates of anthocyanins increased linearly with temperature, but decreased slightly with sugar concentrations. These results suggest that sugar may provide some protection to both E. coli O157: H7 and anthocyanins in SP. The browning index was not affected by heating at 50 and 52 °C at low sugar concentrations, but increased by an average of 1.28%, 2.21%, and 10.1% per min when SP was exposed to heating at 54, 57.5, and 60 °C, respectively. YM was also inactivated by heating. This study demonstrated that properly designed thermal processes can effectively inactivate E. coli O157:H7 and YM in contaminated SP, while minimizing the changes in anthocyanins and color.
Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Ramanathan, Ranjith; Johny, Anup Kollanoor; Charles, Anu Susan; Valipe, Satyender Rao; Mattson, Tyler; Schreiber, David; Juneja, Vijay K; Mancini, Richard; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar
The effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) on the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in undercooked ground beef patties was investigated. A five-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 was inoculated into ground beef (7.0log CFU/g), followed by addition of TC (0, 0.15, and 0.3%). The meat was formed into patties and stored at 4 degrees C for 5 days or at -18 degrees C for 7 days. The patties were cooked to an internal temperature of 60 or 65 degrees C, and E. coli O157:H7 was enumerated. The numbers of E. coli O157:H7 did not decline during storage of patties. However, cooking of patties containing TC significantly reduced (P<0.05) E. coli O157:H7 counts, by >5.0log CFU/g, relative to the reduction in controls cooked to the same temperatures. The D-values at 60 and 65 degrees C of E. coli O157:H7 in TC-treated patties (1.85 and 0.08min, respectively) were significantly lower (P<0.05) than the corresponding D-values for the organism in control patties (2.70 and 0.29min, respectively). TC-treated patties were more color stable and showed significantly lower lipid oxidation (P<0.05) than control samples. TC enhanced the heat sensitivity of E. coli O157:H7 and could potentially be used as an antimicrobial for ensuring pathogen inactivation in undercooked patties. However detailed sensory studies will be necessary to determine the acceptability to consumers of TC in ground beef patties.
Jedial, Jesse T.; Shittu, Aminu; Tambuwal, Faruk M.; Abubakar, Mikail B.; Garba, Muhammed K.; Kwaga, Jacob P.; Fasina, Folorunso O.
Objectives Escherichia coli are an important group of bacteria in the normal gastrointestinal system but can sometimes cause infections in domestic animals and man. Donkeys are routinely used as multipurpose animal but details of burdens of potentially infectious bacteria associated with it are limited. The prevalence and associations between intestinal shedding of E. coli O157 and animal characteristics and management factors were studied among 240 randomly selected working donkeys in north-western Nigeria. Design Four local government areas, of Sokoto State in north-western Nigeria were recruited in this study. A multistage randomised cluster design was used to select subjects and donkey owners within selected zones. Confirmation of infection was based on bacterial culture, isolation and biochemical test for E. coli O157 from faecal samples. Results Of the total bacteria isolated, 203 of the 329 (61.70 per cent) were E. coli, 76 of which was E. coli serotype O157. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to examine the relation between intestinal shedding of E. coli O157 and selected variables. The analysis yielded five potential predictors of shedding: soft faeces in donkeys, Akaza and Fari ecotypes of donkey were positive predictors while maize straw as feed and sampling during the cold dry period were negative predictors. Conclusions This study concludes that controlling intestinal shedding of E. coli O157 among working donkeys in Nigeria is possible using the identified predictors in planning appropriate interventions to reduced human risk of infection. PMID:26392892
Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 was only recognized as a human pathogen a little more than a decade ago, yet it has become a major foodborne pathogen. In the United States, the severity of serotype O157:H7 infections in the young and the elderly has had a tremendous impact on human health, the food industry, and federal regulations regarding food safety. The implication of acidic foods as vehicles of infection has dispelled the concept that low-pH foods are safe. Further, the association of nonbovine products with outbreaks suggests that other vehicles of transmission may exist for this pathogen. In laboratory diagnosis, most microbiologic assays rely on a single phenotype to selectively isolate this pathogen. However, the increasing evidence that phenotypic variations exist among isolates in this serogroup may eventually necessitate modifications in assay procedures to detect them. PMID:8903158
Cornick, N A; Booher, S L; Casey, T A; Moon, H W
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important cause of food-borne illness in humans. Ruminants appear to be more frequently colonized by STEC than are other animals, but the reason(s) for this is unknown. We compared the frequency, magnitude, duration, and transmissibility of colonization of sheep by E. coli O157:H7 to that by other pathotypes of E. coli. Young adult sheep were simultaneously inoculated with a cocktail consisting of two strains of E. coli O157:H7, two strains of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), and one strain of enteropathogenic E. coli. Both STEC strains and ETEC 2041 were given at either 10(7) or 10(10) CFU/strain/animal. The other strains were given only at 10(10) CFU/strain. We found no consistent differences among pathotypes in the frequency, magnitude, and transmissibility of colonization. However, the STEC strains tended to persist to 2 weeks and 2 months postinoculation more frequently than did the other pathotypes. The tendency for persistence of the STEC strains was apparent following an inoculation dose of either 10(7) or 10(10) CFU. One of the ETEC strains also persisted when inoculated at 10(10) CFU. However, in contrast to the STEC strains, it did not persist when inoculated at 10(7) CFU. These results support the hypothesis that STEC is better adapted to persist in the alimentary tracts of sheep than are other pathotypes of E. coli.
Hwang, Cheng-An; Juneja, Vijay
Ground beef products are susceptible to contamination with Escherichia coli O157:H7. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of salt, sodium pyrophosphate (SPP), and sodium lactate on the probability of growth of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef under a temperature abuse condition. Ground beef containing 0 to 2.25% salt, 0 to 0.5% SPP, and 0 to 3% lactate was inoculated with a four-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7, vacuum packaged, and stored at 10°C for 15 days. A total of 25 combinations of the three additives, each with 20 samples, were tested. A logistic regression was used to model the probability of growth of E. coli O157:H7 (with a 1.0-log CFU/g increase during storage) as a function of salt, SPP, and lactate. The resultant probability model indicated that lactate at higher concentrations decreased the probability of growth of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef, and the effect was more pronounced at higher salt concentrations. At salt concentrations below 1.3%, the increase of SPP concentration marginally increased the growth probabilities of E. coli O157:H7. The model illustrated the effect of salt, SPP, and lactate on the growth probabilities and growth or no-growth behavior of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef and can be used to improve the microbial food safety of ground beef products.
Bapanpally, Chandra; Montier, Laura; Khan, Shah; Kasra, Akif; Brunelle, Sharon L
The SAS Molecular tests Escherichia coli O157 Detection method, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method, performed as well as or better than the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference methods for ground beef, beef trim, bagged mixed lettuce, and fresh spinach. Ground beef (30% fat, 25 g test portion) was validated for 7-8 h enrichment, leafy greens were validated in a 6-7 h enrichment, and ground beef (30% fat, 375 g composite test portion) and beef trim (375 g composite test portion) were validated in a 16-20 h enrichment. The method performance for meat and leafy green matrixes was also shown to be acceptable under conditions of co-enrichment with Salmonella. Thus, after a short co-enrichment step, ground beef, beef trim, lettuce, and spinach can be tested for both Salmonella and E. coli O157. The SAS Molecular tests Salmonella Detection Kit was validated using the same test portions as for the SAS Molecular tests E. coli O157 Detection Kit and those results are presented in a separate report. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing revealed no false negatives and no false positives among the 50 E. coli 0157 strains, including H7 and non-motile strains, and 30 non-E. coli O157 strains examined. Finally, the method was shown to be robust when variations to DNA extract hold time and DNA volume were varied. The method comparison and robustness data suggest a full 7 h enrichment time should be used for 25 g ground beef test portions.
Lenahan, Mary; Sheridan, Áine; Morris, Dermot; Duffy, Geraldine; Fanning, Séamus; Burgess, Catherine M
Triclosan is an active agent that is commonly found in biocide formulations which are used by the food industry to control microbial contamination. The aim of this study was to use microarray analysis to compare gene expression between a triclosan-susceptible Escherichia coli O157:H19 isolate (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] 6.25 μg/ml) and its in vitro generated triclosan-tolerant mutant (MIC >8,000 μg/ml). Gene expression profiling was performed on the wild-type and mutant isogenic pairs after 30 min exposure to the parent MIC for triclosan and an untreated control. Microarray analysis was carried out using the Affymetrix GeneChip E. coli Genome 2.0 Array, and differential expression of genes was analyzed using the pumaDE method in Bioconductor R software. Wild-type gene expression was found to be significantly different from the triclosan-tolerant mutant for a large number of genes, even in the absence of triclosan exposure. Significant differences were observed in the expression of a number of pathway genes involved in metabolism, transport, and chemotaxis. In particular, gene expression in the triclosan-tolerant mutant was highly up-regulated for 33 of 38 genes belonging to the flagellar assembly pathway. The presence of extended flagella in the mutant isolate was confirmed visually by transmission electron microscopy, although no significant difference was observed in the motility of the parent and mutant at low levels of triclosan. Data from this study show that at a transcriptomic level, a triclosan-tolerant E. coli O157:H19 mutant is significantly different from the wild-type strain in a number of different pathways, providing an increased understanding of triclosan tolerance.
Background: Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) strain 86-24, linked to a 1986 disease outbreak, displays biofilm- and curli-negative phenotypes that are correlated with the lack of Congo red (CR) binding and formation of white colonies (CR negative) on a CR negative containing medium. However, on a CR ...
Although numerous antimicrobial interventions targeting E. coli O157:H7 have been developed and implemented to decontaminate meat and meat products during the harvesting process, the information on efficacy of these interventions, against the “big six” non-O157 STEC strains is limited. One-hundred a...
