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Sample records for oahu island hawaii

  1. Geohydrology of the Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Charles D.

    1996-01-01

    The island of Oahu, Hawaii, is the eroded remnant of two coalesced shield volcanoes, the Waianae Volcano and the Koolau Volcano. Shield-building lavas emanated mainly from the rift zones of the volcanoes. Subaerial eruptions of the Waianae Volcano occurred between 3.9 and 2.5 million years ago, and eruptions of the Koolau Volcano occurred between 2.6 and 1.8 million years ago. The volcanoes have subsided more then 6,000 feet, and erosion has destroyed all but the western rim of the Koolau Volcano and the eastern part of the Waianae Volcano, represented by the Koolau and Waianae Ranges, respectively. Hydraulic properties of the volcanic-rock aquifers are determined by the distinctive textures and geometry of individual lava flows. Individual lava flows are characterized by intergranular, fracture, and conduit-type porosity and commonly are highly permeable. The stratified nature of the lava flows imparts a layered heterogeneity. The flows are anisotropic in three dimensions, with the largest permeability in the longitudinal direction of the lava flow, an intermediate permeability in the direction transverse to the flow, and the smallest permeability normal to bedding. Averaged over several lava-flow thicknesses, lateral hydraulic conductivity of dike-free lava flows is about 500 to 5,000 feet per day, with smaller and larger values not uncommon. Systematic areal variations in lava-flow thickness or other properties may impart trends in the heterogeneity. The aquifers of Oahu contain two flow regimes: shallow freshwater and deep saltwater. The freshwater floats on underlying saltwater in a condition of buoyant displacement, although the relation is not necessarily a simple hydrostatic balance everywhere. Natural driving mechanisms for freshwater and saltwater flow differ. Freshwater moves mainly by simple gravity flow; meteoric water flows from inland recharge areas at higher altitudes to discharge areas at lower altitudes near the coast. Remnant volcanic heat also

  2. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone....

  3. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  4. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone....

  6. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone....

  7. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at...

  8. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone....

  9. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at...

  12. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  14. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  15. 33 CFR 110.128d - Island of Oahu, Hawaii. (Datum: OHD)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island of Oahu, Hawaii. (Datum: OHD) 110.128d Section 110.128d Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128d Island of Oahu, Hawaii....

  16. 33 CFR 110.128d - Island of Oahu, Hawaii. (Datum: OHD)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Island of Oahu, Hawaii. (Datum: OHD) 110.128d Section 110.128d Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128d Island of Oahu, Hawaii....

  17. 33 CFR 110.128d - Island of Oahu, Hawaii. (Datum: OHD)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Island of Oahu, Hawaii. (Datum: OHD) 110.128d Section 110.128d Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128d Island of Oahu, Hawaii....

  18. 33 CFR 110.128d - Island of Oahu, Hawaii. (Datum: OHD)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Island of Oahu, Hawaii. (Datum: OHD) 110.128d Section 110.128d Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128d Island of Oahu, Hawaii....

  19. 33 CFR 110.128d - Island of Oahu, Hawaii. (Datum: OHD)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Island of Oahu, Hawaii. (Datum: OHD) 110.128d Section 110.128d Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128d Island of Oahu, Hawaii....

  20. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone....

  1. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  2. Land Use on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klasner, Frederick L.; Mikami, Clinton D.

    2003-01-01

    A hierarchical land-use classification system for Hawaii was developed, and land use on the island of Oahu was mapped. The land-use classification system emphasizes agriculture, developed (urban), and barren/mining uses. Areas with other land uses (conservation, forest reserve, natural areas, wetlands, water, and barren [sand, rock, or soil] regions, and unmanaged vegetation [native or exotic]) were defined as 'other.' Multiple sources of digital orthophotographs from 1998 and 1999 were used as source data. The 1998 island of Oahu land-use data are provided in digital format at http://water.usgs.gov/lookup/getspatial?oahu_lu98 for use in a Geographic Information System (GIS), at 1:24,000-scale with minimum mapping units of 2 hectares (4.9 acres) area and 30-meters (98.4 feet) feature width. In 1998, a total of 59,195 acres (15.4 percent) of the island of Oahu were classified as agricultural land use; 98,663 acres (25.7 percent) were classified as developed; 1,522 acres (0.4 percent) were classified as barren/mining; and 224,331 acres (58.5 percent) were classified as other. An accuracy assessment identified 98 percent accuracy for all land-use classes. In windward (moister) areas, dense vegetation and canopy cover along with rapid recolonization by vegetation potentially obscured land use from photo-interpretation. While in leeward (drier) areas, sparse vegetative cover and slower vegetation recolonization may have resulted in more frequent recognition of apparent land-use patterns.

  3. Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 60 by 55 km ASTER scene shows almost the entire island of Oahu, Hawaii on June 3, 2000. The data were processed to produce a simulated natural color presentation. Oahu is the commercial center of Hawaii and is important to United States defense in the Pacific. Pearl Harbor naval base is situated here. The chief agricultural industries are the growing and processing of pineapples and sugarcane. Tourism also is important to the economy. Among the many popular beaches is the renowned Waikiki Beach, backed by the famous Diamond Head, an extinct volcano. The largest community, Honolulu, is the state capital.

    The image is located at 21.5 degrees north latitude and 158 degrees west longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties

  4. 33 CFR 334.1380 - Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...), Kaneohe Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons Training Range; danger zone. 334.1380 Section... Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii—Ulupau Crater Weapons Training Range; danger zone. (a) The danger zone...″ W Point C: Latitude 21°25′01.79″ N, Longitude 157°40′33.70″ W (b) The regulations. (1)...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of the Pacific Ocean lying offshore of Oahu between Ewa Beach and Barbers Point,...

  6. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of the Pacific Ocean lying offshore of Oahu between Ewa Beach and Barbers Point,...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of the Pacific Ocean lying offshore of Oahu between Ewa Beach and Barbers Point,...

  8. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of the Pacific Ocean lying offshore of Oahu between Ewa Beach and Barbers Point,...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of the Pacific Ocean lying offshore of Oahu between Ewa Beach and Barbers Point,...

  10. Geologic map and guide of the island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stearns, Harold T.

    1939-01-01

    This bulletin, although designated Bulletin 2, is actually the fourth of a series published by the Division of Hydrography of the Territory of Hawaii. All four of the bulletins thus far published relate to the geology and ground-water resources of the island of Oahu.1 Together they present the results obtained on this island in the program of ground-water investigation of the Territory that has been conducted in cooperation with the Geological Survey, of the United States Department of the Interior. Bulletin 5 which is in preparation will describe the progress made in developing the ground-water resources of Oahu since Bulletin 1 was issued. In Bulletin 2 is presented the detailed geologic map of Oahu that has resulted from this investigation. The base for this map is the new topographic map of Oahu prepared by the Topographic Branch of the Geological Survey. This bulletin also contains a guide to the geology along the main highways, which can be used advantageously in connection with the geologic map. For 18 years the writer has had the great privilege of working under the technical direction of Mr. 0. E. Meinzer, geologist in charge of the Division of Ground Water, U. S. Geological Survey. Nearly two decades ago Mr. Meinzer envisioned the great benefits that the people of Hawaii would derive from a thorough study of the groundwater resources of these islands. He also recognized that a full knowledge of these resources could be obtained only by a complete understanding of the geology of the islands and the processes which formed them. This bulletin is one of a series that has been made possible largely as a result of his broad vision. Credit is due Mr. W. 0 . Clark for the location of all the dikes shown on plate 2 in the headwaters of Kamananui Stream near the north end of the Koolau Range, and to Dr. C. K. Wentworth for about a dozen dikes north of Kaimuki. Messrs. 0. E. Meinzer, G. R. Mansfield, M. H. Carson, G. A. Macdonald, and S. H. Elbert kindly criticized

  11. Island of Oahu, State of Hawaii, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Island of Oahu, State of Hawaii, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 51st revolution of the earth. Photographed from an altitude of 122 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 81 hours. Diamond Head and Pearl Harbor are clearly visible.

  12. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu,...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu,...

  14. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu,...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu,...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu,...

  17. STS-65 Earth observation of island wake at Oahu, Hawaii, taken from OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, shows Oahu, Hawaii. The island wake emerging to the lower left side of Oahu is caused by wind currents blowing from the northeast being obstructed by the northwest-southeast trending, cloud covered, Koolau mountain range. The lighter colored water indicates a more smooth surface with a slower water current that the darker, rougher, faster moving water current. Pearl Harbor is visible to the south of the Koolau Range. To the right, or east, of Pearl Harbor is the city of Honolulu. The circular, brown feature to the east of Honolulu is the dormant volcano Diamond Head.

  18. A Newly Recognized Shield Volcano Southwest of Oahu Island, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, E.; Moore, J. G.; Yokose, H.; Clague, D. A.; Nakagawa, M.; Kani, T.; Coombs, M.; Moore, G.; Harada, Y.; Kunikiyo, T.; Robinson, J.

    2001-12-01

    alkalic basalt composition. Dive K206 (20\\deg39.0'N, 158\\deg47.5'W) on one of the flat top cones imaged and sampled dense aphyric pillow lava (also with thick Mn-coating) cascading down the steep flank. Preliminary data collected from the recently completed cruise indicates that this newly mapped submarine Hawaiian shield volcano (2000-4000 km3) is similar in age to those on Oahu island (Waianae and Koolau), and apparently grew during several stages of magmatic activity.

  19. Water Quality on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, Stephen S.; Hunt, Charles D.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Miller, Lisa D.; Tomlinson, Michael S.

    2004-01-01

    This report contains the major findings of a 1999-2001 assessment of water quality on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings in 51 major river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, State, and regional issues. Conditions in a particular basin or aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or in the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as the effects of agricultural and urban land use on water quality, human health, drinking water, source-water protection, and excessive growth of algae and plants, pesticide registration, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report is also for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live, and how that water quality compares to the quality of water in other areas across the Nation. The water-quality conditions on Oahu summarized in this report are discussed in detail in other reports that can be accessed from (http://hi.water.usgs.gov/nawqa). Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report in addition to reports in this series from other basins can be accessed from the national NAWQA Web site (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa).

  20. Forest bird monitoring protocol for strategic habitat conservation and endangered species management on O'ahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Island of O'ahu, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Banko, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the results of a pilot forest bird survey and a consequent forest bird monitoring protocol that was developed for the O'ahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. The pilot survey was conducted to inform aspects of the monitoring protocol and to provide a baseline with which to compare future surveys on the Refuge. The protocol was developed in an adaptive management framework to track bird distribution and abundance and to meet the strategic habitat conservation requirements of the Refuge. Funding for this research was provided through a Science Support Partnership grant sponsored jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS).

  1. A ground-water inventory of the Waialua basal-water body, Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, Robert H.

    1978-01-01

    The Waialua basal-water body underlies an area of about 18 square miles on the north shore of the island of Oahu, Hawaii. The basal-water body is a body of fresh ground water that floats on saline ground water in a highly permeable and porous basaltic aquifer. Inflow to the basal-water body is from the deep infiltration of applied irrigation water and from leakage through a low permeability ground-water dam. Outflow from the basal-water body is from basal-water pumpage and leakage through low-permeability boundaries that separate the basal-water body from the ocean. The basal-water flux, computed as either the sum of the inflow terms or the sum of the outflow terms, is about the same value. The basal-water flux is 55 million gallons per day, (206,000 cubic meters per day), based on the sum of the outflow terms. The effective porosity was computed at 0.09 by a time-series analysis of the covariations in deep infiltration, pumpage, and basal-water head. The volume of basal water in storage is estimated to be 1.4 x 1011 gallons (5.4 x 108 cubic meters). Pumpage from the basal-water body can be increased. The most efficient development method is the skimming shaft. If shafts were used, an additional 15 million gallons per day could be pumped on a sustained basis.

  2. Geophysical Log Data from Basalt Aquifers Near Waipahu on the Island of Oahu and Pahoa on the Island of Hawaii, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Hess, Alfred E.

    1995-01-01

    Two relatively new geophysical logging techniques, the digitally enhanced borehole acoustic televiewer and the heat-pulse flowmeter, were tested from 1987 to 1991 at two sites in Hawaii: Waipahu on the island of Oahu, and Pahoa on the island of Hawaii. Although these data were obtained in an effort to test and improve these two logging techniques, the measurements are of interest to hydrologists studying the aquifers in Hawaii. This report presents a review of the measurements conducted during this effort and summarizes the data obtained in a form designed to make that data available to hydrologists studying the movement of ground water in Hawaiian aquifers. Caliper logs obtained at the Waipahu site indicate the distribution of openings in interbed clinker zones between relatively dense and impermeable basalt flows. The flowmeter data indicate the pattern of flow induced along seven observation boreholes that provide conduits between interbed zones in the vicinity of the Mahoe Pumping Station at the Waipahu site. The televiewer image logs obtained in some of the Waipahu Mahoe boreholes do not show any significant vertical or steeply dipping fractures that might allow communication across the dense interior of basalt flows. Acoustic televiewer logs obtained at the Pahoa site show that a number of steeply dipping fractures and dikes cut across basalt flows. Although flow under ambient hydraulic-head conditions in the Waipahu Mahoe Observation boreholes is attributed to hydraulic gradients associated with pumping from a nearby pumping station, flow in the Waipio Deep Observation borehole on Oahu and flow in the Scientific Observation borehole on Hawaii are attributed to the effects of natural recharge and downward decreasing hydraulic heads associated with that recharge.

  3. Summary of available ground-water data for the island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miyamoto, S.E.; Miyaji, C.E.; Fukuda, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    This report presents, in tabular form, descriptive information and information on the availability of chloride concentration, water level, pumpage, log, pump test and flow data for all wells , shafts and tunnels on Oahu, Hawaii. Descriptive data for each groundwater source include: identification number, map number, depth, diameter, year completed, owner, usage and status. The report is based on data currently available in the files of the U.S. Geological Survey and is a compilation of observations made by Survey personnel, and information gathered by other agencies and the private sector. (USGS)

  4. Preliminary geothermal evaluation of the Mokapu Peninsula on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    Preliminary geological, geochemical, and geophysical field surveys have been conducted on Mokapu Peninsula on the island of Oahu in an effort to determine whether sufficient indications of geothermal potential exist within or adjacent to the peninsula to justify further, more detailed, exploratory efforts. An evaluation of existing geologic data as well as recently completed mapping on Mokapu indicate that the peninsula is located on the edge of or immediately adjacent to the inferred caldera of Koolau volcano. Geochemical surveys conducted within and around the Mokapu Peninsula included mercury and radon ground gas surveys as well as a limited evaluation of groundwater chemistry. Groundwater sampling on Mokapu Peninsula was severely restricted due to the absence of wells within the study area and thus water chemistry analyses were limited to the Nuupia fish ponds. Schlumberger resistivity soundings were completed in three locations on the peninsula: KVS1, in the northeast quadrant within the Ulupau crater, KVS2 in the northwest quadrant along the main jet runway, and KVS3 in the southeast along Mokapu Road. KVS1 encountered a relatively high resistivity to a depth of approximately 20 meters below sea level which was underlain by a basement resistivity of about 2 to 3 ohm meters. KVS2 and KVS3 detected similar resistivities of 2 to 3 ohm meters at much shallower depths (approximately equivalent to local sea level) below a thin, moderately resistive layer having an impedance ranging from 15 to 118 ohm meters.

  5. Summary of the Oahu, Hawaii, Regional Aquifer-System Analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, William D.; Shade, Patricia J.; Hunt, Charles D.

    1996-01-01

    Oahu, the third largest of the Hawaiian islands, is formed by the eroded remnants of two elongated shield volcanoes with broad, low profiles. Weathering and erosion have modified the original domed surfaces of the volcanoes, leaving a landscape of deep valleys and steep interfluvial ridges in the interior highlands. The Koolau Range in eastern Oahu and the Waianae Range in western Oahu are the eroded remnants of the Koolau and Waianae Volcanoes. The origin, mode of emplacement, texture, and composition of the rocks of Oahu affect their ability to store and transmit water. The volcanic rocks are divided into four groups: (1) lava flows, (2) dikes, (3) pyroclastic deposits, and (4) saprolite and weathered basalt. Stratified sequences of thin-bedded lava flows form the most productive aquifers in Hawaii. Dikes are near-vertical sheets of massive intrusive rock that typically contain only fracture permeability. Pyroclastic deposits include ash, cinder, and spatter; they are essentially granular, with porosity and permeability similar to those of granular sediments. Weathering of basaltic rocks in the humid, subtropical climate of Oahu alters igneous minerals to clays and oxides, reducing the permeability of the parent rock. Saprolite is weathered material that has retained textural features of the parent rock. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity along the plane of dike-free lava flows tend to fall within about one order of magnitude, from about 500 to about 5,000 feet per day. Estimates of specific yield range from about 1 to 20 percent; most of the values lie within a narrow range of about 5 to 10 percent. The occurrence of ground water on Oahu is determined by the type and character of the rocks and by the presence of geohydrologic barriers. The primary modes of freshwater occurrence on Oahu are as a basal lens of fresh ground water floating on saltwater, as dike-impounded ground water, and as perched ground water. Saltwater occurs at depth throughout much of the

  6. Geology and ground-water resources of the island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stearns, Harold T.; Vaksvik, Knute N.

    1935-01-01

    Oahu, one of the islands of the Hawaiian group, lies in the Mid-Pacific 2,100 miles southwest of San Francisco. The principal city is Honolulu. The Koolau Range makes up the eastern part of the island, and the Waianae Range the western part. Both are extinct basaltic volcanoes deeply dissected by erosion. The Koolau Volcano was the later to become extinct. The Waianae Range is made up of three groups of lavas erupted in Tertiary and possibly in early Pleistocene time. The exposed part of the older lava is nearly 2,000 feet thick and consists largely of thin-bedded pahoehoe. It is separated in most places from the middle lavas by an angular unconformity and talus breccia and in a few places by an erosional unconformity. The middle basalts are about 2,000 feet thick and closely resemble the lower ones except that they contain more aa. The upper lavas reach a thickness of about 2,300 feet and are mostly massive aa flows. The last eruptions produced large cinder cones and some nephelite basalts. The Waianae Volcano, like other Hawaiian volcanoes, produced only small amounts of ash, and the lavas were largely extruded from fissures a few feet wide, now occupied by dikes. The center of activity was near Kolekole Pass, at the head of Lualualei Valley.The Koolau Volcano is made up of two groups of lavas extruded in Tertiary and early Pleistocene (?) time. The older group, the Kailua volcanic series, is greatly altered by hydrothermal action and was extruded from fissures near Lanikai. The flows of the younger group, the Koolau volcanic series, were extruded from fissures about a mile south of the Kailua rift and have an exposed thickness of about 3,000 feet. The Koolau Volcano produced even less ash than the Waianae Volcano, and its flows are thin-bedded pahoehoe and aa. The eruptive center of the Koolau Volcano lies between Kaneohe and Waimanalo. Great amounts of both the Waianae and Koolau Ranges were removed by fluvial and marine erosion during the Pleistocene. The

  7. Geology and ground-water resources of the island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stearns, Harold T.; Vaksvik, Knute N.

    1935-01-01

    Oahu, one of the islands of the Hawaiian group, lies in the Mid-Pacific 2,100 miles southwest of San Francisco. The principal city is Honolulu. The Koolau Range makes up the eastern part of the island, and the Waianae Range the western part. Both are extinct basaltic volcanoes deeply dissected by erosion. The Koolau Volcano was the later to become extinct. The Waianae Range is made up of three groups of lavas erupted in Tertiary and possibly in early Pleistocene time. The exposed part of the older lava is nearly 2,000 feet thick and consists largely of thin-bedded pahoehoe. It is separated in most places from the middle lavas by an angular unconformity and talus breccia and in a few places by an erosional unconformity. The middle basalts are about 2,000 feet thick and closely resemble the lower ones except that they contain more aa. The upper lavas reach a thickness of about 2,300 feet and are mostly massive aa flows. The last eruptions produced large cinder cones and some nephelite basalts. The Waianae Volcano, like other Hawaiian volcanoes, produced only small amounts of ash, and the lavas were largely extruded from fissures a few feet wide, now occupied by dikes. The center of activity was near Kolekole Pass, at the head of Lualualei Valley.The Koolau Volcano is made up of two groups of lavas extruded in Tertiary and early Pleistocene (?) time. The older group, the Kailua volcanic series, is greatly altered by hydrothermal action and was extruded from fissures near Lanikai. The flows of the younger group, the Koolau volcanic series, were extruded from fissures about a mile south of the Kailua rift and have an exposed thickness of about 3,000 feet. The Koolau Volcano produced even less ash than the Waianae Volcano, and its flows are thin-bedded pahoehoe and aa. The eruptive center of the Koolau Volcano lies between Kaneohe and Waimanalo. Great amounts of both the Waianae and Koolau Ranges were removed by fluvial and marine erosion during the Pleistocene. The

  8. Development of invertebrate community indexes of stream quality for the islands of Maui and Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolff, Reuben H.

    2012-01-01

    rating. Additionally, quantitative macroinvertebrate samples collected from 31 randomly selected sites on Oʻahu in 2006-07 as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Wadeable Stream Assessment (WSA) were used to refine and develop an ICI of stream quality for Oʻahu. The set of metrics that were included in the revised index were: total invertebrate abundance, Class Insecta relative abundance, the ratio of Trichoptera abundance to nonnative Diptera abundance, turbellarian relative abundance, amphipod relative abundance, nonnative mollusk abundance, and nonnative crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and/or red cherry shrimp (Neocaridina denticulata sinensis) presence or absence. The Oʻahu ICI classified 10 of the 31 sites (32.3 percent) as "good" quality communities, 16 of the sites (51.6 percent) as "fair" quality communities, and 5 of the sites (16.1 percent) as "poor" quality communities. A reanalysis of 18 of the Oʻahu macroinvertebrate sites used to develop the P-HBIBI resulted in the reclassification of 3 samples. The beginning of a statewide ICI was developed on the basis of a combination of metrics from the Maui and Oʻahu ICIs. This combined ICI is intended to help identify broad problem areas so that the Hawaii State Department of Health (HIDOH) can prioritize their efforts on a statewide scale. Once these problem areas are identified, the island-wide ICIs can be used to more accurately assess the quality of individual stream reaches so that the HIDOH can prioritize their efforts on the most impaired streams. By using the combined ICI, 70 percent of the Maui sites and 10 percent of the Oʻahu WSA sites were designated as "good" quality sites; 25 percent of the Maui sites and 45 percent of the Oʻahu WSA sites were designated as "fair" quality sites; and 5 percent of the Maui sites and 45 percent of the Oʻahu WSA sites were designated as "poor" quality sites.

