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Sample records for oa improved wilson-clover

  1. Improvement via hypercubic smearing in triplet and sextet QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Shamir, Yigal; Svetitsky, Benjamin; Yurkovsky, Evgeny

    2011-05-01

    We study nonperturbative improvement in SU(3) lattice gauge theory coupled to fermions in the fundamental and two-index symmetric representations. Our lattice action is defined with hypercubic smeared links incorporated into the Wilson-clover fermion kernel. Using standard Schroedinger-functional techniques, we estimate the clover coefficient c{sub SW} and find that discretization errors are much smaller than in thin-link theories.

  2. Nonperturbative O(a) improvement of Wilson quark action in three-flavor QCD with plaquette gauge action

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, N.; Hashimoto, S.; Kaneko, T.; Tsutsui, N.; Aoki, S.; Taniguchi, Y.; Fukugita, M.; Ishikawa, K-I.; Okawa, M.; Ishizuka, N.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kanaya, K.; Kuramashi, Y.; Ukawa, A.; Yoshie, T.

    2005-03-01

    We perform a nonperturbative determination of the O(a)-improvement coefficient c{sub SW} for the Wilson quark action in three-flavor QCD with the plaquette gauge action. Numerical simulations are carried out in a range of {beta}=12.0-5.2 on a single lattice size of 8{sup 3}x16 employing the Schroedinger functional setup of lattice QCD. As our main result, we obtain an interpolation formula for c{sub SW} and the critical hopping parameter K{sub c} as a function of the bare coupling. This enables us to remove the O(a) scaling violation from physical observables in future numerical simulation in the wide range of {beta}. Our analysis with a perturbatively modified improvement condition for c{sub SW} suggests that finite volume effects in c{sub SW} are not large on the 8{sup 3}x16 lattice. We investigate N{sub f} dependence of c{sub SW} by additional simulations for N{sub f}=4, 2, and 0 at {beta}=9.6. As a preparatory step for this study, we also determine c{sub SW} in two-flavor QCD at {beta}=5.2. At this {beta}, several groups have carried out large-scale calculations of the hadron spectrum, while no systematic determination of c{sub SW} has been performed.

  3. I=2{pi}{pi} scattering phase shift with two flavors of Oa improved dynamical quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, T.; Aoki, S.; Kanaya, K.; Fukugita, M.; Ishikawa, K-I.; Okawa, M.; Ishizuka, N.; Iwasaki, Y.; Ukawa, A.; Yoshie, T.; Kaneko, T.; Kuramashi, Y.

    2004-10-01

    We present a lattice QCD calculation of phase shift including the chiral and continuum extrapolations in two-flavor QCD. The calculation is carried out for I=2 S-wave {pi}{pi} scattering. The phase shift is evaluated for two momentum systems, the center of mass and laboratory systems, by using the finite-volume method proposed by Luescher in the center of mass system and its extension to general systems by Rummukainen and Gottlieb. The measurements are made at three different bare couplings {beta}=1.80, 1.95 and 2.10 using a renormalization group improved gauge and a tadpole improved clover fermion action, and employing a set of configurations generated for hadron spectroscopy in our previous work. The illustrative values we obtain for the phase shift in the continuum limit are {delta}(deg.)=-3.50(64), -9.5(30) and -16.9(64) for {radical}(s)(GeV)=0.4, 0.6 and 0.8, which are consistent with experiments.

  4. Nonperturbative O(a) improvement of the Wilson quark action with the renormalization-group-improved gauge action using the Schroedinger functional method

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, S.; Takeda, S.; Taniguchi, Y.; Fukugita, M.; Hashimoto, S.; Kaneko, T.; Yamada, N.; Ishikawa, K-I.; Okawa, M.; Ishizuka, N.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kanaya, K.; Kuramashi, Y.; Ukawa, A.; Yoshie, T.; Tsutsui, N.

    2006-02-01

    We perform a nonperturbative determination of the O(a)-improvement coefficient c{sub SW} and the critical hopping parameter {kappa}{sub c} for N{sub f}=3, 2, and 0 flavor QCD with the (RG) renormalization-group-improved gauge action using the Schroedinger functional method. In order to interpolate c{sub SW} and {kappa}{sub c} as a function of the bare coupling, a wide range of {beta} from the weak coupling region to the moderately strong coupling points used in large-scale simulations is studied. Corrections at finite lattice size of O(a/L) turned out to be large for the RG-improved gauge action, and hence we make the determination at a size fixed in physical units using a modified improvement condition. This enables us to avoid O(a) scaling violations which would remain in physical observables if c{sub SW} determined for a fixed lattice size L/a is used in numerical simulations.

  5. UP3005, a Botanical Composition Containing Two Standardized Extracts of Uncaria gambir and Morus alba, Improves Pain Sensitivity and Cartilage Degradations in Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Rat OA Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Tae-Woo; Moore, Breanna; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Oh, Jin-Sun; Cleveland, Sabrina; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease primarily noted by cartilage degradation in association with inflammation that causes significant morbidity, joint pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. Present-day management of OA is inadequate due to the lack of principal therapies proven to be effective in hindering disease progression where symptomatic therapy focused approach masks the actual etiology leading to irreversible damage. Here, we describe the effect of UP3005, a composition containing a proprietary blend of two standardized extracts from the leaf of Uncaria gambir and the root bark of Morus alba, in maintaining joint structural integrity and alleviating OA associated symptoms in monosodium-iodoacetate- (MIA-) induced rat OA disease model. Pain sensitivity, micro-CT, histopathology, and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) level analysis were conducted. Diclofenac at 10 mg/kg was used as a reference compound. UP3005 resulted in almost a complete inhibition in proteoglycans degradation, reductions of 16.6% (week 4), 40.5% (week 5), and 22.0% (week 6) in pain sensitivity, statistically significant improvements in articular cartilage matrix integrity, minimal visual subchondral bone damage, and statistically significant increase in bone mineral density when compared to the vehicle control with MIA. Therefore, UP3005 could potentially be considered as an alternative therapy from natural sources for the treatment of OA and/or its associated symptoms. PMID:25802546

  6. Douglas OA-4A Dolphin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1938-01-01

    Douglas OA-4A Dolphin: This twin-engine Douglas OA-4A Dolphin was unusual in comparison with other OA-4s in that it employed a nose wheel instead of a tail wheel during its NACA testing at Langley. Here is is seen in the NACA hangar in September 1938.

  7. Development of OA Abroad and Its Inspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bi, Jing

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces the concept and characteristics of open access (OA), analyses the status quo and development of OA in foreign countries, and discusses its inspiration to its future development in China.

  8. OBE, Effective Schools and NCA's OA: Romance or Feud?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    Explains the North Central Association's Outcomes Accreditation (OA) alternative to traditional accreditation status. Reviews the Effective Schools and Outcome-Based Education (OBE) literature, and considers basic requirements for OA. Considers OBE compatible with OA. (DMM)

  9. “Let’s Talk about OA Pain”: A Qualitative Analysis of the Perceptions of People Suffering from OA. Towards the Development of a Specific Pain OA-Related Questionnaire, the Osteoarthritis Symptom Inventory Scale (OASIS)

    PubMed Central

    Cedraschi, Christine; Delézay, Sylvie; Marty, Marc; Berenbaum, Francis; Bouhassira, Didier; Henrotin, Yves; Laroche, Françoise; Perrot, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pain is the primary outcome measurement in osteoarthritis, and its assessment is mostly based on its intensity. The management of this difficult chronic condition could be improved by using pain descriptors to improve analyses of painful sensations. This should help to define subgroups of patients based on pain phenotype, for more adapted treatment. This study draws upon patients’ descriptions of their pain, to identify and understand their perception of osteoarthritis pain and to categorize pain dimensions. Methods This qualitative study was conducted with representative types of patients suffering from osteoarthritis. Two focus groups were conducted with a sample of 14 participants, with either recent or chronic OA, at one or multiple sites. Focus groups were semi-structured and used open-ended questions addressing personal experiences to explore the experiences of patients with OA pain and the meanings they attributed to these pains. Results Two main points emerged from content analyses: -A major difficulty in getting patients to describe their osteoarthritis pain: perception that nobody wants to hear about it; necessity to preserve one’s self and social image; notion of self-imposed stoicism; and perception of osteoarthritis as a complex, changing, illogical disease associated with aging. -Osteoarthritis pains were numerous and differed in intensity, duration, depth, type of occurrence, impact and rhythm, but also in painful sensations and associated symptoms. Based on analyses of the verbatim interviews, seven dimensions of OA pain emerged: pain sensory description, OA-related symptoms, pain variability profile, pain-triggering factors, pain and physical activity, mood and image, general physical symptoms. Summary In osteoarthritis, pain analysis should not be restricted to intensity. Our qualitative study identified pain descriptors and defined seven dimensions of osteoarthritis pain. Based on these dimensions, we aim to develop a specific

  10. Influence of OAS-1000 on mediators of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Scherl, D S; Afflitto, J; Gaffar, A

    1999-04-01

    OAS-1000 is a semisynthetic derivative of pseudopterosine A, isolated from sea whip (Pseudopterogorgia elizabethae), that has been shown to have topical anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of this research was to investigate OAS-1000 for potential use as an anti-inflammatory agent for topical oral application, and to begin to investigate a mechanism of action. OAS-1000 was therefore evaluated as an inhibitor of 4 enzymes of the arachidonic acid metabolic pathways (prostaglandin G/H synthase I (PGHS-1, COX-1), prostaglandin G/H synthase II (PGHS-2, COX-2), arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX)). It was found that OAS-1000 inhibits PGHS-1 activity with an IC-50 value of 80.3 microM, but had much less activity versus PGHS-2 enzyme and no activity versus the 15-LOX enzyme. 5-LOX activity showed some inhibition, but only at a high OAS-1000 concentrations. Additionally, OAS-1000 was tested for it's ability inhibit 1 ng/ml IL-1beta stimulated PGE2 production in a cell culture system. Inhibition of 46% was seen at an OAS-1000 concentration of 22.4 microM. Taken together, these experiments suggest that at least some of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of OAS-1000 may be attributed to inhibition of the arachidonic acid metabolites that have been shown to be important in inflammation and tissue destruction.

  11. YAP and 14-3-3γ are involved in HS-OA-induced growth inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma cells: A novel mechanism for hydrogen sulfide releasing oleanolic acid

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guanglin; Wang, Jing; Wu, Fangfang; Wang, Na; Zhou, Wenli; Wang, Qian; Pan, Wang; Ao, Guizhen; Yang, Jiquan

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide-releasing oleanolic acid (HS-OA) is an emerging novel class of compounds and consists of an oleanolic acid (OA) and a H2S-releasing moiety. Although it exhibits improved anti-inflammatory activity, its potency in human cancers has not been understood yet. In this study, we examined the effects of HS-OA on the growth of liver cancer cell lines and the underlying mechanisms. HS-OA inhibited the growth of all four cancer cell lines studied, with potencies of 10- to 30-fold greater than that of its counterpart (OA). HS-OA induced significant apoptosis and decreased viability, clonogenic activity and migration of Hep G2 cells. Further studies showed that HS-OA resulted in the reduction of YAP expression and its downstream targets, CTGF and CYR 61, thus promoting cell apoptosis. In addition, HS-OA caused a decrease of 14-3-3γ expression, which led to Bad translocation to the mitochondria, ΔΨm loss, cytochrome c release, caspase activation and a recovery of 14-3-3γ reversed these effects induced by HS-OA. These findings indicate that YAP and 14-3-3γ are involved in HS-OA's effects on liver cancer cells and identifying HS-OA as a potential new drug candidate for cancer therapy. PMID:27437776

  12. 41 CFR 102-85.140 - How are changes in Rent reflected in OAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reflected in OAs? 102-85.140 Section 102-85.140 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Rent Charges § 102-85.140 How are changes in Rent reflected in OAs? (a) If Rent changes in ways that are identified in the OA, then no change to the OA is required. Typically, OAs...

  13. Functional Imaging in OA: Role of Imaging in the Evaluation of Tissue Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Neu, Corey P.

    2014-01-01

    Functional imaging refers broadly to the visualization of organ or tissue physiology using medical image modalities. In load-bearing tissues of the body, including articular cartilage lining the bony ends of joints, changes in strain, stress, and material properties occur in osteoarthritis (OA), providing an opportunity to probe tissue function through the progression of the disease. Here, biomechanical measures in cartilage and related joint tissues are discussed as key imaging biomarkers in the evaluation of OA. Emphasis will be placed on the a) potential of radiography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging to assess early tissue pathomechanics in OA, b) relative utility of kinematic, structural, morphological, and biomechanical measures as functional imaging biomarkers, and c) improved diagnostic specificity through the combination of multiple imaging biomarkers with unique contrasts, including elastography and quantitative assessments of tissue biochemistry. In comparison to other modalities, magnetic resonance imaging provides an extensive range of functional measures at the tissue level, with conventional and emerging techniques available to potentially to assess the spectrum of preclinical to advance OA. PMID:25278049

  14. Inhibition of the OAS/RNase L pathway by viruses.

    PubMed

    Drappier, Melissa; Michiels, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The OAS/RNase L system was one of the first characterized interferon effector pathways. It relies on the synthesis, by oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS), of short oligonucleotides that act as second messengers to activate the latent cellular RNase L. Viruses have developed diverse strategies to escape its antiviral effects. This underscores the importance of the OAS/RNase L pathway in antiviral defenses. Viral proteins such as the NS1 protein of Influenza virus A act upstream of the pathway while other viral proteins such as Theiler's virus L* protein act downstream. The diversity of escape strategies used by viruses likely stems from their relative susceptibility to OAS/RNase L and other antiviral pathways, which may depend on their host and cellular tropism.

  15. Activation of RNase L is dependent on OAS3 expression during infection with diverse human viruses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yize; Banerjee, Shuvojit; Wang, Yuyan; Goldstein, Stephen A.; Dong, Beihua; Gaughan, Christina; Silverman, Robert H.; Weiss, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    The 2′,5′-oligoadenylate (2-5A) synthetase (OAS)–RNase L system is an IFN-induced antiviral pathway. RNase L activity depends on 2-5A, synthesized by OAS. Although all three enzymatically active OAS proteins in humans—OAS1, OAS2, and OAS3—synthesize 2-5A upon binding dsRNA, it is unclear which are responsible for RNase L activation during viral infection. We used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)–CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (Cas9) technology to engineer human A549-derived cell lines in which each of the OAS genes or RNase L is knocked out. Upon transfection with poly(rI):poly(rC), a synthetic surrogate for viral dsRNA, or infection with each of four viruses from different groups (West Nile virus, Sindbis virus, influenza virus, or vaccinia virus), OAS1-KO and OAS2-KO cells synthesized amounts of 2-5A similar to those synthesized in parental wild-type cells, causing RNase L activation as assessed by rRNA degradation. In contrast, OAS3-KO cells synthesized minimal 2-5A, and rRNA remained intact, similar to infected RNase L-KO cells. All four viruses replicated to higher titers in OAS3-KO or RNase L-KO A549 cells than in parental, OAS1-KO, or OAS2-KO cells, demonstrating the antiviral effects of OAS3. OAS3 displayed a higher affinity for dsRNA in intact cells than either OAS1 or OAS2, consistent with its dominant role in RNase L activation. Finally, the requirement for OAS3 as the major OAS isoform responsible for RNase L activation was not restricted to A549 cells, because OAS3-KO cells derived from two other human cell lines also were deficient in RNase L activation. PMID:26858407

  16. Activation of RNase L is dependent on OAS3 expression during infection with diverse human viruses.

    PubMed

    Li, Yize; Banerjee, Shuvojit; Wang, Yuyan; Goldstein, Stephen A; Dong, Beihua; Gaughan, Christina; Silverman, Robert H; Weiss, Susan R

    2016-02-23

    The 2',5'-oligoadenylate (2-5A) synthetase (OAS)-RNase L system is an IFN-induced antiviral pathway. RNase L activity depends on 2-5A, synthesized by OAS. Although all three enzymatically active OAS proteins in humans--OAS1, OAS2, and OAS3--synthesize 2-5A upon binding dsRNA, it is unclear which are responsible for RNase L activation during viral infection. We used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (Cas9) technology to engineer human A549-derived cell lines in which each of the OAS genes or RNase L is knocked out. Upon transfection with poly(rI):poly(rC), a synthetic surrogate for viral dsRNA, or infection with each of four viruses from different groups (West Nile virus, Sindbis virus, influenza virus, or vaccinia virus), OAS1-KO and OAS2-KO cells synthesized amounts of 2-5A similar to those synthesized in parental wild-type cells, causing RNase L activation as assessed by rRNA degradation. In contrast, OAS3-KO cells synthesized minimal 2-5A, and rRNA remained intact, similar to infected RNase L-KO cells. All four viruses replicated to higher titers in OAS3-KO or RNase L-KO A549 cells than in parental, OAS1-KO, or OAS2-KO cells, demonstrating the antiviral effects of OAS3. OAS3 displayed a higher affinity for dsRNA in intact cells than either OAS1 or OAS2, consistent with its dominant role in RNase L activation. Finally, the requirement for OAS3 as the major OAS isoform responsible for RNase L activation was not restricted to A549 cells, because OAS3-KO cells derived from two other human cell lines also were deficient in RNase L activation.

  17. Oral Allergy Syndrome (OAS). General and stomatological aspects.

    PubMed

    Ausukua, Martina; Dublin, Igone; Echebarria, Maria A; Aguirre, Jose M

    2009-11-01

    Oral Allergy Syndrome (OAS) is a special contact allergy conditioned by specific amino acids in food allergens, usually fruits, as well as some proteins from different pollens. It is usually manifested in the mouth, however relatively little is known about the syndrome in Odontology. OAS is a fairly common adverse reaction that occurs after ingesting certain foods, such as peaches or apples, produced in atopic individuals who usually suffer from rhinitis, bronchial asthma or both. This syndrome mainly affects the oral cavity and oropharynx, provoking minor local alterations, although there may be serious systematic reactions, making it important to distinguish it from other oral processes when making the diagnosis. One of the more severe forms of OAS is anaphylaxis, which is food-induced. In this study, we will analyze the key etiopathogenic, clinical and therapeutic aspects of this syndrome, focusing specifically on the stomatological aspects.

  18. BOREAS TF-1 SSA-OA Soil Characteristics Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, T. Andrew; Chen, Z; Nesic, Z.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-1 team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret soil information at the SSA-OA tower site in 1994 as part of BOREAS. Data sets collected include soil respiration, temperature, moisture, and gravimetric data. The data are stored in tabular ASCII format.

  19. Baseline Vitamin D Status is Predictive of Longitudinal Change in Tibial BMD in Knee Osteoarthritis (OA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With its lack of effective treatment and high prevalence, the public health impact of OA is substantial. Peri-articular bone in OA can be evaluated with the medial:lateral tibial BMD ratio (M:L BMD) obtained from dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Higher M:L BMD is associated with medial OA features...

  20. 41 CFR 102-85.25 - What is the basic principle governing OAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the basic principle governing OAs? 102-85.25 Section 102-85.25 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... governing OAs? The basic principle governing OAs is to adopt the private sector practice of capturing in...

  1. Integration of the B-52G Offensive Avionics System (OAS) with the Global Positioning System (GPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, A. L.; Pluntze, S. C.

    Integration of the B-52G OAS with the GPS has been accomplished by modification of existing OAS software. GPS derived position and velocity data are used to enhance the quality of the OAS inertial and dead reckoning navigation systems. The engineering design and the software development process used to implement this design are presented.

  2. Welcome to volume 3 of Future Science OA.

    PubMed

    Lake, Francesca

    2017-03-01

    Happy New Year to all of our readers! Welcome to volume 3 of Future Science OA. 2016 was another excellent year, with us receiving some superb content for publication, and our becoming indexed on both Chemical Abstracts and the Emerging Sources Citation Index, meaning our content now appears on Web of Science. We thank our readers, reviewers, authors and Editorial Board members for their continued support, and look forward to working with everyone in 2017.

  3. NF-κB Signaling: Multiple angles to target OA

    PubMed Central

    Marcu, Kenneth B.; Otero, Miguel; Olivotto, Eleonora; Borzi, Rosa Maria; Goldring, Mary B.

    2011-01-01

    In the context of OA disease, NF-κB transcription factors can be triggered by a host of stress-related stimuli including pro-inflammatory cytokines, excessive mechanical stress and ECM degradation products. Activated NF-κB regulates the expression of many cytokines and chemokines, adhesion molecules, inflammatory mediators, and several matrix degrading enzymes. NF-κB also influences the regulated accumulation and remodeling of ECM proteins and has indirect positive effects on downstream regulators of terminal chondrocyte differentiation (including β-catenin and Runx2). Although driven partly by pro-inflammatory and stress-related factors, OA pathogenesis also involves a “loss of maturational arrest” that inappropriately pushes chondrocytes towards a more differentiated, hypertrophic-like state. Growing evidence points to NF-κB signaling as not only playing a central role in the pro-inflammatory stress-related responses of chondrocytes to extra- and intra-cellular insults, but also in the control of their differentiation program. Thus unlike other signaling pathways the NF-κB activating kinases are potential therapeutic OA targets for multiple reasons. Targeted strategies to prevent unwanted NF-κB activation in this context, which do not cause side effects on other proteins or signaling pathways, need to be focused on the use of highly specific drug modalities, siRNAs or other biological inhibitors that are targeted to the activating NF-κB kinases IKKα or IKKβ or specific activating canonical NF-κB subunits. However, work remains in its infancy to evaluate the effects of efficacious, targeted NF-κB inhibitors in animal models of OA disease in vivo and to also target these strategies only to affected cartilage and joints to avoid other undesirable systemic effects. PMID:20199390

  4. Welcome to volume 3 of Future Science OA

    PubMed Central

    Lake, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Happy New Year to all of our readers! Welcome to volume 3 of Future Science OA. 2016 was another excellent year, with us receiving some superb content for publication, and our becoming indexed on both Chemical Abstracts and the Emerging Sources Citation Index, meaning our content now appears on Web of Science. We thank our readers, reviewers, authors and Editorial Board members for their continued support, and look forward to working with everyone in 2017. PMID:28344821

  5. Mitochondrial localization of the OAS1 p46 isoform associated with a common single nucleotide polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The expression of 2′-5′-Oligoadenylate synthetases (OASs) is induced by type 1 Interferons (IFNs) in response to viral infection. The OAS proteins have a unique ability to produce 2′-5′ Oligoadenylates, which bind and activate the ribonuclease RNase L. The RNase L degrades cellular RNAs which in turn inhibits protein translation and induces apoptosis. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OAS1 gene have been associated with disease. We have investigated the functional effect of two common SNPs in the OAS1 gene. The SNP rs10774671 affects splicing to one of the exons in the OAS1 gene giving rise to differential expression of the OAS1 isoforms, and the SNP rs1131454 (former rs3741981) resides in exon 3 giving rise to OAS1 isoforms with either a Glycine or a Serine at position 162 in the core OAS unit. Results We have used three human cell lines with different genotypes in the OAS1 SNP rs10774671, HeLa cells with the AA genotype, HT1080 cells with AG, and Daudi cells with GG. The main OAS1 isoform expressed in Daudi and HT1080 cells was p46, and the main OAS1 isoform expressed in HeLa cells was p42. In addition, low levels of the OAS1 p52 mRNA was detected in HeLa cells and p48 mRNA in Daudi cells, and trace amounts of p44a mRNA were detected in the three cell lines treated with type 1 interferon. We show that the OAS1 p46 isoform was localized in the mitochondria in Daudi cells, whereas the OAS1 isoforms in HeLa cells were primarily localized in cytoplasmic vacuoles/lysosomes. By using recombinantly expressed OAS1 mutant proteins, we found that the OAS1 SNP rs1131454 (former rs3741981) did not affect the enzymatic OAS1 activity. Conclusions The SNP rs10774671 determines differential expression of the OAS1 isoforms. In Daudi and HT1080 cells the p46 isoform is the most abundantly expressed isoform associated with the G allele, whereas in HeLa cells the most abundantly expressed isoform is p42 associated with the A allele. The SNP rs

  6. Heat capacities and entropies of Mg2SiOa, Mn2SiOa, and Co2SiOa between 5 and 380 K

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, Richard A.; Hemingway, Bruch S.; Takei, Humihiko

    1982-01-01

    whereas the shoulder near 12 K corresponds to the change from the collinear to a canted spin structure. Our calorimetric values for the antiferromagnetic-paramagnetictr ansition temperature (N6el Temperature) are in excellent agreement with those obtained by powder magnetic susceptibility measurements, 49t2 K and 5015 K for co2Sioa and Mn2Sioa respectively. The thermal Debye temperature, 0$, of Mg2Sioa calculated from our c$ measurements between 6.3 and 13.8 K is 768+15 K and agrees well with the elastic vaiue ofi of 758 K based on the mean sound velocity calculated from the room temperature elastic stiffness constants (ci:) of Graham and Barsch. At 298.15K (25"c) the molar heat capacitiesa re 118.6,1 28.7, and 133.4J /(mol . K) and the molar entropiesa re 94.11-r0.101, 55.910.4a nd,1 42.6-+0.J2l (mol . K) respectivelyf or Mg2SiO4M, n2SiOaa, nd Co2SiOa.

  7. Activation of the 2-5OAS/RNase L pathway in CVB1 or HAV/18f infected FRhK-4 cells does not require induction of OAS1 or OAS2 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kulka, Michael; Calvo, Mona S.; Ngo, Diana T.; Wales, Samantha Q.; Goswami, Biswendu B.

    2009-05-25

    The latent, constitutively expressed protein RNase L is activated in coxsackievirus and HAV strain 18f infected FRhK-4 cells. Endogenous oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) from uninfected and virus infected cell extracts synthesizes active forms of the triphosphorylated 2-5A oligomer (the only known activator of RNase L) in vitro and endogenous 2-5A is detected in infected cell extracts. However, only the largest OAS isoform, OAS3, is readily detected throughout the time course of infection. While IFNbeta treatment results in an increase in the level of all three OAS isoforms in FRhK-4 cells, IFNbeta pretreatment does not affect the temporal onset or enhancement of RNase L activity nor inhibit virus replication. Our results indicate that CVB1 and HAV/18f activate the 2-5OAS/RNase L pathway in FRhK-4 cells during permissive infection through endogenous levels of OAS, but contrary to that reported for some picornaviruses, CVB1 and HAV/18f replication is insensitive to this activated antiviral pathway.

  8. 15 CFR 742.17 - Exports of firearms to OAS member countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... activities as drug trafficking, terrorism, and transnational organized crime. (c) Contract sanctity. Contract..., terrorism, and transnational organized crime. (e) OAS member countries to which firearms controls under...

  9. 15 CFR 742.17 - Exports of firearms to OAS member countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... activities as drug trafficking, terrorism, and transnational organized crime. (c) Contract sanctity. Contract..., terrorism, and transnational organized crime. (e) OAS member countries to which firearms controls under...

  10. 15 CFR 742.17 - Exports of firearms to OAS member countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... activities as drug trafficking, terrorism, and transnational organized crime. (c) Contract sanctity. Contract..., terrorism, and transnational organized crime. (e) OAS member countries to which firearms controls under...

  11. Inflammation and Joint Tissue Interactions in OA: Implications for Potential Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Rainbow, Roshni; Ren, Weiping; Zeng, Li

    2012-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that the pathogenesis of cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis (OA) is multifactorial and involves the interactions between cartilage and its surrounding tissues. These interactions regulate proinflammatory cytokine-mediated cartilage destruction, contributing to OA progression as well as cartilage repair. This review explores the pathogenesis of OA in the context of the multiple tissue types in the joint and discusses the implications of such complex tissue interaction in the development of anti-inflammatory therapeutics for the treatment of OA. PMID:22745906

  12. Experimental study using optoacoustic spectroscopy (OAS) on spherical gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamela, Horacio; Cunningham, Vincent; Gallego, Daniel C.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper a spectroscopic characterisation method based on the optoacoustic technique has been used to investigate the optical properties of two separate spherical gold nanoparticle (SGNP) solutions where an absorption peak located at 520 nm has been observed. This analysis has been carried out over the visible wavelength range from 410 to 650 nm using a Q-switched Nd:YAG pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO). To verify the reliability of optoacoustic spectroscopy (OAS), the results obtained have been compared to those from more standard and limited spectrophotometer and reference collimated optical transmission schemes, where good agreement is shown. The experimental procedure presented here demonstrates the potential of this technique for integration along with optoacoustic imaging methods to identify physiological information for non-destructive in- vivo applications.

  13. Mx1, OAS1 and OAS2 polymorphisms are associated with the severity of liver disease in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    García-Álvarez, Mónica; Berenguer, Juan; Jiménez-Sousa, María A.; Pineda-Tenor, Daniel; Aldámiz-Echevarria, Teresa; Tejerina, Francisco; Diez, Cristina; Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Resino, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in the chronic hepatitis C progression are incompletely understood. The aim was to analyze the association between 2′5′oligoadenylate synthetase 1,2 and 3 (OAS1-3) and myxovirus resistance proteins 1 (Mx1) polymorphisms and severity of liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected patients. We performed a cross-sectional study in 219 patients that underwent a liver biopsy. DNA genotyping for Mx1 (rs469390), OAS1 (rs2285934), OAS2 (rs1293762) and OAS3 (rs2010604) was performed by using GoldenGate assay. The outcome variables ion liver biopsy were: (i) significant fibrosis (F ≥ 2); (ii) moderate activity grade (A ≥ 2). Additive model of inheritance for genetic association test was used. The likelihood of having significant fibrosis (F ≥ 2) was lower in patients carrying OAS2 rs1293762 A allele [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.51; p = 0.040]. Besides, the likelihood of having moderate activity grade (A ≥ 2) was higher in patients carrying Mx1 rs464397 C allele (aOR = 1.63; p = 0.028) and Mx1 rs469390 G allele (aOR = 1.97; p = 0.005), while it was lower in patients carrying OAS1 rs2285934 A allele (aOR = 0.64; p = 0.039) and OAS2 rs1293762 A allele (aOR = 0.41; p = 0.009). In conclusion, Mx1 and OAS1-2 polymorphisms were associated with the severity of liver disease in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, suggesting a significant role in the progression of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:28139728

  14. A Cross-Cultural Evaluation of the OAS: Measuring Brazilian Occupational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David O.

    1978-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate empirically the reliability and validity of the Occupational Aspiration Scale (OAS) for southern Brazil. Analyses of mean differences between types of items conformed to expected variations, and the OAS had satisfactory construct validity for the Brazilian sample. However other analyses indicated that it had somewhat…

  15. Sponge OAS has a distinct genomic structure within the 2-5A synthetase family.

    PubMed

    Reintamm, Tõnu; Kuusksalu, Anne; Metsis, Madis; Päri, Mailis; Vallmann, Kerli; Lopp, Annika; Justesen, Just; Kelve, Merike

    2008-11-01

    2',5'-Oligoadenylate synthetases (2-5A synthetases, OAS) are enzymes that play an important role in the interferon-induced antiviral defense mechanisms in mammals. Sponges, the evolutionarily lowest multicellular animals, also possess OAS; however, their function is presently unclear. Low homology between primary structures of 2-5A synthetases from vertebrates and sponges renders their evolutionary relationship obscure. The genomic structure of vertebrate OASs has been thoroughly examined, making it possible to elucidate molecular evolution and expansion of this gene family. Until now, no OAS gene structure was available from sponges to compare it with the corresponding genes from higher organisms. In the present work, we determined the exon/intron structure of the OAS gene from the marine sponge Geodia cydonium and found it to be completely different from the strictly conserved exon/intron pattern of the OAS genes from vertebrates. This finding was corroborated by the analysis of OAS genes from another sponge, Amphimedon queenslandica, whose genome was recently sequenced. Our data suggest that vertebrate and sponge OAS genes have no direct common intron-containing ancestor and two (sub)types of OAS may be discriminated. This study opens new perspectives for understanding the phylogenesis and evolution of 2-5A synthetases as well as functional aspects of this multigene family.

  16. 41 CFR 102-85.20 - What does an Occupancy Agreement (OA) do?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Pricing Policy-General § 102-85.20 What does an Occupancy Agreement (OA) do? An OA defines GSA's relationship with each customer agency and: (a) Establishes specific financial...

  17. Long-term balancing selection at the antiviral gene OAS1 in Central African chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, William; Dvora, Shira; Fikes, Ronald W; Stone, Anne C; Boissinot, Stéphane

    2012-04-01

    Oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS) are interferon-induced enzymes that participate in the first line of defense against a wide range of viral infection in animals. Upon activation by viral double-stranded RNA, OAS synthesizes (2-5) oligoadenylates, which activate RNase L, leading to the nonspecific degradation of cellular and viral RNA. Some association studies in humans suggest that variation at one of the OAS genes, OAS1, could be influencing host susceptibility to viral infection. We assessed the diversity of OAS1 in hominoid primates with a focus on chimpanzees. We found that the OAS1 gene is extremely polymorphic in Central African chimpanzee and exhibits levels of silent and replacement diversity much higher than neutral regions of the chimpanzee genome. This level of variation strongly suggests that balancing selection is acting on OAS1, and indeed, this conclusion was validated by several tests of neutrality. We further demonstrated that balancing selection has been acting at this locus since the split between chimpanzees, humans, and gorillas (~8.6 Ma) and caused the persistence of two deeply divergent allelic lineages in Central African chimpanzees. These two groups of OAS1 alleles differ by a large number of amino acids (a.a.), including several a.a. putatively involved in RNA binding. It is therefore very likely that variation at the OAS1 locus affects the innate immune response of individuals to specific viral infection. Our data strongly suggest that interactions between viral RNA and OAS1 are responsible for the maintenance of ancestral polymorphisms at this locus for at least 13.2 My.

  18. OAS Gene Family Expression Is Associated with HIV-Related Neurocognitive Disorders.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, C; Pinzone, M R; Cambria, D; Longo, A; Palumbo, M; Di Marco, R; Condorelli, F; Nunnari, G; Malaguarnera, L; Di Rosa, M

    2017-02-24

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders are common in HIV-infected individuals, even in the combination antiretroviral therapy (c-ART) era. Several mechanisms are involved in neuronal damage, including chronic inflammation immune activation. Mammalian 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) genes are produced in response to interferon (IFN), mainly by monocytes, and exert their antiviral functions by activation of RNase L that degrades viral and cellular RNAs. In this study, we aimed at exploring OAS gene family RNA expression in simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis (SIVE), in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), and in HIV-associate dementia (HAD). We analyzed three microarray datasets obtained from the NCBI in order to assess the expression levels of OAS gene family network in brain biopsies of macaques with SIVE vs uninfected animals, as well as post-mortem brain of individuals with HAND (on or off ART) vs uninfected controls and three brain regions of HIV-infected individuals with both neurocognitive impairment (HAD) and encephalitis (HIVE). All OAS genes were upregulated both in SIVE and in HAND. OAS expression was significantly higher in high-viremic individuals; increased expression levels persisted in cART subjects when compared to healthy controls. OAS gene network analysis showed that several genes belonging to the type I IFN pathway, especially CXCL10 and IFIT3, were similarly upregulated in SIVE/HAND. Furthermore, we identified a significant upregulation of OAS gene family RNA expression in basal ganglia, white matter, and frontal cortex of HIV-1, HAD, and HAD/HIVE patients compared to healthy subjects. OAS gene family expression is increased in brain sections from individuals with HAND, HAD, and HIVE as well as macaques with SIVE. OAS family expression is likely to be induced by IFN as a consequence of viral replication in the CNS. Its long-term upregulation may contribute to the chronic inflammatory status and neurocognitive impairment

  19. SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 inhibit IFN-alpha-induced expression of the antiviral proteins 2,5-OAS and MxA.

    PubMed

    Vlotides, George; Sörensen, Astrid S; Kopp, Florian; Zitzmann, Kathrin; Cengic, Neziha; Brand, Stephan; Zachoval, Reinhart; Auernhammer, Christoph J

    2004-07-30

    Although the use of IFN-alpha in combination with ribavirin has improved the treatment efficacy of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, 20-50% of patients still fail to eradicate the virus depending on the HCV genotype. Recently, overexpression of HCV core protein has been shown to inhibit IFN signaling and induce SOCS-3 expression. Aim of this study was to examine the putative role of SOCS proteins in IFN resistance. By Western blot analysis, a 4-fold induction of STAT-1/3 phosphorylation by IFN-alpha was observed in mock-transfected HepG2 clones. In contrast, IFN-induced STAT-1/3 phosphorylation was considerably downregulated by SOCS-1/3 overexpression. In mock-transfected cells, IFN-alpha induced 2',5'-OAS and myxovirus resistance A (MxA) promoter activity 40- to 80-fold and 10- to 35-fold, respectively, and this effect was abrogated in SOCS-1/3 overexpressing cells. As detected by Northern blot technique, IFN-alpha potently induced 2',5'-OAS and MxA mRNA expression in the control clones. Overexpression of SOCS-1 completely abolished both 2',5'-OAS and MxA mRNA expression, whereas SOCS-3 mainly inhibited 2',5'-OAS mRNA expression. Our results demonstrate that SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 proteins inhibit IFN-alpha-induced activation of the Jak-STAT pathway and expression of the antiviral proteins 2',5'-OAS and MxA. These data suggest a potential role of SOCS proteins in IFN resistance during antiviral treatment.

  20. CAISI Operational Assessment (OA) data collection results. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-31

    One of the lessons learned from Operation Desert Shield/Storm was the inability of deployed Combat Service Support (CSS) computers to exchange data effectively in a battlefield environment. The work-around solution to this previously identified problem has been to physically carry floppy disks between computers. A General Officer Steering Committee, directed by the Vice Chief of Staff of the Army, determined that immediate corrective action was necessary to ensure viability of the CSS Battlefield Mission Area. The study recommended that a three-phased system development plan address short-, mid- and long-term CSS automation communication interface requirements. In response to this study, Program Executive Office (PEO) Standard Army Management Information System (STAMIS) authorized the development of the CSS Automated Information System Interface (CAISI). Phase I (Near-Term) equipped the {open_quotes}first to fight{close_quotes} Contingency Corps units. Phase II (Mid-Term) is being fielded to the remainder of Force Package One units in the active force. Phase III (Long-Term) will equip the remaining units. CAISI is now in the early stages of Phase II fielding. Prior to full Phase II fielding, CAISI must be approved for production by a Milestone III decision authority. Part of the data that will be used in the Milestone III decision is a demonstration of the CAISI`s operational suitability, as assessed by the US Army Operational Test and Evaluation Command (OPTEC). This assessment will be performed through an Operational Assessment (OA) using data provided from previous technical testing, such as the CAISI Customer User Test (CUT), and a field training exercise conducted by units of the XVIII Airborne Corps. The field training exercise data collection took place during two events.

  1. Operational results for the experimental DOE/NASA Mod-OA wind turbine project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, R. K.; Birchenough, A. G.

    1983-01-01

    The Mod-OA wind turbine project which was to gain early experience in the operation of large wind turbines in a utility environment is discussed. The Mod-OA wind turbines were a first generation design, and even though not cost effective, the operating experience and performance characteristics had a significant effect on the design and development of the second and third generation machines. The Mod-OA machines were modified as a result of the operational experience, particularly the blade development and control system strategy. The results of study to investigate the interaction of a Mod-OA wind turbine with an isolated diesel generation system are discussed. The machine configuration, its advantages and disadvantages and the machine performance and availability are discussed.

  2. 15 CFR 742.17 - Exports of firearms to OAS member countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... activities as drug trafficking, terrorism, and transnational organized crime. (c) Contract sanctity. Contract..., terrorism, and transnational organized crime. (e) OAS member countries to which firearms controls under this... Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay,...

  3. 15 CFR 742.17 - Exports of firearms to OAS member countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... activities as drug trafficking, terrorism, and transnational organized crime. (c) Contract sanctity. Contract..., terrorism, and transnational organized crime. (e) OAS member countries to which firearms controls under this... Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay,...

  4. Multiple irradiation sensing of the optical effective attenuation coefficient for spectral correction in handheld OA imaging.

    PubMed

    Held, K Gerrit; Jaeger, Michael; Rička, Jaro; Frenz, Martin; Akarçay, H Günhan

    2016-06-01

    Spectral optoacoustic (OA) imaging enables spatially-resolved measurement of blood oxygenation levels, based on the distinct optical absorption spectra of oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood. Wavelength-dependent optical attenuation in the bulk tissue, however, distorts the acquired OA spectrum and thus makes quantitative oxygenation measurements challenging. We demonstrate a correction for this spectral distortion without requiring a priori knowledge of the tissue optical properties, using the concept of multiple irradiation sensing: recording the OA signal amplitude of an absorbing structure (e.g. blood vessel), which serves as an intrinsic fluence detector, as function of irradiation position. This permits the reconstruction of the bulk effective optical attenuation coefficient μeff,λ . If performed at various irradiation wavelengths, a correction for the wavelength-dependent fluence attenuation is achieved, revealing accurate spectral information on the absorbing structures. Phantom studies were performed to show the potential of this technique for handheld clinical combined OA and ultrasound imaging.

  5. The ocular albinism type 1 gene product, OA1, spans intracellular membranes 7 times.

    PubMed

    Sone, Michio; Orlow, Seth J

    2007-12-01

    OA1 (GPR143) is a pigment cell-specific intracellular glycoprotein consisting of 404 amino acid residues that is mutated in patients with ocular albinism type 1, the most common form of ocular albinism. While its cellular localization is suggested to be endolysosomal and melanosomal, the physiological function of OA1 is currently unclear. Recent reports predicted that OA1 functions as a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) based on its weak amino acid sequence similarity to known GPCRs, and on demonstration of GPCR activity in OA1 mislocalized to the plasma membrane. Because mislocalization of proteins is often caused by or induces defects in their proper folding/assembly, the significance of these studies remains unclear. A characteristic feature of GPCRs is a seven transmembrane domain structure. We analyzed the membrane topology of OA1 properly localized to intracellular lysosomal organelles in COS-1 cells. To accomplish this analysis, we established experimental conditions that allowed selective permeabilization of the plasma membrane while leaving endolysosomal membranes intact. Domains were mapped by the insertion of a hemagglutinin (HA) tag into the predicted cytosolic/luminal regions of OA1 molecule and the accessibility of tag to HA antibody was determined by immunofluorescence. HA-tagged lysosome associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1), a type I membrane protein, was employed as a reporter for selective permeabilization of the plasma membrane. Our results show experimentally that the C-terminus of OA1 is directed to the cytoplasm and that the protein spans the intracellular membrane 7 times. Thus, OA1, properly localized intracellularly, is a 7 transmembrane domain integral membrane protein consistent with its putative role as an intracellular GPCR.

  6. A candidate gene for X-linked Ocular Albinism (OA1)

    SciTech Connect

    Bassi, M.T.; Schiaffino, V.; Rugarli, E.

    1994-09-01

    Ocular Albinism of the Nettleship-Fall type 1 (OA1) is the most common form of ocular albinism. It is transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait with affected males showing severe reduction of visual acuity, nystagmus, strabismus, photophobia. Ophthalmologic examination reveals foveal hypoplasia, hypopigmentation of the retina and iris translucency. Microscopic examination of melanocytes suggests that the underlying defect in OA1 is an abnormality in melanosome formation. Recently we assembled a 350 kb cosmid contig spanning the entire critical region on Xp22.3, which measures approximately 110 kb. A minimum set of cosmids was used to identify transcribed sequences using both cDNA selection and exon amplification. Two putative exons recovered by exon amplification strategy were found to be highly conserved throughout evolution and, therefore, they were used as probes for the screening of fetal and adult retina cDNA libraries. This led to the isolation of clones spanning a full-length cDNA which measures 7.6 kb. Sequence analysis revealed that the predicted protein product shows homology with syntrophines and a Xenopus laevis apical protein. The gene covers approximately 170 kb of DNA and spans the entire critical region for OA1, being deleted in two patients with contiguous gene deletion including OA1 and in one patient with isolated OA1. Therefore, this new gene represents a very strong candidate for involvement in OA1 (an alternative, but unlikely possibility to be considered is that the true OA1 gene lies within an intron of the former). Northern analysis revealed very high level of expression in retina and melanoma. Unlike most Xp22.3 genes, this gene is conserved in the mouse. We are currently performing SSCP analysis and direct sequencing of exons on DNAs from approximately 60 unrelated patients with OA1 for mutation detection.

  7. BOREAS TF-1 SSA-OA Weekly Tower CH4 and N2O Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurtell, George; Edwards, Grant; Simpson, George; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-1 team collected various trace gas and energy flux data in its efforts to characterize the temporal energy and gas exchanges that occurred over the SSA-OA site. This data set contains methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes that were measured at the BOREAS SSA-OA site. These fluxes were measured from 16-Apr to 16-Sep-1994. The data were averaged to weekly values and are available in tabular ASCII files.

  8. Oleanolic acid (OA) as an antileishmanial agent: Biological evaluation and in silico mechanistic insights.

    PubMed

    Melo, Tahira Souza; Gattass, Cerli Rocha; Soares, Deivid Costa; Cunha, Micael Rodrigues; Ferreira, Christian; Tavares, Maurício Temotheo; Saraiva, Elvira; Parise-Filho, Roberto; Braden, Hannah; Delorenzi, Jan Carlo

    2016-06-01

    Although a worldwide health problem, leishmaniasis is considered a highly neglected disease, lacking efficient and low toxic treatment. The efforts for new drug development are based on alternatives such as new uses for well-known drugs, in silico and synthetic studies and naturally derived compounds. Oleanolic acid (OA) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid widely distributed throughout the Plantae kingdom that displays several pharmacological activities. OA showed potent leishmancidal effects in different Leishmania species, both against promastigotes (IC(50 L. braziliensis) 30.47 ± 6.35 μM; IC(50 L. amazonensis) 40.46 ± 14.21 μM; IC(50 L. infantum) 65.93 ± 15.12 μM) and amastigotes (IC(50 L. braziliensis) 68.75 ± 16.55 μM; IC(50 L. amazonensis) 38.45 ± 12.05 μM; IC(50 L. infantum) 64.08 ± 23.52 μM), with low cytotoxicity against mouse peritoneal macrophages (CC(50) 235.80 ± 36.95 μM). Moreover, in silico studies performed to evaluate OA molecular properties and to elucidate the possible mechanism of action over the Leishmania enzyme sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) suggested that OA interacts efficiently with CYP51 and could inhibit the ergosterol synthesis pathway. Collectively, these data indicate that OA is a good candidate as leading compound for the development of a new leishmaniasis treatment.

  9. Genomic and functional characterization of the oas gene family encoding O-acetylserine (thiol) lyases, enzymes catalyzing the final step in cysteine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Jost, R; Berkowitz, O; Wirtz, M; Hopkins, L; Hawkesford, M J; Hell, R

    2000-08-08

    The final step of cysteine biosynthesis in plants is catalyzed by O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OAS-TL), which occurs as several isoforms found in the cytosol, the plastids and the mitochondria. Genomic DNA blot hybridization and isolation of genomic clones indicate single copy genes (oasA1, oasA2, oasB and oasC) that encode the activities of OAS-TL A, B and C found in separate subcellular compartments in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Sequence analysis reveals that the newly discovered oasA2 gene represents a pseudogene that is still transcribed, but is not functionally translated. The comparison of gene structures suggests that oasA1/oasA2 and oasB/oasC are closely related and may be derived from a common ancestor by subsequent duplications. OAS-TL A, B and C were overexpressed in an Escherichia coli mutant lacking cysteine synthesis and exhibited bifunctional OAS-TL and beta-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) activities. However, all three proteins represent true OAS-TLs according to kinetic analysis and are unlikely to function in cyanide detoxification or secondary metabolism. In addition, it was demonstrated that the mitochondrial OAS-TL C exhibits in vivo protein-protein interaction capabilities with respect to cysteine synthase complex formation similar to cytosolic OAS-TL A and plastid OAS-TL B. Multiple database accessions for each of the A. thaliana OAS-TL isoforms can thus be attributed to a specified number of oas genes to which functionally defined gene products are assigned, and which are responsible for compartment-specific cysteine synthesis.

  10. Comparison of model and observations of the wake of a MOD-OA wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C.; Packard, K.R.

    1982-10-01

    A series of wind velocity measurements upwind and downwind of the MOD-OA wind turbine at Clayton, New Mexico, was used to determine some of the characteristics of wakes within approximately two blade diameters of the machine. The magnitudes and shapes of the velocity profiles downwind of the turbine were compared with results obtained from a model. Generally good agreement was obtained at speeds well below the rated speed of the MOD-OA, but the results were not as satisfactory for higher values.

  11. Structure of equine 2'-5'oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) gene family and FISH mapping of OAS genes to ECA8p15-->p14 and BTA17q24-->q25.

    PubMed

    Perelygin, A A; Lear, T L; Zharkikh, A A; Brinton, M A

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian 2'-5' oligoadenylate (2-5A) synthetases are important mediators of the antiviral activity of interferons. Both human and mouse 2-5A synthetase gene families encode four forms of enzymes: small, medium, large and ubiquitin-like. In this study, the structures of four equine OAS genes were determined using DNA sequences derived from fifteen cDNA and four BAC clones. Composition of the equine OAS gene family is more similar to that of the human OAS family than the mouse Oas family. Two OAS-containing bovine BAC clones were identified in GenBank. Both equine and bovine BAC clones were physically assigned by FISH to horse and cattle chromosomes, ECA8p15-->p14 and BTA17q24--> q25, respectively. The comparative mapping data confirm conservation of synteny between ungulates, humans and rodents.

  12. 41 CFR 102-85.20 - What does an Occupancy Agreement (OA) do?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... defines GSA's relationship with each customer agency and: (a) Establishes specific financial terms... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does an Occupancy Agreement (OA) do? 102-85.20 Section 102-85.20 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  13. Effects of tiaprofenic acid on plasminogen activators and inhibitors in human OA and RA synovium.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, J P; McCollum, R; Cloutier, J M; Martel-Pelletier, J

    1992-01-01

    The effect of therapeutic and pharmacological concentrations of tiaprofenic acid, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on the synthesis of the plasminogen activators, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and the plasminogen activator inhibitors 1 and 2 (PAI-1 and PAI-2), by human synovial membranes isolated from osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) sufferers was evaluated. Both forms of plasminogen activator (PA) and PA inhibitor (PAI) were synthesized by the arthritic synovium. PAI-1 and PAI-2 were both synthesized in greater amounts than the plasminogen activators. Tiaprofenic acid induced a dose-dependent decrease in uPA synthesis in both OA and RA, particularly in OA synovium, but had no true effect on tPA. Tiaprofenic acid also exerted a suppressive effect on the synthesis of PAI-1 in both OA and RA synovial membranes, and on the release of PAI-2 in RA synovium. The results of this study indicate that a decrease in uPA synthesis may be one of the mechanisms by which tiaprofenic acid could exert its effects on the arthritic process. The suppressive action of tiaprofenic acid on PAI is not likely to have a significant impact on the balance of plasminogen activators and plasminogen activator inhibitors, as plasminogen activator inhibitors are synthesized in greater amounts than plasminogen activators.

  14. 41 CFR 102-85.140 - How are changes in Rent reflected in OAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How are changes in Rent reflected in OAs? 102-85.140 Section 102-85.140 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY...

  15. OAS proteins and cGAS: unifying concepts in sensing and responding to cytosolic nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Hornung, Veit; Hartmann, Rune; Ablasser, Andrea; Hopfner, Karl-Peter

    2014-08-01

    Recent discoveries in the field of innate immunity have highlighted the existence of a family of nucleic acid-sensing proteins that have similar structural and functional properties. These include the well-known oligoadenylate synthase (OAS) family proteins and the recently identified OAS homologue cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS). The OAS proteins and cGAS are template-independent nucleotidyltransferases that, once activated by double-stranded nucleic acids in the cytosol, produce unique classes of 2'-5'-linked second messenger molecules, which - through distinct mechanisms - have crucial antiviral functions. 2'-5'-linked oligoadenylates limit viral propagation through the activation of the enzyme RNase L, which degrades host and viral RNA, and 2'-5'-linked cGAMP activates downstream signalling pathways to induce de novo antiviral gene expression. In this Progress article, we describe the striking functional and structural similarities between OAS proteins and cGAS, and highlight their roles in antiviral immunity.

  16. BOREAS TF-1 SSA-OA Tower Flux, Meteorological, and Soil Temperature Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor); Black, T. Andrew; Chen, Z.; Nesic, Zoran

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-1 team collected energy, carbon dioxide, and momentum flux data above the canopy along with meteorological and soils data at the BOREAS SSA-OA site from mid-April to the end of the year for 1996. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  17. BOREAS TF-1 SSA-OA Understory Flux, Meteorological, and Soil Temperature Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor); Black, T. Andrew; Chen, Z.; Nesic, Zoran

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-1 team collected energy, carbon dioxide, and momentum flux data under the canopy along with meteorological and soils data at the BOREAS SSA-OA site from mid-October to mid-November of 1993 and throughout all of 1994. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  18. 41 CFR 102-85.205 - What happens if a customer agency continues occupancy after the expiration of an OA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... assignments. However, provisions are necessary to cover the GSA and customer relationship if an OA expires... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if a customer agency continues occupancy after the expiration of an OA? 102-85.205 Section 102-85.205...

  19. Polymorphisms of interferon-inducible genes OAS associated with interferon-α treatment response in chronic HBV infection.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shan; Yu, Haibin; Zhang, Hongwei; Liu, Ying; Huang, Yanxiang; Ma, Lina; Wei, Lai; Wu, Hao; Chen, Xinyue

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the role of host single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) in predicting IFN response in patients with HBV infection, OAS gene and four SNPs were examined in 363 patients with chronic HBV infection (including 41 patients with HBsAg seroconversion) and 57 healthy controls. One SNP and three haplotypes were identified after adjustment for age, sex, HBV DNA. The frequency of OAS3T/C heterozygotes is 52.2% in responders (R) and 38.2% in non-responders (NR), with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.511 (P = 0.018). For complete responders (CR) and NR, the OR reached 2.323(P = 0.023). Haplotype analyses revealed significant association between three OAS haplotypes and response to IFN-α treatment. Genotype combination and interaction between gene-gene analyses disclosed that there was a positive interaction between OAS2/OAS3 and OAS3/OASL, and the rate of OR was 2.46 (likelihood test, P = 0.004) and 4.46 (likelihood test, P = 0.004), respectively. Our results suggest that OAS gene variations may play an important role in response to IFN-α and provide a novel strategy for the resolution of HBV infection.

  20. High Anti-Dengue Virus Activity of the OAS Gene Family Is Associated With Increased Severity of Dengue.

    PubMed

    Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Lin, Ren-Jye; Kalayanarooj, Sita Mint; Chuansumrit, Ampaiwan; Casademont, Isabelle; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Yu, Han-Pang; Lert-Itthiporn, Worachart; Chaiyaratana, Wathanee; Tangthawornchaikul, Nattaya; Tangnararatchakit, Kanchana; Vasanawathana, Sirijitt; Chang, Bi-Lan; Suriyaphol, Prapat; Yoksan, Sutee; Malasit, Prida; Despres, Philipe; Paul, Richard; Lin, Yi-Ling; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj

    2015-12-15

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that afflicts millions of individuals worldwide every year. Infection by any of the 4 dengue virus (DENV) serotypes can result in a spectrum of disease severity. We investigated the impact of variants of interferon-regulated innate immunity genes with a potent antiviral effect on the outcome of DENV infection. We compared the effect of OAS gene family variants on 2 DENV serotypes in cell culture. While both OAS1-p42 and p46 showed antiviral activity against DENV-2, only OAS1-p42 presented anti-DENV-1 activity. Conversely, whereas both OAS3_S381 and R381 variants were able to block DENV-1 infection, the anti-DENV-2 activity observed for OAS3_S381 was largely lost for the R381 variant. By means of an allelic association study of a cohort of 740 patients with dengue, we found a protective effect of OAS3_R381 against shock (odds ratio [OR], 0.37; P < .001). This effect was due to DENV-2 infections (OR, 0.13; P = .007) but was absent for DENV-1, in accordance with the serotype-dependent OAS3 activity found in the functional study. Severe dengue has long been associated with a cytokine storm of unclear origin. This work identifies an early innate immunity process that could lead to the immune overreaction observed in severe dengue and could be triggered by a specific host genotype-pathogen genotype interaction.