Goh, S.; Newman, C.; Knowles, M.; Bolton, F. J.; Hollyoak, V.; Richards, S.; Daley, P.; Counter, D.; Smith, H. R.; Keppie, N.
In March 1999, a large community outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 infection occurred in North Cumbria. A total of 114 individuals were reported to the Outbreak Control Team (OCT); 88 had laboratory confirmed E. coli O157. Twenty-eight (32%) of the confirmed cases were admitted to hospital, including three children (3.4%) with haemolytic uraemic syndrome. There were no deaths. A case-control study found that illness was strongly associated with drinking pasteurized milk from a local farm (P = <0.0001) on single variable analysis. Microbiological investigations at the farm revealed E. coli O157 phage type (PT) 21/28 VT 2 which was indistinguishable from the human isolates by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. At the time of occurrence this was the largest E. coli O157 outbreak in England and Wales and the first E. coli O157 PT 21/28 VT 2 outbreak associated with pasteurized milk. This outbreak highlights lessons to be learnt regarding on-farm pasteurization. PMID:12558327
Rotariu, O; Ogden, I D; MacRitchie, L; Forbes, K J; Williams, A P; Cross, P; Hunter, C J; Teunis, P F M; Strachan, N J C
E. coli O157 can be transmitted to humans by three primary (foodborne, environmental, waterborne) and one secondary (person-to-person transmission) pathways. A regression model and quantitative microbiological risk assessments (QMRAs) were applied to determine the relative importance of the primary transmission pathways in NE Scotland. Both approaches indicated that waterborne infection was the least important but it was unclear whether food or the environment was the main source of infection. The QMRAs over-predicted the number of cases by a factor of 30 and this could be because all E. coli O157 strains may not be equally infective and/or the level of infectivity in the dose-response model was too high. The efficacy of potential risk mitigation strategies to reduce human exposure to E. coli O157 using QMRAs was simulated. Risk mitigation strategies focusing on food and environment are likely to have the biggest impact on infection figures.
Gómez, Natacha C; Ramiro, Juan M P; Quecan, Beatriz X V; de Melo Franco, Bernadette D G
Use of probiotic biofilms can be an alternative approach for reducing the formation of pathogenic biofilms in food industries. The aims of this study were (i) to evaluate the probiotic properties of bacteriocinogenic (Lactococcus lactis VB69, L. lactis VB94, Lactobacillus sakei MBSa1, and Lactobacillus curvatus MBSa3) and non-bacteriocinogenic (L. lactis 368, Lactobacillus helveticus 354, Lactobacillus casei 40, and Weissela viridescens 113) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Brazilian's foods and (ii) to develop protective biofilms with these strains and test them for exclusion of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella Typhimurium. LAB were tested for survival in acid and bile salt conditions, surface properties, biosurfactant production, β-galactosidase and gelatinase activity, antibiotic resistance and presence of virulence genes. Most strains survived exposure to pH 2 and 4% bile salts. The highest percentages of auto-aggregation were obtained after 24 h of incubation. Sixty-seven percentage auto-aggregation value was observed in W. viridescens 113 and Lactobacillus curvatus MBSa3 exhibited the highest co-aggregation (69% with Listeria monocytogenes and 74.6% with E. coli O157:H7), while the lowest co-aggregation was exhibited by W. viridescens 113 (53.4% with Listeria monocytogenes and 38% with E. coli O157:H7). Tests for hemolytic activity, bacterial cell adherence with xylene, and drop collapse confirmed the biosurfactant-producing ability of most strains. Only one strain (L. lactis 368) produced β-galactosidase. All strains were negative for virulence genes cob, ccf, cylLL, cylLs, cyllM, cylB, cylA and efaAfs and gelatinase production. The antibiotic susceptibility tests indicated that the MIC for ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, and streptomycin did not exceed the epidemiological cut-off suggested by the European Food Safety Authority. Some strains were resistant to one or more antibiotics and resistance
Gómez, Natacha C.; Ramiro, Juan M. P.; Quecan, Beatriz X. V.; de Melo Franco, Bernadette D. G.
Use of probiotic biofilms can be an alternative approach for reducing the formation of pathogenic biofilms in food industries. The aims of this study were (i) to evaluate the probiotic properties of bacteriocinogenic (Lactococcus lactis VB69, L. lactis VB94, Lactobacillus sakei MBSa1, and Lactobacillus curvatus MBSa3) and non-bacteriocinogenic (L. lactis 368, Lactobacillus helveticus 354, Lactobacillus casei 40, and Weissela viridescens 113) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Brazilian’s foods and (ii) to develop protective biofilms with these strains and test them for exclusion of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella Typhimurium. LAB were tested for survival in acid and bile salt conditions, surface properties, biosurfactant production, β-galactosidase and gelatinase activity, antibiotic resistance and presence of virulence genes. Most strains survived exposure to pH 2 and 4% bile salts. The highest percentages of auto-aggregation were obtained after 24 h of incubation. Sixty-seven percentage auto-aggregation value was observed in W. viridescens 113 and Lactobacillus curvatus MBSa3 exhibited the highest co-aggregation (69% with Listeria monocytogenes and 74.6% with E. coli O157:H7), while the lowest co-aggregation was exhibited by W. viridescens 113 (53.4% with Listeria monocytogenes and 38% with E. coli O157:H7). Tests for hemolytic activity, bacterial cell adherence with xylene, and drop collapse confirmed the biosurfactant-producing ability of most strains. Only one strain (L. lactis 368) produced β-galactosidase. All strains were negative for virulence genes cob, ccf, cylLL, cylLs, cyllM, cylB, cylA and efaAfs and gelatinase production. The antibiotic susceptibility tests indicated that the MIC for ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, and streptomycin did not exceed the epidemiological cut-off suggested by the European Food Safety Authority. Some strains were resistant to one or more antibiotics and
Cobeljić, Miloje; Bojić, Ivanko; Opacić, Dolores; Lepsanović, Zorica; Lazić, Srdan
A 'new' group of pathogenic agents, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) (particularly the strains of O157 serogroup), emerged in the last 20 years, causing an increased number of sporadic and epidemic diarrhoeal diseases with hemorrhagic enterocolitis as a most common clinical manifestation of the infection. As a consequence of the absorption and cytotoxic effect of the main virulence factor of these bacteria--verotoxin (shiga-toxin), in about 10% of the affected persons extraintestinal complications, most frequently hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), occurred 7-14 days after an episode of diarrhoeal disease. The first case of hemorrhagic enterocolitis with the documented EHEC O157 infection in Yugoslavia is presented in this paper. Considering the existing expansion trend of these carriers, practitioners should be aware of them in case of the occurrence of diarrhoeal disease, (particularly hemorrhagic enterocolitis), and keep these patients under control during the reconvalescence period because of potential development of extraintestinal complications, such as HUS.
Sheng, Haiqing; Shringi, Smriti; Baker, Katherine N. K.; Minnich, Scott A.; Hovde, Carolyn J.
The increased summertime prevalence of cattle carriage of enterohemorrhagic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC O157) is associated with the increased summertime incidence of human infection. The mechanism driving the seasonality of STEC O157 carriage among cattle is unknown. We conducted experimental challenge trials to distinguish whether factors extrinsic or intrinsic to cattle underlie the seasonality of STEC O157 colonization. Holstein steers (n = 20) exposed to ambient environmental conditions were challenged with a standardized pool of STEC O157 strains four times at 6-month intervals. The densities and durations of rectoanal junction mucosa (RAJ) colonization with STEC O157 were compared by season (winter versus summer), dose (109 CFU versus 107 CFU), and route of challenge (oral versus rectal). Following summer challenges, the RAJ STEC O157 colonization density was significantly lower (P = 0.016) and the duration was shorter (P = 0.052) than for winter challenges, a seasonal pattern opposite to that observed naturally. Colonization was unaffected by the challenge route, indicating that passage through the gastrointestinal microbiome did not significantly affect the infectious dose to the RAJ. A 2-log reduction of the challenge doses in the second-year trials was accompanied by similarly reduced RAJ colonization in both seasons (P < 0.001). These results refute the hypothesis that cattle are predisposed to STEC O157 colonization during the summer months, either due to intrinsic factors or indirectly due to gastrointestinal tract microbiome effects. Instead, the data support the hypothesis that the increased summertime STEC O157 colonization results from increased seasonal oral exposure to this pathogen. PMID:26607594
Brookes, Victoria J.; Jordan, David; Davis, Stephen; Ward, Michael P.; Heller, Jane
Introduction Strains of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157) are important foodborne pathogens in humans, and outbreaks of illness have been associated with consumption of undercooked beef. Here, we determine the most effective intervention strategies to reduce the prevalence of STEC O157 contaminated beef carcasses using a modelling approach. Method A computational model simulated events and processes in the beef harvest chain. Information from empirical studies was used to parameterise the model. Variance-based global sensitivity analysis (GSA) using the Saltelli method identified variables with the greatest influence on the prevalence of STEC O157 contaminated carcasses. Following a baseline scenario (no interventions), a series of simulations systematically introduced and tested interventions based on influential variables identified by repeated Saltelli GSA, to determine the most effective intervention strategy. Results Transfer of STEC O157 from hide or gastro-intestinal tract to carcass (improved abattoir hygiene) had the greatest influence on the prevalence of contaminated carcases. Due to interactions between inputs (identified by Saltelli GSA), combinations of interventions based on improved abattoir hygiene achieved a greater reduction in maximum prevalence than would be expected from an additive effect of single interventions. The most effective combination was improved abattoir hygiene with vaccination, which achieved a greater than ten-fold decrease in maximum prevalence compared to the baseline scenario. Conclusion Study results suggest that effective interventions to reduce the prevalence of STEC O157 contaminated carcasses should initially be based on improved abattoir hygiene. However, the effect of improved abattoir hygiene on the distribution of STEC O157 concentration on carcasses is an important information gap—further empirical research is required to determine whether reduced prevalence of contaminated carcasses is
Baumler, David J.; Banta, Lois M.; Hung, Kai F.; Schwarz, Jodi A.; Cabot, Eric L.; Glasner, Jeremy D.; Perna, Nicole T.