  9. NASA Surfs the Skies Above Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Video Gallery

    This flyover of the Hawaiian island of Oahu was made by draping Jan. 13, 2010, image data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra ...

  10. Oahu Solar Measurement Grid (1-Year Archive): 1-Second Solar Irradiance; Oahu, Hawaii (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.

    2010-03-16

    Seventeen measurement stations in the south western region of the island of Oahu collected data at 1-second intervals over the course of a year. The sensors are located in a 1-kilometer grid and the information then can be used to predict what PV outputs might be at 1-second intervals for medium-sized and large PV systems. This DOE-funded study by NREL supports the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI), a multifaceted program to substantially increase the use of renewable energy in Hawaii.

  11. Space Radar Image of Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows the city of Honolulu, Hawaii and adjacent areas on the island of Oahu. Honolulu lies on the south shore of the island, along the bottom of this image. Diamond Head, an extinct volcanic crater, is seen in the lower right. The bright white strip left of Diamond Head is the Waikiki Beach area. Further west are the downtown area and harbor. Runways of the airport can be seen in the lower left. The Koolau mountain range runs through the center of the image. The steep cliffs on the north side of the range are thought to be remnants of massive landslides that ripped apart the volcanic mountains that built the island thousands of years ago. On the north shore of the island are the Mokapu peninsula and Kaneohe Bay. Densely vegetated areas appear green in this radar image, while urban areas generally appear orange, red or white. Images such as this can be used by land use planners to monitor urban development and its effect on the tropical environment. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttleEndeavour on October 6, 1994.The image is 20.6 kilometers by 31.0kilometers (12.8 miles by 19.2 miles) and is centered at 21.4degrees North latitude, 157.8 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radarfrequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR,a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  12. Associations among land-use, habitat characteristics, and invertebrate community structure in nine streams on the island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brasher, Anne M.D.; Wolff, Reuben H.; Luton, Corene D.

    2003-01-01

    The island of Oahu is one of 51 study units established as part of the U.S. Geological Surveys National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program to assess the status and trends of the Nations surface and ground-water resources, and to link status and trends with an understanding of the natural and human factors that affect water quality. As part of the NAWQA program, benthic invertebrate communities were surveyed at ten sites in nine streams representing the three main types of land use on Oahu: urban, agriculture, and forested. At each sampling site, habitat characteristics were determined at a range of spatial scales including drainage basin, segment, reach, transect, and point. Associations among land use, habitat characteristics, and benthic invertebrate community structure were examined. The rapid population growth and increasing urbanization on Oahu has resulted in substantial stream habitat alteration. Instream habitat characteristics at the urban and mixed (urban and agriculture) land-use sites were markedly different from those at the forested sites. Urban and mixed land-use sites, most of which were channelized, tended to have less riparian vegetation, higher water temperatures, smaller substrate, and higher levels of embeddedness and siltation than sites in forested watersheds. The majority of invertebrate taxa identified during this study were non-native. Invertebrate abundance was lower at urban and mixed land-use sites than at forested sites, while species richness (the number of different species) showed the opposite pattern. Multivariate analyses indicated that invertebrate species composition was similar at sites with similar land use. Aquatic insects of the orders Diptera and Trichoptera were the most common insects in all samples. The ratio of Diptera to Trichoptera abundance varied with urbanization. Forested sites were dominated by Trichoptera, and urban and mixed land-use sites were dominated by Diptera. Molluscs typically occurred in

  13. Use of Branched Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraethers and the MBT/CBT Proxy: a Paleothermometer for the Islands of Hawaii and Oahu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenzen, E. T.; Fang, J.; Field, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs), produced by a yet unknown phyla of bacteria, have previously been found to be ubiquitous within soils. Through quantification of abundance of 4 varying types of GDGTs within a soil sample, the methylation of branched tetraethers (MBT) and the cyclization of branched tetraethers (CBT) can be determined. While prior researchers have deduced that CBT closely correlates to paleo-pH of soil and the MBT proxy corresponds to both paleo-temperature and paleo-pH of soils, it has been explicitly and unanimously stated that local calibrations are necessary for application of the MBT/CBT proxy to be viable. Additionally, there is very limited terrestrial paleo-temperature data for the Pacific subtropical gyre. In order to develop a calibrated MBT/CBT proxy for Hawaii, 8 sites of varying elevation (800-1600m a.s.l.) along the Laupahoehoe region of Mauna Kea as well as a diversity of sites around the island of Oahu were chosen and samples of the soil-surface were taken. Sites around Oahu include both the windward and leeward side, accounting for the orographic effect, as well as sites of varying elevations. Analysis and quantification was done using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Preliminary results have thus far confirmed the hypothesized outcome that temperature and pH do in fact have a direct affect on the abundance of GDGTs in Hawaiian surface-soils. Although consistent with previous research in that abundance of GDGTs is linked to both temperature and pH, the results show that effectiveness of the MBT proxy at finding minute changes in temperature in Hawaii is limited, (as previous research has been conducted mainly on higher latitude soils with more variant temperature distributions). Therefore, it is pertinent to use the calibration for mainly larger scale temperature changes. Results of the calibration are currently being applied down-core to detect temperature changes during the last glacial

  14. Relations between Land Use and Organochlorine Pesticides, PCBs, and Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds in Streambed Sediment and Fish on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brasher, A.M.D.; Wolff, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    Bed-sediment and/or fish samples were collected from 27 sites around the island of Oahu (representing urban, agricultural, mixed, and forested land use) to determine the occurrence and distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Of the 28 organochlorine compounds analyzed in the fish, 14 were detected during this study. Nineteen of the 31 organochlorine compounds and 40 of the 65 SVOCs were detected in the sediment. Urban sites had the highest number of detections and tended to have the highest concentrations of pesticides. Chlordane compounds were the most frequently detected constituents at urban sites, followed by dieldrin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and DDT compounds. PAHs were the most frequently detected constituents in watersheds with mixed (urban and agricultural) land use. The only pesticides detected at agricultural sites were DDT and its degradation products, DDD and DDE. No pesticides or PCBs were detected at the forested sites, but a few ubiquitous SVOCs were found in sediments at some forested sites. In general, concentrations of the most frequently detected pesticides were higher in fish than in sediment. Following a trend that has been observed elsewhere in the nation, concentrations of most organochlorine pesticides and PCBs are decreasing in Hawaii.

  15. Mean annual water-budget components for the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, for average climate conditions, 1978-2007 rainfall and 2010 land cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engott, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The shapefile associated with this metadata file represents the spatial distribution of mean annual water-budget components, in inches, for the Island of Oahu, Hawaii. The water-budget components in the shapefile were computed by a water-budget model for a scenario representative of average climate conditions (1978-2007 rainfall) and 2010 land cover, as described in USGS Scientific Investigations Report (SIR) 2015-5010. The model was developed for estimating groundwater recharge and other water-budget components for each subarea of the model. The model subareas were generated using Esri ArcGIS software by intersecting (merging) multiple spatial data sets that characterize the spatial distribution of rainfall, fog interception, irrigation, reference evapotranspiration, direct runoff, soil type, and land cover. These spatial data sets characterize the spatial distribution of hydrologic and physical conditions that the model uses to compute groundwater recharge and other water-budget components.The model-subarea data set (387,533 polygons) was subsequently intersected with the 0-ft elevation contour of the top of the basalt aquifer to produce the 395,955 polygons in this shapefile. This metadata file describes the process of merging these spatial data sets, The shapefile attribute information associated with each polygon present an estimate of mean annual rainfall, fog interception, irrigation, septic-system leachate, runoff, canopy evaporation, actual evapotranspiration, storm-drain capture, net precipitation, total evapotranspiration, recharge, and seepage from reservoirs and cesspools. This shapefile also includes select geographic and land-cover attributes of the polygons. Brief descriptions of the water-budget components and attributes are included in this metadata file. Refer to USGS SIR 2015-5010 (doi:10.3133/sir20155010) for further details of the methods and sources used to determine these components and attributes.

  16. Mean annual water-budget components for the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, for drought conditions, 1998-2002 rainfall and 2010 land cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engott, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The shapefile associated with this metadata file represents the spatial distribution of mean annual water-budget components, in inches, for the Island of Oahu, Hawaii. The water-budget components in the shapefile were computed by a water-budget model for a scenario representative of drought conditions (1998-2002 rainfall) and 2010 land cover, as described in USGS Scientific Investigations Report (SIR) 2015-5010. The model was developed for estimating groundwater recharge and other water-budget components for each subarea of the model. The model subareas were generated using Esri ArcGIS software by intersecting (merging) multiple spatial data sets that characterize the spatial distribution of rainfall, fog interception, irrigation, reference evapotranspiration, direct runoff, soil type, and land cover. These spatial data sets characterize the spatial distribution of hydrologic and physical conditions that the model uses to compute groundwater recharge and other water-budget components.The model-subarea data set (387,533 polygons) was subsequently intersected with the 0-ft elevation contour of the top of the basalt aquifer to produce the 395,955 polygons in this shapefile. This metadata file describes the process of merging these spatial data sets, The shapefile attribute information associated with each polygon present an estimate of mean annual rainfall, fog interception, irrigation, septic-system leachate, runoff, canopy evaporation, actual evapotranspiration, storm-drain capture, net precipitation, total evapotranspiration, recharge, and seepage from reservoirs and cesspools. This shapefile also includes select geographic and land-cover attributes of the polygons. Brief descriptions of the water-budget components and attributes are included in this metadata file. Refer to USGS SIR 2015-5010 (doi:10.3133/sir20155010) for further details of the methods and sources used to determine these components and attributes.

  17. The Kaena Ridge Submarine Rift Zone off Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. R.

    2002-12-01

    Deep-water multibeam data was collected in the Kauai Channel between the islands of Kauai and Oahu during the years 2000 to 2002 using the R/V Roger Revelle in support of the NSF funded Hawaii Ocean Mixing Experiment (HOME) with M. Gregg and A. Chave as principal investigators. The bathymetric surveys covered the Kaena Ridge, possibly a large submarine rift zone extension of the Waianae Volcano that makes up the western half of the island of Oahu. The Kaena ridge is bordered by the Kauai Channel and debris avalanche deposit material to the west, the Waianae slump to the south, and the Kaena slump to the north. The 35-55 km wide crest of the Kaena ridge extends 75-100 km northwest from Kaena Point, the westernmost tip of Oahu. The length and morphology resemble that of the Hana Ridge, the submarine extension of the Haleakala east rift zone. The broad central portion of Kaena ridge is comprised of two apparent lava shields 15 km and 10 km in diameter, both rising 200 m above the ridge (approximately 2500 m above the basal seafloor) to within 880 m and 660 m of sea level, respectively. The large size and distant location of the westernmost cone in the middle of the Kauai Channel suggests that it might predate Waianae Volcano and represent a precursor to the island of Oahu in the Hawaiian Chain, aborted before it ever reached sea level. Several 1500 m high steep concave landslide scars facing the giant Waianae slump mark the southern side of the ridge. To the north, a series of four 15 to 30 km wide benches step down to the basal seafloor, forming the Kaena slump, which may represent a less developed version of the Waianae slump. A 42 km long and 22 km wide (at its center) narrow rift zone ridge, in the classic Hawaiian submarine rift zone style (e.g., Puna ridge), bifurcates from the main broad ridge near the distal end. The smaller ridge trends north-northwest and is covered with approximately a dozen volcanic cones along its axis. Its rough morphology is

  18. The Role of Dissolved Loads Partitioned Between Surface and Ground Waters in the Chemical Weathering Rates of Tropical Islands Under Varied Climates: A Preliminary Assessment from Oahu, Hawaii, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaistre, M. J.; Nelson, S.; Tingey, D. G.

    2009-12-01

    The island of Oahu, Hawaii, USA is an ideal natural laboratory for understanding the role of climate, surface waters, and ground waters in the erosion and ultimate disappearance of ocean islands. This island is in a post-constructional phase, is composed entirely (or nearly so) of a single rock type (tholeiitic basalt), and rainfall totals vary by about an order of magnitude. On portions of the windward Koolau Range, rain exceeds 7 m annually, whereas portions of the southern island receive less than 0.8 m per year. There is considerable variability in the geochemical facies and total dissolve solid (TDS) content of surface and groundwaters, even among samples from similar climatic settings. Most waters tend to be of the Na-Mg-Cl type. However, ground waters tend to have higher TDS loads than surface waters, indicative of longer contact times with rock. 3H contents of wells average 0.6 TU, streams 1.2 TU, and rain 1.7 TU. Thus, the mean residence of groundwater may be on the order of 15-20 yr. Portions of Oahu such as the north central agricultural region have extremely well-developed soils, and TDS contents are very low on average (<70 mg/L) and similar to rainwater. Ground waters exhibit elevated solute loads, but when corrected for solutes in precipitation, only 50 to 60 additional mg/L have been acquired through water-rock interaction. By contrast, windward Oahu is dominated by the steep slopes of the Koolau Range where thick soils cannot accumulate, and relatively fresh rock is continuously exposed to weathering. When corrected for the contribution of rain, windward ground waters average >600 mg/L derived from water-rock interaction. Oahu has been subdivided into 5 major hydrographic regions and existing water budgets for Oahu can be coupled with mean solute loads for ground and surface water to estimate denudation rates via dissolved loads. Weathering products removed by surface waters are not considered here. Windward and south central Oahu are eroding at

  19. Hydrology and Water and Sediment Quality at James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge near Kahuku, Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Charles D.; De Carlo, Eric H.

    2000-01-01

    The James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge occupies two lowland marsh and pond complexes on the northern coastal plain of Oahu: the mostly natural ponds and wetlands of the Punamano Unit and the constructed ponds of the Kii Unit. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service manages the Refuge primarily to protect and enhance habitat for four endangered species of Hawaiian waterbirds. Kii Unit is fed by artesian wells and rainfall, whereas Punamano Unit is fed naturally by rainfall, runoff, and ground-water seepage. Streams drain from the uplands into lowland ditches that pass through Kii Unit on their way to the ocean. A high-capacity pump transfers water from the inner ditch terminus at Kii to the ocean outlet channel. Stormwaters also exit the inner ditch system over flood-relief swales near the outlet pump and through a culvert with a one-way valve. A hydrologic investigation was done from November 1996 through February 1998 to identify and quantify principal inflows and outflows of water to and from the Refuge, identify hydraulic factors affecting flooding, document ground-water/surface-water interactions, determine the adequacy of the current freshwater supply, and determine water and sediment quality. These goals were accomplished by installing and operating a network of stream-gaging stations, meteorology stations, and shallow ground-water piezometers, by computing water budgets for the two Refuge units, and by sampling and analyzing water and pond-bottom sediments for major ions, trace metals, and organic compounds. Streamflow during the study was dominated by winter stormflows, followed by a gradual recession of flow into summer 1997, as water that had been stored in alluvial fans drained to lowland ditches. Outflow at the ditch terminus in 1997 was 125 million gallons greater than measured inflow to the coastal plain, mainly reflecting gains from ground water along the ditches between outlying gages and the ditch terminus. Of the measured 1997 outflow, 98 percent

  20. Oahu, Hawaii's Water Supply: 1848-2020 A.D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, John Henry

    Demand projections indicate that Oahu's natural ground water supply will be fully developed by the year 2000. Supplementary water resources will need to be developed in keeping with the growth of the economy and population. The author, chairman of the Honolulu Board of Water Supply, authoritatively discusses types of ground water in Hawaii, and…

  1. Perspective view, Landsat overlay Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Honolulu, on the island of Oahu, is a large and growing urban area with limited space and water resources. This perspective view, combining a Landsat image with SRTM topography, shows how the topography controls the urban growth pattern, causes cloud formation, and directs the rainfall runoff pattern. Features of interest in this scene include downtown Honolulu (right), Honolulu Harbor (right), Pearl Harbor (center), and offshore reef patterns (foreground). The Koolau mountain range runs through the center of the image. On the north shore of the island are the Mokapu Peninsula and Kaneohe Bay (upper right). Clouds commonly hang above ridges and peaks of the Hawaiian Islands, and in this rendition appear draped directly on the mountains. The clouds are actually about 1000 meters (3300 feet) above sea level. High resolution topographic and image data allow ecologists and planners to assess the effects of urban development on the sensitive ecosystems in tropical regions.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat 7 satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated about six times vertically. The Landsat 7 image was acquired on February 12, 2000, and was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS)Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The

  2. Water resources of Windward Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takasaki, K.J.; Hirashima, George Tokusuke; Lubke, E.R.

    1969-01-01

    Windward Oahu lies in a large cavity--an erosional remnant of the Koolau volcanic dome at its greatest stage of growth. Outcrops include volcanic rocks associated with caldera collapse and the main fissure zone which is marked by a dike complex that extends along the main axis of the dome. The fissure zone intersects and underlies the Koolau Range north of Waiahole Valley. South of Waiahole Valley, the crest of the Koolau Range is in the marginal dike zone, an area of scattered dikes. The crest of the range forms the western boundary of windward Oahu. Dikes, mostly vertical and parallel or subparallel to the fissure zone, control movement and discharge of ground water because they are less permeable than the rocks they intrude. Dikes impound or partly impound ground water by preventing or retarding its movement toward discharge points. The top of this water, called high-level water in Hawaii, is at an altitude of about 1,000 feet in the north end of windward Oahu and 400 feet near the south end in Waimanalo Valley. It underlies most of the area and extends near or to the surface in poorly permeable rocks in low-lying areas. Permeability is high in less weathered mountain areas and is highest farthest away from the dike complex. Ground-water storage fluctuates to some degree owing to limited changes in the level of the ground-water reservoir--maximum storage is about 60,000 million gallons. The fluctuations control the rate at which ground water discharges. Even at its lowest recorded level, the reservoir contains a major part of the storage capacity because most of the area is perennially saturated to or near the surface. Tunnels have reduced storage by about 26,000 million gallons--only a fraction of the total storage--by breaching dike controls. Much of the reduction in storage can be restored if the .breached dike controls are replaced by flow-regulating bulkheads. Perennial streams intersect high-level water and collectively form its principal discharge. The

  3. View of Oahu, Hawaii from STS-67 Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This is an unusually full view of the island of Oahu in the Hawaiian chain of islands. Oahu's volcanic origins are hinted at by the volcanic crater at Diamond Head, clearly visible on the southern shore. The city of Honolulu stretches from Diamond Head to the inlet of Pearl Harbor. Honolulu's large international airport can be seen off the shore. The dense forestation of the highlands is visible below the cloud cover, and waves can be seen breaking along the northern shore where famous surfing beaches, such as Pipeline, are found.

  4. Water resources of southeastern Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takasaki, K.J.; Mink, John F.

    1982-01-01

    Southeastern Oahu comprises the eastern end of the Koolau Range and is divided into two roughly equal parts by the crest of the range. The northside of the crest is commonly called the windward side and the southside, the leeward. Precipitous cliffs aproned by a gently sloping landscape are the main topographic features on the windward side. The leeward side is a gentle lava-flow slope incised by steep narrow valleys. The main Koolau fissure zone, including the caldera, lies on the windward side. The leeward side includes minor rift zones that are perpendicular to and intersect the main fissure zone. Dikes in the main fissure zone strike from nearly east-west in the eastern end to about N. 55? W. in the western part. Dikes in the minor rift zones strike from north-south to slightly northeasterly. Water use is about 18 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) of which only 4 Mgal/d is obtained locally from ground-water sources. About a third of the 14 Mgal/d deficit is imported from sources northwest of the study area on the windward side and the remainder from sources in the Honolulu and Pearl Harbor areas on the leeward side. The 4 Mgal/d being developed represents only about 3 percent of the area's rainfall compared to a development-rainfall ratio of 20 percent for the rest of the island. Streams are short and flashy. Perennial streamflow to the sea occurs only in Maunawili Valley and in the Waimanalo area. Mean annual discharge is estimated at 20 Mgal/d in the windward side and at 15 Mgal/d on the leeward side. Low flow, expressed as the flow that is equaled or exceeded 90 percent of the time, is 5 Mgal/d windward of the crest and zero leeward of it. Most fresh ground water occurs in lava flows of the Koolau Volcanics. It is impounded by dikes in the rift zones and floats on saline ground water as lenses outside the rift zones. Small but important bodies of freshwater are perched in volcanic rocks of the Honolulu Group in Maunawili Valley. Fresh ground water occurs in

  5. Hydrology of the Leeward Aquifers of Southeast Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eyre, Paul R.; Ewart, Charles J.; Shade, Patricia J.

    1986-01-01

    The leeward southeast Oahu ground-water area includes the Waialae and Wailupe-Hawaii Kai aquifers. The Waialae aquifer is separated from the ground water of Kaimuki to the west by Palolo valley fill and the Kaau rift zone, and from the Wailupe-Hawaii Kai aquifer to the east by a line of northeast-trending volcanic dikes. The distinct ground-water head changes across these boundaries indicate that the aquifers are separate, with little or no leakage between them. A water budget of leeward southeast Oahu determined the quantity and spatial distribution of ground-water recharge. These estimates of recharge, 6 million gallons per day over the Waialae area and 9.1 million gallons per day over the Wailupe-Hawaii Kai area, were used as input to a finite-element two-dimensional ground-water flow model. Ground-water heads were simulated in the modeled aquifer for several pumping scenarios. Projected pumpage from the recently drilled wells int he area is predicted to draw the water table down about one foot from its present mean position. The existing ground-water development of 1.4 million gallons per day is small compared to the quantity of ground water that flows through the area and discharges to the sea. Because the Waialae and Wailupe-Hawaii Kai aquifers are isolated from adjacent ground-water bodies, they can be fully developed without affecting ground-water resources outside the area.

  6. Hillslope soil erosion estimated from aerosol concentrations, North Halawa Valley, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, B.R.; Fuller, C.C.; DeCarlo, E.H.