  1. Sources, Properties, Aging, and Anthropogenic Influences on OA and SOA over the Southeast US and the Amazon duing SOAS, DC3, SEAC4RS, and GoAmazon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SE US and the Amazon have large sources of biogenic VOCs, varying anthropogenic pollution impacts, and often poor organic aerosol (OA) model performance. Recent results on the sources, properties, aging, and impact of anthropogenic pollution on OA and secondary OA (SOA) over ...

  2. GPNMB/OA protein increases the invasiveness of human metastatic prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and PC3 through MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorentini, Chiara; Bodei, Serena; Bedussi, Francesca; Fragni, Martina; Bonini, Sara Anna; Simeone, Claudio; Zani, Danilo; Berruti, Alfredo; Missale, Cristina; Memo, Maurizio; Spano, PierFranco; Sigala, Sandra

    2014-04-15

    Non-metastatic glycoprotein melanoma protein B (GPNMB), also known as osteoactivin (OA) is expressed in a wide array of tumors and represents an emerging target for drug development. In this study, we investigated the role of GPNMB/OA in the progression of human metastatic DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cells. GPNMB/OA contribution in PCa malignant phenotype has been analyzed by small interfering RNA-induced GPNMB/OA silencing. We found that following GPNMB/OA silencing the migration capability of both DU145 and PC3 cells, evaluated by using in vitro invasivity assay, as well as the metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity were equally strongly inhibited. By contrast knocking down GPNMB/OA weakly attenuated cell proliferation rate of DU145, an effect that paralleled with an increase number of apoptotic cells. However, PC3 cell growth seems to be not affected by GPNMB/OA. Together, these data reveal that GPNMB/OA acts as a critical molecular mediator promoting the acquisition of the more aggressive, pro-metastatic phenotype distinctive of human DU145 and PC3 cell lines. - Highlights: • GPNMB/OA expression correlates with DU145 and PC3 cells malignant phenotype. • GPNMB/OA silencing affects the migration capability of both DU145 and PC3 cells. • GPNMB/OA increases invasiveness by up-regulating MMPs activity. • GPNMB/OA promotes DU145 and PC3 cells progression into a more aggressive phenotype.

  3. Construction of low-cost, Mod-OA wood composite wind turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lark, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Two sixty-foot, low-cost, wood composite blades for service on 200 kW Mod-OA wind turbines were constructed. The blades were constructed of epoxy resin-bonded Douglas fir veneers for the leading edge sections, and paper honeycombcored, birch plywood faced panels for the afterbody sections. The blades were joined to the wind turbine hub by epoxy resin-bonded steel load take-off studs embedded into the root end of the blades. The blades were installed on the 200 kW Mod-OA wind turbine facility at Kahuku, Hawaii, The blades completed nearly 8,000 hours of operation over an 18 month period at an average power of 150 kW prior to replacement with another set of wood composite blades. The blades were replaced because of a corrosion failure of the steel shank on one stud. Inspections showed that the wood composite structure remained in excellent condition.

  4. Evaluation of an operating MOD-OA 200 kW wind turbine blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donham, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Operating loads and structural damage were monitored during operation of the MOD-OA electric generating system. The turbine was damaged locally between stations 48 and 125 after 2.8 million rotations. Loads due to degraded yaw stiffness and fretting at rib station 48 were identified as primary to this distress. The repaired blades operated an additional 4.8 million rotations without problems.

  5. BOREAS TF-2 SSA-OA Tethersonde Meteorological and Ozone Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, A. James; Mickle, Robert E.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Tower Flux-2 (BOREAS TF-2) team collected meteorological and ozone measurements from instruments mounted below a tethered balloon. These data were collected at the Southern Study Area Old Aspen (SSA-OA) site to extend meteorological and ozone measurements made from the flux tower to heights of 300 m. The tethersonde operated during the fall of 1993 and the spring, summer, and fall of 1994. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  6. Altered function in cartilage derived mesenchymal stem cell leads to OA-related cartilage erosion

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Zenan; Ma, Pei; Wu, Nan; Su, Xinlin; Chen, Jun; Jiang, Chao; Liu, Sen; Chen, Weisheng; Ma, Bupeng; Yang, Xu; Ma, Yufen; Weng, Xisheng; Qiu, Guixing; Huang, Shishu; Wu, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    A portion of osteoarthritis (OA) patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) had monocondylar destruction in medial femoral condyle, but healthy-appearant cartilage in lateral side. However, there is limited information concerning functional differences of cartilage derived mesenchymal stem cell (CMSC) between these two locations in the same donor and its possible role in the pathogenesis of OA. Cells isolated from the degraded cartilage in medial condyle and normal cartilage in lateral side from OA patients were identified with co-expressed markers CD105 and CD166 and confirmed as CMSCs by immunophenotype. The relative percentage, proliferation activity, multi-lineage differentiation potential and miRNA expression profile of CMSCs in two groups were compared by flow cytometry, CCK-8 assay, cytochemical staining, immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and miRNA microarray analysis. Our study suggested that the percentage (10.61±6.97% vs. 18.44±9.97%, P<0.05) and proliferation rate (P<0.01) of CD105+/CD166+ CMSCs from the degraded cartilage were significantly reduced compared with those from the normal cartilage. CMSCs from the degraded cartilage also showed stronger osteogenic (P<0.05), weaker adipogenic (P<0.01), and comparable chondrogenic potential (P>0.05) during differentiation. MiR-31-5p and miR-424-5p were down regulated in CMSCs from the degraded cartilage. In conclusion, altered function such as reduced percentage and proliferation ability, as well as changes in differentiation profile of CMSC contributed to homeostasis imbalance, leading to OA-related cartilage erosion. Furthermore, regulatory networks of multiple miRNAs may be partially responsible for the dysfunction of CMSCs. PMID:27158337

  7. PRP in OA knee – update, current confusions and future options

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Mandeep S.; Patel, Sandeep; John, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    Positive results have been uniformly observed by various researchers for platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in early osteoarthritis (OA) knee in the past few years. PRP has clearly demonstrated its supremacy in comparison to hyaluronic acid (HA) and placebo in various clinical trials and is undoubtedly the best option available for symptomatic treatment in early OA. The release of growth factors from PRP occurs immediately and lasts for around three weeks and the clinical effect tends to wane down by the end of the year. Prolonged and sustained release of growth factors from platelets could possibly help in much better biological healing and sustained clinical effects. PRP in combination with biocompatible carriers could be one way of achieving this. Gelatin hydrogel PRP and chitosan PRP seem to be promising based on early in vitro studies and animal studies. PRP in combination with hyaluronic acid also seems to be additive. This article intends to discuss the present status of the PRP, confusions surrounding its use, upcoming trends and ideas for improvising PRP for use early OA knees based on available evidence. PMID:28322719

  8. Acute Cardiotoxicity Evaluation of the Marine Biotoxins OA, DTX-1 and YTX

    PubMed Central

    Ferreiro, Sara F.; Carrera, Cristina; Vilariño, Natalia; Louzao, M. Carmen; Santamarina, Germán; Cantalapiedra, Antonio G.; Botana, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    Phycotoxins are marine toxins produced by phytoplankton that can get accumulated in filter feeding shellfish. Human intoxication episodes occur due to contaminated seafood consumption. Okadaic acid (OA) and dynophysistoxins (DTXs) are phycotoxins responsible for a severe gastrointestinal syndrome called diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Yessotoxins (YTXs) are marine toxins initially included in the DSP class but currently classified as a separated group. Food safety authorities from several countries have regulated the content of DSPs and YTXs in shellfish to protect human health. In mice, OA and YTX have been associated with ultrastructural heart damage in vivo. Therefore, this study explored the potential of OA, DTX-1 and YTX to cause acute heart toxicity. Cardiotoxicity was evaluated in vitro by measuring hERG (human èter-a-go-go gene) channel activity and in vivo using electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings and cardiac damage biomarkers. The results demonstrated that these toxins do not exert acute effects on hERG channel activity. Additionally, in vivo experiments showed that these compounds do not alter cardiac biomarkers and ECG in rats acutely. Despite the ultrastructural damage to the heart reported for these toxins, no acute alterations of heart function have been detected in vivo, suggesting a functional compensation in the short term. PMID:25826053

  9. Expression of ocular albinism 1 (OA1), 3, 4- dihydroxy- L-phenylalanine (DOPA) receptor, in both neuronal and non-neuronal organs.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Nobuhiko; Naito, Saki; Masukawa, Daiki; Kaneda, Moemi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Abe, Takaya; Yamashita, Yui; Endo, Itaru; Nakamura, Fumio; Goshima, Yoshio

    2015-03-30

    Oa1 is the casual gene for ocular albinism-1 in humans. The gene product OA1, alternatively designated as GPR143, belongs to G-protein coupled receptors. It has been reported that OA1 is a specific receptor for 3, 4-dihydroxy- L-phenylalanine (DOPA) in retinal pigmental epithelium where DOPA facilitates the pigmentation via OA1 stimulation. We have recently shown that OA1 mediates DOPA-induced depressor response in rat nucleus tractus solitarii. However, the distribution and function of OA1 in other regions are largely unknown. We have generated oa1 knockout mice and examined OA1 expression in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissues by immunohistochemical analyses using anti-mouse OA1 monoclonal antibodies. In the telencephalon, OA1 was expressed in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Predominant expression of OA1 was observed in the pyramidal neurons in these regions. OA1 was also expressed in habenular nucleus, hypothalamus, substantia nigra, and medulla oblongata. The expression of OA1 in the nucleus tractus solitarii of medulla oblongata may support the reduction of blood pressure by the microinjection of DOPA into this region. Outside of the nervous system, OA1 was expressed in heart, lung, liver, kidney and spleen. Abundant expression was observed in the renal tubules and the splenic capsules. These peripheral regions are innervated by numerous sympathetic nerve endings. In addition, substantia nigra contains a large population of dopaminergic neurons. Thus, the immunohistochemical analyses suggest that OA1 may modulate the monoaminergic functions in both peripheral and central nervous systems.

  10. Transglutaminase 2 is a Marker of Chondrocyte Hypertrophy and Osteoarthritis Severity in the Hartley Guinea Pig Model of Knee OA

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, Janet L; Johnson, Kristen A.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Terkeltaub, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The transglutaminase (TG) isoenzyme TG2, which catalyzes protein cross-linking via transamidation, influences healing phenotype in multiple forms of tissue injury. Moreover, TG2 knockout suppresses cartilage destruction but promotes osteophyte formation in instability-induced mouse knee OA. TG2 is marker of growth plate chondrocyte hypertrophy. Moreover, TG2 secreted by chondrocytes acts in part by promoting chondrocyte maturation to hypertrophy, a differentiation state linked with MMP-13 expression and disease progression in OA. Moreover, glucosamine, which is currently under investigation as an OA therapy, binds and inhibits TG2. Here, we examined TG2 as a potential marker of cartilage hypertrophy in the spontaneous guinea pig model of OA. Methods Synovial fluid ELISA and cartilage Immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR, were used to examine TG2 expression and TG transamidation-catalyzed isopeptide bonds. Results TG isopeptide bonds and TG2 were most abundant in articular cartilage in early knee OA. TG2 expression was robust at sites of early but not established osteophytes. Synovial fluid TG2 correlated with knee OA total histological score (r=0.47, p=0.01), as did medial tibial plateau cartilage TG2 mRNA (r=1.0, p=0.003). At 12 months of age, medial tibial plateau cartilage TG2 mRNA expression rose markedly in association with elevated type X collagen, as well as ADAMTS-5, and MMP-13 expression, changes not shared in age-matched Strain 13 guinea pigs that are less susceptible to knee OA. Conclusion Hartley guinea pig knee TG2 expression associates with enhanced articular chondrocyte hypertrophy and is a biomarker of OA severity. PMID:19328881

  11. A facile strategy to synthesize monodisperse superparamagnetic OA-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles with PEG assistant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Minmin; Zhu, Aimei; Zhang, Qiugen; Liu, Qinglin

    2014-11-01

    A facile strategy was reported to synthesize monodisperse super-paramagnetic oleic acid (OA) modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which the poly ethylene glycol (PEG) was used as the assistant. The influence of the molecular weight and concentration of PEG was investigated in the process of OA-modification. In addition, the mechanism of PEG action in the reaction system was discussed. The morphology and properties of the as-synthesized Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The size (12 nm) of the as-prepared Fe3O4 nanoparticles is smaller than the superparamagnetic critical size (25 nm) of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which endows the OA-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles with superparamagnetic property. Furthermore, the dispersibility and stability of as-synthesized OA-modified Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were very good. As the stabilizer and dispersant, PEG played a very important role and did not encapsulate the OA-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The condition for OA-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles preparation was optimized.

  12. Exchangeable hydrogen explains the pH of spodosol Oa horizons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, D.S.; David, M.B.; Lawrence, G.B.; Bartlett, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    The chemistry of extremely acid Oa horizons does not conform to traditional pH, Al, and base saturation relationships. Results from two separate studies of northeastern U.S. forested soils were used to investigate relationships between pH in water or dilute salt solutions and other soil characteristics. In Oa horizons with pH below 4, soil pH in dilute CaCl2 solution was correlated with exchangeable H+ measured either by titration (r = -0.88, P = 0.0001, n = 142) or by electrode (r = -0.89, P = 0.0001, n = 45). Exchangeable H+ expressed as a percentage of the cation-exchange capacity (CEC) was linear with pH and showed similar slopes for data from both studies. For all samples, pHw = 4.21 - 1.80 x H+/CEC (R2 = 0.69, n = 194). The reciprocal of the H+/CEC ratio is base saturation with Al added to the bases. Because of the low pH, exchangeable Al does not appear to behave as an acid. Exchangeable H+ remains an operationally defined quantity because of the difficulty in separating exchange and hydrolysis reactions. In a variety of neutral-salt extractants, concentration of H+ were correlated with 0.1 M BaCl2-exchangeable H+ (r > 0.91, P = 0.0001, n = 26) regardless of the strength of the extract. Nine successive extractions with 0.33 mM CaCl2 removed more H+ than was removed by single batch extractions with either 1 M KCl or 0.1 M BaCl2 (average H+ of 70, 43, and 49 mmol kg-1, respectively for 26 samples). The data showed little difference in the chemical behavior of Oa horizons from a variety of geographical sites and vegetation types.

  13. Evolution of organic aerosol mass spectra upon heating: implications for OA phase and partitioning behavior

    SciTech Connect

    UC Davis; Cappa, Christopher D.; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2010-10-28

    Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry has been used to measure the evolution of chemical composition for two distinct organic aerosol types as they are passed through a thermodenuder at different temperatures. The two organic aerosol types considered are primary lubricating oil (LO) aerosol and secondary aerosol from the alpha-pinene + O3 reaction (alphaP). The evolution of the VUV mass spectra for the two aerosol types with temperature are observed to differ dramatically. For LO particles, the spectra exhibit distinct changes with temperature in which the lower m/z peaks, corresponding to compounds with higher vapor pressures, disappear more rapidly than the high m/z peaks. In contrast, the alphaP aerosol spectrum is essentially unchanged by temperature even though the particles experience significant mass loss due to evaporation. The variations in the LO spectra are found to be quantitatively in agreement with expectations from absorptive partitioning theory whereas the alphaP spectra suggest that the evaporation of alphaP derived aerosol appears to not be governed by partitioning theory. We postulate that this difference arises from the alphaP particles existing as in a glassy state instead of having the expected liquid-like behavior. To reconcile these observations with decades of aerosol growth measurements, which indicate that OA formation is described by equilibrium partitioning, we present a conceptual model wherein the secondary OA is formed and then rapidly converted from an absorbing form to a non-absorbing form. The results suggest that although OA growth may be describable by equilibrium partitioning theory, the properties of organic aerosol once formed may differ significantly from the properties determined in the equilibrium framework.

  14. Microprocessor control system for 200-kilowatt Mod-OA wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyland, T. W.; Birchenough, A. G.

    1982-01-01

    The microprocessor system and program used to control the operation of the 200-kW Mod-OA wind turbines is described. The system is programmed to begin startup and shutdown sequences automatically and to control yaw motion. Rotor speed and power output are controlled with integral and proportional control of the blade pitch angle. Included in the report are a description of the hardware and a discussion of the software programming technique. A listing of the PL/M software program is given.

  15. BOREAS TF-2 SSA-OA Tower Flux, Meteorological, and Precipitation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Harold; Mickle, Robert; Staebler, Ralf; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Tower Flux-2 (BOREAS TF-2) team collected energy, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and momentum flux data above the canopy and in profiles through the canopy, along with meteorological data at the BOREAS Southern Study Area-Old Aspen (SSA-OA) site. Above-canopy measurements began in early February and ran through mid-September of 1994. Measurements were collected over a longer period of 1994 than most BOREAS flux sites. Daily precipitation data from several gauges were also collected. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  16. Role of ocular albinism type 1 (OA1) GPCR in Asian gypsy moth development and transcriptional expression of heat-shock protein genes.

    PubMed

    Sun, LiLi; Wang, ZhiYing; Wu, HongQu; Liu, Peng; Zou, ChuanShan; Xue, XuTing; Cao, ChuanWang

    2016-01-01

    The ocular albinism type 1 gene, named OA1, is a coding pigment cell-specific G protein-coupled receptor exclusively localized in intracellular organelles. However, the function of OA1 in insects remains generally unknown. In the present study, we explore for the first time the function of LdOA1 in the Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. To identify the function of LdOA1 gene in the development and growth of the Asian gypsy moth, the LdOA1 gene in third instar larvae was knocked down by RNAi. Compared with the controls, the knockdown of LdOA1 increased larval mortality but did not significantly affect their utilization of nutrition. Moreover, LdOA1 was stably transformed into the third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The LdOA1 gene in the transformed D. melanogaster modulated the expression of heat-shock protein (hsp) and increased the expression of hsp genes under deltamethrin stress, which indicates that LdOA1 is involved in the regulation of hsp gene expression. These results deepen our understanding of the molecular function of OA1 in insects.

  17. Rotationally sampled wind characteristics and correlations with MOD-OA wind turbine response

    SciTech Connect

    George, R.L.; Connell, J.R.

    1984-09-01

    This report presents results of a comprehensive wind and wind turbine measurement program: the Clayton, New Mexico, vertical plane array/MOD-OA project. In this experiment, the turbulent wind was measured for a large array of fixed anemometers located two blade diameters upwind of a 200-kW horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT). Simultaneously, key wind turbine response parameters were also measured. The first of two major objectives of this experiment was to determine the turbulent wind, rotationally sampled to emulate the motion of the wind turbine blade, for the range of different wind speeds and stability classes actually experienced by the wind turbine. The second major objective was to correlate this rotationally sampled wind with the wind turbine blade stress and power, in order to assess the usefulness of the wind measurements for wind turbine loads testing a prediction. Time series of rotationally sampled winds and wind turbine blade bending moments and power were converted to frequency spectra using Fourier transform techniques. These spectra were used as the basis for both qualitative and quantitative comparisons among the various cases. A quantitative comparison between the rotationally sampled wind input and blade bending response was made, using the Fourier spectra to estimate the blade transfer function. These transfer functions were then used to calculate an approximate damping coefficient for the MOD-OA fiberglass blade.

  18. Activation of TRPC channels contributes to OA-NO2-induced responses in guinea-pig dorsal root ganglion neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiulin; Beckel, Jonathan M; Daugherty, Stephanie L; Wang, Ting; Woodcock, Stephen R; Freeman, Bruce A; de Groat, William C

    2014-01-01

    Effects of nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2) on TRP channels were examined in guinea-pig dissociated dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons using calcium imaging and patch clamp techniques. OA-NO2 increased intracellular Ca2+ in 60–80% DRG neurons. 1-Oleoyl-2acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG), a TRPC agonist, elicited responses in 36% of OA-NO2-sensitive neurons while capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist) or allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC, TRPA1 agonist) elicited responses in only 16% and 10%, respectively, of these neurons. A TRPV1 antagonist (diarylpiperazine, 5 μm) in combination with a TRPA1 antagonist (HC-030031, 30 μm) did not change the amplitude of the Ca2+ transients or percentage of neurons responding to OA-NO2; however, a reducing agent DTT (50 mm) or La3+ (50 μm) completely abolished OA-NO2 responses. OA-NO2 also induced a transient inward current associated with a membrane depolarization followed by a prolonged outward current and hyperpolarization in 80% of neurons. The reversal potentials of inward and outward currents were approximately −20 mV and −60 mV, respectively. Inward current was reduced when extracellular Na+ was absent, but unchanged by niflumic acid (100 μm), a Cl− channel blocker. Outward current was abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ or a combination of two Ca2+-activated K+ channel blockers (iberiotoxin, 100 nm and apamin, 1 μm). BTP2 (1 or 10 μm), a broad spectrum TRPC antagonist, or La3+ (50 μm) completely abolished OA-NO2 currents. RT-PCR performed on mRNA extracted from DRGs revealed the expression of all seven subtypes of TRPC channels. These results support the hypothesis that OA-NO2 activates TRPC channels other than the TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels already known to be targets in rat and mouse sensory neurons and challenge the prevailing view that electrophilic compounds act specifically on TRPA1 or TRPV1 channels. The modulation of sensory neuron excitability via actions on multiple TRP channels can contribute to the anti-inflammatory effect

  19. The mammalian 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase gene family: evidence for concerted evolution of paralogous Oas1 genes in Rodentia and Artiodactyla.

    PubMed

    Perelygin, Andrey A; Zharkikh, Andrey A; Scherbik, Svetlana V; Brinton, Margo A

    2006-10-01

    Multiple 2'-5' oligoadenylate (2-5A) synthetases are important components of innate immunity in mammals. Gene families encoding these proteins have previously been studied mainly in humans and mice. To reconstruct the evolution of this gene family in mammals, a search for additional 2-5A synthetase genes was performed in rat, cattle, pig, and dog. Twelve 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase (Oas) genes were identified in the rat genome, including eight Oas1 genes, two Oas1 pseudogenes, single copies of Oas2 and Oas3, and two Oas-like genes, Oasl1 and Oasl2. Four OAS genes were detected in the pig genome and five OAS genes were found in both the cattle and dog genomes. An OAS3 gene was not found in either the cattle or the pig genome. While two tandemly duplicated OAS-like (OASL) genes were identified in the dog genome, only a single OASL orthologue was found in both the cattle and the pig genomes. The bovine and porcine OASL genes contain premature stop codons and encode truncated proteins, which lack the typical C-terminal double ubiquitin domains. The cDNA sequences of the rat, cattle, pig, and dog OAS genes were amplified, sequenced and compared with each other and with those in the human, mouse, horse, and chicken genomes. Evidence of concerted evolution of paralogous 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase 1 genes was obtained in rodents (Rodentia) and even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla). Calculations using the nonparametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov test suggested that the homogenization of paralogous OAS1 sequences was due to gene conversion rather than stabilizing selection.

  20. Bat Mx1 and Oas1, but not Pkr are highly induced by bat interferon and viral infection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Cowled, Christopher; Wang, Lin-Fa; Baker, Michelle L

    2013-01-01

    Bats harbour many emerging and re-emerging viruses, several of which are highly pathogenic in other mammals but cause no diseases in bats. As the interferon (IFN) response represents a first line of defence against viral infection, the ability of bats to control viral replication may be linked to the activation of the IFN system. The three most studied antiviral IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in other mammals; Pkr, Mx1 and Oas1 were examined in our model bat species, Pteropus alecto. Our results demonstrate that the three ISGs from P. alecto are highly conserved in their functional domains and promoter elements compared to corresponding genes from other mammals. However, P. alecto Oas1 contains two IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE) in its promoter region compared with the single ISRE present in human OAS1 which may lead to higher IFN inducibility of the bat gene. Both Oas1 and Mx1 were induced in a highly IFN-dependent manner following stimulation with IFN or synthetic double-strand RNA (dsRNA) whereas Pkr showed evidence of being induced in an IFN-independent manner. Furthermore, bat Oas1 appeared to be the most inducible of the three ISGs following either IFN stimulation or viral infection, providing evidence that Oas1 may play a more important role in antiviral activity in bats compared with Mx1 or Pkr. Our results have important implications for the different roles of ISGs in bats and provide the first step in understanding the role of these molecules in the ability of bats to coexist with viruses.

  1. The MOD-OA 200 kilowatt wind turbine generator design and analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, T. S.; Bodenschatz, C. A.; Eggers, A. G.; Hughes, P. S.; Lampe, R. F.; Lipner, M. H.; Schornhorst, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The project requirements, approach, system description, design requirements, design, analysis, system tests, installation safety considerations, failure modes and effects analysis, data acquisition, and initial performance for the MOD-OA 200 kw wind turbine generator are discussed. The components, the rotor, driven train, nacelle equipment, yaw drive mechanism and brake, tower, foundation, electrical system, and control systems are presented. The rotor includes the blades, hub and pitch change mechanism. The drive train includes the low speed shaft, speed increaser, high speed shaft, and rotor brake. The electrical system includes the generator, switchgear, transformer, and utility connection. The control systems are the blade pitch, yaw, and generator control, and the safety system. Manual, automatic, and remote control and Dynamic loads and fatigue are analyzed.

  2. Neandertal origin of genetic variation at the cluster of OAS immunity genes.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Fernando L; Watkins, Joseph C; Hammer, Michael F

    2013-04-01

    Analyses of ancient DNA from extinct humans reveal signals of at least two independent hybridization events in the history of non-African populations. To date, there are very few examples of specific genetic variants that have been rigorously identified as introgressive. Here, we survey DNA sequence variation in the OAS gene cluster on chromosome 12 and provide strong evidence that a haplotype extending for ~185 kb introgressed from Neandertals. This haplotype is nearly restricted to Eurasians and is estimated to have diverged from the Neandertal sequence ~125 kya. Despite the potential for novel functional variation, the observed frequency of this haplotype is consistent with neutral introgression. This is the second locus in the human genome, after STAT2, carrying distinct haplotypes that appear to have introgressed separately from both Neandertals and Denisova.

  3. Global genetic variation at OAS1 provides evidence of archaic admixture in Melanesian populations.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Fernando L; Watkins, Joseph C; Hammer, Michael F

    2012-06-01

    Recent analysis of DNA extracted from two Eurasian forms of archaic human shows that more genetic variants are shared with humans currently living in Eurasia than with anatomically modern humans in sub-Saharan Africa. Although these genome-wide average measures of genetic similarity are consistent with the hypothesis of archaic admixture in Eurasia, analyses of individual loci exhibiting the signal of archaic introgression are needed to test alternative hypotheses and investigate the admixture process. Here, we provide a detailed sequence analysis of the innate immune gene OAS1, a locus with a divergent Melanesian haplotype that is very similar to the Denisova sequence from the Altai region of Siberia. We resequenced a 7-kb region encompassing the OAS1 gene in 88 individuals from six Old World populations (San, Biaka, Mandenka, French Basque, Han Chinese, and Papua New Guineans) and discovered previously unknown and ancient genetic variation. The 5' region of this gene has unusual patterns of diversity, including 1) higher levels of nucleotide diversity in Papuans than in sub-Saharan Africans, 2) very deep ancestry with an estimated time to the most recent common ancestor of >3 myr, and 3) a basal branching pattern with Papuan individuals on either side of the rooted network. A global geographic survey of >1,500 individuals showed that the divergent Papuan haplotype is nearly restricted to populations from eastern Indonesia and Melanesia. Polymorphic sites within this haplotype are shared with the draft Denisova genome over a span of ∼90 kb and are associated with an extended block of linkage disequilibrium, supporting the hypothesis that this haplotype introgressed from an archaic source that likely lived in Eurasia.

  4. Apis mellifera octopamine receptor 1 (AmOA1) expression in antennal lobe networks of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)

    PubMed Central

    Sinakevitch, Irina T.; Smith, Adrian N.; Locatelli, Fernando; Huerta, Ramon; Bazhenov, Maxim; Smith, Brian H.

    2013-01-01

    Octopamine (OA) underlies reinforcement during appetitive conditioning in the honey bee and fruit fly, acting via different subtypes of receptors. Recently, antibodies raised against a peptide sequence of one honey bee OA receptor, AmOA1, were used to study the distribution of these receptors in the honey bee brain (Sinakevitch et al., 2011). These antibodies also recognize an isoform of the AmOA1 ortholog in the fruit fly (OAMB, mushroom body OA receptor). Here we describe in detail the distribution of AmOA1 receptors in different types of neurons in the honey bee and fruit fly antennal lobes. We integrate this information into a detailed anatomical analysis of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), uni- and multi-glomerular projection neurons (uPNs, and mPNs) and local interneurons (LNs) in glomeruli of the antennal lobe. These neurons were revealed by dye injection into the antennal nerve, antennal lobe, medial and lateral antenno-protocerbral tracts (m-APT and l-APT), and lateral protocerebral lobe (LPL) by use of labeled cell lines in the fruit fly or by staining with anti-GABA. We found that ORN receptor terminals and uPNs largely do not show immunostaining for AmOA1. About seventeen GABAergic mPNs leave the antennal lobe through the ml-APT and branch into the LPL. Many, but not all, mPNs show staining for AmOA1. AmOA1 receptors are also in glomeruli on GABAergic processes associated with LNs. The data suggest that in both species one important action of OA in the antennal lobe involves modulation of different types of inhibitory neurons via AmOA1 receptors. We integrated this new information into a model of circuitry within glomeruli of the antennal lobes of these species. PMID:24187534

  5. Apis mellifera octopamine receptor 1 (AmOA1) expression in antennal lobe networks of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster).

    PubMed

    Sinakevitch, Irina T; Smith, Adrian N; Locatelli, Fernando; Huerta, Ramon; Bazhenov, Maxim; Smith, Brian H

    2013-01-01

    Octopamine (OA) underlies reinforcement during appetitive conditioning in the honey bee and fruit fly, acting via different subtypes of receptors. Recently, antibodies raised against a peptide sequence of one honey bee OA receptor, AmOA1, were used to study the distribution of these receptors in the honey bee brain (Sinakevitch et al., 2011). These antibodies also recognize an isoform of the AmOA1 ortholog in the fruit fly (OAMB, mushroom body OA receptor). Here we describe in detail the distribution of AmOA1 receptors in different types of neurons in the honey bee and fruit fly antennal lobes. We integrate this information into a detailed anatomical analysis of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), uni- and multi-glomerular projection neurons (uPNs, and mPNs) and local interneurons (LNs) in glomeruli of the antennal lobe. These neurons were revealed by dye injection into the antennal nerve, antennal lobe, medial and lateral antenno-protocerbral tracts (m-APT and l-APT), and lateral protocerebral lobe (LPL) by use of labeled cell lines in the fruit fly or by staining with anti-GABA. We found that ORN receptor terminals and uPNs largely do not show immunostaining for AmOA1. About seventeen GABAergic mPNs leave the antennal lobe through the ml-APT and branch into the LPL. Many, but not all, mPNs show staining for AmOA1. AmOA1 receptors are also in glomeruli on GABAergic processes associated with LNs. The data suggest that in both species one important action of OA in the antennal lobe involves modulation of different types of inhibitory neurons via AmOA1 receptors. We integrated this new information into a model of circuitry within glomeruli of the antennal lobes of these species.

  6. Perturbative renormalization factors and O(a{sup 2}) corrections for lattice four-fermion operators with improved fermion/gluon actions

    SciTech Connect

    Constantinou, Martha; Panagopoulos, Haralambos; Skouroupathis, Apostolos; Stylianou, Fotos; Dimopoulos, Petros; Frezzotti, Roberto

    2011-04-01

    In this work we calculate the corrections to the amputated Green's functions of four-fermion operators, in 1-loop lattice perturbation theory. One of the novel aspects of our calculations is that they are carried out to second order in the lattice spacing, O(a{sup 2}). We employ the Wilson/clover action for massless fermions (also applicable for the twisted mass action in the chiral limit) and a family of Symanzik improved actions for gluons. Our calculations have been carried out in a general covariant gauge. Results have been obtained for several popular choices of values for the Symanzik coefficients (Plaquette, Tree-level Symanzik, Iwasaki, TILW and DBW2 action). While our Green's function calculations regard any pointlike four-fermion operators which do not mix with lower dimension ones, we pay particular attention to {Delta}F=2 operators, both parity conserving and parity violating (F stands for flavor: S, C, B). By appropriately projecting those bare Green's functions we compute the perturbative renormalization constants for a complete basis of four-fermion operators and we study their mixing pattern. For some of the actions considered here, even O(a{sup 0}) results did not exist in the literature to date. The correction terms which we calculate (along with our previous O(a{sup 2}) calculation of Z{sub {Psi}}[M. Constantinou, V. Lubicz, H. Panagopoulos, and F. Stylianou, J. High Energy Phys. 10 (2009) 064.][M. Constantinou, P. Dimopoulos, R. Frezzotti, G. Herdoiza, K. Jansen, V. Lubicz, H. Panagopoulos, G. C. Rossi, S. Simula, F. Stylianou, and A. Vladikas, J. High Energy Phys. 08 (2010) 068.][C. Alexandrou, M. Constantinou, T. Korzec, H. Panagopoulos, and F. Stylianou (unpublished).]) are essential ingredients for minimizing the lattice artifacts which are present in nonperturbative evaluations of renormalization constants with the RI{sup '}-MOM method. Our perturbative results, for the matrix elements of {Delta}F=2 operators and for the corresponding

  7. Blade design and operating experience on the MOD-OA 200 kW wind turbine at Clayton, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linscott, B. S.; Shaltens, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    Two 60 foot long aluminum wind turbine blades were operated for over 3000 hours on the MOD-OA wind turbine. The first signs of blade structural damage were observed after 400 hours of operation. Details of the blade design, loads, cost, structural damage, and repair are discussed.

  8. Epigenetic regulation of OAS2 shows disease-specific DNA methylation profiles at individual CpG sites

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaolian; Boldrup, Linda; Coates, Philip J.; Fahraeus, Robin; Nylander, Elisabet; Loizou, Christos; Olofsson, Katarina; Norberg-Spaak, Lena; Gärskog, Ola; Nylander, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications are essential regulators of biological processes. Decreased DNA methylation of OAS2 (2′-5′-Oligoadenylate Synthetase 2), encoding an antiviral protein, has been seen in psoriasis. To provide further insight into the epigenetic regulation of OAS2, we performed pyrosequencing to detect OAS2 DNA methylation status at 11 promoter and first exon located CpG sites in psoriasis (n = 12) and two common subtypes of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck: tongue (n = 12) and tonsillar (n = 11). Compared to corresponding controls, a general hypomethylation was seen in psoriasis. In tongue and tonsillar SCC, hypomethylation was found at only two CpG sites, the same two sites that were least demethylated in psoriasis. Despite differences in the specific residues targeted for methylation/demethylation, OAS2 expression was upregulated in all conditions and correlations between methylation and expression were seen in psoriasis and tongue SCC. Distinctive methylation status at four successively located CpG sites within a genomic area of 63 bp reveals a delicately integrated epigenetic program and indicates that detailed analysis of individual CpGs provides additional information into the mechanisms of epigenetic regulation in specific disease states. Methylation analyses as clinical biomarkers need to be tailored according to disease-specific sites. PMID:27572959

  9. Ocean acidification effects on Caribbean scleractinian coral calcification using a recirculating system: a novel approach to OA research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Projected increases in ocean pCO2 levels are likely to affect calcifying organisms more rapidly and to a greater extent than any other marine organisms. The effects of ocean acidification (OA) has been documented in numerous species of corals in both laboratory and field studies....

  10. Polymorphisms of interferon-inducible genes OAS-1 and MxA associated with SARS in the Vietnamese population.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Emi; Hijikata, Minako; Itoyama, Satoru; Quy, Tran; Phi, Nguyen Chi; Long, Hoang Thuy; Ha, Le Dang; Ban, Vo Van; Matsushita, Ikumi; Yanai, Hideki; Kirikae, Fumiko; Kirikae, Teruo; Kuratsuji, Tadatoshi; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Keicho, Naoto

    2005-04-22

    We hypothesized that host antiviral genes induced by type I interferons might affect the natural course of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS-1), myxovirus resistance-A (MxA), and double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase in 44 Vietnamese SARS patients with 103 controls. The G-allele of non-synonymous A/G SNP in exon 3 of OAS-1 gene showed association with SARS (p=0.0090). The G-allele in exon 3 of OAS-1 and the one in exon 6 were in strong linkage disequilibrium and both of them were associated with SARS infection. The GG genotype and G-allele of G/T SNP at position -88 in the MxA gene promoter were found more frequently in hypoxemic group than in non-hypoxemic group of SARS (p=0.0195). Our findings suggest that polymorphisms of two IFN-inducible genes OAS-1 and MxA might affect susceptibility to the disease and progression of SARS at each level.

  11. 41 CFR 102-85.70 - Are the standard OA terms appropriate for non-cancelable space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... terms appropriate for non-cancelable space? 102-85.70 Section 102-85.70 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Occupancy Agreement § 102-85.70 Are the standard OA terms appropriate for non-cancelable space? Yes, most of the standard terms apply; however, the right...

  12. Long-term balancing selection at the west nile virus resistance gene, Oas1b, maintains transspecific polymorphisms in the house mouse.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, William; Dvora, Shira; Gallo, Juliana; Orth, Annie; Boissinot, Stéphane

    2008-08-01

    Oligoadenylate synthetases (OASs) are interferon-inducible enzymes that participate in the first line of defense against a wide range of viral infection. Recent studies have determined that Oas1b, a member of the OAS gene family in the house mouse (Mus musculus), provides specific protection against flavivirus infection (e.g., West Nile virus, dengue fever virus, and yellow fever virus). We characterized the nucleotide sequence variation in coding and noncoding regions of the Oas1b gene for a large number of wild-derived strains of M. musculus and related species. Our sequence analyses determined that this gene is one of the most polymorphic genes ever described in any mammal. The level of variation in noncoding regions of Oas1b is an order of magnitude higher than the level reported for other regions of the mouse genome and is significantly different from the level of intraspecific variation expected under neutrality. Furthermore, a phylogenetic analysis of intronic sequences demonstrated that Oas1b alleles are ancient and that their divergence predates several speciation events, resulting in transspecific polymorphisms. The amino acid sequence of Oas1b is also extremely variable, with 1 out of 7 amino acid positions being polymorphic within M. musculus. Oas1b alleles are comparatively more divergent at synonymous positions than most autosomal genes and the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution is remarkably high, suggesting that positive selection has been acting on Oas1b. The ancestry of Oas1b polymorphisms and the high level of amino acid polymorphisms strongly suggest that the allelic variation at Oas1b has been maintained in mouse populations by long-term balancing selection.

  13. [Polymorphism in the human 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase genes (OAS), associated with predisposition to severe forms of tick-borne encephalitis, in populations from North Eurasia].

    PubMed

    Barkhash, A V; Babenko, V N; Kobzev, V F; Romashchenko, A G; Voevoda, M I

    2010-01-01

    2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetases are a family of interferon-induced enzymes which play an important role in the antiviral defense in mammals. In human genome three genes encoding functional synthetases (OAS1, OAS2 and OAS3) form a cluster. Previously we found that particular genotypes and/or alleles of five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within OAS2 and OAS3 genes are associated with predisposition to severe forms of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in Russian population. In current study we investigated the distribution of three of that SNPs (OAS3rs2285932 (C/T Ile438Ile), OAS3rs2072136 (G/A, Ser567Ser) and OAS2 rs15895 (G/A, Trp720Ter relative to p71 isoform)) in seven populations from North Eurasia: Caucasians (Russians and Germans (from Altai region)), Central Asian Mongoloids (Altaians, Khakasses, Tuvinians and Shorians) and Arctic Mongoloids (Chukchi). Differences between populations in genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies and in linkage disequilibrium structure for these SNPs were detected. We found that these frequencies correlate with the ethnicity of the populations and with their supposed differential exposure to TBE virus. Particularly, the lowest frequencies of G/G genotype for OAS3 gene rs2072136 SNP (that according to our previously obtained data is associated with predisposition to severe forms of TBE) were found in Altaians, Khakasses, Tuvinians and Shorians who may highly contact with TBE virus in places of their habitation. Thus, data obtained allow to suppose that TBE virus might act as a selection factor for particular OAS genes variants in Central Asian Mongoloids.

  14. Orientatio ad Sidera (OAS): a comprehensive project for cultural astronomy research in ancient Mediterranean cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio; César González-García, A.; Rodríguez-Antón, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    During the last decade (starting in 2005), the OAS Project has been run, with the support of the Spanish research agencies. Within its framework, research on cultural astronomy has been developed for a series of ancient cultures from the Atlantic Islands to the Arabian Peninsula with the Meditterranean Sea as the pricipal axis of the project. A catalogue of studies has been performed in a set of cultures such as the Megalithic Phenomenon, ancient Egypt, Middle East Bronze and Iron Age civilizations and the Roman World, among many others. In this essay a general scope of the project and a series of most interesting outcomes will be presented. The evolutionary ties of the megalithic monuments of the Iberian Peninsula and elsewhere, the pattern of orientation of Egyptian temples and skyscaping practices within the Hittite, Commagenian or Nabataean cultures, among others, will be shown; finishing in a comprehensive, statistical and comparative study of the orientation patterns of thousands of ancient monuments of the Mediterranean region. Finally, a sketch of our most recent, still ongoing, research on the astronomical and non-astronomical practices used in the planning of cities in the Roman World will be a compelling and promising closing remark of our analysis.

  15. BOREAS TE-1 CH4 Flux Data Over The SSA-OA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Darwin; Papagno, Andrea; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-1 team collected various data to characterize the soil-plant systems in the BOREAS SSA. Particular emphasis was placed on nutrient biochemistry, the stores and transfers of organic carbon, and how the characteristics were related to measured methane fluxes. The overall transect in the Prince Albert National Park (Saskatchewan, Canada) included the major plant communities and related soils that occurred in that section of the boreal forest. Soil physical, chemical, and biological measurements along the transect were used to characterize the static environment, which allowed them to be related to methane fluxes. Chamber techniques were used to provide a measure of methane production/uptake. Chamber measurements coupled with flask sampling were used to determine the seasonality of methane fluxes. This particular data set contains methane flux and soil profile methane concentration values from the SSA-OA site. The data were collected from 29-May to 17-Sep-1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  16. Fabrication of low-cost Mod-OA wood composite wind turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lark, R. F.; Gougeon, M.; Thomas, G.; Zuteck, M.

    1983-01-01

    The wood composite blades were fabricated by using epoxy resin-bonded laminates of Douglas fir veneers for the leading edge spar sections and honeycomb-cored birch plywood panels for the blade trailing edge or afterbody sections. The blade was joined to the wind turbine hub assembly by epoxy resin-bonded steel load take-off studs. The wood composite blades were installed in the Mod-OA wind turbine test facility at Kahuku, Hawaii. The wood composite blades have successfully completed high power (average of 150 kW) operations for an eighteen month period (nearly 8,000 hr) before replacement with another set of wood composite blades. The original set of blades was taken out of service because of the failure of the shank on one stud. An inspection of the blades at NASA-Lewis showed that the shank failure was caused by a high stress concentration at a corrosion pit on the shank fillet radius which resulted in fatigue stresses in excess of the endurance limit.

  17. ORMDL3 is an inducible lung epithelial gene regulating metalloproteases, chemokines, OAS, and ATF6.

    PubMed

    Miller, Marina; Tam, Arvin B; Cho, Jae Youn; Doherty, Taylor A; Pham, Alexa; Khorram, Naseem; Rosenthal, Peter; Mueller, James L; Hoffman, Hal M; Suzukawa, Maho; Niwa, Maho; Broide, David H

    2012-10-09

    Orosomucoid like 3 (ORMDL3) has been strongly linked with asthma in genetic association studies, but its function in asthma is unknown. We demonstrate that in mice ORMDL3 is an allergen and cytokine (IL-4 or IL-13) inducible endoplasmic reticulum (ER) gene expressed predominantly in airway epithelial cells. Allergen challenge induces a 127-fold increase in ORMDL3 mRNA in bronchial epithelium in WT mice, with lesser 15-fold increases in ORMDL-2 and no changes in ORMDL-1. Studies of STAT-6-deficient mice demonstrated that ORMDL3 mRNA induction highly depends on STAT-6. Transfection of ORMDL3 in human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro induced expression of metalloproteases (MMP-9, ADAM-8), CC chemokines (CCL-20), CXC chemokines (IL-8, CXCL-10, CXCL-11), oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS) genes, and selectively activated activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), an unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway transcription factor. siRNA knockdown of ATF-6α in lung epithelial cells inhibited expression of SERCA2b, which has been implicated in airway remodeling in asthma. In addition, transfection of ORMDL3 in lung epithelial cells activated ATF6α and induced SERCA2b. These studies provide evidence of the inducible nature of ORMDL3 ER expression in particular in bronchial epithelial cells and suggest an ER UPR pathway through which ORMDL3 may be linked to asthma.

  18. The Activation Mechanism of 2'-5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase Gives New Insights Into OAS/cGAS Triggers of Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Lohöfener, Jan; Steinke, Nicola; Kay-Fedorov, Penelope; Baruch, Petra; Nikulin, Alexey; Tishchenko, Svetlana; Manstein, Dietmar J; Fedorov, Roman

    2015-05-05

    2'-5'-Oligoadenylate synthetases (OASs) produce the second messenger 2'-5'-oligoadenylate, which activates RNase L to induce an intrinsic antiviral state. We report on the crystal structures of catalytic intermediates of OAS1 including the OAS1·dsRNA complex without substrates, with a donor substrate, and with both donor and acceptor substrates. Combined with kinetic studies of point mutants and the previously published structure of the apo form of OAS1, the new data suggest a sequential mechanism of OAS activation and show the individual roles of each component. They reveal a dsRNA-mediated push-pull effect responsible for large conformational changes in OAS1, the catalytic role of the active site Mg(2+), and the structural basis for the 2'-specificity of product formation. Our data reveal similarities and differences in the activation mechanisms of members of the OAS/cyclic GMP-AMP synthase family of innate immune sensors. In particular, they show how helix 3103-α5 blocks the synthesis of cyclic dinucleotides by OAS1.

  19. MESON CORRELATION FUNCTIONS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES.

    SciTech Connect

    WISSEL, S.; DATTA, S.; KARSCH, F.; LAERMANN, E.; SHCHEREDIN, S.

    2005-07-25

    We present preliminary results for the correlation- and spectral functions of different meson channels on the lattice. The main focus lies on gaining control over cut-off as well as on the finite-volume effects. Extrapolations of screening masses above the deconfining temperature are guided by the result of the free (T = {infinity}) case on the lattice and in the continuum. We study the quenched non-perturbatively improved Wilson-clover fermion as well as the hypercube fermion action which might show less cut-off effects.

  20. Dissecting the contribution of knee joint NGF to spinal nociceptive sensitization in a model of OA pain in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, D.R.; Nwosu, L.; Walsh, D.A.; Chapman, V.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective Although analgesic approaches targeting nerve growth factor (NGF) for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) pain remain of clinical interest, neurophysiological mechanisms by which NGF contribute to OA pain remain unclear. We investigated the impact of local elevation of knee joint NGF on knee joint, vs remote (hindpaw), evoked responses of spinal neurones in a rodent model of OA pain. Design In vivo spinal electrophysiology was carried out in anaesthetised rats with established pain behaviour and joint pathology following intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA), vs injection of saline. Neuronal responses to knee joint extension and flexion, mechanical punctate stimulation of the peripheral receptive fields over the knee and at a remote site (ipsilateral hind paw) were studied before, and following, intra-articular injection of NGF (10 μg/50 μl) or saline. Results MIA-injected rats exhibited significant local (knee joint) and remote (lowered hindpaw withdrawal thresholds) changes in pain behaviour, and joint pathology. Intra-articular injection of NGF significantly (P < 0.05) increased knee extension-evoked firing of spinal neurones and the size of the peripheral receptive fields of spinal neurones (100% increase) over the knee joint in MIA rats, compared to controls. Intra-articular NGF injection did not significantly alter responses of spinal neurones following noxious stimulation of the ipsilateral hind paw in MIA-injected rats. Conclusion The facilitatory effects of intra-articular injection of NGF on spinal neurones receiving input from the knee joint provide a mechanistic basis for NGF mediated augmentation of OA knee pain, however additional mechanisms may contribute to the spread of pain to remote sites. PMID:25623624

  1. The Emergence of Regional Organizations in Latin America and Implications for the Future of the Organization of American States (OAS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-10

    opportunities for cooperation between the two organizations. 9 In 2011, Insulza, at the Summit of Heads of State of MERCOSUR in Uruguay, also said...that MERCOSUR will play an increasing responsibility in the new advances of the international structure. 10 5 The OAS is a relevant institution...Southern Market ( MERCOSUR ) was created. In 1993, the US, Canada, and Mexico signed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). 106 In 1996, an

  2. Management of osteoarthritis (OA) with the pharma-standard supplement FlexiQule (Boswellia): a 12-week registry.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, G; Dugall, M; Luzzi, R; Ledda, A; Pellegrini, L; Hu, S; Ippolito, E

    2015-10-22

    This registry study assessed the pharma-standard supplement FlexiQule (Boswellia extract in capsules) in the management of symptoms associated to osteoarthritis (OA) also managed with the 'standard management' (SM) in comparison with a group of patients managed only with SM. The 12- week registry included patients with symptomatic knee arthrosis. They were able to walk on a treadmill for a walking test and to complete the WOMAC questionnaire.

  3. Impact of OAS1 Exon 7 rs10774671 Genetic Variation on Liver Fibrosis Progression in Egyptian HCV Genotype 4 Patients.

    PubMed

    Bader El Din, Noha G; Anany, Mohamed A; Dawood, Reham M; Ibrahim, Marwa K; El-Shenawy, Reem; El Abd, Yasmin S; El Awady, Mostafa K

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of genetic variants of oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10774671 at the exon 7 splice acceptor site on liver fibrosis progression and hepatitis C virus (HCV) outcome in Egyptian HCV genotype 4 patients. In this study, 195 subjects were enrolled; 60 controls and 135 chronic HCV genotype 4 patients with different fibrosis grades. All subjects were genotyped for OAS1 SNP rs10774671 polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. There was an increasing trend of liver fibrosis progression as 52.9% GG, 73.6% GA, and 83.3% AA genotypes were detected in late fibrosis patients (p = 0.025). The AA genotype was higher in the late fibrosis group than in the early fibrosis group (83.3% vs. 16.7%) (p = 0.001). The A allele was significantly affecting the liver fibrosis progression rate, more than the G allele (p = 0.001). The multivariate analysis showed that the OAS1 GA and AA genotypes were independent factors associated with liver progression (p = 0.009, odds ratio [OR] 3.467, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.273-7.584). In addition, the A allele was associated with liver fibrosis progression (p = 0.014, OR 2.525, 95% CI 1.157-4.545). The polymorphism at OAS1 exon 7 rs3741981 might be a potential genetic marker and can be useful in the assessment of liver fibrosis progression and disease outcome in HCV-infected patients.

  4. Adverse Effects (AEs) of Topical NSAIDs in Older Adults with Osteoarthritis (OA): a Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Makris, UE.; Kohler, MJ.; Fraenkel, L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the literature on reported adverse effects (AEs) associated with topical NSAID use in older adults with osteoarthritis (OA). Methods A systematic search of Medline (1950 to November 2009), Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane databases, Dissertation and American College of Rheumatology Meeting Abstracts was performed to identify original randomized controlled trials, case reports, observational studies, editorials or dissertations reporting AEs from topical NSAIDs in older adults with OA. Information was sought on study and participant characteristics, detailed recording of application site and systemic AEs as well as withdrawals due to AEs. Results The initial search yielded 953 articles of which 19 met eligibility criteria. Subjects receiving topical NSAIDs reported up to 39.3% application site AEs, and up to 17.5% systemic AEs. Five cases of warfarin potentiation with topical agents were reported; 1 resulting in gastrointestinal bleeding. In formal trials, the withdrawal rate from AEs ranged from 0-21% in the topical agents, 0-25% in the oral NSAIDs, and 0-16% in the placebo group. Conclusion In summary, although topical NSAIDs are safer than oral NSAIDs (fewer severe gastrointestinal AEs), a substantial proportion of older adults report systemic AEs with topical agents. Moreover, the withdrawal rate due to AEs with topical agents is comparable to that of oral NSAIDs. Given the safety profile and withdrawal rates described in this study, further data are needed to determine the incremental benefits of topical NSAIDs compared to other treatment modalities in older adults with OA. PMID:20360183

  5. Overexpression of the Transcription Factor Sp1 Activates the OAS-RNAse L-RIG-I Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dupuis-Maurin, Valéryane; Brinza, Lilia; Baguet, Joël; Plantamura, Emilie; Schicklin, Stéphane; Chambion, Solène; Macari, Claire; Tomkowiak, Martine; Deniaud, Emmanuelle; Leverrier, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated expression of oncogenes or transcription factors such as specificity protein 1 (Sp1) is observed in many human cancers and plays a role in tumor maintenance. Paradoxically in untransformed cells, Sp1 overexpression induces late apoptosis but the early intrinsic response is poorly characterized. In the present work, we studied increased Sp1 level consequences in untransformed cells and showed that it turns on an early innate immune transcriptome. Sp1 overexpression does not activate known cellular stress pathways such as DNA damage response or endoplasmic reticulum stress, but induces the activation of the OAS-RNase L pathway and the generation of small self-RNAs, leading to the upregulation of genes of the antiviral RIG-I pathway at the transcriptional and translational levels. Finally, Sp1-induced intrinsic innate immune response leads to the production of the chemokine CXCL4 and to the recruitment of inflammatory cells in vitro and in vivo. Altogether our results showed that increased Sp1 level in untransformed cells constitutes a novel danger signal sensed by the OAS-RNase L axis leading to the activation of the RIG-I pathway. These results suggested that the OAS-RNase L-RIG-I pathway may be activated in sterile condition in absence of pathogen. PMID:25738304

  6. Overexpression of the transcription factor Sp1 activates the OAS-RNAse L-RIG-I pathway.

    PubMed

    Dupuis-Maurin, Valéryane; Brinza, Lilia; Baguet, Joël; Plantamura, Emilie; Schicklin, Stéphane; Chambion, Solène; Macari, Claire; Tomkowiak, Martine; Deniaud, Emmanuelle; Leverrier, Yann; Marvel, Jacqueline; Michallet, Marie-Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated expression of oncogenes or transcription factors such as specificity protein 1 (Sp1) is observed in many human cancers and plays a role in tumor maintenance. Paradoxically in untransformed cells, Sp1 overexpression induces late apoptosis but the early intrinsic response is poorly characterized. In the present work, we studied increased Sp1 level consequences in untransformed cells and showed that it turns on an early innate immune transcriptome. Sp1 overexpression does not activate known cellular stress pathways such as DNA damage response or endoplasmic reticulum stress, but induces the activation of the OAS-RNase L pathway and the generation of small self-RNAs, leading to the upregulation of genes of the antiviral RIG-I pathway at the transcriptional and translational levels. Finally, Sp1-induced intrinsic innate immune response leads to the production of the chemokine CXCL4 and to the recruitment of inflammatory cells in vitro and in vivo. Altogether our results showed that increased Sp1 level in untransformed cells constitutes a novel danger signal sensed by the OAS-RNase L axis leading to the activation of the RIG-I pathway. These results suggested that the OAS-RNase L-RIG-I pathway may be activated in sterile condition in absence of pathogen.