Genomics and bioinformatics are topics of increasing interest in undergraduate biological science curricula. Many existing exercises focus on gene annotation and analysis of a single genome. In this paper, we present two educational modules designed to enable students to learn and apply fundamental concepts in comparative genomics using examples related to bacterial pathogenesis. Students first examine alignments of genomes of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated from three food-poisoning outbreaks using the multiple-genome alignment tool Mauve. Students investigate conservation of virulence factors using the Mauve viewer and by browsing annotations available at the A Systematic Annotation Package for Community Analysis of Genomes database. In the second module, students use an alignment of five Yersinia pestis genomes to analyze single-nucleotide polymorphisms of three genes to classify strains into biovar groups. Students are then given sequences of bacterial DNA amplified from the teeth of corpses from the first and second pandemics of the bubonic plague and asked to classify these new samples. Learning-assessment results reveal student improvement in self-efficacy and content knowledge, as well as students' ability to use BLAST to identify genomic islands and conduct analyses of virulence factors from E. coli O157:H7 or Y. pestis. Each of these educational modules offers educators new ready-to-implement resources for integrating comparative genomic topics into their curricula. PMID:22383620
Gopee, N V; Adesiyun, A A; Caesar, K
A longitudinal study was conducted of the prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli in mammals, birds, and reptiles housed at the Emperor Valley Zoo, Trinidad. During a 6-mo study period, swabs were obtained from fecal samples that were randomly collected from the enclosures of animals from these three taxonomic groups every 3 wk. With snakes, both cloacal and fecal swabs were obtained. Fecal and cloacal swabs were cultured for E. coli on eosin methylene blue agar. The production of mucoid colonies and hemolytic colonies and non-sorbitol fermenter status were identified. The occurrence of O157 strains was determined amongst E. coli isolates that were non-sorbitol fermenters, and the disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibiograms of isolates. The frequency of E. coli isolation was significantly higher in mammals compared with birds and reptiles. Overall, the frequencies of isolation of E. coli from omnivores. herbivores, and carnivores, 87.2%, 70.0%, and 57.3%, respectively, regardless of animal class, were significantly different. Most (99.6%) of the E. coli isolates tested for antibiotic sensitivity exhibited resistance to one or more of the eight antimicrobial agents used. The possession of phenotypic virulence markers by the E. coli isolates studied and the generally high resistance to antimicrobial agents may have health implications for the zoological collection.
Aim: To investigate the effect of curli expression on cell hydrophobicity, biofilm formation, and attachment to cut and intact fresh produce surfaces. Methods and Results: Five E. coli O157:H7 strains were evaluated for curli expression, hydrophobicity, biofilm formation, and attachment of E. co...
We investigated the heat resistance of a four-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in raw ground beef in both the absence and presence of white and green tea powders and an apple skin extract. Inoculated meat, packaged in bags, was completely immersed in a circulating water bath and cooked fo...
The heat resistance of a four-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in raw ground beef in both the absence and presence of the natural antimicrobials, carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde, was tested at temperatures ranging from 55 to 62.5C. Inoculated meat, packaged in bags, was completely immersed i...
Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains such as O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145 are recognized as serious outbreak to cause human illness due to their toxicity. A conventional microbiological method for cell counting is laborious and needs long time for the results. Since ...
Several species of enteric pathogens produce curli fimbriae, which may affect their interaction with surfaces and other microbes in nonhost environments. Here we used two E. coli O157:H7 outbreak strains with distinct genotypes to understand the role of curli in surface attachment and biofilm format...
Outbreaks of disease due to vegetative bacterial pathogens associated with acid foods (such as apple cider) have raised concerns about acidified vegetables and related products that have a similar pH (3.2 to 4.0). Escherichia coli O157:H7 and related strains of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) have ...
Hammack, T S; Feng, P; Amaguaña, R M; June, G A; Sherrod, P S; Andrews, W H
The relative efficacies of hemorrhagic coli (HC) agar and several formulations of sorbitol MacConkey (SorMac) agar, with and without 0.1% (w/v) 4-methyllumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG), in recovering unstressed and heat-stressed Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Brie cheese, ice cream, and whole milk were determined. Recovery of unstressed E. coli O157:H7 was determined quantitatively by spread-plating diluted samples onto different agars and performing plate counts. Recovery of stressed E. coli O157:H7 was determined qualitatively by enriching samples in modified trypticase soy broth, streaking the incubated enrichments, and isolating E. coli O157:H7 colonies from the agars. HC agar and the SorMac agar formulations did not differ significantly in their ability to recover unstressed E. coli O157:H7 from ice cream and whole milk; however, HC agar recovered significantly more unstressed E. coli O157:H7 from Brie cheese than did the SorMac agar formulations. Bacteriological Analytical Manual and Oxoid SorMac agar formulations made from individual ingredients, did not differ significantly in recovering unstressed E. coli O157:H7 from Brie cheese. The efficiency of the commercially available Oxoid SorMac agar could not be determined because of overgrowth by indigenous microflora. HC and SorMac agars did not differ significantly in recovering stressed E. coli O157:H7 from Brie cheese, ice cream, and whole milk. MUG had no apparent effect on recovery of either stressed or unstressed E. coli O157:H7 from the dairy foods examined.
Cooley, Michael B; Jay-Russell, Michele; Atwill, Edward R; Carychao, Diana; Nguyen, Kimberly; Quiñones, Beatriz; Patel, Ronak; Walker, Samarpita; Swimley, Michelle; Pierre-Jerome, Edith; Gordus, Andrew G; Mandrell, Robert E
During a 2.5-year survey of 33 farms and ranches in a major leafy greens production region in California, 13,650 produce, soil, livestock, wildlife, and water samples were tested for Shiga toxin (stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Overall, 357 and 1,912 samples were positive for E. coli O157:H7 (2.6%) or non-O157 STEC (14.0%), respectively. Isolates differentiated by O-typing ELISA and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) resulted in 697 O157:H7 and 3,256 non-O157 STEC isolates saved for further analysis. Cattle (7.1%), feral swine (4.7%), sediment (4.4%), and water (3.3%) samples were positive for E. coli O157:H7; 7/32 birds, 2/145 coyotes, 3/88 samples from elk also were positive. Non-O157 STEC were at approximately 5-fold higher incidence compared to O157 STEC: cattle (37.9%), feral swine (21.4%), birds (2.4%), small mammals (3.5%), deer or elk (8.3%), water (14.0%), sediment (12.3%), produce (0.3%) and soil adjacent to produce (0.6%). stx1, stx2 and stx1/stx2 genes were detected in 63%, 74% and 35% of STEC isolates, respectively. Subtilase, intimin and hemolysin genes were present in 28%, 25% and 79% of non-O157 STEC, respectively; 23% were of the "Top 6″ O-types. The initial method was modified twice during the study revealing evidence of culture bias based on differences in virulence and O-antigen profiles. MLVA typing revealed a diverse collection of O157 and non-O157 STEC strains isolated from multiple locations and sources and O157 STEC strains matching outbreak strains. These results emphasize the importance of multiple approaches for isolation of non-O157 STEC, that livestock and wildlife are common sources of potentially virulent STEC, and evidence of STEC persistence and movement in a leafy greens production environment.
Cooley, Michael B.; Jay-Russell, Michele; Atwill, Edward R.; Carychao, Diana; Nguyen, Kimberly; Quiñones, Beatriz; Patel, Ronak; Walker, Samarpita; Swimley, Michelle; Pierre-Jerome, Edith; Gordus, Andrew G.; Mandrell, Robert E.
During a 2.5-year survey of 33 farms and ranches in a major leafy greens production region in California, 13,650 produce, soil, livestock, wildlife, and water samples were tested for Shiga toxin (stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Overall, 357 and 1,912 samples were positive for E. coli O157:H7 (2.6%) or non-O157 STEC (14.0%), respectively. Isolates differentiated by O-typing ELISA and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) resulted in 697 O157:H7 and 3,256 non-O157 STEC isolates saved for further analysis. Cattle (7.1%), feral swine (4.7%), sediment (4.4%), and water (3.3%) samples were positive for E. coli O157:H7; 7/32 birds, 2/145 coyotes, 3/88 samples from elk also were positive. Non-O157 STEC were at approximately 5-fold higher incidence compared to O157 STEC: cattle (37.9%), feral swine (21.4%), birds (2.4%), small mammals (3.5%), deer or elk (8.3%), water (14.0%), sediment (12.3%), produce (0.3%) and soil adjacent to produce (0.6%). stx1, stx2 and stx1/stx2 genes were detected in 63%, 74% and 35% of STEC isolates, respectively. Subtilase, intimin and hemolysin genes were present in 28%, 25% and 79% of non-O157 STEC, respectively; 23% were of the “Top 6″ O-types. The initial method was modified twice during the study revealing evidence of culture bias based on differences in virulence and O-antigen profiles. MLVA typing revealed a diverse collection of O157 and non-O157 STEC strains isolated from multiple locations and sources and O157 STEC strains matching outbreak strains. These results emphasize the importance of multiple approaches for isolation of non-O157 STEC, that livestock and wildlife are common sources of potentially virulent STEC, and evidence of STEC persistence and movement in a leafy greens production environment. PMID:23762414
Keeling, Carisa; Niebuhr, Steven E; Acuff, Gary R; Dickson, James S
Five Escherichia coli biotype I isolates were compared with E. coli O157:H7 under four common meat processing conditions. The processes that were evaluated were freezing, refrigerating, fermentation, and thermal inactivation. For each study, at least one surrogate organism was not statistically different when compared with E. coli O157:H7. However, the four studies did not consistently show the same isolate as having this agreement. The three studies that involved temperature as a method of controlling or reducing the E. coli population all had at least one possible surrogate in common. In the fermentation study, only one isolate (BAA-1429) showed no statistical difference when compared with E. coli O157:H7. However, the population reductions that were observed indicated the isolates BAA-1427 and BAA-1431 would overestimate the surviving E. coli O157:H7 population in a fermented summer sausage. When all of the data from all of the surrogates were examined, it was found that isolates BAA-1427, BAA-1429, and BAA-1430 would be good surrogates for all four of the processes that were examined in this study. There was no statistical difference noted between these three isolates and E. coli O157:H7 in the refrigeration study. These isolates resulted in smaller population reductions than did E. coli O157:H7 in the frozen, fermentation, and thermal inactivation studies. This would indicate that these isolates would overpredict the E. coli O157:H7 population in these three instances. This overprediction results in an additional margin of safety when using E. coli biotype 1 as a surrogate.