    1997-01-01

    Concentrations of aerosolic quartz and 137Cs were used to estimate rates of hillslope soil erosion during 1990-91 in the North Halawa Valley on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Fluvial transport of quartz was estimated to be 6.1 Mg in 1990 and 14.9 Mg in 1991. Fluvial transport of 137Cs from North Halawa Valley was estimated to be 1.29 ?? 109 pCi in 1991. Results were used with quartz contents, 137Cs activities, and bulk densities of hillslope soils to compute rates of basinwide hillslope soil erosion ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 mm yr-1. These rates are within the range of previous estimates of denudation computed for drainage basins on Oahu. The aerosol-concentration approach, therefore, is a useful method for assessing basinwide soil erosion.

  7. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. 17.99 Section 17.99 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING,...

  8. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. 17.99 Section 17.99 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING,...

  9. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. 17.99 Section 17.99 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING,...

  10. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2014-10-01 2013-10-01 true Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. 17.99 Section 17.99 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING,...

  11. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. 17.99 Section 17.99 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING,...

  12. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2011-10-01 2005-10-01 true Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. (Continued) 17.99 Section 17.99 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED)...

  13. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. (Continued) 17.99 Section 17.99 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED)...

  14. Oahu Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for the island of Oahu. Data is from the following sources: Rotzoll, K., A.I. El-Kadi. 2007. Numerical Ground-Water Flow Simulation for Red Hill Fuel Storage Facilities, NAVFAC Pacific, Oahu, Hawaii - Prepared TEC, Inc. Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.; Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume VII – Island of Oahu Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2009. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. December 2009.

  15. A survey of endangered waterbirds on Maui and Oahu and assessment of potential impacts to waterbirds from the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission corridor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K.; Woodside, D.; Bruegmann, M.

    1994-08-01

    A survey of endangered waterbirds on Maui and Oahu was conducted during August and September 1993 to identify potential waterbird habitats within the general area of the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission corridor and to assess the potential impacts to endangered waterbird of installing and operating a high voltage transmission line from the Island of Hawaii to the islands of Oahu and Maui. Annual waterbird survey information and other literature containing information on specific wetland sites were summarized. Literature describing impacts of overhead transmission lines on birds was used to evaluate potential impacts of the proposed project on endangered waterbirds, resident wading birds, and migratory shorebirds and waterfowl. On Oahu, five wetland habitats supporting endangered Hawaiian waterbirds were identified within 2.5 miles of the proposed transmission line corridor. On Maui, three wetland habitats supporting endangered Hawaiian waterbirds were identified within the general area of the proposed transmission line corridor. Several of the wetlands identified on Oahu and Maui also supported resident wading birds and migratory shorebirds and waterfowl. Endangered waterbirds, resident wading birds, and migratory birds may collide with the proposed transmission lines wires. The frequency and numbers of bird collisions is expected to be greater on Oahu than on Maui because more wetland habitat exists and greater numbers of birds occur in the project area on Oahu. In addition, the endangered Hawaiian goose and the endangered Hawaiian petrel may be impacted by the proposed segment of the Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission line on Maui.

  16. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  17. 33 CFR 165.1413 - Regulated navigation area; Southern Oahu Tsunami Evacuation; Honolulu, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Southern Oahu Tsunami Evacuation; Honolulu, Hawaii. 165.1413 Section 165.1413 Navigation and Navigable... Fourteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1413 Regulated navigation area; Southern Oahu Tsunami Evacuation... staging area is intended for use by all commercial vessels intended to remain in the RNA during a...

  18. An analysis of the magnitude and frequency of floods on Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakahara, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of available peak-flow data for the island of Oahu, Hawaii, was made by using multiple regression techniques which related flood-frequency data to basin and climatic characteristics for 74 gaging stations on Oahu. In the analysis, several different groupings of stations were investigated, including divisions by geographic location and size of drainage area. The grouping consisting of two leeward divisions and one windward division produced the best results. Drainage basins ranged in area from 0.03 to 45.7 square miles. Equations relating flood magnitudes of selected frequencies to basin characteristics were developed for the three divisions of Oahu. These equations can be used to estimate the magnitude and frequency of floods for any site, gaged or ungaged, for any desired recurrence interval from 2 to 100 years. Data on basin characteristics, flood magnitudes for various recurrence intervals from individual station-frequency curves, and computed flood magnitudes by use of the regression equation are tabulated to provide the needed data. (USGS)

  19. Island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Three main volcanoes make up the island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5W): the older volcanoes Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea and the recent Kilauea seen venting steam. This color infrared image is one of a pair (see STS052-77-002) to compare the differences between color film and color infrared film. Color film presents an image as it appears to the human eye whereas color infrared imagery reduces atmospheric haze and portrays vegetation as shades of red.

  20. Hawaii Island Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for Hawaii Island. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume II – Island of Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.

  1. Island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The three main volcanoes which make up the island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5W) include the older large shield volcanoes Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea and the more recent Kilauea. The rift zones of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea are delineated by the black lava flows whereas the smaler Kilauea can be seen venting steam. This color image is one of a pair (see STS052-95-037) to compare the differences between color film and color infrared film.

  2. Recharge Data for Hawaii Island

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Recharge data for Hawaii Island in shapefile format. The data are from the following sources: Whittier, R.B and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human Health and Environmental Risk Ranking of On-Site Sewage Disposal systems for the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final, Prepared for Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics. Oki, D. S. 1999. Geohydrology and Numerical Simulation of the Ground-Water Flow System of Kona, Island of Hawaii. U.S. Water-Resources Investigation Report: 99-4073. Oki, D. S. 2002. Reassessment of Ground-water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigation report 02-4006.

  3. 33 CFR 110.128b - Island of Hawaii, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. 110.128b Section 110.128b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128b Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. (a) Hilo...

  4. 33 CFR 110.128b - Island of Hawaii, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. 110.128b Section 110.128b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128b Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. (a) Hilo...

  5. 33 CFR 110.128b - Island of Hawaii, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. 110.128b Section 110.128b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128b Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. (a) Hilo...

  6. 33 CFR 110.128b - Island of Hawaii, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. 110.128b Section 110.128b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128b Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. (a) Hilo...

  7. 33 CFR 110.128b - Island of Hawaii, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. 110.128b Section 110.128b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128b Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. (a) Hilo...

  8. Environmental Setting and the Effects of Natural and Human-Related Factors on Water Quality and Aquatic Biota, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Brasher, Anne M.D.

    2003-01-01

    The island of Oahu is the third largest island of the State of Hawaii, and is formed by the eroded remnants of the Waianae and Koolau shield volcanoes. The landscape of Oahu ranges from a broad coastal plain to steep interior mountains. Rainfall is greatest in the mountainous interior parts of the island, and lowest near the southwestern coastal areas. The structure and form of the two volcanoes in conjunction with processes that have modified the original surfaces of the volcanoes control the hydrologic setting. The rift zones of the volcanoes contain dikes that tend to impede the flow of ground water, leading to high ground-water levels in the dike-impounded ground-water system. In the windward (northeastern) part of the island, dike-impounded ground-water levels may reach the land surface in stream valleys, resulting in ground-water discharge to streams. Where dikes are not present, the volcanic rocks are highly permeable, and a lens of freshwater overlies a brackish-water transition zone separating the freshwater from saltwater. Ground water discharges to coastal springs and streams where the water table in the freshwater-lens system intersects the land surface. The Waianae and Koolau Ranges have been deeply dissected by numerous streams. Streams originate in the mountainous interior areas and terminate at the coast. Some streams flow perennially throughout their entire course, others flow perennially over parts of their course, and the remaining streams flow during only parts of the year throughout their entire course. Hawaiian streams have relatively few native species compared to continental streams. Widespread diverse orders of insects are absent from the native biota, and there are only five native fish, two native shrimp, and a few native snails. The native fish and crustaceans of Hawaii's freshwater systems are all amphidromous (adult lives are spent in streams, and larval periods as marine or estuarine zooplankton). During the 20th century, land

  9. Spatially distributed groundwater recharge for 2010 land cover estimated using a water-budget model for the island of O'ahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engott, John A.; Johnson, Adam G.; Bassiouni, Maoya; Izuka, Scot K.

    2015-01-01

    Owing mainly to projected population growth, demand for freshwater on the Island of Oʻahu is expected to increase by about 26 percent between 2010 and 2030, according to the City and County of Honolulu. Estimates of groundwater recharge are needed to evaluate the availability of fresh groundwater. For this study, a water-budget model with a daily computation interval was developed and used to estimate the spatial distribution of recharge on Oʻahu for average climate conditions (1978–2007 rainfall and 2010 land cover) and for drought conditions (1998–2002 rainfall and 2010 land cover). For average climate conditions, mean annual recharge for Oʻahu is 661 million gallons per day, or about 36 percent of precipitation (rainfall and fog interception). Recharge for average climate conditions is about 34 percent of total water inflow, which consists of precipitation, irrigation, septic leachate, water-main leakage, and seepage from reservoirs and cesspools. Recharge is highest along the crest of the Koʻolau Range, reaching as much as about 180 inches per year in the north-central part of the range. Recharge is much lower outside of the mountainous areas of the island, commonly less than 5 inches per year in unirrigated areas. The islandwide estimate of groundwater recharge for average climate conditions from this study is within 1 percent of the recharge estimate used in the 2008 State of Hawaiʻi Water Resource Protection Plan, which divides the Island of Oʻahu into 23 aquifer systems for groundwater management purposes. To facilitate direct comparisons with this study, these 23 aquifer systems were consolidated into 21 aquifer systems. Recharge estimates from this study are higher for 12 of the aquifer-system areas and lower for 9. Differences in mean rainfall distribution and the inclusion of irrigation in this study are the primary reasons for discrepancies in recharge estimates between this study and the 2008 Hawaiʻi Water Resources Protection Plan. For

  10. Coliphage and indigenous phage in Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Paul, J H; Rose, J B; Jiang, S C; London, P; Xhou, X; Kellogg, C

    1997-01-01

    Public concern over the discharge of primarily treated sewage by two offshore outfalls in Mamala Bay, Oahu, prompted a multidisciplinary study to determine the impact of such activities on the water quality in the bay and at adjacent recreational beaches. As part of this study, we determined the abundance of coliphage as an indicator of fecal pollution along with total viral direct counts and phages infective for Vibrio parahaemoltyicus 16 at stations in Mamala Bay in four quarterly samplings over 13 months. Coliphage (< 1 to 1.2 x 10(3)/liter) were found during each quarterly sampling along an offshore transect to the Sand Island waste treatment facility outfall. The nonpoint coastal stations (Pearl Harbor, Ala Wai Canal, and Ke'ehi Lagoon) had high levels of coliphage during the storm event sampling in February 1994 but much lower levels or none when sampled during dry weather. Coliphage were absent at all samplings at Waikiki Beach and at the control station off Diamond Head. Viral direct counts in eutrophic coastal stations (Pearl Harbor, Ke'ehi Lagoon, Ala Moana Beach, and Ala Wai canal) averaged 10(9)/liter, while counts at offshore stations ranged from 9 x 10(7) to 1 x 10(9) viruses/liter, values similar to those for other marine environments. Vibriophage were found mainly in eutrophic coastal environments (Ala Wai Canal, Pearl Harbor, and Ke'ehi Lagoon) and at the Sand Island Transect stations D1 and D2. The greatest abundance was found during the storm event (February 1994) sampling. These results suggest that the Sand Island outfall influenced the water quality of the immediate surrounding waters but had little effect on the quality of the recreational beaches. Nonpoint discharge sources appeared to be more important in the distribution of fecal indicators in the coastal zone.

  11. Coliphage and indigenous phage in Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Paul, J H; Rose, J B; Jiang, S C; London, P; Xhou, X; Kellogg, C

    1997-01-01

    Public concern over the discharge of primarily treated sewage by two offshore outfalls in Mamala Bay, Oahu, prompted a multidisciplinary study to determine the impact of such activities on the water quality in the bay and at adjacent recreational beaches. As part of this study, we determined the abundance of coliphage as an indicator of fecal pollution along with total viral direct counts and phages infective for Vibrio parahaemoltyicus 16 at stations in Mamala Bay in four quarterly samplings over 13 months. Coliphage (< 1 to 1.2 x 10(3)/liter) were found during each quarterly sampling along an offshore transect to the Sand Island waste treatment facility outfall. The nonpoint coastal stations (Pearl Harbor, Ala Wai Canal, and Ke'ehi Lagoon) had high levels of coliphage during the storm event sampling in February 1994 but much lower levels or none when sampled during dry weather. Coliphage were absent at all samplings at Waikiki Beach and at the control station off Diamond Head. Viral direct counts in eutrophic coastal stations (Pearl Harbor, Ke'ehi Lagoon, Ala Moana Beach, and Ala Wai canal) averaged 10(9)/liter, while counts at offshore stations ranged from 9 x 10(7) to 1 x 10(9) viruses/liter, values similar to those for other marine environments. Vibriophage were found mainly in eutrophic coastal environments (Ala Wai Canal, Pearl Harbor, and Ke'ehi Lagoon) and at the Sand Island Transect stations D1 and D2. The greatest abundance was found during the storm event (February 1994) sampling. These results suggest that the Sand Island outfall influenced the water quality of the immediate surrounding waters but had little effect on the quality of the recreational beaches. Nonpoint discharge sources appeared to be more important in the distribution of fecal indicators in the coastal zone. PMID:9065272

  12. Environmental features and macrofauna of Kahana Estuary, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maciolek, J.A.; Timbol, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Lack of ecological information on Hawaiian estuaries prompted an intensive 2-year study of a small (5.7 ha) stream-mouth estuary on windward Oahu. Water quality and macrofauna were sampled weekly at seven stations. The water mass was strongly stratified vertically except during freshets. Average values for water column temperature and bottom salinity were 23.2°C and 12‰ at the head to 28.3°C and 28‰ at the mouth. Dissolved oxygen saturation in the water column varied from about 50% at night to 140% in the afternoon. Usually, bottom waters were 3–6°C warmer than surface waters and sometimes showed severe oxygen depletion.Macrofauna, collected primarily by seining, consisted mainly of decapod crustaceans (four species of crabs, seven species of shrimps) and fishes (24 species). Other typical estuarine taxons (mollusks, barnacles, polychaetes) were scarce or absent. Diversity increased seaward from 14 species near the estuary head to 29 species near the mouth. Three species of crustaceans and six of fishes were captured at all stations. Most abundant were the native prawn, Macrobrachium grandimanus, and mullet, Mugil cephalus. Perennially resident adults occurred among crustaceans and gobioid fishes; most other fishes were present as juveniles and sporadic adults. Comparisons with other data suggest that more than 50 species of native fishes may occur in Hawaiian estuaries, and that estuarine macrofaunal diversity on oceanic islands is much lower than on continents at similar latitudes.

  13. Ecological Assessment of Wadeable Streams on O`ahu, Hawai'i, 2006-2007: A Pilot Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolff, Reuben H.; Koch, Linda A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006-07, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Islands Water Science Center (PIWSC), in cooperation with the Hawai'i Department of Health (HDOH), conducted a pilot study as a participant in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) program. Forty randomly selected sites on perennial streams on O'ahu, Hawai'i, were surveyed for habitat characteristics, water chemistry, and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. Of the original sampling frame of approximately 505.2 miles of perennial stream, roughly 96.7 +or- 30.7 miles were found to be nonperennial or estuarine and another 200.5 +or- 64.7 miles were judged to be inaccessible. The scope of this report presents an assessment of the remaining 208 +or- 57.6 miles of accessible, wadeable, perennial stream length on O'ahu. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were used to determine the ecological condition at each site. Components of the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were assessed using the multimetric Preliminary-Hawaiian Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity (P-HBIBI) developed by Wolff (2005). Based on the P-HBIBI scores, an estimated 5.8 +or- 5.8 percent of the island's total stream length is in most disturbed condition, 56 +or- 13.5 percent is in intermediately disturbed condition, and 38.2 +or- 13.2 percent is in least disturbed condition. Windward O'ahu had the highest percentage of stream length in least disturbed biological condition at 56.7 +or- 20.8 percent. Using the relative abundance of insects, one of the core metrics that make up the P-HBIBI, 43.4 +or- 14.2 percent of the islandwide stream length was classified in the most disturbed condition - 52 +or- 31.2 percent of the Honolulu region stream length and 51.4 +or- 23.3 percent of the windward O'ahu stream length. An analysis of total nitrogen (N) estimated approximately 41.1 +or- 13.7 percent of the stream length on O'ahu was in most disturbed condition. Regionally, the Honolulu region had the largest

  14. Island of Kauai, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The island of Kauai, of the Hawaiian Island archipelago (22.0N, 159.5W) peeks out from scattered cloud cover. The island's volcanic origins are easily seen by the distinctive lava flow topography and lush vegetation.

  15. The Big Island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

  16. Spatio-temporal changes in trophic categories of infaunal polychaetes near the four wastewater ocean outfalls on Oahu, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Xiufu; Bailey-Brock, Julie H; Lin, David T

    2014-07-01

    This study examines the effect of sewage discharge on benthic polychaete assemblages in the context of their functional trophic categories. We present data spanning 20 years of monitoring benthic invertebrate assemblages and sediment properties at all 4 primary- and secondary-treatment wastewater outfalls servicing Honolulu and the island of Oahu, Hawaii, USA. Samples collected within mandated zones of initial dilution (ZIDs) near outfall discharge sites were compared to samples collected at reference stations at varying distances away. Our findings indicate that sediment properties were not affected by the outfall discharge rate or distance from each ZID. The number of polychaete species in 4 functional trophic categories (carnivore, detritivore, omnivore, and suspension feeder) did not change with the outfall solid loading rate or with distance from each ZID, thus suggesting relatively little organic enrichment. We find no evidence of heavy organic enrichment beyond the designated ZIDs at these 4 wastewater outfalls.

  17. Projecting changes in future heavy rainfall events for Oahu, Hawaii: A statistical downscaling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Chase W.; Chu, Pao-Shin; Schroeder, Thomas A.

    2011-09-01

    A statistical model based on nonlinear artificial neural networks is used to downscale daily extreme precipitation events in Oahu, Hawaii, from general circulation model (GCM) outputs and projected into the future. From a suite of GCMs and their emission scenarios, two tests recommended by the International Panel on Climate Change are conducted and the ECHAM5 A2 is selected as the most appropriate one for downscaling precipitation extremes for Oahu. The skill of the neural network model is highest in drier, leeward regions where orographic uplifting has less influence on daily extreme precipitation. The trained model is used with the ECHAM5 forced by emissions from the A2 scenario to simulate future daily precipitation on Oahu. A BCa bootstrap resampling method is used to provide 95% confidence intervals of the storm frequency and intensity for all three data sets (actual observations, downscaled GCM output from the present-day climate, and downscaled GCM output for future climate). Results suggest a tendency for increased frequency of heavy rainfall events but a decrease in rainfall intensity during the next 30 years (2011-2040) for the southern shoreline of Oahu.

  18. Shelf stratigraphy and the influence of antecedent substrate on Holocene reef development, south Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, E.E.; Barnhardt, W.A.; Hart, P.; Richmond, B.M.; Field, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Paired analyses of drill cores and high-resolution seismic reflection data show that development of Holocene framework reefs on the Oahu (Hawaii) shelf is limited to settings of low wave energy and to the period 8000 to 3000 yr BP. A prominent bounding surface that is mapped across much of the Oahu shelf is an erosion surface cut into Marine Isotope Stages 5 and 7 limestones that show extensive loss of primary porosity, aragonite, and MgCO3 owing to meteoric and vadose-zone diagenesis. This acoustic reflector is found exposed at the surface where wave energy is high or in the shallow subsurface below Holocene reef and sand sheet deposits where energy is low. Ship-towed video along 30 km of the shelf reveals a steady decrease in limestone accumulation from offshore of Honolulu southeast to Koko Head where the seafloor is characterized by volcanic pavement and/or thin sand deposits. This may reflect the build-up of late Pleistocene volcanics associated with the Hanauma Bay eruption (30,000-7000 yr BP) that now comprise the substrate in depths shallow enough to limit reef accretion. The absence of significant Holocene reef build-up on the south Oahu shelf is consistent with observations from north-facing coasts that lack Holocene reefs, indicating that Holocene reef formation in Hawaii is complex and patchy. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbonate Sediment Deposits on the Reef Front Around Oahu, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, M A.; Blay, Charles T.; Murray, Christopher J.

    2004-06-01

    Large sediment deposits on the reef front around Oahu are a possible resource for replenishing eroded beaches. High-resolution subbottom profiles clearly depict the deposits in three study areas: Kailua Bay off the windward coast, Makua to Kahe Point off the leeward coast, and Camp Erdman to Waimea off the north coast. Most of the sediment is in water depths between 20 and 100 m, resting on submerged shelves created during lowstands of sea level. The mapped deposits have a volume of about 400 million cubic meters in water depths less than 100 m, being thickest off the mouth of channels carved into the modern insular shelf, from which most of the sediment issues. Vibracore samples contain various amounts of sediment of similar size to the sand on Oahu beaches, with the most compatible prospects located off Makaha, Haleiwa, and Camp Erdman and the least compatible ones located in Kailua Bay. Laboratory tests show a positive correlation of abrasion with Halimeda content; samples from Kailua Bay suffered high amounts of attrition but others were comparable to tested beach samples.

  20. Carbonate sediment deposits on the reef front around Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, M.A.; Blay, C.T.; Murray, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Large sediment deposits on the reff front around Oahu are a possible resource for replenishing eroded beaches. High-resolution subbottom profiles clearly depict the deposits in three study areas: Kailua Bay off the windward coast, Makua to Kahe Point off the leeward coast, and Camp Erdman to Waimea off the north coast. Most of the sediment is in water depths between 20 and 100 m, resting on submerged shelves created during lowstands of sea level. The mapped deposits have a volume of about 4 ?? 108 m3 in water depths less than 100 m, being thickest off the mouth of channels carved into the modern insular shelf, from which most of the sediment issues. Vibracore samples contain various amounts of sediment of similar size to the sand on Oahu beaches, with the most compatible prospects located off Makaha, Haleiwa, and Camp Erdman, and the least compatible ones located in Kailua Bay. Laboratory tests show a positive correlation of abrasion with Halimeda content: samples from Kailua Bay suffered high amounts of attrition, but others were comparable to tested beach samples. The common gray color of the offshore sediment, aesthetically undesirable for sand on popular tourist beaches, was diminished in the laboratory by soaking in heated hydrogen peroxide. ?? Taylor and Francis Inc.