  7. A novel compact mass detection platform for the open access (OA) environment in drug discovery and early development.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junling; Ceglia, Scott S; Jones, Michael D; Simeone, Jennifer; Antwerp, John Van; Zhang, Li-Kang; Ross, Charles W; Helmy, Roy

    2016-04-15

    A new 'compact mass detector' co-developed with an instrument manufacturer (Waters Corporation) as an interface for liquid chromatography (LC), specifically Ultra-high performance LC(®) (UPLC(®) or UHPLC) analysis was evaluated as a potential new Open Access (OA) LC-MS platform in the Drug Discovery and Early Development space. This new compact mass detector based platform was envisioned to provide increased reliability and speed while exhibiting significant cost, noise, and footprint reductions. The new detector was evaluated in batch mode (typically 1-3 samples per run) to monitor reactions and check purity, as well as in High Throughput Screening (HTS) mode to run 24, 48, and 96 well plates. The latter workflows focused on screening catalysis conditions, process optimization, and library work. The objective of this investigation was to assess the performance, reliability, and flexibility of the compact mass detector in the OA setting for a variety of applications. The compact mass detector results were compared to those obtained by current OA LC-MS systems, and the capabilities and benefits of the compact mass detector in the open access setting for chemists in the drug discovery and development space are demonstrated.

  8. Enhanced Proton Translocating Pyrophosphatase Activity Improves Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Romaine Lettuce1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Paez-Valencia, Julio; Sanchez-Lares, Jonathan; Marsh, Ellen; Dorneles, Liane T.; Santos, Mirella P.; Sanchez, Diego; Winter, Alexander; Murphy, Sean; Cox, Jennifer; Trzaska, Marcin; Metler, Jason; Kozic, Alex; Facanha, Arnoldo R.; Schachtman, Daniel; Sanchez, Charles A.; Gaxiola, Roberto A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant nitrate (NO3−) acquisition depends on the combined activities of root high- and low-affinity NO3− transporters and the proton gradient generated by the plasma membrane H+-ATPase. These processes are coordinated with photosynthesis and the carbon status of the plant. Here, we present the characterization of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa ‘Conquistador’) plants engineered to overexpress an intragenic gain-of-function allele of the type I proton translocating pyrophosphatase (H+-PPase) of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The proton-pumping and inorganic pyrophosphate hydrolytic activities of these plants are augmented compared with control plants. Immunohistochemical data show a conspicuous increase in H+-PPase protein abundance at the vasculature of the transgenic plants. Transgenic plants displayed an enhanced rhizosphere acidification capacity consistent with the augmented plasma membrane H+-ATPase proton transport values, and ATP hydrolytic capacities evaluated in vitro. These transgenic lines outperform control plants when challenged with NO3− limitations in laboratory, greenhouse, and field scenarios. Furthermore, we report the characterization of a lettuce LsNRT2.1 gene that is constitutive up-regulated in the transgenic plants. Of note, the expression of the LsNRT2.1 gene in control plants is regulated by NO3− and sugars. Enhanced accumulation of 15N-labeled fertilizer by transgenic lettuce compared with control plants was observed in greenhouse experiments. A negative correlation between the level of root soluble sugars and biomass is consistent with the strong root growth that characterizes these transgenic plants. PMID:23307651

  9. A wogonin-rich-fraction of Scutellaria baicalensis root extract exerts chondroprotective effects by suppressing IL-1β-induced activation of AP-1 in human OA chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nazir M.; Haseeb, Abdul; Ansari, Mohammad Y.; Haqqi, Tariq M.

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disorder with varying degrees of inflammation and sustained oxidative stress. The root extract of Scutellaria baicalensis (SBE) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory and other diseases. Here, we performed activity-guided HPLC-fractionation of SBE, identified the active ingredient(s) and investigated its chondroprotective potential. We found that the Wogonin containing fraction-4 (F4) was the most potent fraction based on its ability to inhibit ROS production and the suppression of catabolic markers including IL-6, COX-2, iNOS, MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-13 and ADAMTS-4 in IL-1β-treated OA chondrocytes. OA chondrocytes treated with F4 in the presence of IL-1β showed significantly enhanced expression of anabolic genes ACAN and COL2A1. In an in vitro model of cartilage degradation treatment with F4 inhibited s-GAG release from IL-1β-treated human cartilage explants. The inhibitory effect of F4 was not mediated through the inhibition of MAPKs and NF-κB activation but was mediated through the suppression of c-Fos/AP-1 activity at transcriptional and post transcriptional levels in OA chondrocytes. Purified Wogonin mimicked the effects of F4 in IL-1β-stimulated OA chondrocytes. Our data demonstrates that a Wogonin-rich fraction of SBE exert chondroprotective effects through the suppression of c-Fos/AP-1 expression and activity in OA chondrocytes under pathological conditions. PMID:28256567

  10. A homolog of the human Hermansky-Pudluck syndrome-5 (HPS5) gene is responsible for the oa larval translucent mutants in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Fujii, T; Banno, Y; Abe, H; Katsuma, S; Shimada, T

    2012-12-01

    Normally, many granules containing uric acid accumulate in the larval integument of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. These uric acid granules cause the wild-type larval integument to be white or opaque, and the absence of these granules results in a translucent integument. Although about 30 B. mori loci governing larval translucency have been mapped, most have not been molecularly identified yet. Here, based on a structural analysis of a deletion of chromosome 14 that included the oa (aojyuku translucent) locus, we concluded that the BmHPS5 encoding a Bombyx homolog of the HPS5 subunit of biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-2 is the candidate for the oa locus. Nucleotide sequence analyses of cDNAs and genomic DNAs in three mutant strains, each of which were homozygous for the respective allele of the oa locus (oa, oa ( 2 ), and oa ( v )), revealed that each mutant strain has a frame shift or a premature stop codon (caused by deletion or nonsense mutation, respectively) in the BmHPS5 gene. Our findings indicate that some genes that cause the translucent phenotype in Bombyx, some HPS-associated genes in humans, and some genes that cause mutant eye color phenotypes in Drosophila are homologous and participate in an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that leads to biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles.

  11. Measurement of OCS, CO2, CO and H2O aboard NASA's WB-57 High Altitude Platform Using Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leen, J. B.; Owano, T. G.; Du, X.; Gardner, A.; Gupta, M.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is the most abundant sulfur gas in the atmosphere and has been implicated in controlling the sulfur budget and aerosol loading of the stratosphere. In the troposphere, OCS is irreversibly consumed during photosynthesis and may serve as a tracer for gross primary production (GPP). Its primary sources are ocean outgassing, industrial processes, and biomass burning. Its primary sinks are vegetation and soils. Despite the importance of OCS in atmospheric processes, the OCS atmospheric budget is poorly determined and has high uncertainty. OCS is typically monitored using either canisters analyzed by gas chromatography or integrated atmospheric column measurements. Improved in-situ terrestrial flux and airborne measurements are required to constrain the OCS budget and further elucidate its role in stratospheric aerosol formation and as a tracer for biogenic volatile organics and photosynthesis. Los Gatos Research has developed a flight capable mid-infrared Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) analyzer to simultaneously quantify OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O in ambient air at up to 2 Hz. The prototype was tested on diluted, certified samples and found to be precise (OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O to better than ±4 ppt, ±0.2 ppm, ±0.31 ppb, and ±3.7 ppm respectively, 1s in 1 sec) and linear (R2 > 0.9997 for all gases) over a wide dynamic range (OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O ranging from 0.2 - 70 ppb, 500 - 3000 ppm, 150 - 480 ppb, and 7000 - 21000 ppm respectively). Cross-interference measurements showed no appreciable change in measured OCS concentration with variations in CO2 (500 - 3500 ppm) or CO. We report on high altitude measurements made aboard NASA's WB-57 research aircraft. Two research flights were conducted from Houston, TX. The concentration of OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O were continuously recorded from sea level to approximately 60,000 feet. The concentration of OCS was observed to increase with altitude through the troposphere due to the

  12. Aberrant splicing in the ocular albinism type 1 gene (OA1/GPR143) is corrected in vitro by morpholino antisense oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Vetrini, Francesco; Tammaro, Roberta; Bondanza, Sergio; Surace, Enrico M; Auricchio, Alberto; De Luca, Michele; Ballabio, Andrea; Marigo, Valeria

    2006-05-01

    An intronic point mutation was identified in the ocular albinism type 1 (OA1) gene (HUGO symbol, GPR143) in a family with the X-linked form of ocular albinism. Interestingly, the mutation creates a new acceptor splice site in intron 7 of the OA1 gene. In addition to low levels of normally spliced mRNA product of the OA1 gene, the patient samples contained also an aberrantly spliced mRNA with a 165 bp fragment of intron 7 (from position +750 to +914) inserted between exons 7 and 8. The abnormal transcript contained a premature stop codon and was unstable, as revealed by Northern blot analysis. We defined that mutation NC_000023.8:g.25288G>A generated a consensus binding motif for the splicing factor enhancer ASF/SF2, which most likely favored transcription of the aberrant mRNA. Furthermore, it activated a cryptic donor-splice site causing the inclusion between exons 7 and 8 of the 165 bp intronic fragment. Thus, the aberrant splicing is most likely explained by the generation of a de novo splicing enhancer motif. Finally, to rescue OA1 expression in the patient's melanocytes, we designed an antisense morpholino modified oligonucleotide complementary to the mutant sequence. The morpholino oligonucleotide (MO) was able to rescue OA1 expression and restore the OA1 protein level in the patient's melanocytes through skipping of the aberrant inclusion. The use of MO demonstrated that the lack of OA1 was caused by the generation of a new splice site. Furthermore, this technique will lead to new approaches to correct splice site mutations that cause human diseases.

  13. Overlapping Patterns of Rapid Evolution in the Nucleic Acid Sensors cGAS and OAS1 Suggest a Common Mechanism of Pathogen Antagonism and Escape

    PubMed Central

    Hancks, Dustin C.; Hartley, Melissa K.; Hagan, Celia; Clark, Nathan L.; Elde, Nels C.

    2015-01-01

    A diverse subset of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) detects pathogen-associated nucleic acids to initiate crucial innate immune responses in host organisms. Reflecting their importance for host defense, pathogens encode various countermeasures to evade or inhibit these immune effectors. PRRs directly engaged by pathogen inhibitors often evolve under recurrent bouts of positive selection that have been described as molecular ‘arms races.’ Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) was recently identified as a key PRR. Upon binding cytoplasmic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) from various viruses, cGAS generates the small nucleotide secondary messenger cGAMP to signal activation of innate defenses. Here we report an evolutionary history of cGAS with recurrent positive selection in the primate lineage. Recent studies indicate a high degree of structural similarity between cGAS and 2’-5’-oligoadenylate synthase 1 (OAS1), a PRR that detects double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), despite low sequence identity between the respective genes. We present comprehensive comparative evolutionary analysis of cGAS and OAS1 primate sequences and observe positive selection at nucleic acid binding interfaces and distributed throughout both genes. Our data revealed homologous regions with strong signatures of positive selection, suggesting common mechanisms employed by unknown pathogen encoded inhibitors and similar modes of evasion from antagonism. Our analysis of cGAS diversification also identified alternately spliced forms missing multiple sites under positive selection. Further analysis of selection on the OAS family in primates, which comprises OAS1, OAS2, OAS3 and OASL, suggests a hypothesis where gene duplications and domain fusion events result in paralogs that provide another means of escaping pathogen inhibitors. Together our comparative evolutionary analysis of cGAS and OAS provides new insights into distinct mechanisms by which key molecular sentinels of the innate immune system have

  14. Interleukin-1β induced Stress Granules Sequester COX-2 mRNA and Regulates its Stability and Translation in Human OA Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Mohammad Y.; Haqqi, Tariq M.

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced and immediate expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA is observed in IL-1β-stimulated OA chondrocytes but the synthesis of protein found significantly delayed. Here we investigated the role of stress granules (SGs), ribonucleoprotein complexes that regulate mRNA translation, in the delayed translation of COX-2 mRNAs in IL-1β-stimulated OA chondrocytes. Stimulation of human chondrocytes with IL-1β activated the stress response genes and the phosphorylation of eIF2α that triggered the assembly of SGs. Using combined immunofluorescence staining of SGs markers and COX-2 protein, RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization and RNA immunoprecipitation, the COX-2 mRNAs were found sequestered in SGs in IL-1β-stimulated OA chondrocytes. No increase in COX-2 protein expression was observed during the persistence of SGs but enhanced expression of COX-2 protein was noted upon clearance of the SGs. Inhibition of SGs clearance blocked COX-2 mRNA translation whereas blocking the assembly of SGs by TIA-1 depletion resulted in rapid and increased production of COX-2 and PGE2. Our findings show for the first time assembly of SGs and sequestration of COX-2 mRNAs in human OA chondrocytes under pathological conditions. Post-transcriptional regulation of COX-2 mRNAs translation by SGs indicates a role in IL-1β-mediated catabolic response that could be therapeutically targeted in OA. PMID:27271770

  15. Peer Evaluation of the School's Potential To Improve Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanders, Anne K.; Wick, John

    This paper examines whether the peer-review process of the North Central Association (NCA) is reliable and valid. Reliance on peer judgments has been a part of NCA accreditation, but confidence in the use of peer decisions to certify a school's readiness to implement the improvement plan--Outcomes Accreditation (OA)--was weak. The study focused on…

  16. Rebamipide Attenuates Mandibular Condylar Degeneration in a Murine Model of TMJ-OA by Mediating a Chondroprotective Effect and by Downregulating RANKL-Mediated Osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Izawa, Takashi; Mori, Hiroki; Shinohara, Tekehiro; Mino-Oka, Akiko; Hutami, Islamy Rahma; Iwasa, Akihiko; Tanaka, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA) is characterized by progressive degradation of cartilage and changes in subchondral bone. It is also one of the most serious subgroups of temporomandibular disorders. Rebamipide is a gastroprotective agent that is currently used for the treatment of gastritis and gastric ulcers. It scavenges reactive oxygen radicals and has exhibited anti-inflammatory potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of rebamipide both in vivo and in vitro on the development of cartilage degeneration and osteoclast activity in an experimental murine model of TMJ-OA, and to explore its mode of action. Oral administration of rebamipide (0.6 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg) was initiated 24 h after TMJ-OA was induced, and was maintained daily for four weeks. Rebamipide treatment was found to attenuate cartilage degeneration, to reduce the number of apoptotic cells, and to decrease the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in TMJ-OA cartilage in a dose-dependent manner. Rebamipide also suppressed the activation of transcription factors (e.g., NF-κB, NFATc1) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) to inhibit the differentiation of osteoclastic precursors, and disrupted the formation of actin rings in mature osteoclasts. Together, these results demonstrate the inhibitory effects of rebamipide on cartilage degradation in experimentally induced TMJ-OA. Furthermore, suppression of oxidative damage, restoration of extracellular matrix homeostasis of articular chondrocytes, and reduced subchondral bone loss as a result of blocked osteoclast activation suggest that rebamipide is a potential therapeutic strategy for TMJ-OA. PMID:27123995

  17. OAS and PKR are not required for the antiviral effect of Ad:IFN-gamma against acute HSV-1 in primary trigeminal ganglia cultures.

    PubMed

    Austin, Bobbie Ann; Halford, William; Silverman, Robert H; Williams, Bryan R G; Carr, Daniel J J

    2006-04-01

    Three interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-induced antiviral pathways have been reported. Involved antiviral proteins include: Mx, RNase L/2',5'-OAS, and protein kinase R (PKR). Involvement of OAS and PKR in IFN-gamma-induced anti-herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) pathways has not been reported previously, but IFN-gamma induces OAS and PKR when other viruses invade the nervous system. The aim of the current study was to determine if the absence of intact OAS and PKR antiviral pathways affects the antiviral activity of IFN-gamma during acute HSV-1 infection within the trigeminal ganglia (TG). To investigate this, primary TG cultures were established using TGs removed from C57BL/6 (wild-type), RNase L knockout, and RNase L/PKR double knockout mice. Each dissociated TG was transduced with an adenoviral vector containing an IFN-gamma transgene or vector alone. Viral titers after HSV-1 infection of primary TG cell cultures were determined. Significant differences in viral titer for Ad:Null-transduced vs. Ad:IFN-gamma-tranduced TG were found in each genotype. However, the effectiveness of Ad:IFN-gamma was not reduced in the absence of both OAS and PKR pathways or OAS alone. Recombinant IFN-gamma also exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity. The effectiveness of the IFN-gamma transgene was lost in primary TG cells from IFN-gamma receptor knockout mice. The data suggest that novel anti-HSV-1 mechanisms are induced by IFN-gamma.

  18. Examination, evaluation and repair of laminated wood blades after service on the Mod-OA wind turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faddoul, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Laminated wood blades were designed, fabricated, and installed on a 200-KW wind turbine (Mod-OA). The machine uses a two-blade rotor with a diameter of 38.1 m (125 ft). Each blade weights less than 1361 kg (3000 lb). After operating in the field, two blade sets were returned for inspection. One set had been in Hawaii for 17 months (7844 hr of operation) and the other had been at Block Island, Rhode Island, for 26 months (22 months operating - 7564 hr). The Hawaii set was returned because of one of the studs that holds the blade to the hub had failed. This was found to be caused by a combination of improper installation and inadequate corrosion protection. No other problems were found. The broken stud (along with four others that were badly corroded) was replaced and the blades are now in storage. The Block Island set of blades was returned at the completion of the test program, but one blade was found to have developed a crack in the leading edge along the entire span. This crack was found to be the result of a manufacturing process problem but was not structurally critical. When a load-deflection test was conducted on the cracked blade, the response was identical to that measured before installation. In general, the laminate quality of both blade sets was excellent. No significant internal delamination or structural defects were found in any blade. The stud bonding process requires close tolerance control and adequate corrosion protection, but studs can be removed and replaced without major problems. Moisture content stabilization does not appear to be a problem, and laminated wood blades are satisfactory for long-term operation on Mod-OA wind turbines.

  19. X-linked late-onset sensorineural deafness caused by a deletion involving OA1 and a novel gene containing WD-40 repeats.

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, M T; Ramesar, R S; Caciotti, B; Winship, I M; De Grandi, A; Riboni, M; Townes, P L; Beighton, P; Ballabio, A; Borsani, G

    1999-01-01

    We have identified a novel gene, transducin (beta)-like 1 (TBL1), in the Xp22.3 genomic region, that shows high homology with members of the WD-40-repeat protein family. The gene contains 18 exons spanning approximately 150 kb of the genomic region adjacent to the ocular albinism gene (OA1) on the telomeric side. However, unlike OA1, TBL1 is transcribed from telomere to centromere. Northern analysis indicates that TBL1 is ubiquitously expressed, with two transcripts of approximately 2.1 kb and 6.0 kb. The open reading frame encodes a 526-amino acid protein, which shows the presence of six beta-transducin repeats (WD-40 motif) in the C-terminal domain. The homology with known beta-subunits of G proteins and other WD-40-repeat containing proteins is restricted to the WD-40 motif. Genomic analysis revealed that the gene is either partly or entirely deleted in patients carrying Xp22.3 terminal deletions. The complexity of the contiguous gene-syndrome phenotype shared by these patients depends on the number of known disease genes involved in the deletions. Interestingly, one patient carrying a microinterstitial deletion involving the 3' portion of both TBL1 and OA1 shows the OA1 phenotype associated with X-linked late-onset sensorineural deafness. We postulate an involvement of TBL1 in the pathogenesis of the ocular albinism with late-onset sensorineural deafness phenotype. PMID:10330347

  20. The ocular albinism type 1 (OA1) GPCR is ubiquitinated and its traffic requires endosomal sorting complex responsible for transport (ESCRT) function

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Francesca; Simoes, Sabrina; Raposo, Graça

    2011-01-01

    The function of signaling receptors is tightly controlled by their intracellular trafficking. One major regulatory mechanism within the endo-lysosomal system required for receptor localization and down-regulation is protein modification by ubiquitination and downstream interactions with the endosomal sorting complex responsible for transport (ESCRT) machinery. Whether and how these mechanisms operate to regulate endosomal sorting of mammalian G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) remains unclear. Here, we explore the involvement of ubiquitin and ESCRTs in the trafficking of OA1, a pigment cell-specific GPCR, target of mutations in Ocular Albinism type 1, which localizes intracellularly to melanosomes to regulate their biogenesis. Using biochemical and morphological methods in combination with overexpression and inactivation approaches we show that OA1 is ubiquitinated and that its intracellular sorting and down-regulation requires functional ESCRT components. Depletion or overexpression of subunits of ESCRT-0, -I, and -III markedly inhibits OA1 degradation with concomitant retention within the modified endosomal system. Our data further show that OA1 ubiquitination is uniquely required for targeting to the intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes, thereby regulating the balance between down-regulation and delivery to melanosomes. This study highlights the role of ubiquitination and the ESCRT machinery in the intracellular trafficking of mammalian GPCRs and has implications for the physiopathology of ocular albinism type 1. PMID:21730137

  1. The ocular albinism type 1 (OA1) GPCR is ubiquitinated and its traffic requires endosomal sorting complex responsible for transport (ESCRT) function.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Francesca; Simoes, Sabrina; Raposo, Graça

    2011-07-19

    The function of signaling receptors is tightly controlled by their intracellular trafficking. One major regulatory mechanism within the endo-lysosomal system required for receptor localization and down-regulation is protein modification by ubiquitination and downstream interactions with the endosomal sorting complex responsible for transport (ESCRT) machinery. Whether and how these mechanisms operate to regulate endosomal sorting of mammalian G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) remains unclear. Here, we explore the involvement of ubiquitin and ESCRTs in the trafficking of OA1, a pigment cell-specific GPCR, target of mutations in Ocular Albinism type 1, which localizes intracellularly to melanosomes to regulate their biogenesis. Using biochemical and morphological methods in combination with overexpression and inactivation approaches we show that OA1 is ubiquitinated and that its intracellular sorting and down-regulation requires functional ESCRT components. Depletion or overexpression of subunits of ESCRT-0, -I, and -III markedly inhibits OA1 degradation with concomitant retention within the modified endosomal system. Our data further show that OA1 ubiquitination is uniquely required for targeting to the intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes, thereby regulating the balance between down-regulation and delivery to melanosomes. This study highlights the role of ubiquitination and the ESCRT machinery in the intracellular trafficking of mammalian GPCRs and has implications for the physiopathology of ocular albinism type 1.

  2. A genome-wide association study suggests that a locus within the ataxin 2 binding protein 1 gene is associated with hand osteoarthritis: the Treat-OA consortium

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, G; van Meurs, J B J; Livshits, G; Meulenbelt, I; Valdes, A M; Soranzo, N; Hart, D; Zhang, F; Kato, B S; Richards, J B; Williams, F M K; Inouye, M; Kloppenburg, M; Deloukas, P; Slagboom, E; Uitterlinden, A; Spector, T D

    2009-01-01

    To identify the susceptibility gene in hand osteoarthritis (OA) the authors used a two-stage approach genome-wide association study using two discovery samples (the TwinsUK cohort and the Rotterdam discovery subset; a total of 1804 subjects) and four replication samples (the Chingford Study, the Chuvasha Skeletal Aging Study, the Rotterdam replication subset and the Genetics, Arthrosis, and Progression (GARP) Study; a total of 3266 people). Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) had a likelihood of association with hand OA in the discovery stage and one of them (rs716508), was successfully confirmed in the replication stage (meta-analysis p = 1.81×10−5). The C allele conferred a reduced risk of 33% to 41% using a case–control definition. The SNP is located in intron 1 of the A2BP1 gene. This study also found that the same allele of the SNP significantly reduced bone density at both the hip and spine (p<0.01), suggesting the potential mechanism of the gene in hand OA might be via effects on subchondral bone. The authors' findings provide a potential new insight into genetic mechanisms in the development of hand OA. PMID:19508968

  3. Model-OA wind turbine generator - Failure modes and effects analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, William E.; Lali, Vincent R.

    1990-01-01

    The results failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) conducted for wind-turbine generators are presented. The FMEA was performed for the functional modes of each system, subsystem, or component. The single-point failures were eliminated for most of the systems. The blade system was the only exception. The qualitative probability of a blade separating was estimated at level D-remote. Many changes were made to the hardware as a result of this analysis. The most significant change was the addition of the safety system. Operational experience and need to improve machine availability have resulted in subsequent changes to the various systems, which are also reflected in this FMEA.

  4. Spatial Variation of Deuterium Enrichment in Bulk Water of Snowgum Leaves1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Šantrůček, Jiří; Květoň, Jiří; Šetlík, Jiří; Bulíčková, Lenka

    2007-01-01

    Deuterium enrichment of bulk water was measured and modeled in snowgum (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieber ex Sprengel) leaves grown under contrasting air and soil humidity in arid and wet conditions in a glasshouse. A map of the enrichment was constructed with a resolution of 4 mm by using a newly designed cryodistillation method. There was progressively increasing enrichment in both longitudinal (along the leaf midrib) and transversal (perpendicular to the midrib) directions, most pronounced in the arid-grown leaf. The whole-leaf average of the enrichment was well below the value estimated by the Craig-Gordon model. The discrepancy between model and measurements persisted when the estimates were carried out separately for the leaf base and tip, which differed in temperature and stomatal conductance. The discrepancy was proportional to the transpiration rate, indicating the significance of diffusion-advection interplay (Péclet effect) of deuterium-containing water molecules in small veins close to the evaporating sites in the leaf. Combined Craig-Gordon and desert-river models, with or without the Péclet number, P, were used for predicting the leaf longitudinal enrichment. The predictions without P overestimated the measured values of δdeuterium. Fixed P value partially improved the coincidence. We suggest that P should vary along the leaf length l to reconcile the modeled data with observations of longitudinal enrichment. Local values of P, P(l), integrating the upstream fraction of water used or the leaf area, substantially improved the model predictions. PMID:17158587

  5. Model OA Wind Turbine Generator FEMA (Failure Modes and Effects Analysis)

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, W.E. . Plum Brook Station); Lalli, V.R. . Lewis Research Center)

    1989-10-01

    This report presents the results of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) conducted for the Wind Turbine Generators. The FMEA was performed for the functional modes of each system, subsystem, or component. The single-point failures were eliminated for most of the systems. The blade system was the only exception. The qualitative probability of a blade separating was estimated at Level D-remote. Many changes were made to the hardware as a result of this analysis. The most significant change was the addition of the safety system. Operational experience and need to improve machine availability have resulted in subsequent changes to the various systems which are also reflected in this FMEA. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Characterization of the serine acetyltransferase gene family of Vitis vinifera uncovers differences in regulation of OAS synthesis in woody plants

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Sílvia; Wirtz, Markus; Beier, Marcel P.; Bogs, Jochen; Hell, Rüdiger; Amâncio, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In higher plants cysteine biosynthesis is catalyzed by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL) and represents the last step of the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. It is mainly regulated by provision of O-acetylserine (OAS), the nitrogen/carbon containing backbone for fixation of reduced sulfur. OAS is synthesized by Serine acetyltransferase (SERAT), which reversibly interacts with OASTL in the cysteine synthase complex (CSC). In this study we identify and characterize the SERAT gene family of the crop plant Vitis vinifera. The identified four members of the VvSERAT protein family are assigned to three distinct groups upon their sequence similarities to Arabidopsis SERATs. Expression of fluorescently labeled VvSERAT proteins uncover that the sub-cellular localization of VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT3;1 is the cytosol and that VvSERAT2;1 and VvSERAT2;2 localize in addition in plastids and mitochondria, respectively. The purified VvSERATs of group 1 and 2 have higher enzymatic activity than VvSERAT3;1, which display a characteristic C-terminal extension also present in AtSERAT3;1. VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT2;2 are evidenced to form the CSC. CSC formation activates VvSERAT2;2, by releasing CSC-associated VvSERAT2;2 from cysteine inhibition. Thus, subcellular distribution of SERAT isoforms and CSC formation in cytosol and mitochondria is conserved between Arabidopsis and grapevine. Surprisingly, VvSERAT2;1 lack the canonical C-terminal tail of plant SERATs, does not form the CSC and is almost insensitive to cysteine inhibition (IC50 = 1.9 mM cysteine). Upon sulfate depletion VvSERAT2;1 is strongly induced at the transcriptional level, while transcription of other VvSERATs is almost unaffected in sulfate deprived grapevine cell suspension cultures. Application of abiotic stresses to soil grown grapevine plants revealed isoform-specific induction of VvSERAT2;1 in leaves upon drought, whereas high light- or temperature- stress hardly trigger VvSERAT2;1 transcription. PMID:25741355

  7. Characterization of the serine acetyltransferase gene family of Vitis vinifera uncovers differences in regulation of OAS synthesis in woody plants.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Sílvia; Wirtz, Markus; Beier, Marcel P; Bogs, Jochen; Hell, Rüdiger; Amâncio, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In higher plants cysteine biosynthesis is catalyzed by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL) and represents the last step of the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. It is mainly regulated by provision of O-acetylserine (OAS), the nitrogen/carbon containing backbone for fixation of reduced sulfur. OAS is synthesized by Serine acetyltransferase (SERAT), which reversibly interacts with OASTL in the cysteine synthase complex (CSC). In this study we identify and characterize the SERAT gene family of the crop plant Vitis vinifera. The identified four members of the VvSERAT protein family are assigned to three distinct groups upon their sequence similarities to Arabidopsis SERATs. Expression of fluorescently labeled VvSERAT proteins uncover that the sub-cellular localization of VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT3;1 is the cytosol and that VvSERAT2;1 and VvSERAT2;2 localize in addition in plastids and mitochondria, respectively. The purified VvSERATs of group 1 and 2 have higher enzymatic activity than VvSERAT3;1, which display a characteristic C-terminal extension also present in AtSERAT3;1. VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT2;2 are evidenced to form the CSC. CSC formation activates VvSERAT2;2, by releasing CSC-associated VvSERAT2;2 from cysteine inhibition. Thus, subcellular distribution of SERAT isoforms and CSC formation in cytosol and mitochondria is conserved between Arabidopsis and grapevine. Surprisingly, VvSERAT2;1 lack the canonical C-terminal tail of plant SERATs, does not form the CSC and is almost insensitive to cysteine inhibition (IC50 = 1.9 mM cysteine). Upon sulfate depletion VvSERAT2;1 is strongly induced at the transcriptional level, while transcription of other VvSERATs is almost unaffected in sulfate deprived grapevine cell suspension cultures. Application of abiotic stresses to soil grown grapevine plants revealed isoform-specific induction of VvSERAT2;1 in leaves upon drought, whereas high light- or temperature- stress hardly trigger VvSERAT2;1 transcription.

  8. Physiological Genomics of Response to Soil Drying in Diverse Arabidopsis Accessions[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Des Marais, David L.; McKay, John K.; Richards, James H.; Sen, Saunak; Wayne, Tierney; Juenger, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana, like many species, is characterized by abundant genetic variation. This variation is rapidly being cataloged at the sequence level, but careful dissection of genetic variation in whole-organism responses to stresses encountered in the natural environment are lacking; this functional variation can be exploited as a natural mutant screen to determine gene function. Here, we document physiological and transcriptomic response to soil drying in 17 natural accessions of Arabidopsis. By imposing ecologically realistic stress conditions, we found that acclimation in Arabidopsis involved a strong signature of increased investment in photosynthesis, carbohydrate turnover, and root growth. Our results extend previous work in the Columbia accession suggesting that abscisic acid signaling pathways play an important role in drought stress response. We also identified several mechanisms, including an increase in leaf nitrogen concentration and upregulation of two-component signaling relays, that were common to most natural accessions but had not been identified in studies using only the Columbia accession. Principal component analysis reveals strong correlations between suites of genes and specific physiological responses to stress. The functional variants we identified may represent adaptive mutations in natural habitats and useful variants for agronomic improvement of crop species. PMID:22408074

  9. Assessing the Biosynthetic Capabilities of Secretory Glands in Citrus Peel1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Voo, Siau Sie; Grimes, Howard D.; Lange, B. Markus

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial cells (ECs) lining the secretory cavities of Citrus peel have been hypothesized to be responsible for the synthesis of essential oil, but direct evidence for such a role is currently sparse. We used laser-capture microdissection and pressure catapulting to isolate ECs and parenchyma cells (as controls not synthesizing oil) from the peel of young grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi ‘Duncan’), isolated RNA, and evaluated transcript patterns based on oligonucleotide microarrays. A Gene Ontology analysis of these data sets indicated an enrichment of genes involved in the biosynthesis of volatile terpenoids and nonvolatile phenylpropanoids in ECs (when compared with parenchyma cells), thus indicating a significant metabolic specialization in this cell type. The gene expression patterns in ECs were consistent with the accumulation of the major essential oil constituents (monoterpenes, prenylated coumarins, and polymethoxylated flavonoids). Morphometric analyses demonstrated that secretory cavities are formed early during fruit development, whereas the expansion of cavities, and thus oil accumulation, correlates with later stages of fruit expansion. Our studies have laid the methodological and experimental groundwork for a vastly improved knowledge of the as yet poorly understood processes controlling essential oil biosynthesis in Citrus peel. PMID:22452856

  10. A naturalistic study of the determinants of health related quality of life improvement in osteoarthritic patients treated with non-specific non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    PubMed Central

    Rabenda, V; Burlet, N; Ethgen, O; Raeman, F; Belaiche, J; Reginster, J

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To capture changes in the quality of life (QoL) occurring in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) during treatment with non-specific non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and to identify factors that predict such changes. Methods: A naturalistic, prospective follow up of 783 patients with OA in whom primary care physicians decided to start treatment with non-selective NSAIDs. Short Form-36 (SF-36) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA index (WOMAC) were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. Baseline results were compared with QoL values in 4800 subjects randomly selected from the general population. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify determinants of QoL at baseline and measures influencing changes in SF-36 or WOMAC during follow up. Results: All QoL dimensions were significantly (p<0.01) decreased in patients with OA compared with controls. Significant improvement (p<0.05) in four dimensions of the SF-36 (vitality, role emotional, role physical, bodily pain) and in all components of the WOMAC was seen between baseline and month 3. Older age, female sex, longer duration of OA, and a higher number of comorbidities were the major determinants of a poor QoL at baseline. Maximal benefit from non-specific NSAIDs was seen in patients with the most severe impairment in QoL and the shortest duration of OA. Conclusion: OA negatively impacts all dimensions of the QoL. Non-specific NSAIDs improve the QoL in patients with OA treated in a "real life setting". The profile of patients receiving maximal benefit from such treatment may be of interest for health providers, enabling them to decide who should preferentially be given cytoprotective treatments or coxibs. PMID:15528282

  11. A Case of 9.7 Mb Terminal Xp Deletion Including OA1 Locus Associated with Contiguous Gene Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun-Hae; Kim, Sook-Young

    2012-01-01

    Terminal or interstitial deletions of Xp (Xp22.2→Xpter) in males have been recognized as a cause of contiguous gene syndromes showing variable association of apparently unrelated clinical manifestations such as Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (SHOX), chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX1), mental retardation (NLGN4), ichthyosis (STS), Kallmann syndrome (KAL1), and ocular albinism (GPR143). Here we present a case of a 13.5 yr old boy and sister with a same terminal deletion of Xp22.2 resulting in the absence of genes from the telomere of Xp to GPR143 of Xp22. The boy manifested the findings of all of the disorders mentioned above. We began a testosterone enanthate monthly replacement therapy. His sister, 11 yr old, manifested only Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis, and had engaged in growth hormone therapy for 3 yr. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a male with a 9.7 Mb terminal Xp deletion including the OA1 locus in Korea. PMID:23091330

  12. Regulation of melanosome number, shape and movement in the zebrafish retinal pigment epithelium by OA1 and PMEL

    PubMed Central

    Burgoyne, Thomas; O'Connor, Marie N.; Seabra, Miguel C.; Cutler, Daniel F.; Futter, Clare E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Analysis of melanosome biogenesis in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is challenging because it occurs predominantly in a short embryonic time window. Here, we show that the zebrafish provides an ideal model system for studying this process because in the RPE the timing of melanosome biogenesis facilitates molecular manipulation using morpholinos. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of OA1 (also known as GPR143), mutations in the human homologue of which cause the most common form of human ocular albinism, induces a major reduction in melanosome number, recapitulating a key feature of the mammalian disease where reduced melanosome numbers precede macromelanosome formation. We further show that PMEL, a key component of mammalian melanosome biogenesis, is required for the generation of cylindrical melanosomes in zebrafish, which in turn is required for melanosome movement into the apical processes and maintenance of photoreceptor integrity. Spherical and cylindrical melanosomes containing similar melanin volumes co-exist in the cell body but only cylindrical melanosomes enter the apical processes. Taken together, our findings indicate that melanosome number and shape are independently regulated and that melanosome shape controls a function in the RPE that depends on localisation in the apical processes. PMID:25690007

  13. Impact of IL28B and OAS gene family polymorphisms on interferon treatment response in Caucasian children chronically infected with hepatitis B virus

    PubMed Central

    Domagalski, Krzysztof; Pawłowska, Małgorzata; Zaleśna, Agnieszka; Pilarczyk, Małgorzata; Rajewski, Paweł; Halota, Waldemar; Tretyn, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the impact of IL28B and OAS gene polymorphisms on interferon treatment responses in children with chronic hepatitis B. METHODS We enrolled 52 children (between the ages of 4 and 18) with hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB), who were treated with pegylated interferon alfa for 48 wk. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the OAS1 (rs1131476), OAS2 (rs1293747), OAS3 (rs2072136), OASL (rs10849829) and IL28B (rs12979860, rs12980275 and rs8099917) genes were studied to examine their associations with responses to IFN treatment in paediatric patients. We adopted two criteria for the therapeutic response, achieving an hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level < 2000 IU/mL and normalization of ALT activity (< 40 IU/L). To perform the analyses, we compared the patients in terms of achieving a partial response (PR) and a complete response (CR) upon measurement at the 24-wk post-treatment follow-up. RESULTS The PR and CR rates were 80.8% and 42.3%, respectively. Factors such as age, gender and liver histology had no impact on the type of response (partial or complete). A statistically significant relationship between higher baseline HBV DNA and ALT activity levels and lower rates of PR and CR was shown (P < 0.05). The allele association analysis revealed that only the IL-28B rs12979860 (C vs T) and IL28B rs12980275 (A vs G) markers significantly affected the achievement of PR (P = 0.021, OR = 3.3, 95%CI: 1.2-9.2 and P = 0.014, OR = 3.7, 95%CI: 1.3-10.1, respectively). However, in the genotype analysis, only IL-28B rs12980275 was significantly associated with PR (AA vs AG-GG, P = 0.014, OR = 10.9, 95%CI: 1.3-93.9). The association analysis for CR showed that the TT genotype of IL28B rs12979860 was present only in the no-CR group (P = 0.033) and the AA genotype of OASL rs10849829 was significantly more frequent in the no-CR group (P = 0.044, OR = 0.26, 95%CI: 0.07-0.88). The haplotype analysis revealed significant associations between PR and CR and

  14. A White Spruce Gene Catalog for Conifer Genome Analyses1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Rigault, Philippe; Boyle, Brian; Lepage, Pierre; Cooke, Janice E.K.; Bousquet, Jean; MacKay, John J.

    2011-01-01

    Several angiosperm plant genomes, including Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza sativa), poplar (Populus trichocarpa), and grapevine (Vitis vinifera), have been sequenced, but the lack of reference genomes in gymnosperm phyla reduces our understanding of plant evolution and restricts the potential impacts of genomics research. A gene catalog was developed for the conifer tree Picea glauca (white spruce) through large-scale expressed sequence tag sequencing and full-length cDNA sequencing to facilitate genome characterizations, comparative genomics, and gene mapping. The resource incorporates new and publicly available sequences into 27,720 cDNA clusters, 23,589 of which are represented by full-length insert cDNAs. Expressed sequence tags, mate-pair cDNA clone analysis, and custom sequencing were integrated through an iterative process to improve the accuracy of clustering outcomes. The entire catalog spans 30 Mb of unique transcribed sequence. We estimated that the P. glauca nuclear genome contains up to 32,520 transcribed genes owing to incomplete, partially sequenced, and unsampled transcripts and that its transcriptome could span up to 47 Mb. These estimates are in the same range as the Arabidopsis and rice transcriptomes. Next-generation methods confirmed and enhanced the catalog by providing deeper coverage for rare transcripts, by extending many incomplete clusters, and by augmenting the overall transcriptome coverage to 38 Mb of unique sequence. Genomic sample sequencing at 8.5% of the 19.8-Gb P. glauca genome identified 1,495 clusters representing highly repeated sequences among the cDNA clusters. With a conifer transcriptome in full view, functional and protein domain annotations clearly highlighted the divergences between conifers and angiosperms, likely reflecting their respective evolutionary paths. PMID:21730200

  15. Gene Discovery of Modular Diterpene Metabolism in Nonmodel Systems1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zerbe, Philipp; Hamberger, Björn; Yuen, Macaire M.S.; Chiang, Angela; Sandhu, Harpreet K.; Madilao, Lina L.; Nguyen, Anh; Hamberger, Britta; Bach, Søren Spanner; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Plants produce over 10,000 different diterpenes of specialized (secondary) metabolism, and fewer diterpenes of general (primary) metabolism. Specialized diterpenes may have functions in ecological interactions of plants with other organisms and also benefit humanity as pharmaceuticals, fragrances, resins, and other industrial bioproducts. Examples of high-value diterpenes are taxol and forskolin pharmaceuticals or ambroxide fragrances. Yields and purity of diterpenes obtained from natural sources or by chemical synthesis are often insufficient for large-volume or high-end applications. Improvement of agricultural or biotechnological diterpene production requires knowledge of biosynthetic genes and enzymes. However, specialized diterpene pathways are extremely diverse across the plant kingdom, and most specialized diterpenes are taxonomically restricted to a few plant species, genera, or families. Consequently, there is no single reference system to guide gene discovery and rapid annotation of specialized diterpene pathways. Functional diversification of genes and plasticity of enzyme functions of these pathways further complicate correct annotation. To address this challenge, we used a set of 10 different plant species to develop a general strategy for diterpene gene discovery in nonmodel systems. The approach combines metabolite-guided transcriptome resources, custom diterpene synthase (diTPS) and cytochrome P450 reference gene databases, phylogenies, and, as shown for select diTPSs, single and coupled enzyme assays using microbial and plant expression systems. In the 10 species, we identified 46 new diTPS candidates and over 400 putatively terpenoid-related P450s in a resource of nearly 1 million predicted transcripts of diterpene-accumulating tissues. Phylogenetic patterns of lineage-specific blooms of genes guided functional characterization. PMID:23613273

  16. Production of a High-Efficiency TILLING Population through Polyploidization1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Helen; Missirian, Victor; Ngo, Kathie J.; Tran, Robert K.; Chan, Simon R.; Sundaresan, Venkatesan; Comai, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes (TILLING) provides a nontransgenic method for reverse genetics that is widely applicable, even in species where other functional resources are missing or expensive to build. The efficiency of TILLING, however, is greatly facilitated by high mutation density. Species vary in the number of mutations induced by comparable mutagenic treatments, suggesting that genetic background may affect the response. Allopolyploid species have often yielded higher mutation density than diploids. To examine the effect of ploidy, we autotetraploidized the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Columbia, whose diploid has been used for TILLING extensively, and mutagenized it with 50 mm ethylmethane sulfonate. While the same treatment sterilized diploid Columbia, the tetraploid M1 plants produced good seed. To determine the mutation density, we searched 528 individuals for induced mutations in 15 genes for which few or no knockout alleles were previously available. We constructed tridimensional pools from the genomic DNA of M2 plants, amplified target DNA, and subjected them to Illumina sequencing. The results were analyzed with an improved version of the mutation detection software CAMBa that accepts any pooling scheme. This small population provided a rich resource with approximately 25 mutations per queried 1.5-kb fragment, including on average four severe missense and 1.3 truncation mutations. The overall mutation density of 19.4 mutations Mb–1 is 4 times that achieved in the corresponding diploid accession, indicating that genomic redundancy engenders tolerance to high mutation density. Polyploidization of diploids will allow the production of small populations, such as less than 2,000, that provide allelic series from knockout to mild loss of function for virtually all genes. PMID:23417087

  17. ON-SHELL IMPROVEMENT OF THE MASSIVE WILSON QUARK ACTION.

    SciTech Connect

    AOKI, S.; KAYABA, Y.; KURAMASHI, Y.; YAMADA, N.

    2005-04-01

    We review a relativistic approach to the heavy quark physics in lattice QCD by applying a relativistic O(a) improvement to the massive Wilson quark action on the lattice. After explaining how power corrections of m{sub Q}a can be avoided and remaining uncertainties are reduced to be of order (a{Lambda}{sub QCD}){sup 2}, we demonstrate a determination of four improvement coefficients in the action up to one-loop level in a mass dependent way. We also show a perturbative determination of mass dependent renormalization factors and O(a) improvement coefficients for the vector and axial vector currents. Some preliminary results of numerical simulations are also presented.

  18. A new method for continuous measurements of oceanic and atmospheric N2O, CO and CO2: performance of off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) coupled to non-dispersive infrared detection (NDIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arévalo-Martínez, D. L.; Beyer, M.; Krumbholz, M.; Piller, I.; Kock, A.; Steinhoff, T.; Körtzinger, A.; Bange, H. W.

    2013-12-01

    A new system for continuous, highly resolved oceanic and atmospheric measurements of N2O, CO and CO2 is described. The system is based upon off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and a non-dispersive infrared analyzer (NDIR), both coupled to a Weiss-type equilibrator. Performance of the combined setup was evaluated by testing its precision, accuracy, long-term stability, linearity and response time. Furthermore, the setup was tested during two oceanographic campaigns in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean in order to explore its potential for autonomous deployment onboard voluntary observing ships (VOS). Improved equilibrator response times for N2O (2.5 min) and CO (45 min) were achieved in comparison to response times from similar chamber designs used by previous studies. High stability of the OA-ICOS analyzer was demonstrated by low optimal integration times of 2 and 4 min for N2O and CO respectively, as well as detection limits of < 40 ppt and precision better than 0.3 ppb Hz-1/2. Results from a direct comparison of the method presented here and well-established discrete methods for oceanic N2O and CO2 measurements showed very good consistency. The favorable agreement between underway atmospheric N2O, CO and CO2 measurements and monthly means at Ascension Island (7.96° S 14.4° W) further suggests a reliable operation of the underway setup in the field. The potential of the system as an improved platform for measurements of trace gases was explored by using continuous N2O and CO2 data to characterize the development of the seasonal equatorial upwelling in the Atlantic Ocean during two R/V Maria S. Merian cruises. A similar record of high-resolution CO measurements was simultaneously obtained, offering, for the first time, the possibility of a comprehensive view of the distribution and emissions of these climate-relevant gases in the area studied. The relatively simple underway N2O/CO/CO2 setup is suitable for long-term deployment onboard research

  19. A new method for continuous measurements of oceanic and atmospheric N2O, CO and CO2: performance of off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) coupled to non-dispersive infrared detection (NDIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arévalo-Martínez, D. L.; Beyer, M.; Krumbholz, M.; Piller, I.; Kock, A.; Steinhoff, T.; Körtzinger, A.; Bange, H. W.

    2013-07-01

    A new system for continuous, highly-resolved oceanic and atmospheric measurements of N2O, CO and CO2 is described. The system is based upon off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and a non-dispersive infrared analyzer (NDIR) both coupled to a Weiss-type equilibrator. Performance of the combined setup was evaluated by testing its precision, accuracy, long-term stability, linearity and response time. Furthermore, the setup was tested during two oceanographic campaigns in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean in order to explore its potential for autonomous deployment onboard voluntary observing ships (VOS). Improved equilibrator response times for N2O (2.5 min) and CO (45 min) were achieved in comparison to response times from similar chamber designs used by previous studies. High stability of the OA-ICOS analyzer was demonstrated by low optimal integration times of 2 and 4 min for N2O and CO respectively, as well as detection limits of < 40 ppt and precision better than 0.3 ppb Hz-1/2. Results from a direct comparison of the method presented here and well-established discrete methods for oceanic N2O and CO2 measurements showed very good consistency. The favorable agreement between underway atmospheric N2O, CO and CO2 measurements and monthly means at Ascension Island (7.96° S 14.4° W) further suggests a reliable operation of the underway setup in the field. The potential of the system as an improved platform for measurements of trace gases was explored by using continuous N2O and CO2 data to characterize the development of the seasonal equatorial upwelling in the Atlantic Ocean during two R/V Maria S. Merian cruises. A similar record of high-resolution CO measurements was simultaneously obtained offering for the first time the possibility of a comprehensive view on the distribution and emissions of these climate relevant gases on the area. The relatively simple underway N2O/CO/CO2 setup is suitable for long-term deployment on board of research and

  20. Feasibility randomised controlled trial of Recovery-focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Older Adults with bipolar disorder (RfCBT-OA): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Elizabeth; Lobban, Fiona; Sutton, Chris; Depp, Colin; Johnson, Sheri; Laidlaw, Ken; Jones, Steven H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bipolar disorder is a severe and chronic mental health problem that persists into older adulthood. The number of people living with this condition is set to rise as the UK experiences a rapid ageing of its population. To date, there has been very little research or service development with respect to psychological therapies for this group of people. Methods and analysis A parallel two-arm randomised controlled trial comparing a 14-session, 6-month Recovery-focused Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Older Adults with bipolar disorder (RfCBT-OA) plus treatment as usual (TAU) versus TAU alone. Participants will be recruited in the North-West of England via primary and secondary mental health services and through self-referral. The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of RfCBT-OA; therefore, a formal power calculation is not appropriate. It has been estimated that randomising 25 participants per group will be sufficient to be able to reliably determine the primary feasibility outcomes (eg, recruitment and retention rates), in line with recommendations for sample sizes for feasibility/pilot trials. Participants in both arms will complete assessments at baseline and then every 3 months, over the 12-month follow-up period. We will gain an estimate of the likely effect size of RfCBT-OA on a range of clinical outcomes and estimate parameters needed to determine the appropriate sample size for a definitive, larger trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of RfCBT-OA. Data analysis is discussed further in the Analysis section in the main paper. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the UK National Health Service (NHS) Ethics Committee process (REC ref: 15/NW/0330). The findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations and local, participating NHS trusts. Trial registration number ISRCTN13875321; Pre

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of the Multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii Strain AbH12O-A2, Isolated during a Large Outbreak in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Merino, M.; Alvarez-Fraga, L.; Gómez, M. J.; Aransay, A. M.; Lavín, J. L.; Chaves, F.

    2014-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Acinetobacter baumannii strain AbH12O-A2, isolated during a large outbreak in Spain. The genome has 3,875,775 bp and 3,526 coding sequences, with 39.4% G+C content. The availability of this genome will facilitate the study of the pathogenicity of the Acinetobacter species. PMID:25395646

  2. A hyaluronic acid-salmon calcitonin conjugate for the local treatment of osteoarthritis: chondro-protective effect in a rabbit model of early OA.

    PubMed

    Mero, Anna; Campisi, Monica; Favero, Marta; Barbera, Carlo; Secchieri, Cynthia; Dayer, Jean M; Goldring, Mary B; Goldring, Steven R; Pasut, Gianfranco

    2014-08-10

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by chronic degeneration of joints, involving mainly the articular cartilage and the underlying bone, and severely impairing the quality of life of the patient. Although with limited efficacy, currently available pharmacological treatments for OA aim to control pain and to retard disease progression. Salmon calcitonin (sCT) is a drug which has been shown to have therapeutic effects in experimental arthritis by inhibiting both bone turnover and cartilage degradation and reducing the activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). High molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA) is used as a lubricant in OA therapy, and, interestingly, HA polymers may normalize the levels of MMP-1, -3 and -13. We demonstrated that sCT rapidly clears from the knee joint of rat animal model, after intra-articular (i.a.) administration, and it induces systemic effects. Here, sCT was conjugated to HA (200kDa) with the aim of prolonging the residence time of the polypeptide in the joint space by reducing its clearance. An aldehyde derivative of HA was used for N-terminal site-selective coupling of sCT. The activity of sCT was preserved, both in vitro and in vivo, after its conjugation and the i.a. injection of HA-sCT did not trigger any systemic effects in rats. The efficacy of HA-sCT treatment was tested in a rabbit OA model and clear chondro-protective effect was proven by macro- and microscopic assessments and histological findings. Our results indicate that HAylation of sCT increases the size of the polypeptide in a stable covalent manner and delays its passage into the blood stream. We conclude that HA conjugation prolongs the anti-catabolic effects of sCT in joint tissues, including the synovial membrane and cartilage.

  3. The hematopoietic regulator, ELF-1, enhances the transcriptional response to Interferon-β of the OAS1 anti-viral gene.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Steven; Kawamoto, Shota; Tanuma, Sei-ichi; Uchiumi, Fumiaki

    2015-12-08

    Interferon (IFN) therapy is effective in treating cancers, haematological and virus induced diseases. The classical Jak/Stat pathway of IFN signal transduction leading to changes in transcriptional activity is well established but alone does not explain the whole spectrum of cellular responses to IFN. Gene promoters contain cis-acting sequences that allow precise and contextual binding of transcription factors, which control gene expression. Using the transcriptional response to IFN as a starting point we report a high frequency of tandem GGAA motifs in the proximal promoters of Interferon stimulated genes, suggesting a key regulatory action. Utilizing the well-characterized anti-viral gene, OAS1, as an example Interferon stimulated gene promoter containing such a duplicated GGAA motif, we have demonstrated a regulatory role of this promoter in response to IFN by mutation analysis. Furthermore, we identified ELF-1 as a direct binding factor at this motif. Additionally, recruitment of RB1 and SP1 factors to the promoter following IFN stimulation is shown. ELF-1 overexpression enhanced and knockdown of ELF-1 inhibited full activation of OAS1 by IFN stimulation. Collectively, ELF-1 binds an important duplicated GGAA cis-acting element at the OAS1 promoter and in cooperation with RB1 and SP1 recruitment contributes to regulation in response to IFN stimulation.

  4. Roles of OA1 octopamine receptor and Dop1 dopamine receptor in mediating appetitive and aversive reinforcement revealed by RNAi studies.

    PubMed

    Awata, Hiroko; Wakuda, Ryo; Ishimaru, Yoshiyasu; Matsuoka, Yuji; Terao, Kanta; Katata, Satomi; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro; Mizunami, Makoto

    2016-07-14

    Revealing reinforcing mechanisms in associative learning is important for elucidation of brain mechanisms of behavior. In mammals, dopamine neurons are thought to mediate both appetitive and aversive reinforcement signals. Studies using transgenic fruit-flies suggested that dopamine neurons mediate both appetitive and aversive reinforcements, through the Dop1 dopamine receptor, but our studies using octopamine and dopamine receptor antagonists and using Dop1 knockout crickets suggested that octopamine neurons mediate appetitive reinforcement and dopamine neurons mediate aversive reinforcement in associative learning in crickets. To fully resolve this issue, we examined the effects of silencing of expression of genes that code the OA1 octopamine receptor and Dop1 and Dop2 dopamine receptors by RNAi in crickets. OA1-silenced crickets exhibited impairment in appetitive learning with water but not in aversive learning with sodium chloride solution, while Dop1-silenced crickets exhibited impairment in aversive learning but not in appetitive learning. Dop2-silenced crickets showed normal scores in both appetitive learning and aversive learning. The results indicate that octopamine neurons mediate appetitive reinforcement via OA1 and that dopamine neurons mediate aversive reinforcement via Dop1 in crickets, providing decisive evidence that neurotransmitters and receptors that mediate appetitive reinforcement indeed differ among different species of insects.