Rocelle, M; Clavero, S; Beuchat, L R
The efficacy of tryptic soy agar (TSA), modified sorbitol MacConkey agar (MSMA), modified eosin methylene blue (MEMB) agar, and modified SD-39 (MSD) agar in recovering a five-strain mixture of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and five non-O157 strains of E. coli heated in tryptic soy broth at 52, 54, or 56 degrees C for 10, 20, and 30 min was determined. Nonselective TSA supported the highest recovery of heated cells. Significantly (P < or = 0.05) lower recovery of heat-stressed cells was observed on MSMA than on TSA, MEMB agar, or MSD agar. The suitability of MEMB agar or MSD agar for recovery of E. coli O157:H7 from heated or frozen (-20 degrees C) low- or high-fat ground beef was determined. Recovery of E. coli O157:H7 from heated ground beef was significantly (P < or = 0.05) higher on TSA than on MEMB agar, which in turn supported higher recovery than MSD agar did; MSMA was inferior. Recovery from frozen ground beef was also higher on MEMB and MSD agars than on MSMA. Higher populations were generally recovered from high-fat beef than from low-fat beef, but the relative performance of the recovery media was the same. The inability of MSMA to recover stressed cells of E. coli O157:H7 underscores the need to develop a better selective medium for enumerating E. coli O157:H7.
Tu, Shu-I.; Uknalis, Joseph; Gehring, Andrew; He, Yiping
A sandwiched immunoassay consisting of toxin capture by immunomagnetic beads (IMB) and toxin detection by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) linked chemiluminescence was used to follow the production of Shiga-like toxins (SLT) by E. coli O157:H7. The intensity of luminescence generated by the oxidation of luminol-liked compounds was used to represent the concentration of toxins produced. The time-course of SLT production by E. coli O157:H7 under different conditions was investigated. In pure culture, optimal generation of SLT showed a significant delay than the steady state of cell growth. In mixed cultures of SLT producing E. coli O157:H7 and non-SLT producing E. coli K-12 strain, the production of toxins was substantially decreased. However, the growth of E. coli O157:H7 was not affected by the presence of K-12 strain. This decrease in SLT production was also observed in radiation-sterile ground beef. In regular ground beef that might contain numerous other bacteria, the growth of E. coli O157:H7 in EC media was not significantly affected but the lowered production of SLT was observed. The results showed that mechanism of inducing SLT production was complex with both the growth time and growth environment could influence SLT production. The addition of homo-serine lactone to the growth media enhanced the production of SLT. Thus, possibly cell-cell communication may have a role in SLT production by E. coli O157:H7.
Rocelle, M; Clavero, S; Beuchat, L R
The efficacy of tryptic soy agar (TSA), modified sorbitol MacConkey agar (MSMA), modified eosin methylene blue (MEMB) agar, and modified SD-39 (MSD) agar in recovering a five-strain mixture of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and five non-O157 strains of E. coli heated in tryptic soy broth at 52, 54, or 56 degrees C for 10, 20, and 30 min was determined. Nonselective TSA supported the highest recovery of heated cells. Significantly (P < or = 0.05) lower recovery of heat-stressed cells was observed on MSMA than on TSA, MEMB agar, or MSD agar. The suitability of MEMB agar or MSD agar for recovery of E. coli O157:H7 from heated or frozen (-20 degrees C) low- or high-fat ground beef was determined. Recovery of E. coli O157:H7 from heated ground beef was significantly (P < or = 0.05) higher on TSA than on MEMB agar, which in turn supported higher recovery than MSD agar did; MSMA was inferior. Recovery from frozen ground beef was also higher on MEMB and MSD agars than on MSMA. Higher populations were generally recovered from high-fat beef than from low-fat beef, but the relative performance of the recovery media was the same. The inability of MSMA to recover stressed cells of E. coli O157:H7 underscores the need to develop a better selective medium for enumerating E. coli O157:H7. PMID:7574637
Kalita, Anjana; Kalita, Mridul; Torres, Alfredo G
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains are well-documented human pathogens and causative agents of diarrheal episodes and hemorrhagic colitis. The serotype O157:H7 is highly virulent and responsible for both outbreaks and sporadic cases of diarrhea. Because antibiotic treatment is contraindicated against this pathogen, development of a human vaccine could be an effective intervention in public health. In our recent Infection and Immunity paper, we applied integrated approaches of in silico genome wide search combined with bioinformatics tools to identify and test O157 vaccine candidates for their protective effect on a murine model of gastrointestinal infection. Using genomic/immunoinformatic approaches that are further described here, we categorized vaccine candidates as high, medium, and low priorities, and demonstrate that some high priority candidates were able to significantly induce Th2 cytokines and reduce EHEC colonization. Using the STRING database, we have recently evaluated the vaccine candidates and predict functional protein interactions, determining whether correlations exist for the development of a multi-subunit vaccine, targeting different pathways against EHEC O157:H7. The overall approach is designed to screen potential vaccine candidates against EHEC; however, the methodology can be quickly applied to many other intestinal pathogens. PMID:25621619
Muthukumarasamy, Parthiban; Holley, Richard A
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is capable of surviving the rigorous processing steps during the manufacture of dry fermented sausages. The effect of adding two probiotic organisms, Lactobacillus reuteri and Bifidobacterium longum as co-cultures with the meat starter cultures Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus carnosus on the viability of E. coli O157:H7 in dry fermented sausages was studied. A 5 strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 was added at 7.4 log cfu/g to the sausage batter and challenged with either or both Lb. reuteri or B. longum before or after they were micro-encapsulated. Sausages were fermented at < or = 26 degrees C and 88% relative humidity (RH) followed by drying at 75% RH and 13 degrees C for 25 d. The pH, water activity (aw), protein, moisture, and numbers of all inoculated organisms were monitored during processing. The pH and aw decreased from 5.7 and 0.98 to 4.9 and 0.88 at the end of fermentation and drying, respectively. These processes reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 1.0 and 0.7 log cfu/g at the end of fermentation and drying, respectively. Unencapsulated Lb. reuteri with or without B. longum reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 3.0 log cfu/g and B. longum caused a 1.9 log cfu/g reduction. While micro-encapsulation increased survival of Lb. reuteri and B. longum, it reduced their inhibitory action against E. coli O157:H7.
Lu, Haixia; Zhu, Junli; Li, Jianrong; Chen, Jinru
Contaminated leafy green vegetables have been linked to several outbreaks of human gastrointestinal infections. Antimicrobial interventions that are adoptable by the fresh produce industry for control of pathogen contamination are in great demand. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of sustained active packaging on control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total aerobic bacteria on lettuce. Commercial Iceberg lettuce was inoculated with a 3-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 at 10(2) or 10(4) CFU/g. The contaminated lettuce and un-inoculated controls were placed respectively in 5 different active packaging structures. Traditional, nonactive packaging structure was included as controls. Packaged lettuce was stored at 4, 10, or 22 °C for 3 wk and sampled weekly for the population of E. coli O157:H7 and total aerobic bacteria. Results showed that packaging structures with ClO2 generator, CO2 generator, or one of the O2 scavengers effectively controlled the growth of E. coli O157:H7 and total aerobic bacteria under all storage conditions. Packaging structure with the ClO2 generator was most effective and no E. coli O157:H7 was detected in samples packaged in this structure except for those that were inoculated with 4 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 and stored at 22 °C. Packaging structures with an oxygen scavenger and the allyl isothiocyanate generator were mostly ineffective in control of the growth of the bacteria on Iceberg lettuce. The research suggests that some of the packaging structures evaluated in the study can be used to control the presence of foodborne pathogens on leafy green vegetables.
Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Hoagland, Thomas; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar
This study investigated the antimicrobial effect of low concentrations of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) on Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider. A five-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 was inoculated into apple juice or cider at approximately 6.0 log CFU/ml, followed by the addition of TC (0%v/v, 0.025%v/v, 0.075%v/v and 0.125%v/v). The inoculated apple juice samples were incubated at 23 degrees C and 4 degrees C for 21 days, whereas the cider samples were stored only at 4 degrees C. The pH of apple juice and cider, and E. coli O157:H7 counts were determined on days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21. TC was effective (P<0.05) in inactivating E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider. At 23 degrees C, 0.125 and 0.075%v/v TC completely inactivated E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice (negative by enrichment) on days 1 and 3, respectively. At 4 degrees C, 0.125 and 0.075%v/v TC decreased the pathogen counts in the juice and cider to undetectable levels on days 3 and 5, respectively. Results indicate that low concentrations of TC could be used as an effective antimicrobial to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider.