  1. Island of Hawaii, Hawaiian Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This single photo covers almost all of the big island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5E) in the Hawaiian Archipelago. The active Kilauea Volcano and lava flow is under clouds and hardly visible at the lower right edge but the Mauna Loa volcano crater and its older lava flow is at the bottom center. The Kona Coast, that produces the only coffee grown in the United States, is to the left. Mauna Kea is the extinct volcano and lava flow in the right center.

  2. Tropical island asthma in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Fournier-Massey, G; Massey, D G; Price, S; McLaughlin, D G; Gordon, B L

    1985-09-01

    To better understand the increased morbidity and mortality of asthma in Hawaii, a profile was established from questionnaires completed by 76 asthmatics in a residential area and by 204 asthmatics attending emergency rooms. The general profile differed from profiles on other islands and mainland USA in that allergens were more important and exercise less. Variations occurred in the profile in association with ethnicity, time in Hawaii, and prescribing habits. The Chinese did not recognize infection as a trigger; the Filipinos had little familial asthma, less pollen sensitivity, and used few steroids; and the Japanese were sensitive to Kona weather but not to pollen. The newcomers (military) who were sensitive to pollen and less to emotion and exercise, rated their attacks more severe and used more nebulizers and steroids. Certain other relationships emerged such as house dust as a trigger and the increased use of steroids. Asthmatics of two civilian ERs used fewer nebulizers and steroids. In conclusion, Hawaii's increased morbidity and mortality of asthma should be examined further in terms of ethnicity, infection, house dust, and prescribing habits.

  3. Oahu: perspective from space

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Gary E.

    1982-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides us with a unique perspective from space. This perspective is synoptic in nature and provides regional views of most of the land areas of the earth. The orbital characteristics of the Landsat system are such that repetitive imagery of the same area may be obtained. Because of the permanent nature of the imagery, it may be retrieved for comparative analysis at any time. Comparisons of this image of Oahu with maps of the island (for example, the Oahu, Hawaii, 1:250,000-scale topographic map) will enable the reader to readily identify the place names discussed in this article and permit a more detailed interpretation of the image.

  4. Flood-Frequency Estimates for Streams on Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Maui, and Hawai`i, State of Hawai`i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Rosa, Sarah N.; Yeung, Chiu W.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides an updated analysis of the magnitude and frequency of peak stream discharges in Hawai`i. Annual peak-discharge data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during and before water year 2008 (ending September 30, 2008) at stream-gaging stations were analyzed. The existing generalized-skew value for the State of Hawai`i was retained, although three methods were used to evaluate whether an update was needed. Regional regression equations were developed for peak discharges with 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year recurrence intervals for unregulated streams (those for which peak discharges are not affected to a large extent by upstream reservoirs, dams, diversions, or other structures) in areas with less than 20 percent combined medium- and high-intensity development on Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Maui, and Hawai`i. The generalized-least-squares (GLS) regression equations relate peak stream discharge to quantified basin characteristics (for example, drainage-basin area and mean annual rainfall) that were determined using geographic information system (GIS) methods. Each of the islands of Kaua`i,O`ahu, Moloka`i, Maui, and Hawai`i was divided into two regions, generally corresponding to a wet region and a dry region. Unique peak-discharge regression equations were developed for each region. The regression equations developed for this study have standard errors of prediction ranging from 16 to 620 percent. Standard errors of prediction are greatest for regression equations developed for leeward Moloka`i and southern Hawai`i. In general, estimated 100-year peak discharges from this study are lower than those from previous studies, which may reflect the longer periods of record used in this study. Each regression equation is valid within the range of values of the explanatory variables used to develop the equation. The regression equations were developed using peak-discharge data from streams that are mainly unregulated, and they should not be used to

  5. Preliminary assessment report for Waiawa Gulch, Installation 15080, Pearl City, Oahu, Hawaii. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Hawaii Army National Guard (HIARNG) property near Pearl City, Oahu, Hawaii. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Waiawa Gulch property, phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP).

  6. Rainfall, Plant Communities and Methane Fluxes in the Ka`au Crater Wetland, Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand, M.; Gaidos, E.

    2003-12-01

    Tropical wetlands constitute a major source of methane, an atmospheric greenhouse gas. Net methane emission in freshwater settings is the result of organic matter decomposition under anaerobic conditions modulated by aerobic methane oxidation and is thus also an indicator of wetland ecosystem processes. This study is monitoring the methane flux from the Ka`au crater wetland on the island of Oahu (Hawaii) and correlating it with environmental parameters such as precipitation and sunlight. We are obtaining precipitation, Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR), and water table level data with data loggers and are correlating these data with static chamber methane flux measurements and measurements of soil methane production potential. Additionally, our research is studying the effects of changes in vegetation type, i.e., of the invasive strawberry guava tree (Psidium Cattleianum) on the wetland methane emissions. Changes in soil chemistry and in the transport of gases by roots that accompany such vegetation change are a potential driver of methane flux modifications that have not been previously examined. Strawberry guava forms dense mats of surface roots that may change soil gas exchange and prolific fruiting may raise the soil organic content. We collected soil samples along a 30 meter transect that extends through two vegetation patterns; the strawberry guava canopy and the sedge meadow (Cladium Leptostachyum). Samples were incubated for 24 hours to estimate their methane generation potential. Our preliminary results show that methane generation potential is greater under the strawberry guava canopy. However, 2 of the 15 samples collected in the sedge meadow section of the transect did not match this pattern. Soil organic carbon content is slightly higher in the strawberry guava than in the sedge. We recorded a 90% decrease in methane generation potential in sedge meadow soils during a dry period relative to a wet period 2 months earlier. We propose that this change

  7. National assessment of shoreline change: A GIS compilation of vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the sandy shorelines of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romine, Bradley M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Genz, Ayesha S.; Barbee, Matthew M.; Dyer, Matthew; Anderson, Tiffany R.; Lim, S. Chyn; Vitousek, Sean; Bochicchio, Christopher; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2012-01-01

    Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination, and often are surrounded by communities that consist of valuable real estate. Development is increasing despite the fact that coastal infrastructure may be repeatedly subjected to flooding and erosion. As a result, the demand for accurate information regarding past and present shoreline changes is increasing. Working with researchers from the University of Hawaii, investigators with the U.S. Geological Survey's National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project have compiled a comprehensive database of digital vector shorelines and shoreline-change rates for the islands of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui, Hawaii. No widely accepted standard for analyzing shoreline change currently exists. Current measurement and rate-calculation methods vary from study to study, precluding the combination of study results into statewide or regional assessments. The impetus behind the National Assessment was to develop a standardized method for measuring changes in shoreline position that is consistent from coast to coast. The goal was to facilitate the process of periodically and systematically updating the measurements in an internally consistent manner. A detailed report on shoreline change for Kauai, Maui, and Oahu that contains a discussion of the data presented here is available and cited in the Geospatial Data section of this report.

  8. Disease dynamics of Montipora white syndrome within Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii: distribution, seasonality, virulence, and transmissibility.

    PubMed

    Aeby, G S; Ross, M; Williams, G J; Lewis, T D; Works, T M

    2010-07-26

    We report on an investigation of Montipora white syndrome (MWS), which is a coral disease reported from Hawaii, U.S.A., that results in tissue loss. Disease surveys of Montipora capitata within Kaneohe Bay (Oahu) found colonies that were affected by MWS on 9 reefs within 3 regions of Kaneohe Bay (south, central, north). Mean MWS prevalence ranged from 0.02 to 0.87% and average number of MWS cases per survey site ranged from 1 to 28 colonies. MWS prevalence and number of cases were significantly lower in the central region as compared to those in the north and south regions of Kaneohe Bay. There was a positive relationship between host abundance and MWS prevalence, and differences in host abundance between sites explained approximately 27% of the variation in MWS prevalence. Reefs in central Kaneohe Bay had lower M. capitata cover and lower MWS levels. MWS prevalence on reefs was neither significantly different between seasons (spring versus fall) nor among 57 tagged colonies that were monitored through time. MWS is a chronic and progressive disease causing M. capitata colonies to lose an average of 3.1% of live tissue mo(-1). Case fatality rate was 28% after 2 yr but recovery occurred in some colonies (32%). Manipulative experiments showed that the disease is acquired through direct contact. This is the first study to examine the dynamics of MWS within Hawaii, and our findings suggest that MWS has the potential to degrade Hawaii's reefs through time. PMID:20853736

  9. Numerical analysis of the hydrogeologic controls in a layered coastal aquifer system, Oahu, Hawaii, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, D.S.; Souza, W.R.; Bolke, E.L.; Bauer, G.R.

    1998-01-01

    The coastal aquifer system of southern Oahu, Hawaii, USA, consists of highly permeable volcanic aquifers overlain by weathered volcanic rocks and interbedded marine and terrestrial sediments of both high and low permeability. The weathered volcanic rocks and sediments are collectively known as caprock, because they impede the free discharge of groundwater from the underlying volcanic aquifers. A cross-sectional groundwater flow and transport model was used to evaluate the hydrogeologic controls on the regional flow system in southwestern Oahu. Controls considered were: (a) overall caprock hydraulic conductivity; and (b) stratigraphic variations of hydraulic conductivity in the caprock. Within the caprock, variations in hydraulic conductivity, caused by stratigraphy or discontinuities of the stratigraphic units, are a major control on the direction of groundwater flow and the distribution of water levels and salinity. Results of cross-sectional modeling confirm the general groundwater flow pattern that would be expected in a layered coastal system. Ground-water flow is: (a) predominantly upward in the low-permeability sedimentary units; and (b) predominantly horizontal in the high-permeability sedimentary units.

  10. Ground-Water Quality and its Relation to Land Use on Oahu, Hawaii, 2000-01

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Charles D.

    2003-01-01

    Water quality in the main drinking-water source aquifers of Oahu was assessed by a one-time sampling of untreated ground water from 30 public-supply wells and 15 monitoring wells. The 384 square-mile study area, which includes urban Honolulu and large tracts of forested, agricultural, and suburban residential lands in central Oahu, accounts for 93 percent of the island's ground-water withdrawals. Organic compounds were detected in 73 percent of public-supply wells, but mostly at low concentrations below minimum reporting levels. Concentrations exceeded drinking-water standards in just a few cases: the solvent trichloroethene and the radionuclide radon-222 exceeded Federal standards in one public-supply well each, and the fumigants 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) exceeded State standards in three public-supply wells each. Solvents, fumigants, trihalomethanes, and herbicides were prevalent (detected in more than 30 percent of samples) but gasoline components and insecticides were detected in few wells. Most water samples contained complex mixtures of organic compounds: multiple solvents, fumigants, or herbicides, and in some cases compounds from two or all three of these classes. Characteristic suites of chemicals were associated with particular land uses and geographic locales. Solvents were associated with central Oahu urban-military lands whereas fumigants, herbicides, and fertilizer nutrients were associated with central Oahu agricultural lands. Somewhat unexpectedly, little contamination was detected in Honolulu where urban density is highest, most likely as a consequence of sound land-use planning, favorable aquifer structure, and less intensive application of chemicals (or of less mobile chemicals) over recharge zones in comparison to agricultural areas. For the most part, organic and nutrient contamination appear to reflect decades-old releases and former land use. Most ground-water ages were decades old, with recharge

  11. Numerical Analysis of Ground-Water Flow and Salinity in the Ewa Area, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Souza, William R.; Bolke, Edward I.; Bauer, Glenn R.

    1996-01-01

    The coastal plain in the Ewa area of southwestern Oahu, Hawaii, is part of a larger, nearly continuous sedimentary coastal plain along Oahu's southern coast. The coastal sediments are collectively known as caprock because they impede the free discharge of ground water from the underlying volcanic aquifers. The caprock is a layered sedimentary system consisting of interbedded marine and terrestrial sediments of both high and low permeability. Before sugarcane cultivation ended in late 1994, shallow ground water from the upper limestone unit, which is about 60 to 200 feet thick, was used primarily for irrigation of sugarcane. A cross-sectional ground-water flow and transport model was used to evaluate the hydrogeologic controls on the regional flow system in the Ewa area. Controls considered were: (1) overall caprock hydraulic conductivity, (2) stratigraphic variations of hydraulic conductivity in the caprock, and (3) recharge. In addition, the effects of a marina excavation were evaluated. Within the caprock, variations in hydraulic conductivity, caused by caprock stratigraphy or discontinuities of the stratigraphic units, are a major control on the direction of ground-water flow and the distribution of water levels and salinity. Model results also show that a reduction of recharge will result in increased salinity throughout the caprock with the greatest change in the upper limestone layer. In addition, the model indicates that excavation of an ocean marina will lower water levels in the upper limestone layer. Results of cross-sectional modeling confirm the general ground-water flow pattern that would be expected in the layered sedimentary system in the Ewa caprock. Ground-water flow is: (1) predominantly upward in the low-permeability sedimentary units, and (2) predominantly horizontal in the high-permeability sedimentary units.

  12. Numerical analysis of the hydrogeologic controls in a layered coastal aquifer system, Oahu, Hawaii, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Souza, William R.; Bolke, Edward L.; Bauer, Glenn R.

    The coastal aquifer system of southern Oahu, Hawaii, USA, consists of highly permeable volcanic aquifers overlain by weathered volcanic rocks and interbedded marine and terrestrial sediments of both high and low permeability. The weathered volcanic rocks and sediments are collectively known as caprock, because they impede the free discharge of groundwater from the underlying volcanic aquifers. A cross-sectional groundwater flow and transport model was used to evaluate the hydrogeologic controls on the regional flow system in southwestern Oahu. Controls considered were: (a) overall caprock hydraulic conductivity; and (b) stratigraphic variations of hydraulic conductivity in the caprock. Within the caprock, variations in hydraulic conductivity, caused by stratigraphy or discontinuities of the stratigraphic units, are a major control on the direction of groundwater flow and the distribution of water levels and salinity. Results of cross-sectional modeling confirm the general groundwater flow pattern that would be expected in a layered coastal system. Groundwater flow is: (a) predominantly upward in the low-permeability sedimentary units; and (b) predominantly horizontal in the high-permeability sedimentary units. Résumé Le système aquifère littoral du sud d'Oahu (Hawaii, États-Unis) est constitué par des aquifères de terrains volcaniques très perméables, recouverts par des roches volcaniques altérées, et interstratifiés avec des sédiments marins et continentaux de perméabilité aussi bien forte que faible. Les roches volcaniques altérées et les sédiments sont globalement considérés comme une couverture, parce qu'ils s'opposent à l'écoulement de l'eau souterraine provenant des aquifères volcaniques sous-jacents. Les contrôles hydrogéologiques sur le système aquifère régional du sud-ouest d'Oahu ont étéévaluées au moyen d'un modèle d'écoulement et de transport sur une section transversale. Ces contrôles prennent en compte la conductivit

  13. Numerical analysis of the hydrogeologic controls in a layered coastal aquifer system, Oahu, Hawaii, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Souza, William R.; Bolke, Edward L.; Bauer, Glenn R.

    The coastal aquifer system of southern Oahu, Hawaii, USA, consists of highly permeable volcanic aquifers overlain by weathered volcanic rocks and interbedded marine and terrestrial sediments of both high and low permeability. The weathered volcanic rocks and sediments are collectively known as caprock, because they impede the free discharge of groundwater from the underlying volcanic aquifers. A cross-sectional groundwater flow and transport model was used to evaluate the hydrogeologic controls on the regional flow system in southwestern Oahu. Controls considered were: (a) overall caprock hydraulic conductivity; and (b) stratigraphic variations of hydraulic conductivity in the caprock. Within the caprock, variations in hydraulic conductivity, caused by stratigraphy or discontinuities of the stratigraphic units, are a major control on the direction of groundwater flow and the distribution of water levels and salinity. Results of cross-sectional modeling confirm the general groundwater flow pattern that would be expected in a layered coastal system. Groundwater flow is: (a) predominantly upward in the low-permeability sedimentary units; and (b) predominantly horizontal in the high-permeability sedimentary units. Résumé Le système aquifère littoral du sud d'Oahu (Hawaii, États-Unis) est constitué par des aquifères de terrains volcaniques très perméables, recouverts par des roches volcaniques altérées, et interstratifiés avec des sédiments marins et continentaux de perméabilité aussi bien forte que faible. Les roches volcaniques altérées et les sédiments sont globalement considérés comme une couverture, parce qu'ils s'opposent à l'écoulement de l'eau souterraine provenant des aquifères volcaniques sous-jacents. Les contrôles hydrogéologiques sur le système aquifère régional du sud-ouest d'Oahu ont étéévaluées au moyen d'un modèle d'écoulement et de transport sur une section transversale. Ces contrôles prennent en compte la conductivit

  14. Trace elements in streambed sediments of small subtropical streams on O'ahu, Hawai'i: Results from the USGS NAWQA program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Carlo, E. H.; Tomlinson, M.S.; Anthony, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    Data are presented for trace element concentrations determined in the <63 ??m fraction of streambed sediment samples collected at 24 sites on the island of O'ahu, Hawai'i. Sampling sites were classified as urban, agricultural, mixed (urban/agricultural), or forested based on their dominant land use, although the mixed land use at selected sampling sites consisted of either urban and agricultural or forested and agricultural land uses. Forest dominated sites were used as reference sites for calculating enrichment factors. Trace element concentrations were compared to concentrations from studies conducted in the conterminous United States using identical methods and to aquatic-life guidelines provided by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. A variety of elements including Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn exceeded the aquatic-life guidelines in selected samples. All of the Cr and Zn values and 16 of 24 Cu values exceeded their respective guidelines. The potential toxicity of elements exceeding guidelines, however, should be considered in the context of strong enrichments of selected trace elements attributable to source rocks in Hawai'i, as well as in the context of the abundance of fine-grained sediment in the streambed of O'ahu streams. Statistical methods including cluster analysis, Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test, correlation analysis, and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to evaluate differences and elucidate relationships between trace elements and sites. Overall, trace element distributions and abundances can be correlated to three principal sources of elements. These include basaltic rocks of the volcanic edifice (Fe, Al, Ni, Co, Cr, V and Cu), carbonate/seawater derived elements (Mg, Ca, Na and Sr), and elements enriched owing to anthropogenic activity (P, Sn, Cd, Sn, Ba and Pb). Anthropogenic enrichment gradients were observed for Ba, Cd, Pb, Sn and Zn in the four streams in which sediments were collected upstream and downstream. The findings

  15. Using sediment 'fingerprints' to assess sediment-budget errors, north Halawa Valley, Oahu, Hawaii, 1991-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, B.R.; DeCarlo, E.H.; Fuller, C.C.; Wong, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    Reliable estimates of sediment-budget errors are important for interpreting sediment-budget results. Sediment-budget errors are commonly considered equal to sediment-budget imbalances, which may underestimate actual sediment-budget errors if they include compensating positive and negative errors. We modified the sediment 'fingerprinting' approach to qualitatively evaluate compensating errors in an annual (1991) fine (<63 ??m) sediment budget for the North Halawa Valley, a mountainous, forested drainage basin on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, during construction of a major highway. We measured concentrations of aeolian quartz and 137Cs in sediment sources and fluvial sediments, and combined concentrations of these aerosols with the sediment budget to construct aerosol budgets. Aerosol concentrations were independent of the sediment budget, hence aerosol budgets were less likely than sediment budgets to include compensating errors. Differences between sediment-budget and aerosol-budget imbalances therefore provide a measure of compensating errors in the sediment budget. The sediment-budget imbalance equalled 25% of the fluvial fine-sediment load. Aerosol-budget imbalances were equal to 19% of the fluvial 137Cs load and 34% of the fluval quartz load. The reasonably close agreement between sediment- and aerosol-budget imbalances indicates that compensating errors in the sediment budget were not large and that the sediment-budget imbalance as a reliable measure of sediment-budget error. We attribute at least one-third of the 1991 fluvial fine-sediment load to highway construction. Continued monitoring indicated that highway construction produced 90% of the fluvial fine-sediment load during 1992. Erosion of channel margins and attrition of coarse particles provided most of the fine sediment produced by natural processes. Hillslope processes contributed relatively minor amounts of sediment.

  16. The legacy of lead (Pb) in fluvial bed sediments of an urban drainage basin, Oahu, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Hotton, Veronica K; Sutherland, Ross A

    2016-03-01

    The study of fluvial bed sediments is essential for deciphering the impact of anthropogenic activities on water quality and drainage basin integrity. In this study, a systematic sampling design was employed to characterize the spatial variation of lead (Pb) concentrations in bed sediment of urban streams in the Palolo drainage basin, southeastern Oahu, Hawaii. Potentially bioavailable Pb was assessed with a dilute 0.5 N HCl extraction of the <63 μm grain-size fraction from the upper bed sediment layer of 169 samples from Palolo, Pukele, and Waiomao streams. Contamination of bed sediments was associated with the direct transport of legacy Pb from the leaded gasoline era to stream channels via a dense network of storm drains linked to road surfaces throughout the basin. The Palolo Stream had the highest median Pb concentration (134 mg/kg), and the greatest road and storm drain densities, the greatest population, and the most vehicle numbers. Lower median Pb concentrations were associated with the less impacted Pukele Stream (24 mg/kg), and Waiomao Stream (7 mg/kg). The median Pb enrichment ratio values followed the sequence of Palolo (68) > Pukele (19) > Waiomao (8). Comparisons to sediment quality guidelines and potential toxicity estimates using a logistic regression model (LRM) indicated a significant potential risk of Palolo Stream bed sediments to bottom-dwelling organisms. PMID:26573308

  17. Numerical Simulation of Borehole Flow in Deep Monitor Wells, Pearl Harbor Aquifer, Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotzoll, K.; Oki, D. S.; El-Kadi, A. I.