  5. Roles of OA1 octopamine receptor and Dop1 dopamine receptor in mediating appetitive and aversive reinforcement revealed by RNAi studies

    PubMed Central

    Awata, Hiroko; Wakuda, Ryo; Ishimaru, Yoshiyasu; Matsuoka, Yuji; Terao, Kanta; Katata, Satomi; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro; Mizunami, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Revealing reinforcing mechanisms in associative learning is important for elucidation of brain mechanisms of behavior. In mammals, dopamine neurons are thought to mediate both appetitive and aversive reinforcement signals. Studies using transgenic fruit-flies suggested that dopamine neurons mediate both appetitive and aversive reinforcements, through the Dop1 dopamine receptor, but our studies using octopamine and dopamine receptor antagonists and using Dop1 knockout crickets suggested that octopamine neurons mediate appetitive reinforcement and dopamine neurons mediate aversive reinforcement in associative learning in crickets. To fully resolve this issue, we examined the effects of silencing of expression of genes that code the OA1 octopamine receptor and Dop1 and Dop2 dopamine receptors by RNAi in crickets. OA1-silenced crickets exhibited impairment in appetitive learning with water but not in aversive learning with sodium chloride solution, while Dop1-silenced crickets exhibited impairment in aversive learning but not in appetitive learning. Dop2-silenced crickets showed normal scores in both appetitive learning and aversive learning. The results indicate that octopamine neurons mediate appetitive reinforcement via OA1 and that dopamine neurons mediate aversive reinforcement via Dop1 in crickets, providing decisive evidence that neurotransmitters and receptors that mediate appetitive reinforcement indeed differ among different species of insects. PMID:27412401

  6. Effects of Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate on Cartilage Metabolism in OA: Outlook on Other Nutrient Partners Especially Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Jerosch, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that is characterized by increasing loss of cartilage, remodeling of the periarticular bone, and inflammation of the synovial membrane. Besides the common OA therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the treatment with chondroprotectives, such as glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, collagen hydrolysate, or nutrients, such as antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids is a promising therapeutic approach. Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated that the targeted administration of selected micronutrients leads to a more effective reduction of OA symptoms, with less adverse events. Their chondroprotective action can be explained by a dual mechanism: (1) as basic components of cartilage and synovial fluid, they stimulate the anabolic process of the cartilage metabolism; (2) their anti-inflammatory action can delay many inflammation-induced catabolic processes in the cartilage. These two mechanisms are able to slow the progression of cartilage destruction and may help to regenerate the joint structure, leading to reduced pain and increased mobility of the affected joint. PMID:21826146

  7. Improving care for people with osteoarthritis of the hip and knee: how has national policy for osteoarthritis been translated into service models in Australia?

    PubMed

    Brand, Caroline; Hunter, David; Hinman, Rana; March, Lyn; Osborne, Richard; Bennell, Kim

    2011-05-01

    There is strong rationale for improving care for people with chronic conditions, including osteoarthritis (OA). Successful implementation of healthcare reform requires new concepts and directions that are strongly supported by policy, new models of care (service redesign) and changes in day-to-day practice (healthcare provider and patient practice). In this paper we discuss the extent to which policy about management of OA of the hip and knee has been translated into new service models in Australia. A structured search of government and other key health websites in Australia was performed to identify policy, funding initiatives and new services models for managing OA of the hip and knee. This search was supported by a literature review. Musculoskeletal conditions were designated a National Health Priority in Australia in 2002. Under the Better Arthritis and Osteoporosis Care initiative, Australia has developed a national policy for OA care and national evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for management of OA of the hip and knee. Only two well-described examples of new chronic disease management service models, the Osteoarthritis Clinical Pathway (OACP) model and the Osteoarthritis Hip and Knee Service (OAHKS) were identified. Primarily focused within acute care public hospital settings, these have been shown to be feasible and acceptable but have limited data on clinical impact and cost-effectiveness. While policy is extant, implementation has not been systematic and comprehensive. Clinicians have evidence-based recommendations for OA management but are poorly supported by service models to deliver these effectively and efficiently.

  8. Geochronology of the Neogene intrusive magmatism of the Oaș—Gutâi Mountains, Eastern Carpathians (NW Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Marinel; Pécskay, Zoltán; Fülöp, Alexandrina; Jurje, Maria; Edelstein, Oscar

    2013-12-01

    Earlier geological work in the Oaș-Gutâi Mts (OG), Eastern Carpathians, has revealed the extensive presence of shallow subvolcanic intrusive bodies, both exposed on the surface and covered by Paleogene-Neogene sedimentary sequences and Neogene volcanic formations. This study is based on detailed mapping and sampling of the OG Neogene intrusive magmatic rocks. Thirty seven representative intrusions (sills, dykes, microlaccoliths, etc.) were selected for radiometric dating. These intrusions show a wide variety of petrographic rock-types: from microgabbros to microgranodiorites and from basalts to andesites. However, the intrusions consist of typical calc-alkaline, medium-K rocks, similar to the volcanic rocks which outcrop in the same areas. The K-Ar age determinations on whole-rock samples of intrusions yielded ages between 11.9 Ma and 7.0 Ma (from Late Sarmatian to Middle Pannonian). The results are in good agreement with the common assumption, based on the biostratigraphic and geological data, that large volumes of intrusions have formed during the paroxysm of the intermediate volcanic activity in the OG. Except for the Firiza basalt intrusive complex of the Gutâi Mts (8.1-7.0 Ma), the OG intrusions show similar K-Ar ages as the intrusions of the "Subvolcanic Zone" and Călimani Mts from Eastern Carpathians. The timing of the OG intrusive magmatism partially overlaps with the timing of the intrusive magmatic activity in the Eastern Moravia and Pieniny Mts. The systematic radiometric datings in the whole OG give clear evidence that the hydrothermal activity related to the epithermal systems always postdates intrusion emplacement.

  9. OA Go Away: Development and Preliminary Validation of a Self-Management Tool to Promote Adherence to Exercise and Physical Activity for People with Osteoarthritis of the Hip or Knee.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Gail; Toupin April, Karine; Backman, Catherine; Tugwell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the face and content validity, construct validity, and test-retest reliability of the OA Go Away (OGA), a personalized self-management tool to promote adherence to exercise and physical activity for people with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip or knee. Methods: The face and content validity of OGA version 1.0 were determined via interviews with 10 people with OA of the hip or knee and 10 clinicians. A revised OGA version 2.0 was then tested for construct validity and test-retest reliability with a new sample of 50 people with OA of the hip or knee by comparing key items in the OGA journal with validated outcome measures assessing similar health outcomes and comparing scores on key items of the journal 4-7 days apart. Face and content validity were then confirmed with a new sample of 5 people with OA of the hip or knee and 5 clinicians. Results: Eighteen of 30 items from the OGA version 1.0 and 41 of 43 items from the OGA version 2.0 journal, goals and action plan, and exercise log had adequate content validity. Construct validity and test-retest reliability were acceptable for the main items of the OGA version 2.0 journal. The OGA underwent modifications based on results and participant feedback. Conclusion: The OGA is a novel self-management intervention and assessment tool for people with OA of the hip or knee that shows adequate preliminary measurement properties.

  10. Oleanolic acid, a natural triterpenoid improves blood glucose tolerance in normal mice and ameliorates visceral obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Célio L; Queiroz, Maria Goretti R; Fonseca, Said G C; Bizerra, Ayla M C; Lemos, Telma L G; Melo, Tiago S; Santos, Flavia A; Rao, Vietla S

    2010-04-15

    Excess visceral adiposity may predispose to chronic diseases like hypertension and type 2 diabetes with a high risk for coronary artery disease. Adipose tissue secreted cytokines and oxidative stress play an important role in chronic disease progression. To combat adiposity, plant-derived triterpenes are currently receiving much attention as they possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and the ability to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. In the search for potential antiobese compounds from natural sources, this study evaluated the effects of oleanolic acid (OA), a pentacyclic triterpene commonly present in fruits and vegetables, in glucose tolerance test and on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice. Adult male Swiss mice treated or not with OA (10 mg/kg) were fed a HFD during 15 weeks. Sibutramine (SIB) treated group (10 mg/kg) was included for comparison. Weekly body weights, food and water consumption were measured, and at the end of study period, the levels of blood glucose and lipids, plasma hormone levels of insulin, ghrelin and leptin, and the visceral abdominal fat content were analysed. Mice treated with OA and fed a HFD showed significantly (p<0.05) improved glucose tolerance, decreased body weights, visceral adiposity, blood glucose, plasma lipids relative to their respective controls fed no OA. Additionally, OA treatment, while significantly elevating the plasma hormone level of leptin, decreased the level of ghrelin. However, it caused a greater decrease in plasma amylase activity than lipase. Sibutramine-treated group also manifested similar effects like OA except for blood glucose level that was not different from HFD control. These findings suggest that OA ameliorates visceral adiposity and improves glucose tolerance in mice and thus has an antiobese potential through modulation of carbohydrate and fat metabolism.

  11. Identification of cellular genes induced in human cells after activation of the OAS/RNaseL pathway by vaccinia virus recombinants expressing these antiviral enzymes.

    PubMed

    Domingo-Gil, Elena; González, José Manuel; Esteban, Mariano

    2010-03-01

    Interferon (IFN) type I induces the expression of antiviral proteins such as 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS). The enzyme OAS is activated by dsRNA to produce 5'-phosphorylated, 2-5-linked oligoadenylates (2-5A) that activate RNaseL which, in turn, triggers RNA breakdown, leading to multiple biological functions. Although RNaseL is required for IFN antiviral function, there are many aspects of the molecular mechanisms that remain obscure. Here, we have used microarray analyses from human HeLa cells infected with vaccinia virus (VACV) recombinants expressing OAS-RNaseL enzymes (referred as 2-5A system) with the aim to identify host genes that are up- or down-regulated in the course of infection by the activation of this antiviral pathway. We found that activation of the 2-5A system from VACV recombinants produces a remarkable stimulation of transcription for genes that regulate many cellular processes, like those that promote cell growth arrest, GADD45B and KCTD11, apoptosis as CUL2, PDCD6, and TNFAIP8L2, IFN-stimulated genes as IFI6, and related to tumor suppression as PLA2G2A. The 2-5A system activation produces down-regulation of transcription of some genes that promote cell growth as RUNX2 and ESR2 and of genes in charge to maintain mitochondria homeostasis as MIPEP and COX5A. These results reveal new genes induced in response to the activation of the 2-5A system with roles in apoptosis, translational control, cell growth arrest, and tumor suppression.

  12. Polymorphisms in interferon-induced genes and the outcome of hepatitis C virus infection: roles of MxA, OAS-1 and PKR.

    PubMed

    Knapp, S; Yee, L J; Frodsham, A J; Hennig, B J W; Hellier, S; Zhang, L; Wright, M; Chiaramonte, M; Graves, M; Thomas, H C; Hill, A V S; Thursz, M R

    2003-09-01

    Interferon stimulates the expression of a number of genes encoding enzymes with antiviral activities, including myxovirus resistance-1 (MxA), 2-5-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS-1) and double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). We examined whether polymorphisms in these genes influenced the outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We observed a lower frequency of the GG genotype at position -88 in the MxA gene promoter in self-limiting HCV infection (OR=0.56; 95% CI: 0.35-0.8; P=0.010) and in nonresponders to therapy (OR=0.49; 95% CI: 0.25-0.95; P=0.020). This genotype predominantly influenced the outcome of treatment in patients with viral genotype 1 (OR=0.22 95% CI: 0.07-0.67; P=0.002). A polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the OAS-1 gene was associated with outcome of infection (GG genotype less frequent in self-limiting infection: OR=0.43; 95% CI: 0.21-0.86; P=0.010). A polymorphism at position -168 in the promoter region of the PKR gene was associated with self-limiting infection (CT genotype: OR=2.75; 95% CI: 1.45-5.24; P=0.002). Further associations were found with a CGG trinucleotide repeat in the 5'UTR region of the PKR gene. Polymorphisms in the interferon-induced genes, MxA, OAS-1 and PKR appear thus associated with HCV outcome.

  13. Sources, properties, aging, and anthropogenic influences on OA and SOA over the Southeast US and the Amazon during SOAS, DC3, SEAC4RS, and GoAmazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, J. L.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Hu, W.; Palm, B. B.; Thompson, S.; Krechmer, J.; Day, D. A.; Stark, H.; Peng, Z.; Ortega, A. M.; Isaacman, G. A.; Goldstein, A. H.; Holzinger, R.; de Sá, S. S.; Martin, S. T.; Alexander, M. L.; Guenther, A. B.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Massoli, P.; Kimmel, J.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Brune, W. H.; Lee-Taylor, J. M.; Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Offenberg, J. H.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Artaxo, P.; Manzi, A. O.

    2014-12-01

    The SE US and the Amazon have large sources of biogenic VOCs and varying anthropogenic pollution impact, and often poor aerosol model performance. Recent results on the sources, properties, aging, and impact of anthropogenic pollution on OA and secondary OA (SOA) over these regions will be presented. SOA from IEPOX accounts for 14-17% of the OA on average over the SE US and extending up to 6 km. Higher IEPOX-SOA correlates with airmasses of high isoprene, IEPOX, sulfate, acidity, and lower NO. The IEPOX organosulfate accounts for ~10% of IEPOX-SOA over the SE US. The AMS ion C5H6O+ is shown to be a good marker of IEPOX-SOA, while total m/z 82 (as in ACSM) suffers larger interferences. The sinks of IEPOX-SOA via both OH oxidation and evaporation are slow. The low-volatility of IEPOX-SOA contrasts with the small semivolatile molecules that have so far been identified as its components, suggesting the importance of oligomerization. Urban SOA is estimated to account for 25% of the OA in the SE US using either the GEOS-Chem model or the measured 14C (using recent results that urban SOA (POA) is 30% (50%) non-fossil, mainly due to cooking emissions). An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) is used to investigate SOA formation by OH, O3, and NO3 in-situ. Largest SOA formation is always observed at night when monoterpenes (MT) are largest, and is underpredicted by SOA models that use MT as precursors but ignore partially-oxidized products. Closure results from models (VBS and GECKO-A) that account for the whole oxidation chain will be presented. The partitioning of organic acids is found to proceed rapidly in response to temperature changes, in contrast with recent reports of very slow equilibration. The agreement with absorptive partitioning theory is reasonable for most species, except small acids that may be formed by thermal decomposition during analysis. Partitioning data from four instruments is compared, with reasonable agreement in many cases including the rapid response

  14. Improvement of signal-to-noise ratio of optoacoustic signals from double-walled carbon nanotubes by using an array of dual-wavelength high-power diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggio, Luca; de Varona, Omar E.; Escudero, Pedro; Carpintero del Barrio, Guillermo; Osiński, Marek; Lamela Rivera, Horacio

    2015-07-01

    Optoacoustic (OA) imaging is a rising biomedical technique that has attracted much interest over the last 15 years. This technique permits to visualize the internal soft tissues in depth by using short laser pulses, able to generate ultrasonic signals in a large frequency range. It combines the high contrast of optical imaging with the high resolution of ultrasound systems. The OA signals detected from the whole surface of the body serve to reconstruct in detail the image of the internal tissues, where the absorbed optical energy distribution outlines the regions of interest. In fact, the use of contrast agents could improve the detection of growing anomalies in soft tissues, such as carcinomas. This work proposes the use of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) as a potential nontoxic biodegradable contrast agent applicable in OA to reveal the presence of malignant in-depth tissues in near infrared (NIR) wavelength range (0.75-1.4 μm), where the biological tissues are fairly transparent to optical radiation. A dual-wavelength (870 and 905 nm) OA system is presented, based on arrays of high power diode lasers (HPDLs) that generate ultrasound signals from a DWCNT solution embedded within a biological phantom. The OA signals generated by DWCNTs are compared with those obtained using black ink, considered to be a very good absorber at these wavelengths. The experiments prove that DWCNTs are a potential contrast agent for optoacoustic spectroscopy (OAS).

  15. Critical endline of the finite temperature phase transition for 2 +1 flavor QCD around the SU(3)-flavor symmetric point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramashi, Yoshinobu; Nakamura, Yoshifumi; Takeda, Shinji; Ukawa, Akira

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the critical endline of the finite temperature phase transition of QCD around the SU(3)-flavor symmetric point at zero chemical potential. We employ the renormalization-group improved Iwasaki gauge action and nonperturbatively O (a )-improved Wilson-clover fermion action. The critical endline is determined by using the intersection point of kurtosis, employing the multiparameter, multiensemble reweighting method to calculate observables off the SU(3)-symmetric point, at the temporal size NT=6 and lattice spacing as low as a ≈0.19 fm . We confirm that the slope of the critical endline takes the value of -2 , and find that the second derivative is positive, at the SU(3)-flavor symmetric point on the Columbia plot parametrized with the strange quark mass ms and degenerated up-down quark mass ml.

  16. FwWebViewPlus: integration of web technologies into WinCC OA based Human-Machine Interfaces at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golonka, Piotr; Fabian, Wojciech; Gonzalez-Berges, Manuel; Jasiun, Piotr; Varela-Rodriguez, Fernando

    2014-06-01

    The rapid growth in popularity of web applications gives rise to a plethora of reusable graphical components, such as Google Chart Tools and JQuery Sparklines, implemented in JavaScript and run inside a web browser. In the paper we describe the tool that allows for seamless integration of web-based widgets into WinCC Open Architecture, the SCADA system used commonly at CERN to build complex Human-Machine Interfaces. Reuse of widely available widget libraries and pushing the development efforts to a higher abstraction layer based on a scripting language allow for significant reduction in maintenance of the code in multi-platform environments compared to those currently used in C++ visualization plugins. Adequately designed interfaces allow for rapid integration of new web widgets into WinCC OA. At the same time, the mechanisms familiar to HMI developers are preserved, making the use of new widgets "native". Perspectives for further integration between the realms of WinCC OA and Web development are also discussed.

  17. Crystal structure and spectroscopic properties of a new oxyarsenate Li{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.25}TiOAsO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Chakir, M. . E-mail: fachakir@yahoo.fr; El Jazouli, A.; Chaminade, J.P.; Bouree, F.

    2007-07-03

    The new oxyarsenate Li{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.25}TiOAsO{sub 4} has been synthesized and studied by a combination of X-ray powder diffraction, neutrons powder diffraction and vibrational spectroscopy. Li{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.25}TiOAsO{sub 4} crystallizes in the monoclinic P2{sub 1}/c space group with the unit cell parameters: a = 6.5854(3) A, b = 7.4665(4) A, c = 7.4969(4) A, {beta} = 89.884(6){sup o}, V = 368.62(1) A{sup 3} and Z = 4. The structure has been determined at room temperature from neutrons diffraction by the Rietveld method analysis. It is formed by a 3D network of TiO{sub 6} octahedra and AsO{sub 4} tetrahedra sharing corners. Structural refinement shows a partial and a statistical occupancy of 2a and 2b sites by Li{sup +} and Ni{sup 2+} ions. TiO{sub 6} octahedra are linked together by corners and form infinite chains along c-axis. Raman and infrared studies confirm the existence of -Ti-O-Ti- chains. Diffuse reflectance spectrum indicates the presence of octahedrally coordinated Ni{sup 2+} ions.

  18. Antagonism of the interferon-induced OAS-RNase L pathway by murine coronavirus ns2 protein is required for virus replication and liver pathology.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ling; Jha, Babal K; Wu, Ashley; Elliott, Ruth; Ziebuhr, John; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; Silverman, Robert H; Weiss, Susan R

    2012-06-14

    Many viruses induce hepatitis in humans, highlighting the need to understand the underlying mechanisms of virus-induced liver pathology. The murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), causes acute hepatitis in its natural host and provides a useful model for understanding virus interaction with liver cells. The MHV accessory protein, ns2, antagonizes the type I interferon response and promotes hepatitis. We show that ns2 has 2',5'-phosphodiesterase activity, which blocks the interferon inducible 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS)-RNase L pathway to facilitate hepatitis development. Ns2 cleaves 2',5'-oligoadenylate, the product of OAS, to prevent activation of the cellular endoribonuclease RNase L and consequently block viral RNA degradation. An ns2 mutant virus was unable to replicate in the liver or induce hepatitis in wild-type mice, but was highly pathogenic in RNase L deficient mice. Thus, RNase L is a critical cellular factor for protection against viral infection of the liver and the resulting hepatitis.

  19. 2+1 flavor lattice QCD with Luscher's Domain-Decomposed HMC algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramashi, Yoshinobu

    2006-12-01

    We report on a study of 2+1 flavor lattice QCD with the O(a)-improved Wilson quarks on a 163 × 32 lattice at the lattice spacing 1/a ≈ 2GeV employing Lüscher's domain-decomposed HMC(LDDHMC) algorithm. This is dedicated to a preliminary study for the PACS-CS project which plans to complete the Wilson-clover N f = 2 + 1 program lowering the up-down quark masses close to the physical values as much as possible. We focus on three issues: (i) how light quark masses we can reach with LDDHMC, (ii) efficiency of the algorithm compared with the conventional HMC, (iii) parameter choice for the production runs on PACS-CS.

  20. Does Glucagon Improve Survival in a Porcine (Sus Scrofa) of Adult Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest in Addition to Standard Epinephrine Therapy?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-17

    UDIIILI: oa. I..UN I ItA!.. I NUMDI:It Does Glucagon improve survival in a porcine (Sus Scrofa ) of adult asphyxial cardiac arrest in addition to...EXPIRATION DATE: 25 Mar 13 PROTOCOL TITLE: Does Glucagon Improve Survival in a Porcine (Sus scrofa ) Model of Adult Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest in Addition...Additions: Deletions: 2 Protocol No: A-2007-03 Protocol Title: Does Glucagon Improve Survival in a Porcine (Sus scrofa ) Model of Adult Asphyxial

  1. Improved WOMAC score following 16-week treatment with bromelain for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kasemsuk, Thitima; Saengpetch, Nadhaporn; Sibmooh, Nathawut; Unchern, Supeenun

    2016-10-01

    Treatment with bromelain-containing enzyme preparation for 3-4 weeks is effective for treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Here, we aimed to assess 16-week treatment with bromelain in mild-to-moderate knee OA patients. We performed a randomized, single-blind, active-controlled pilot study. Forty knee OA patients were randomized to receive oral bromelain (500 mg/day) or diclofenac (100 mg/day). Primary outcome was the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) analyzed by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Secondary outcome was the short-form 36 (SF-36). Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite were measured as oxidative stress markers. There was no difference in WOMAC and SF-36 scores compared between bromelain and diclofenac groups after 4 weeks. At week 4, the improvement of total WOMAC and pain subscales from baseline was observed in both groups; however, two patients given diclofenac had adverse effects leading to discontinuation of diclofenac. However, observed treatment difference was inconclusive. At week 16 of bromelain treatment, the patients had improved total WOMAC scores (12.2 versus 25.5), pain subscales (2.4 versus 5.6), stiffness subscales (0.8 versus 2.0), and function subscales (9.1 versus 17.9), and physical component of SF-36 (73.3 versus 65.4) as compared with baseline values. OA patients had higher plasma MDA, nitrite, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated whole blood but lower plasma α-tocopherol than control subjects. Plasma MDA and LPS-stimulated PGE2 production were decreased at week 16 of bromelain treatment. Bromelain has no difference in reducing symptoms of mild-to-moderate knee OA after 4 weeks when compared with diclofenac.

  2. Beam Profile Improvement of a High-Power Diode Laser Stack for Optoacoustic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Miguel; Rodríguez, Sergio; Leggio, Luca; Gawali, Sandeep; Gallego, Daniel; Lamela, Horacio

    2017-04-01

    Recent advances in high-power diode lasers (HPDLs) technology allow their use as potential sources for optoacoustic (OA) applications, due to their high repetition rates (a few kHz), low costs and sizes. However, some OA applications require pulse energies in the order of mJ that cannot be provided by the only HPDLs (several μJ). The employment of diode laser bars (DLBs) and stacks (DLSs) significantly increases the energy per pulse up to several mJ, but they require more optical elements for collimation in fast and slow axes. In this work, we show an 808 nm DLS emitting optical nanosecond pulses with currents of ˜ 200 A and supplied by a customized current driver. We only collimate the beam in the fast axis by disposing the core of 200 μm optical fibers as collimating lenses along each bar of the stack, and we discuss the improvement of the beam profile. The results demonstrate that the beam profile is notably improved with the optical fiber lenses, and a 6.4 mm × 4.3 mm light spot is obtained by using a conventional focusing lens. Measurements report a total energy per pulse of 630 μJ in the spot, considering a pulse width of 850 ns and a repetition rate of 1 kHz. Finally, we focus the light spot into an absorbing inclusion (graphene oxide) hosted in a semi-transparent phantom to generate and detect high OA signals ({˜ }355 mV_{pp}). The results achieved demonstrate the capability of our DLS system to be applied in multispectral OA systems with final application in OA endoscopy and microscopy.

  3. OA Go Away: Development and Preliminary Validation of a Self-Management Tool to Promote Adherence to Exercise and Physical Activity for People with Osteoarthritis of the Hip or Knee

    PubMed Central

    Toupin April, Karine; Backman, Catherine; Tugwell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the face and content validity, construct validity, and test–retest reliability of the OA Go Away (OGA), a personalized self-management tool to promote adherence to exercise and physical activity for people with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip or knee. Methods: The face and content validity of OGA version 1.0 were determined via interviews with 10 people with OA of the hip or knee and 10 clinicians. A revised OGA version 2.0 was then tested for construct validity and test–retest reliability with a new sample of 50 people with OA of the hip or knee by comparing key items in the OGA journal with validated outcome measures assessing similar health outcomes and comparing scores on key items of the journal 4–7 days apart. Face and content validity were then confirmed with a new sample of 5 people with OA of the hip or knee and 5 clinicians. Results: Eighteen of 30 items from the OGA version 1.0 and 41 of 43 items from the OGA version 2.0 journal, goals and action plan, and exercise log had adequate content validity. Construct validity and test–retest reliability were acceptable for the main items of the OGA version 2.0 journal. The OGA underwent modifications based on results and participant feedback. Conclusion: The OGA is a novel self-management intervention and assessment tool for people with OA of the hip or knee that shows adequate preliminary measurement properties. PMID:27909359

  4. In vivo treatment of HCV core-positive HepG2 cells with the transfer of recombinant caspase-3 using a 2'-5' OAS promoter.

    PubMed

    Zi, Yuan; Wang, Ying; Wiegmann, Peter S; Luo, Junming; Feng, Deyun

    2012-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the most common pathogens causing liver-related morbidity and mortality, which affect 170 million individuals worldwide. There is no vaccine available, and current therapy is only partially effective. In a previous study, we constructed a recombinant caspase-3 expression vector under the 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase gene (OAS) promoter (pGL3-OAS-re-caspase-3) and demonstrated that it is an effective gene therapy for HCV core-positive liver cells in vitro. In the present study, the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 was transfected with the pcDNA3.1-HCV-core-EGFP plasmid and selected by G418. Expression of HCV core protein was confirmed by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. Both HepG2-expressing HCV core protein and parental HepG2 cells were inoculated subcutaneously into BALB/c mice, respectively. Tumor-bearing mice were treated with an intratumoral injection of pGL3-OAS-re-caspase-3. The mice were sacrificed after 48 h. The correlation between HCV core and caspase-3 expression in tumor tissues was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining and double-label immunofluorescence staining. The subcutaneous hepatoma in vivo mouse models stably expressing HCV core protein and co-expressing HCV core protein and pGL3-OAS-re-caspase-3 were established. Double-label immunofluorescence staining showed that the percentage of co-expression of both HCV core and caspase-3 was 76 ± 6% in the group treated with pGL3-OAS-re-caspase-3. There was a significant increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the group treated with the pGL3-OAS-re-caspase-3 system by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling and transmission electron microscopy. The results suggest that the pGL3-OAS-re-caspase-3 construct can effectively induce apoptosis in HCV core-positive hepatocytes in vivo. The results presented strongly suggest that the transfer of pGL3-OAS-re-caspase-3 is an effective and promising gene therapy strategy for HCV infection.

  5. Synthesis of transition-metal-doped KTiOPO{sub 4} and lanthanide-doped RbTiOAsO{sub 4} isomorphs that absorb visible light

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson M.T.; Phillips, M.L.F.; Sinclair, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have substituted aliovalent transition-metal (M = Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Co) and lanthanide (Ln = Er) ions that absorb visible light onto the titanium sites of the nonlinear optical materials KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) and RbTiOAsO{sub 4} (RTA). The substitution formally creates a charge deficiency on the Ti site. To compensate for this, the authors have substituted aliovalent counterions on the titanium (Nb), phosphorus (S, Se, Cr, Mo, W, Re) oxygen (F), or potassium (Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb) sites. The resulting new materials expand the KTiOPO{sub 4} structure field for partial replacement of one or more ions. The M and Ln ions alter the optical absorption and second harmonic properties of the materials. The ions reduce the second harmonic intensities of the isomorphs and second harmonic radiation to be phase matched at slightly shorter wavelengths than in the undoped host.

  6. Inductively coupled plasma orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ICP-oa-TOF-MS) analysis of heavy metal content in Indocalamus tesselatus samples.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yuyue; Zhang, Zhihong; Li, Lin; Chen, Chunsheng; Shun, Sha; Huang, Yinchuan

    2013-12-01

    Indocalamus tesselatus is one of the most popular packing materials in China. Heavy metals in Chinese I. tesselatus samples have received great interest because they are related to health. A simple and fast method for the determination of Pb, Cd, Mn, Ni, Cr, As, Hg, Cu and Zn, by inductively coupled plasma orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ICP-oa-TOF-MS), following microwave closed vessel digestion of samples, was proposed. The method was validated using standard reference material (GBW 07605-Tea). Samples of I. tesselatus from five different regions of China were analysed using the proposed method. Heavy metals contents from different regions were found at different levels. Their low contents of heavy metals showed that collection areas were not polluted and all collected I. tesselatus samples could be unreservedly used as food packing materials without any health risk.

  7. Mental retardation in a boy with an interstitial deletion at Xp22.3 involving STS, KAL1, and OA1: Implication for the MRX locus

    SciTech Connect

    Muroya, Koji; Ogata, Tsutomu; Natsuo, Nobutake

    1996-09-06

    Although genotype-phenotype correlations in male patients with various types of nullisomy for Xp22.3 have assigned a locus for X-linked mental retardation (MRX) to an approximately 3-Mb region between DXS31 and STS, the precise location has not been determined. In this paper, we describe a 14 7/12 year old Japanese boy with mental retardation and an interstitial deletion at Xp22.3 involving STS, KAL1, and OA1, and compare the deletion map with that of previously reported three familial male patients with low-normal intelligence and a similar interstitial deletion at Xp22.3. The results suggest that the MRX gene is further localized to the roughly 1.5-Mb region between DXS1060 and DXS1139. 31 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Mid-infrared trace gas detection using continuous-wave difference frequency generation in periodically poled RbTiOAsO4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, W.; Mouret, G.; Boucher, D.; Tittel, F. K.

    2001-01-01

    A tunable mid-infrared continuous-wave (cw) spectroscopic source in the 3.4-4.5 micrometers region is reported, based on difference frequency generation (DFG) in a quasi-phase-matched periodically poled RbTiOAsO4 (PPRTA) crystal. DFG power levels of 10 microW were generated at approximately 4 micrometers in a 20-mm long PPRTA crystal by mixing two cw single-frequency Ti:Al2O3 lasers operating near 713 nm and 871 nm, respectively, using a laser pump power of 300 mW. A quasi-phase-matched infrared wavelength-tuning bandwidth (FWHM) of 12 cm-1 and a temperature tuning rate of 1.02 cm-1/degree C were achieved. Experimental details regarding the feasibility of trace gas detection based on absorption spectroscopy of CO2 in ambient air using this DFG radiation source are also described.

  9. Improved cytotoxicity of paclitaxel loaded in nanosized lipid carriers by intracellular delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Jing; Du, Yongzhong; Yuan, Hong; Zhang, Xingguo; Li, Qian; Rao, Yuefeng; Zhao, Mengdan; Hu, Fuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Nanosized lipid carriers (NLC) can improve the limited drug-loading (DL) capacity and drug expulsion during storage, and adjust the drug release profile of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). In this study, Paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded NLC were prepared by solvent diffusion method using monostearin as solid lipid and oleic acid (OA) as liquid lipid matrix. The blank NLC with different OA content (the size range was from 89.5 ± 7.4 to 160.2 ± 34.6 nm) showed smaller size than the blank SLN (the size was 272.7 ± 43.6 nm), while the PTX-loaded NLC (the size range was from 481.3 ± 29.8 to 561.7 ± 38.3 nm) showed little bigger size, higher DL capacity, and faster drug in vitro release rate comparing with SLN (the size was 437.3 ± 68.2 nm). The 50 % cellular growth inhibitions (IC50) of PTX-loaded NLC with 0, 5, 10, and 20 wt % OA were 0.92 ± 0.06, 0.69 ± 0.04, 0.25 ± 0.02, and 0.12 ± 0.02 µg mL-1, respectively, while the IC50 of TaxolTM was 1.72 ± 0.09 µg mL-1. For analyzing cellular drug effect, cellular uptakes of fluorescent NLC and intracellular drug concentration were investigated. As the incorporation of OA into solid lipid matrix could accelerate both the cellular uptake and the PTX delivery, loaded by NLC, the cytotoxicity of PTX could be enhanced, and further enhanced by increasing OA content in NLC.

  10. TRBO: A High-Efficiency Tobacco Mosaic Virus RNA-Based Overexpression Vector1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lindbo, John A.

    2007-01-01

    Transient expression is a rapid, useful approach for producing proteins of interest in plants. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based transient expression vectors can express very high levels of foreign proteins in plants. However, TMV vectors are, in general, not efficiently delivered to plant cells by agroinfection. It was determined that agroinfection was very efficient with a 35S promoter-driven TMV replicon that lacked the TMV coat protein gene sequence. This coat protein deletion vector had several useful features as a transient expression system, including improved ease of use, higher protein expression rates, and improved biocontainment. Using this TMV expression vector, some foreign proteins were expressed at levels of 3 to 5 mg/g fresh weight of plant tissue. It is proposed that this new transient expression vector will be a useful tool for expressing recombinant proteins in plants for either research or production purposes. PMID:17720752

  11. Overproduction of Abscisic Acid in Tomato Increases Transpiration Efficiency and Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Influences Leaf Expansion1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Andrew J.; Andrews, John; Mulholland, Barry J.; McKee, John M.T.; Hilton, Howard W.; Horridge, Jon S.; Farquhar, Graham D.; Smeeton, Rachel C.; Smillie, Ian R.A.; Black, Colin R.; Taylor, Ian B.

    2007-01-01

    Overexpression of genes that respond to drought stress is a seemingly attractive approach for improving drought resistance in crops. However, the consequences for both water-use efficiency and productivity must be considered if agronomic utility is sought. Here, we characterize two tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lines (sp12 and sp5) that overexpress a gene encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, the enzyme that catalyzes a key rate-limiting step in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. Both lines contained more ABA than the wild type, with sp5 accumulating more than sp12. Both had higher transpiration efficiency because of their lower stomatal conductance, as demonstrated by increases in δ13C and δ18O, and also by gravimetric and gas-exchange methods. They also had greater root hydraulic conductivity. Under well-watered glasshouse conditions, mature sp5 plants were found to have a shoot biomass equal to the wild type despite their lower assimilation rate per unit leaf area. These plants also had longer petioles, larger leaf area, increased specific leaf area, and reduced leaf epinasty. When exposed to root-zone water deficits, line sp12 showed an increase in xylem ABA concentration and a reduction in stomatal conductance to the same final levels as the wild type, but from a different basal level. Indeed, the main difference between the high ABA plants and the wild type was their performance under well-watered conditions: the former conserved soil water by limiting maximum stomatal conductance per unit leaf area, but also, at least in the case of sp5, developed a canopy more suited to light interception, maximizing assimilation per plant, possibly due to improved turgor or suppression of epinasty. PMID:17277097

  12. PlaNet: Combined Sequence and Expression Comparisons across Plant Networks Derived from Seven Species[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Mutwil, Marek; Klie, Sebastian; Tohge, Takayuki; Giorgi, Federico M.; Wilkins, Olivia; Campbell, Malcolm M.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Usadel, Björn; Nikoloski, Zoran; Persson, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    The model organism Arabidopsis thaliana is readily used in basic research due to resource availability and relative speed of data acquisition. A major goal is to transfer acquired knowledge from Arabidopsis to crop species. However, the identification of functional equivalents of well-characterized Arabidopsis genes in other plants is a nontrivial task. It is well documented that transcriptionally coordinated genes tend to be functionally related and that such relationships may be conserved across different species and even kingdoms. To exploit such relationships, we constructed whole-genome coexpression networks for Arabidopsis and six important plant crop species. The interactive networks, clustered using the HCCA algorithm, are provided under the banner PlaNet (http://aranet.mpimp-golm.mpg.de). We implemented a comparative network algorithm that estimates similarities between network structures. Thus, the platform can be used to swiftly infer similar coexpressed network vicinities within and across species and can predict the identity of functional homologs. We exemplify this using the PSA-D and chalcone synthase-related gene networks. Finally, we assessed how ontology terms are transcriptionally connected in the seven species and provide the corresponding MapMan term coexpression networks. The data support the contention that this platform will considerably improve transfer of knowledge generated in Arabidopsis to valuable crop species. PMID:21441431

  13. The Submergence Tolerance Regulator SUB1A Mediates Crosstalk between Submergence and Drought Tolerance in Rice[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Fukao, Takeshi; Yeung, Elaine; Bailey-Serres, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Submergence and drought are major constraints to rice (Oryza sativa) production in rain-fed farmlands, both of which can occur sequentially during a single crop cycle. SUB1A, an ERF transcription factor found in limited rice accessions, dampens ethylene production and gibberellic acid responsiveness during submergence, economizing carbohydrate reserves and significantly prolonging endurance. Here, we evaluated the functional role of SUB1A in acclimation to dehydration. Comparative analysis of genotypes with and without SUB1A revealed that SUB1A enhanced recovery from drought at the vegetative stage through reduction of leaf water loss and lipid peroxidation and increased expression of genes associated with acclimation to dehydration. Overexpression of SUB1A augmented ABA responsiveness, thereby activating stress-inducible gene expression. Paradoxically, vegetative tissue undergoes dehydration upon desubmergence even though the soil contains sufficient water, indicating that leaf desiccation occurs in the natural progression of a flooding event. Desubmergence caused the upregulation of gene transcripts associated with acclimation to dehydration, with higher induction in SUB1A genotypes. SUB1A also restrained accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aerial tissue during drought and desubmergence. Consistently, SUB1A increased the abundance of transcripts encoding ROS scavenging enzymes, resulting in enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress. Therefore, in addition to providing robust submergence tolerance, SUB1A improves survival of rapid dehydration following desubmergence and water deficit during drought. PMID:21239643

  14. Structure-Guided Engineering of Plant Phytochrome B with Altered Photochemistry and Light Signaling1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junrui; Stankey, Robert J.; Vierstra, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Phytochromes (phys) encompass a diverse collection of biliproteins that enable cellular light perception by photoconverting between a red-light-absorbing ground state (Pr) and a far-red light-absorbing active state (Pfr). Based on the central role of plant phys in controlling numerous agriculturally important processes, their rational redesign offers great promise toward accelerating crop improvement. Employing as templates the available three-dimensional models of the photosensory module within bacterial phys, we report here our initial attempt to apply structure-guided mutagenesis to phy engineering using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) phyB, the dominant isoform in light-grown plants, as the example. A collection of phyB mutants was generated affecting the bilin-binding pocket that altered photochemistry, thermal stability, and/or nuclear localization patterns, some of which also impacted phenotypic outputs. Of particular interest are the Y361F substitution, which created Arabidopsis plants with greatly enhanced light sensitivity, mutants variably altered in Pfr-to-Pr thermal reversion and nuclear aggregation, and the D307A substitution, which failed to photoconvert from Pr to Pfr and display light-induced nuclear aggregation but retained some biological activity and accelerated turnover in red light. Taken together, this collection provides variants potentially useful to agriculture as well as new tools to better understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning phy signaling. PMID:23321421

  15. Modeling the Hydraulics of Root Growth in Three Dimensions with Phloem Water Sources1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wiegers, Brandy S.; Cheer, Angela Y.; Silk, Wendy K.

    2009-01-01

    Primary growth is characterized by cell expansion facilitated by water uptake generating hydrostatic (turgor) pressure to inflate the cell, stretching the rigid cell walls. The multiple source theory of root growth hypothesizes that root growth involves transport of water both from the soil surrounding the growth zone and from the mature tissue higher in the root via phloem and protophloem. Here, protophloem water sources are used as boundary conditions in a classical, three-dimensional model of growth-sustaining water potentials in primary roots. The model predicts small radial gradients in water potential, with a significant longitudinal gradient. The results improve the agreement of theory with empirical studies for water potential in the primary growth zone of roots of maize (Zea mays). A sensitivity analysis quantifies the functional importance of apical phloem differentiation in permitting growth and reveals that the presence of phloem water sources makes the growth-sustaining water relations of the root relatively insensitive to changes in root radius and hydraulic conductivity. Adaptation to drought and other environmental stresses is predicted to involve more apical differentiation of phloem and/or higher phloem delivery rates to the growth zone. PMID:19542299

  16. X-ray investigation of lateral hetero-structures of inversion domains in LiNbO3, KTiOPO4 and KTiOAsO4

    PubMed Central

    Lyford, Thomas S.; Collins, Stephen P.; Fewster, Paul F.; Thomas, Pamela A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper periodically domain-inverted (PDI) ferroelectric crystals are studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. Rocking curves and reciprocal-space maps of the principal symmetric Bragg reflections in LiNbO3 (LN) (Λ = 5 µm), KTiOPO4 (KTP) (Λ = 9 µm) and KTiOAsO4 (KTA) (Λ = 39 µm) are presented. For all the samples strong satellite reflections were observed as a consequence of the PDI structure. Analysis of the satellites showed that they were caused by a combination of coherent and incoherent scattering between the adjacent domains. Whilst the satellites contained phase information regarding the structure of the domain wall, this information could not be rigorously extracted without a priori knowledge of the twinning mechanism. Analysis of the profiles reveals strain distributions of Δd/d = 1.6 × 10−4 and 2.0 × 10−4 perpendicular to domain walls in KTP and LN samples, respectively, and lateral correlation lengths of 63 µm (KTP), 194 µm (KTA) and 10 µm (LN). The decay of crystal truncation rods in LN and KTP was found to support the occurrence of surface corrugations. PMID:25921494

  17. OA01.04. Management of ankylosing spondylitis through ayurvedic medicine along with agnikarma- A case study

    PubMed Central

    Tamrakar, Anupam; Sonkar, Ramsukh; Chandrakar, Vijaya Lakshmi; Tamrakar, Er. Anuraj

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To specify the role of Ayurvedic medicine along with Agni karma in treatment of Ankylosing spondylitis, a chronic inflammatory arthritis and auto immune disease with a strong genetic predisposition Method: In present case study of AS with +ve HLAB27 and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) 624.1U/L(normal range 230460U/L)with radiological abnormalities at the sight of L.S. spine AP and Lt. are symptoms of mild lumbar spondylosis with right sacro-iliac arthritis. The patient was having Vata and Kapha dominant symptoms like Amavata so he was subjected to therapy which performs removal of Ama and detoxification of toxins from the body followed by ruksh virechan with swadista virechan churna 5 gm in every 4 days once in night and Nadi sweda with dashmool kwath for 7days there after agni karma in every 15 days periodically along with hypothetical herbomineral combination up to 6 months as patient follows. Result: After 4 months of regular treatment all other typical features related to disease like amajeerna, shoola etc were also improved. In lab reports, HLAB27 became negative and LDH returned to normal range up to 294U/L. In radiological reports the fusion of vertebral column was also reversed as showed in AP view of X-ray imaging. This particular case has proved the importance of Ayurvedic medicine and Agni karma in AS. Conclusion: Ayurvedic intervention was found to be efficacious in management of Ankylosing spondylitis. Further studies are needed to establish efficacy on the basis of rigorous parameters.

  18. Dissection of the Transcriptional Program Regulating Secondary Wall Biosynthesis during Wood Formation in Poplar1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ruiqin; McCarthy, Ryan L.; Lee, Chanhui; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Wood biomass is mainly made of secondary cell walls; hence, elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the transcriptional regulation of secondary wall biosynthesis during wood formation will be instrumental to design strategies for genetic improvement of wood biomass. Here, we provide direct evidence demonstrating that the poplar (Populus trichocarpa) wood-associated NAC domain transcription factors (PtrWNDs) are master switches activating a suite of downstream transcription factors, and together, they are involved in the coordinated regulation of secondary wall biosynthesis during wood formation. We show that transgenic poplar plants with dominant repression of PtrWNDs functions exhibit a drastic reduction in secondary wall thickening in woody cells, and those with PtrWND overexpression result in ectopic deposition of secondary walls. Analysis of PtrWND2B overexpressors revealed up-regulation of the expression of a number of wood-associated transcription factors, the promoters of which were also activated by PtrWND6B and the Eucalyptus EgWND1. Transactivation analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that PtrWNDs and EgWND1 activated gene expression through direct binding to the secondary wall NAC-binding elements, which are present in the promoters of several wood-associated transcription factors and a number of genes involved in secondary wall biosynthesis and modification. The WND-regulated transcription factors PtrNAC150, PtrNAC156, PtrNAC157, PtrMYB18, PtrMYB74, PtrMYB75, PtrMYB121, PtrMYB128, PtrZF1, and PtrGATA8 were able to activate the promoter activities of the biosynthetic genes for all three major wood components. Our study has uncovered that the WND master switches together with a battery of their downstream transcription factors form a transcriptional network controlling secondary wall biosynthesis during wood formation. PMID:21908685

  19. Studies on improving the immobilized bead reusability and alkaline protease production by isolated immobilized Bacillus circulans (MTCC 6811) using overall evaluation criteria.

    PubMed

    Subba Rao, Ch; Madhavendra, S S; Sreenivas Rao, R; Hobbs, Phil J; Prakasham, R S

    2008-07-01

    This study uses an overall evaluation criterion for improving the immobilized bead reusability and extracellular enzyme production by immobilized cells by assigning relative weightage to bead reusability, enzyme production, and cell leakage. Initially, alkaline protease production by alginate-immobilized Bacillus circulans (MTCC 6811) was analyzed using L18 orthogonal array (OA). The resultant optimized parameters were further fine-tuned with L9 OA experimentation. At L18-OA analysis, inoculum level and CaCl(2) had least influence at individual level. At the interactive level, incubation time revealed maximum and minimum interaction with sodium alginate and glucose concentration, respectively. L9 experimentation indicated that glucose concentration contributed the major influence on protease production followed by matrix material and incubation time at the individual level, and at the interactive level, matrix concentration played a vital role by interacting with incubation time, inoculum, and CaCl(2) concentration. All selected input parameters showed significance either at individual level or interactive in both OAs. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed bacterial morphology variation with variation of matrix concentration. Overall, glucose concentration depicted a major influence at the individual level for the enzyme production. Significant improvement, approximately 147%, in enzyme yield was observed. Economic enzyme production by immobilized B. circulans is regulated by interactive influence of fermentation parameters, which influence the immobilized bead stability, reusability, and enzyme yield.

  20. An un-commissioned randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study to test the effect of deep sea fish oil as a pain reliever for dogs suffering from canine OA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An un-commissioned randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled clinical study was planned using a deep sea fish oil product for pets. Seventy-seven client-owned dogs with osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to supplement the food with either the fish oil product or corn (=placebo) oil. Our main outcome variables were force platform variables peak vertical force (PVF) and impulse, the validated Helsinki Chronic Pain Index (HCPI) and the use of rescue NSAIDs. Secondary outcome variables were a locomotion visual analog scale (VAS), a Quality of life VAS, a comparative questionnaire, a veterinary assessment, owners’ final assessment of outcome and guessing the product given. Results When comparing the two test groups at the end of the trial (16 weeks) there was no significant difference in any of the main outcome variables but owners of dogs that had taken fish oil were significantly happier with the treatment at the end visit and did significantly better at guessing what group their dogs had been in, compared to the placebo group. When comparing variables within the fish oil group as change from baseline to trial end, there were significant positive changes in PVF, HCPI, NSAID use, Quality of life VAS, as well as in all three scores in the comparative questionnaire (locomotion, every-day situations, and skin & coat). There were similar positive trends in force platform impulse and in the veterinary assessment variables, although they did not reach significance. Within the placebo group there were significant positive changes only in the HCPI and a significant deterioration according to veterinary assessment. Conclusions When compared to placebo, there was not a major statistically significant benefit in using deep sea fish oil as a pain reliever in our study population of dogs suffering from osteoarthritis. However, the fish oil treated patients improved significantly in many of the variables, when comparing baseline values to the study-end values

  1. Elemental ratio measurements of organic compounds using aerosol mass spectrometry: characterization, improved calibration, and implications

    DOE PAGES

    Canagaratna, M. R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kroll, J. H.; ...

    2014-07-31

    Elemental compositions of organic aerosol (OA) particles provide useful constraints on OA sources, chemical evolution, and effects. The Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) is widely used to measure OA elemental composition. This study evaluates AMS measurements of atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O : C), hydrogen-to-carbon (H : C), organic mass-to-organic carbon (OM : OC), and carbon oxidation state (OSC) for a vastly expanded laboratory dataset of multifunctional oxidized OA standards. For the expanded standard dataset, the "Aiken-Explicit" method (Aiken et al., 2008), which uses experimentally measured ion intensities at all ions to determine elemental ratios, reproduces known molecular O :more » C and H : C ratio values within 20% (average absolute value of relative errors) and 12% respectively. The more commonly used "Aiken-Ambient" method, which uses empirically estimated H2O+ and CO+ ion intensities to avoid gas phase air interferences at these ions, reproduces O : C and H : C of multifunctional oxidized species within 28% and 14% of known values. These values are systematically biased low, however, with larger biases observed for alcohols and simple diacids. A detailed examination of the H2O+, CO+, and CO2+ fragments in the high-resolution mass spectra of the standard compounds indicates that the Aiken-Ambient method underestimates the CO+ and H2O+ produced from many oxidized species. Combined AMS-vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ionization measurements indicate that these ions are produced by dehydration and decarboxylation on the AMS vaporizer (usually operated at 600 °C). Thermal decomposition is observed to be efficient at vaporizer temperatures down to 200 °C. These results are used together to develop an "Improved-Ambient" elemental analysis method for AMS spectra measured in air. The Improved-Ambient method reduces the systematic biases and reproduces O : C (H : C) ratios of individual oxidized standards within 28% (13

  2. Elemental ratio measurements of organic compounds using aerosol mass spectrometry: characterization, improved calibration, and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canagaratna, M. R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kroll, J. H.; Chen, Q.; Kessler, S. H.; Massoli, P.; Hildebrandt Ruiz, L.; Fortner, E.; Williams, L. R.; Wilson, K. R.; Surratt, J. D.; Donahue, N. M.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    Elemental compositions of organic aerosol (OA) particles provide useful constraints on OA sources, chemical evolution, and effects. The Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) is widely used to measure OA elemental composition. This study evaluates AMS measurements of atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O : C), hydrogen-to-carbon (H : C), and organic mass-to-organic carbon (OM : OC) ratios, and of carbon oxidation state (OS C) for a vastly expanded laboratory data set of multifunctional oxidized OA standards. For the expanded standard data set, the method introduced by Aiken et al. (2008), which uses experimentally measured ion intensities at all ions to determine elemental ratios (referred to here as "Aiken-Explicit"), reproduces known O : C and H : C ratio values within 20% (average absolute value of relative errors) and 12%, respectively. The more commonly used method, which uses empirically estimated H2O+ and CO+ ion intensities to avoid gas phase air interferences at these ions (referred to here as "Aiken-Ambient"), reproduces O : C and H : C of multifunctional oxidized species within 28 and 14% of known values. The values from the latter method are systematically biased low, however, with larger biases observed for alcohols and simple diacids. A detailed examination of the H2O+, CO+, and CO2+ fragments in the high-resolution mass spectra of the standard compounds indicates that the Aiken-Ambient method underestimates the CO+ and especially H2O+ produced from many oxidized species. Combined AMS-vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ionization measurements indicate that these ions are produced by dehydration and decarboxylation on the AMS vaporizer (usually operated at 600 °C). Thermal decomposition is observed to be efficient at vaporizer temperatures down to 200 °C. These results are used together to develop an "Improved-Ambient" elemental analysis method for AMS spectra measured in air

  3. Elemental ratio measurements of organic compounds using aerosol mass spectrometry: characterization, improved calibration, and implications

    DOE PAGES

    Canagaratna, M. R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kroll, J. H.; ...

    2015-01-12

    Elemental compositions of organic aerosol (OA) particles provide useful constraints on OA sources, chemical evolution, and effects. The Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) is widely used to measure OA elemental composition. This study evaluates AMS measurements of atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O : C), hydrogen-to-carbon (H : C), and organic mass-to-organic carbon (OM : OC) ratios, and of carbon oxidation state (OS C) for a vastly expanded laboratory data set of multifunctional oxidized OA standards. For the expanded standard data set, the method introduced by Aiken et al. (2008), which uses experimentally measured ion intensities at all ions to determinemore » elemental ratios (referred to here as "Aiken-Explicit"), reproduces known O : C and H : C ratio values within 20% (average absolute value of relative errors) and 12%, respectively. The more commonly used method, which uses empirically estimated H2O+ and CO+ ion intensities to avoid gas phase air interferences at these ions (referred to here as "Aiken-Ambient"), reproduces O : C and H : C of multifunctional oxidized species within 28 and 14% of known values. The values from the latter method are systematically biased low, however, with larger biases observed for alcohols and simple diacids. A detailed examination of the H2O+, CO+, and CO2+ fragments in the high-resolution mass spectra of the standard compounds indicates that the Aiken-Ambient method underestimates the CO+ and especially H2O+ produced from many oxidized species. Combined AMS–vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ionization measurements indicate that these ions are produced by dehydration and decarboxylation on the AMS vaporizer (usually operated at 600 °C). Thermal decomposition is observed to be efficient at vaporizer temperatures down to 200 °C. These results are used together to develop an "Improved-Ambient" elemental analysis method for AMS spectra measured in air. The Improved-Ambient method uses specific ion

  4. Inorganic materis for anomalous-dispersion phase-matched second harmonic generation: Rubidium titanyl arsenate isomorphs, Rb[Ti{sub 1-2x}Ln{sub x}Nb{sub x}]OAsO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.T.; Phillips, M.L.F.; Stucky, G.D.

    1993-12-31

    We report the synthesis and optical properties of Rb[Ti{sub 1-2x}Ln{sub x}Nb{sub x}]OAsO{sub 4}. The solid solubility of lanthanide ions in the materials decreases exponentially as the size of the lanthanide ion increases. The materials exhibit absorption spectra characteristic of the particular lanthanide ion in the structure. The spectral regions between absorption peaks are transparent and will allow the transmission of fundamental and second-harmonic radiation. The charge transfer band is red-shifted 0 to 27 nm relative to RbTiOAsO{sub 4} (midpoint 331 nm). Second-harmonic intensities measured at 532 nm decrease exponentially as lanthanide ion concentration increases.

  5. Surface functionalized LSMO nanoparticles with improved colloidal stability for hyperthermia applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorat, N. D.; Khot, V. M.; Salunkhe, A. B.; Prasad, A. I.; Ningthoujam, R. S.; Pawar, S. H.

    2013-03-01

    LSMO (La0.7Sr0.3MnO3) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) coated with double layer oleic acid (OA) surfactant are prepared to make a water based magnetic nanofluid for hyperthermia application. Various experimental techniques are used for bilayer coating analysis. The effect of the bilayer coating on magnetic properties is studied by superconducting quantum interface device (SQUID). Colloidal behaviour of coated MNPs in aqueous medium is studied by the zeta potential and dynamic light scattering. The effects of pH and ionic strength on the colloidal stability of the MNPs are studied in detail. For the bilayer-coated LSMO MNPs aggregation is not observed even in high ionic strength and at physiological pH (7.4). For making the nanofluid of the bilayer-coated MNPs the colloidal stability is studied in physiological media like phosphate buffer solution. Under induction heating experiment, hyperthermia temperature (42-43 °C) could be achieved by the bilayer-coated sample at a magnetic field of 168-335 Oe and frequency of 267 kHz. The bilayer OA coating can hinder the agglomeration of MNPs significantly and produce stable suspension with improved hyperthermia properties. The bilayer OA coating also improves the specific absorption rate (SAR) of LSMO MNPs from 25 to 40 W g-1.

  6. New process of preparation, X-ray characterisation, structure and vibrational studies of a solid solution LiTiOAs{sub 1-} {sub x} P {sub x} O{sub 4} (0{<=}x{<=}1)

    SciTech Connect

    Chakir, M. . E-mail: fachakir@yahoo.fr; El Jazouli, A.; Chaminade, J.P.; Bouree, F.