Bouvet, J; Bavai, C; Rossel, R; Le Roux, A; Montet, M P; Ray-Gueniot, S; Mazuy, C; Atrache, V; Vernozy-Rozand, C
The aims of the present study were: (i) to evaluate verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) prevalence in pork cutting meat; (ii) to determine the effects of cutting process on pork meat contamination by VTEC; (iii) to characterise the VTEC strains isolated from pork and pork cutting plants (virulence genes and serotype); and (iv) to compare the strains isolated the same day in the same cutting plant in order to identify the routes of contamination inside the cutting plant. Pork carcasses from three French cutting plants were sampled before carcass cutting (carcass samples), after carcasses were divided into big portions (untrimmed cuts) and after preparation of primal cuts (rindless boneless cuts), and different environmental sites in each cutting plant were sampled at three different times in the work day. Potable water was also collected. PCR detection of stx genes was performed on a total of 2042 samples. In addition, a second PCR specific for E. coli O157:H7 detection was carried out on the stx-positive samples. VTEC strains were recovered from positive samples by colony hybridisation or immunoconcentration, then serotyped, genetically characterised (eae, ehx, stx1, stx2, stx2e, uidA and genes which are associated with virulence) and pulsotyped. No E. coli O157:H7 was detected. Meat contamination decreased from carcass (12%) and primary cuts (19%) to secondary cuts (5%), whereas environmental contamination increased after 2 h of activity (from 3% before the commencement of the work day to 25% and 20%, 2 and 6 h after commencement of cutting). No VTEC isolates harboured eae, ehx and uidA genes. VTEC contamination routes were not clearly identified.
Torso, Lauren M; Voorhees, Ronald E; Forest, Stephen A; Gordon, Andrew Z; Silvestri, Sharon A; Kissler, Bonnie; Schlackman, Jessica; Sandt, Carol H; Toma, Paul; Bachert, Joel; Mertz, Kristen J; Harrison, Lee H
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a common cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Beef ground at establishments regulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service is routinely tested for E. coli O157:H7. Prior to December 2013, boxed beef product (wholesale cuts of beef, such as beef loin, packaged into bags and boxed for shipping) was not always tested for this pathogen. Downstream processors or retailers may grind the product; and, if the ground beef is not cooked to the recommended temperature, pathogens on the exterior of the beef introduced to the interior through grinding may survive. On 18 October 2013, the Allegheny County Health Department identified two E. coli O157:H7 cases, both of whom were food handlers at restaurant A, a restaurant that ground locally produced boxed beef for hamburgers on site. Case finding was conducted through public messaging, employee surveys, and disease surveillance. All potential cases were interviewed using a standard questionnaire. A confirmed case was defined as laboratory-confirmed E. coli O157:H7 with exposure to restaurant A. A probable case was defined as a patient with compatible symptoms and exposure to restaurant A but without laboratory confirmation. All human and food isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis. The analysis identified 14 confirmed and 10 probable cases of E. coli; 18 nonintact ground beef samples tested positive for E. coli O157:H7. Nine confirmed cases were restaurant A employees. All confirmed cases recalled eating a restaurant A hamburger in the 10 days before illness onset; most cases reported consuming medium to rare hamburgers. Multiple pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis patterns were identified among both the human and ground beef isolates, and the patient isolates matched those found in ground beef samples. Restaurant A
Stanford, Kim; Hannon, Sherry; Booker, Calvin W; Jim, G Kee
To evaluate the efficacy of a type-III secreted proteins vaccine and a Lactobacillus-acidophilus-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) for controlling Escherichia coli O157:H7, cattle (n=864) were allocated to the following groups: DFM, finishing diets containing 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU)/animal/day L. acidophilus and Propionibacterium freudenreichii; VAC, finishing diets and 2 mL intramuscular injection of vaccine at allocation and 28 days later; or CON, finishing diets only. Cattle within replicates were stratified by initial levels of E. coli O157:H7 and randomized to experimental groups, with 30 pens allocated on June 15, 2011 (AS1), 18 pens allocated on June 28, 2011 (AS2), and 18 cattle per pen. Rectal fecal samples and perineal swabs were collected at 28-day intervals until shipment to slaughter (103-145 days on trial). Numbers of cattle with enumerable E. coli O157:H7 (≥1.6 CFU/g feces) were reduced in AS1 and AS2 by VAC (p=0.008), although interventions had no impact on numbers of E. coli O157:H7 shed. For AS1, VAC reduced prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in feces (p=0.03) and perineal swabs (p=0.04) in the feeding period but not at shipment to slaughter. For AS2, prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 was not reduced in either feces or perineal swabs by VAC at any time. For AS1, DFM reduced prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in perineal swabs (p=0.01) during the feeding period. For AS2, DFM increased E. coli O157:H7 detection in feces (p=0.03) and perineal swabs (p=0.01) at shipment to slaughter. Seventy-five percent of AS1 E. coli O157:H7 isolates had only stx1, while 87% of AS2 isolates had stx1 and stx2 genes. Of the two interventions, VAC shows the most potential for pre-harvest control of E. coli O157:H7, but due to variable efficacy of both DFM and VAC, additional product development is necessary to ensure more consistent pre-harvest control of E. coli O157:H7.
Liu, Yarui; Mustapha, Azlin
Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with food has caused many serious public health problems in recent years. However, only viable cells of this pathogen can cause infections, and false-positive detection caused by dead cells can lead to unnecessary product recalls. The objective of this study was to develop and optimize a method that combines propidium monoazide (PMA) staining with real-time PCR to detect only viable cells of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef. PMA is a DNA intercalating dye that can penetrate compromised membranes of dead cells and bind to cellular DNA, preventing its amplification via a subsequent PCR. Three strains of E. coli O157:H7 (505B, G5310 and C7927) at concentrations of 10(0) to 10(8)CFU/mL were used as live cells. Dead cells were obtained by heating cell suspensions at 85°C for 15 min. Suspensions were treated with PMA and the optimized assay was applied to artificially contaminated ground beef with two different fat contents (10% and 27%). DNA was extracted and amplified by TaqMan® real-time PCR assay targeting the uidA gene for detection of E. coli O157:H7. Plasmid pUC19 was added as an internal amplification control (IAC). A treatment of 25 μM PMA with a 10-min light exposure on ice was sufficient to eliminate DNA from 10(8) dead E. coli O157:H7 cells/mL. The optimized assay could detect as low as 10(2) CFU/mL viable E. coli O157:H7 in pure culture and 10(5) CFU/g in ground beef, in the presence of 10(6)/mL or g of dead cells. With an 8-h enrichment, 1 CFU/g viable E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef was detectable without interference from 10(6) dead cells/g. In conclusion, the PMA real-time PCR could effectively detect viable E. coli O157:H7 without being compromised by dead cells.
Rhee, Min-Suk; Lee, Sun-Young; Hillers, Virginia N; McCurdy, Sandra M; Kang, Dong-Hyun
The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef cooked to an internal temperature of 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) under conditions simulating consumer-style cooking methods. To compare a double-sided grill (DSG) with a single-sided grill (SSG), two different cooking methods were used for the SSG: for the one-turnover (OT-SSG) method, a patty was turned once when the internal temperature reached 40 degrees C, and for the multiturnover (MT-SSG) method, a patty was turned every 30 s. Patties (100 g, n = 9) inoculated with a five-strain mixture of E. coli O157: H7 at a concentration of 10(7) CFU/g were cooked until all three temperature readings (for two sides and the center) for a patty were 71.1 degrees C. The surviving E. coli O157:H7 cells were enumerated on sorbitol MacConkey (SMAC) agar and on phenol red agar base with 1% sorbitol (SPRAB). The order of the cooking methods with regard to the cooking time required for the patty to reach 71.1 degrees C was as follows: DSG (2.7 min) < MT-SSG (6.6 min) < OT-SSG (10.9 min). The more rapid, higher-temperature cooking method was more effective (P < 0.01) in destroying E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef. E. coli O157:H7 reduction levels were clearly differentiated among treatments as follows: OT-SSG (4.7 log10 CFU/g) < MT-SSG (5.6 log10 CFU/g) < DSG (6.9 log10 CFU/g). Significantly larger numbers of E. coil O157:H7 were observed on SPRAB than on SMAC agar. To confirm the safety of ground beef cooked to 71.1 degrees C, additional patties (100 g, n = 9) inoculated with lower concentrations of E. coli O157:H7 (10(3) to 10(4) CFU/g) were tested. The ground beef cooked by the OT-SSG method resulted in two (22%) of nine samples testing positive after enrichment, whereas no E. coli O157:H7 was found for samples cooked by the MT-SSG and DSG methods. Our findings suggest that consumers should be advised to either cook ground beef patties in a grill that cooks the top
Lowe, Ross M S; Munns, Krysty; Selinger, L Brent; Kremenik, Linda; Baines, Danica; McAllister, Tim A; Sharma, Ranjana
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a pathogenic, gram-negative bacterium that causes diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and can lead to fatal hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. We examined the persistence of E. coli O157:H7 lineages I and II in feces held at 4, 12, and 25 degrees C, from animals fed either grain or hay diets. Three strains of each lineage I and II were inoculated into grain-fed or hay-fed feces, and their persistence was monitored over 28 days. No significant differences in E. coli O157:H7 survival between the 2 lineages in both fecal types was found at the examined temperatures. Volatile fatty acids were higher in grain-fed than in hay-fed feces, resulting in consistently lower pH in the grain-fed feces at 4, 12 and 25 degrees C. Regardless of lineage type, E. coli O157:H7 CFUs were significantly higher in grain-fed than in hay-fed feces at 4 and 25 degrees C. Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival was highest in grain-fed feces at 25 degrees C up to 14 days. Our results indicate that the 2 lineages of E. coli O157:H7 do not differ in their persistence; however, it appears that temperature and feces type both affect the survival of the pathogen.