    2010-12-01

    Salinity profiles collected from uncased deep monitor wells are commonly used to monitor freshwater-lens thickness in coastal aquifers. However, vertical flow in these wells can cause the measured salinity to differ from salinity in the adjacent aquifer. Substantial borehole flow has been observed in uncased wells in the Pearl Harbor aquifer, Oahu, Hawaii. A numerical modeling approach, incorporating aquifer hydraulic characteristics and recharge rates representative of the Pearl Harbor aquifer, was used to evaluate the effects of borehole flow on measured salinity profiles from deep monitor wells. Borehole flow caused by vertical hydraulic gradients associated with the natural regional groundwater-flow system and local groundwater withdrawals was simulated. Model results were used to estimate differences between vertical salinity profiles in deep monitor wells and the adjacent aquifer in areas of downward, horizontal, and upward flow within the regional flow system—for cases with and without nearby pumped wells. Aquifer heterogeneity, represented in the model as layers of contrasting permeability, was incorporated in model scenarios. Results from this study provide insight into the magnitude of the differences between vertical salinity profiles from deep monitor wells and the salinity distributions in the aquifers. These insights are relevant and are critically needed for management and predictive modeling purposes.

  18. Sports medicine in Hawaii: care of the high school athlete in Oahu's public schools.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M R; Hiller, W D; Yates-McCarthy, J L

    1991-11-01

    A recent study by the National Athletic Trainers Association indicated that injuries occur more often during practice than during games in high school athletics. Results of the 3-year study indicated that 60% of basketball injuries occurred in boys and young men during practice and 59% occurred in women. About 2/3 of the estimated 120,000 injuries suffered by prep wrestlers each year happen during practice. The study found that an average of 331,865 high school football players (1/3 of the million who play football each year) were sidelined by an injury at least once. With these statistics in mind, our study looks at the approach to the management of injury in the public schools that make up the Oahu Inter-scholastic Association (OIA) in the state of Hawaii. The estimated number of student athletes that participate in organized athletics in the OIA is 7,960 and the number of coaches is 1,189.

  19. Stratigraphy, paleoenvironment and emplacement mechanisms of the Koko fissure craters, O'ahu, Hawai'i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skilling, I. P.; Bluth, J.; Simoneau, E.

    2011-12-01

    The Koko fissure craters are aligned and nested basanitic tuff cones and rings at the SE corner of O'ahu, Hawai'i. There are no published studies of their stratigraphy, emplacement mechanisms or depositional paleoenvironments. This study focuses on a tuff cone complex (Koko Crater) and a younger adjacent nested tuff ring (Hanauma Bay). A detailed stratigraphy with logged sections for both Koko Crater and the Hanauma Bay craters are presented and discussed. Koko Crater is dominated by wet fallout deposits on steep proximal slopes, commonly resedimented by hot (vesiculated) and cold (unvesiculated) debris flows, slumps and slides, but with an increasing percentage of wet (low temperature) low concentration PDC deposits preserved in the shallowly-dipping flanking apron deposits, and in the uppermost proximal deposits. At least two earlier cone or ring rims are preserved along its southern margin. The deposits of Hanauma Bay overlie the Koko deposits and are dominated by a mix of wet low concentration PDC, wet fallout and synchronous PDC, and fallout deposits in proximal settings, and by low concentration, probably drier, PDC deposits in more distal settings. The Hanauma Bay rings were emplaced before the Koko Crater tephra was consolidated, as steep-sided rills incised into Koko tephra are locally filled with tephra of mixed Koko and Hanauma sources. The onset of Hanauma Bay eruptions is marked by a horizon that is very rich in rounded coral sand clasts. Discontinuous horizons and lenses of coral block fallout are also very common in the Hanauma tephra. Coral sand is absent and coral blocks are much rarer in the Koko tephra. These observations, and probably also the dominance of wet fallout at Koko, imply that Koko was erupted in deeper water than the nearshore coral beach environment of the Hanauma rings. A faster rate of water recharge into the conduit in deeper open water is probably the most important factor in the generation of a cone rather than a ring at this

  20. Kaua'i 'O'o; O'ahu 'O'o; Hawai'i 'O'o; Bishop's 'O'o; Kioea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W.; Kepler, A.K.; Kepler, C.B.; Scott, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Hawai'i 'O'o was the first Hawaiian honeyeater discovered by westerners, described from a specimen obtained in 1779 during Captain James Cook's third voyage; the other 4 species were not known to the scientific community until the mid- to late 1800's. The O'ahu and Hawai'i 'o'o and the Kioea are now definitely extinct, and the Kaua'i and Bishop's 'o'o are probably extinct.

  1. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat; plants on the islands of...) Interagency Cooperation (Continued) § 17.99 Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai... and critical habitat unit descriptions for the island of Oahu, HI. The following paragraphs...

  2. Three-dimensional variable-density flow simulation of a coastal aquifer in southern Oahu, Hawaii, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, S.B.; Voss, C.I.

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional modeling of groundwater flow and solute transport in the Pearl Harbor aquifer, southern Oahu, Hawaii, shows that the readjustment of the freshwater-saltwater transition zone takes a long time following changes in pumping, irrigation, or recharge in the aquifer system. It takes about 50-years for the transition zone to move 90% of the distance to its new steady position. Further, the Ghyben-Herzberg estimate of the freshwater/saltwater interface depth occurred between the 10 and 50% simulated seawater concentration contours in a complex manner during 100-years of the pumping history of the aquifer. Thus, it is not a good predictor of the depth of potable water. Pre-development recharge was used to simulate the 1880 freshwater-lens configuration. Historical pumpage and recharge distributions were used and the resulting freshwater-lens size and position were simulated through 1980. Simulations show that the transition zone moved upward and landward during the period simulated. Previous groundwater flow models for Oahu have been limited to areal models that simulate a sharp interface between freshwater and saltwater or solute-transport models that simulate a vertical aquifer section. The present model is based on the US Geological Survey's three-dimensional solute transport (3D SUTRA) computer code. Using several new tools for pre- and post-processing of model input and results have allowed easy model construction and unprecedented visualization of the freshwater lens and underlying transition zone in Hawaii's most developed aquifer. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  3. Tunnels and dikes of the Koolau Range, Oahu, Hawaii, and their effect on storage depletion and movement of ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirashima, George Tokusuke

    1971-01-01

    Ground water impounded by dikes in the Koolau Range is a major source of water for the island of Oahu, Hawaii, and many tunnels have been bored into the range to develop it. All water-development tunnels, except Waihee tunnel, have depleted storage in the rocks they penetrate and are now discharging at rates that are but fractions of the rates possible at full storage. Rocks above the floor of the water-development part of Waihee tunnel have never been completely dewatered, and storage can be manipulated by regulating outflow. Thus, storage for this tunnel can be increased during periods of low demand and discharged at high rates during periods of high demand. A measure of the rate of drainage or depletion of storage is the recession constant b in the recession-curve equation Qt=Q0e-b t. The higher the value of b, the faster water can be drawn from storage or returned to storage through artificial recharge. Mathematical analysis of the flow-recession curve of Waihee tunnel shows that (1) its recession constant is 0.00401, (2) net storage (exclusive of recharge) is 2,200 million gallons (6,800 acre-feet), and (8) initial discharge from full storage would be about 19 million gallons per day. Analysis of flow-recession curves for Waiahole ditch tunnel (main bore) and Haiku tunnel shows that these tunnels have drainage characteristics that are similar to those of Waihee tunnel. The composite recession constant computed for the four tunnels north of Waiahole is about one-third as large as that computed for the Waiahole ditch tunnel (main bore) and the tunnels to the south. The difference is due to an abrupt change in spacing of dikes north of Waiahole. At and south of Waiahole Stream, dikes are spaced tens or hundreds of feet apart; north of Waiahole, they are spaced inches or a few feet apart. Storage could be restored by bulkheading at the controlling dike or dikes after an analysis is made of the flow-recession curve for each tunnel. Such analyses will show which

  4. Source of salts in the Waianae part of the Pearl Harbor aquifer near Barbers Point water tunnel, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eyre, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    The salinity of the water supply of Barbers Point Naval Air Station has increased markedly since 1983. The Naval Air Station obtains its water, about 3 million gal/day, from Barbers Point shaft, a water shaft that taps the Waianae part of the Pearl Harbor aquifer underlying the dry, southeastern flank of the Waianae mountains on the island on Oahu, Hawaii. From 1983 to 1985 the chloride concentration of the water, increased from 220 to 250 mg/L and has remained near that level through 1986. The EPA has established 250 mg/L as the maximum recommended chloride concentration in drinking water because above that level many people can taste the salt. The high chloride concentration in shallow groundwater at all wells in the area indicates that most of the salts in the freshwater lens are contributed by rainfall, sea spray, and irrigation return water. At Barbers Point shaft, pumping may draw a small amount of saltwater from the transition zone and increase the chloride concentration in the pumped water by about 20 mg/L. Salinity of the lens decreases progressively inland in response to recharge from relatively fresher water and in response to an increasing lens thickness with increasing distance from the shoreline. The increase, in 1983, in the chloride concentration of water at the shaft was most probably the result of saltier recharge water reaching the water table, and not the result of increased mixing of underlying saltwater with the freshwater. The chloride concentration of the recharge water has probably increased because, in 1980, the drip method of irrigation began to replace the furrow method on sugarcane fields near the shaft. A mixing-cell model was used to estimate the effect of drip irrigation on the chloride concentration of the groundwater in the vicinity of Barbers Point shaft. The model predicted an increase in chloride concentration of about 50 mg/L. The observed increase was about 30 mg/L and the chloride concentration is presently stable at 245 to

  5. 33 CFR 110.128c - Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 110.128c Section 110.128c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128c Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Nawiliwili Bay....

  6. 33 CFR 110.128c - Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 110.128c Section 110.128c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128c Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Nawiliwili Bay....

  7. 33 CFR 110.128c - Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 110.128c Section 110.128c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128c Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Nawiliwili Bay....

  8. 33 CFR 110.128c - Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 110.128c Section 110.128c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128c Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Nawiliwili Bay....

  9. 33 CFR 110.128c - Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 110.128c Section 110.128c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128c Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Nawiliwili Bay....

  10. Thermally Enhanced Magnetic Fabrics of Basaltic Dikes from Kapaa Quarry, Koolau Volcano, Oahu, Hawaii, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, J.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Urrutia Fucugauchi, J.

    2007-05-01

    Progressive thermal treatment has been used to investigate the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of a wide range of lithologies. Initial results on e.g., red sandstones, glacial tillites, granites and gneisses showed that laboratory stepwise heating resulted in thermal enhancement of AMS, showing the potential of thermal treatment in studying weak AMS and masked or cryptic fabrics. Studies have however shown that heating induced changes in AMS may be more complex that simple enhancement of the magnetic fabric In general, thermal induced magneto-mineralogical alterations are complex and not well understood, and further investigation of heating induced effects in mineralogy, grain size and texture systematically investigated for different lithologies is needed. For our experiment we have used a suite of samples from eight basaltic dikes from the Kappa Quarry, Koolau volcanic range in Oahu, Hawaii. The AMS fabric was determined as part of a study to investigate the influence of hydrothermal alteration by Krasa and Herrero-Bervera (2005). They found that hydrothermal alteration changes the bulk susceptibility and anisotropy degree, but AMS ellipsoid principal axes are not affected. Since hydrothermal alteration transforms the primary Ti-poor titanomagnetites into granular intergrowths of titanomagnetites, titanomaghemite and hematite, and that samples show varying degrees of alteration, the samples react differently to laboratory stepwise heating permitting study of thermal effects on the magnetic mineralogy, and AMS parameters and principal susceptibility axes. Further, thermal treatment results in fabric enhancement with reduced axial scatter associated with weak bulk susceptibilities and anisotropy degrees in the dikes. For the AMS experiment samples were heated progressively to temperatures up to 400° C or 560° C and the AMS measured after each step. AMS parameters and bulk susceptibility show changes with increasing temperature while the AMS

  11. Water in the Oceanic Lithosphere: Salt Lake Crater Xenoliths, Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Bizimis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Water can be present in nominally anhydrous minerals of peridotites in the form of hydrogen bonded to structural oxygen. Such water in the oceanic upper mantle could have a significant effect on its physical and chemical properties. However, the water content of the MORB source has been inferred indirectly from the compositions of basalts. Direct determinations on abyssal peridotites are scarce because they have been heavily hydrothermally altered. Here we present the first water analyses of minerals from spinel peridotite xenoliths of Salt Lake Crater, Oahu, Hawaii, which are exceptionally fresh. These peridotites are thought to represent fragments of the Pacific oceanic lithosphere that was refertilized by alkalic Hawaiian melts. A few have unradiogenic Os and radiogenic Hf isotopes and may be fragments of an ancient (2 Ga) depleted and recycled lithosphere. Water contents in olivine (Ol), orthopyroxene (Opx), and clinopyroxene (Cpx) were determined by FTIR spectrometry. Preliminary H_{2}O contents show ranges of 8-10 ppm for Ol, 151-277 ppm for Opx, and 337-603 ppm for Cpx. Reconstructed bulk rock H_{2}O contents range from 88-131 ppm overlapping estimates for the MORB source. Water contents between Ol minerals of the same xenolith are heterogeneous and individual OH infrared bands vary within a mineral with lower 3230 cm^{-1} and higher 3650-3400 cm^{-1} band heights from core to edge. This observation suggests disturbance of the hydrogen in Ol likely occurring during xenolith entrainment to the surface. Pyroxene water contents are higher than most water contents in pyroxenes from continental peridotite xenoliths and higher than those of abyssal peridotites. Cpx water contents decrease with increasing degree of depletion (e.g. increasing Fo in Ol and Cr# in spinel) consistent with an incompatible behavior of water. However Cpx water contents also show a positive correlation with LREE/HREE ratios and LREE concentrations consistent with refertilization. Opx water

  12. Variations in the Alkalinity of Seawater in Coastal Waters of Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. L.; De Carlo, E. H.; Drupp, P. S.; Terlouw, G.; Guidry, M.; Mackenzie, F. T.; Thompson, R.

    2014-12-01

    Total alkalinity (AT) is an important component of the marine inorganic carbon system that, together with one of the other measurable parameters (i.e., pH, dissolved inorganic carbon-CT , pCO2) allows us to calculate the entire CO2-carbonic acid system. By measuring AT continuously at several coastal locations on coral reefs of Oahu, we can calculate a current rate of change in surface water conditions with respect to biogeochemical processes as well as the globally important issue of ocean acidification (OA). Previous work by Drupp et al (2011, 2013) has shown that parameters of the CO2-carbonic acid system display seasonal fluctuations as well as respond to short term rainfall events. This work expands the period of study through July 2014. The three sampling locations are vastly different in geographic and geochemical conditions. Kaneohe Bay is a protected embayment, with large freshwater inputs and long water residence time compared to the nearshore exposed waters at Kilo Nalu and Ala Wai. Variation in coral reef environments affect AT, thus making it crucial to sample multiple environments over an extended period of time to reveal changes in biogeochemistry. A typical sample from Kaneohe Bay (CRIMP-2) can be expected to have a AT value between 2134 umol/kg and 2279 umol/kg, Kilo Nalu: between 2263 umol/kg and 2350 umol/kg, Ala Wai: between 2263 umol/kg and 2335 umol/kg. In general, total alkalinity values from CRIMP-2 are lower than at Kilo Nalu or Ala Wai due to differences in coral reef environments. Our long-term record allows us to compare the behavior of Hawaiian reef waters to those of other tropical marine ecosystems. Furthermore, monitoring of AT over extended multiple years and multiple locations is essential to develop the time-series data necessary for continued evaluation of the impact of OA on coral reefs of the Hawaiian Islands.

  13. Pollen record from Ka'au Crater, Oahu, Hawaii: Evidence for a dry glacial maximum

    SciTech Connect

    Hotchkiss, S.C.; Juvik, J.O. Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo )

    1993-06-01

    Fossil pollen from a 3.5 m-long core from Ka'au Crater, Hawaii (elev. 460 m), yields a ca. 23,000-year record of regional vegetation history. Results indicate a full-glacial period drier and possibly cooler than present, a warmer and wetter early Holocene, and a somewhat drier late Holocene; this sequence agrees with earlier work by Selling (1948) on other islands. The oldest zone is donated by pollen of Chenopodium oahuense, Acacia koa, and Dodonaea viscosa; post-glacial pollen assemblages feature high percentages of Myrsine and Coprosma, followed by increases in Lycopodium cernuum Ilex anomala. Freycinetia arborea and Pritchardia. After about 8000 years ago, Chenopodium, Acacia, and Dodonaea increase, suggesting a return to drier conditions. Abundant pollen of Chenopodium oahuense, a plant of dry regions, during the last glacial maximum implies that neither the trade winds nor cyclonic storms were delivering as much moisture to the regional vegetation as they presently do. This suggests that the ocean surface temperature during the last glacial maximum may have been cooler than present, a finding contradictory to the reconstructions of the CLIMAP (1981) group, which show temperatures near Hawaii equal to or even warmer than present.

  14. Investigation of Waikele well no 2401-01, Oahu, Hawaii; pumping test, well logs and water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eyre, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    Field tests indicate that an abandoned well (No. 2401-01) near the confluence of Waikele and Kipapa Streams, Oahu, Hawaii, can be reactivated to produce potable water at a rate of 400-500 gallons per minute. Previous tests in 1946 and 1954 indicated that the well tapped the brackish transition zone which inderlies the Ghyben-Herzberg lens of the Pearl Harbor aquifer. Results of this study, based on geologic and geophysical logs of the wall, as well as on pumping test and water-quality data, indicate that the slightly brackish water produced by the well results from brackish irrigation return water. It does not appear that pumping from this well will cause seawater upconing or intrusion. (USGS)

  15. Hawaii

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Big Island, Hawaii     View Larger ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of the Big Island of Hawaii, April - June 2000. The images have been rotated so that ... NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science ...

  16. Geohydrology and Possible Transport Routes of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Haiku Valley, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.; Hill, Barry R.; Shade, Patricia J.; Tribble, Gordon W.

    1993-01-01

    A combination of geologic mapping, seepage runs, water-budget computation, analysis of stream-gaging records, study of stream sediment, and measurement of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was used to investigate the geohydrology and possible routes of PCB transport from areas of possible contamination in the U.S. Coast Guard's Omega Station in Haiku Valley, Oahu, Hawaii. The PCBs were a contaminant in fuel that was sprayed on vegetation and ignited during defoliation efforts at the Omega Station. Haiku Valley is a stream valley eroded into a thick section of dike-intruded, highly permeable lava flows. The valley is partly filled with alluvium, pyroclastics and massive lava flows. A shallow aquifer system is formed by a permeable unit of pyroclastics which is bounded below by less permeable alluvium, massive lava flows, and weathered basalt. A deeper aquifer system is present in the dike-intruded lava flows. Much of the area of suspected PCB-contaminated fuel application in Haiku Valley is situated on the geologic unit that forms the shallow aquifer. A water budget calculated for the drainage area of a stream-gaging station (16275000) at the downgradient boundary of the Omega Station indicates that the shallow and deep aquifers receive recharge of 5.1 cubic feet per second from the 0.98 square-mile drainage area; approximately 10 percent of the drainage area is suspected to have been contaminated by PCBs. Approximately 4 cubic feet per second of water is withdrawn from the aquifers by a well and a water tunnel in the valley, but the geology of the area indicates that some of the water withdrawn by the tunnel also comes from recharge beyond the surface-water divides of Haiku Valley. Base flow to the stream is about 1.2 cubic feet per second. A water-balance calculation between recharge, well and tunnel withdrawals, and stream base flow, indicates that 1.0 cubic feet per second or more of the water recharging the drainage area may travel through the subsurface and

  17. Standing crop and sediment production of reef-dwelling foraminifera on O'ahu, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harney, J.N.; Hallock, P.; Fletcher, C. H.; Richmond, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    Most of O'ahu's nearshore and beach sands are highly calcareous and of biogenic origin. The pale-colored constituent grains are the eroded remains of carbonate shells and skeletons produced by marine organisms living atop the island's fringing reefs and in the shallow waters near shore. Previous studies have shown that the tests of symbiont-bearing benthic foraminifera compose a substantial portion (up to one-fourth) of these organically produced sands. We sampled a variety of reef flat and slope habitats to obtain standing-crop data and production estimates for several sand-producing genera of reef-dwelling foraminifera. We found that modern communities of these shelled protists occur in dense numbers islandwide, reaching densities up to 105 individuals per square meter of suitable substrate in the more productive habitats. Further research on the contribution of foraminifera to beach, nearshore, and offshore sands is planned for O'ahu and neighboring islands to describe their roles in the sediment budget more completely.

  18. The Islands Are Different: Human Perceptions of Game Species in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohr, Cheryl A.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Johnson, Edwin D.

    2014-10-01

    Hawaii's game animals are all non-native species, which provokes human-wildlife conflict among stakeholders. The management of human-wildlife conflict in Hawaii is further complicated by the discrete nature of island communities. Our goal was to understand the desires and perceived values or impacts of game held by residents of Hawaii regarding six game species [pigs ( Sus scrofa), goats ( Capra hircus), mouflon ( Ovis musimon), axis deer ( Axis axis), turkeys ( Melagris gallopavo), and doves ( Geopelia striata)]. We measured the desired abundance of game on the six main Hawaiian Islands using the potential for conflict index and identified explanatory variables for those desires via recursive partitioning. In 2011 we surveyed 5,407 residents (2,360 random residents and 3,047 pre-identified stakeholders). Overall 54.5 and 27.6 % of the emailed and mailed surveys were returned ( n = 1,510). A non-respondent survey revealed that respondents and non-respondents had similar interest in wildlife, and a similar education level. The desired abundance of game differed significantly among stakeholders, species, and islands. The desired abundance scores were higher for axis deer, mouflon, and turkeys compared to pigs, goats or doves. Enjoyment at seeing game and the cultural value of game were widespread explanatory variables for desired abundance. Models for Lanai emphasized the economic value of game, whereas models for Maui identified the potential for game to contaminate soil and water. Models for Oahu and Kauai revealed concern for human health and safety. Given our findings we recommend managers design separate management plans for each island taking into consideration the values of residents.

  19. New plant records from Hawai'i Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Linda W.; Bio, Keali'i F.

    2012-01-01

    The following plant records from the island of Hawai'i include 2 new state records, 6 new island records, 3 new records of naturalized species previously known to be present on the island, and 1 range extension of an orchid recently reported as naturalized. All cited voucher specimens are deposited at BISH.