    2006-01-15

    LiTiOAs{sub 1-} {sub x} P {sub x} O{sub 4} (0{<=}x{<=}1) compounds have been prepared using solutions of Li, Ti, As and P elements as starting products. Selected compositions have been investigated by powder X-ray or neutrons diffraction analysis, Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The structure of LiTiOAs{sub 1-} {sub x} P {sub x} O{sub 4} (x=0, 0.5 and 1) samples determined by Rietveld analysis is orthorhombic with Pnma space group. It is formed by a 3D network of TiO{sub 6} octahedra and XO{sub 4} (X=As{sub 1-} {sub x} P {sub x} ) tetrahedra where octahedral cavities are occupied by lithium atoms. TiO{sub 6} octahedra are linked together by corners and form infinite chains along a-axis. Ti atoms are displaced from the centre of octahedral units in alternating short (1.700-1.709 A) and long (2.301-2.275 A) Ti-O bonds. Raman and infrared studies confirm the existence of Ti-O-Ti chains. Thermal stability of LiTiOAsO{sub 4} has been reported. -- Graphical abstract: -Ti-O-Ti- chains and XO{sub 4} tetrahedra in LiTiOXO{sub 4} (X=As{sub 1-} {sub x} P {sub x} ) compounds.

  7. The metabolism of 4-bromoaniline in the bile-cannulated rat: application of ICPMS (79/81Br), HPLC-ICPMS & HPLC-oaTOFMS

    PubMed Central

    Duckett, Catherine; McCullagh, Michael; Smith, Christopher; Wilson, Ian D

    2015-01-01

    Abstract 1. An excretion balance study was performed following i.p. administration of 4-bromoaniline (50 mg kg−1) to bile-cannulated rats, using bromine-detected (79/81Br) ICPMS for quantification. Approximately 90% of the dose was recovered in urine (68.9 ± 3.6%) and bile (21.4 ± 1.4%) by 48 h post-administration. 2. HPLC-ICPMS (79/81Br) was used to selectively detect and profile the major urinary and biliary-excreted metabolites and determined that the 0–12 h urine contained at least 21 brominated metabolites with 19 bromine-containing peaks observed in the 6–12 h bile samples. 3. The urinary and biliary metabolites were subsequently profiled using HPLC-oaTOFMS. By exploiting the distinctive bromine isotope pattern ca. 60 brominated metabolites were detected in the urine in negative electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode while bile contained ca. 21. 4. While a large number of bromine-containing metabolites were detected, the profiles were dominated by a few major components with the bulk of the 4-bromoaniline-related material in urine accounted for by 4-bromoanaline O-sulfate (∼75% of the total by ICPMS, 84% by TOFMS). In bile a hydroxylated N-acetyl compound was the major metabolite detected, forming some ∼65% of the 4-bromoaniline-related material by ICPMS (37% by TOFMS). PMID:25837688

  8. OAS/PKR Pathways and α/β TCR+ T Cells are Required for Ad: IFN-γ Inhibition of HSV-1 in Cornea1

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Bobbie Ann; Halford, William P.; Williams, Bryan R. G.; Carr, Daniel J. J.

    2007-01-01

    An adenoviral vector containing the muIFN-γ transgene (Ad:IFN-γ) was evaluated for its capacity to inhibit HSV-1. To measure effectiveness, viral titers were analyzed in cornea and trigeminal ganglia (TG) during acute ocular HSV-1 infection. Ad: IFN-γ potently suppressed HSV-1 replication in a dose-dependent fashion, requiring IFN-γ R. Moreover, Ad:IFN-γ was effective when delivered -72 and -24 h prior to infection as well as 24 h post infection. Associated with anti-viral opposition, TG from Ad: IFN-γ transduced mice harbored fewer T cells. Also related to T cell involvement, Ad:IFN-γ was effective but attenuated in TG from α/β TCR deficient mice. In corneas, α/β TCR+ T cells were obligatory for protection against viral multiplication. Type I IFN involvement amid anti-viral efficacy of Ad: IFN-γ was further investigated because type I and II IFN pathways have synergistic anti-HSV-1 activity. Ad:IFN-γ inhibited viral reproduction in corneas and TG from IFN-α/β R deficient (CD118 −/−) mice, although viral titers were 2–3 fold higher in cornea and TG, compared to wild type. The absence of IFN-stimulated anti-viral proteins, 2’-5’ oligoadenylate synthetase/RNase L and ds RNA dependent protein kinase R, completely eliminated the anti-viral effectiveness of Ad:IFN-γ. Collectively, the results demonstrate: (1) nonexistence of type I IFN R does not abolish defense of Ad:IFN-γ against HSV-1; (2) anti-viral pathways, OAS/RNase L and PKR are mandatory; and (3) α/β TCR+ T cells are compulsory for Ad: IFN-γ effectiveness against HSV-1 in cornea but not in TG. PMID:17404299

  9. Evaluation of OAS Education Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Howard B.; And Others

    An in-depth evaluation of four Organization of American States educational journals is presented. The journals, published for distribution among Latin American countries, were "Tecnologia Educativa", "Curriculum", "Educacion de Adultors", and "La Educacion". Assessment was made of the journals' mandates, implementation procedures, and managerial…

  10. A smart cane with vibrotactile biofeedback improves cane loading for people with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Routson, Rebecca L; Bailey, Marcus; Pumford, Isabelle; Czerniecki, Joseph M; Aubin, Patrick M

    2016-08-01

    Nine million adults have symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) in the U.S. and almost half of those people have a walking aid such as a cane. Proper cane loading (e.g. 15% body weight [BW]) can reduce knee loading and may slow OA progression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a novel smart cane with vibrotactile biofeedback that aims to facilitate increased cane loading. Ten subjects with knee OA performed a 50 m hallway walk test under four conditions: 1) naïve, 2) conventional cane with verbal instruction, 3) smart cane, and 4) conventional cane post smart cane. The cane load (% BW; mean ± 1 standard deviation) for the four conditions was 9.0 ± 1.9 (naïve), 12.7 ± 2.6 (conventional cane), 17.6 ± 2.4 (smart cane), and 15.6 ±3.1 (conventional cane post smart cane). These results indicate that the smart cane's vibrotactile biofeedback helped the users achieve the target cane loading of 15% BW or more as compared to naïve or verbal instruction alone. After using the smart cane, conventional cane loading was higher than the naïve and verbal instruction conditions demonstrating a potential smart cane training effect. Long term increased cane loading may reduce knee pain and improve joint function.

  11. VAWCM-Instillation Improves Delayed Primary Fascial Closure of Open Septic Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Zhenling; Liu, Shengli; Wang, Baochai; Zheng, Yu; Gu, Guosheng; Wang, Xinbo; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Background. Failure to achieve delayed primary fascial closure (DPFC) is one of the main complications of open abdomen (OA), certainly when abdominal sepsis is present. This retrospective cohort study aims to evaluate the effect of combined therapy of vacuum-assisted mesh-mediated fascial traction and topical instillation (VAWCM-instillation) on DPFC in the open septic abdomen. Methods. The patients with abdominal sepsis who underwent OA using VAWCM were included and divided into the instillation and noninstillation (control) groups. The DPFC rate and other outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results. Between 2007 and 2013, 73 patients with open septic abdomen were treated with VAWCM-instillation and 61 cases with VAWCM-only. The DPFC rate in the instillation group was significantly increased (63% versus 41%, P = 0.011). The mortality with OA was similar (24.6% versus 23%, P = 0.817) between the two groups. However, time to DPFC (P = 0.003) and length of stay in hospital (P = 0.022) of the survivals were significantly decreased in the instillation group. In addition, VAWCM-instillation (OR 1.453, 95% CI 1.222–4.927, P = 0.011) was an independent influencing factor related to successful DPFC. Conclusions. VAWCM-instillation could improve the DPFC rate but could not decrease the mortality in the patients with open septic abdomen. PMID:25548553

  12. VAWCM-Instillation Improves Delayed Primary Fascial Closure of Open Septic Abdomen.

    PubMed

    Tao, Qingsong; Ren, Jianan; Ji, Zhenling; Liu, Shengli; Wang, Baochai; Zheng, Yu; Gu, Guosheng; Wang, Xinbo; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Background. Failure to achieve delayed primary fascial closure (DPFC) is one of the main complications of open abdomen (OA), certainly when abdominal sepsis is present. This retrospective cohort study aims to evaluate the effect of combined therapy of vacuum-assisted mesh-mediated fascial traction and topical instillation (VAWCM-instillation) on DPFC in the open septic abdomen. Methods. The patients with abdominal sepsis who underwent OA using VAWCM were included and divided into the instillation and noninstillation (control) groups. The DPFC rate and other outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results. Between 2007 and 2013, 73 patients with open septic abdomen were treated with VAWCM-instillation and 61 cases with VAWCM-only. The DPFC rate in the instillation group was significantly increased (63% versus 41%, P = 0.011). The mortality with OA was similar (24.6% versus 23%, P = 0.817) between the two groups. However, time to DPFC (P = 0.003) and length of stay in hospital (P = 0.022) of the survivals were significantly decreased in the instillation group. In addition, VAWCM-instillation (OR 1.453, 95% CI 1.222-4.927, P = 0.011) was an independent influencing factor related to successful DPFC. Conclusions. VAWCM-instillation could improve the DPFC rate but could not decrease the mortality in the patients with open septic abdomen.

  13. IL-29 and IFN-α regulate the expression of MxA, 2',5'-OAS and PKR genes in association with the activation of Raf-MEK-ERK and PI3K-AKT signal pathways in HepG2.2.15 cells.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yu; Huang, Hai-Liang; Hu, Dao-Jun; Luo, Xin; Tao, Qian-Shan; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Sheng-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) can activate the PI3K-AKT and Raf-MEK-ERK signal pathways and induce antiviral proteins (MxA, 2',5'-OAS and PKR) expression in specific cell lines. However, the relationship between those antiviral proteins expression and signal pathways remains unknown at present. Thus our experiments were designed to determine the exact relationship in HepG2.2.15 cell line. The results demonstrated that IFN-α and IL-29 were both able to activate PI3K-AKT and Raf-MEK-ERK signal pathways, and IFN-α up-regulated the expression of MxA, 2',5'-OAS and PKR whereas IL-29 increased mRNA expression of MxA and 2',5'-OAS and had no influence on PKR. Furthermore, MxA, 2',5'-OAS and PKR expression were down-regulated while PI3K-AKT signal pathway was blocked by LY294002. And MxA was up-regulated after Raf-MEK-ERK signal pathway being blocked by PD98059. These findings indicate that the expression of MxA, 2',5'-OAS and PKR are up-regulate by PI3K-AKT signal pathway, and Raf-MEK-ERK signal pathway has a negative regulatory effect on the expression of MxA and no significant effect on 2',5'-OAS and PKR.

  14. Improved electroluminescence of quantum dot light-emitting diodes enabled by a partial ligand exchange with benzenethiol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daekyoung; Fu, Yan; Kim, Jungwoo; Lee, Ki-heon; Kim, Hyoungsub; Yang, Heesun; Chae, Heeyeop

    2016-06-01

    In this study, benzenethiol ligands were applied to the surface of CdSe@ZnS core@shell quantum dots (QDs) and their effect on the performance of quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) was investigated. Conventional long-chained oleic acid (OA) and trioctylphosphine (TOP) capping ligands were partially replaced by short-chained benzenethiol ligands in order to increase the stability of QDs during purification and also improve the electroluminescence performance of QD-LEDs. The quantum yield of the QD solution was increased from 41% to 84% by the benzenethiol ligand exchange. The mobility of the QD films with benzenethiol ligands approximately doubled to 2.42 × 10-5 cm2 V-1 s-1 from 1.19 × 10-5 cm2 V-1 s-1 compared to the device consisting of OA/TOP-capped QDs, and an approximately 1.8-fold improvement was achieved over QD-LEDs fabricated with bezenethiol ligand-exchanged QDs with respect to the maximum luminance and current efficiency. The turn-on voltage decreased by about -0.6 V through shifting the energy level of the QDs with benzenethiol ligands compared to conventional OA and TOP ligands.

  15. L-Carnitine supplementation improved clinical status without changing oxidative stress and lipid profile in women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Malek Mahdavi, Aida; Mahdavi, Reza; Kolahi, Sousan; Zemestani, Maryam; Vatankhah, Amir-Mansour

    2015-08-01

    Considering the pathologic importance of oxidative stress and altered lipid metabolism in osteoarthritis (OA), this study aimed to investigate the effect of l-carnitine supplementation on oxidative stress, lipid profile, and clinical status in women with knee OA. We hypothesized that l-carnitine would improve clinical status by modulating serum oxidative stress and lipid profile. In this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 72 overweight or obese women with mild to moderate knee OA were randomly allocated into 2 groups to receive 750 mg/d l-carnitine or placebo for 8 weeks. Dietary intake was evaluated using 24-hour recall for 3 days. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid profile, visual analog scale for pain intensity, and patient global assessment of severity of disease were assessed before and after supplementation. Only 69 patients (33 in the l-carnitine group and 36 in the placebo group) completed the study. l-Carnitine supplementation resulted in significant reductions in serum MDA (2.46 ± 1.13 vs 2.16 ± 0.94 nmol/mL), total cholesterol (216.09 ± 34.54 vs 206.12 ± 39.74 mg/dL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (129.45 ± 28.69 vs 122.05 ± 32.76 mg/dL) levels compared with baseline (P < .05), whereas these parameters increased in the placebo group. Serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and TAC levels did not change significantly in both groups (P > .05). No significant differences were observed in dietary intake, serum lipid profile, MDA, and TAC levels between groups after adjusting for baseline values and covariates (P > .05). There were significant intragroup and intergroup differences in pain intensity and patient global assessment of disease status after supplementation (P < .05). Collectively, l-carnitine improved clinical status without changing oxidative stress and lipid profile significantly in women with knee OA.

  16. 1 kHz 3.3 μm Nd:YAG KTiOAsO₄ optical parametric oscillator system for laser ultrasound excitation of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics.

    PubMed

    Puncken, Oliver; Gandara, David Mendoza; Damjanic, Marcin; Mahnke, Peter; Bergmann, Ralf B; Kalms, Michael; Peuser, Peter; Wessels, Peter; Neumann, Jörg; Schnars, Ulf

    2016-02-20

    We present a new laser prototype for laser ultrasonics excitation. The fundamental wavelength of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with a repetition rate of 1 kHz is converted to 3.3 μm with a KTiOAsO4 optical parametric oscillator. The achieved pulse energy at 3.3 μm is 1.7 mJ, and the pulse duration at the fundamental wavelength of 1.06 μm has been measured to be 21 ns. The ultrasonic excitation efficiency is about 3.5 times better compared to the application of state-of-the-art CO2 lasers.

  17. Arabidopsis Enhanced Drought Tolerance1/HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 Confers Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Rice without Yield Penalty1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Linhui; Chen, Xi; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Shimei; Wang, Yuping; Zhu, Qisheng; Li, Shigui; Xiang, Chengbin

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing drought tolerance without yield decrease has been a great challenge in crop improvement. Here, we report the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor Enhanced Drought Tolerance/HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 (EDT1/HDG11) was able to confer drought tolerance and increase grain yield in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) plants. The improved drought tolerance was associated with a more extensive root system, reduced stomatal density, and higher water use efficiency. The transgenic rice plants also had higher levels of abscisic acid, proline, soluble sugar, and reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzyme activities during stress treatments. The increased grain yield of the transgenic rice was contributed by improved seed setting, larger panicle, and more tillers as well as increased photosynthetic capacity. Digital gene expression analysis indicated that AtEDT1/HDG11 had a significant influence on gene expression profile in rice, which was consistent with the observed phenotypes of transgenic rice plants. Our study shows that AtEDT1/HDG11 can improve both stress tolerance and grain yield in rice, demonstrating the efficacy of AtEDT1/HDG11 in crop improvement. PMID:23735506

  18. Improving students' understanding by using on-going education research to refine active learning activities in a first-year electronics course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter Mazzolini, Alexander; Arthur Daniel, Scott

    2016-05-01

    Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs) have been used across introductory university physics as a successful active learning (AL) strategy to improve students' conceptual understanding. We have developed ILDs for more complex topics in our first-year electronics course. In 2006 we began developing ILDs to improve students' conceptual understanding of Operational Amplifiers (OAs) and negative feedback in amplification circuits. The ILDs were used after traditional lecture instruction to help students consolidate their understanding. We developed a diagnostic test, to be administered to students both before and after the ILDs, as a measure of how effective the ILDs were in improving students' understanding.

  19. IL-17A but not IL-22 suppresses the replication of hepatitis B virus mediated by over-expression of MxA and OAS mRNA in the HepG2.2.15 cell line.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Zhao, Xin-Ping; Fan, Yu-Chen; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Kai

    2013-03-01

    Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and interleukin-22 (IL-22), mainly secreted by interleukin-17-producing T help cells (Th17), are pleiotropic cytokines that regulate the biological responses of several target cells, including hepatocytes. Th17 frequency was reported to negatively correlate with plasma hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA load in patients with HBV infection. Several studies have indicated that cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-4, are involved in the noncytopathic suppression of HBV replication. We therefore hypothesized that IL-17A and IL-22 might have a potent suppressive effect on HBV replication. In our present study, we analyzed the suppressive effect of IL-17A and IL-22 on HBV replication in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2.2.15. IL-17A did not inhibit the proliferation of HepG2.2.15 cells. It decreased the levels of HBV s antigen (HBsAg) and HBV e antigen (HBeAg) in culture medium and the levels of intracellular HBV DNA. By contrast, blockage of IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) increased the levels of HBsAg and extracellular HBV DNA in culture medium and the levels of intracellular HBV DNA. The expression of antiviral proteins, including myxovirus resistance A (MxA) and oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), was enhanced by IL-17A. IL-22 and anti-human IL-22 receptor (IL-22R) antibody did not change any indexes. We demonstrated that IL-17A effectively suppressed HBV replication in a noncytopathic manner and the over-expression of MxA and OAS mRNA was involved in the suppression of HBV replication by IL-17A.

  20. Results of the AFRSI detailed-environment test of the 0.035-scale SSV pressure-loads model 84-0 in the Ames 11x11 ft. TWT and the Lewis 8x6 ft. and 10x10 ft. SWT (OA-310A, B, C), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, B. A.; Marroquin, J.

    1984-01-01

    Detailed orbiter aerodynamic and aeroacoustic pressure data were obtained in a three-part experimental investigation (OA-310A, B and C). The tests were conducted in three NASA facilities: OA-310A in the Ames 11x11-foot Transonic Wind Tunnel; OA-310B in the Lewis 8x6-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel; and OA-310C in the Lewis 10x10-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. Test data were obtained to support analysis of the Space Transportation System (STS)-6 advanced flexible reusable surface insulation (AFRSI) anomaly using the 0.035-scale space shuttle vehicle pressure-loads Model 84-0. Data were obtained in the areas of the orbiter where AFRSI is to be applied to OV-099 and OV-103. Emphasis was placed on acquiring detailed aeroacoustic data and time-averaged pressure distributions on five affected areas: (1) canopy; (2) side of fuselage; (3) upper surface of wing; (4) OMS pods; and (5) vertical tail. Data were obtained at nominal ascent and entry atmospheric flight trajectory conditions between M=0.6 through M-3.5. Sample plotted data are given. aba M.G.

  1. A cetylated fatty acid topical cream with menthol reduces pain and improves functional performance in individuals with arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, William J; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Maresh, Carl M; Anderson, Jeffrey A; Volek, Jeff S; Tiberio, David P; Joyce, Michael E; Messinger, Barry N; French, Duncan N; Sharman, Matthew J; Rubin, Martyn R; Gómez, Ana L; Silvestre, Ricardo; Hesslink, Robert L

    2005-05-01

    This investigation was an extension of a previous study conducted in our laboratory in which we showed that 1 month of treatment with a topical cream (Celadrin) consisting of cetylated fatty acids was effective for reducing pain and improving functional performance in individuals with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee (Kraemer et al., Journal of Rheumatology, 2004). We wanted to verify that the addition of menthol to the compound would produce a similar percentage of improvement in therapeutic effects. We used a single treatment group with a pre-post experimental design to examine % treatment changes. Individuals diagnosed with OA of the knee (N = 10; age, 66.4 +/- 11.5 years) and severe pain (e.g., OA, rheumatoid arthritis) of the elbow (N = 8; age, 59.1 +/- 18.2 years) and wrist (N = 10; age, 60.3 +/- 16.8 years) were tested for pain and functional performance before and after 1 week of treatment with a topical cream consisting of cetylated fatty acids and menthol applied twice per day. In individuals with knee OA, significant improvements in stair-climbing ability (about 12%), "up-and-go" performance (about 12%), balance and strength (about 16.5%), and range of motion (about 3.5%) were observed, as were reductions in pain. In individuals with severe pain of the elbow and wrist, significant improvements in dynamic (about 22 and 24.5%, respectively) and isometric (about 33 and 42%, respectively) local muscular endurance were observed, as was a reduction in pain. Neither group demonstrated significant changes in maximal grip strength or maximal force production. One week of treatment with a topical cream consisting of cetylated fatty acids and menthol was similarly effective for reducing pain and improving functional performance in individuals with arthritis of the knee, elbow, and wrist. The % changes were consistent with our prior work on the compound without menthol. Further work is needed to determine the impact of menthol in such a cream. Nevertheless, our data

  2. Ensemble multivariate analysis to improve identification of articular cartilage disease in noisy Raman spectra.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Wade; Wilkinson, Dan; Wu, Ling; Petrigliano, Frank; Dunn, Bruce; Evseenko, Denis

    2015-07-01

    The development of new methods for the early diagnosis of cartilage disease could offer significant improvement in patient care. Raman spectroscopy is an emerging biomedical technology with unique potential to recognize disease tissues, though difficulty in obtaining the samples needed to train a diagnostic and excessive signal noise could slow its development into a clinical tool. In the current report we detail the use of principal component analysis--linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) on spectra from pairs of materials modeling cartilage disease to create multiple spectral scoring metrics, which could limit the reliance on primary training data for identifying disease in low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) Raman spectra. Our proof-of-concept experiments show that combinations of these model-metrics has the potential to improve the classification of low-SNR Raman spectra from human normal and osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage over a single metric trained with spectra from the same healthy and OA tissues. Scatter plot showing the PCA-LDA derived human-disease-metric scores versus rat-model-metric scores for 7656 low signal-to-noise spectra from healthy (blue) and osteoarthritic (red) cartilage. Light vertical and horizontal lines represent the optimized single metric classification boundary. Dark diagonal line represents the classification of boundary resulting from the optimized combination of the two metrics.

  3. Performance Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document contains four papers presented at a symposium on performance improvement moderated by Edward Schorer at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) "The Organizational Ecology of Ethical Problems: International Case Studies in the Light of HPT [Human Performance Technology]" (Peter J. Dean,…

  4. Leaf Extraction and Analysis Framework Graphical User Interface: Segmenting and Analyzing the Structure of Leaf Veins and Areoles1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Price, Charles A.; Symonova, Olga; Mileyko, Yuriy; Hilley, Troy; Weitz, Joshua S.

    2011-01-01

    Interest in the structure and function of physical biological networks has spurred the development of a number of theoretical models that predict optimal network structures across a broad array of taxonomic groups, from mammals to plants. In many cases, direct tests of predicted network structure are impossible given the lack of suitable empirical methods to quantify physical network geometry with sufficient scope and resolution. There is a long history of empirical methods to quantify the network structure of plants, from roots, to xylem networks in shoots and within leaves. However, with few exceptions, current methods emphasize the analysis of portions of, rather than entire networks. Here, we introduce the Leaf Extraction and Analysis Framework Graphical User Interface (LEAF GUI), a user-assisted software tool that facilitates improved empirical understanding of leaf network structure. LEAF GUI takes images of leaves where veins have been enhanced relative to the background, and following a series of interactive thresholding and cleaning steps, returns a suite of statistics and information on the structure of leaf venation networks and areoles. Metrics include the dimensions, position, and connectivity of all network veins, and the dimensions, shape, and position of the areoles they surround. Available for free download, the LEAF GUI software promises to facilitate improved understanding of the adaptive and ecological significance of leaf vein network structure. PMID:21057114

  5. An Engineered Monolignol 4-O-Methyltransferase Depresses Lignin Biosynthesis and Confers Novel Metabolic Capability in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kewei; Bhuiya, Mohammad-Wadud; Pazo, Jorge Rencoret; Miao, Yuchen; Kim, Hoon; Ralph, John; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Although the practice of protein engineering is industrially fruitful in creating biocatalysts and therapeutic proteins, applications of analogous techniques in the field of plant metabolic engineering are still in their infancy. Lignins are aromatic natural polymers derived from the oxidative polymerization of primarily three different hydroxycinnamyl alcohols, the monolignols. Polymerization of lignin starts with the oxidation of monolignols, followed by endwise cross-coupling of (radicals of) a monolignol and the growing oligomer/polymer. The para-hydroxyl of each monolignol is crucial for radical generation and subsequent coupling. Here, we describe the structure-function analysis and catalytic improvement of an artificial monolignol 4-O-methyltransferase created by iterative saturation mutagenesis and its use in modulating lignin and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. We show that expressing the created enzyme in planta, thus etherifying the para-hydroxyls of lignin monomeric precursors, denies the derived monolignols any participation in the subsequent coupling process, substantially reducing lignification and, ultimately, lignin content. Concomitantly, the transgenic plants accumulated de novo synthesized 4-O-methylated soluble phenolics and wall-bound esters. The lower lignin levels of transgenic plants resulted in higher saccharification yields. Our study, through a structure-based protein engineering approach, offers a novel strategy for modulating phenylpropanoid/lignin biosynthesis to improve cell wall digestibility and diversify the repertories of biologically active compounds. PMID:22851762

  6. Complete Measurement of Stable Isotopes in N2O (δ15N, δ15Nα, δ15Nβ, δ18O, δ17O) Using Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leen, J. B.; Gupta, M.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrate contamination in water is a worldwide environmental problem and source apportionment is critical to managing nitrate pollution. Fractionation caused by physical, chemical and biological processes alters the isotope ratios of nitrates (15N/14N, 18O/16O and 17O/16O) and biochemical nitrification and denitrification impart different intramolecular site preference (15N14NO vs. 14N15NO). Additionally, atmospheric nitrate is anomalously enriched in 17O compared to other nitrate sources. The anomaly (Δ17O) is conserved during fractionation processes, providing a tracer of atmospheric nitrate. All of these effects can be used to apportion nitrate in soil. Current technology for measuring nitrate isotopes is complicated and costly - it involves conversion of nitrate to nitrous oxide (N2O), purification, preconcentration and measurement by isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). Site specific measurements require a custom IRMS. There is a pressing need to make this measurement simpler and more accessible. Los Gatos Research has developed a next generation mid-infrared Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) analyzer to quantify all stable isotope ratios of N2O (δ15N, δ15Nα, δ15Nβ, δ18O, δ17O). We present the latest performance data demonstrating the precision and accuracy of the OA-ICOS based measurement. At an N2O concentration of 322 ppb, the analyzer quantifies [N2O], δ15N, δ15Na, δ15Nb, and δ18O with a precision of ±0.05 ppb, ±0.4 ‰, ±0.45 ‰, and ±0.6 ‰, and ±0.8 ‰ respectively (1σ, 100s; 1σ, 1000s for δ18O). Measurements of gas standards demonstrate accuracy better than ±1 ‰ for isotope ratios over a wide dynamic range (200 - 100,000 ppb). The measurement of δ17O requires a higher concentration (1 - 50 ppm), easily obtainable through conversion of nitrates in water. For 10 ppm of N2O, the instrument achieves a δ17O precision of ±0.05 ‰ (1σ, 1000s). This performance is sufficient to quantify atmospheric

  7. Improving photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Evans, John R

    2013-08-01

    Photosynthesis is the basis of plant growth, and improving photosynthesis can contribute toward greater food security in the coming decades as world population increases. Multiple targets have been identified that could be manipulated to increase crop photosynthesis. The most important target is Rubisco because it catalyses both carboxylation and oxygenation reactions and the majority of responses of photosynthesis to light, CO₂, and temperature are reflected in its kinetic properties. Oxygenase activity can be reduced either by concentrating CO₂ around Rubisco or by modifying the kinetic properties of Rubisco. The C₄ photosynthetic pathway is a CO₂-concentrating mechanism that generally enables C₄ plants to achieve greater efficiency in their use of light, nitrogen, and water than C₃ plants. To capitalize on these advantages, attempts have been made to engineer the C₄ pathway into C₃ rice (Oryza sativa). A simpler approach is to transfer bicarbonate transporters from cyanobacteria into chloroplasts and prevent CO₂ leakage. Recent technological breakthroughs now allow higher plant Rubisco to be engineered and assembled successfully in planta. Novel amino acid sequences can be introduced that have been impossible to reach via normal evolution, potentially enlarging the range of kinetic properties and breaking free from the constraints associated with covariation that have been observed between certain kinetic parameters. Capturing the promise of improved photosynthesis in greater yield potential will require continued efforts to improve carbon allocation within the plant as well as to maintain grain quality and resistance to disease and lodging.

  8. Antisense Down-Regulation of 4CL Expression Alters Lignification, Tree Growth, and Saccharification Potential of Field-Grown Poplar1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Voelker, Steven L.; Lachenbruch, Barbara; Meinzer, Frederick C.; Jourdes, Michael; Ki, Chanyoung; Patten, Ann M.; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Gunter, Lee; Decker, Stephen R.; Selig, Michael J.; Sykes, Robert; Himmel, Michael E.; Kitin, Peter; Shevchenko, Olga; Strauss, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic down-regulation of the Pt4CL1 gene family encoding 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) has been reported as a means for reducing lignin content in cell walls and increasing overall growth rates, thereby improving feedstock quality for paper and bioethanol production. Using hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba), we applied this strategy and examined field-grown transformants for both effects on wood biochemistry and tree productivity. The reductions in lignin contents obtained correlated well with 4CL RNA expression, with a sharp decrease in lignin amount being observed for RNA expression below approximately 50% of the nontransgenic control. Relatively small lignin reductions of approximately 10% were associated with reduced productivity, decreased wood syringyl/guaiacyl lignin monomer ratios, and a small increase in the level of incorporation of H-monomers (p-hydroxyphenyl) into cell walls. Transgenic events with less than approximately 50% 4CL RNA expression were characterized by patches of reddish-brown discolored wood that had approximately twice the extractive content of controls (largely complex polyphenolics). There was no evidence that substantially reduced lignin contents increased growth rates or saccharification potential. Our results suggest that the capacity for lignin reduction is limited; below a threshold, large changes in wood chemistry and plant metabolism were observed that adversely affected productivity and potential ethanol yield. They also underline the importance of field studies to obtain physiologically meaningful results and to support technology development with transgenic trees. PMID:20729393

  9. Enhanced Seed Oil Production in Canola by Conditional Expression of Brassica napus LEAFY COTYLEDON1 and LEC1-LIKE in Developing Seeds1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Helin; Yang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Fengxia; Zheng, Xiu; Qu, Cunmin; Mu, Jinye; Fu, Fuyou; Li, Jiana; Guan, Rongzhan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Guodong; Zuo, Jianru

    2011-01-01

    The seed oil content in oilseed crops is a major selection trait to breeders. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) and LEC1-LIKE (L1L) are key regulators of fatty acid biosynthesis. Overexpression of AtLEC1 and its orthologs in canola (Brassica napus), BnLEC1 and BnL1L, causes an increased fatty acid level in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, which, however, also show severe developmental abnormalities. Here, we use truncated napin A promoters, which retain the seed-specific expression pattern but with a reduced expression level, to drive the expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L in transgenic canola. Conditional expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L increases the seed oil content by 2% to 20% and has no detrimental effects on major agronomic traits. In the transgenic canola, expression of a subset of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and glycolysis is up-regulated in developing seeds. Moreover, the BnLEC1 transgene enhances the expression of several genes involved in Suc synthesis and transport in developing seeds and the silique wall. Consistently, the accumulation of Suc and Fru is increased in developing seeds of the transgenic rapeseed, suggesting the increased carbon flux to fatty acid biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that BnLEC1 and BnL1L are reliable targets for genetic improvement of rapeseed in seed oil production. PMID:21562329

  10. Structure-Function Analyses of a Caffeic Acid O-Methyltransferase from Perennial Ryegrass Reveal the Molecular Basis for Substrate Preference[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Louie, Gordon V.; Bowman, Marianne E.; Tu, Yi; Mouradov, Aidyn; Spangenberg, German; Noel, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    Lignin forms from the polymerization of phenylpropanoid-derived building blocks (the monolignols), whose modification through hydroxylation and O-methylation modulates the chemical and physical properties of the lignin polymer. The enzyme caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) is central to lignin biosynthesis. It is often targeted in attempts to engineer the lignin composition of transgenic plants for improved forage digestibility, pulping efficiency, or utility in biofuel production. Despite intensive investigation, the structural determinants of the regiospecificity and substrate selectivity of COMT remain poorly defined. Reported here are x-ray crystallographic structures of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) COMT (Lp OMT1) in open conformational state, apo- and holoenzyme forms and, most significantly, in a closed conformational state complexed with the products S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine and sinapaldehyde. The product-bound complex reveals the post-methyl-transfer organization of COMT’s catalytic groups with reactant molecules and the fully formed phenolic-ligand binding site. The core scaffold of the phenolic ligand forges a hydrogen-bonding network involving the 4-hydroxy group that anchors the aromatic ring and thereby permits only metahydroxyl groups to be positioned for transmethylation. While distal from the site of transmethylation, the propanoid tail substituent governs the kinetic preference of ryegrass COMT for aldehydes over alcohols and acids due to a single hydrogen bond donor for the C9 oxygenated moiety dictating the preference for an aldehyde. PMID:21177481

  11. A Sister Group Contrast Using Untargeted Global Metabolomic Analysis Delineates the Biochemical Regulation Underlying Desiccation Tolerance in Sporobolus stapfianus[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Melvin J.; Guo, Lining; Alexander, Danny C.; Ryals, John A.; Wone, Bernard W.M.; Cushman, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how plants tolerate dehydration is a prerequisite for developing novel strategies for improving drought tolerance. The desiccation-tolerant (DT) Sporobolus stapfianus and the desiccation-sensitive (DS) Sporobolus pyramidalis formed a sister group contrast to reveal adaptive metabolic responses to dehydration using untargeted global metabolomic analysis. Young leaves from both grasses at full hydration or at 60% relative water content (RWC) and from S. stapfianus at lower RWCs were analyzed using liquid and gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry or tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison of the two species in the fully hydrated state revealed intrinsic differences between the two metabolomes. S. stapfianus had higher concentrations of osmolytes, lower concentrations of metabolites associated with energy metabolism, and higher concentrations of nitrogen metabolites, suggesting that it is primed metabolically for dehydration stress. Further reduction of the leaf RWC to 60% instigated a metabolic shift in S. stapfianus toward the production of protective compounds, whereas S. pyramidalis responded differently. The metabolomes of S. stapfianus leaves below 40% RWC were strongly directed toward antioxidant production, nitrogen remobilization, ammonia detoxification, and soluble sugar production. Collectively, the metabolic profiles obtained uncovered a cascade of biochemical regulation strategies critical to the survival of S. stapfianus under desiccation. PMID:21467579

  12. An 8-week multimodal treatment program improves symptoms of knee osteoarthritis: a real-world multicenter experience

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report outcomes from a 5-year real-world clinical experience with a multimodal treatment program in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Patients with symptomatic, radiographically confirmed knee OA resistant to traditional conservative treatments underwent a supervised 8-week multimodal treatment program consisting of low-impact aerobic exercise, muscle flexibility exercises, joint mobilization, physical therapy modalities, muscle strengthening and functional training, patient education, and a series of 3 or 5 weekly hyaluronic acid injections. Patients were evaluated at admission, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. Patient-reported outcomes included knee pain severity using an 11-point (0–10) numerical scale and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. Results A total of 3,569 patients completed an 8-week treatment course between January 2008 and April 2013 at 66 dedicated treatment centers in the United States. Knee pain severity assessed on a numeric scale decreased 59% on average, from 5.4±2.9 to 2.2±2.2 (P<0.001). Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index subscores decreased by 44% to 51% (all P<0.001) during the 8-week program. The percentage of patients achieving the threshold for Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index minimally perceptible clinical improvement was 79% for the Pain subscale, 75% for Function, and 76% for Stiffness. Favorable patient outcomes were reported in all subgroups, regardless of age, sex, body mass index, disease severity, or number of treatment cycles. Discussion A real-world 8-week multimodal treatment program results in clinically meaningful improvements in knee OA symptoms, with excellent generalizability across a broad range of patient characteristics. PMID:27774023

  13. Results of tests of advanced flexible insulation vortex and flow environments in the North American Aerodynamics Laboratory lowspeed wind tunnel using 0.0405-scale Space Shuttle Orbiter model 16-0 (test OA-309)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, B. A.; Nichols, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental investigation (Test OA-309) was conducted using 0.0405-scale Space Shuttle Orbiter Model 16-0 in the North American Aerodynamics Laboratory 7.75 x 11.00-foot Lowspeed Wind Tunnel. The primary purpose was to locate and study any flow conditions or vortices that might have caused damage to the Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) during the Space Transportation System STS-6 mission. A secondary objective was to evaluate vortex generators to be used for Wind Tunnel Test OS-314. Flowfield visualization was obtained by means of smoke, tufts, and oil flow. The test was conducted at Mach numbers between 0.07 and 0.23 and at dynamic pressures between 7 and 35 pounds per square foot. The angle-of-attack range of the model was -5 degrees through 35 degrees at 0 or 2 degrees of sideslip, while roll angle was held constant at zero degrees. The vortex generators were studied at angles of 0, 5, 10, and 15 degrees.

  14. SOCS-1 inhibits expression of the antiviral proteins 2',5'-OAS and MxA induced by the novel interferon-lambdas IL-28A and IL-29.

    PubMed

    Brand, Stephan; Zitzmann, Kathrin; Dambacher, Julia; Beigel, Florian; Olszak, Torsten; Vlotides, George; Eichhorst, Sören T; Göke, Burkhard; Diepolder, Helmut; Auernhammer, Christoph J

    2005-06-03

    Recently, we have shown that SOCS-1/3 overexpression in hepatic cells abrogates signaling of type I interferons (IFN) which may contribute to the frequently observed IFN resistance of hepatitis C virus (HCV). IFN-lambdas (IL-28A/B and IL-29), a novel group of IFNs, also efficiently inhibit HCV replication in vitro with potentially less hematopoietic side effects than IFN-alpha because of limited receptor expression in hematopoietic cells. To further evaluate the potential of IFN-lambdas in chronic viral hepatitis, we examined the influence of SOCS protein expression on IFN-lambda signaling. First, we show that hepatic cell lines express the IFN-lambda receptor complex consisting of IFN-lambdaR1 (IL-28R1) and IL-10R2. Whereas in mock-transfected HepG2 cells, IL-28A and IL-29 induced STAT1 and STAT3 phosphorylation, overexpression of SOCS-1 completely abrogated IL-28A and IL-29-induced STAT1/3 phosphorylation. Similarly, IL-28A and IL-29 induced mRNA expression of the antiviral proteins 2',5'-OAS and MxA was abolished by overexpression of SOCS-1. In conclusion, we assume that despite antiviral properties of IFN-lambdas, their efficacy as antiviral agents may have similar limitations as IFN-alpha due to inhibition by SOCS proteins.

  15. Impact of the Carbon and Nitrogen Supply on Relationships and Connectivity between Metabolism and Biomass in a Broad Panel of Arabidopsis Accessions1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sulpice, Ronan; Nikoloski, Zoran; Tschoep, Hendrik; Antonio, Carla; Kleessen, Sabrina; Larhlimi, Abdelhalim; Selbig, Joachim; Ishihara, Hirofumi; Gibon, Yves; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Stitt, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Natural genetic diversity provides a powerful tool to study the complex interrelationship between metabolism and growth. Profiling of metabolic traits combined with network-based and statistical analyses allow the comparison of conditions and identification of sets of traits that predict biomass. However, it often remains unclear why a particular set of metabolites is linked with biomass and to what extent the predictive model is applicable beyond a particular growth condition. A panel of 97 genetically diverse Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions was grown in near-optimal carbon and nitrogen supply, restricted carbon supply, and restricted nitrogen supply and analyzed for biomass and 54 metabolic traits. Correlation-based metabolic networks were generated from the genotype-dependent variation in each condition to reveal sets of metabolites that show coordinated changes across accessions. The networks were largely specific for a single growth condition. Partial least squares regression from metabolic traits allowed prediction of biomass within and, slightly more weakly, across conditions (cross-validated Pearson correlations in the range of 0.27–0.58 and 0.21–0.51 and P values in the range of <0.001–<0.13 and <0.001–<0.023, respectively). Metabolic traits that correlate with growth or have a high weighting in the partial least squares regression were mainly condition specific and often related to the resource that restricts growth under that condition. Linear mixed-model analysis using the combined metabolic traits from all growth conditions as an input indicated that inclusion of random effects for the conditions improves predictions of biomass. Thus, robust prediction of biomass across a range of conditions requires condition-specific measurement of metabolic traits to take account of environment-dependent changes of the underlying networks. PMID:23515278

  16. Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought- and Salt-Tolerant, Selenium-Enriched Nutraceutical Fruit Crop for Biofortified Foods1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Bañuelos, Gary S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Walse, Spencer S.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Yang, Soo In; Pickering, Ingrid J.; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A.H.; Freeman, John L.

    2011-01-01

    The organ-specific accumulation, spatial distribution, and chemical speciation of selenium (Se) were previously unknown for any species of cactus. We investigated Se in Opuntia ficus-indica using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, microfocused x-ray fluorescence elemental and chemical mapping (μXRF), Se K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). μXRF showed Se concentrated inside small conic, vestigial leaves (cladode tips), the cladode vasculature, and the seed embryos. Se K-edge XANES demonstrated that approximately 96% of total Se in cladode, fruit juice, fruit pulp, and seed is carbon-Se-carbon (C-Se-C). Micro and bulk XANES analysis showed that cladode tips contained both selenate and C-Se-C forms. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry quantification of Se in high-performance liquid chromatography fractions followed by LC-MS structural identification showed selenocystathionine-to-selenomethionine (SeMet) ratios of 75:25, 71:29, and 32:68, respectively in cladode, fruit, and seed. Enzymatic digestions and subsequent analysis confirmed that Se was mainly present in a “free” nonproteinaceous form inside cladode and fruit, while in the seed, Se was incorporated into proteins associated with lipids. μXRF chemical mapping illuminated the specific location of Se reduction and assimilation from selenate accumulated in the cladode tips into the two LC-MS-identified C-Se-C forms before they were transported into the cladode mesophyll. We conclude that Opuntia is a secondary Se-accumulating plant whose fruit and cladode contain mostly free selenocystathionine and SeMet, while seeds contain mainly SeMet in protein. When eaten, the organic Se forms in Opuntia fruit, cladode, and seed may improve health, increase Se mineral nutrition, and help prevent multiple human cancers. PMID:21059825

  17. Regulation of the Nitrogen Transfer Pathway in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis: Gene Characterization and the Coordination of Expression with Nitrogen Flux1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chunjie; Kasiborski, Beth; Koul, Raman; Lammers, Peter J.; Bücking, Heike; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2010-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) brings together the roots of over 80% of land plant species and fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota and greatly benefits plants through improved uptake of mineral nutrients. AM fungi can take up both nitrate and ammonium from the soil and transfer nitrogen (N) to host roots in nutritionally substantial quantities. The current model of N handling in the AM symbiosis includes the synthesis of arginine in the extraradical mycelium and the transfer of arginine to the intraradical mycelium, where it is broken down to release N for transfer to the host plant. To understand the mechanisms and regulation of N transfer from the fungus to the plant, 11 fungal genes putatively involved in the pathway were identified from Glomus intraradices, and for six of them the full-length coding sequence was functionally characterized by yeast complementation. Two glutamine synthetase isoforms were found to have different substrate affinities and expression patterns, suggesting different roles in N assimilation. The spatial and temporal expression of plant and fungal N metabolism genes were followed after nitrate was added to the extraradical mycelium under N-limited growth conditions using hairy root cultures. In parallel experiments with 15N, the levels and labeling of free amino acids were measured to follow transport and metabolism. The gene expression pattern and profiling of metabolites involved in the N pathway support the idea that the rapid uptake, translocation, and transfer of N by the fungus successively trigger metabolic gene expression responses in the extraradical mycelium, intraradical mycelium, and host plant. PMID:20448102

  18. Antisense Reduction of NADP-Malic Enzyme in Flaveria bidentis Reduces Flow of CO2 through the C4 Cycle[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Pengelly, Jasper J.L.; Tan, Jackie; Furbank, Robert T.; von Caemmerer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    An antisense construct targeting the C4 isoform of NADP-malic enzyme (ME), the primary enzyme decarboxylating malate in bundle sheath cells to supply CO2 to Rubisco, was used to transform the dicot Flaveria bidentis. Transgenic plants (α-NADP-ME) exhibited a 34% to 75% reduction in NADP-ME activity relative to the wild type with no visible growth phenotype. We characterized the effect of reducing NADP-ME on photosynthesis by measuring in vitro photosynthetic enzyme activity, gas exchange, and real-time carbon isotope discrimination (Δ). In α-NADP-ME plants with less than 40% of wild-type NADP-ME activity, CO2 assimilation rates at high intercellular CO2 were significantly reduced, whereas the in vitro activities of both phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and Rubisco were increased. Δ measured concurrently with gas exchange in these plants showed a lower Δ and thus a lower calculated leakiness of CO2 (the ratio of CO2 leak rate from the bundle sheath to the rate of CO2 supply). Comparative measurements on antisense Rubisco small subunit F. bidentis plants showed the opposite effect of increased Δ and leakiness. We use these measurements to estimate the C4 cycle rate, bundle sheath leak rate, and bundle sheath CO2 concentration. The comparison of α-NADP-ME and antisense Rubisco small subunit demonstrates that the coordination of the C3 and C4 cycles that exist during environmental perturbations by light and CO2 can be disrupted through transgenic manipulations. Furthermore, our results suggest that the efficiency of the C4 pathway could potentially be improved through a reduction in C4 cycle activity or increased C3 cycle activity. PMID:22846191

  19. A Plasma Membrane-Anchored Fluorescent Protein Fusion Illuminates Sieve Element Plasma Membranes in Arabidopsis and Tobacco1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Matthew V.; Wolniak, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid acquisition of quantitative anatomical data from the sieve tubes of angiosperm phloem has been confounded by their small size, their distance from organ surfaces, and the time-consuming nature of traditional methods, such as transmission electron microscopy. To improve access to these cells, for which good anatomical data are critical, a monomeric yellow fluorescent protein (mCitrine) was N-terminally fused to a small (approximately 6 kD) membrane protein (AtRCI2A) and stably expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia-0 ecotype) and Nicotiana tabacum (‘Samsun’) under the control of a companion cell-specific promoter (AtSUC2p). The construct, called by its abbreviation SUmCR, yielded stable sieve element (SE) plasma membrane fluorescence labeling, even after plastic (methacrylate) embedding. In conjunction with wide-field fluorescence measurements of sieve pore number and position using aniline blue-stained callose, mCitrine-labeled material was used to calculate rough estimates of sieve tube-specific conductivity for both species. The SUmCR construct also revealed a hitherto unknown expression domain of the AtSUC2 Suc-H+ symporter in the epidermis of the cell division zone of developing root tips. The success of this construct in targeting plasma membrane-anchored fluorescent proteins to SEs could be attributable to the small size of AtRCI2A or to the presence of other signals innate to AtRCI2A that permit the protein to be trafficked to SEs. The construct provides a hitherto unique entrée into companion cell-to-SE protein targeting, as well as a new tool for studying whole-plant phloem anatomy and architecture. PMID:18223149

  20. Mathematical Modeling-Guided Evaluation of Biochemical, Developmental, Environmental, and Genotypic Determinants of Essential Oil Composition and Yield in Peppermint Leaves1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Rios-Estepa, Rigoberto; Lange, Iris; Lee, James M.; Lange, B. Markus

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reported the use of a combination of computational simulations and targeted experiments to build a first generation mathematical model of peppermint (Mentha × piperita) essential oil biosynthesis. Here, we report on the expansion of this approach to identify the key factors controlling monoterpenoid essential oil biosynthesis under adverse environmental conditions. We also investigated determinants of essential oil biosynthesis in transgenic peppermint lines with modulated essential oil profiles. A computational perturbation analysis, which was implemented to identify the variables that exert prominent control over the outputs of the model, indicated that the essential oil composition should be highly dependent on certain biosynthetic enzyme concentrations [(+)-pulegone reductase and (+)-menthofuran synthase], whereas oil yield should be particularly sensitive to the density and/or distribution of leaf glandular trichomes, the specialized anatomical structures responsible for the synthesis and storage of essential oils. A microscopic evaluation of leaf surfaces demonstrated that the final mature size of glandular trichomes was the same across all experiments. However, as predicted by the perturbation analysis, differences in the size distribution and the total number of glandular trichomes strongly correlated with differences in monoterpenoid essential oil yield. Building on various experimental data sets, appropriate mathematical functions were selected to approximate the dynamics of glandular trichome distribution/density and enzyme concentrations in our kinetic model. Based on a χ2 statistical analysis, simulated and measured essential oil profiles were in very good agreement, indicating that modeling is a valuable tool for guiding metabolic engineering efforts aimed at improving essential oil quality and quantity. PMID:20147490

  1. Oil and Protein Accumulation in Developing Seeds Is Influenced by the Expression of a Cytosolic Pyrophosphatase in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Knut; Stecca, Kevin L.; Ewell-Hicks, Kim; Allen, Stephen M.; Everard, John D.

    2012-01-01

    genes encoding cytosolic pyrophosphatase enzymes provide novel targets to improve seed composition for plant biotechnology applications. PMID:22566496

  2. Increasing ω-3 Desaturase Expression in Tomato Results in Altered Aroma Profile and Enhanced Resistance to Cold Stress1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Teresa; Hernández, M. Luisa; Pennycooke, Joyce C.; Jiménez, Pedro; Martínez-Rivas, José Manuel; Sanz, Carlos; Stockinger, Eric J.; Sánchez-Serrano, José J.; Sanmartín, Maite

    2010-01-01

    One of the drawbacks in improving the aroma properties of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit is the complexity of this organoleptic trait, with a great variety of volatiles contributing to determine specific quality features. It is well established that the oxylipins hexanal and (Z)-hex-3-enal, synthesized through the lipoxygenase pathway, are among the most important aroma compounds and impart in a correct proportion some of the unique fresh notes in tomato. Here, we confirm that all enzymes responsible for the synthesis of these C6 compounds are present and active in tomato fruit. Moreover, due to the low odor threshold of (Z)-hex-3-enal, small changes in the concentration of this compound could modify the properties of the tomato fruit aroma. To address this possibility, we have overexpressed the ω-3 fatty acid desaturases FAD3 and FAD7 that catalyze the conversion of linoleic acid (18:2) to linolenic acid (18:3), the precursor of hexenals and its derived alcohols. Transgenic OE-FAD tomato plants exhibit altered fatty acid composition, with an increase in the 18:3/18:2 ratio in leaves and fruits. These changes provoke a clear variation in the C6 content that results in a significant alteration of the (Z)-hex-3-enal/hexanal ratio that is particularly important in ripe OE-FAD3FAD7 fruits. In addition to this effect on tomato volatile profile, OE-FAD tomato plants are more tolerant to chilling. However, the different behaviors of OE-FAD plants underscore the existence of separate fatty acid fluxes to ensure plant survival under adverse conditions. PMID:20382895

  3. Overexpression of a BAHD Acyltransferase, OsAt10, Alters Rice Cell Wall Hydroxycinnamic Acid Content and Saccharification1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, Laura E.; Peck, Matthew L.; Kim, Sung-Ryul; Ebert, Berit; Manisseri, Chithra; Chiniquy, Dawn M.; Sykes, Robert; Gao, Lingfang; Rautengarten, Carsten; Vega-Sánchez, Miguel E.; Benke, Peter I.; Canlas, Patrick E.; Cao, Peijian; Brewer, Susan; Lin, Fan; Smith, Whitney L.; Zhang, Xiaohan; Keasling, Jay D.; Jentoff, Rolf E.; Foster, Steven B.; Zhou, Jizhong; Ziebell, Angela; An, Gynheung; Scheller, Henrik V.; Ronald, Pamela C.

    2013-01-01

    Grass cell wall properties influence food, feed, and biofuel feedstock usage efficiency. The glucuronoarabinoxylan of grass cell walls is esterified with the phenylpropanoid-derived hydroxycinnamic acids ferulic acid (FA) and para-coumaric acid (p-CA). Feruloyl esters undergo oxidative coupling with neighboring phenylpropanoids on glucuronoarabinoxylan and lignin. Examination of rice (Oryza sativa) mutants in a grass-expanded and -diverged clade of BAHD acyl-coenzyme A-utilizing transferases identified four mutants with altered cell wall FA or p-CA contents. Here, we report on the effects of overexpressing one of these genes, OsAt10 (LOC_Os06g39390), in rice. An activation-tagged line, OsAT10-D1, shows a 60% reduction in matrix polysaccharide-bound FA and an approximately 300% increase in p-CA in young leaf tissue but no discernible phenotypic alterations in vegetative development, lignin content, or lignin composition. Two additional independent OsAt10 overexpression lines show similar changes in FA and p-CA content. Cell wall fractionation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry experiments isolate the cell wall alterations in the mutant to ester conjugates of a five-carbon sugar with p-CA and FA. These results suggest that OsAT10 is a p-coumaroyl coenzyme A transferase involved in glucuronoarabinoxylan modification. Biomass from OsAT10-D1 exhibits a 20% to 40% increase in saccharification yield depending on the assay. Thus, OsAt10 is an attractive target for improving grass cell wall quality for fuel and animal feed. PMID:23391577

  4. Improvement of physicochemical characteristics of monoepoxide linoleic acid ring opening for biolubricant base oil.

    PubMed

    Salimon, Jumat; Salih, Nadia; Abdullah, Bashar Mudhaffar

    2011-01-01

    For environmental reasons, a new class of environmentally acceptable and renewable biolubricant based on vegetable oils is available. In this study, oxirane ring opening reaction of monoepoxide linoleic acid (MEOA) was done by nucleophilic addition of oleic acid (OA) with using p-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA) as a catalyst for synthesis of 9(12)-hydroxy-10(13)-oleoxy-12(9)-octadecanoic acid (HYOOA) and the physicochemical properties of the resulted HYOOA are reported to be used as biolubricant base oils. Optimum conditions of the experiment using D-optimal design to obtain high yield% of HYOOA and lowest OOC% were predicted at OA/MEOA ratio of 0.30 : 1 (w/w), PTSA/MEOA ratio of 0.50 : 1 (w/w), reaction temperature at 110°C, and reaction time at 4.5 h. The results showed that an increase in the chain length of the midchain ester resulted in the decrease of pour point (PP) -51°C, increase of viscosity index (VI) up to 153, and improvement in oxidative stability (OT) to 180.94°C.