Ansay, S E; Darling, K A; Kaspar, C W
The survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and of a nonpathogenic control strain of E. coli was monitored in raw ground beef that was stored at 2 degrees C for 4 weeks, -2 degrees C for 4 weeks, 15 degrees C for 4 h and then -2 degrees C for 4 weeks, and -20 degrees C. Irradiated ground beef was inoculated with one E. coli control strain or with a four-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 (ca. 10(5) CFU/g), formed into patties (30 to 45 g), and stored at the appropriate temperature. The numbers of the E. coli control strain decreased by 1.4 log 10 CFU/g, and pathogen numbers declined 1.9 log 10 CFU/g when patties were stored for 4 weeks at 20 degrees C. When patties were stored at -2 degrees C for 4 weeks, the numbers of the E. coli control strain and the serotype O157:H7 strains decreased 2.8 and 1.5 log 10 CFU/g, respectively. Patties stored at 15 degrees C for 4 h prior to storage at -2 degrees C for 4 weeks resulted in 1.6 and 2.7 log 10-CFU/g reduction in the numbers of E. coli and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. Storage of retail ground beef at 15 degrees C for 4 h (tempering) did not result in increased numbers of colony forming units per gram, as determined with violet red bile, MRS lactobacilli, and plate-count agars. Frozen storage (-20 degrees C) of ground-beef patties that had been inoculated with a single strain of E. coli resulted in approximately a 1 to 2 log 10-CFU/g reduction in the numbers of the control strain and individual serotype O157:H7 strains after 1 year. There was no significant difference between the survival of the control strain and the O157:H7 strains, nor was there a difference between O157:H7 strains. These data demonstrate that tempering of ground-beef patties prior to low-temperature storage accelerated the decline in the numbers of E. coli O157:H7.
Dewell, G A; Ransom, J R; Dewell, R D; McCurdy, K; Gardner, I A; Hill, A E; Sofos, J N; Belk, K E; Smith, G C; Salman, M D
Determination of Escherichia coli O157 prevalence immediately prior to shipment and harvest is an important facet of the ecology of this organism, which requires further elucidation. As part of a larger study to measure the effects of within-pen prevalence of E. coli O157 on subsequent carcass contamination, fecal samples from 15 pens of cattle in each of 12 different feedlots in three states (Colorado, Nebraska, and Montana) were collected from June through September 2002. Thirty fresh fecal samples were collected from each pen floor within 36 h of shipment to slaughter. Fecal samples underwent standard enrichment, immunomagnetic separation, and isolation procedures for E. coli O157. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine which factors best predicted pen-level positive culture results, and to estimate the magnitude of association between each factor and the outcome, while adjusting for other factors in the model. Thirteen (86.7%) of the 15 pens had at least one positive sample, and the within-pen prevalence of E. coli O157 in positive pens ranged from 3.3% to 77.8%. The odds of E. coli O157 positive fecal samples from cattle fed brewers grains were six times that for cattle not fed brewers grains. The odds of E. coli O157 positive fecal samples from pens of cattle from Central Nebraska was nine times that for pens of cattle from Eastern Colorado. These data demonstrate that the presence of E. coli O157 in fecal samples from finished feedlot cattle is associated with feeding of brewers grain and geographic location. Additional studies to further characterize geographic distribution of E. coli O157 and to investigate pen-level intervention strategies should be conducted.
Lupindu, Athumani M; Olsen, John E; Ngowi, Helena A; Msoffe, Peter L M; Mtambo, Madundo M; Scheutz, Flemming; Dalsgaard, Anders
Escherichia coli strains such as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), enteropathogenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic, attaching, and effacing E. coli, and enteroinvasive E. coli cause diarrhea in humans. Although other serotypes exist, the most commonly reported STEC in outbreaks is O157:H7. A cross-sectional study was conducted to isolate and characterize non-sorbitol-fermenting (NSF) E. coli O157:H7 from urban and periurban livestock settings of Morogoro, Tanzania. Human stool, cattle feces, and soil and water samples were collected. Observations and questionnaire interview studies were used to gather information about cattle and manure management practices in the study area. E. coli were isolated on sorbitol MacConkey agar and characterized by conventional biochemical tests. Out of 1049 samples, 143 (13.7%) yielded NSF E. coli. Serological and antimicrobial tests and molecular typing were performed to NSF E. coli isolates. These procedures detected 10 (7%) pathogenic E. coli including STEC (n=7), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (n=2), and attaching and effacing E. coli (A/EEC) (n=1) strains. The STEC strains had the ability to produce VT1 and different VT2 toxin subtypes that caused cytopathic effects on Vero cells. The prevalence of STEC in cattle was 1.6%, out of which 0.9% was serotype O157:H7 and the overall prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli in cattle was 2.2%. The serotypes O157:H7, O142:H34, O113:H21, O+:H-, O+:H16, and O25:H4 were identified. One ESBL-producing isolate showed the MLST type ST131. To our knowledge, this is the first finding in Tanzania of this recently emerged worldwide pandemic clonal group, causing widespread antimicrobial-resistant infections, and adds knowledge of the geographical distribution of ST131. Cattle manure was indiscriminately deposited within residential areas, and there was direct contact between humans and cattle feces during manure handling. Cattle and manure management practices expose humans, animals, and the environment
Hallewell, J; Niu, Y D; Munns, K; McAllister, T A; Johnson, R P; Ackermann, H-W; Thomas, J E; Stanford, K
The objectives of this study were to identify endemic bacteriophages (phages) in the feedlot environment and determine relationships of these phages to Escherichia coli O157:H7 from cattle shedding high and low numbers of naturally occurring E. coli O157:H7. Angus crossbred steers were purchased from a southern Alberta (Canada) feedlot where cattle excreting ≥ 10(4) CFU · g(-1) of E. coli O157:H7 in feces at a single time point were identified as supershedders (SS; n = 6), and cattle excreting <10(4) CFU · g(-1) of feces were identified as low shedders (LS; n = 5). Fecal pats or fecal grabs were collected daily from individual cattle for 5 weeks. E. coli O157:H7 in feces was detected by immunomagnetic separation and enumerated by direct plating, and phages were isolated using short- and overnight-enrichment methods. The total prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from feces was 14.4% and did not differ between LS and SS (P = 0.972). The total prevalence of phages was higher in the LS group (20.9%) than in the SS group (8.3%; P = 0.01). Based on genome size estimated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and morphology determined by transmission electron microscopy, T4- and O1-like phages of Myoviridae and T1-like phage of Siphoviridae were isolated. Compared to T1- and O1-like phages, T4-like phages exhibited a broad host range and strong lytic capability when targeting E. coli O157:H7. Moreover, the T4-like phages were more frequently isolated from feces of LS than SS, suggesting that endemic phages may impact the shedding dynamics of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle.
Guo, Yaoqi; Huang, En; Yuan, Chunhua; Zhang, Liwen
This research was initiated to search for novel antimicrobial compounds produced by food or environmental microorganisms. A new bacterial strain, designated OSY-SE, which produces a unique and potent antimicrobial agent was isolated from soil. The isolate was identified as a Paenibacillus sp. through cultural, biochemical, and genetic analyses. An antimicrobial compound was extracted from Paenibacillus OSY-SE with acetonitrile and purified using liquid chromatography. After analyses by mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the antimicrobial compound was determined to be a cyclic lipopeptide consisting of a C15 fatty acyl (FA) chain and 13 amino acids. The deduced sequence is FA-Orn-Val-Thr-Orn-Ser-Val-Lys-Ser-Ile-Pro-Val-Lys-Ile. The carboxyl-terminal Ile is connected to Thr by ester linkage. The new compound, designated paenibacterin, showed antagonistic activities against most Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested, including Listeria monocytogenes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Paenibacterin is resistant to trypsin, lipase, α-glucosidase, and lysozyme. Its antimicrobial activity was lost after digestion by pronase and polymyxin acylase. Paenibacterin is readily soluble in water and fairly stable to exposure to heat and a wide range of pH values. The new isolate and its antimicrobial agent are being investigated for usefulness in food and medical applications. PMID:22367082
Liao, Wei-Chao; Ng, Wailap Victor; Lin, I-Hsuan; Syu, Wan-Jr; Liu, Tze-Tze; Chang, Chuan-Hsiung
We report the genome organization and analysis of the first completely sequenced T4-like phage, AR1, of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Unlike most of the other sequenced phages of O157:H7, which belong to the temperate Podoviridae and Siphoviridae families, AR1 is a T4-like phage known to efficiently infect this pathogenic bacterial strain. The 167,435-bp AR1 genome is currently the largest among all the sequenced E. coli O157:H7 phages. It carries a total of 281 potential open reading frames (ORFs) and 10 putative tRNA genes. Of these, 126 predicted proteins could be classified into six viral orthologous group categories, with at least 18 proteins of the structural protein category having been detected by tandem mass spectrometry. Comparative genomic analysis of AR1 and four other completely sequenced T4-like genomes (RB32, RB69, T4, and JS98) indicated that they share a well-organized and highly conserved core genome, particularly in the regions encoding DNA replication and virion structural proteins. The major diverse features between these phages include the modules of distal tail fibers and the types and numbers of internal proteins, tRNA genes, and mobile elements. Codon usage analysis suggested that the presence of AR1-encoded tRNAs may be relevant to the codon usage of structural proteins. Furthermore, protein sequence analysis of AR1 gp37, a potential receptor binding protein, indicated that eight residues in the C terminus are unique to O157:H7 T4-like phages AR1 and PP01. These residues are known to be located in the T4 receptor recognition domain, and they may contribute to specificity for adsorption to the O157:H7 strain. PMID:21507986
Reid, Rachael; Fanning, Séamus; Whyte, Paul; Kerry, Joe; Bolton, Declan
This study investigated the fate of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157 on hot boned versus conventionally chilled beef. Beef samples were individually inoculated with S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028, S. Typhimurium 844, E. coli O157 EDL 933 or E. coli T13. Half the samples were subject to the same time-temperature chilling profile used for conventionally chilling beef carcasses while the other half was subject to hot boned conditions. The surface pH (5.5) and aw (0.95 to 0.97) were stable. S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157 counts, which decreased by up to 1.0 and 1.5log10cfucm(-2), respectively, were statistically similar (P>0.05), regardless of the chilling regime applied, with the exception of E. coli O157 EDL 933, where the counts on hot boned beef were significantly (P<0.05) higher. It was concluded that any decrease in pathogenic bacteria during beef chilling may be significantly (P<0.05) less for hot boned beef depending on the bacterial strain. Hot boning may therefore result in an increased risk to the consumer.