  20. Tropical cyclone inundation potential on the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu and Kauai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Andrew B.; Westerink, Joannes J.; Smith, Jane M.; Hope, Mark E.; Hartman, Michael; Taflanidis, Alexandros A.; Tanaka, Seizo; Westerink, Hans; Cheung, Kwok Fai; Smith, Tom; Hamann, Madeleine; Minamide, Masashi; Ota, Aina; Dawson, Clint

    2012-08-01

    The lack of a continental shelf in steep volcanic islands leads to significant changes in tropical cyclone inundation potential, with wave setup and runup increasing in importance and wind driven surge decreasing when compared to more gently-sloped mainland regions. This is illustrated through high resolution modeling of waves, surge, and runup on the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu and Kauai. A series of hurricane waves and water levels were computed using the SWAN + ADCIRC models for a suite of 643 synthetic storm scenarios, while local wave runup was evaluated along a series of 1D transects using the phase-resolving model Bouss1D. Waves are found to be an extremely important component of the inundation, both from breaking wave forced increases in storm surge and also from wave runup over the relatively steep topography. This is clear in comparisons with debris lines left by Hurricane Iniki on the Island of Kauai, where runup penetration is much greater than still water inundation in most instances. The difference between steeply-sloping and gently-sloping topographies was demonstrated by recomputing Iniki with the same landfall location as Hurricane Katrina in Louisiana. Surge was greatly increased for the mild-slope Iniki-in-Louisiana case, while pure wind surge for Iniki-in-Kauai was very small. For the entire suite of storms, maxima on Kauai show predicted inundation largely confined to a narrow coastal strip, with few locations showing more than a few hundred meters of flooding from the shoreline. As expected, maximum flooded areas for the 643 storms were somewhat greater than the Iniki inundation. Oahu has significantly more low-lying land compared to Kauai, and consequently hypothetical tropical cyclone landfalls show much more widespread inundation. Under direct impact scenarios, there is the potential for much of Honolulu and most of Waikiki to be inundated, with both still water surge and wave runup contributing. Other regions of Oahu show inundation confined

  1. Fostering Earth Science Inquiry From Within a Native Hawaiian Cultural Framework In O`ahu (Hawai`i) Through A Multidisciplinary Place-Based High School Summer Enrichment Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moxey, L.; Dias, R.; Legaspi, E.

    2010-12-01

    During the summer of 2010, twenty-five public high school students from underrepresented communities and ethnicities (Hawaiian, part-Hawaiian, Sāmoan, Filipino, Pacific Islander) in O`ahu (Hawai`i) participated in the Mālama Ke Ahupua`a (protecting our watershed) program. This rigorous three-week hands-on, place-based multidisciplinary program provided students with the opportunity of visiting the Mānoa Valley watershed (O`ahu, Hawaii) for learning and experiencing the Earth Science System dynamics that comprises it, while simultaneously exploring the significance of the ahupua`a (watershed) as related to native Hawaiian history and culture. While earning Hawaii DOE-approved academic credit, students utilized GPS/GIS technology, quantitative water quality testing equipment, and environmental monitoring tools for performing a watershed survey and water quality study of Mānoa Stream (Mānoa Valley) from its inception in the mountains, its advance through Honolulu’s urbanized areas, and its convergence with the Pacific Ocean. Through this hands-on field-based study, students documented changes in the watershed’s environment as reflected in declining water quality induced by anthropogenic pollution sources and urbanization. Students also visited relevant native Hawaiian cultural sites in Mānoa, and explored their direct links with the historical sustainable usage of the watershed’s natural resources, both from a cultural and science-based perspective. Finally, traditional wa`a (native Hawaiian outrigger canoes) were used as both cultural resources for discussing ancient Polynesian exploration, as well as scientific research platforms for conducting near-shore reef surveys & assessments. This program served to promote not only Earth Science literacy and STEM skills, but also contributed to further environmental stewardship while fostering native Hawaiian & Polynesian cultural identities.

  2. Results from the Southeast Oahu, Hawaii, Shoreline Erosion Study Utilizing the PX and PXT Shoreline Erosion Rate Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romine, B. M.; Genz, A.; Fletcher, C. H.; Frazer, L. N.; Barbee, M. M.; Lim, S.; Dyer, M.

    2007-12-01

    It is imperative that coastal erosion studies produce valid erosion rates and erosion hazard predictions to aid in the development of public policy and protect coastal resources. Currently, the Single-Transect method is the most common shoreline change model, which calculates a rate at each shore-normal transect without regard to influences of data from adjacent transects along a beach. Improving on Single-Transect, the University of Hawaii Coastal Geology Group has developed the PX (Polynomial in distance X) and PXT (Polynomial in distance X and Time) shoreline change rate calculation methods, which model all the shoreline positions within a beach simultaneously using polynomial techniques. PX is a special case of PXT that models shoreline change rates spatially along a beach. PXT not only models the shoreline change spatially, but it lets the rate change with time (acceleration). This is an important advance, as beaches may not erode or accrete at a constant (linear) rate. A linear sum of basis functions characterizes the shoreline change rate for both PX and PXT. These methods are an improvement on previous methods as they produce more meaningful, i.e., statistically significant rates and erosion hazard predictions. We use an information criterion (gMDL) to (1) identify the number of coefficients of the basis functions that are needed to describe shoreline change in PX and PXT, and (2) compare different methods to determine which method best describes shoreline change. The southeast coastline of Oahu, Hawaii, features a range of beach morphologies and littoral dynamics well suited for further testing of the PX and PXT shoreline change rate calculation methods. The PX and PXT methods find significant rates for 70% of the study area versus 28% significant rates with the Single-Transect method. In companion with the work presented by Ayesha Genz on the PX and PXT rate methods, we present results from the Southeast Oahu Shoreline Study as a demonstration of the

  3. Drilling and construction data for well 3-3407-37, Kiikii exploratory well, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, T.K.; Oki, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Kiikii exploratory well (State well number 3-3407-37) was drilled about 1.4 miles southwest of the town of Haleiwa and 4,000 feet west- southwest of Weed Circle. The well is on agricultural land in the Waialua ground-water area. The well penetrates through sedimentary deposits (caprock) and into the underlying basalt aquifer. Well-construction data, logs of drilling notes, and geologic descriptions for the samples are presented for the well. The well is one of 12 exploratory wells drilled in the north-central Oahu area between July, 1993 and May, 1994 in cooperation with the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

  4. Geohydrology of the Central Oahu, Hawaii, Ground-Water Flow System and Numerical Simulation of the Effects of Additional Pumping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    1998-01-01

    A two-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water flow model was developed for the central Oahu flow system, which is the largest and most productive ground-water flow system on the island. The model is based on the computer code SHARP which simulates both freshwater and saltwater flow. The ground-water model was developed using average pumping and recharge conditions during the 1950's, which was considered to be a steady-state period. For 1950's conditions, model results indicate that 62 percent (90.1 million gallons per day) of the discharge from the Schofield ground-water area flows southward and the remaining 38 percent (55.2 million gallons per day) of the discharge from Schofield flows northward. Although the contribution of recharge from infiltration of rainfall and irrigation water directly on top of the southern and northern Schofield ground-water dams was included in the model, the distribution of natural discharge from the Schofield ground-water area was estimated exclusive of the recharge on top of the dams. The model was used to investigate the long-term effects of pumping under future land-use conditions. Future recharge was conservatively estimated by assuming no recharge associated with agricultural activities. Future pumpage used in the model was based on the 1995-allocated rates. Model results indicate that the long-term effect of pumping at the 1995-allocated rates will be a reduction of water levels from present (1995) conditions in all ground-water areas of the central Oahu flow system. In the Schofield ground-water area, model results indicate that water levels could decline about 30 feet from the 1995 water-level altitude of about 275 feet. In the remaining ground-water areas of the central Oahu flow system, water levels may decline from less than 1 foot to as much as 12 feet relative to 1995 water levels. Model results indicate that the bottoms of several existing deep wells in northern and southern Oahu extend below the model

  5. Volcanic hazards on the Island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullineaux, Donal Ray; Peterson, Donald W.

    1974-01-01

    Volcanic hazards on the Island of Hawaii have been determined to be chiefly products of eruptions: lava flows, falling fragments, gases, and particle-and-gas clouds. Falling fragments and particle-and-gas clouds can be substantial hazards to life, but they are relatively rare. Lava flows are the chief hazard to property; they are frequent and cover broad areas. Rupture, subsidence, earthquakes, and sea waves (tsunamis) caused by eruptions are minor hazards; those same events caused by large-scale crustal movements, however, are major hazards to both life and property. Volcanic hazards are greatest on Mauna Loa and Kilauea, and the risk is highest along the rift zones of those volcanoes. The hazards are progressively less severe on Hualalai, Mauna Kea, and Kohala volcanoes. Some risk from earthquakes extends across the entire island, and the risk from tsunamis is high all along the coast. The island has been divided into geographic zones of different relative risk for each volcanic hazard, and for all those hazards combined. Each zone is assigned a relative risk for that area as a whole; the degree of risk varies within the zones, however, and in some of them the risk decreases gradationally across the entire zone. Moreover, the risk in one zone may be locally as great or greater than that at some points in the zone of next higher overall risk. Nevertheless, the zones can be highly useful for land-use planning. Planning decisions to which the report is particularly applicable include the selection of kinds of structures and kinds of land use that are appropriate for the severity and types of hazards present. For example, construction of buildings that can resist a lava flow is generally not feasible, but it is both feasible and desirable to build structures that can resist falling rock fragments, earthquakes, and tsunamis in areas where risk from those hazards is relatively high. The report can also be used to select sites where overall risk is relatively low, to

  6. Uncertainty in recharge estimation: impact on groundwater vulnerability assessments for the Pearl Harbor Basin, O'ahu, Hawai'i, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Loague, Keith; Green, Richard E.; Nullet, Michael A.

    1996-06-01

    In this paper, uncertainty in recharge estimates is investigated relative to its impact on assessments of groundwater contamination vulnerability using a relatively simple pesticide mobility index, attenuation factor (AF). We employ a combination of first-order uncertainty analysis (FOUA) and sensitivity analysis to investigate recharge uncertainties for agricultural land on the island of O'ahu, Hawai'i, that is currently, or has been in the past, under sugarcane or pineapple cultivation. Uncertainty in recharge due to recharge component uncertainties is 49% of the mean for sugarcane and 58% of the mean for pineapple. The components contributing the largest amounts of uncertainty to the recharge estimate are irrigation in the case of sugarcane and precipitation in the case of pineapple. For a suite of pesticides formerly or currently used in the region, the contribution to AF uncertainty of recharge uncertainty was compared with the contributions of other AF components: retardation factor (RF), a measure of the effects of sorption; soil-water content at field capacity (ΘFC); and pesticide half-life (t1/2). Depending upon the pesticide, the contribution of recharge to uncertainty ranks second or third among the four AF components tested. The natural temporal variability of recharge is another source of uncertainty in AF, because the index is calculated using the time-averaged recharge rate. Relative to the mean, recharge variability is 10%, 44%, and 176% for the annual, monthly, and daily time scales, respectively, under sugarcane, and 31%, 112%, and 344%, respectively, under pineapple. In general, uncertainty in AF associated with temporal variability in recharge at all time scales exceeds AF. For chemicals such as atrazine or diuron under sugarcane, and atrazine or bromacil under pineapple, the range of AF uncertainty due to temporal variability in recharge encompasses significantly higher levels of leaching potential at some locations than that indicated by the

  7. Analysis of Hawaii Secondary School Discipline Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalus, Janet Marie Wolcott

    It was the intent of this study to examine student discipline problems in twenty-one high schools on the island of Oahu in Hawaii. Literature was reviewed concerning the youth revolution as it affects students in Hawaiian public schools and concerning discipline problems unique to Hawaiian public schools. Data were collected through a…

  8. Distance Learning in Hawaii: Establishment and Evaluation of a Rural Teacher Inservice Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bruce O.; Burnett, Keith R.

    This report describes a pilot distance learning project between Konawaena High School on the Big Island of Hawaii and Brigham Young University-Hawaii on Oahu to begin offering college credit courses to inservice teachers. Ten teachers enrolled in the first class, "Variety in Teaching Methods." Audiographic teleteaching uses a personal computer…

  9. Evaluation and Optimization of CMIP5 Data using an Artificial Neural Network for Dynamical Downscaling of rainfall on Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Pao-Shin; Holloway, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Understanding long-term changes of rainfall is important for water resources planning and development. General Circulation Models (GCMs) such as those used in CMIP5 have undergone significant improvements since the early development of Numerical Weather Prediction. CMIP5's RCP8.5 experiment was comprised of over 20 different GCM configurations using various parameterization schemes and initial conditions to project the future climate in response to anthropogenic warming. However due to coarse spatial resolution and simple parameterization schemes of GCMs, current rainfall estimates and future rainfall projections are often unrealistic, especially for small islands with complex terrains such as the Hawaiian Islands. Recent advancements in mesoscale meteorology have helped develop limited area Regional Climate Models (RCMs) such as WRF-ARW that have the ability to estimate and project high-resolution rainfall at smaller scales, in our case down to 1.1km. RCMs often use GCM output for their initial lateral boundary conditions and prescribed land surface conditions. In the original WRF system, there is a land surface model but small Hawaiian Islands such as Oahu is not well represented in the land surface datasets of the official WRF model release. Therefore, we made effort to improve land surface characteristics (e.g., albedo, green vegetation fraction) suitable for 1.1 km domain over Oahu. Since high-resolution RCM output is forced by the lateral boundary conditions, we see significant variations in estimated and future projected rainfall depending on which GCM was chosen to force the RCM. To combat this issue we implement an Artificial Neural Network using a simple Sequential Learning Algorithm (SLA) to evaluate the GCM's ability to simulate the current climate, allowing us to choose the optimum lateral boundary conditions that drive the RCM. In our study we use CMIP5's monthly means output from several different models that included both the Historical and RCP8

  10. Living on Active Volcanoes - The Island of Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heliker, Christina; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W.

    1997-01-01

    People on the Island of Hawai'i face many hazards that come with living on or near active volcanoes. These include lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, damaging earthquakes, and tsunamis (giant seawaves). As the population of the island grows, the task of reducing the risk from volcano hazards becomes increasingly difficult. To help protect lives and property, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory closely monitor and study Hawai'i's volcanoes and issue timely warnings of hazardous activity.

  11. Hawaii Deep Water Cable Program: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1990-09-01

    The Hawaii Deep Water Cable Program has succeeded unequivocally in determining the feasibility of deploying a submarine power cable system between the islands of Hawaii and Oahu. Major accomplishments of the program include designing, fabricating and testing an appropriate power cable, developing an integrated system to control all aspects of the cable laying operation, and testing all deployment systems at sea in the most challenging sections of the route.

  12. ASTER Images the Island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These images of the Island of Hawaii were acquired on March 19, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. Data are shown from the short wavelength and thermal infrared spectral regions, illustrating how different and complementary information is contained in different parts of the spectrum.

    Left image: This false-color image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 120 kilometers (75 miles) long in three bands of the short wavelength infrared region. While, much of the island was covered in clouds, the dominant central Mauna Loa volcano, rising to an altitude of 4115 meters (13,500 feet), is cloud-free. Lava flows can be seen radiating from the central crater in green and black tones. As they reach lower elevations, the flows become covered with vegetation, and their image color changes to yellow and orange. Mauna Kea volcano to the north of Mauna Loa has a thin cloud-cover, producing a bluish tone on the image. The ocean in the lower right appears brown due to the color processing.

    Right image: This image is a false-color composite of three thermal infrared bands. The brightness of the colors is proportional to the temperature, and the hues display differences in rock composition. Clouds are black, because they are the coldest objects in the scene. The ocean and thick vegetation appear dark green because they are colder than bare rock surfaces, and have no thermal spectral features. Lava flows are shades of magenta, green, pink and yellow, reflecting chemical changes due to weathering and relative age differences.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth

  13. Geothermal power development in Hawaii. Volume II. Infrastructure and community-services requirements, Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, G.A.; Buevens, W.R.

    1982-06-01

    The requirements of infrastructure and community services necessary to accommodate the development of geothermal energy on the Island of Hawaii for electricity production are identified. The following aspects are covered: Puna District-1981, labor resources, geothermal development scenarios, geothermal land use, the impact of geothermal development on Puna, labor resource requirments, and the requirements for government activity.

  14. Oahu: Perspective from Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Gary E.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a photograph of the Hawaiian island, Oahu, as taken by the Landsat 2 satellite on February 14, 1978. A description of Landsat 2 remote sensing procedures and discussion of the topographical details shown in the photograph are included. (AM)

  15. Relatively Recent Volcanism on Oahu, Hawaii: New U-series and Paleomagnetic Age Constraints on the Hanauma Bay Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, K. H.; Jurado-Chichay, Z.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2002-12-01

    The Koko Rift Zone (KRZ), eastern Oahu, is generally regarded as among the youngest volcanic features on the island. Previous workers have suggested that the 9 or 10 vents of this rift erupted near-simultaneously. However, K-Ar data in the literature (32-39 ka vs 320 ka) provide only general guidance on the youthfulness of these eruptions. We present new age constraints on KRZ volcanism using deposits of the phreatomagmatic eruption that produced Hanauma Bay (a popular snorkeling spot) and spatially associated lava flows. Numerous continuous basaltic ash units within the walls of Hanauma crater contain lithic fragments of well-preserved coral reef, beach rock, and marine mollusks, indicating that the eruption occurred in a near shore environment. 238U-234U-230Th dating of coral clasts in the deposit demonstrates that the eruption breached reef of MIS stage 7 age (200 +/- 30 ka), thereby ruling out the K-Ar age of 320 ka. U-series nuclides in "normal" MIS 7 coral lithics are indistinguishable from those in the island encircling Waianae Reef of the same age. However, U-series components in some originally aragonitic coral clasts were offset during the eruption when the rims recrystallized to calcite. 87Sr/86Sr, 234U/238U and Sr and U concentration indicate chemical mixing with host basaltic ash during this event, from which potential ages of the eruption can be constructed using isochron methods. More modeling of the data remains to be done but our preliminary estimate places the eruption at less than 100 ka. This result is consistent with new data on paleointensity and paleomagnetic secular variation within the lava flows exposed in or around the crater. This U-series dating approach should prove useful for eruptions in other locales where carbonate bioclast lithics are present in the deposits.

  16. Map showing lava-flow hazard zones, Island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Thomas L.; Chun, Jon Y.F.; Exposo, Jean; Heliker, Christina; Hodge, Jon; Lockwood, John P.; Vogt, Susan M.

    1992-01-01

    This map shows lava-flow hazard zones for the five volcanoes on the Island of Hawaii. Volcano boundaries are shown as heavy, dark bands, reflecting the overlapping of lava flows from adjacent volcanoes along their common boundary. Hazard-zone boundaries are drawn as double lines because of the geologic uncertainty in their placement. Most boundaries are gradational, and the change In the degree of hazard can be found over a distance of a mile or more. The general principles used to place hazard-zone boundaries are discussed by Mullineaux and others (1987) and Heliker (1990). The differences between the boundaries presented here and in Heliker (1990) reflect new data used in the compilation of a geologic map for the Island of Hawaii (E.W. Wolfe and Jean Morris, unpub. data, 1989). The primary source of information for volcano boundaries and generalized ages of lava flows for all five volcanoes on the Island of Hawaii is the geologic map of Hawaii (E.W. Wolfe and Jean Morris, unpub. data, 1989). More detailed information is available for the three active volcanoes. For Hualalai, see Moore and others (1987) and Moore and Clague (1991); for Mauna Loa, see Lockwood and Lipman (1987); and for Kilauea, see Holcomb (1987) and Moore and Trusdell (1991).

  17. Techniques for assessing the wind energy resource in Hawaii and Pacific Islands region

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, T.A.; Hori, A.M.

    1980-08-01

    This report explains the procedures utilized in preparing the Wind Energy Resource Atlas: Hawaii and Pacific Islands Region and contrasts these methods with those used in the other regional assessments. Techniques generally paralleled those of the northwest wind resource assessment. Quality of data bases differed drastically between Hawaii and the Pacific Islands. For example, research data sets constituted a primary data source for Hawaii, but such sets were nonexistent for the Pacific Islands. Forest Service data had minor impact in Hawaii, none in the Pacific Islands. Many Pacific Island anemometers are poorly exposed since limited open spaces exist on small atolls.

  18. Hoea Ea: Land Education and Food Sovereignty in Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Manulani Aluli

    2014-01-01

    This short piece offers two literal and figurative snapshots of what land education looks like in action in Hawaii. The first snapshot depicts a contemporary example of Indigenous Hawaiian taro cultivation in the Limahuli valley on the island of Kauai. The second snapshot illustrates the food sovereignty movement in Waianae, Oahu located at the…

  19. 24 CFR 203.29 - Eligible mortgages in Alaska, Guam, Hawaii, or the Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Hawaii, or the Virgin Islands. 203.29 Section 203.29 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating..., or the Virgin Islands. (a) When is an increased mortgage limit permitted for these areas? For Alaska, Guam, Hawaii or the Virgin Islands, the Commissioner may increase the maximum mortgage amount...

  20. 40-MW(e) OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) plant at Kahe Point, Oahu, Hawaii: a case study of potential biological impacts. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.T.

    1987-02-01

    Construction and operation of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) facility will affect marine, terrestrial, and atmospheric environments. The nature and degree of OTEC environmental impacts have been subjects of numerous studies and reports. The proposed 40-MWe OTEC plant at Kahe Point, Oahu, Hawaii has been the focus of much of the work. The first section provides a summary of pertinent design features of the proposed plant, including standard operating parameters. Next, salient elements of the biological oceanography in the region of the proposed development are summarized. The following sections discuss expected impacts of construction and operation of the plant, and finally, significant aspects of modeling studies conducted in support of the Kahe OTEC plant development are presented.

  1. 33 CFR 165.T14-204 - Safety Zone; fixed mooring balls, south of Barbers Pt Harbor Channel, Oahu, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Safety Zone will have six (6), 24-inch white mooring balls with a single blue reflective stripe. The... purposes. This safety zone extends from the surface of the water to the ocean floor. These coordinates are based upon the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coast Survey, Pacific Ocean, Oahu,...