  5. Improvement of Physicochemical Characteristics of Monoepoxide Linoleic Acid Ring Opening for Biolubricant Base Oil

    PubMed Central

    Salimon, Jumat; Salih, Nadia; Abdullah, Bashar Mudhaffar

    2011-01-01

    For environmental reasons, a new class of environmentally acceptable and renewable biolubricant based on vegetable oils is available. In this study, oxirane ring opening reaction of monoepoxide linoleic acid (MEOA) was done by nucleophilic addition of oleic acid (OA) with using p-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA) as a catalyst for synthesis of 9(12)-hydroxy-10(13)-oleoxy-12(9)-octadecanoic acid (HYOOA) and the physicochemical properties of the resulted HYOOA are reported to be used as biolubricant base oils. Optimum conditions of the experiment using D-optimal design to obtain high yield% of HYOOA and lowest OOC% were predicted at OA/MEOA ratio of 0.30 : 1 (w/w), PTSA/MEOA ratio of 0.50 : 1 (w/w), reaction temperature at 110°C, and reaction time at 4.5 h. The results showed that an increase in the chain length of the midchain ester resulted in the decrease of pour point (PP) −51°C, increase of viscosity index (VI) up to 153, and improvement in oxidative stability (OT) to 180.94°C. PMID:22131799

  6. Does knee replacement surgery for osteoarthritis improve survival? The jury is still out

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Devyani; Lu, Na; Felson, David; Choi, Hyon K; Seeger, John; Einhorn, Thomas; Neogi, Tuhina; Zhang, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Background The relation of knee replacement (KR) surgery to all-cause mortality has not been well established owing to potential biases in previous studies. Thus, we aimed to examine the relation of KR to mortality risk among patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) focusing on identifying biases that may threaten the validity of prior studies. Methods We included knee OA subjects (ages 50–89 years) from The Health Improvement Network, an electronic medical records database in the UK. Risk of mortality among KR subjects was compared with propensity score-matched non-KR subjects. To explore residual confounding bias, subgroup analyses stratified by age and propensity scores were performed. Results Subjects with KR had 28% lower risk of mortality than non-KR subjects (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.78). However, when stratified by age, protective effect was noted only in older age groups (>63 years) but not in younger subjects (≤63 years). Further, the mortality rate among KR subjects decreased as candidacy (propensity score) for KR increased among subjects with KR, but no such consistent trend was noted among non-KR subjects. Conclusions While a protective effect of KR on mortality cannot be ruled out, findings of lower mortality among older KR subjects and those with higher propensity scores suggest that prognosis-based selection for KR may lead to intractable confounding by indication; hence, the protective effect of KR on all-cause mortality may be overestimated. PMID:27190096

  7. Improved aethalometer

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, A.D.

    1988-01-25

    An improved aethalometer having a single light source and a single light detector and two light paths from the light source to the light detector. A quartz fiber filter is inserted in the device, the filter having a collection area in one light path and a reference area in the other light path. A gas flow path through the aethalometer housing allows ambient air to flow through the collection area of the filter so that aerosol particles can be collected on the filter. A rotating disk with an opening therethrough allows light for the light source to pass alternately through the two light paths. The voltage output of the detector is applied to a VCO and the VCO pulses for light transmission separately through the two light paths, are counted and compared to determine the absorption coefficient of the collected aerosol particles. 5 figs.

  8. Interim Columbia and Snake rivers flow improvement measures for salmon: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Public comments are sought on this final SEIS, which supplements the 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis (OA)/Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The Corps of Engineers, in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation proposes five alternatives to improve flows of water in the lower Columbia-Snake rivers in 1993 and future years to assist the migration of juvenile and adult anadromous fish past eight hydropower dams. These are: (1) Without Project (no action) Alternative, (2) the 1992 Operation, (3) the 1992 Operation with Libby/Hungry Horse Sensitivity, (4) a Modified 1992 Operation with Improvements to Salmon Flows from Dworshak, and (5) a Modified 1992 Operation with Upper Snake Sensitivity. Alternative 4, Modified 1992 Operations, has been identified as the preferred alternative.

  9. Bitterness in Almonds1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Olsen, Carl Erik; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2008-01-01

    Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis) is determined by the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. The ability to synthesize and degrade prunasin and amygdalin in the almond kernel was studied throughout the growth season using four different genotypes for bitterness. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed a specific developmentally dependent accumulation of prunasin in the tegument of the bitter genotype. The prunasin level decreased concomitant with the initiation of amygdalin accumulation in the cotyledons of the bitter genotype. By administration of radiolabeled phenylalanine, the tegument was identified as a specific site of synthesis of prunasin in all four genotypes. A major difference between sweet and bitter genotypes was observed upon staining of thin sections of teguments and cotyledons for β-glucosidase activity using Fast Blue BB salt. In the sweet genotype, the inner epidermis in the tegument facing the nucellus was rich in cytoplasmic and vacuolar localized β-glucosidase activity, whereas in the bitter cultivar, the β-glucosidase activity in this cell layer was low. These combined data show that in the bitter genotype, prunasin synthesized in the tegument is transported into the cotyledon via the transfer cells and converted into amygdalin in the developing almond seed, whereas in the sweet genotype, amygdalin formation is prevented because the prunasin is degraded upon passage of the β-glucosidase-rich cell layer in the inner epidermis of the tegument. The prunasin turnover may offer a buffer supply of ammonia, aspartic acid, and asparagine enabling the plants to balance the supply of nitrogen to the developing cotyledons. PMID:18192442

  10. OAS and the Use of Military Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    regional agencies was stated by United States Representative Adlai E. Stevenson on 22 May 1965 during the Security Council debate on the situation in...guarantee the safety of American and foreign nationals and to preserve law and order. Why did not the United States consult the Organization of American

  11. Improved Flow Cytometric Assessment Reveals Distinct Microvesicle (Cell-Derived Microparticle) Signatures in Joint Diseases

    PubMed Central

    György, Bence; Szabó, Tamás G.; Turiák, Lilla; Wright, Matthew; Herczeg, Petra; Lédeczi, Zsigmond; Kittel, Ágnes; Polgár, Anna; Tóth, Kálmán; Dérfalvi, Beáta; Zelenák, Gergő; Böröcz, István; Carr, Bob; Nagy, György; Vékey, Károly; Gay, Steffen; Falus, András; Buzás, Edit I.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Microvesicles (MVs), earlier referred to as microparticles, represent a major type of extracellular vesicles currently considered as novel biomarkers in various clinical settings such as autoimmune disorders. However, the analysis of MVs in body fluids has not been fully standardized yet, and there are numerous pitfalls that hinder the correct assessment of these structures. Methods In this study, we analyzed synovial fluid (SF) samples of patients with osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). To assess factors that may confound MV detection in joint diseases, we used electron microscopy (EM), Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) and mass spectrometry (MS). For flow cytometry, a method commonly used for phenotyping and enumeration of MVs, we combined recent advances in the field, and used a novel approach of differential detergent lysis for the exclusion of MV-mimicking non-vesicular signals. Results EM and NTA showed that substantial amounts of particles other than MVs were present in SF samples. Beyond known MV-associated proteins, MS analysis also revealed abundant plasma- and immune complex-related proteins in MV preparations. Applying improved flow cytometric analysis, we demonstrate for the first time that CD3+ and CD8+ T-cell derived SF MVs are highly elevated in patients with RA compared to OA patients (p = 0.027 and p = 0.009, respectively, after Bonferroni corrections). In JIA, we identified reduced numbers of B cell-derived MVs (p = 0.009, after Bonferroni correction). Conclusions Our results suggest that improved flow cytometric assessment of MVs facilitates the detection of previously unrecognized disease-associated vesicular signatures. PMID:23185418

  12. QCD For Intel(R) Xeon Phi(tm) and Xeon(tm) processors

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, Balint

    2014-09-11

    This library provides a library containing highly optimized Wilson-Dslash, Wilson Clover operator and Krylov subspace solvers for Lattice QCD simulations. The library is targeted at Intel(R) Xeon Phi(tm), and Intel(R) Xeon(tm) processors.

  13. Testing mixed action approaches to meson spectroscopy with twisted mass sea quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlin, J.; Palao, D.; Wagner, M.

    We explore and compare three mixed action setups with Wilson twisted mass sea quarks and different valence quark actions: (1) Wilson twisted mass, (2) Wilson twisted mass + clover and (3) Wilson + clover. Our main goal is to reduce lattice discretization errors in mesonic spectral quantities, in particular to reduce twisted mass parity and isospin breaking.

  14. QPhiX Code Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, Balint

    2014-09-16

    A simple code-generator to generate the low level code kernels used by the QPhiX Library for Lattice QCD. Generates Kernels for Wilson-Dslash, and Wilson-Clover kernels. Can be reused to write other optimized kernels for Intel Xeon Phi(tm), Intel Xeon(tm) and potentially other architectures.

  15. Ultrasound with mineral water or aqua gel to reduce pain and improve the WOMAC of knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Abdalbary, Sahar Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Osteoarthritis is the most degenerative joint disease. The aim was to investigate the effects of ultrasound using mineral water or aqua sonic gel on severity of knee pain, measured by the visual analog scale and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC). Materials and methods: Thirty women with bilateral osteoarthritis of the knee were assigned to two groups: ultrasound with mineral water (group 1, n = 15) or with aqua sonic gel (group 2, n = 15). Both groups underwent 4 weeks intervention, three per week. The participants were assessed using the visual analog scale and the WOMAC. Tests were performed before and after interventions. Results: Both groups had significantly reduced pain and improved WOMAC compared with preintervention values. Discussion: The ultrasound with mineral water group had more pronounced improvement at p-value < 0.001. Conclusion: Ultrasound with mineral water is preferable in treatment of knee OA. PMID:28031953

  16. Terminal area energy management regime investigations utilizing an 0.030-scale model (47-0) of the space shuttle vehicle orbiter configuration 140A/B/C/R in the Ames Research Center 11 x 11 foot transonic wind tunnel (OA148), volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawthorne, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    Data obtained in wind tunnel test OA148 are presented. The objectives of the test series were to: (1) obtain pressure distributions, forces and moments over the vehicle 5 orbiter in the thermal area energy management (TAEM) and approach phases of flight; (2) obtain elevon and rudder hinge moments in the TAEM and approach phases of flight; (3) obtain body flap and elevon loads for verification of loads balancing with integrated pressure distributions; and (4) obtain pressure distributions near the short OMS pods in the high subsonic, transonic and low supersonic Mach number regimes.

  17. Passive immunization targeting the N-terminal region of phosphorylated tau (residues 68-71) improves spatial memory in okadaic acid induced tauopathy model rats.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sarada; Savanur, Ganesh; Madhavadas, Sowmya

    2017-01-29

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia, characterized by progressive loss of memory and other cognitive functions. The cognitive impairment in patients with AD is closely associated with loss of synapses and the formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) containing hyperphosphorylated tau in the hippocampus. Effective treatment for AD is still not available. In this study, the sequence comprising of residues 50-71 in the N-terminal region of tau, containing theoretically predicted B- and T-cell epitopes in close proximity to pathologically relevant phospho-serine (residue 68) and phospho-threonine (residues 69, 71) was selected as a potential immunotherapeutic peptide. This 22-residue long phospho-peptide ((50)TPTEDGSEEPGSETSDAKpSpTPpT(71)) was custom synthesized and its therapeutic potential was tested in experimental rats. For this purpose, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were intranasally treated with okadaic acid (OA), a selective inhibitor of protein phosphatase PP2A. Within a day of OA administration, these rats showed marked impairment in cognitive functions with a significant increase in p-tau/t-tau ratio in the hippocampal homogenates. Passive immunization studies conducted in these OA treated rats with polyclonal anti-phospho-peptide antibodies resulted in a significant improvement in learning and memory functions in Barne's maze task. Further, p-tau levels in the hippocampal homogenates were reduced. In addition, these antibodies effectively prevented the aggregation of recombinant tau in vitro. These results demonstrate that targeting N-terminal region of tau harbouring the phospho-residue cluster 68-71 would be beneficial and may present an effective therapeutic opportunity for AD and other tauopathies.

  18. Polymerized-Type I Collagen Downregulates Inflammation and Improves Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis Following Arthroscopic Lavage: A Randomized, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Furuzawa-Carballeda, Janette; Lima, Guadalupe; Llorente, Luis; Nuñez-Álvarez, Carlos; Ruiz-Ordaz, Blanca H.; Echevarría-Zuno, Santiago; Hernández-Cuevas, Virgilio

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Polymerized-type I collagen (polymerized collagen) is a downmodulator of inflammation and cartilage regenerator biodrug. Aim. To evaluate the effect of intraarticular injections of polymerized collagen after arthroscopic lavage on inflammation and clinical improvement in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. Patients (n = 19) were treated with 6 intraarticular injections of 2 mL of polymerized collagen (n = 10) or 2 mL of placebo (n = 9) during 3 months. Followup was 3 months. The primary endpoints included Lequesne index, pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS), WOMAC, analgesic usage, the number of Tregs and proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokine-expressing peripheral cells. Secondary outcomes were Likert score and drug evaluation. Clinical and immunological improvement was determined if the decrease in pain exceeds 20 mm on a VAS, 20% of clinical outcomes, and inflammatory parameters from baseline. Urinary levels of C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of collagen type II (CTXII) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were determined. Results. Polymerized collagen was safe and well tolerated. Patients had a statistically significant improvement (P < 0.05) from baseline versus polymerized collagen and versus placebo at 6 months on Lequesne index, VAS, ESR, Tregs IL-1β, and IL-10 peripheral-expressing cells. Urinary levels of CTXII were decreased 44% in polymerized collagen versus placebo. No differences were found on incidence of adverse events between groups. Conclusion. Polymerized collagen is safe and effective on downregulation of inflammation in patients with knee OA. PMID:22545014

  19. Immune Modulation to Improve Tissue Engineering Outcomes for Cartilage Repair in the Osteoarthritic Joint

    PubMed Central

    Fahy, Niamh; Farrell, Eric; Ritter, Thomas; Ryan, Aideen E.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common form of arthritis, is a disabling degenerative joint disease affecting synovial joints and is associated with cartilage destruction, inflammation of the synovial membrane, and subchondral bone remodeling. Inflammation of the synovial membrane may arise secondary to degenerative processes in articular cartilage (AC), or may be a primary occurrence in OA pathogenesis. However, synovial inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis and disease progression of OA through the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, and is associated with cartilage destruction and pain. The triggers that initiate activation of the immune response in OA are unknown, but crosstalk between osteoarthritic chondrocytes, cartilage degradation products, and the synovium may act to perpetuate this response. Increasing evidence has emerged highlighting an important role for pro-inflammatory mediators and infiltrating inflammatory cell populations in the progression of the disease. Tissue engineering strategies hold great potential for the repair of damaged AC in an osteoarthritic joint. However, an in-depth understanding of how OA-associated inflammation impacts chondrocyte and progenitor cell behavior is required to achieve efficient cartilage regeneration in a catabolic osteoarthritic environment. In this review, we will discuss the role of inflammation in OA, and investigate novel immune modulation strategies that may prevent disease progression and facilitate successful cartilage regeneration for the treatment of OA. PMID:24950588

  20. Embarking on performance improvement.

    PubMed

    Brown, Bobbi; Falk, Leslie Hough

    2014-06-01

    Healthcare organizations should approach performance improvement as a program, not a project. The program should be led by a guidance team that identifies goals, prioritizes work, and removes barriers to enable clinical improvement teams and work groups to realize performance improvements. A healthcare enterprise data warehouse can provide the initial foundation for the program analytics. Evidence-based best practices can help achieve improved outcomes and reduced costs.

  1. Improved Electrophoresis Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, P. H.; Snyder, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Several proposed modifications are expected to improve performance of a continous-flow electrophoresis cell. Changes would allow better control of buffer flow and would increase resolution by suppressing thermal gradients. Improved electrophoresis device would have high resolution and be easy to operate. Improvements would allow better flow control and heat dissipation.

  2. Improved technical specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Improved technical specifications for nuclear power plants are outlined. The objectives of this work are to improve safety, provide a clearer understanding of safety significance, and ease NRC and industry administrative burdens. Line item improvements, bases, and implementation of the specifications are discussed.

  3. Improving America's Schools Act

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cradler, John; Bridgforth, Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    The Improving America's Schools ACT (IASA) emphasizes coherent systemic education reform, with Goals 2000 setting common standards for IASA and the recently authorized School-to-Work Program. IASA addresses the need to raise academic achievement, increase opportunities to learn, improve professional development, increase community involvement, utilize instructional applications of technology, and improve assessment, and allow more local flexibility in the use of funds.

  4. Improving the Odds, Improving Life Chances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Why is it that some schools are more successful that others in improving achievement in literacy and numeracy for those pupils who have barriers to their learning? What is it that makes the difference for the lowest achieving 20% of pupils? Her Majesty's Inspectors visited a number of schools that were making a significant difference for…

  5. Improve Math Teaching with Incremental Improvements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Star, Jon R.

    2016-01-01

    Past educational reforms have failed because they didn't meet teachers where they were. They expected major changes in practices that may have been unrealistic for many teachers even under ideal professional learning conditions. Instead of promoting broad scale changes, improvement may be more likely if they are composed of small yet powerful…

  6. Improvement of the duty cycle of an orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometer using ion gates.

    PubMed

    Brenton, A G; Krastev, T; Rousell, D J; Kennedy, M A; Craze, A S; Williams, C M

    2007-01-01

    A method to control the duty cycle of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer is described. The method relies on one or more ion gates placed in the beam path that have the function to transmit or stop the beam. These ion gates can switch from the open state to the closed state in tens of nanoseconds and effectively select portions of the mass range. The method is useful in circumstances where recording the complete mass spectrum is not an essential requirement, for example, in the analysis of known compounds where sensitivity and speed of operation are more important. It will be of benefit for applications in separation sciences with techniques involving fast chromatographic separations, where hundreds of mass spectra may be required per second. In such circumstances analytical identification may require only a limited number of masses (or mass regions) to be continuously monitored. Improvement of the duty cycle is particularly important for orthogonal-acceleration time-of-flight (oa-TOF) mass spectrometry instruments whose performance suffers from a low duty cycle. The duty cycle is not a constant for an instrument design but is a mass-dependent function and is least for smaller masses. The method described here is capable of raising the duty cycle to 100%. A theory is developed for one or more ion gate arrangements, for both linear- and reflectron-TOF systems. For a two-gate system the relationship between the positions of the first and second gates is described by a '2/3 rule'. Experimental results are shown for one-gate and two-gate operation, both in linear and in reflectron modes of operation, on an oa-TOF system built in-house.

  7. Continual improvement plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    NASA's approach to continual improvement (CI) is a systems-oriented, agency-wide approach that builds on the past accomplishments of NASA Headquarters and its field installations and helps achieve NASA's vision, mission, and values. The NASA of the future will fully use the principles of continual improvement in every aspect of its operations. This NASA CI plan defines a systematic approach and a model for continual improvement throughout NASA, stressing systems integration and optimization. It demonstrates NASA's constancy of purpose for improvement - a consistent vision of NASA as a worldwide leader in top-quality science, technology, and management practices. The CI plan provides the rationale, structures, methods, and steps, and it defines NASA's short term (1-year) objectives for improvement. The CI plan presents the deployment strategies necessary for cascading the goals and objectives throughout the agency. It also provides guidance on implementing continual improvement with participation from top leadership and all levels of employees.

  8. How Performance Improves

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry L. Harbour; Julie L. Marble

    2005-09-01

    Countless articles and books have been written about and numerous programs have been developed to improve performance. Despite this plethora of activity on how to improve performance, we have largely failed to address the more fundamental question of how performance actually improves. To begin exploring this more basic question, we have plotted some 1,200 performance records to date and found that irrespective of venue, industry, or business, there seems to be a fundamental and repeatable set of concepts regarding how performance improves over time. Such gained insights represent both opportunities and challenges to the performance technologist. Differences in performance outcomes may, for example, be as much a function of the life cycle stage of a performance system as the efficacy of the selected improvement method itself. Accordingly, it may be more difficult to compare differing performance improvement methods than previously thought.

  9. Improving assisted living care.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Nancy; Gesell, Sabina B; Widmer, Tom

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of a national measurement system, private vendors of satisfaction measurement and improvement services have played a crucial role in the quality movement in the assisted living industry. Survey responses from 175 resident-family dyads at 20 facilities were analyzed to identify priorities for service improvement from the customers' perspective. They include improving care provided by aides and management, meal service, and activities. Practical solutions for addressing these issues are presented.

  10. Ergonomic Improvements for Foundries

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Peters; Patrick Patterson

    2002-06-18

    The goal of this project was to make improvements to the production systems of the steel casting industry through ergonomic improvements. Because of the wide variety of products, the wide range of product sizes, and the relatively small quantities of any particular product, manual operations remain a vital part of the production systems of the steel casting companies. Ergonomic improvements will assist the operators to more efficiently and consistently produce quality products.

  11. Improving theatre turnaround time.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Daniel; Edwards, David; Tolchard, Stephen; Baker, Richard; Berstock, James

    2017-01-01

    The NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement has determined that a £7 million saving can be achieved per trust by improving theatre efficiency. The aim of this quality improvement project was to improve orthopaedic theatre turnaround without compromising the patient safety. We process mapped all the stages from application of dressing to knife to skin on the next patient in order to identify potential areas for improvement. Several suggestions arose which were tested in multiple PDSA cycles in a single theatre. These changes were either adopted, adapted or rejected on the basis of run chart data and theatre team feedback. Successful ideas which were adopted included, the operating department practitioner (ODP) seeing and completing check-in paperwork during the previous case rather than during turnaround, a 15 minute telephone warning to ensure the next patient was fully ready, a dedicated cleaning team mobilised during wound closure, sending for the next patient as theatre cleaning begins. Run charts demonstrate that as a result of these interventions the mean turnaround time almost halved from 66.5 minutes in July to 36.8 minutes over all PDSA cycles. This improvement has been sustained and rolled out into another theatre. As these improvements become more established we hope that additional cases will be booked, improving theatre output. The PDSA cycle continues as we believe that further gains may yet be made, and our improvements may be rolled out across other surgical specialities.

  12. Teaching quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Murray, Marry Ellen; Douglas, Stephen; Girdley, Diana; Jarzemsky, Paula

    2010-08-01

    Practicing nurses are required to engage in quality improvement work as a part of their clinical practice, but few undergraduate nursing education programs offer course work and applied experience in this area. This article presents a description of class content and teaching strategies, assignments, and evaluation strategies designed to achieve the Quality and Safety Education in Nursing competencies related to quality improvement and interdisciplinary teams. Students demonstrate their application of the quality improvement process by designing and implementing a small-scale quality improvement project that they report in storyboard format on a virtual conference Web site.

  13. Improving theatre turnaround time

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Daniel; Edwards, David; Tolchard, Stephen; Baker, Richard; Berstock, James

    2017-01-01

    The NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement has determined that a £7 million saving can be achieved per trust by improving theatre efficiency. The aim of this quality improvement project was to improve orthopaedic theatre turnaround without compromising the patient safety. We process mapped all the stages from application of dressing to knife to skin on the next patient in order to identify potential areas for improvement. Several suggestions arose which were tested in multiple PDSA cycles in a single theatre. These changes were either adopted, adapted or rejected on the basis of run chart data and theatre team feedback. Successful ideas which were adopted included, the operating department practitioner (ODP) seeing and completing check-in paperwork during the previous case rather than during turnaround, a 15 minute telephone warning to ensure the next patient was fully ready, a dedicated cleaning team mobilised during wound closure, sending for the next patient as theatre cleaning begins. Run charts demonstrate that as a result of these interventions the mean turnaround time almost halved from 66.5 minutes in July to 36.8 minutes over all PDSA cycles. This improvement has been sustained and rolled out into another theatre. As these improvements become more established we hope that additional cases will be booked, improving theatre output. The PDSA cycle continues as we believe that further gains may yet be made, and our improvements may be rolled out across other surgical specialities. PMID:28243441

  14. Automated Student Model Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koedinger, Kenneth R.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A.; Stamper, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Student modeling plays a critical role in developing and improving instruction and instructional technologies. We present a technique for automated improvement of student models that leverages the DataShop repository, crowd sourcing, and a version of the Learning Factors Analysis algorithm. We demonstrate this method on eleven educational…

  15. Improving Disambiguation in FASIT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgin, Robert; Dillon, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of automatic indexing in information retrieval systems focuses on attempts to improve the indexing representation produced by the FASIT system. Concept selection and concept grouping are explained; improving disambiguation is discussed; and a retrieval experiment to test the effectiveness of the disambiguation using the cystic fibrosis…

  16. Continuous Personal Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emiliani, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that continuous improvement tools used in the workplace can be applied to self-improvement. Explains the use of such techniques as one-piece flow, kanban, visual controls, and total productive maintenance. Points out misapplications of these tools and describes the use of fishbone diagrams to diagnose problems. (SK)

  17. Improving College Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seldin, Peter; And Others

    This volume contains 20 papers providing practical, ready-to-use, research-based information to foster effective college teaching. Four sections group the papers under the following topics: (1) key influences on teaching quality; (2) programs to improve teaching; (3) strategies for teaching improvement; and (4) approaches to nontraditional…

  18. Science Education Improvement Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, New Delhi (India).

    The report covers the activities of the Indian Science Improvement Project during the calendar year 1970. The major emphasis is on curriculum development activities. Topics covered include elementary and secondary school science programs, traveling science workshop, college science improvement program, special college/university program, technical…

  19. Improving Listening Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiss, Patricia A.; Mayer, Rose

    This report describes a program for improving listening skills, lack of which interferes with second language acquisition. The targeted population was first- and second-year Spanish students in one middle school and one high school. Intervention over 15 weeks included changes in the classroom environment (desk arrangement, improved lighting,…

  20. Teamwork Improves Office Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winck, Susan K.

    1993-01-01

    The Smeal College of Business Administration at the Pennsylvania State University selected its advising center as the pilot unit for a continuous quality improvement project using Total Quality Management principles. It was found that a quality improvement culture evolves when team practices are carried into the everyday office environment.…

  1. Towards Whole System Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatter, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between academies, and school autonomy more generally, and the wider system is a crucial issue in the battle to improve school-level education. International experience indicates that emphasising choice and competition to drive improvement is not effective and that changing structures does not yield better results for students. A…

  2. Improved wire chamber

    DOEpatents

    Atac, M.

    1987-05-12

    An improved gas mixture for use with proportional counter devices, such as Geiger-Mueller tubes and drift chambers. The improved gas mixture provides a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor. 2 figs.

  3. Improvement of School Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra Sands Unified School District, Ridgecrest, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: As a part of its School Improvement Program, James Monroe Junior High School planned to improve its school climate. Since the physical school environment was devoid of landscaping and did not provide places for student socialization, all interested groups (PTSA, student council, students, staff, and…

  4. Improved solid aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1988-07-19

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  5. Improved nonlinear prediction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adenan, Nur Hamiza; Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi

    2014-06-01

    The analysis and prediction of time series data have been addressed by researchers. Many techniques have been developed to be applied in various areas, such as weather forecasting, financial markets and hydrological phenomena involving data that are contaminated by noise. Therefore, various techniques to improve the method have been introduced to analyze and predict time series data. In respect of the importance of analysis and the accuracy of the prediction result, a study was undertaken to test the effectiveness of the improved nonlinear prediction method for data that contain noise. The improved nonlinear prediction method involves the formation of composite serial data based on the successive differences of the time series. Then, the phase space reconstruction was performed on the composite data (one-dimensional) to reconstruct a number of space dimensions. Finally the local linear approximation method was employed to make a prediction based on the phase space. This improved method was tested with data series Logistics that contain 0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of noise. The results show that by using the improved method, the predictions were found to be in close agreement with the observed ones. The correlation coefficient was close to one when the improved method was applied on data with up to 10% noise. Thus, an improvement to analyze data with noise without involving any noise reduction method was introduced to predict the time series data.

  6. Improving engineering effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiero, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Methodologies to improve engineering productivity were investigated. The rocky road to improving engineering effectiveness is reviewed utilizing a specific semiconductor engineering organization as a case study. The organization had a performance problem regarding new product introductions. With the help of this consultant as a change agent the engineering team used a systems approach to through variables that were effecting their output significantly. Critical factors for improving this engineering organization's effectiveness and the roles/responsibilities of management, the individual engineers and the internal consultant are discussed.

  7. Improved Polyimide Intumescent Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salyer, I. O.; Fox, L. B.

    1984-01-01

    New polyimide intumescent coating uses titanium dioxide and glass microballons as nucleating agents to improve foaming characteristics of commercially-available polyimide precursor resin. Used for coating interior surfaces in commercial aircraft.

  8. Improved inverted Stepanov apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkman, S.; Temple, H. E.

    1979-01-01

    Modifications in inverted Stepanov process improve heat transfer and energy efficiency in growing silicon ribbon crystals. Using system, silicon is directly heated by induction, minimizing heat transfer and contamination problems.

  9. Improving a Good Thing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes research from the Florida Solar Energy Center at the University of Central Florida which demonstrated that improvements in portable classrooms involving illumination and ventilation saved Florida 40 percent in electric use and $6 million in energy costs. (EV)

  10. Improving Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Usually the most effective way to improve indoor air quality is to eliminate individual sources of pollution or to reduce their emissions. Some sources, like those that contain asbestos, can be sealed or enclosed.

  11. Improved Atomizer Resists Clogging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dea, J. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Improved constant-output atomizer has conical orifice that permits air to sweep out all liquid thoroughly and prevent any buildup of liquid or dissolved solids. Capillary groove guides liquid to gas jet. Simple new design eliminates clogging.

  12. GPS Control Segment Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-29

    Systems Center GPS Control Segment Improvements Mr. Tim McIntyre GPS Product Support Manager GPS Ops Support and Sustainment Division Peterson...hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...DATE 29 APR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GPS Control Segment Improvements 5a. CONTRACT

  13. Overexpression of the Trehalase Gene AtTRE1 Leads to Increased Drought Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis and Is Involved in Abscisic Acid-Induced Stomatal Closure1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Van Houtte, Hilde; Vandesteene, Lies; López-Galvis, Lorena; Lemmens, Liesbeth; Kissel, Ewaut; Carpentier, Sebastien; Feil, Regina; Avonce, Nelson; Beeckman, Tom; Lunn, John E.; Van Dijck, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Introduction of microbial trehalose biosynthesis enzymes has been reported to enhance abiotic stress resistance in plants but also resulted in undesirable traits. Here, we present an approach for engineering drought stress tolerance by modifying the endogenous trehalase activity in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). AtTRE1 encodes the Arabidopsis trehalase, the only enzyme known in this species to specifically hydrolyze trehalose into glucose. AtTRE1-overexpressing and Attre1 mutant lines were constructed and tested for their performance in drought stress assays. AtTRE1-overexpressing plants had decreased trehalose levels and recovered better after drought stress, whereas Attre1 mutants had elevated trehalose contents and exhibited a drought-susceptible phenotype. Leaf detachment assays showed that Attre1 mutants lose water faster than wild-type plants, whereas AtTRE1-overexpressing plants have a better water-retaining capacity. In vitro studies revealed that abscisic acid-mediated closure of stomata is impaired in Attre1 lines, whereas the AtTRE1 overexpressors are more sensitive toward abscisic acid-dependent stomatal closure. This observation is further supported by the altered leaf temperatures seen in trehalase-modified plantlets during in vivo drought stress studies. Our results show that overexpression of plant trehalase improves drought stress tolerance in Arabidopsis and that trehalase plays a role in the regulation of stomatal closure in the plant drought stress response. PMID:23341362

  14. A Fast-and-Robust Profiler for Improving Polymerase Chain Reaction Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Besseris, George J.

    2014-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an in vitro technology in molecular genetics that progressively amplifies minimal copies of short DNA sequences in a fast and inexpensive manner. However, PCR performance is sensitive to suboptimal processing conditions. Compromised PCR conditions lead to artifacts and bias that downgrade the discriminatory power and reproducibility of the results. Promising attempts to resolve the PCR performance optimization issue have been guided by quality improvement tactics adopted in the past for industrial trials. Thus, orthogonal arrays (OAs) have been employed to program quick-and-easy structured experiments. Profiling of influences facilitates the quantification of effects that may counteract the detectability of amplified DNA fragments. Nevertheless, the attractive feature of reducing greatly the amount of work and expenditures by planning trials with saturated-unreplicated OA schemes is known to be relinquished in the subsequent analysis phase. This is because of an inherent incompatibility of ordinary multi-factorial comparison techniques to convert small yet dense datasets. Treating unreplicated-saturated data with either the analysis of variance (ANOVA) or regression models destroys the information extraction process. Both of those mentioned approaches are rendered blind to error since the examined effects absorb all available degrees of freedom. Therefore, in lack of approximating an experimental uncertainty, any outcome interpretation is rendered subjective. We propose a profiling method that permits the non-linear maximization of amplicon resolution by eliminating the necessity for direct error estimation. Our approach is distribution-free, calibration-free, simulation-free and sparsity-free with well-known power properties. It is also user-friendly by promoting rudimentary analytics. Testing our method on published amplicon count data, we found that the preponderant effect is the concentration of MgCl2 (p<0.05) followed by the

  15. A fast-and-robust profiler for improving polymerase chain reaction diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Besseris, George J

    2014-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an in vitro technology in molecular genetics that progressively amplifies minimal copies of short DNA sequences in a fast and inexpensive manner. However, PCR performance is sensitive to suboptimal processing conditions. Compromised PCR conditions lead to artifacts and bias that downgrade the discriminatory power and reproducibility of the results. Promising attempts to resolve the PCR performance optimization issue have been guided by quality improvement tactics adopted in the past for industrial trials. Thus, orthogonal arrays (OAs) have been employed to program quick-and-easy structured experiments. Profiling of influences facilitates the quantification of effects that may counteract the detectability of amplified DNA fragments. Nevertheless, the attractive feature of reducing greatly the amount of work and expenditures by planning trials with saturated-unreplicated OA schemes is known to be relinquished in the subsequent analysis phase. This is because of an inherent incompatibility of ordinary multi-factorial comparison techniques to convert small yet dense datasets. Treating unreplicated-saturated data with either the analysis of variance (ANOVA) or regression models destroys the information extraction process. Both of those mentioned approaches are rendered blind to error since the examined effects absorb all available degrees of freedom. Therefore, in lack of approximating an experimental uncertainty, any outcome interpretation is rendered subjective. We propose a profiling method that permits the non-linear maximization of amplicon resolution by eliminating the necessity for direct error estimation. Our approach is distribution-free, calibration-free, simulation-free and sparsity-free with well-known power properties. It is also user-friendly by promoting rudimentary analytics. Testing our method on published amplicon count data, we found that the preponderant effect is the concentration of MgCl2 (p<0.05) followed by the

  16. Whole-Genome Mapping of Agronomic and Metabolic Traits to Identify Novel Quantitative Trait Loci in Bread Wheat Grown in a Water-Limited Environment1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Camilla B.; Taylor, Julian D.; Edwards, James; Mather, Diane; Bacic, Antony; Langridge, Peter; Roessner, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint responsible for grain yield losses of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) in many parts of the world. Progress in breeding to improve complex multigene traits, such as drought stress tolerance, has been limited by high sensitivity to environmental factors, low trait heritability, and the complexity and size of the hexaploid wheat genome. In order to obtain further insight into genetic factors that affect yield under drought, we measured the abundance of 205 metabolites in flag leaf tissue sampled from plants of 179 cv Excalibur/Kukri F1-derived doubled haploid lines of wheat grown in a field experiment that experienced terminal drought stress. Additionally, data on 29 agronomic traits that had been assessed in the same field experiment were used. A linear mixed model was used to partition and account for nongenetic and genetic sources of variation, and quantitative trait locus analysis was used to estimate the genomic positions and effects of individual quantitative trait loci. Comparison of the agronomic and metabolic trait variation uncovered novel correlations between some agronomic traits and the levels of certain primary metabolites, including metabolites with either positive or negative associations with plant maturity-related or grain yield-related traits. Our analyses demonstrate that specific regions of the wheat genome that affect agronomic traits also have distinct effects on specific combinations of metabolites. This approach proved valuable for identifying novel biomarkers for the performance of wheat under drought and could facilitate the identification of candidate genes involved in drought-related responses in bread wheat. PMID:23660834

  17. Gradual Soil Water Depletion Results in Reversible Changes of Gene Expression, Protein Profiles, Ecophysiology, and Growth Performance in Populus euphratica, a Poplar Growing in Arid Regions1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice; Brosché, Mikael; Renaut, Jenny; Jouve, Laurent; Le Thiec, Didier; Fayyaz, Payam; Vinocur, Basia; Witters, Erwin; Laukens, Kris; Teichmann, Thomas; Altman, Arie; Hausman, Jean-François; Polle, Andrea; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Dreyer, Erwin

    2007-01-01

    The responses of Populus euphratica Oliv. plants to soil water deficit were assessed by analyzing gene expression, protein profiles, and several plant performance criteria to understand the acclimation of plants to soil water deficit. Young, vegetatively propagated plants originating from an arid, saline field site were submitted to a gradually increasing water deficit for 4 weeks in a greenhouse and were allowed to recover for 10 d after full reirrigation. Time-dependent changes and intensity of the perturbations induced in shoot and root growth, xylem anatomy, gas exchange, and water status were recorded. The expression profiles of approximately 6,340 genes and of proteins and metabolites (pigments, soluble carbohydrates, and oxidative compounds) were also recorded in mature leaves and in roots (gene expression only) at four stress levels and after recovery. Drought successively induced shoot growth cessation, stomatal closure, moderate increases in oxidative stress-related compounds, loss of CO2 assimilation, and root growth reduction. These effects were almost fully reversible, indicating that acclimation was dominant over injury. The physiological responses were paralleled by fully reversible transcriptional changes, including only 1.5% of the genes on the array. Protein profiles displayed greater changes than transcript levels. Among the identified proteins for which expressed sequence tags were present on the array, no correlation was found between transcript and protein abundance. Acclimation to water deficit involves the regulation of different networks of genes in roots and shoots. Such diverse requirements for protecting and maintaining the function of different plant organs may render plant engineering or breeding toward improved drought tolerance more complex than previously anticipated. PMID:17158588

  18. Genetic Analysis of Strawberry Fruit Aroma and Identification of O-Methyltransferase FaOMT as the Locus Controlling Natural Variation in Mesifurane Content1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zorrilla-Fontanesi, Yasmín; Rambla, José-Luis; Cabeza, Amalia; Medina, Juan J.; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F.; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Botella, Miguel A.; Granell, Antonio; Amaya, Iraida

    2012-01-01

    Improvement of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit flavor is an important goal in breeding programs. To investigate genetic factors controlling this complex trait, a strawberry mapping population derived from genotype ‘1392’, selected for its superior flavor, and ‘232’ was profiled for volatile compounds over 4 years by headspace solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. More than 300 volatile compounds were detected, of which 87 were identified by comparison of mass spectrum and retention time to those of pure standards. Parental line ‘1392’ displayed higher volatile levels than ‘232’, and these and many other compounds with similar levels in both parents segregated in the progeny. Cluster analysis grouped the volatiles into distinct chemically related families and revealed a complex metabolic network underlying volatile production in strawberry fruit. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection was carried out over 3 years based on a double pseudo-testcross strategy. Seventy QTLs covering 48 different volatiles were detected, with several of them being stable over time and mapped as major QTLs. Loci controlling γ-decalactone and mesifurane content were mapped as qualitative traits. Using a candidate gene approach we have assigned genes that are likely responsible for several of the QTLs. As a proof of concept we show that one homoeolog of the O-methyltransferase gene (FaOMT) is the locus responsible for the natural variation of mesifurane content. Sequence analysis identified 30 bp in the promoter of this FaOMT homoeolog containing putative binding sites for basic/helix-loop-helix, MYB, and BZIP transcription factors. This polymorphism fully cosegregates with both the presence of mesifurane and the high expression of FaOMT during ripening. PMID:22474217

  19. The B-3 Ethylene Response Factor MtERF1-1 Mediates Resistance to a Subset of Root Pathogens in Medicago truncatula without Adversely Affecting Symbiosis with Rhizobia1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jonathan P.; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Gleason, Cynthia; Oliver, Richard P.; Singh, Karam B.

    2010-01-01

    The fungal necrotrophic pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is a significant constraint to a range of crops as diverse as cereals, canola, and legumes. Despite wide-ranging germplasm screens in many of these crops, no strong genetic resistance has been identified, suggesting that alternative strategies to improve resistance are required. In this study, we characterize moderate resistance to R. solani anastomosis group 8 identified in Medicago truncatula. The activity of the ethylene- and jasmonate-responsive GCC box promoter element was associated with moderate resistance, as was the induction of the B-3 subgroup of ethylene response transcription factors (ERFs). Genes of the B-1 subgroup showed no significant response to R. solani infection. Overexpression of a B-3 ERF, MtERF1-1, in Medicago roots increased resistance to R. solani as well as an oomycete root pathogen, Phytophthora medicaginis, but not root knot nematode. These results indicate that targeting specific regulators of ethylene defense may enhance resistance to an important subset of root pathogens. We also demonstrate that overexpression of MtERF1-1 enhances disease resistance without apparent impact on nodulation in the A17 background, while overexpression in sickle reduced the hypernodulation phenotype. This suggests that under normal regulation of nodulation, enhanced resistance to root diseases can be uncoupled from symbiotic plant-microbe interactions in the same tissue and that ethylene/ERF regulation of nodule number is distinct from the defenses regulated by B-3 ERFs. Furthermore, unlike the stunted phenotype previously described for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ubiquitously overexpressing B-3 ERFs, overexpression of MtERF1-1 in M. truncatula roots did not show adverse effects on plant development. PMID:20713618

  20. Proposal Improvements That Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, F.

    1998-01-01

    Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power, an operating location of Boeing in Canoga Park, California is under contract with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama for design, development, production, and mission support of Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs). The contract was restructured in 1996 to emphasize a mission contracting environment under which Rocketdyne supports the Space Transportation System launch manifest of seven flights a year without the need for a detailed list of contract deliverables such as nozzles, turbopumps, and combustion devices. This contract structure is in line with the overall Space Shuttle program goals established by the NASA to fly safely, meet the flight manifest, and reduce cost. Rocketdyne's Contracts, Pricing, and Estimating team has worked for the past several years with representatives from MSFC, the local Defense Contract Management Command, and the DCAA to improve the quality of cost proposals to MSFC for contract changes on the SSME. The contract changes on the program result primarily from engineering change proposals for product enhancements to improve safety, maintainability, or operability in the space environment. This continuous improvement team effort has been successful in improving proposal quality, reducing cycle time, and reducing cost. Some of the principal lessons learned are highlighted here to show how proposal improvements can be implemented to enhance customer satisfaction and ensure cost proposals can be evaluated easily by external customers.

  1. Novel improved PMR polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    A series of N-phenylnadimide (PN) modified PMR polyimide composites reinforced with graphite fibers was investigated. The improved flow matrix resins consist of N-phenylnadimide (PN), monomenthyl ester of 5-norbornene-2, 3-dicarboxylic acid (NE), dimethyl ester of 3,3, 4,4-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acide (BTDE), and 4,4 methylenedianiline (MDA). Five modified PMR resin systems were formulated by the addition of 4 to 20 mole percent N-phenylnadimide to the standard PMR-15 composition. These formulations and the control PMR resin were evaluated for rheological characteristics. The initial thermal and mechanical properties of the PN modified PMR and the control PMR/Celion 6000 composites were determined. The results show that the addition of N-phenylnadimide to PMR-15 significantly improved the resin flow characteristics without sacrificing the composites properties. Concentrations of 4 and 9 mole percent PN appear to improve the thermoxidative stability of PMR composites.

  2. Abuse Tolerance Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle R.; Allcorn, Eric

    2015-10-01

    As lithium-ion battery technologies mature, the size and energy of these systems continues to increase (> 50 kWh for EVs); making safety and reliability of these high energy systems increasingly important. While most material advances for lithium-ion chemistries are directed toward improving cell performance (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance continue to be critical safety concerns. This report highlights work with our collaborators to develop advanced materials to improve lithium-ion battery safety and abuse tolerance and to perform cell-level characterization of new materials.

  3. Improving Gabor noise.

    PubMed

    Lagae, Ares; Lefebvre, Sylvain; Dutré, Philip

    2011-08-01

    We have recently proposed a new procedural noise function, Gabor noise, which offers a combination of properties not found in the existing noise functions. In this paper, we present three significant improvements to Gabor noise: 1) an isotropic kernel for Gabor noise, which speeds up isotropic Gabor noise with a factor of roughly two, 2) an error analysis of Gabor noise, which relates the kernel truncation radius to the relative error of the noise, and 3) spatially varying Gabor noise, which enables spatial variation of all noise parameters. These improvements make Gabor noise an even more attractive alternative for the existing noise functions.

  4. [Improving emergency department organisation].

    PubMed

    Yordanov, Youri; Beltramini, Alexandra; Debuc, Erwan; Pateron, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Emergency departments use has been constantly increasing over the world. Overcrowding is defined as a situation which compromises patient safety because of delayed cares. This situation is often reached. Emergency departments have to continuously improve their organization to be able to ensure the same quality of care to a higher number of patients. Thus a good organization is essential: it doesn't always avoid overcrowding. The rest of the hospital has to be involved in this process to ensure efficiency. We examine the various interventions and procedures that can be found in medical literature for improving patients flow and management in emergency departments.

  5. Improving designer productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gary C.

    1992-01-01

    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting those challenges.

  6. Implementation and Use of Outcomes Assessment in Music Degree Programs: How the Varied Voices of Faculty and Program Administrators Contribute to Program Quality Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derlin, Roberta L.; Stovall, Shelly M.

    In the 1990s higher education has been increasingly challenged to be excellent, be accessible, and to prove it, as the emphasis on accountability and outcomes assessment (OA) has emerged. This study explores how institutional requirements for OA and the attitudes and beliefs of music faculty and music program administrators may be related to the…

  7. Improving Surface Irrigation Performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface irrigation systems often have a reputation for poor performance. One key feature of efficient surface irrigation systems is precision (e.g. laser-guided) land grading. Poor land grading can make other improvements ineffective. An important issue, related to land shaping, is developing the pr...

  8. Improving Alaryngeal Speech Intelligibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, John M.; Dwyer, Patricia E.

    1990-01-01

    Laryngectomized patients using esophageal speech or an electronic artificial larynx have difficulty producing correct voicing contrasts between homorganic consonants. This paper describes a therapy technique that emphasizes "pushing harder" on voiceless consonants to improve alaryngeal speech intelligibility and proposes focusing on the…

  9. The Teacher Improvement Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokalo, Mariann

    The Teacher Improvement Model was begun as an Organizational Development Project using the parallel systems approach in a school for emotionally disturbed junior high school students. Teachers volunteered for committee work and requested observations and evaluations in an effort to define and establish a discipline model best suited to them. Such…

  10. INNOVATIONS FOR INSTRUCTIONAL IMPROVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CUSHMAN, M.L.; STURGES, A.W.

    THE CATSKILL AREA PROJECT IN SMALL SCHOOL DESIGN, THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA PROJECT FOR SMALL HIGH SCHOOLS, THE WESTERN STATES SMALL SCHOOLS PROJECT, AND THE TEXAS SMALL SCHOOLS PROJECT ARE DESCRIBED AND COMPARED. FINANCIAL SUPPORT COMPARISONS ARE MADE. METHODS OF IMPROVING INSTRUCTION ARE DIVIDED INTO TEACHER-CENTERED AND ADMINISTRATOR-CENTERED…

  11. Improving Students' Reading Fluency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Amy

    This report describes a program for improving students' reading fluency in order to become more proficient readers. The targeted population consists of first and second grade students in a growing middle class community located in the Midwest. The lack of fluent reading was documented through teacher observation and the calculation of how many…

  12. Collection Maintenance and Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Sherry

    This resource guide provides information about the range of activities that can be implemented to maintain and improve the condition of research collections to ensure that they remain usable as long as possible. After an introduction that describes the major activities and a review of an investigation process that gives an overview of good…

  13. Improving Schoolteachers' Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodkinson, Heather; Hodkinson, Phil

    2005-01-01

    This paper is set in the context where there is a policy emphasis on teacher learning and development in a number of countries as a means towards school improvement. It reports on a longitudinal research project about the workplace learning of English secondary school teachers, carried out between 2000 and 2003. This was part of a Teaching and…

  14. Improving: Services for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This guide to self-evaluation and improvement builds upon the advice given in the publication "A Guide to Evaluating Services for Children and Young People Using Quality Indicators" (HMIE, 2006) (A summary of the quality indicators is reproduced in Appendix I). Local authorities, agencies and professionals who have responsibilities for…

  15. Improving Elementary School Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geisler, John; Taylor, John

    1978-01-01

    The authors describe a collaborative effort in physical education between a Chicago public school district (K-9) and the University of Illinois/Urbana-Champaign. The project is designed to (1) develop a curriculum guide, (2) establish pre- and in-service programs, (3) create a teacher center, and (4) improve community-physical education teacher…

  16. Improving Writing through Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera Barreto, Adriana Maritza

    2011-01-01

    Writing as a means of communication is one of the basic skills students must master at the university level. Although it is not an easy task because students are usually reluctant to correct, teachers have great responsibility at the time of guiding a writing process. For that reason, this study aimed at improving the writing process in fourth…

  17. [Improving vaccination measures].

    PubMed

    Iannazzo, S

    2014-01-01

    Despite the benefits of routine vaccination of newborns are known and widely documented, in recent years we are observing a gradual increase in the number of parents who express doubts and concerns about the safety of vaccines and the real need to submit their children to vaccinations included in the national recommendations. This attitude is reinforced by the current epidemiological profile, in Western countries, of many vaccine preventable diseases, accompanied by a low risk perception among parents. Institutions and all the actors involved in vaccination programs have a duty to investigate the reasons for the loss of confidence in vaccination among the population in order to identify and implement appropriate and effective interventions. The improvement of vaccination should, theoretically, goes on a double track, placing side by side the provision of effective vaccines, safe and necessary, and interventions designed to increase demand for vaccination among the population, improve access to vaccination services, improve the system as a whole. But to actually improve the vaccinations' offer it is necessary also to provide interventions aimed at regaining the confidence of the population in relation to vaccination and the institutions that promote them. Particular attention should be given to the aspects of communication and risk communication.

  18. Improving Young People's Concerts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felder, Harvey

    1998-01-01

    Stresses that symphony orchestras and other professional arts organizations need to improve young people's concerts by accounting for student learning and becoming partners with music educators. Provides an experience hierarchy that helps artists and arts organizations benefit from music teachers' knowledge and a list of five elements to consider…

  19. Improving Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehallis, Mantha, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    This collection of essays focuses on the importance of accurate and timely information for effective decision making. First, Ivan Lach considers the proliferation of statewide planning and policy formation and discusses problems with and ways to improve statewide research. Next, Cheryl Opacinch focuses on decision making for federal postsecondary…

  20. Claim and Continuous Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulová, Iveta; Meravá, Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    The claim will always represent the kind of information that is annoying to recipients. Systematic work with claims has a positive value for the company. Addressing the complaint has a positive effect on continuous improvement. This paper was worked out with the support of VEGA No.1/0229/08 Perspectives of quality management development in coherence with requirements of Slovak republic market.

  1. Improving School Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeath, John, Ed.; Mortimore, Peter, Ed.

    School effectiveness is an issue that has preoccupied researchers and policymakers for 3 decades. To study how ineffective schools become effective and what constitutes an effective school, the Improving School Effectiveness Project was carried out in Scotland from 1995 to 1997. This project forms the basis of discussion in this book, which has 11…

  2. Improving Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York University Education Quarterly, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This is a slightly abridged version of the report of the National Academy of Education panel, convened at the request of HEW Secretary Joseph Califano and Assistant Secretary for Education Mary F. Berry, to study recent declines in student achievement and methods of educational improvement. (SJL)

  3. Improvements in agricultural sciences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This editorial provides insight on investigations regarding advancements in agri-food quality and testing of eco-friendly organic farming methodologies. The discussion elaborates on the advantages of recent farming techniques and their impact on improved crop yield, crop quality, and minimization of...

  4. Improved vortex reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, James P.; Scahill, John W.

    1995-01-01

    An improved vortex reactor system for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor.

  5. MCNP Progress & Performance Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Forrest B.; Bull, Jeffrey S.; Rising, Michael Evan

    2015-04-14

    Twenty-eight slides give information about the work of the US DOE/NNSA Nuclear Criticality Safety Program on MCNP6 under the following headings: MCNP6.1.1 Release, with ENDF/B-VII.1; Verification/Validation; User Support & Training; Performance Improvements; and Work in Progress. Whisper methodology will be incorporated into the code, and run speed should be increased.

  6. Improving Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emiliani, M. L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To present an outsider's view of how management education can be significantly improved. Design/methodology/approach: Focuses on correcting several obvious deficiencies in courses and degree programs to create highly differentiated educational experiences that are more relevant to student's needs and the organizations that employ…

  7. Improved Access to Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sandra; Simkins, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Describes efforts by principal of the Willow Elementary School in the Charter Oak Unified School District (California) to provide students with technology-enhanced access to information and learning resources to improve reading and mathematics skills. Includes list of the Web addresses for the skills software used at the school. (PKP)

  8. Improved Regression Calibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skrondal, Anders; Kuha, Jouni

    2012-01-01

    The likelihood for generalized linear models with covariate measurement error cannot in general be expressed in closed form, which makes maximum likelihood estimation taxing. A popular alternative is regression calibration which is computationally efficient at the cost of inconsistent estimation. We propose an improved regression calibration…

  9. Improving Teachers' Verbal Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Kay

    1992-01-01

    Suggests strategies center directors can use to improve teachers' verbal interactions with children. Directors can help teachers (1) understand child growth and development; (2) understand that what they say matters; (3) hear themselves talking to children; and (4) develop their observation skills. Directors can also share good models with…

  10. Improving Teacher Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Kelly; Parsons, Jim

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors review current practices in pre-service teacher education. They suggest that radical improvements are possible and that, if practiced, would help mediate many of the pressures young teachers face. To do so, the authors: 1) outline the experiences of young teachers to consider how teachers might thrive in a difficult…

  11. Improving Student Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasenauer, Susan; Herrmann, Margo

    This project involved a program for improving student behavior. The targeted population consisted of second and third grade students in a rural community located west of Chicago, Illinois. Data indicated that behavior problems were disrupting instructional time and students' involvement in learning. The evidence for the existence of the problem…

  12. Improving Enterprise in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Improving Enterprise in Education" evaluates enterprise in education using a framework developed in direct response to a recommendation in "Determined to Succeed." The framework comprised quality indicators, chosen from the second edition of "How good is our school?" to focus on key features of enterprise in…

  13. Performance Improvement Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on performance improvement processes. In "Never the Twain Shall Meet?: A Glimpse into High Performance Work Practices and Downsizing" (Laurie J. Bassi, Mark E. Van Buren) evidence from a national cross-industry of more than 200 establishments is used to demonstrate that high-performance…

  14. Improving School Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Edgar A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    School climate improvements rely either on changes in the school's culture or changes in perceptions of the climate held by the school's employees and clients. To maintain and develop a culture that is supportive of school effectiveness, it is important to monitor the influence of the school's climate on student outcomes. The National Association…

  15. Teaching Behavior Improvement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoehn, Lilburn P., Ed.

    This document, intended for use by those who might wish to implement such a program, describes an inservice teacher self-improvement program based on goal setting by the teacher, practice of new skills, feedback about teaching performance, and self-analysis of the dissonance between goals and practice. Chapter 1 presents rationale and history of…

  16. Improving Educational Administrative Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, A. E.

    This paper discusses the financial crisis facing public education in the United States today and argues that the most effective response to this crisis is to improve the decision-making skills of educational administrators. Based on a review of the literature on administrative decision-making and organizational change, the author examines several…

  17. Improved Ronchi tester.

    PubMed

    Nuñez-Alfonso, J M; Cordero-Dávila, A; Vergara-Limon, S; Cuautle-Cortes, J

    2001-02-01

    We used a LED in a Ronchi tester to obtain two main improvements: (i) We can choose one of two wavelength bands to illuminate and record the ronchigram, and (ii) we can change the irradiance of the illumination source according to the optical system under test and the detector array. This can be done by use of an adequate electronic circuit.

  18. Dynamic balance improvement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butner, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    The reduction of residual unbalance in the space shuttle main engine (SSME) high pressure turbopump rotors was addressed. Elastic rotor response to unbalance and balancing requirements, multiplane and in housing balancing, and balance related rotor design considerations were assessed. Recommendations are made for near term improvement of the SSME balancing and for future study and development efforts.