VanKempen-Fryling, R J; Stein, O R; Camper, A K
Treatment wetlands (TWs) efficiently remove many pollutants including a several log order reduction of pathogens from influent to effluent; however, there is evidence to suggest that pathogen cells are sequestered in a subsurface wetland and may remain viable months after inoculation. Escherichia coli is a common pathogen in domestic and agricultural wastewater and the O157:H7 strain causes most environmental outbreaks in the United States. To assess attachment of E. coli to the TW rhizosphere, direct measurements of E. coli levels were taken. Experiments were performed in chemostats containing either Teflon nylon as an abiotic control or roots of Carex utriculata or Schoenoplectus acutus. Flow of simulated wastewater through the chemostat was set to maintain a 2 hour residence time. The influent was inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 containing DsRed fluorescent protein. Root samples were excised and analyzed via epifluorescent microscopy. E. coli O157:H7 was detected on the root surface at 2 hours after inoculation, and were visible as single cells. Microcolonies began forming at 24 hours post-inoculation and were detected for up to 1 week post-inoculation. Image analysis determined that the number of microcolonies with >100 cells increased 1 week post-inoculation, confirming that E. coli O157:H7 is capable of growth within biofilms surrounding wetland plant roots.
Cabal, A; Porrero, M C; DE LA Cruz, M L; Saez, J L; Barcena, C; Lopez, G; Gortazar, C; Dominguez, L; Alvarez, J
Prevention of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) foodborne outbreaks is hampered by its complex epidemiology. We assessed the distribution of virulence genes (VGs), main serogroups/serotypes for public health [haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS)-related], antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns in a collection of STEC isolates obtained from cattle hide (n = 149) and faecal (n = 406) samples collected during a national survey conducted in Spain in 2011 and 2013. Isolates were cultured using McConkey and CT-SMAC agar after enrichment, and confirmed as STEC by PCR. STEC prevalence in hides (15·4%) was higher than in faeces (10·7%) and O157:H7 was more frequent in the former (2·7% vs. 0·99%). Non-O157 HUS-related serogroups were present albeit at low frequencies. The non-O157 isolates were more heterogeneous than O157:H7 in their VG patterns, with 25/64 presenting VGs from both STEC and enterotoxigenic pathotypes (hybrid isolates). Of the STEC isolates, 62·5% were resistant at least to one antimicrobial, and no differences in AMR between O157:H7 and non-O157 were detected. All isolates had different profiles by PFGE and did not form a cluster. Overall, our results demonstrated that STEC in the cattle reservoir is still a matter of concern for human health due to the presence of HUS-related serogroups, the occurrence of certain VGs, AMR and the additional risks that hybrid isolates may pose, and thus warrants further investigation.
We have identified six protein biomarkers from two strains of E. coli O157:H7 and one non-pathogenic E. coli strain by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (TOF/TOF-MS/MS) and top-down proteomics. Mature, intact proteins were ext...
Beef subprimals were inoculated on the lean side with ca. 4.0 log CFU/g of a five-strain mixture of rifampicin resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains and then passed once through a mechanical blade-tenderizer with the lean side facing upwards. Another set of inoculated subprimals that were not t...
Biofilm forming bacteria resident to food processing facilities are a food safety concern due to the potential of biofilms to harbor foodborne bacterial pathogens. When cultured together, Ralstonia insidiosa, a strong biofilm former frequently isolated from produce processing environments, has been ...
Wiegand, K M; Ingham, S C; Ingham, B H
Heat shock of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in broth media reportedly leads to enhanced survival during subsequent heating in broth medium or ground beef. Survival of E. coli O157:H7 during slow cooking thus may be enhanced by prior exposure to sublethal heat shock conditions, thereby jeopardizing the safety of slow-cooked products such as beef roasts. This study examined the effect of heat shocking E. coli O157:H7-inoculated lean (6 to 9% fat) ground beef on the survival of the pathogen in the same ground beef during a subsequent 4-h, 54.4 degrees C cooking process. Six different combinations of heat shock temperature (47.2, 48.3, or 49.4 degrees C) and time (5 or 30 min) were applied to a five-strain cocktail of microaerophilically grown cells in 25 g of prewarmed ground beef, which was followed by cooking at 54.4 degrees C. Temperature during a 30-min heat shock treatment did not significantly affect E. coli O157:H7 survival during subsequent isothermal cooking (P > 0.05). Survival after a 5-min heat shock was higher when the heat shock temperature was 48.3 or 49.4 degrees C (P < 0.05) than when it was 47.2 degrees C. The D-values at 54.4 degrees C (130 degrees F) (D54.4-value) of the process significantly increased only when cells were exposed to a heat shock combination of 5 min at 49.4 degrees C. Mean (n = 3 trials) reductions in E. coli O157:H7 during the 4-h, 54.4 degrees C isothermal cooking process ranged from 4.3 to 7.5 log CFU/g. Heating E. coli O157:H7-contaminated beef at the high end of the sublethal temperature range for 5 min could increase survival of E. coli O157:H7 during subsequent slow-cooking processes.
Monu, Emefa Angelica; Valladares, Malcond; D'Souza, Doris H; Davidson, P Michael
Produce has been associated with a rising number of foodborne illness outbreaks. While much produce is consumed raw, some is treated with mild heat, such as blanching or cooking. The objectives of this research were to compare the thermal inactivation kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.2) and a spinach homogenate and to provide an estimate of the safety of mild heat processes for spinach. Five individual strains of S. enterica, L. monocytogenes, STEC O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC were tested in PBS in 2-ml glass vials, and cocktails of the organisms were tested in blended spinach in vacuum-sealed bags. For Listeria and Salmonella at 56 to 60°C, D-values in PBS ranged from 4.42 ± 0.94 to 0.35 ± 0.03 min and 2.11 ± 0.14 to 0.16 ± 0.03 min, respectively. D-values at 54 to 58°C were 5.18 ± 0.21 to 0.53 ± 0.04 min for STEC O157:H7 and 5.01 ± 0.60 to 0.60 ± 0.13 min for non-O157 STEC. In spinach at 56 to 60°C, Listeria D-values were 11.77 ± 2.18 to 1.22 ± 0.12 min and Salmonella D-values were 3.51 ± 0.06 to 0.47 ± 0.06 min. D-values for STEC O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC were 7.21 ± 0.17 to 1.07 ± 0.11 min and 5.57 ± 0.38 to 0.99 ± 0.07 min, respectively, at 56 to 60°C. In spinach, z-values were 4.07 ± 0.16, 4.59 ± 0.26, 4.80 ± 0.92, and 5.22 ± 0.20°C for Listeria, Salmonella, STEC O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC, respectively. Results indicated that a mild thermal treatment of blended spinach at 70°C for less than 1 min would result in a 6-log reduction of all pathogens tested. These findings may assist the food industry in the design of suitable mild thermal processes to ensure food safety.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) is an important food-borne pathogen, which continues to be a major public health concern worldwide. It is known that E. coli O157:H7 survive in soil environment might result in the contamination of fresh produce or water source. To investigate how the soils...
Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (non-O157 STEC) have emerged as important food-borne pathogens worldwide. Non-O157 STEC serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 have been declared as adulterants in beef by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service. While documentation is limited, tre...
To obtain insights into Escherichia coli O157 (O157) adaptation and survival in the bovine rumen, the first anatomical compartment encountered by this pathogen during transit through the bovine gastrointestinal tract to sites of colonization, we defined the proteome of O157 cultured in rumen fluid (...
Background: Cattle are primary reservoirs of the food borne human pathogen Escherichia coli O157 (O157). Given that the complement of factors contributing to O157 adherence to epithelial cells at the recto-anal junction and other intermittent anatomical sites along the bovine gastrointestinal trac...
Verhaegen, Bavo; Van Damme, Inge; Heyndrickx, Marc; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Elhadidy, Mohamed; Verstraete, Karen; Dierick, Katelijne; Denayer, Sarah; De Zutter, Lieven; De Reu, Koen
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) remains a major foodborne pathogen of concern across the globe. Rapid detection and isolation of this pathogen is of great importance for public health reasons. In this study the detection and isolation of four non-O157 STEC strains (O26, O103, O111, O145) from different artificially contaminated matrices, namely ground (minced) beef, cattle carcass swab, lettuce mix and sprouted soy beans, were evaluated. Low amounts of STEC were used (0.25-1.40 cfu/g) to spike the samples. All samples were enriched in parallel in Buffered Peptone Water (BPW) and Brila broth. After enrichment, detection was performed using real-time PCR (qPCR), and isolation using two chromogenic agar media, CHROMagar™ STEC and ChromID™ EHEC. Inoculation on the agar media was performed either directly after enrichment or after the use of an acid treatment procedure. Furthermore, the use of this procedure was also tested on naturally contaminated food products, using 150 stx-positive samples. Although the qPCR Cycle Threshold (Ct) values were lower after enrichment in Brila broth, no significant differences in recovery were observed between both enrichment broths. Both agar media were equally suitable for the isolation of STEC, although a significantly higher recovery was obtained when using both agar media in parallel. For samples with a Ct value above 25, an acid treatment step prior to isolation ensured a significant improvement in the recovery of STEC due to the reduction in background microbiota. This acid treatment procedure proved especially useful for the isolation of STEC from sprouted soy bean samples.
Braoudaki, Maria; Hilton, Anthony Craig
Misuse of biocides has encouraged the emergence of resistance and cross-resistance in certain strains. This study investigated resistance of triclosan-adapted Escherichia coli K-12 and E. coli O55 to antimicrobial agents and compared these to E. coli O157:H7. Cross-resistance in E. coli K-12 and E. coli O55 was observed however to a lesser extent than in E. coli O157:H7. Triclosan-adapted E. coli K-12 demonstrated cross-resistance to chloramphenicol, whereas triclosan-adapted E. coli O55 exhibited resistance to trimethoprim. In comparison, E. coli O157:H7 was resistant to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, trimethoprim, benzalkonium chloride and chlorohexidine suggesting strain specific rather than general resistance mechanisms.