  2. Anomalous isotopes and trace element zoning in plagioclase peridotite xenoliths of Oahu (Hawaii): implications for the Hawaiian plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Gautam; Yang, Huai-Jen; Ducea, Mihai

    2003-02-01

    Survival of plagioclase in the residual melting column during melting can have a significant impact on the melting process beneath a mid-oceanic ridge [Asimow et al., Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 355 (1997) 255-281]. Here we investigate the origin of plagioclase that occurs in some rare mantle xenoliths from Oahu, Hawaii. The xenoliths are harzburgitic with less than 2 modal% clinopyroxene and are characterized by strong foliation and porphyroclastic texture. Olivine and orthopyroxene are common porphyroclasts; and only one xenolith (77PAII-9) contains a single large clinopyroxene porphyroclast with thick exsolved orthopyroxene lamellae. The strongly foliated groundmass shows well-developed triple-point junctions and is dominantly composed of olivine (ol 85-90 opx 7-14 cpx <1-2 plag 3-5 spinel trace). Spinel grains are small and dispersed through the groundmass and show extreme variation in Cr/Al ratio within individual thin sections, indicating that they are out of equilibrium with the other phases in these xenoliths. A highly anorthitic plagioclase (An 92-96) occurs only in the groundmass and its modal abundance (˜3-5%) is too high relative to the abundance of clinopyroxene (commonly <1%) for it to be a residual phase, implying that plagioclase may have an exotic origin. The porphyroclasts show strong compositional zoning near the rims and appear to be relict phases (as are all the spinel grains) that had once equilibrated with melts within the stability field of spinel peridotite (pressure ˜1-3 GPa). Clinopyroxene neoblasts and the single porphyroclast in PAII-9 are all characterized by lithosphere-like strongly depleted light rare earth element (chondrite-normalized) patterns. The clinopyroxene porphyroclast in PAII-9 is zoned in Al, Eu, Cr, and Na. The porphyroclastic ortho- and clinopyroxenes give a homogenized (host+exsolution) temperature of 1300°C, which is inferred to be the temperature at which the porphyroclast cores equilibrated with a MORB

  3. Volcanic and seismic hazards on the Island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1990-01-01

    The eruptions of volcanoes often have direct, dramatic effects on the lives of people and on their property. People who live on or near active volcanoes can benefit greatly from clear, scientific information about the volcanic and seismic hazards of the area. This booklet provides such information for the residents of Hawaii so they may effectively deal with the special geologic hazards of the island. Identifying and evaluating possible geologic hazards is one of the principal roles of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. When USGS scientists recognize a potential hazard, such as an impending eruption, they notify the appropriate government officials, who in turn are responsible for advising the public to evacuate certain areas or to take other actions to insure their safety. This booklet was prepared in cooperation with the Hawaii County Civil Defense Agency.

  4. Effects of Surface-Water Diversion and Ground-Water Withdrawal on Streamflow and Habitat, Punaluu Stream, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Wolff, Reuben H.; Perreault, Jeff A.

    2006-01-01

    The surface- and ground-water resources of the Punaluu area of northeast Oahu, Hawaii, have been and continue to be important for cultural, domestic, agricultural, recreational, and aesthetic purposes. Punaluu Stream flows perennially because rain falls frequently in the area and ground water discharges to the stream. Flow in Punaluu Stream is reduced by the direct diversion of water for off-stream uses and possibly from the withdrawal of ground water near the stream. Punaluu Ditch diverts water from Punaluu Stream near an altitude of 210 feet. During the recent period 1995-2004, discharge in Punaluu Stream that was equaled or exceeded 50 percent of the time (median or Q50 discharge) and discharge that was equaled or exceeded 95 percent of the time (Q95 discharge) measured immediately upstream from the Punaluu Ditch diversion intake, respectively, were 18 and 13 cubic feet per second, whereas the Q50 and Q95 discharges measured immediately downstream from the diversion intake, respectively, were 7.0 and 1.3 cubic feet per second. Thus, near an altitude of 210 feet, diversion of surface water by the Punaluu Ditch caused the Q50 discharge in Punaluu Stream to be reduced to 39 percent of the natural Q50 discharge, and the Q95 discharge was reduced to 10 percent of the natural value. The relative effects of the Punaluu Ditch diversion on flow in Punaluu Stream decreased in a downstream direction, mainly because of the compensating effects of tributary inflows and ditch return flows. At an altitude of 10 feet, the Q50 discharge in Punaluu Stream was 82 percent of the natural Q50 discharge, and the Q95 discharge was 69 percent of the natural value. Changes in streamflow affect the quantity and quality of physical habitat used by native stream fauna. The Physical Habitat Simulation System (PHABSIM) approach was used to evaluate the effects of different diversion scenarios on physical habitat for selected native species in Punaluu Stream. Habitat-suitability criteria

  5. Food-related Beliefs of Adolescent Girls Ages 9-13 and Their Mothers on O'ahu, Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Michelle; Delormier, Treena; Banna, Jinan

    2016-04-01

    A number of factors contribute to the development of obesity in adolescents, including various dietary and lifestyle behaviors, and a host of social and environmental factors, such as socioeconomic status, parental education, and culture. Research examining beliefs about behaviors related to weight status in adolescents, such as food intake, can create a better understanding of risk factors for obesity. This study explored beliefs about behaviors related to weight status in 20 early adolescent girls aged 9 to 13 years and their mothers in O'ahu, Hawai'i. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted to elucidate beliefs through discussion of food purchasing, feeding practices, portion control strategies, eating outside the home, and body size perception. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and examined using directed content analysis. Both mothers and daughters believed that diets should consist of fresh foods and be based on principles of variety, balance, and moderation, and had negative perceptions of school lunch. In describing ideal body size, mothers expressed greater concern for overweight, as well as ethno-cultural beauty standards, than daughters. Mothers believed daughters should have a positive relationship with food but also applied various portion control strategies with them. Findings reveal how mothers' and daughters' beliefs may influence daily food-related practices in adolescent girls. Future studies may seek to investigate the role these factors may play in determining weight status in adolescents in Hawai'i, with findings to be used to inform health promotion programs. PMID:27099805

  6. Digital database of the geologic map of the island of Hawai'i [Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trusdell, Frank A.; Wolfe, Edward W.; Morris, Jean

    2006-01-01

    This online publication (DS 144) provides the digital database for the printed map by Edward W. Wolfe and Jean Morris (I-2524-A; 1996). This digital database contains all the information used to publish U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Series I-2524-A (available only in paper form; see http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/i/i2524A). The database contains the distribution and relationships of volcanic and surficial-sedimentary deposits on the island of Hawai‘i. This dataset represents the geologic history for the five volcanoes that comprise the Island of Hawai'i. The volcanoes are Kohala, Mauna Kea, Hualalai, Mauna Loa and Kīlauea.This database of the geologic map contributes to understanding the geologic history of the Island of Hawai‘i and provides the basis for understanding long-term volcanic processes in an intra-plate ocean island volcanic system. In addition the database also serves as a basis for producing volcanic hazards assessment for the island of Hawai‘i. Furthermore it serves as a base layer to be used for interdisciplinary research.This online publication consists of a digital database of the geologic map, an explanatory pamphlet, description of map units, correlation of map units diagram, and images for plotting. Geologic mapping was compiled at a scale of 1:100,000 for the entire mapping area. The geologic mapping was compiled as a digital geologic database in ArcInfo GIS format.

  7. Coastal circulation and sediment dynamics in Maunalua Bay, Oahu, Hawaii, measurements of waves, currents, temperature, salinity, and turbidity; November 2008-February 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Presto, M. Katherine; Logan, Joshua B.; Field, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution measurements of waves, currents, water levels, temperature, salinity and turbidity were made in Maunalua Bay, southern Oahu, Hawaii, during the 2008-2009 winter to better understand coastal circulation, water-column properties, and sediment dynamics during a range of conditions (trade winds, kona storms, relaxation of trade winds, and south swells). A series of bottom-mounted instrument packages were deployed in water depths of 20 m or less to collect long-term, high-resolution measurements of waves, currents, water levels, temperature, salinity, and turbidity. These data were supplemented with a series of profiles through the water column to characterize the vertical and spatial variability in water-column properties within the bay. These measurements support the ongoing process studies being done as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program's Pacific Coral Reef Project; the ultimate goal of these studies is to better understand the transport mechanisms of sediment, larvae, pollutants, and other particles in coral reef settings. Project Objectives The objective of this study was to understand the temporal variations in currents, waves, tides, temperature, salinity and turbidity within a coral-lined embayment that receives periodic discharges of freshwater and sediment from multiple terrestrial sources in the Maunalua Bay. Instrument packages were deployed for a three-month period during the 2008-2009 winter and a series of vertical profiles were collected in November 2008, and again in February 2009, to characterize water-column properties within the bay. Measurements of flow and water-column properties in Maunalua Bay provided insight into the potential fate of terrestrial sediment, nutrient, or contaminant delivered to the marine environment and coral larval transport within the embayment. Such data are useful for providing baseline information for future watershed decisions and for establishing guidelines for

  8. Drilling, construction, and caliper-log data for wells 3-3204-01, Kaheaka exploratory well, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, T.K.; Oki, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Kaheaka exploratory well (State well number 3-3204-01) was drilled about 3.3 miles southeast of the town of Haleiwa. The well is on agricultural land in the Waialua ground-water area. The well penetrates about 67 feet into a basalt aquifer. Well-construction data, logs of drilling notes, geologic descriptions for the samples, and caliper-log data are presented for the well. The well is one of 12 exploratory wells drilled in the north-central Oahu area between July 1993 and May 1994 in cooperation with the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

  9. Volcano growth and evolution of the island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.G.; Clague, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    The seven volcanoes comprising the island of Hawaii and its submarine base are, in order of growth, Mahukona, Kohala, Mauna Kea, Hualalai, Mauna Loa, Kilauea, and Loihi. The first four have completed their shield-building stage, and the timing of this event can be determined from the depth of the slope break associated with the end of shield building, calibrated using the ages and depths of a series of dated submerged coral reefs off northwest Hawaii. On each volcano, the transition from eruption of tholeiitic to alkalic lava occurs near the end of shield building. The rate of southeastern progression of the end of shield building in the interval from Haleakala to Hualalai is about 13 cm/yr. Based on this rate and an average spacing of volcanoes on each loci line of 40-60km, the volcanoes required about 600 thousand years to grow from the ocean floor to the time of the end of shield building. They arrive at the ocean surface about midway through this period. -from Authors

  10. An assessment of shallow and mesophotic reef brachyuran crab assemblages on the south shore of O`ahu, Hawai`i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Kaleonani K. C.; Timmers, Molly A.; Godwin, L. Scott; Copus, Joshua M.; Skillings, Derek J.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2016-03-01

    Shallow coral reefs are extensively studied but, although scleractinian corals have been recorded to 165 m, little is known about other mesophotic coral reef ecosystem (MCE) inhabitants. Brachyuran crabs fill many ecological and trophic niches on reefs, making them ideal candidates for evaluating species composition among depths to ask whether MCEs host the same communities as shallower reef communities that have been well studied. Here we deployed autonomous reef monitoring structures for 2 yr on the south shore of O`ahu along a depth gradient (12, 30, 60, and 90 m) to sample and assess brachyuran crab communities. A total of 663 brachyuran crabs representing 69 morphospecies (16 families) were found. Community composition was not significantly different within depths, but was highly stratified by depth. Each depth was distinct, but the 30 and 60 m depths were least dissimilar from one another. We show that deeper reefs host significantly different brachyuran communities, and at much lower total abundance, than shallow reefs in Hawai`i, with 4-27 unique morphospecies per depth and only 3 of 69 morphospecies (~4 %) occurring across the entire depth range sampled.

  11. The effects of pumpage, irrigation return, and regional ground-water flow on the water quality at Waiawa water tunnel, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eyre, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    Waiawa shaft is a 1,700-foot long water tunnel which draws water from the top of the Pearl Harbor Ghyben-Herzberg ground-water lens, Oahu, Hawaii. The application of brackish irrigation water to sugarcane fields overlying Waiawa shaft, combined with relatively low pumping rates at the shaft from 1978 to 1980, caused the chloride concentration of water produced by Waiawa shaft to rise to 290 milligrams per liter. Time-series analyses, pumping tests and analyses of water samples show that a zone of degraded water lies at the top of the lens. This zone is mixed in significantly different proportions with the underlying fresher water depending on the pumping rate at Waiawa shaft. The chloride concentration of water in the Waiawa shaft can generally be kept below 250 milligrams per liter for the next few years, if pumping rates of about 15 million gallons per day are maintained. The use of managed pumping to control the chloride problem over the long term is uncertain owing to the possible increase in chloride concentration of the irrigation water. Based on ground-water flow rates and analogy to nearby wells, the chloride concentration of Waiawa shaft 's water will decrease to less than 100 milligrams per liter in 2 to 3 years if the use of brackish irrigation water is discontinued. (USGS)

  12. The Importance of Sampling Strategies on AMS Determination of Dykes II. Further Examples from the Kapaa Quarry, Koolau Volcano, Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Borunda, R.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Canon-Tapia, E.

    2012-12-01

    Recent work has suggested the convenience of dyke sampling along several profiles parallel and perpendicular to its walls to increase the probability of determining a geologically significant magma flow direction using anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements. For this work, we have resampled in great detail some dykes from the Kapaa Quarry, Koolau Volcano in Oahu Hawaii, comparing the results of a more detailed sampling scheme with those obtained previously with a traditional sampling scheme. In addition to the AMS results we will show magnetic properties, including magnetic grain sizes, Curie points and AMS measured at two different frequencies on a new MFK1-FA Spinner Kappabridge. Our results thus far provide further empirical evidence supporting the occurrence of a definite cyclic fabric acquisition during the emplacement of at least some of the dykes. This cyclic behavior can be captured using the new sampling scheme, but might be easily overlooked if the simple, more traditional sampling scheme is used. Consequently, previous claims concerning the advantages of adopting a more complex sampling scheme are justified since this approach can serve to reduce the uncertainty in the interpretation of AMS results.

  13. Analysis of High-Penetration Levels of Photovoltaics into the Distribution Grid on Oahu, Hawaii: Detailed Analysis of HECO Feeder WF1

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, E.; MacPherson, J.; Vasilic, S.; Nakafuji, D.; Aukai, T.

    2013-05-01

    Renewable generation is growing at a rapid rate due to the incentives available and the aggressive renewable portfolio standard targets implemented by state governments. Distributed generation in particular is seeing the fastest growth among renewable energy projects, and is directly related to the incentives. Hawaii has the highest electricity costs in the country due to the high percentage of oil burning steam generation, and therefore has some of the highest penetration of distributed PV in the nation. The High Penetration PV project on Oahu aims to understand the effects of high penetration PV on the distribution level, to identify penetration levels creating disturbances on the circuit, and to offer mitigating solutions based on model results. Power flow models are validated using data collected from solar resources and load monitors deployed throughout the circuit. Existing interconnection methods and standards are evaluated in these emerging high penetration scenarios. A key finding is a shift in the level of detail to be considered and moving away from steady-state peak time analysis towards dynamic and time varying simulations. Each level of normal interconnection study is evaluated and enhanced to a new level of detail, allowing full understanding of each issue.

  14. Recharge Data for the Islands of Kauai, Lanai and Molokai, Hawaii

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Recharge data for the islands of Kauai, Lanai and Molokai in shapefile format. These data are from the following sources: Whittier, R.B and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human Health and Environmental Risk Ranking of On-Site Sewage Disposal systems for the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final, Prepared for Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics. (for Kauai, Lanai, Molokai). Shade, P.J., 1995, Water Budget for the Island of Kauai, Hawaii, USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4128, 25 p. (for Kauai). Izuka, S.K. and D.S. Oki, 2002 Numerical simulation of ground-water withdrawals in the Southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii, U.S. Geologic Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4200, 52 pgs. (for Kauai). Hardy, W.R., 1996, A Numerical Groundwater Model for the Island of Lanai, Hawaii - CWRM Report No., CWRM-1, Commission on Water Resources Management, Department of Natural Resources, State of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI. (for Lanai). Oki, D.S., 1997, Geohydrology and numerical Simulation of the Ground-Water Flow System of Molokai, Hawaii, USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 97-4176, 62 p. (for Molokai).

  15. Drilling, construction, and caliper-log data for well 3-3505-25, North Lower Anahulu exploratory well, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, T.K.; Oki, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The North Lower Anahulu exploratory well (State well number 3-3505-25) was drilled about 1.4 miles east-northeast of the town of Haleiwa. The well was drilled on agricultural land in the Kawailoa ground-water area. The well was drilled from an elevation of about 232 feet above mean sea level and penetrates about 22 feet into a basalt aquifer. Well-construction data, logs of drilling notes, geologic descriptions for the samples, and caliper-log data are presented for the well. The well is one of 12 exploratory wells drilled in the north-central Oahu area between July, 1993 and May, 1994 in cooperation with the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

  16. Drilling, construction, and caliper-log data for well 3-3505-26, Opaeula exploratory well, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, T.K.; Oki, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Opaeula exploratory well (State well number 3-3505-26) was drilled about 1.2 miles east- southeast of the town of Haleiwa. The well is located on agricultural land in the Waialua ground-water area. The well was drilled at an elevation of about 287 feet above mean sea level and penetrates about 75 feet into a basalt aquifer. Well-construction data, logs of drilling notes, geologic descriptions for the samples, and caliper-log data are presented for the well. The well is one of 12 exploratory wells drilled in the north-central Oahu area between July 1993 and May 1994 in cooperation with the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

  17. 78 FR 9327 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XC453 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  18. 76 FR 4551 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XA159 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  19. 76 FR 77214 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA838 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  20. Estimated Water Use in 1990, Island of Kauai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shade, Patricia J.

    1995-01-01

    The estimated total quantity of freshwater withdrawn on the island of Kauai, Hawaii, in 1990 was 370.84 million gallons per day of which 46.29 million gallons per day (12 percent) was from ground-water sources, and 324.55 million gallons per day (88 percent) was from surface-water sources. An additional estimated 40.94 million gallons per day of saline water was withdrawn for thermoelectric power generation. Agricultural irrigation was the principal use, accounting for 66 percent of the total freshwater withdrawals. Irrigation accounted for about 40 percent of the fresh ground-water withdrawals, followed by public supply, thermoelectric power generation, self-supplied domestic, self-supplied commercial, and self-supplied industrial withdrawals. Agricultural irrigation accounted for 69 percent of the total fresh surface-water withdrawals, followed by hydroelectric power generation, self-supplied industrial, public-supply and self-supplied livestock withdrawals. A comparison of water-use data for 1980 and 1990 shows total freshwater uses decreased during 1990 by slightly more than 100 million gallons per day because of decreased withdrawals for sugarcane irrigation and processing. During this time, increased domestic, commercial, and thermoelectric power usage reflects increases in the resident population and in tourism on the island.

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain OCN003, Isolated from Kāne'ohe Bay, O'ahu, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Beurmann, Silvia; Videau, Patrick; Ushijima, Blake; Smith, Ashley M; Aeby, Greta S; Callahan, Sean M; Belcaid, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain OCN003 is a marine gammaproteobacterium that was isolated from a diseased colony of the common Hawaiian reef coral, Montipora capitata, found on a reef surrounding Moku o Lo'e in Kāne'ohe Bay, Hawaii. Here, we report the complete genome of Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain OCN003. PMID:25593253

  2. Genetic diversity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Hawaiian Islands: Implications for an introduction pathway into California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Population genetic diversity of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, on the Hawaiian islands of Oahu, Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii (the Big Island) was estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. A total of 932 flies representing 36 sampled sites across...

  3. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume II. Impact of geothermal development on the geology and hydrology of the Hawaiian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, C.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The following topics are discussed: the geological setting of the Hawaiian Islands, regional geology of the major islands, geohydrology of the Hawaiian Islands, Hawaiis' geothermal resources, and potential geological/hydrological problems associated with geothermal development. Souces of information on the geology of Hawaii are presented. (MHR)

  4. Infrasonic Monitoring Network on the Big Island of Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelen, Weston; Garces, Milton; Cooper, Jennifer; Badger, Nickles; Perttu, Anna; Williams, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) with the participation of the University of Hawaii Infrasound Lab (ISLA) installed three new permanent infrasound arrays on the south half of the Island of Hawaii. Together with three existing permanent arrays maintained by ISLA, the current infrasound network around Kīlauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes is one of the most advanced of any volcano in the world. Open-vent volcanoes such as Kīlauea are particularly good infrasound emitters as lava spattering and unsteady gas release is common. The network was designed with two main goals in mind: 1) to monitor and study the infrasound sources associated with the ongoing Pu`u `Ō`ō and Halema'u'mau eruption, and 2) to detect in near real-time new eruptions at Mauna Loa or Kīlauea volcanoes. Each HVO array consists of 4 sensors, which form an equilateral triangle ~100 m on a side surrounding a central sensor. Three other permanent arrays maintained by ISLA (I59US, MENE, KHLU) have been operational since 2000, 2006, and 2009, respectively, and consist of a combination of Chaparral 25 and 50 sensors. Each infrasound instrument within the HVO arrays is built around an low- cost AllSensor MEMS sensor, which has higher noise characteristics than a Chaparral 25, but similar frequency response. ISLA also operates stations on Maui and Kauai that provide --statewide coverage. Since the full network has been established, we have recorded several infrasound signals including infrasonic tremor from Halema`uma`u, collapses from the craters of Halema`uma`u and Pu`u `Ō`ō, and other natural and anthropogenic infrasound from diverse sources on- island, offshore, and aloft. Future developments will include real-time detection, location, and identification of infrasonic signals for eruption notification. We hope to increase public awareness of volcanic infrasound by posting real-time locations on an interactive display, similar to how seismicity is currently reported. MENE data is presently

  5. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Groundwater in the Puna District of the Island of Hawaii (DRAFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, W.P.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on groundwater during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17,1994 (Fed Regis. 5925638), withdrawing its notice of intent (Fed. Regis. 575433) of February 14,1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report were collected for the geothermal resource subzones in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge with respect to groundwater in the Puna District of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Groundwater quality inside and outside the lower east rift zone (LERZ) of Kilauea is compared with that of meteoric water, seawater, and geothermal fluid. The degree of mixing between meteoric water, sea water, and geothermal water in and adjacent to the LERZ also is discussed. Finally, groundwater pathways and use in the Puna District are discussed. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent U.S. Geological Survey publications and open-file reports.

  6. Petrology and trace element geochemistry of the Honolulu volcanics, Oahu: implications for the oceanic mantle below Hawaii.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, D.A.; Frey, F.A.