  19. Improving the simulation of organic aerosols from anthropogenic and burning sources: a simplified SOA formation mechanism and the impact of trash burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Organic aerosols (OA) are an major component of fine aerosols, but their sources are poorly understood. We present results of two methods to improve OA predictions in anthropogenic pollution and biomass-burning impacted regions. (1) An empirical parameterization for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in polluted air and biomass burning smoke is implemented into community chemistry-transport models (WRF/Chem and CHIMERE) and tested in this work, towards the goal of a computationally inexpensive method to calculate pollution and biomass burning SOA. This approach is based on the observed proportionality of SOA concentrations to excess CO and photochemical age of the airmass, as described in Hodzic and Jimenez (GMDD, 2011). The oxygen to carbon ratio in organic aerosols is also parameterizated vs. photochemical aged based on the ambient observations, and is used to estimate the aerosol hygroscopicity and CCN activity. The predicted SOA is assessed against observations from the Mexico City metropolitan area during the MILAGRO 2006 field experiment, and compared to previous model results using the more complex volatility basis approach (VBS) of Robinson et al.. The results suggest that the simplified approach reproduces the observed average SOA mass within 30% in the urban area and downwind, and gives better results than the original VBS. In addition to being much less computationally expensive than VBS-type methods, the empirical approach can also be used in regions where the emissions of SOA precursors are not yet available. (2) The contribution of trash burning emissions to primary and secondary organic aerosols in Mexico City are estimated, using a recently-developed emission inventory. Submicron antimony (Sb) is used as a garbage-burning tracer following the results of Christian et al. (ACP 2010), which allows evaluation of the emissions inventory. Results suggests that trash burning may be an appreciable source of organic aerosols in the Mexico City

  20. Partnership for Continuous Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The proceedings are presented of the sixth annual conference on quality control between NASA and its contractors. The emphasis is placed on a commitment to quality and excellence that guarantees mission success. A forum is provided for representatives from government, industry, and academia to exchange ideas and experiences, encouraging total quality performance that results in high quality products and services. Key points are highlighted from the presentations and activities are described that have resulted in a broad range of improvements in products and services from government, industry, and academia. Long term commitment to quality is an essential requirement that ensures future success. That commitment reinterates the dedication to excellence in space exploration and to national quality and productivity improvement.

  1. Improving Vacuum Cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Space Act Agreement between the Kirby company and Lewis Research Center, NASA technology was applied to a commercial vacuum cleaner product line. Kirby engineers were interested in advanced operational concepts, such as particle flow behavior and vibration, critical factors to improve vacuum cleaner performance. An evaluation of the company 1994 home care system, the Kirby G4, led to the refinement of the new G5 and future models. Under the cooperative agreement, Kirby had access to Lewis' holography equipment, which added insight into how long a vacuum cleaner fan would perform, as well as advanced computer software that can simulate the flow of air through fans. The collaboration resulted in several successes including fan blade redesign and continuing dialogue on how to improve air-flow traits in various nozzle designs.

  2. Improving Australians' depression literacy.

    PubMed

    Parslow, Ruth A; Jorm, Anthony F

    2002-10-07

    Community awareness and understanding of depression ("depression literacy") underpins successful implementation of prevention, early intervention and treatment programs. Improving depression literacy is a major goal of beyondblue: the national depression initiative. Although other countries have previously attempted to address this issue, there is little evidence to indicate that those attempts have achieved their aims. Work in other areas of health promotion, such as the widely used PRECEDE model, offers a useful framework from which to develop effective depression literacy initiatives in Australia. This model proposes that effective health promotion strategies should focus not on health actions per se, but on the knowledge and attitudes that encourage or impede individuals from taking such actions. We identify the goals of an effective depression literacy campaign and a range of educational strategies for achieving change in each of these areas. Applying these strategies may give a stronger basis for improving depression literacy than previous initiatives.

  3. Epigenetics and crop improvement.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nathan M

    2013-04-01

    There is considerable excitement about the potential for epigenetic information to contribute to heritable variation in many species. Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of epigenetic inheritance is rapidly growing, and it is now possible to profile the epigenome at high resolution. Epigenetic information plays a role in developmental gene regulation, response to the environment, and in natural variation of gene expression levels. Because of these central roles, there is the potential for epigenetics to play a role in crop improvement strategies including the selection for favorable epigenetic states, creation of novel epialleles, and regulation of transgene expression. In this review we consider the potential, and the limitations, of epigenetic variation in crop improvement.

  4. Improving Departments of Psychology.

    PubMed

    Diener, Ed

    2016-11-01

    Our procedures for creating excellent departments of psychology are based largely on selection-hiring and promoting the best people. I argue that these procedures have been successful, but I suggest the implementation of policies that I believe will further improve departments in the behavioral and brain sciences. I recommend that we institute more faculty development programs attached to incentives to guarantee continuing education and scholarly activities after the Ph.D. degree. I also argue that we would do a much better job if we more strongly stream our faculty into research, education, or service and not expect all faculty members to carry equal responsibility for each of these. Finally, I argue that more hiring should occur at advanced levels, where scholars have a proven track record of independent scholarship. Although these practices will be a challenge to implement, institutions do ossify over time and thus searching for ways to improve our departments should be a key element of faculty governance.

  5. Improved solar heating systems

    DOEpatents

    Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1980-05-16

    An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

  6. Process Improvement: Customer Service.

    PubMed

    Cull, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing the comment section of patient satisfaction surveys, Clark Memorial Hospital in Jeffersonville, IN went through a thoughtful process to arrive at an experience that patients said they wanted. Two Lean Six Sigma tools were used--the Voice of the Customer (VoC) and the Affinity Diagram. Even when using these tools, a facility will not be able to accomplish everything the patient may want. Guidelines were set and rules were established for the Process Improvement Team in order to lessen frustration, increase focus, and ultimately be successful. The project's success is driven by the team members carrying its message back to their areas. It's about ensuring that everyone is striving to improve the patients' experience by listening to what they say is being done right and what they say can be done better. And then acting on it.

  7. Alumina fiber strength improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, R. T.; Nelson, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    The effective fiber strength of alumina fibers in an aluminum composite was increased to 173,000 psi. A high temperature heat treatment, combined with a glassy carbon surface coating, was used to prevent degradation and improve fiber tensile strength. Attempts to achieve chemical strengthening of the alumina fiber by chromium oxide and boron oxide coatings proved unsuccessful. A major problem encountered on the program was the low and inconsistent strength of the Dupont Fiber FP used for the investigation.

  8. Improved ephemerides of Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standish, E. M.

    1994-01-01

    The history of the Pluto ephemerides created at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is given. The uncertainties of present and possible future ephemerides are illustrated, and it is shown how rapidly the error grows for any present-day ephemeris of Pluto which is extrapolated into the future--tens of thousands of kilometers after only a decade. Continuing the observations into the future not only will reduce the extrapolation time but will provide a substantial improvement to the ephemeris itself.

  9. Improving haul truck productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-06-15

    The paper reviews developments in payload management and cycle times. These were discussed at a roundtable held at the Haulage and Loading 2007 conference held in May in Phoenix, AZ, USA. Several original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) explaind what their companies were doing to improve cycle times for trucks, shovels and excavators used in surface coal mining. Quotations are given from Dion Domaschenz of Liebherr and Steve Plott of Cat Global Mining. 4 figs.

  10. Improved Sprayable Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, W. F.; Sharpe, M. H.; Lester, C. N.; Echols, Sherman; Simpson, W. G.; Lambert, J. D.; Norton, W. F.; Mclemore, J. P.; Patel, A. K.; Patel, S. V.; Shockney, C. H.; Adams, G. R.; Kelly, M. R.; White, W. T.

    1992-01-01

    MSA-2 and MSA-2A, two similar improved versions of Marshall sprayable ablator, insulating material developed at Marshall Space Flight Center to replace both sheets of cork and MSA-1. Suitable for use on large vehicles and structures exposed to fire or other sources of heat by design or accident. Ablative insulation turns into strong char when exposed to high temperature; highly desireable property in original spacecraft application and possibly in some terrestrial applications.

  11. Teleophthalmology: improving patient outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Sreelatha, Omana Kesary; Ramesh, Sathyamangalam VenkataSubbu

    2016-01-01

    Teleophthalmology is gaining importance as an effective eye care delivery modality worldwide. In many developing countries, teleophthalmology is being utilized to provide quality eye care to the underserved urban population and the unserved remote rural population. Over the years, technological innovations have led to improvement in evidence and teleophthalmology has evolved from a research tool to a clinical tool. The majority of the current teleophthalmology services concentrate on patient screening and appropriate referral to experts. Specialty care using teleophthalmology services for the pediatric group includes screening as well as providing timely care for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Among geriatric eye diseases, specialty teleophthalmology care is focused toward screening and referral for diabetic retinopathy (DR), glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), and other sight-threatening conditions. Comprehensive vision screening and refractive error services are generally covered as part of most of the teleophthalmology methods. Over the past decades, outcome assessment of health care system includes patients’ assessments on their health, care, and services they receive. Outcomes, by and large, remain the ultimate validators of the effectiveness and quality of medical care. Teleophthalmology produces the same desired clinical outcome as the traditional system. Remote portals allow specialists to provide care over a larger region, thereby improving health outcomes and increasing accessibility of specialty care to a larger population. A high satisfaction level and acceptance is reported in the majority of the studies because of increased accessibility and reduced traveling cost and time. Considering the improved quality of patient care and patient satisfaction reported for these telemedicine services, this review explores how teleophthalmology helps to improve patient outcomes. PMID:26929592

  12. ARPANET Routing Algorithm Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    IMPROVEMENTS . .PFOnINI ORG. REPORT MUNDER -- ) _ .. .... 3940 7, AUT񓂏(c) .. .. .. CONTRACT Of GRANT NUMSlet e) SJ. M. /Mc~uillan E. C./Rosen I...8217), this problem may persist for a very long time, causing extremely bad performance throughout the whole network (for instance, if w’ reports that one of...algorithm may naturally tend to oscillate between bad routing paths and become itself a major contributor to network congestion. These examples show

  13. Improved vortex reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    1995-05-09

    An improved vortex reactor system is described for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor. 12 figs.

  14. Improving Internal Customer Service

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    sector to find a morse comprehensive model. , , /, v-/ii viii IMPROVING INTERNAL CUSTOMER SERVICE I. Introduction Backgro’rnd More and more American...service, but this research is mostly limited to the general issue of customer service and external customers in regard to the civilian sector of business...the focus is on what quality customer service is, both internal and external, and why customer service is so important today. Second, the dimensions of

  15. CF6 performance improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennard, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Potential CF6 engine performance improvements directed at reduced fuel consumption were identified and screened relative to airline acceptability and are reviewed. The screening process developed to provide evaluations of fuel savings and economic factors including return on investment and direct operating cost is described. In addition, assessments of development risk and production potential are made. Several promising concepts selected for full-scale development based on a ranking involving these factors are discussed.

  16. Improved ranging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry E.

    1989-01-01

    Spacecraft range measurements have provided the most accurate tests, to date, of some relativistic gravitational parameters, even though the measurements were made with ranging systems having error budgets of about 10 meters. Technology is now available to allow an improvement of two orders of magnitude in the accuracy of spacecraft ranging. The largest gains in accuracy result from the replacement of unstable analog components with high speed digital circuits having precisely known delays and phase shifts.

  17. Improving STD services worldwide.

    PubMed

    Frahn, A L

    1998-01-01

    The number of new sexually transmitted disease (STD) cases worldwide continues to rise annually. Many people, however, do not know that they are infected with a STD because STD infection may often remain asymptomatic until the disease reaches an advanced stage. Up to half of STD-infected women either have no symptoms of infection or do not realize that the symptoms they have indicate a need to seek medical care. Many people are uncomfortable discussing STDs. AVSC is helping providers of family planning and other health care services to become more comfortable discussing STDs with their clients and more skilled in diagnosing and treating them. AVSC has been organizing training activities, developing training materials, and conducting research around the world to help improve the quality and availability of STD services. Examples of AVSC work in Bangladesh and the development of training materials to improve STD service providers' counseling and clinical skills are cited. AVSC's STD-related research is designed to help improve the quality and safety of family planning and STD services worldwide. Activities are noted in Russia, South Africa, and some other developing countries.

  18. Improved Electrohydraulic Linear Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamtil, James

    2004-01-01

    A product line of improved electrohydraulic linear actuators has been developed. These actuators are designed especially for use in actuating valves in rocket-engine test facilities. They are also adaptable to many industrial uses, such as steam turbines, process control valves, dampers, motion control, etc. The advantageous features of the improved electrohydraulic linear actuators are best described with respect to shortcomings of prior electrohydraulic linear actuators that the improved ones are intended to supplant. The flow of hydraulic fluid to the two ports of the actuator cylinder is controlled by a servo valve that is controlled by a signal from a servo amplifier that, in turn, receives an analog position-command signal (a current having a value between 4 and 20 mA) from a supervisory control system of the facility. As the position command changes, the servo valve shifts, causing a greater flow of hydraulic fluid to one side of the cylinder and thereby causing the actuator piston to move to extend or retract a piston rod from the actuator body. A linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) directly linked to the piston provides a position-feedback signal, which is compared with the position-command signal in the servo amplifier. When the position-feedback and position-command signals match, the servo valve moves to its null position, in which it holds the actuator piston at a steady position.

  19. Improved Screened Hydrogenic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Nishikawa, T.

    1996-05-01

    Screened Hydrogenic Model is widely used for energy level calculation in hydrodynamic code of inertial confinement fusion because Screened Hydrogenic Model is simple algebraic calculation. More{close_quote}s Screened Hydrogenic Model and his screening constants are usually used to calculate opacity and equation of state. By the use of his model, energy level can be consistently calculated with ion{close_quote}s total energy. But his model take into account the principal quantum number dependence only and cannot reproduce hydrogenic energy levels. As the precise experiment about opacity measurement is performed, it becomes clear that his model is not enough to use for opacity calculation. In this paper, his model is improved in the framework of Screened Hydrogenic Model. The improved model can reproduce the hydrogenic energy levels and include azimuthal quantum number dependence and the effect from another quantum state (a kind of inner quantum number). Screening constants are fitted by spectroscopic data and sophisticate calculations. By the use of improved model, energy levels are calculated more accurately for low-{ital z} ions. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Improved flywheel materials :

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Bell, Nelson S; Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Anderson, Benjamin John; Miller, William Kenneth

    2013-09-01

    As alternative energy generating devices (i.e., solar, wind, etc) are added onto the electrical energy grid (AC grid), irregularities in the available electricity due to natural occurrences (i.e., clouds reducing solar input or wind burst increasing wind powered turbines) will be dramatically increased. Due to their almost instantaneous response, modern flywheel-based energy storage devices can act a mechanical mechanism to regulate the AC grid; however, improved spin speeds will be required to meet the necessary energy levels to balance these green energy variances. Focusing on composite flywheels, we have investigated methods for improving the spin speeds based on materials needs. The so-called composite flywheels are composed of carbon fiber (C-fiber), glass fiber, and a glue (resin) to hold them together. For this effort, we have focused on the addition of fillers to the resin in order to improve its properties. Based on the high loads required for standard meso-sized fillers, this project investigated the utility of ceramic nanofillers since they can be added at very low load levels due to their high surface area. The impact that TiO2 nanowires had on the final strength of the flywheel material was determined by a three-point-bend test. The results of the introduction of nanomaterials demonstrated an increase in strength of the flywheels C-fiber-resin moiety, with an upper limit of a 30% increase being reported. An analysis of the economic impact concerning the utilization of the nanowires was undertaken and after accounting for new-technology and additional production costs, return on improved-nanocomposite investment was approximated at 4-6% per year over the 20-year expected service life. Further, it was determined based on the 30% improvement in strength, this change may enable a 20-30% reduction in flywheel energy storage cost ($/kW-h).

  1. Improved Capacitive Liquid Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldman, Francis A.

    1992-01-01

    Improved capacitive sensor used to detect presence and/or measure thickness of layer of liquid. Electrical impedance or admittance of sensor measured at prescribed frequency, and thickness of liquid inferred from predetermined theoretical or experimental relationship between impedance and thickness. Sensor is basically a three-terminal device. Features interdigitated driving and sensing electrodes and peripheral coplanar ground electrode that reduces parasitic effects. Patent-pending because first to utilize ground plane as "shunting" electrode. System less expensive than infrared, microwave, or refractive-index systems. Sensor successfully evaluated in commercial production plants to characterize emulsions, slurries, and solutions.

  2. Improved tool grinding machine

    DOEpatents

    Dial, C.E. Sr.

    The present invention relates to an improved tool grinding mechanism for grinding single point diamond cutting tools to precise roundness and radius specifications. The present invention utilizes a tool holder which is longitudinally displaced with respect to the remainder of the grinding system due to contact of the tool with the grinding surface with this displacement being monitored so that any variation in the grinding of the cutting surface such as caused by crystal orientation or tool thicknesses may be compensated for during the grinding operation to assure the attainment of the desired cutting tool face specifications.

  3. Improving Carbon Fixation Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ducat, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    A recent resurgence in basic and applied research on photosynthesis has been driven in part by recognition that fulfilling future food and energy requirements will necessitate improvements in crop carbon-fixation efficiencies. Photosynthesis in traditional terrestrial crops is being reexamined in light of molecular strategies employed by photosynthetic microbes to enhance the activity of the Calvin cycle. Synthetic biology is well-situated to provide original approaches for compartmentalizing and enhancing photosynthetic reactions in a species independent manner. Furthermore, the elucidation of alternative carbon-fixation routes distinct from the Calvin cycle raises possibilities that alternative pathways and organisms can be utilized to fix atmospheric carbon dioxide into useful materials. PMID:22647231

  4. Improving VHF Spectrum Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andro, Monty; Orr, Richard; Foore, Larry; Sheehe, Charles; Freeman, Mark; Nguyen, Thanh; Bretmersky, Steven; Laberge, Chuck; Buchanan, David

    2004-01-01

    Limited VHF communications system capacity and increasing air traffic results in congestion of the aviation VHF spectrum. The voice communications errors and delayed channel access create system congestion and air traffic delays. Regulatory subdivision of bands for specific functions limits flexibility in the frequency usage. The objective of this viewgraph presentation is to identify near/mid/far term technologies to improve the performance and spectrum efficiency of current and emerging VHF communications systems. Select technologies with the highest potential, perform research and development to bring them to implementation stage.

  5. Improved ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-05-04

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species,

  6. Improved fermentative alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, M.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  7. Improving aircraft energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, F. P.; Klineberg, J. M.; Kramer, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations conducted by a NASA task force concerning the development of aeronautical fuel-conservation technology are considered. The task force estimated the fuel savings potential, prospects for implementation in the civil air-transport fleet, and the impact of the technology on air-transport fuel use. Propulsion advances are related to existing engines in the fleet, to new production of current engine types, and to new engine designs. Studies aimed at the evolutionary improvement of aerodynamic design and a laminar flow control program are discussed and possibilities concerning the use of composite structural materials are examined.

  8. Improving marginal crystals.

    PubMed

    Carter, Charles W; Riès-Kautt, Madeleine

    2007-01-01

    The physical chemistry of crystal growth can help to identify directions in which to look for improved crystal properties. In this chapter, we summarize how crystal growth depends on parameters that can be controlled experimentally, and relate them to the tools available for optimizing a particular crystal form for crystal shape, volume, and diffraction quality. Our purpose is to sketch the conceptual basis of optimization and to provide sample protocols derived from those foundations. We hope to assist even those who chose not to use systematic methods by enabling them to carry out rudimentary optimization searches armed with a better understanding of how the underlying physical chemistry operates.

  9. Improved cycling cryopump

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1984-12-04

    The present invention is designed to achieve continuous high efficiency cryopumping of a vacuum vessel by improving upon and combining in a novel way the cryopumping in a novel way the cryopumping methods. The invention consists of a continuous operation cryopump, with movable louvres, with a high efficiency pumping apparatus. The pumping apparatus includes three cryogenic tubes. They are constructed of a substance of high thermal conductivity, such as aluminum and their exterior surfaces are cryogenic condensing surfaces. Through their interior liquid or gaseous helium from two reservoirs can be made to flow, alternately promoting extreme cooling or allowing some warming.

  10. Improving the Representation of Human Factors in Operational Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Defence Equipment and Support (DE&S) via Human Factors Integration Defence Technology Centre ( HFI DTC) activities. In particular this study’s Theme...Framework has been exploited in the HFI DTC Social Organisational Framework study, and the study team has provided a short extract for contribution to...the HFI DTC Handbook. The study has also been explicitly referenced in support to future MOD OA research studies. 8 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS This

  11. Improved Rhenium Thrust Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, John Scott

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-cooled bipropellant thrust chambers are being considered for ascent/ descent engines and reaction control systems on various NASA missions and spacecraft, such as the Mars Sample Return and Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Currently, iridium (Ir)-lined rhenium (Re) combustion chambers are the state of the art for in-space engines. NASA's Advanced Materials Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine, a 150-lbf Ir-Re chamber produced by Plasma Processes and Aerojet Rocketdyne, recently set a hydrazine specific impulse record of 333.5 seconds. To withstand the high loads during terrestrial launch, Re chambers with improved mechanical properties are needed. Recent electrochemical forming (EL-Form"TM") results have shown considerable promise for improving Re's mechanical properties by producing a multilayered deposit composed of a tailored microstructure (i.e., Engineered Re). The Engineered Re processing techniques were optimized, and detailed characterization and mechanical properties tests were performed. The most promising techniques were selected and used to produce an Engineered Re AMBR-sized combustion chamber for testing at Aerojet Rocketdyne.

  12. Improved Biosensors for Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberg, J. J.; Masiello, C. A.; Cheng, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Microbes drive processes in the Earth system far exceeding their physical scale, affecting crop yields, water quality, the mobilization of toxic materials, and fundamental aspects of soil biogeochemistry. The tools of synthetic biology have the potential to significantly improve our understanding of microbial Earth system processes: for example, synthetic microbes can be be programmed to report on environmental conditions that stimulate greenhouse gas production, metal oxidation, biofilm formation, pollutant degradation, and microbe-plant symbioses. However, these tools are only rarely deployed in the lab. This research gap arises because synthetically programmed microbes typically report on their environment by producing molecules that are detected optically (e.g., fluorescent proteins). Fluorescent reporters are ideal for petri-dish applications and have fundamentally changed how we study human health, but their usefulness is quite limited in soils where detecting fluorescence is challenging. Here we describe the construction of gas-reporting biosensors, which release nonpolar gases that can be detected in the headspace of incubation experiments. These constructs can be used to probe microbial processes within soils in real-time noninvasive lab experiments. These biosensors can be combined with traditional omics-based approaches to reveal processes controlling soil microbial behavior and lead to improved environmental management decisions.

  13. IBVS — Novel Features of a Small OA Astronomical Journal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, A.

    2010-10-01

    The Information Bulletin on Variable Stars (IBVS) is a small, specialized astronomical journal. It has served the variable star community since 1961. An Open Access electronic version was started in 1994. This electronic version offers innovative services to the reader: the use of third-party tools for visualization (Aladin) and third-party name resolution services (SIMBAD or GCVS for objects, and ADS for author names) for search. Considerable efforts have been made to interconnect the journal with other electronic resources such as publications, databases, and archives, like CDS, ADS, GCVS, NED, WFPDB and WEBDA. Additional aspects of this small electronic journal to be discussed are: archiving policies, copyrights and the use of OAI-PMH.

  14. Functional Characterization of a Eukaryotic Melibiose Transporter1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Lingner, Ulrike; Münch, Steffen; Sode, Björn; Deising, Holger B.; Sauer, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    Pathogenic fungi drastically affect plant health and cause significant losses in crop yield and quality. In spite of their impact, little is known about the carbon sources used by these fungi in planta and about the fungal transporters importing sugars from the plant-fungus interface. Here, we report on the identification and characterization of MELIBIOSE TRANSPORTER1 (MBT1) from the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum graminicola (teleomorph Glomerella graminicola), the causal agent of leaf anthracnose and stalk rot disease in maize (Zea mays). Functional characterization of the MBT1 protein in baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) expressing the MBT1 cDNA revealed that α-d-galactopyranosyl compounds such as melibiose, galactinol, and raffinose are substrates of MBT1, with melibiose most likely being the preferred substrate. α-d-Glucopyranosyl disaccharides like trehalose, isomaltose, or maltose are also accepted by MBT1, although with lower affinities. The MBT1 gene shows low and comparable expression levels in axenically grown C. graminicola and upon infection of maize leaves both during the initial biotrophic development of the fungus and during the subsequent necrotrophic phase. Despite these low levels of MBT1 expression, the MBT1 protein allows efficient growth of C. graminicola on melibiose as sole carbon source in axenic cultures. Although Δmbt1 mutants are unable to grow on melibiose, they do not show virulence defects on maize. PMID:21593216

  15. NIF-0096141-OA Prop Simulations of NEL PBRS Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Widmayer, C; Manes, K

    2003-02-21

    Portable Back Reflection Sensor, PBRS, (NEL only) and Quad Back Reflection Sensor, QBRS, time delay reflectometer traces are among the most useful diagnostics of NIF laser status available. NEL PBRS measurements show several signals reaching the detector for each shot. The time delay between signals suggests that the largest of these is due to energy at the spatial filter pinhole planes leaking into adjacent pinholes and traveling back upstream to the PBRS. Prop simulations agree with current PBRS measurements to within 50%. This suggests that pinhole leakage is the dominant source of energy at the PBRS. However, the simulations predict that the energy leakage is proportional to beam output energy, while the PBRS measurements increase more slowly (''saturate''). Further refinement of the model or the measurement may be necessary to resolve this discrepancy.

  16. Surface smoothness: cartilage biomarkers for knee OA beyond the radiologist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummala, Sudhakar; Dam, Erik B.

    2010-03-01

    Fully automatic imaging biomarkers may allow quantification of patho-physiological processes that a radiologist would not be able to assess reliably. This can introduce new insight but is problematic to validate due to lack of meaningful ground truth expert measurements. Rather than quantification accuracy, such novel markers must therefore be validated against clinically meaningful end-goals such as the ability to allow correct diagnosis. We present a method for automatic cartilage surface smoothness quantification in the knee joint. The quantification is based on a curvature flow method used on tibial and femoral cartilage compartments resulting from an automatic segmentation scheme. These smoothness estimates are validated for their ability to diagnose osteoarthritis and compared to smoothness estimates based on manual expert segmentations and to conventional cartilage volume quantification. We demonstrate that the fully automatic markers eliminate the time required for radiologist annotations, and in addition provide a diagnostic marker superior to the evaluated semi-manual markers.

  17. International Space Station ECLSS Operations Status - Increment OA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamczyk, Philip C.; Cobb, Carey T. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) operations to date for preflight planning, international partner coordination and mission plan execution of the International Space Station (ISS). The focus is on the activities involved with the STS-88(2A) Space Shuttle Endeavor flight, the first delivery of the US segment of the ISS, which consists of the Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA)/and Node 1 elements, and the delivery of the first Russian segment of the ISS, the FGB, a US-financed and Russian- built module.

  18. Veratrole Biosynthesis in White Campion1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Tariq A.; Pichersky, Eran

    2013-01-01

    White campion (Silene latifolia) is a dioecious plant that emits 1,2-dimethoxybenzene (veratrole), a potent pollinator attractant to the nocturnal moth Hadena bicruris. Little is known about veratrole biosynthesis, although methylation of 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), another volatile emitted from white campion flowers, has been proposed. Here, we explore the biosynthetic route to veratrole. Feeding white campion flowers with [13C9]l-phenylalanine increased guaiacol and veratrole emission, and a significant portion of these volatile molecules contained the stable isotope. When white campion flowers were treated with the phenylalanine ammonia lyase inhibitor 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid, guaiacol and veratrole levels were reduced by 50% and 63%, respectively. Feeding with benzoic acid (BA) or salicylic acid (SA) increased veratrole emission 2-fold, while [2H5]BA and [2H6]SA feeding indicated that the benzene ring of both guaiacol and veratrole is derived from BA via SA. We further report guaiacol O-methyltransferase (GOMT) activity in the flowers of white campion. The enzyme was purified to apparent homogeneity, and the peptide sequence matched that encoded by a recently identified complementary DNA (SlGOMT1) from a white campion flower expressed sequence tag database. Screening of a small population of North American white campion plants for floral volatile emission revealed that not all plants emitted veratrole or possessed GOMT activity, and SlGOMT1 expression was only observed in veratrole emitters. Collectively these data suggest that veratrole is derived by the methylation of guaiacol, which itself originates from phenylalanine via BA and SA, and therefore implies a novel branch point of the general phenylpropanoid pathway. PMID:23547102

  19. Flying Operations: A/OA-10 -- Operations Procedures. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    annotations are of sufficient detail to allow navigation and safe mission accomplishment. Update maps from the Chart Update Manual ( CHUM ) or equivalent...digital CHUM and highlight (circle, highlight with marker, etc.) all man-made obstacles at or above the planned flight altitude. 2.3.3.1. In addition...materials (e.g. CHUM , FLIP AP/1B, etc.) With either: AFI11-2AOA-10V3 11 FEBRUARY 2002 9 2.3.3.1.1. PFPS/Falcon View with the following overlay options

  20. CAEBAT OAS/VIBE Production Release v1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Allu, Srikanth; Billings, Jay Jay; Elwasif, Wael R.; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Kumar, Abhishek; Pannala, Sreekanth; Simunovic, Srdjan

    2015-03-02

    The objective of the project is to develop a mathematical and computational infrastructure, and modeling framework that will enable seamless multi-scale and multi-physics simulations of battery performance and safety. The modeling framework will transfer the information between models in a physically consistent and mathematically rigorous fashion for both spatial and temporal variations. The end result will be a verified, computationally scalable, portable, and flexible (extensible and easily-modified) framework that can integrate models from the other CAEBAT tasks and industrial partners. The framework will be used to validate models and modeling approaches against experiments and to support rapid prototyping of advanced battery concepts. Fig. 2 shows different parts of CAEBAT VIBE simulation environment that work together to provide user with flexibility in the problem setup, solution formulation and simulation launch. Each of the parts is discussed in subsequent sections with corresponding examples.

  1. Concept of an Opto-electronic Accelerometer System (OAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunkel, B.; Keller, K.; Lutz, R.

    1987-01-01

    An accelerometer based on a spring-suspended reference mass and its precise relative motion measurement by means of 3 two-dimensional position sensitive detectors (PSD) is described. A breadboard model achieves a resolution (longterm linearity) of 25 nm in one direction. Due to the physical principle of the PSD, the second layer is slightly less sensitive than the top layer; accordingly for gravity gradient detection the more sensitive layer is selected for the Z/X component detection. At 10 Hz sampling rate an acceleration gradient of under 10 to the minus 12th power g (i.e., 0.01 E or 0.001 Gal/km) is considered to be detectable.

  2. Concept of an Opto-electronic Accelerometer System (OAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunkel, B.; Keller, K.; Lutz, R.

    1987-10-01

    An accelerometer based on a spring-suspended reference mass and its precise relative motion measurement by means of 3 two-dimensional position sensitive detectors (PSD) is described. A breadboard model achieves a resolution (longterm linearity) of 25 nm in one direction. Due to the physical principle of the PSD, the second layer is slightly less sensitive than the top layer; accordingly for gravity gradient detection the more sensitive layer is selected for the Z/X component detection. At 10 Hz sampling rate an acceleration gradient of under 10 to the minus 12th power g (i.e., 0.01 E or 0.001 Gal/km) is considered to be detectable.

  3. Science and Technology and Gender at the OAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Alice

    2005-10-01

    We describe the activities of the Organization of American States, and more specifically of the Office of Education, Science and Technology, in the area of gender and science and technology. The activities include fostering political dialog and establishing priorities for policies and programs in the 34 countries of the western hemisphere.

  4. Relighting the Torch: East Middle School's OA Success Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokorny, Nancy

    1995-01-01

    Describes the implementation of outcomes accreditation at East Middle School, in Aurora, Colorado. Reports significant gains in student success, including a 68% decline in student tardiness and a 60% decrease in suspensions. Indicates that the school was selected as a state Governor's Challenger School. (MAB)

  5. Ontogeny of the Maize Shoot Apical Meristem[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Takacs, Elizabeth M.; Li, Jie; Du, Chuanlong; Ponnala, Lalit; Janick-Buckner, Diane; Yu, Jianming; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Schnable, Patrick S.; Timmermans, Marja C.P.; Sun, Qi; Nettleton, Dan; Scanlon, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The maize (Zea mays) shoot apical meristem (SAM) arises early in embryogenesis and functions during stem cell maintenance and organogenesis to generate all the aboveground organs of the plant. Despite its integral role in maize shoot development, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of SAM initiation. Laser microdissection of apical domains from developing maize embryos and seedlings was combined with RNA sequencing for transcriptomic analyses of SAM ontogeny. Molecular markers of key events during maize embryogenesis are described, and comprehensive transcriptional data from six stages in maize shoot development are generated. Transcriptomic profiling before and after SAM initiation indicates that organogenesis precedes stem cell maintenance in maize; analyses of the first three lateral organs elaborated from maize embryos provides insight into their homology and to the identity of the single maize cotyledon. Compared with the newly initiated SAM, the mature SAM is enriched for transcripts that function in transcriptional regulation, hormonal signaling, and transport. Comparisons of shoot meristems initiating juvenile leaves, adult leaves, and husk leaves illustrate differences in phase-specific (juvenile versus adult) and meristem-specific (SAM versus lateral meristem) transcript accumulation during maize shoot development. This study provides insight into the molecular genetics of SAM initiation and function in maize. PMID:22911570

  6. Boundary layer simulator improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praharaj, Sarat C.; Schmitz, Craig P.; Nouri, Joseph A.

    1989-01-01

    Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure (BLIMPJ) has been identified by the propulsion community as the rigorous boundary layer program in connection with the existing JANNAF reference programs. The improvements made to BLIMPJ and described herein have potential applications in the design of the future Orbit Transfer Vehicle engines. The turbulence model is validated to include the effects of wall roughness and a way is devised to treat multiple smooth-rough surfaces. A prediction of relaminarization regions is examined as is the combined effects of wall cooling and surface roughness on relaminarization. A turbulence model to represent the effects of constant condensed phase loading is given. A procedure is described for thrust decrement calculation in thick boundary layers by coupling the T-D Kinetics Program and BLIMPJ and a way is provided for thrust loss optimization. Potential experimental studies in rocket nozzles are identified along with the required instrumentation to provide accurate measurements in support of the presented new analytical models.

  7. Improving Communications Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle has many communications systems which are used throughout a typical mission. Given that the radio spectrum has become increasingly congested, the ability to hear extremely weak signals requires greater receiver sensitivity. Dryden Flight Research Center approached Angle Linear, a manufacturer of linear radio frequency products and peripherals for communications, to solve the problem. The solution was a receiving preamplifier specially crafted for NASA. Communications with the Space Shuttle are now more reliable,with Dryden being able to also support local missions without purchasing additional equipment. The work has carried over into the Mir Space Station communication support effort and is under evaluation by other NASA centers. The company's preamplifier line was greatly expanded to cover a broader range of frequencies, providing the same sensational improvement to other areas of communication including business, government, trucking, land mobile, cellular and broadcast.

  8. Improved poultry house

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of energy and poultry production was explored in three areas: methane production from litter, broiler house insulation, and broiler house HVAC systems. The findings show that while a methane plant would not be popular with individual American poultry producers; the pay back in fuel and fertilizer, if the plant was located in close proximinity to the processing plant, would be favorable. Broiler house insulation has been dramatically improved since the outset of this study. Presently, all new installations in the survey area are the Environmental houses which are fully insulated. HVAC systems have had to keep pace with the introduction of better insulation. The new Environmental houses HVAC systems are fully automated and operating on a positive atmosphere principal. Ammonia and other problems have been kept in check while reducing air changes per house from a high of 7 per hour to as little as 3 per hour.

  9. Software Engineering Improvement Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In performance of this task order, bd Systems personnel provided support to the Flight Software Branch and the Software Working Group through multiple tasks related to software engineering improvement and to activities of the independent Technical Authority (iTA) Discipline Technical Warrant Holder (DTWH) for software engineering. To ensure that the products, comments, and recommendations complied with customer requirements and the statement of work, bd Systems personnel maintained close coordination with the customer. These personnel performed work in areas such as update of agency requirements and directives database, software effort estimation, software problem reports, a web-based process asset library, miscellaneous documentation review, software system requirements, issue tracking software survey, systems engineering NPR, and project-related reviews. This report contains a summary of the work performed and the accomplishments in each of these areas.

  10. Improving Metal Casting Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Don Sirois, an Auburn University research associate, and Bruce Strom, a mechanical engineering Co-Op Student, are evaluating the dimensional characteristics of an aluminum automobile engine casting. More accurate metal casting processes may reduce the weight of some cast metal products used in automobiles, such as engines. Research in low gravity has taken an important first step toward making metal products used in homes, automobiles, and aircraft less expensive, safer, and more durable. Auburn University and industry are partnering with NASA to develop one of the first accurate computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials used in a manufacturing process called casting. Ford Motor Company's casting plant in Cleveland, Ohio is using NASA-sponsored computer modeling information to improve the casting process of automobile and light-truck engine blocks.

  11. Improved docking alignment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, Leo G. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Improved techniques are provided for the alignment of two objects. The present invention is particularly suited for 3-D translation and 3-D rotational alignment of objects in outer space. A camera is affixed to one object, such as a remote manipulator arm of the spacecraft, while the planar reflective surface is affixed to the other object, such as a grapple fixture. A monitor displays in real-time images from the camera such that the monitor displays both the reflected image of the camera and visible marking on the planar reflective surface when the objects are in proper alignment. The monitor may thus be viewed by the operator and the arm manipulated so that the reflective surface is perpendicular to the optical axis of the camera, the roll of the reflective surface is at a selected angle with respect to the camera, and the camera is spaced a pre-selected distance from the reflective surface.

  12. GALE improves snow forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scientific results from an intensive study of winter storms on the U.S. East Coast last year contributed to improved weather forecasts of two successive snowstorms that virtually closed down Washington, D.C., for several days in January 1987.In the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE) field project, scientists took detailed measurements simultaneously from the atmosphere and the ocean to study how these features interact at various stages of an East Coast winter storm, according to project director Richard Dirks, who is with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colo. “It's interesting that we actually had four storms [in the GALE study] that were of similar intensity to the two East Coast storms” in January 1987, Dirks said. “However, last year the temperatures were warmer, and the storm tracks were located somewhat further offshore and therefore did not significantly affect the northeast corridor with heavy snows.”

  13. Improving Pathologists' Communication Skills.

    PubMed

    Dintzis, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    The 2015 Institute of Medicine report on diagnostic error has placed a national spotlight on the importance of improving communication among clinicians and between clinicians and patients [1]. The report emphasizes the critical role that communication plays in patient safety and outlines ways that pathologists can support this process. Despite recognition of communication as an essential element in patient care, pathologists currently undergo limited (if any) formal training in communication skills. To address this gap, we at the University of Washington Medical Center developed communication training with the goal of establishing best practice procedures for effective pathology communication. The course includes lectures, role playing, and simulated clinician-pathologist interactions for training and evaluation of pathology communication performance. Providing communication training can help create reliable communication pathways that anticipate and address potential barriers and errors before they happen.

  14. Deceleration Orbit Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Church, M.

    1991-04-26

    During the accelerator studies period of 12/90-1/91 much study time was dedicated to improving the E760 deceleration ramps. 4 general goals were in mind: (1) Reduce the relative orbit deviations from the nominal reference orbit as much as possible. This reduces the potential error in the orbit length calculation - which is the primary source of error in the beam energy calculation. (2) Maximize the transverse apertures. This minimizes beam loss during deceleration and during accidental beam blow-ups. (3) Measure and correct lattice parameters. Knowledge of {gamma}{sub T}, {eta}, Q{sub h}, Q{sub v}, and the dispersion in the straight sections allows for a more accurate energy calculation and reliable SYNCH calculations. (4) Minimize the coupling. This allows one to discern between horizontal and vertical tunes.

  15. Improving Hospital Discharge Time

    PubMed Central

    El-Eid, Ghada R.; Kaddoum, Roland; Tamim, Hani; Hitti, Eveline A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Delays in discharging patients can impact hospital and emergency department (ED) throughput. The discharge process is complex and involves setting specific challenges that limit generalizability of solutions. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of using Six Sigma methods to improve the patient discharge process. This is a quantitative pre and post-intervention study. Three hundred and eighty-six bed tertiary care hospital. A series of Six Sigma driven interventions over a 10-month period. The primary outcome was discharge time (time from discharge order to patient leaving the room). Secondary outcome measures included percent of patients whose discharge order was written before noon, percent of patients leaving the room by noon, hospital length of stay (LOS), and LOS of admitted ED patients. Discharge time decreased by 22.7% from 2.2 hours during the preintervention period to 1.7 hours post-intervention (P < 0.001). A greater proportion of patients left their room before noon in the postintervention period (P < 0.001), though there was no statistical difference in before noon discharge. Hospital LOS dropped from 3.4 to 3.1 days postintervention (P < 0.001). ED mean LOS of patients admitted to the hospital was significantly lower in the postintervention period (6.9 ± 7.8 vs 5.9 ± 7.7 hours; P < 0.001). Six Sigma methodology can be an effective change management tool to improve discharge time. The focus of institutions aspiring to tackle delays in the discharge process should be on adopting the core principles of Six Sigma rather than specific interventions that may be institution-specific. PMID:25816029

  16. Regulatory Streamlining and Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Carl

    2006-07-11

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) engaged in numerous projects outlined under the scope of work discussed in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) grant number DE-FC26-04NT15456 awarded to the IOGCC. Numerous projects were completed that were extremely valuable to state oil and gas agencies as a result of work performed utilizing resources provided by the grant. There are numerous areas in which state agencies still need assistance. This additional assistance will need to be addressed under future scopes of work submitted annually to DOE's Project Officer for this grant. This report discusses the progress of the projects outlined under the grant scope of work for the 2005-2006 areas of interest, which are as follows: Area of Interest No. 1--Regulatory Streamlining and Improvement: This area of interest continues to support IOGCC's regulatory streamlining efforts that include the identification and elimination of unnecessary duplications of efforts between and among state and federal programs dealing with exploration and production on public lands. Area of Interest No. 2--Technology: This area of interest seeks to improve efficiency in states through the identification of technologies that can reduce costs. Area of Interest No. 3--Training and Education: This area of interest is vital to upgrading the skills of regulators and industry alike. Within the National Energy Policy, there are many appropriate training and education opportunities. Education was strongly endorsed by the President's National Energy Policy Development group. Acting through the governors offices, states are very effective conduits for the dissemination of energy education information. While the IOGCC favors the development of a comprehensive, long-term energy education plan, states are also supportive of immediate action on important concerns, such as energy prices, availability and conservation. Area of Interest No. 4--Resource Assessment and Development: This area

  17. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2004-09-30

    This report describes work performed during the third and final year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' Corefloods revealed throughput dependencies of permeability reduction by polymers and gels that were much more prolonged during oil flow than water flow. This behavior was explained using simple mobility ratio arguments. A model was developed that quantitatively fits the results and predicts ''clean up'' times for oil productivity when production wells are returned to service after application of a polymer or gel treatment. X-ray computed microtomography studies of gels in strongly water-wet Berea sandstone and strongly oil-wet porous polyethylene suggested that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than gel-ripping or gel-displacement mechanisms. In contrast, analysis of data from the University of Kansas suggests that the gel-ripping or displacement mechanisms are more important in more permeable, strongly water-wet sandpacks. These findings help to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil under different conditions. Since cement is the most commonly used material for water shutoff, we considered when gels are preferred over cements. Our analysis and experimental results indicated that cement cannot be expected to completely fill (top to bottom) a vertical fracture of any width, except near the wellbore. For vertical fractures with apertures less than 4 mm, the cement slurry will simply not penetrate very far into the fracture. For vertical fractures with apertures greater than 4 mm, the slurry may penetrate a substantial distance into the bottom part of the fracture. However, except near the wellbore, the upper part of the fracture will remain open due to gravity segregation. We compared various approaches to plugging fractures using gels, including (1) varying polymer content, (2) varying placement (extrusion) rate, (3) using partially formed gels, (4

  18. Refines Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    WRI

    2002-05-15

    Refinery processes that convert heavy oils to lighter distillate fuels require heating for distillation, hydrogen addition or carbon rejection (coking). Efficiency is limited by the formation of insoluble carbon-rich coke deposits. Heat exchangers and other refinery units must be shut down for mechanical coke removal, resulting in a significant loss of output and revenue. When a residuum is heated above the temperature at which pyrolysis occurs (340 C, 650 F), there is typically an induction period before coke formation begins (Magaril and Aksenova 1968, Wiehe 1993). To avoid fouling, refiners often stop heating a residuum before coke formation begins, using arbitrary criteria. In many cases, this heating is stopped sooner than need be, resulting in less than maximum product yield. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed innovative Coking Index concepts (patent pending) which can be used for process control by refiners to heat residua to the threshold, but not beyond the point at which coke formation begins when petroleum residua materials are heated at pyrolysis temperatures (Schabron et al. 2001). The development of this universal predictor solves a long standing problem in petroleum refining. These Coking Indexes have great potential value in improving the efficiency of distillation processes. The Coking Indexes were found to apply to residua in a universal manner, and the theoretical basis for the indexes has been established (Schabron et al. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c). For the first time, a few simple measurements indicates how close undesired coke formation is on the coke formation induction time line. The Coking Indexes can lead to new process controls that can improve refinery distillation efficiency by several percentage points. Petroleum residua consist of an ordered continuum of solvated polar materials usually referred to as asphaltenes dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase held together by intermediate polarity materials usually referred to as

  19. Device for improved combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Polomchak, R.W.; Yacko, M.

    1988-03-08

    A device for improved combustion is described comprising: a tubular housing member having a first end and a second end, the first and second ends each having a circular opening therethrough; a combustion chamber disposed about the second end of the-tubular-housing member; a first conduit member extending from the first end of the tubular housing member and in fluid communication with the circular opening in the first end of the tubular housing member so as to allow the passage of air therethrough; a second conduit member axially disposed within the first conduit member and extending through the first conduit member and through the tubular housing member to the circular opening the second end of the tubular housing member so as to allow the passage of fuel therethrough; means for effecting turbulence in the air passing through the tubular housing member; means for effecting turbulence in the fuel passing through the second conduit member; means for intermixing and emitting the turbulent air and the fuel in a mushroom shaped configuration with the turbulent air surrounding the mushroom shaped configuration so as to substantially eliminate noxious waste gases as by-product of combustion of the air and fuel mixture.

  20. Improved Search Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albornoz, Caleb Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of millions of documents are stored and updated daily in the World Wide Web. Most of the information is not efficiently organized to build knowledge from the stored data. Nowadays, search engines are mainly used by users who rely on their skills to look for the information needed. This paper presents different techniques search engine users can apply in Google Search to improve the relevancy of search results. According to the Pew Research Center, the average person spends eight hours a month searching for the right information. For instance, a company that employs 1000 employees wastes $2.5 million dollars on looking for nonexistent and/or not found information. The cost is very high because decisions are made based on the information that is readily available to use. Whenever the information necessary to formulate an argument is not available or found, poor decisions may be made and mistakes will be more likely to occur. Also, the survey indicates that only 56% of Google users feel confident with their current search skills. Moreover, just 76% of the information that is available on the Internet is accurate.

  1. IMPROVED BONDING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Padgett, E.V. Jr.; Warf, D.H.

    1964-04-28

    An improved process of bonding aluminum to aluminum without fusion by ultrasonic vibrations plus pressure is described. The surfaces to be bonded are coated with an aqueous solution of alkali metal stearate prior to assembling for bonding. (AEC) O H19504 Present information is reviewed on steady state proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of blood cells in mammals. Data are cited from metabolic tracer studies, autoradiographic studies, cytologic studies, studies of hematopoietic response to radiation injuries, and computer analyses of blood cell production. A 3-step model for erythropoiesis and a model for granulocyte kinetics are presented. New approaches to the study of lymphocytopoiesis described include extracorporeal blood irradiation to deplete lymphocytic tissue without direct injury to the formative tissues as a means to study the stressed system, function control, and rates of proliferation. It is pointed out that present knowledge indicates that lymphocytes comprise a mixed family, with diverse life spans, functions, and migration patterns with apparent aimless recycling from modes to lymph to blood to nodes that has not yet been quantitated. Areas of future research are postulated. (70 references.) (C.H.)

  2. Improved bunch spreader modules

    SciTech Connect

    Ieiri, Takao

    1989-07-20

    In order to raise the threshold beam current of instabilities in the fixed target run, it is required to increase the longitudinal emittance, and hence the bunch length. The bunch spreader used a noise generator through a sharp-cut ban pass filter (BPF) instead of a coherent signal. In that filter, the pass band frequency was near twice the synchrotron frequency 2f/sub s/. The bandwidth of the filter was fixed between 350Hz and 600Hz, though twice the synchrotron frequency changed from 500Hz to 300Hz after transition in Main Ring. The noise through the filter is applied to an RF amplitude modulator. In the Tevatron, where the synchrotron frequency f/sub s/ varies from 120Hz to 40Hz during acceleration, the noise is applied to a phase shifter at the frequency of f/sub s/. So, we need a tunable filter which tracks 2f/sub s/ in the Main Ring and f/sub s/ in the Tevatron. This note describes details of improved bunch spreader modules using a tunable filter used in both the Main Ring and the Tevatron. A brief description about this module along with a beam test done in the Main Ring is shown. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Improved Anvil Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred C.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the outcome of Phase 1 of the AMU's Improved Anvil Forecasting task. Forecasters in the 45th Weather Squadron and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group have found that anvil forecasting is a difficult task when predicting LCC and FR violations. The purpose of this task is to determine the technical feasibility of creating an anvil-forecasting tool. Work on this study was separated into three steps: literature search, forecaster discussions, and determination of technical feasibility. The literature search revealed no existing anvil-forecasting techniques. However, there appears to be growing interest in anvils in recent years. If this interest continues to grow, more information will be available to aid in developing a reliable anvil-forecasting tool. The forecaster discussion step revealed an array of methods on how better forecasting techniques could be developed. The forecasters have ideas based on sound meteorological principles and personal experience in forecasting and analyzing anvils. Based on the information gathered in the discussions with the forecasters, the conclusion of this report is that it is technically feasible at this time to develop an anvil forecasting technique that will significantly contribute to the confidence in anvil forecasts.

  4. Shuttle Safety Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle has been flying for over 20 years and based on the Orbiter design life of 100 missions it should be capable of flying at least 20 years more if we take care of it. The Space Shuttle Development Office established in 1997 has identified those upgrades needed to keep the Shuttle flying safely and efficiently until a new reusable launch vehicle (RLV) is available to meet the agency commitments and goals for human access to space. The upgrade requirements shown in figure 1 are to meet the program goals, support HEDS and next generation space transportation goals while protecting the country 's investment in the Space Shuttle. A major review of the shuttle hardware and processes was conducted in 1999 which identified key shuttle safety improvement priorities, as well as other system upgrades needed to reliably continue to support the shuttle miss ions well into the second decade of this century. The high priority safety upgrades selected for development and study will be addressed in this paper.

  5. Improving self-calibration.

    PubMed

    Enßlin, Torsten A; Junklewitz, Henrik; Winderling, Lars; Greiner, Maksim; Selig, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Response calibration is the process of inferring how much the measured data depend on the signal one is interested in. It is essential for any quantitative signal estimation on the basis of the data. Here, we investigate self-calibration methods for linear signal measurements and linear dependence of the response on the calibration parameters. The common practice is to augment an external calibration solution using a known reference signal with an internal calibration on the unknown measurement signal itself. Contemporary self-calibration schemes try to find a self-consistent solution for signal and calibration by exploiting redundancies in the measurements. This can be understood in terms of maximizing the joint probability of signal and calibration. However, the full uncertainty structure of this joint probability around its maximum is thereby not taken into account by these schemes. Therefore, better schemes, in sense of minimal square error, can be designed by accounting for asymmetries in the uncertainty of signal and calibration. We argue that at least a systematic correction of the common self-calibration scheme should be applied in many measurement situations in order to properly treat uncertainties of the signal on which one calibrates. Otherwise, the calibration solutions suffer from a systematic bias, which consequently distorts the signal reconstruction. Furthermore, we argue that nonparametric, signal-to-noise filtered calibration should provide more accurate reconstructions than the common bin averages and provide a new, improved self-calibration scheme. We illustrate our findings with a simplistic numerical example.

  6. Human Performance Improvement: Lessons To Be Learned from Quality Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummel, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses quality improvement (QI) and how it can help human performance improvement (HPI). Compares QI and HPI and discusses focusing on products and services; focusing on the customer; using data more effectively; continuous improvement; benchmarking; establishing standards; specialization; and involving the clients. (LRW)

  7. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2003-09-01

    This report describes work performed during the second year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' The project has two objectives. The first objective is to identify gel compositions and conditions that substantially reduce flow through fractures that allow direct channeling between wells, while leaving secondary fractures open so that high fluid injection and production rates can be maintained. The second objective is to optimize treatments in fractured production wells, where the gel must reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil. Pore-level images from X-ray computed microtomography were re-examined for Berea sandstone and porous polyethylene. This analysis suggests that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than a gel-ripping mechanism. This finding helps to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil. We analyzed a Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel treatment in a production well in the Arbuckle formation. The availability of accurate pressure data before, during, and after the treatment was critical for the analysis. After the gel treatment, water productivity was fairly constant at about 20% of the pre-treatment value. However, oil productivity was stimulated by a factor of 18 immediately after the treatment. During the six months after the treatment, oil productivity gradually decreased to approach the pre-treatment value. To explain this behavior, we proposed that the fracture area open to oil flow was increased substantially by the gel treatment, followed by a gradual closing of the fractures during subsequent production. For a conventional Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel, the delay between gelant preparation and injection into a fracture impacts the placement, leakoff, and permeability reduction behavior. Formulations placed as partially formed gels showed relatively low pressure gradients during placement, and yet substantially reduced the flow capacity of

  8. Improved Autoassociative Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hand, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Improved autoassociative neural networks, denoted nexi, have been proposed for use in controlling autonomous robots, including mobile exploratory robots of the biomorphic type. In comparison with conventional autoassociative neural networks, nexi would be more complex but more capable in that they could be trained to do more complex tasks. A nexus would use bit weights and simple arithmetic in a manner that would enable training and operation without a central processing unit, programs, weight registers, or large amounts of memory. Only a relatively small amount of memory (to hold the bit weights) and a simple logic application- specific integrated circuit would be needed. A description of autoassociative neural networks is prerequisite to a meaningful description of a nexus. An autoassociative network is a set of neurons that are completely connected in the sense that each neuron receives input from, and sends output to, all the other neurons. (In some instantiations, a neuron could also send output back to its own input terminal.) The state of a neuron is completely determined by the inner product of its inputs with weights associated with its input channel. Setting the weights sets the behavior of the network. The neurons of an autoassociative network are usually regarded as comprising a row or vector. Time is a quantized phenomenon for most autoassociative networks in the sense that time proceeds in discrete steps. At each time step, the row of neurons forms a pattern: some neurons are firing, some are not. Hence, the current state of an autoassociative network can be described with a single binary vector. As time goes by, the network changes the vector. Autoassociative networks move vectors over hyperspace landscapes of possibilities.