Goji, Noriko; Mathews, Amit; Huszczynski, George; Laing, Chad R; Gannon, Victor P J; Graham, Morag R; Amoako, Kingsley K
Shiga toxin (stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) contamination in food and water is one of the most recognized concerns and a major financial burden in human hygiene control worldwide. Rapid and highly reliable methods of detecting and identifying STEC causing gastroenteric illnesses are crucial to prevent foodborne outbreaks. A number of tests have been developed and commercialized to detect STEC using molecular microbiology techniques. Most of these are designed to identify virulence factors such as Shiga toxin and intimin as well as E. coli O and H antigen serotype specific genes. In order to screen pathogenic STEC without relying on O:H serotyping, we developed a rapid detection and genotyping assay for STEC virulence genes using a PCR-pyrosequencing application. We adapted the PyroMark Q24 Pyrosequencing platform for subtyping 4 major virulence genes, Shiga toxin 1 and 2 (stx1 and stx2), intimin (eae) and O157-antigen gene cluster target rfbE, using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) analysis. A total of 224 E. coli strains including isolates from Canadian environment, food and clinical cases were examined. Based on the multiple alignment analysis of 30-80 base nucleotide pyrogram reads, three alleles of the Shiga toxin 1a gene (stx1a) (stx1a-I, stx1a-II, stx1a-III) were identified. Results of the stx1, stx2, eae and rfbE genotyping revealed that each group of O:H serotype shares distinctive characteristics that could be associated with the virulence of each genotype. O157:H7/NM carries stx1a-II (94%), stx2a (82%), λ/γ1-eae (100%) and rfbE type-H7/NM (100%). Whereas isolates of the "Top-6" serotypes (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145) had a high incidence of stx1a-I (90%) and stx2a (100%). stx1a-III (60%) was only observed in non Top-7 (Top-6 plus O157) STEC and Shigella spp. The entire assay, from extracting DNA from colonies on a plate to the generation of sequence information, can be completed in 5h. The method of profiling these 4 STEC pathogenic
Bono, James L
Escherichia coli are ubiquitous in the world, and for the most part are non-pathogenic and part of the normal lower gastrointestinal tract in mammals. However, some pathogenic isolates can cause severe disease that range from meningitis to hemorrhagic colitis (HC). In recent years, Shiga toxin-containing E. coli (STEC) have been a major cause of food borne and environmental cases of HC and hemolytic uremic syndrome. One STEC serotype, O157:H7, has been responsible for numerous food-associated outbreaks and recalls worldwide. The protocols in this unit will allow the reader to use real-time polymerase chain reaction genotyping to identify isolates that are more likely to cause disease in humans. The genotyping assay targets a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the tir gene. The tir gene is located in a virulence operon called the locus for enterocyte effacement and functions as a receptor for the tight adherence of E. coli O157:H7 to epithelial cells. As more genomes are sequenced, informative SNPs that associate with phenotypes will be identified. Identifying isolates not only by their genus and species, but also by using other informative genomic traits will increase the general knowledge about their genetic diversity.
The goal of this study was to develop a sensitive, specific, and accurate method for the selective detection of viable Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells in foods. A unique open reading frame (ORF), Z3276, was identified as a specific genetic marker for the detection of E. coli O157:H7. We developed a real-time PCR assay with primers and probe targeting ORF Z3276 and confirmed that this assay was sensitive and specific for E. coli O157:H7 strains (n = 298). Using this assay, we can detect amounts of genomic DNA of E. coli O157:H7 as low as a few CFU equivalents. Moreover, we have developed a new propidium monoazide (PMA)–real-time PCR protocol that allows for the clear differentiation of viable from dead cells. In addition, the protocol was adapted to a 96-well plate format for easy and consistent handling of a large number of samples. Amplification of DNA from PMA-treated dead cells was almost completely inhibited, in contrast to the virtually unaffected amplification of DNA from PMA-treated viable cells. With beef spiked simultaneously with 8 × 107 dead cells/g and 80 CFU viable cells/g, we were able to selectively detect viable E. coli O157:H7 cells with an 8-h enrichment. In conclusion, this PMA–real-time PCR assay offers a sensitive and specific means to selectively detect viable E. coli O157:H7 cells in spiked beef. It also has the potential for high-throughput selective detection of viable E. coli O157:H7 cells in other food matrices and, thus, will have an impact on the accurate microbiological and epidemiological monitoring of food safety and environmental sources. PMID:22635992
Cordeiro, Roniele Peixoto; Krause, Denis Otto; Doria, Juan Hernandez; Holley, Richard Alan
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is an essential oil with antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7. The ability of E. coli O157:H7 to withstand inhibitory AITC concentrations and the role of the two-component BaeSR system as a defense mechanism against AITC was studied. Optimal conditions for AITC stability in an aqueous medium were 25 °C and pH 5. The minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum bactericidal (MBC) concentrations of AITC against wild-type E. coli O157:H7 were 51 and 412 ppm, respectively. After growing E. coli O157:H7 in stepwise increased concentrations of AITC, the strain withstood concentrations beyond its MIC (206 ppm), but resistance was reversed when AITC exposure was interrupted. Deletion of either the sensor or regulator genes, baeS or baeR, yielded cells only as resistant as the wild-type, but the complete deletion of the BaeSR system decreased AITC resistance of E. coli O157:H7 to half that of wild-type cells. This is the first demonstration that the ability of E. coli O157:H7 to withstand AITC challenge is compromised by the deletion of the BaeSR system. It also indicates that temporary adaptive bacterial resistance to repeated incremental AITC exposure may occur, but it is unlikely to restrict the importance of AITC as an antimicrobial against E. coli O157:H7.
Conrad, Cheyenne C; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A; Thomas, James; Reuter, Tim
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are food-borne pathogens responsible for outbreaks of human infections worldwide. Ruminant livestock harbor STEC in their intestinal tract, and through fecal contamination possess the potential to compromise the safety of food and water. As a human health safety risk, STEC detection methods on beef carcasses and trim are needed as mandated by the USDA-FSIS. In order to monitor STEC prior to harvest and human consumption, our goal was to evaluate and/or improve detection of seven STEC serogroups in cattle feces. In comparison to traditional approaches, sample processing methods in bovine feces were evaluated using a multi-factorial Latin square design which involved freezing or freeze drying feces. Autoclaved versus non-autoclaved feces were spiked with O26:H11 or O157:H7 serotypes in various dilutions and enriched for up to 6h. Each hour, enriched aliquots were compared using traditional culture methods and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Furthermore, a 7-serogroup multiplex PCR (mPCR) was developed to detect O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145 and O157 serogroups simultaneously. The diagnostic sensitivity of our mPCR assay following 6h enrichment was superior (10CFU/g across all serogroups) compared to a previously established PCR assay (10CFU/g for O26, and O103; ≥10(4)CFU/g for all other serogroups). Obtaining viable isolates appeared to be limited by the efficiency of current immunomagnetic separation (IMS) methods, which ranged from 20 to 100% effectiveness at retrieving colonies depending on serogroup. After IMS, 70 putative STEC isolates were screened for Shiga toxin and attachment genes by mPCR. Sixty-five isolates contained one or both Shiga toxin genes.
Li, Yong; Mustapha, Azlin
With three pairs of primers, a multiplex PCR assay was established for the simultaneous detection of Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Salmonella, and Shigella. Under the optimized conditions, the assay yielded a 252-bp product from E. coli O157:H7, a 429-bp product from Salmonella Typhimurium, and a 620-bp product from Shigella flexneri, respectively. When the DNA extraction of multiple target organisms was included in the same reaction, two or three corresponding amplicons of different sizes were observed. In the specificity test, 10 E. coli O157:H7 strains and one E. coli O157:NM strain showed the expected 252-bp amplicon. Seven other E. coli strains yielded no signal. Additionally, the 429-bp amplicon was produced from 20 Salmonella strains covering 16 serotypes, whereas the 620-bp amplicon was generated from 11 Shigella strains covering 4 species. No nonspecific amplification was observed with DNA from 48 other bacterial strains. Following a 24-h enrichment, the developed assay could concurrently detect the three pathogens at initial inoculation levels of approximately 8 x 10(-1) CFU/g (or CFU/ml) in apple cider, cantaloupe, lettuce, tomato, and watermelon and 8 x 10(1) CFU/g in alfalfa sprouts. The whole procedure can be easily completed within 30 h. The multiplex PCR assay can potentially be a simple, rapid, and efficient tool for presumptive and simultaneous screening of apple cider and produce for contamination by E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and/or Shigella.
Assessing the performance of novel software Strain Solution on automated discrimination of Escherichia coli serotypes and their mixtures using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.
Ojima-Kato, Teruyo; Yamamoto, Naomi; Iijima, Yoshio; Tamura, Hiroto
O157, O26, and O111 are the most important O serogroups of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli worldwide. Recently we reported a strategy for discriminating these serotypes from the others using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) based on the S10-spc-alpha operon gene-encoded ribosomal protein mass spectrum (S10-GERMS) method. To realize the fully automated identification of microorganisms at species- or serotype-level with the concept of S10-GERMS method, novel software named Strain Solution for MALDI-TOF MS was developed. In this study, the Strain Solution was evaluated with a total of 45 E. coli isolates including O26, O91, O103, O111, O115, O121, O128, O145, O157, O159, and untyped serotypes. The Strain Solution could accurately discriminate 92% (11/12) of O157 strains, 100% (13/13) of O26 and O111 strains from the others with three biomarkers in an automated manner. In addition, this software could identify 2 different E. c