  9. Improving clinical cognitive testing

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Seth A.; Barrett, A.M.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Chatterjee, Anjan; Coslett, H. Branch; D'Esposito, Mark; Finney, Glen R.; Gitelman, Darren R.; Hart, John J.; Lerner, Alan J.; Meador, Kimford J.; Pietras, Alison C.; Voeller, Kytja S.; Kaufer, Daniel I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the evidence basis of single-domain cognitive tests frequently used by behavioral neurologists in an effort to improve the quality of clinical cognitive assessment. Methods: Behavioral Neurology Section members of the American Academy of Neurology were surveyed about how they conduct clinical cognitive testing, with a particular focus on the Neurobehavioral Status Exam (NBSE). In contrast to general screening cognitive tests, an NBSE consists of tests of individual cognitive domains (e.g., memory or language) that provide a more comprehensive diagnostic assessment. Workgroups for each of 5 cognitive domains (attention, executive function, memory, language, and spatial cognition) conducted evidence-based reviews of frequently used tests. Reviews focused on suitability for office-based clinical practice, including test administration time, accessibility of normative data, disease populations studied, and availability in the public domain. Results: Demographic and clinical practice data were obtained from 200 respondents who reported using a wide range of cognitive tests. Based on survey data and ancillary information, between 5 and 15 tests in each cognitive domain were reviewed. Within each domain, several tests are highlighted as being well-suited for an NBSE. Conclusions: We identified frequently used single-domain cognitive tests that are suitable for an NBSE to help make informed choices about clinical cognitive assessment. Some frequently used tests have limited normative data or have not been well-studied in common neurologic disorders. Utilizing standardized cognitive tests, particularly those with normative data based on the individual's age and educational level, can enhance the rigor and utility of clinical cognitive assessment. PMID:26163433

  10. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2002-02-28

    This technical progress report describes work performed from June 20 through December 19, 2001, for the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels''. Interest has increased in some new polymeric products that purport to substantially reduce permeability to water while causing minimum permeability reduction to oil. In view of this interest, we are currently studying BJ's Aqua Con. Results from six corefloods revealed that the Aqua Con gelant consistently reduced permeability to water more than that to oil. However, the magnitude of the disproportionate permeability reduction varied significantly for the various experiments. Thus, as with most materials tested to date, the issue of reproducibility and control of the disproportionate permeability remains to be resolved. Concern exists about the ability of gels to resist washout after placement in fractures. We examined whether a width constriction in the middle of a fracture would cause different gel washout behavior upstream versus downstream of the constriction. Tests were performed using a formed Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel in a 48-in.-long fracture with three sections of equal length, but with widths of 0.08-, 0.02-, and 0.08-in., respectively. The pressure gradients during gel extrusion (i.e., placement) were similar in the two 0.08-in.-wide fracture sections, even though they were separated by a 0.02-in.-wide fracture section. The constriction associated with the middle fracture section may have inhibited gel washout during the first pulse of brine injection after gel placement. However, during subsequent phases of brine injection, the constriction did not inhibit washout in the upstream fracture section any more than in the downstream section.

  11. Improved automobile gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofskey, M. G.; Katsanis, T.; Roelke, R. J.; Mclallin, K. L.; Wong, R. Y.; Schumann, L. F.; Galvas, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Upgraded engine delivers 100 hp in 3500 lb vehicle. Improved fuel economy is due to combined effects of reduced weight, reduced power-to-weight ratio, increased turbine inlet pressure, and improved component efficiencies at part power.

  12. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  13. Improved Coal-Thickness Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    Summed signals and dielectric-filled antenna improve measurement. Improved FM radar for measuring thickness of coal seam eliminates spectrum splitting and reduces magnitude of echo from front coal surface.

  14. Automatic identification and removal of ocular artifacts in EEG--improved adaptive predictor filtering for portable applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qinglin; Hu, Bin; Shi, Yujun; Li, Yang; Moore, Philip; Sun, Minghou; Peng, Hong

    2014-06-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals have a long history of use as a noninvasive approach to measure brain function. An essential component in EEG-based applications is the removal of Ocular Artifacts (OA) from the EEG signals. In this paper we propose a hybrid de-noising method combining Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT) and an Adaptive Predictor Filter (APF). A particularly novel feature of the proposed method is the use of the APF based on an adaptive autoregressive model for prediction of the waveform of signals in the ocular artifact zones. In our test, based on simulated data, the accuracy of noise removal in the proposed model was significantly increased when compared to existing methods including: Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Adaptive Noise Cancellation (ANC). The results demonstrate that the proposed method achieved a lower mean square error and higher correlation between the original and corrected EEG. The proposed method has also been evaluated using data from calibration trials for the Online Predictive Tools for Intervention in Mental Illness (OPTIMI) project. The results of this evaluation indicate an improvement in performance in terms of the recovery of true EEG signals with EEG tracking and computational speed in the analysis. The proposed method is well suited to applications in portable environments where the constraints with respect to acceptable wearable sensor attachments usually dictate single channel devices.

  15. Why Process Improvement Training Fails

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Dawei; Betts, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the underlying reasons why providing process improvement training, by itself, may not be sufficient to achieve the desired outcome of improved processes; and to attempt a conceptual framework of management training for more effective improvement. Design/methodology/approach: Two similar units within…

  16. NCCDS configuration management process improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, Kathy

    1993-01-01

    By concentrating on defining and improving specific Configuration Management (CM) functions, processes, procedures, personnel selection/development, and tools, internal and external customers received improved CM services. Job performance within the section increased in both satisfaction and output. Participation in achieving major improvements has led to the delivery of consistent quality CM products as well as significant decreases in every measured CM metrics category.

  17. Innovation for maintenance technology improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shives, T. R. (Editor); Willard, W. A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    A group of 34 submitted entries (32 papers and 2 abstracts) from the 33rd meeting of the Mechanical Failures Prevention Group whose subject was maintenance technology improvement through innovation. Areas of special emphasis included maintenance concepts, maintenance analysis systems, improved maintenance processes, innovative maintenance diagnostics and maintenance indicators, and technology improvements for power plant applications.

  18. Interstate Electrification Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    Puckette, Margaret; Kim, Jeff

    2015-07-01

    The Interstate Electrification Improvement Project, publicly known as the Shorepower Truck Electrification Project (STEP), started in May 2011 and ended in March 2015. The project grant was awarded by the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technology Office in the amount of $22.2 million. It had three overarching missions: 1. Reduce the idling of Class 8 tractors when parked at truck stops, to reduce diesel fuel consumption and thus U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum; 2. Stimulate job creation and economic activity as part of the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act of 2009; 3. Reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from diesel combustion and the carbon footprint of the truck transportation industry. The project design was straightforward. First, build fifty Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) facilities in truck stop parking lots across the country so trucks could plug-in to 110V, 220V, or 480VAC, and shut down the engine instead of idling. These facilities were strategically located at fifty truck stops along major U.S. Interstates with heavy truck traffic. Approximately 1,350 connection points were installed, including 150 high-voltage electric standby Transport Refrigeration Unit (eTRU) plugs--eTRUs are capable of plugging in to shore power1 to cool the refrigerated trailer for loads such as produce, meats and ice cream. Second, the project provided financial incentives on idle reduction equipment to 5,000 trucks in the form of rebates, to install equipment compatible with shore power. This equipment enables drivers to shut down the main engine when parked, to heat or cool their cab, charge batteries, or use other household appliances without idling—a common practice that uses approximately 1 gallon of diesel per hour. The rebate recipients were intended to be the first fleets to plug into Shorepower to save diesel fuel and ensure there is significant population of shore power capable trucks. This two part project was designed to complement each other by

  19. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2004-03-01

    This technical progress report describes work performed from September 1, 2003, through February 29, 2004, for the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' We examined the properties of several ''partially formed'' gels that were formulated with a combination of high and low molecular weight HPAM polymers. After placement in 4-mm-wide fractures, these gels required about 25 psi/ft for brine to breach the gel (the best performance to date in fractures this wide). After this breach, stabilized residual resistance factors decreased significantly with increased flow rate. Also, residual resistance factors were up to 9 times greater for water than for oil. Nevertheless, permeability reduction factors were substantial for both water and oil flow. Gel with 2.5% chopped fiberglass effectively plugged 4-mm-wide fractures if a 0.5-mm-wide constriction was present. The ability to screen-out at a constriction appears crucial for particulate incorporation to be useful in plugging fractures. In addition to fiberglass, we examined incorporation of polypropylene fibers into gels. Once dispersed in brine or gelant, the polypropylene fibers exhibited the least gravity segregation of any particulate that we have tested to date. In fractures with widths of at least 2 mm, 24-hr-old gels (0.5% high molecular weight HPAM) with 0.5% fiber did not exhibit progressive plugging during placement and showed extrusion pressure gradients similar to those of gels without the fiber. The presence of the fiber roughly doubled the gel's resistance to first breach by brine flow. The breaching pressure gradients were not as large as for gels made with high and low molecular weight polymers (mentioned above). However, their material requirements and costs (i.e., polymer and/or particulate concentrations) were substantially lower than for those gels. A partially formed gel made with 0.5% HPAM did not enter a 0.052-mm-wide fracture when applying a pressure gradient of 65 psi/ft. This result

  20. Magnetostratigraphy improves APWP.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besse, J.

    2008-05-01

    Among other items, the Apparent Polar Wander Paths (APWP) of individual tectonic blocks contain information on geodynamical events from both shallower lithospheric sources (e.g. continental breakups and collisions) and deeper mantle sources affected by convection. Recent advances in the Earth Sciences, such as provided by global tomography or climate modeling, have emphasized the essential need for accurate reconstructions of the Earth's surface (blocks, plates and their boundaries and topographies), in order for instance to compare the initial positions of down going slabs or emerging hot spots with deeper mantle features, or to understand why and how time-varying climates and biomes may be related. A half-century after its initial pioneering contributions to the formulation of continental drift and plate tectonics, paleomagnetism remains an invaluable tool which will allow us to solve a very large range of problems concerning both internal and external geodynamics (solid, fluid and bio-spheres). The accurate determination of the APWPs of crustal and lithospheric blocks remains one of the main goals that must be pursued by the paleomagnetic community. However, in a large number of paleomagnetic studies in the literature, uncertainty related to age (or the exact time window) is very often larger than 10 myr. The result is that small amplitude (<10°) or rapid (b<=10 myr) APW features are often unresolvable. Based on two examples, one extending in the Jurassic and Cretaceous, the other during the Paleocene, I will discuss various aspects of the construction of APWPs and reconstruction of past plate positions using combined magnetostratigraphies. Critical steps involve: 1) how are original paleomagnetic data selected? 2) how are the kinematic models used to transfer data from one plate to the other determined ? 3) how can poles coming from deformed (e.g. rotated) regions be used ? and 4) how good is the geocentric axial dipole (GAD) assumption. Improved APWP segments

  1. Improving crop salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Flowers, T J

    2004-02-01

    Salinity is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries where irrigation is an essential aid to agriculture. Although the tolerance of saline conditions by plants is variable, crop species are generally intolerant of one-third of the concentration of salts found in seawater. Attempts to improve the salt tolerance of crops through conventional breeding programmes have met with very limited success, due to the complexity of the trait: salt tolerance is complex genetically and physiologically. Tolerance often shows the characteristics of a multigenic trait, with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with tolerance identified in barley, citrus, rice, and tomato and with ion transport under saline conditions in barley, citrus and rice. Physiologically salt tolerance is also complex, with halophytes and less tolerant plants showing a wide range of adaptations. Attempts to enhance tolerance have involved conventional breeding programmes, the use of in vitro selection, pooling physiological traits, interspecific hybridization, using halophytes as alternative crops, the use of marker-aided selection, and the use of transgenic plants. It is surprising that, in spite of the complexity of salt tolerance, there are commonly claims in the literature that the transfer of a single or a few genes can increase the tolerance of plants to saline conditions. Evaluation of such claims reveals that, of the 68 papers produced between 1993 and early 2003, only 19 report quantitative estimates of plant growth. Of these, four papers contain quantitative data on the response of transformants and wild-type of six species without and with salinity applied in an appropriate manner. About half of all the papers report data on experiments conducted under conditions where there is little or no transpiration: such experiments may provide insights into components of tolerance, but are not grounds for claims of enhanced tolerance at the whole plant level. Whether enhanced

  2. Improved kinematic options in ALEGRA.

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, Grant V.; Robinson, Allen Conrad

    2003-12-01

    Algorithms for higher order accuracy modeling of kinematic behavior within the ALEGRA framework are presented. These techniques improve the behavior of the code when kinematic errors are found, ensure orthonormality of the rotation tensor at each time step, and increase the accuracy of the Lagrangian stretch and rotation tensor update algorithm. The implementation of these improvements in ALEGRA is described. A short discussion of issues related to improving the accuracy of the stress update procedures is also included.

  3. Improving Quality in Education: Dynamic Approaches to School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creemers, Bert P. M.; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2011-01-01

    This book explores an approach to school improvement that merges the traditions of educational effectiveness research and school improvement efforts. It displays how the dynamic model, which is theoretical and empirically validated, can be used in both traditions. Each chapter integrates evidence from international and national studies, showing…

  4. Development and Testing of an Interactive Procedure for the Improvement of Objective Analyses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    various forms, including horizontal maps, vertical cross-sections, Skew-T’s, hodographs , 3-D perspec- * tives, etc. The three software elements, the OA...user can create 0 horizontal maps, vertical cross-sections, hodographs , Skew-T’s, trajectories, streamline analyses, and vector plots. The program can

  5. Improving Objective Measures of Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Allan G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The article examines shortcomings in existing objective measures of mobility for blind persons in the light of evaluative experiences and demonstrates improvements in reliability, together with a new technique for tracking pavement position. It refutes the idea that it is not possible to measure improvement in performance objectively. (Author/CL)

  6. Conference Report: Improving College Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, C. Douglas; Claxton, Charles S.

    The conference report includes an explanation of the conference plan, a description of the highlights, and descriptions of each session. Among the session topics are: faculty development; instructional improvement in the community college, with emphasis on developmental education; conditions that enhance learning; improving the lecture; evaluating…

  7. The Architecture of School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive framework for capturing the complex concept the authors call school improvement. Design/methodology/approach: The author begins by anchoring that framework on an historical understanding of school improvement. The framework itself is then presented. Five dimensions are described: the…

  8. Leadership Development and School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Christopher; Brundrett, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The chosen focus of this special issue is timely given the burgeoning international interest and investment in leadership development and school improvement. In many countries leadership and improvement have been closely linked and there is no doubt that this linkage has an international reach. Together, these articles review and extend some of…

  9. Global Container Management Process Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-19

    GLOBAL CONTAINER MANAGEMENT PROCESS IMPROVEMENTS GRP Traci L. Bowman, Major, USAF AFIT-ENS-GRP-15...020 GLOBAL CONTAINER MANAGEMENT PROCESS IMPROVEMENTS GRP Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences Graduate...STATEMENT A. APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENS-GRP-15-J-020 GLOBAL CONTAINER MANAGEMENT PROCESS

  10. Improvement Of The Helmholtz Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, Duane L.

    1992-01-01

    Helmholtz-resonator system improved to enable it to absorb sound at more than one frequency without appreciable loss of effectiveness at primary frequency. Addition of annular cavities enables absorption of sound at harmonic frequencies in addition to primary frequency. Improved absorber designed for use on structures of high transmission loss. Applied to such machines as fixed-speed engines and fans.

  11. Teacher Careers and School Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberman, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Argues that school improvement research and teacher career research should be related. Describes the limitations of each and illustrates the argument for their union using a study of Swiss teachers' professional life cycles that sheds light on some aspects of school improvement. (GEA)

  12. Improving turbine blade fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buddenbohm, H. W.

    1988-01-01

    Turbine airfoil design, materials, and cooling system management are variables which, when optimized, can contribute to longer turbine component lives. These advancements have been identified as redesign techniques to improve the turbine fatigue life of the SSME High Pressure Fuel Turbopump. This paper discusses the general program approach toward improving turbine fatigue life.

  13. Perspectives: The Continuous Improvement Trap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Accrediting agencies, legislators, pundits, and even higher educational professionals have become enamored with applying the language of continuous improvement to learning outcomes. The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges specifically uses the term "continuing improvement" in Core Standard 2.5, one of its…

  14. Driver Improvement Training and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittenburg, John A.; And Others

    The last phase of the NHTSA-U.S. Coast Guard Driver Improvement Training and Evaluation Project is described. Begun in July 1970, the project had two basic objectives. The first was to determine whether or not driver training programs do, in fact, significantly reduce driver errors and accidents and improve overall driver efficiency. The second…

  15. Can Teacher Evaluation Improve Teaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The answer to the question, Can evaluation improve teaching? is a qualified yes. Teacher evaluation has changed and the role of the principal has changed as well; the focus now is on evidence, not merely good judgment. With the right tools, systems, and support, it should be possible to help improve teaching performance and student learning…

  16. Tools for Improving Principals' Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Jianping, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The vital role of principalship in improving schools in general and enhancing student achievement in particular has been well documented. Given its importance, there is a need for tools to improve principalship, particularly ones emphasizing those dimensions associated with student achievement. Given the accountability movement, with its…

  17. Lessons Learned on Stage: How Improv Can Improve Science Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, G. J.; Kohn, C.; McPeek, M. A.; Serrell, N.

    2014-12-01

    A challenge facing STEM graduate students is the daunting task of communicating their research to a non-specialist audience. Strategies that work well in lab group meetings, such as using acronyms and jargon, do not work in the real world. Ideally, scientists should directly connect with any audience, responding spontaneously and actively, distilling their messages into conversational morsels that resonate with that audience. Scientists should listen. This presentation highlights a 10-week, interdisciplinary graduate course at Dartmouth College that teaches methods for communicating science with clarity, vividness, and emotion. The course was developed in partnership with Stony Brook University's Alan Alda Center for Communicating Science, and emphasizes story-telling, two-way communication, active listening, and so much more. Effective message development and communication skills - spontaneity, authenticity, and connectivity - are honed through improvisational theater exercises. One might ask, "why improv?" As a co-developer/co-instructor of this graduate course and a Ph.D. candidate in Earth Sciences, my response is, "why not improv?" Improv is acting without a script. It is also underground rap battles, baking from scratch, and playing jazz flute. Improv is Macguyver. Improv is not any one particular thing so much as it is a process through which we do things. Improv can teach us a lot: how to play, how to feel comfortable and present even while flailing, and how to truly listen.

  18. Improving the breed - Shuttle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, V.

    1985-01-01

    An evaluation is made of design improvements that have been made to the Space Shuttle System, and the performance gains obtained; the most important of these stem from efforts to refine procedures for rendezvous with stricken satellites, in order to repair them. Ascent performance has been improved through Space Shuttle Main Engine thrust improvements and external tank weight reductions. On-orbit living convenience has been enhanced by the addition of small sleeping compartments and a galley. Greater flexibility has been obtained for reentry and landing maneuvers. Attention is given to problems which continue to be posed by the thermal protection tiles.

  19. Quality improvement tools and processes.

    PubMed

    Lau, Catherine Y

    2015-04-01

    The Model for Improvement and the Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle is a popular quality improvement (QI) tool for health care providers to successfully lead QI projects and redesign care processes. This tool has several distinct components that must be addressed in sequence to organize and critically evaluate improvement activities. Unlike other health sciences clinical research, QI projects and research are based on dynamic hypotheses that develop into observable, serial tests of change with continuous collection and feedback of performance data to stakeholders.

  20. Waste Management Process Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, J.; Borden, G.; Rangel, G. R.

    2002-02-25

    The Bechtel Hanford-led Environmental Restoration Contractor team's Waste Management Process Improvement Project is working diligently with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Richland Operations Office to improve the waste management process to meet DOE's need for an efficient, cost-effective program for the management of dangerous, low-level and mixed-low-level waste. Additionally the program must meet all applicable regulatory requirements. The need for improvement was highlighted when a change in the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project's waste management practices resulted in a larger amount of waste being generated than the waste management organization had been set up to handle.

  1. Improving a Dental School's Clinic Operations Using Lean Process Improvement.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Fonda G; Cunningham, Larry L; Turner, Sharon P; Lindroth, John; Ray, Deborah; Khan, Talib; Yates, Audrey

    2016-10-01

    The term "lean production," also known as "Lean," describes a process of operations management pioneered at the Toyota Motor Company that contributed significantly to the success of the company. Although developed by Toyota, the Lean process has been implemented at many other organizations, including those in health care, and should be considered by dental schools in evaluating their clinical operations. Lean combines engineering principles with operations management and improvement tools to optimize business and operating processes. One of the core concepts is relentless elimination of waste (non-value-added components of a process). Another key concept is utilization of individuals closest to the actual work to analyze and improve the process. When the medical center of the University of Kentucky adopted the Lean process for improving clinical operations, members of the College of Dentistry trained in the process applied the techniques to improve inefficient operations at the Walk-In Dental Clinic. The purpose of this project was to reduce patients' average in-the-door-to-out-the-door time from over four hours to three hours within 90 days. Achievement of this goal was realized by streamlining patient flow and strategically relocating key phases of the process. This initiative resulted in patient benefits such as shortening average in-the-door-to-out-the-door time by over an hour, improving satisfaction by 21%, and reducing negative comments by 24%, as well as providing opportunity to implement the electronic health record, improving teamwork, and enhancing educational experiences for students. These benefits were achieved while maintaining high-quality patient care with zero adverse outcomes during and two years following the process improvement project.

  2. Videomicroscopy and Improved Student Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedak, John; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The improvement in student attitudes as the result of the use of videomicroscopy in the science classroom at the elementary, secondary, and college levels is discussed. The results of published research studies are reviewed. (CW)

  3. Double-Base Binder Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The general objective of this program is to improve the mechanical properties of composite modified double base ( CMDB ) propellants, with particular emphasis upon those prepared by the slurry cast process.

  4. Improvement of operational activities efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitruk, Fabien

    This paper presents the methods used by the Toulouse Space Center (CNES) to minimize the risk of deterioration in service during flight mission operations. It also presents planned improvements following recent analyses.

  5. CF6 fan performance improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patt, R. F.; Reemsnyder, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    A significant portion of the NASA-sponsored Performance Improvement Program for the CF6 engine was the development of an improved fan concept. This involved aerodynamic redesign of the CF6 fan blade to increase fan efficiency while retaining the mechanical integrity, operability, and acoustic characteristics of the existing blade. A further improvement in performance was obtained by adding a fan case stiffener ring to decouple blade-case vibrational characteristics, permitting a significant reduction in running tip clearance. Engine testing was performed to establish the performance, mechanical and acoustic properties of the new design relative to the current fan, and to establish power management characteristics for the CF6-50C2/E2 engine. A significant improvement in cruise power SFC of 1.8 percent was demonstrated in Sea Level testing projected to altitude flight conditions.

  6. Improving Balance with Tai Chi

    MedlinePlus

    ... 8428 · INFO @ VESTIBULAR . ORG · WWW . VESTIBULAR . ORG Improving Balance with Tai Chi By the Vestibular Disorders Association ... symptoms commonly experi- enced with vestibular (inner ear balance) disorders can cause overwhelming fatigue and anxiety. Many ...

  7. Improving chemoradiotherapy with nanoparticle therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Eblan, Michael Joseph; Wang, Andrew Zhuang

    2014-01-01

    Chemoradiotherapy has been a key treatment paradigm in cancer management. One of the main research objectives in cancer research has been to identify agents and strategies to improve the therapeutic index of chemoradiation. Recent development of nanoparticle (NP)-based chemotherapeutics offers a unique opportunity to improve the delivery of chemotherapy, which can in turn improve chemoradiotherapy’s efficacy while lowering toxicity. NP-based chemotherapeutics also possess several characteristics that are well suited for chemoradiotherapy. Therefore, NP chemotherapeutics hold high potential in improving the therapeutic index of chemoradiotherapy. This manuscript reviews the NP properties that are favorable for chemoradiation and the rationale to utilize nanotherapeutics in chemoradiation. This review also discusses the preclinical and clinical data on using NP therapeutics in chemoradiotherapy. PMID:25429359

  8. One improved LSB steganography algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bing; Zhang, Zhi-hong

    2013-03-01

    It is easy to be detected by X2 and RS steganalysis with high accuracy that using LSB algorithm to hide information in digital image. We started by selecting information embedded location and modifying the information embedded method, combined with sub-affine transformation and matrix coding method, improved the LSB algorithm and a new LSB algorithm was proposed. Experimental results show that the improved one can resist the X2 and RS steganalysis effectively.

  9. Improved electrolytes for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gard, G.L.; Roe, D.K.

    1991-06-01

    Present day fuel cells based upon hydrogen and oxygen have limited performance due to the use of phosphoric acid as an electrolyte. Improved performance is desirable in electrolyte conductivity, electrolyte management, oxygen solubility, and the kinetics of the reduction of oxygen. Attention has turned to fluorosulfonic acids as additives or substitute electrolytes to improve fuel cell performance. The purpose of this project is to synthesize and electrochemically evaluate new fluorosulfonic acids as superior alternatives to phosphoric acid in fuel cells. (VC)

  10. Wind profiler signal detection improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, G. F.; Divis, Dale H.

    1992-01-01

    Research is described on potential improvements to the software used with the NASA 49.25 MHz wind profiler located at Kennedy Space Center. In particular, the analysis and results are provided of a study to (1) identify preferred mathematical techniques for the detection of atmospheric signals that provide wind velocities which are obscured by natural and man-made sources, and (2) to analyze one or more preferred techniques to demonstrate proof of the capability to improve the detection of wind velocities.

  11. Improved Vacuum-Tight Connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudin, Frank

    1989-01-01

    Simple reinforcing tube increases service life and improves seal. Short stainless-steel tube inserted in copper tube to reinforce against compression, preventing leaks due to thermal distortion or to collapse under squeeze of ferrule in compressure fitting. Several test specimens of improved connector constructed, tested, and evaluated. Fittings not only operated successfully at required operating conditions of vacuum and temperature but also consistently demonstrated high reliability after loosened and tightened many times.

  12. Chronic disease management: improving care for people with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Brand, Caroline A; Ackerman, Ilana N; Tropea, Joanne

    2014-02-01

    Chronic disease management (CDM) service models are being developed for many conditions; however, there is limited evidence to support their effectiveness in osteoarthritis (OA). A systematic review was undertaken to examine effectiveness, cost effectiveness and barriers to the use of osteoarthritis-chronic disease management (OA-CDM) service models. Thirteen eligible studies (eight randomised controlled trial (RCTs)) were identified. The majority focussed on delivery system design (n = 9) and/or providing self-management support (SMS) (n = 8). Overall, reported model effectiveness varied, and where positive impacts on process or health outcomes were observed, they were of small to moderate effect. There was no information about cost effectiveness. There is some evidence to support the use of collaborative care/multidisciplinary case management models in primary and community care and evidence-based pathways/standardisation of care in hospital settings. Multiple barriers were identified. Future research should focus on identifying the effective components of multi-faceted interventions and evaluating cost-effectiveness to support clinical and policy decision-making.

  13. Historical Improvement in Speed Skating Economy.

    PubMed

    Noordhof, Dionne A; van Tok, Elmy; Joosten, Florentine S J G M; Hettinga, Florentina J; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Foster, Carl; de Koning, Jos J

    2017-02-01

    Half the improvement in 1500-m speed-skating world records can be explained by technological innovations and the other half by athletic improvement. It is hypothesized that improved skating economy is accountable for much of the athletic improvement.

  14. Viscosupplementation for treating osteoarthritis in the military population.

    PubMed

    Langworthy, Michael J; Nelson, Fred; Owens, Brett D

    2014-08-01

    Military personnel have a greater risk of developing osteoarthritis (OA) than the general population. OA is a chronic, painful, and debilitating disease with a high cost burden. Compared with the general population, a higher prevalence of post-traumatic OA has been reported in the military. Using recent literature, we aim to improve the understanding of post-traumatic OA, with an exploration of the pathophysiology of OA. Our review encompasses the current treatment modalities for alleviating the pain from OA with a focus on viscosupplementation. A multimodal approach may be beneficial for the relief of OA pain and improvement of function in military personnel with early OA, and may lower the cost burden.

  15. Qualification of improved joint heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    Qualification testing of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor improved igniter-to-case joint and field joint heaters was conducted on the fired TEM-04 static test motor and was completed on 7 Sep. 1989. The purpose of the test was to certify the installation and performance of the improved joint heaters for use on flight motors. The changes incorporated in the improved heaters improve durability and should reduce handling damage. The igniter-to-case joint and field joint primary heater circuits were subjected to five 20-hr ON cycles. The heater redundant circuits were then subjected to one 20-hr ON cycle. Voltage, current, and temperature set point values were maintained within the specified limits for both heaters during each ON cycle. When testing was complete, both heaters were removed and inspected. No discolorations or any other anomalies were found on either of the heaters. Based on the successful completion of this test, it is recommended that the improved igniter-to-case joint and field joint heaters be used on future flight motors.

  16. Surviving Performance Improvement "Solutions": Aligning Performance Improvement Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardez, Mariano L.

    2009-01-01

    How can organizations avoid the negative, sometimes chaotic, effects of multiple, poorly coordinated performance improvement interventions? How can we avoid punishing our external clients or staff with the side effects of solutions that might benefit our bottom line or internal efficiency at the expense of the value received or perceived by…

  17. Engine component improvement program: Performance improvement. [fuel consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaulay, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel consumption of commercial aircraft is considered. Fuel saving and retention components for new production and retrofit of JT9D, JT8D, and CF6 engines are reviewed. The manner in which the performance improvement concepts were selected for development and a summary of the current status of each of the 16 selected concepts are discussed.

  18. Improved Techniques for Targeting Additional Observations to Improve Forecast Skill

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    T oulouse F rance Grant Num ber: N00014{99{1{0755 LONG-TERM GOAL This project aims to improv e ensemble forecast and adaptive observ ation tec...be studied. It will be assessed whether the assimilation system can be geared to more readily accept adaptive observations made in currently data

  19. Continuous Improvement in Action: Educators' Evidence Use for School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannata, Marisa; Redding, Christopher; Rubin, Mollie

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the article is the process educators use to interpret data to turn it into usable knowledge (Honig & Coburn, 2008) while engaging in a continuous improvement process. The authors examine the types of evidence educators draw upon, its perceived relevance, and the social context in which the evidence is examined. Evidence includes…

  20. Improvements in bracket base design.

    PubMed

    Smith, D C; Maijer, R

    1983-04-01

    Acid etch bonding of orthodontic attachments to the labial and lingual surfaces of teeth is generally adequate for clinical service. Failures do occur, and these are related to technique problems in acid etching or resin manipulation or to bracket base design. The widely used foil mesh base can present problems in retention because of design defects or corrosion. Improvement in mechanical retention of resin to the attachment base would result in significant improvements in bonding and fewer clinical failures. One of our approaches to improved retention is to fuse metallic or ceramic particles onto the bracket base so as to achieve a particulate or porous layer into which resin can penetrate. The results of bond-strength tests showed that a 100 percent increase in bond strength could be obtained with sintered porous metal-coated brackets. Further development is proceeding.

  1. Improving oral health: current considerations.

    PubMed

    Ciancio, S

    2003-01-01

    The high incidence of periodontal disease among adults in the Western world indicates that in most cases, routine dental care could be considerably improved. The progressive effect of the disease suggests that improvements in oral cleanliness are mandatory if large numbers of adults are to retain their teeth into old age. Data show that periodontal disease can be minimized through effective plaque control, and that a combination of brushing, interdental cleaning, and chemotherapeutic agents (e.g. mouthwash) is beneficial to patients with plaque control problems. The vast majority of adults do not follow an adequate home-care routine. Average brushing times are low, and only a minority of patients regularly floss. In addition, in those patients who do regularly brush and floss, a deterioration of plaque control occurs over time, suggesting that compliance is a major issue. The principal challenge for dental professionals is to identify how best to elicit an improvement.

  2. Improved Heat-Stress Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teets, Edward H., Jr.; Fehn, Steven

    2007-01-01

    NASA Dryden presents an improved and automated site-specific algorithm for heat-stress approximation using standard atmospheric measurements routinely obtained from the Edwards Air Force Base weather detachment. Heat stress, which is the net heat load a worker may be exposed to, is officially measured using a thermal-environment monitoring system to calculate the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). This instrument uses three independent thermometers to measure wet-bulb, dry-bulb, and the black-globe temperatures. By using these improvements, a more realistic WBGT estimation value can now be produced. This is extremely useful for researchers and other employees who are working on outdoor projects that are distant from the areas that the Web system monitors. Most importantly, the improved WBGT estimations will make outdoor work sites safer by reducing the likelihood of heat stress.

  3. [Strategies to improve medication adherence].

    PubMed

    Laufs, U; Böhm, M; Kroemer, H K; Schüssel, K; Griese, N; Schulz, M

    2011-08-01

    Up to 50 % of patients with chronic diseases do not take their medication regularly. Poor adherence to drug therapy is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. A selective literature search using the terms adherence, compliance, concordance, persistence, medication management, and pharmaceutical care was performed. Evidence for improving adherence has been provided for the following principles: individual counselling of patients and care givers, medication management including simplifying dosing and use of combination tablets as well as the use of individual unit doses, e. g. blister cards. The effectiveness has only been shown for the duration of the interventions. The improvement of medication adherence represents an area of research with high impact on outcomes and cost. Measures to improve adherence may be as important as the development of novel therapies. However, prospective clinical evaluations with clinical endpoints are missing especially for the German health care system in order to develop recommendations for clinical practice. Joint efforts of physicians and pharmacists are needed.

  4. Motor Activity Improves Temporal Expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813

  5. Improving outcomes in peripartum cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Dalzell, Jonathan R; Cannon, Jane A; Simpson, Joanne; Gardner, Roy S; Petrie, Mark C

    2015-06-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare condition with a diverse spectrum of potential outcomes, ranging from frequent complete recovery to fulminant heart failure and death. The pathogenesis of PPCM is not well understood, and relatively little is known about its incidence and prevalence. PPCM is often under-recognised in the clinical setting. Early investigation and diagnosis with subsequent expert management may improve outcomes. The development of registries will allow this condition to be better characterised and may help answer crucial questions regarding its optimal medical and surgical management. This paper reviews the potential approaches to improve outcomes in patients with PPCM.

  6. Endoscopy imaging intelligent contrast improvement.

    PubMed

    Sheraizin, S; Sheraizin, V

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a medical endoscopy video contrast improvement method that provides intelligent automatic adaptive contrast control. The method fundamentals are video data clustering and video data histogram modification. The video data clustering allows an effective use the low noise two channel contrast enhancement processing. The histogram analysis permitted to determine the video exposure type for simple and complicated contrast distribution. We determined the needed gamma value for automatic local area contrast improvement for the following exposure types: dark, normal, light, dark light, dark normal etc. The experimental results of medical endoscopy video processing allow defining the automatic gamma control range from 0.5 to 2.0.

  7. An Improved Cockroach Swarm Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Obagbuwa, I. C.; Adewumi, A. O.

    2014-01-01

    Hunger component is introduced to the existing cockroach swarm optimization (CSO) algorithm to improve its searching ability and population diversity. The original CSO was modelled with three components: chase-swarming, dispersion, and ruthless; additional hunger component which is modelled using partial differential equation (PDE) method is included in this paper. An improved cockroach swarm optimization (ICSO) is proposed in this paper. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested on well known benchmarks and compared with the existing CSO, modified cockroach swarm optimization (MCSO), roach infestation optimization RIO, and hungry roach infestation optimization (HRIO). The comparison results show clearly that the proposed algorithm outperforms the existing algorithms. PMID:24959611

  8. Strategies for improving patient compliance.

    PubMed

    Strand, J

    1994-01-01

    Achieving patient compliance in taking prescribed medications is a formidable challenge for all clinicians. As PAs, we have daily opportunities to communicate with patients and improve their compliance. An office-based compliance program, combining patient education and behavior-modification components, can be beneficial in this regard. Strategies for improving compliance include giving clear, concise, and logical instructions in familiar language, adapting drug regimens to daily routines, eliciting patient participation through self-monitoring, and providing educational materials that promote overall good health in connection with medical treatment.

  9. Photovoltaic Cz Silicon Module Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, T. L.

    1998-09-01

    Work focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Phase II of Siemens Solar Industries' DOE/NREL PVMaT 4A subcontract is described in this report. New module designs were deployed in this phase of the contract, improvements in yield of over 10% were realized, and further implementation of Statistical Process Control was achieved during this phase. Module configurations representing a 12% cost reduction per watt were implemented in small scale production under Phase II of this contract. Yield improvements are described in detail, yield sensitivity to wafer thickness is quantified, and the deployment of SPC in critical process steps is reported here.

  10. Self-improving biped locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, C.; Costa, L.; Santos, C.

    2013-10-01

    An approach addressing biped locomotion is here introduced. Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) and Dynamic Movement Primitives (DMPs) were combined to easily produce complex trajectories for the joints of a simulated DARwIn-OP. Policy Learning by Weighting Exploration with the Returns (PoWER) was implemented to improve the robot's locomotion through variation of the DMP's parameters. Maximization of the DARwIn-OP's frontal velocity was addressed and results show a velocity improvement of 213%. The results are very promising and demonstrate the approach's flexibility at generating new trajectories for locomotion.

  11. Radio Relays Improve Wireless Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Signal Hill, California-based XCOM Wireless Inc. developed radio frequency micromachine (RF MEMS) relays with a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract through NASA?s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In order to improve satellite communication systems, XCOM produced wireless RF MEMS relays and tunable capacitors that use metal-to-metal contact and have the potential to outperform most semiconductor technologies while using less power. These relays are used in high-frequency test equipment and instrumentation, where increased speed can mean significant cost savings. Applications now also include mainstream wireless applications and greatly improved tactical radios.

  12. Improving designer productivity. [artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gary C.

    1992-01-01

    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting these challenges.

  13. Improved Portable Ultrasonic Leak Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Moerk, John S.; Haskell, William D.; Cox, Robert B.; Polk, Jimmy D.; Strobel, James P.; Luaces, Frank

    1995-01-01

    Improved portable ultrasonic leak detector features three interchangeable ultrasonic-transducer modules, each suited for operation in unique noncontact or contact mode. One module equipped with ultrasound-collecting horn for use in scanning to detect leaks from distance; horn provides directional sensitivity pattern with sensitivity multiplied by factor of about 6 in forward direction. Another module similar, does not include horn; this module used for scanning close to suspected leak, where proximity of leak more than offsets loss of sensitivity occasioned by lack of horn. Third module designed to be pressed against leaking vessel; includes rugged stainless-steel shell. Improved detectors perform significantly better, smaller, more rugged, and greater sensitivity.

  14. Evaluating and Improving Teacher Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manatt, Richard P.

    This workbook, coordinated with Manatt Teacher Performance Evaluation (TPE) workshops, summarizes large group presentation in sequence with the transparancies used. The first four modules of the workbook deal with the state of the art of evaluating and improving teacher performance; the development of the TPE system, including selection of…

  15. Application Process Improvement Yields Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holesovsky, Jan Paul

    1995-01-01

    After a continuing effort to improve its grant application process, the department of medical microbiology and immunology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is submitting many more applications and realizing increased funding. The methods and strategy used to make the process more efficient and effective are outlined. (Author/MSE)

  16. Teaching Tips: Improving College Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlynn, Angela Provitera

    Designed to help teachers improve instruction, this handbook provides tips gathered from focus groups of teachers and students at New Jersey's Mercer County Community College, as well as from other teaching resources. The first part focuses on the contribution of faculty-student interaction to student success, listing 21 suggestions for building…

  17. Improving Reading Performance through Hypnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillmer, H. Thompson; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes a study investigating the effects of group hypnosis on the reading performance of university students in a reading and writing center. Discusses study procedures and presents data on pretest scores and gains in vocabulary and comprehension scores. Concludes that regular use of self-hypnosis significantly improved performance. (DMM)

  18. Improving Motor Skills through Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to improve a child's motor skills through listening by using three simple steps--recording the auditory model, determining when to use the auditory model, and considering where to use the auditory model. She points out the importance of using a demonstration technique that helps learners understand the…

  19. [Multidimensional Qualities to Improve Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This bulletin contains five essays on the theme of expanding the challenge of improving the quality of education to encompass the curricular, administrative, institutional, and teaching levels. The articles include: (1) "Educational Assessment Systems in Latin America: A Review of Issues and Recent Experience" (Robin Horn; Laurence Wolf;…

  20. Improving Junior High Classroom Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmer, Edmund T.; And Others

    A field experiment was conducted to determine whether descriptive-correlational results from classroom management research could be implemented by junior high school teachers, and whether such implementation would result in improved classroom management. An experimental group (18 teachers) received management manuals developed by researchers, and…

  1. Blended Learning Improves Science Education.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Brent R; Stockwell, Melissa S; Cennamo, Michael; Jiang, Elise

    2015-08-27

    Blended learning is an emerging paradigm for science education but has not been rigorously assessed. We performed a randomized controlled trial of blended learning. We found that in-class problem solving improved exam performance, and video assignments increased attendance and satisfaction. This validates a new model for science communication and education.

  2. DOUBLE-BASE BINDER IMPROVEMENT.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A base grain CMDB propellant was prepared successfully using a casting solvent (TEGDN/TMETN mixture) that was high in TEGDN content. The mechanical...means to improve the mechanical properties of slurry casts CMDB propellants, efforts were concerned with structure and properties comparison of various

  3. Improving Army Operational Contract Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Dr. Richard M. Meinhart U.S. Army War...Austin Project Adviser Dr. Richard M. Meinhart U.S. Army War College Faculty Mentor This manuscript is submitted in partial...Improving Army Operational Contract Support by Colonel Daryl P. Harger United States Army United

  4. The Health Improvement Network (THIN)

    Cancer.gov

    The Health Improvement Network is a collaboration between Cegedim Strategic Data EPIC, an expert in the provision of UK primary care patient data that is used for medical research, and In Practice Systems (InPS), who continue to develop and supply the widely-used Vision general practice computer system.

  5. Improving Reading Performances through Hypnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillmer, H. Thompson; And Others

    A study was undertaken to investigate the effects of one hypnotic session on the reading improvement of high-risk college students with low aptitude scores and histories of failure in academic situations. The 27 students in the experimental group participated in a one-hour hypnosis session in which they were given a procedure to follow for…

  6. Improved Ion-Channel Biosensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadeau, Jay; White, Victor; Dougherty, Dennis; Maurer, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    An effort is underway to develop improved biosensors of a type based on ion channels in biomimetic membranes. These sensors are microfabricated from silicon and other materials compatible with silicon. As described, these sensors offer a number of advantages over prior sensors of this type.

  7. Improving Student Reasoning in Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Bobson; Bukalov, Larisa

    2013-01-01

    In their years of teaching geometry, Wong and Bukalov realized that the greatest challenge has been getting students to improve their reasoning. Many students have difficulty writing formal proofs--a task that requires a good deal of reasoning. Wong and Bukalov reasoned that the solution was to divide the lessons into parallel tasks, allowing…

  8. Improving Speaking Accuracy through Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dormer, Jan Edwards

    2013-01-01

    Increased English learner accuracy can be achieved by leading students through six stages of awareness. The first three awareness stages build up students' motivation to improve, and the second three provide learners with crucial input for change. The final result is "sustained language awareness," resulting in ongoing…

  9. Improved weather information and aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallahan, K.; Zdanys, V.

    1973-01-01

    The major impacts of weather forecasts on aviation are reviewed. Topics discussed include: (1) present and projected structure of American aviation, (2) weather problems considered particularly important for aviation, (3) projected needs for improved weather information by aviators, (4) safety and economics, and (5) future studies utilizing satellite meteorology.

  10. Methods for improving PGPR establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are often touted as a useful means to improve crop productivity and sustainability. However, field studies with PGPR inoculants often result in limited PGPR establishment and colonization, highlighting the need to better understand the factors involved in...

  11. A Wildlife Habitat Improvement Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, S. Elaine

    The document presents an overview of Stony Acres, a "sanctuary" for wildlife as well as a place for recreation enjoyment and education undertakings. A review of the history of wildlife habitat management at Stony Acres and the need for continued and improved wildlife habitat management for the property are discussed in Chapter I. Chapter…

  12. Improved Helmet-Padding Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Frederic S.; Weiss, Fred R.; Eck, John D.

    1994-01-01

    Polyimide foamed into lightweight padding material for use in helmets. Exhibits increased resistance to ignition, combustion, and impact, and it outgasses less. Foam satisfies offgassing and toxicity requirements of NASA/JSC criteria (NHB80601B). Helmets containing this improved padding material used by firefighters, police, offshore drilling technicians, construction workers, miners, and race-car drivers.

  13. Improving Technology and Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Improving Technology and Engineering Education for All Students: A Plan of Action is the theme of this year's International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEEA) annual conference, which meets March 7-9 in Columbus, OH. The theme is aligned with ITEEA's 2012-15 Strategic Plan: Investing in People as Educational Change Agents.…

  14. Culture, Change, and Educational Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Clifton, Ed.; Valenzuela, Soledad

    2008-01-01

    Efforts to improve education, including the use of educational technology, are subject to factors within the context where the change is intended. In countries not typically classified as advanced, the change methods to be used, the probability of success, and even the ways of measuring achievement most likely will vary on the basis of cultural…

  15. Improvements for Omega RF preamplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, L.

    1976-01-01

    An improved Omega navigation system preamplifier, which provides both ADF and Omega outputs from a single antenna input, is described. This preamp has tuneable bandpass filtering, zero phase shift at both output ports, adjustable gain at the Omega output, and it receives power via the coaxial cable to the receiver front-end.

  16. Site-Based School Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuShane, Judith A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Within an individual building, the School Improvement Process (SIP) provides a focus for staff development and an evaluation of results that are linked to student outcomes. SIP emphasizes a building level, bottom-up planning and decision-making process. This article presents a case study of an individual school's use of SIP. (IAH)

  17. The Individualized Teacher Improvement Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Erica

    2013-01-01

    This author states her belief that there must be an answer to devising an effective and credible way to link compensation to professional development and improved teaching. Such a model would need to be transparent, equitable, and financially manageable for the school. It would need to marry objectivity with the art of teaching, and have buy-in…

  18. Eight Minutes to Performance Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, William; McCauley, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how to produce behavior change and related performance improvement by nonexperts in as little as eight minutes by having them become instantly engaged through instant credibility of the content and instant application to their situation. Explains digital coach technology which can create instant engagement for the nonexpert. (Author/LRW)

  19. IMPROVING WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAK INVESTIGATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article summarizes the discussions and conclusions of a workshop held December 7-8, 1998, to consider the inherent limitations and weaknesses of waterborne outbreak investigations and make recommendations for their improvement. In recent years, an increased number of suspec...

  20. Conservation Education Improvement. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diem, Kenneth L.; Hennebry, Howard M.

    In an attempt to improve the teaching of conservation in elementary and junior high schools, a set of integrated sequential core units was formulated and tested in five Wyoming school districts during the fall and early winter of 1968. Based on a total sample of 840 elementary students (38% usable response) and 960 junior high students (49% usable…

  1. Improvement of CAT scanned images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Digital enhancement procedure improves definition of images. Tomogram is generated from large number of X-ray beams. Beams are collimated and small in diameter. Scanning device passes beams sequentially through human subject at many different angles. Battery of transducers opposite subject senses attenuated signals. Signals are transmitted to computer where they are used in construction of image on transverse plane through body.

  2. DIFFUSED RESISTOR TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT IMPROVEMENT.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    effects are found in both n and p-type silicon. In addition, it was found that using the optimum concentrations, the range of sheet resistance over which TCR improvement could be seen was 100 to 300 ohms per square. (Author)

  3. Improving Explanatory Inferences from Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diakow, Ronli Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation comprises three papers that propose, discuss, and illustrate models to make improved inferences about research questions regarding student achievement in education. Addressing the types of questions common in educational research today requires three different "extensions" to traditional educational assessment: (1)…

  4. Improvement of Job Placement Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount San Antonio Community Coll. District, Walnut, CA.

    The Improvement of Job Placement Services Project was undertaken to examine and strengthen job placement services and programs in the California community colleges. Specific objectives of the project were to: (1) select and convene a 12-member representative advisory committee to oversee project operations working with the California Placement…

  5. School Improvement Team: Parents' Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    The role of parents in school-based management is extremely important. All public schools in North Carolina are required to have school-improvement teams, which are usually composed of the principal, teachers, and parents. This handbook was designed to help parents and principals understand and define the parents' role on the school-improvement…

  6. Improved corn protein based articles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing higher value uses for zein (corn protein), a potential major co-product of the bio-ethanol industry, will improve the economics of this business. Historically, zein was predominantly used in the textile fiber industry. Unfortunately the techniques used at that time to modify the zein cann...

  7. The Power of Process Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfield-Sonn, James W.; Morgan, Sandra; Sumukadas, Narendar

    2004-01-01

    Over the last several decades many systematic management approaches, such as Total Quality Management, aimed at improving organizational performance and employee satisfaction have captured organizations' attention. Given their origins in statistics, operations management, and engineering, many of the concepts and techniques are technical. When…

  8. Piloting improved cookstoves in India.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jessica J; Bhojvaid, Vasundhara; Brooks, Nina; Das, Ipsita; Jeuland, Marc A; Patange, Omkar; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K

    2015-01-01

    Despite the potential of improved cookstoves to reduce the adverse environmental and health impacts of solid fuel use, their adoption and use remains low. Social marketing-with its focus on the marketing mix of promotion, product, price, and place-offers a useful way to understand household behaviors and design campaigns to change biomass fuel use. We report on a series of pilots across 3 Indian states that use different combinations of the marketing mix. We find sales varying from 0% to 60%. Behavior change promotion that combined door-to-door personalized demonstrations with information pamphlets was effective. When given a choice amongst products, households strongly preferred an electric stove over improved biomass-burning options. Among different stove attributes, reduced cooking time was considered most valuable by those adopting a new stove. Households clearly identified price as a significant barrier to adoption, while provision of discounts (e.g., rebates given if households used the stove) or payments in installments were related to higher purchase. Place-based factors such as remoteness and nongovernmental organization operations significantly affected the ability to supply and convince households to buy and use improved cookstoves. Collectively, these pilots point to the importance of continued and extensive testing of messages, pricing models, and different stove types before scale-up. Thus, we caution that a one-size-fits-all approach will not boost improved cookstove adoption.

  9. Lifestyle Improvement Program for Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Ralph

    The Wayne State College Lifestyle Improvement Program for Seniors, based on the wellness concept, is designed to facilitate social interaction and health through physical activities. It is adaptable to a variety of individual needs and preferences, including exercises for cardiac rehabilitation patients. Any person over 50 can participate at no…

  10. Writing Assessment for Program Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocher, A. Thel

    1984-01-01

    The writing assessment program in the Cherry Creek, Colorado, schools is described. Writing assessments for students in grades three, six, eight, and 10 have been developed. A holistic approach is used by teachers in scoring these instruments. Improvement of students' essay-writing ability indicates the value of the assessment program. (DWH)

  11. Zymomonas with improved xylose utilization

    DOEpatents

    Viitanen, Paul V.; Tao, Luan; Zhang, Yuying; Caimi, Perry G.; McCutchen, Carol M.; McCole, Laura; Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen; Franden, Mary Ann

    2011-08-16

    Strains of Zymomonas were engineered by introducing a chimeric xylose isomerase gene that contains a mutant promoter of the Z. mobilis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene. The promoter directs increased expression of xylose isomerase, and when the strain is in addition engineered for expression of xylulokinase, transaldolase and transketolase, improved utilization of xylose is obtained.

  12. A strategy for company improvement.

    PubMed

    Howley, L

    2000-03-01

    Strategies based on the kaizen methodology are designed to continuously improve company performance without the need for large capital investments. This article looks at how one company used simple kaizen principles to its advantage, achieving 67% increase in productivity and 10% reduction in the standard cost of product.

  13. Guidelines for Improving SAT Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Scott; DeLeonibus, Nancy

    The National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) identified 34 high schools whose students maintained or improved their SAT scores from 1973 to 1976 or whose mean scores in 1973 were approximately the same as in 1965. In an open-ended questionnaire, the principals of these schools were asked to identify success factors. Their…

  14. Improving an Imperfect Metric System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, E. Lewis

    1974-01-01

    Suggests some improvements and additional units necessary for the International Metric System to expand its use to all measureable entities and defined quantities, especially in the measurement of time and angles. Included are tables of proposed unit systems in contrast with the presently available systems. (CC)

  15. Improving a Gripper End Effector

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, O Dennis; Smith, Christopher M.; Gervais, Kevin L.

    2001-01-31

    This paper discusses the improvement made to an existing four-bar linkage gripping end effector to adapt it for use in a current project. The actuating linkage was modified to yield higher jaw force overall and particularly in the critical range of jaw displacement

  16. Improved fire-resistant coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutt, J. B.; Stuart, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    Water-base coatings containing potassium silicate show improvement in areas of quick air-drying, crack, craze, and abrasion resistance, adherence, and leach resistance. Coatings are useful as thermal-barrier layers in furnaces, and as general purpose fire resistant surfaces where vapor impermeability is not a requirement.

  17. Improved integrated sniper location system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figler, Burton D.; Spera, Timothy J.

    1999-01-01

    In July of 1995, Lockheed Martin IR Imaging Systems, of Lexington, Massachusetts began the development of an integrated sniper location system for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and for the Department of the Navy's Naval Command Control & Ocean Surveillance Center, RDTE Division in San Diego, California. The I-SLS integrates acoustic and uncooled infrared sensing technologies to provide an affordable and highly effective sniper detection and location capability. This system, its performance and results from field tests at Camp Pendleton, California, in October 1996 were described in a paper presented at the November 1996 SPIE Photonics East Symposium1 on Enabling Technologies for Law Enforcement and Security. The I-SLS combines an acoustic warning system with an uncooled infrared warning system. The acoustic warning system has been developed by SenTech, Inc., of Lexington, Massachusetts. This acoustic warning system provides sniper detection and coarse location information based upon the muzzle blast of the sniper's weapon and/or upon the shock wave produced by the sniper's bullet, if the bullet is supersonic. The uncooled infrared warning system provides sniper detection and fine location information based upon the weapon's muzzle flash. In addition, the uncooled infrared warning system can provide thermal imagery that can be used to accurately locate and identify the sniper. Combining these two technologies improves detection probability, reduces false alarm rate and increases utility. In the two years since the last report of the integrated sniper location system, improvements have been made and a second field demonstration was planned. In this paper, we describe the integrated sniper location system modifications in preparation for the new field demonstration. In addition, fundamental improvements in the uncooled infrared sensor technology continue to be made. These improvements include higher sensitivity (lower minimum resolvable temperature

  18. Improving communication between phlebotomists and doctors: a quality improvement project

    PubMed Central

    Saunsbury, Emma; Howarth, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    Blood tests are a seemingly basic investigation, but are often a vital part of directing patient management. Despite the importance of this everyday process, we indentified the potential for improvement of the current phlebotomy service in our hospital, as both junior doctors and phlebotomists reported a lack of communication and standardised practice across the wards. Resulting delays in obtaining blood test results can impact detrimentally on patient safety and management. We designed a survey which highlighted inefficient handovers and discrepancies between wards as driving factors behind this. We therefore aimed to improve communication between phlebotomists and doctors, as well as the overall organisation of the service. This took the form of the “Phlebotomy Box,” a box file system offering a set location for blood stickers to be situated. The box concept was optimised on a series of medical and surgical wards, incorporating multidisciplinary feedback from relevant teams. We measured how many untaken bloods were handed over to medical staff continuously, both pre- and post implementation of the phlebotomy box. Our baseline ward demonstrated poor handover rates of untaken bloods, ranging from 0% to 40%. This increased to a consistent 100% following introduction of the Phlebotomy Box and ongoing staff education. Once optimised, the box was trialled on a further two medical wards and one surgical ward, achieving 100% handover from an initial 0% to 67%. Quantitative improvement was also reflected qualitatively in widespread staff surveys, with overwhelmingly positive support and acceptance. In summary, the Phlebotomy Box innovation has led to 100% of untaken bloods being effectively handed over. We have demonstrated a significant improvement in communication and efficiency within the phlebotomy service, with tangible benefits to patient care, as minimising time lags can prevent delays in clinical decisions. The phlebotomy box represents a simplistic

  19. How a Networked Improvement Community Improved Success Rates for Struggling College Math Students. Improvement Vignette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The Carnegie Foundation launched its Math Pathways initiative nearly six years ago at 29 colleges across the country with the aim of improving success rates in developmental math. Tens of thousands of students a year, who need additional preparation for college-level math, are shut out of earning degrees and fulfilling careers due to the huge…

  20. Firmware Development Improves System Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, E. James; Butler, David W.

    1993-01-01

    Most manufacturing processes require physical pointwise positioning of the components or tools from one location to another. Typical mechanical systems utilize either stop-and-go or fixed feed-rate procession to accomplish the task. The first approach achieves positional accuracy but prolongs overall time and increases wear on the mechanical system. The second approach sustains the throughput but compromises positional accuracy. A computer firmware approach has been developed to optimize this point wise mechanism by utilizing programmable interrupt controls to synchronize engineering processes 'on the fly'. This principle has been implemented in an eddy current imaging system to demonstrate the improvement. Software programs were developed that enable a mechanical controller card to transmit interrupts to a system controller as a trigger signal to initiate an eddy current data acquisition routine. The advantages are: (1) optimized manufacturing processes, (2) increased throughput of the system, (3) improved positional accuracy, and (4) reduced wear and tear on the mechanical system.