    1982-01-01

    These volcanic rocks are the products of small-volume, late-stage vents along rifts cutting the older massive Koolan tholeiitic shield on Oahu. Most of the lavas and tuffs have the geochemical features expected of near-primary magmas derived from a peridotite source with olivine Fo87-89, e.g. 100 Mg/(Mg + Fe2+) > 65, Ni > 250 p.p.m. and the presence of ultramafic mantle xenoliths at 18 of the 37 vents. Thus the geochemistry of the alkali olivine basalt, basanite, nephelinite and nepheline melilitite lavas and tuffs of these Honolulu volcanic rocks has been used to deduce the composition of their mantle source and the conditions under which they were generated by partial melting in the mantle. New major- and trace-element analyses for 31 samples are tabulated and indicate derivation by partial melting of a garnet (<10%) lherzolite source which was isotopically homogeneous and compositionally uniform for most major and trace elements, though apparently heterogeneous in TiO2, Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta (due perhaps to the low inferred degrees of melting which failed to exhaust the source in minor residual phases). In comparison with estimates of a primordial mantle composition and the mantle source of MORB, the garnet peridotite source of these Honolulu volcanics was increasingly enriched in the sequence heavy REE, Y, Tb, Ti, Sm, Zr and Hf, for which a multi-stage history is required. This composition differs from the source of the previously erupted tholeiitic shield, nor is it represented in the upper-mantle xenoliths in the lavas and tuff of the unit.-R.A.H.

  7. Use of neural network to predict flash flood and attendant water qualities of a mountainous stream on Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, G. B.; Ray, C.; De Carlo, E. H.

    2006-08-01

    SummaryFrequent flash floods of Hawaii streams pose continuous threats to the coastal environment because the streams respond rapidly to high runoff and huge transport quantities of sediments, to which are sorbed nutrients, heavy metals, and persistent hydrophobic organic compounds. High-frequency stream flow and water quality estimation are essential to correctly assess water quality variations and pollutant loads during flash floods, because stream flow and turbidity in Hawaii can change by a factor of 60 and 30, respectively, in 15 min. This study shows the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to assess flash floods and their attendant water quality parameters using measured data of a Hawaii stream. The paper illustrates that ANNs predict stream flow with a correlation coefficient ( R) greater than 0.99 and turbidity and specific conductance with R-values greater than 0.80. Although the R-values for the estimation of dissolved oxygen, pH, and water temperature were somewhat low, most of the estimated stream water quality values (turbidity, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, and water temperature) were within the limits of ±30% deviations of the 1:1 line. The R-value for the estimation of stream water qualities could have been significantly improved if high resolution (at 15 min or lower measurement frequency), noise-free, and continuous data were available for a longer period of time. The paper demonstrates that the upstream water quality parameters depend on weather forces and land use of the watershed and the downstream water quality parameters additionally influenced by oceanic tides. Stream stage is found to be an important input parameter for stream flow prediction using ANN; however, the predictive performance of ANN for the estimation of stream flow is improved if weather data, rainfall, and evapotranspiration are included in the input data set.

  8. Siting Evaluation for Biomass-Ethanol Production in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Zhou, J.

    2000-10-15

    This report examines four Hawaiian islands, Oahu, Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai, to identify three best combinations of potential sites and crops for producing dedicated supplies of biomass for conversion to ethanol. Key technical and economic factors considered in the siting evaluation include land availability (zoning and use), land suitability (agronomic conditions), potential quantities and costs of producing biomass feedstocks, infrastructure (including water and power supplies), transportation, and potential bioresidues to supplement dedicated energy crops.

  9. 33 CFR 334.1380 - Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... periods of darkness, flashing red warning beacons will be displayed on the shore at Ulupau Crater. (4... will be indicated by the absence of any warning flags, pennants, or beacons displayed ashore. (5)...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1380 - Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... periods of darkness, flashing red warning beacons will be displayed on the shore at Ulupau Crater. (4... will be indicated by the absence of any warning flags, pennants, or beacons displayed ashore. (5)...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1380 - Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... periods of darkness, flashing red warning beacons will be displayed on the shore at Ulupau Crater. (4... will be indicated by the absence of any warning flags, pennants, or beacons displayed ashore. (5)...

  12. 33 CFR 334.1380 - Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... periods of darkness, flashing red warning beacons will be displayed on the shore at Ulupau Crater. (4... will be indicated by the absence of any warning flags, pennants, or beacons displayed ashore. (5)...

  13. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Groundwater in the Puna District of the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, W.P.; Reed, R.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on groundwater during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the withdrawing its notice of intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report were collected for the geothermal resource subzones in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge with respect to groundwater in the Puna District of the island of Hawaii. Groundwater quality in and adjacent to Kilauea`s east rift zone (KERZ), is compared with that of meteoric water, seawater, and geothermal fluid. Two segments of KERZ lie within the Puna District. These segments are the middle east rift zone (KERZ) and lower east rift zone (LERZ). The degree of mixing between meteoric water, seawater, and geothermal water in and adjacent to the also is discussed.

  14. Effects of the H-3 Highway Stormwater Runoff on the Water Quality of Halawa Stream, Oahu, Hawaii, November 1998 to August 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolff, Reuben H.; Wong, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Since November 1998, water-quality data have been collected from the H-3 Highway Storm Drain C, which collects runoff from a 4-mi-long viaduct, and from Halawa Stream on Oahu, Hawaii. From January 2001 to August 2004, data were collected from the storm drain and four stream sites in the Halawa Stream drainage basin as part of the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Storm Water Monitoring Program. Data from the stormwater monitoring program have been published in annual reports. This report uses these water-quality data to explore how the highway storm-drain runoff affects Halawa Stream and the factors that might be controlling the water quality in the drainage basin. In general, concentrations of nutrients, total dissolved solids, and total suspended solids were lower in highway runoff from Storm Drain C than at stream sites upstream and downstream of Storm Drain C. The opposite trend was observed for most trace metals, which generally occurred in higher concentrations in the highway runoff from Storm Drain C than in the samples collected from Halawa Stream. The absolute contribution from Storm Drain C highway runoff, in terms of total storm loads, was much smaller than at stations upstream and downstream, whereas the constituent yields (the relative contribution per unit drainage basin area) at Storm Drain C were comparable to or higher than storm yields at stations upstream and downstream. Most constituent concentrations and loads in stormwater runoff increased in a downstream direction. The timing of the storm sampling is an important factor controlling constituent concentrations observed in stormwater runoff samples. Automated point samplers were used to collect grab samples during the period of increasing discharge of the storm throughout the stormflow peak and during the period of decreasing discharge of the storm, whereas manually collected grab samples were generally collected during the later stages near the end of the storm. Grab samples were

  15. 33 CFR 165.1406 - Safety Zone: Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... governing safety zones contained in 33 CFR 165.23 apply. ... Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 165.1406 Section 165.1406 Navigation and...), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Location. The following area is established as a safety...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1406 - Safety Zone: Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... governing safety zones contained in 33 CFR 165.23 apply. ... Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 165.1406 Section 165.1406 Navigation and...), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Location. The following area is established as a safety...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1406 - Safety Zone: Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... governing safety zones contained in 33 CFR 165.23 apply. ... Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 165.1406 Section 165.1406 Navigation and...), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Location. The following area is established as a safety...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1406 - Safety Zone: Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... governing safety zones contained in 33 CFR 165.23 apply. ... Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 165.1406 Section 165.1406 Navigation and...), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Location. The following area is established as a safety...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1406 - Safety Zone: Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... governing safety zones contained in 33 CFR 165.23 apply. ... Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 165.1406 Section 165.1406 Navigation and...), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Location. The following area is established as a safety...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. 334.1390 Section 334.1390 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1390 Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility....

  1. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. 334.1390 Section 334.1390 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1390 Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility....

  2. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. 334.1390 Section 334.1390 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1390 Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility....

  3. 14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Islands fare flexibility. 399.34 Section 399.34 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT... Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.34 Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility. For scheduled service within Hawaii, and within and between Puerto Rico and the Virgin...

  4. Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review included an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands.

  5. Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

  6. 24 CFR 203.29 - Eligible mortgages in Alaska, Guam, Hawaii, or the Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible mortgages in Alaska, Guam, Hawaii, or the Virgin Islands. 203.29 Section 203.29 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  7. Plant invasions in protected areas of tropical pacific islands, with special reference to Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    R. Flint Hughes,; Jean-Yves Meyer, jean-yves.meyer@recherche.gov.pf; Loope, Lloyd L.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated tropical islands are notoriously vulnerable to plant invasions. Serious management for protection of native biodiversity in Hawaii began in the 1970s, arguably at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Concerted alien plant management began there in the 1980s and has in a sense become a model for protected areas throughout Hawaii and Pacific Island countries and territories. We review the relative successes of their strategies and touch upon how their experience has been applied elsewhere. Protected areas in Hawaii are fortunate in having relatively good resources for addressing plant invasions, but many invasions remain intractable, and invasions from outside the boundaries continue from a highly globalised society with a penchant for horticultural novelty. There are likely few efforts in most Pacific Islands to combat alien plant invasions in protected areas, but such areas may often have fewer plant invasions as a result of their relative remoteness and/or socio-economic development status. The greatest current needs for protected areas in this region may be for establishment of yet more protected areas, for better resources to combat invasions in Pacific Island countries and territories, for more effective control methods including biological control programme to contain intractable species, and for meaningful efforts to address prevention and early detection of potential new invaders.

  8. Underground residence times and chemical quality of basal groundwater in Pearl Harbor and Honolulu aquifers, O'ahu, Hawaii. Technical report, 1 September-31 December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hufen, T.H.; Eyre, P.; McConachie, W.

    1980-02-01

    The deterioration in chemical quality of basal water with underlying saline water is of utmost concern on Oahu, where the Pearl Harbor and Honolulu groundwater systems constitute a primary source of fresh water. This study uses isotope and chemical analyses to investigate the storage and flow of the system of six areas in southern Oahu. Potential orgins of waters were determined by using mixing models and chemical compositions of water samples from sources located within a few miles of each other. Striking differences were found among the six areas.

  9. Wind Energy Resource Atlas. Volume 11. Hawaii and Pacific Islands Region

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, T.A.; Hori, A.M.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, and assessments of the wind resource in each division of the region. Background on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be inerpreted is presented. An introduction and outline to the descriptions of the wind resource for each division are provided. Assessments for individual divisions are presented as separate chapters. Much of the information in the division chapters is given in graphic or tabular form. The sequences for each chapter are similar, but some presentations used for Hawaii are inappropriate or impractical for presentation with the Pacific Islands. Hawaii chapter figure and tables are cited below and appropriate Pacific Islands figure and table numbers are included in brackets ().

  10. Immune status of free-ranging green turtles with fibropapillomatosis from Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.; Balazs, G.H.; Cray, C.; Chang, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    Cell-mediated and humoral immune status of free-ranging green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in Hawaii (USA) with and without fibropapillornatosis (FP) were assessed. Tumored and non-tumored turtles from Kaneohe Bay (KB) on the island of Oahu and from FP-free areas on the west (Kona/Kohala) coast of the island of Hawaii were sampled from April 1998 through February 1999. Turtles on Oahu were grouped (0-3) for severity of tumors with 0 for absence of tumors, 1 for light, 2 for moderate, and 3 for most severe. Turtles were weighed, straight carapace length measured and the regression slope of weight to straight carapace length compared between groups (KB0, KB1, KB2, KB3, Kona). Blood was assayed for differential white blood cell count, hematocrit, in vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation in the presence of concanavalin A (ConA) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), and protein electrophoresis. On Oahu, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio increased while eosinophil/monocyte ratio decreased with increasing tumors score. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation indices for ConA and PHA were significantly lower for turtles with tumor scores 2 and 3. Tumor score 3 turtles (KB3) had significantly lower hematocrit, total protein, alpha 1, alpha 2, and gamma globulins than the other four groups. No significant differences in immune status were seen between non-tumored (or KB1) turtles from Oahu and Hawaii. There was no significant difference between groups in regression slopes of body condition to carapace length. We conclude that turtles with severe FP are imunosuppressed. Furthermore, the lack of significant difference in immune status between non-tumored (and KB1) turtles from Oahu and Kona/Kohala indicates that immunosuppression may not be a prerequisite for development of FP.

  11. Emergency department visits and hospitalizations for respiratory disease on the island of Hawaii, 1981 to 1991.

    PubMed

    Mannino, D M; Ruben, S; Holschuh, F C; Holschuh, T C; Wilson, M D; Holschuh, T

    1996-03-01

    This study examined trends in and patterns of emergency department visits and hospitalizations for respiratory disease on the island of Hawaii from 1981 to 1991. We found that emergency department visit rates and hospitalization rates for both asthma and COPD for 1987 to 1991 increased in all regions of the island in comparison with such rates for 1981 to 1986. Rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD, but not asthma, were significantly higher in the high-exposure Kona side of the island than in the intermittent-exposure Hilo side of the island during 1983 and 1988 to 1990. We also found that during the weeks that winds were from the west, blowing volcanic air pollution toward Hilo, emergency department visits for asthma increased 15%. Some of the results of our study support the hypothesis that volcanic air pollution affects respiratory health on the island of Hawaii, while other results do not. Any future studies should include measurements of air pollutant levels. PMID:8882554

  12. Impacts of Wildfire on Hawaii Island's Pre-Contact Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, J. D.; Bishaw, K.; McGeehin, J. P.; Perkins, K. S.; Austin, B.; Kirch, P.

    2015-12-01

    The arid western slopes of Hawaii's Mauna Kea volcano record pre-historic landscape changes that accompanied occupation by Native Hawaiians. Stratigraphy in the Keamuku area shows that a long (c. 38-42 ka) period of airfall and eolian deposition and pedogenesis was terminated by at least 8 layers of charcoal-rich sediment, interbedded with sand and shells of land snails that were transported by running water. Streams across Keamuku then cut several meters down through these deposits to bedrock of the Hamakua Volcanics. Radiocarbon ages indicate that charcoal-rich layers were deposited from the 13th-14th Century A.D. (e.g., 1207 +/- 48; 1287 +/- 128 A.D.) through the 17th - 18th century (e.g., 1648 +/- 157; 1651 +/- 160 A.D.; mean probability +/- 2 sigma. Stream incision commenced sometime thereafter. We measured saturated hydraulic conductivities (Ksat) with a mean of 56 mm/hour in nearby soils with tree and shrub cover. This value exceeds common hourly rainfall intensities, so runoff from these landscapes is unlikely without disturbance. Work at a wildfire boundary in Molokai, Hawaii, shows that just after fire disturbance, saturated hydraulic conductivities of similar Hawaiian soils are one half to one fifth of unburned equivalents. One interpretation is that during the 13th-19th centuries and later, humans burned shrub- or tree-covered landscapes reducing soil infiltration capacities. Over the course of several hundred years of burning, one or more large storms with sustained hourly rainfall intensities exceeding the infiltration capacity of the altered land surface occurred soon enough after fires to generate runoff in a place that had not previously experienced it. This runoff carved the existing gully network across over 100 km2 of Keamuku area, as wildfires pushed the shrub-/tree-line upslope. This interpretation joins a growing body of thought that pre-historic human's use of fire fundamentally altered landscapes.

  13. Are beach erosion rates and sea-level rise related in Hawaii?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romine, Bradley M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Barbee, Matthew M.; Anderson, Tiffany R.; Frazer, L. Neil

    2013-09-01

    The islands of Oahu and Maui, Hawaii, with significantly different rates of localized sea-level rise (SLR, approximately 65% higher rate on Maui) over the past century due to lithospheric flexure and/or variations in upper ocean water masses, provide a unique setting to investigate possible relations between historical shoreline changes and SLR. Island-wide and regional historical shoreline trends are calculated for the islands using shoreline positions measured from aerial photographs and survey charts. Historical shoreline data are optimized to reduce anthropogenic influences on shoreline change measurements. Shoreline change trends are checked for consistency using two weighted regression methods and by systematic exclusion of coastal regions based on coastal aspect (wave exposure) and coastal geomorphology. Maui experienced the greatest extent of beach erosion over the past century with 78% percent of beaches eroding compared to 52% on Oahu. Maui also had a significantly higher island-wide average shoreline change rate at - 0.13 ± 0.05 m/yr compared to Oahu at - 0.03 ± 0.03 m/yr (at the 95% Confidence Interval). Differing rates of relative SLR around Oahu and Maui remain as the best explanation for the difference in overall shoreline trends after examining other influences on shoreline change including waves, sediment supply and littoral processes, and anthropogenic changes; though, these other influences certainly remain important to shoreline change in Hawaii. The results of this study show that SLR is an important factor in historical shoreline change in Hawaii and that historical rates of shoreline change are about two orders of magnitude greater than SLR.

  14. 33 CFR 80.1420 - Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1420 Section 80.1420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1420 Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. A line drawn...

  15. 33 CFR 80.1430 - Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1430 Section 80.1430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1430 Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. A straight...

  16. 33 CFR 80.1430 - Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1430 Section 80.1430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1430 Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. A straight...

  17. 33 CFR 80.1420 - Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1420 Section 80.1420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1420 Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. A line drawn...

  18. 33 CFR 80.1420 - Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1420 Section 80.1420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1420 Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. A line drawn...

  19. 33 CFR 80.1430 - Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1430 Section 80.1430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1430 Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. A straight...

  20. 33 CFR 80.1430 - Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1430 Section 80.1430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1430 Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. A straight...

  1. 33 CFR 80.1420 - Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1420 Section 80.1420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1420 Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. A line drawn...

  2. 33 CFR 80.1430 - Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1430 Section 80.1430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1430 Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. A straight...

  3. 33 CFR 80.1420 - Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1420 Section 80.1420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1420 Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. A line drawn...

  4. 14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Islands fare flexibility. 399.34 Section 399.34 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT... Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.34 Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility..., certificated air carriers have the fare flexibility set forth in §§ 399.32 and 399.33, except that: (a)...

  5. 14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Islands fare flexibility. 399.34 Section 399.34 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT... Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.34 Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility..., certificated air carriers have the fare flexibility set forth in §§ 399.32 and 399.33, except that: (a)...

  6. 14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Islands fare flexibility. 399.34 Section 399.34 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT... Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.34 Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility..., certificated air carriers have the fare flexibility set forth in §§ 399.32 and 399.33, except that: (a)...

  7. 14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Islands fare flexibility. 399.34 Section 399.34 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT... Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.34 Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility..., certificated air carriers have the fare flexibility set forth in §§ 399.32 and 399.33, except that: (a)...

  8. Schlumberger survey of Maui Island, State of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Mattice, M.D.; Lienert, B.R.

    1980-09-01

    The results of 21 Schlumberger resistivity soundings made on the island of Maui are presented. The apparent resistivity data was used to estimate electrical resistivities of basalt saturated with seawater for different parts of the island. The values obtained average around 20 ohm-meters, except in one area, Ukumehame canyon, on the south rift zone of West Maui. In this area, which is the site of a warm (33/sup 0/C) water well, the resistivity interpreted for the seawater saturated basalt layer is close to 4 ohm-meters. Using typical Hawaiian basalt porosity values of 15 to 25% the temperature of the seaweed is estimated to be 95 +- 23/sup 0/C at a depth of 273 to 608 feet.

  9. Wind turbine on line in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    The largest wind machine in the United States started generating electricity in late July in Hawaii. The Mod-5B wind-powered turbine, located on the northern tip of the island of Oahu, is rated at 3.2 megawatts and is expected to generate enough clean electricity to supply the needs of 1300 homes. The machine was developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, and paid for by the Department of Energy.The turbine is based on new technology that allows its 320-ft (˜100-m) rotor to operate at variable speeds to suit changing wind conditions. It is the result of 15 years of federally sponsored research at NASA-Lewis. Conventional turbines operate at a fixed speed. After 6 months of tests, Mod-5B will be taken over and operated by the Hawaiian Electric Company, under a sales agreement with NASA. The turbine was located at the northend of Oahu primarily because of the high incidence of steady trade winds in that part of the Hawaiian chain. Renewable energy sources like the turbine are also desirable in Hawaii because of the high cost of electricity on the islands, which is principally the result of the need to import all diesel fuel and a prohibition on nuclear power plants in the state.

  10. Potential effects of the Hawaii geothermal project on ground-water resources on the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Sorey, M.L.; Colvard, E.M.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides data and information on the quantity and quality of ground-water resources in and adjacent to proposed geothermal development areas on the Island of Hawaii Geothermal project for the development of as much as 500 MW of electric power from the geothermal system in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano. Data presented for about 31 wells and 8 springs describe the chemical, thermal, and hydraulic properties of the ground-water system in and adjacent to the East Rift Zone. On the basis of this information, potential effects of this geothermal development on drawdown of ground-water levels and contamination of ground-water resources are discussed. Significant differences in ground-water levels and in the salinity and temperature of ground water within the study area appear to be related to mixing of waters from different sources and varying degrees of ground-water impoundment by volcanic dikes. Near Pahoa and to the east, the ground-water system within the rift is highly transmissive and receives abundant recharge from precipitation; therefore, the relatively modest requirements for fresh water to support geothermal development in that part of the east rift zone would result in minimal effects on ground-water levels in and adjacent to the rift. To the southwest of Pahoa, dike impoundment reduces the transmissivity of the ground-water system to such an extent that wells might not be capable of supplying fresh water at rates sufficient to support geothermal operations. Water would have to be transported to such developments from supply systems located outside the rift or farther downrift. Contaminant migration resulting from well accidents could be rapid because of relatively high ground-water velocities in parts of the region. Hydrologic monitoring of observation wells needs to be continued throughout development of geothermal resources for the Hawaii Geothermal Project to enable the early detection of leakage and migration of geothermal fluids.

  11. Forest Bird Distribution, Density and Trends in the Ka'u Region of Hawai'i Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Camp, Richard J.; Pratt, Thane K.

    2007-01-01

    An accurate and current measure of population status and trend is necessary for conservation and management efforts. Scott and Kepler (1985) provided a comprehensive review of the status of native Hawaiian birds based on the extensive Hawaii Forest Bird Survey (HFBS) of the main islands (Scott et al. 1986). At that time, they documented declining populations and decreasing ranges for most species, and the extinction of several species over the previous 50 years. Many native bird species continue to decline throughout Hawai`i (Camp et al. In review, Gorresen et al. In prep.). The focus of this study is the mid-to-high elevation rainforest on the southeast windward slopes of Mauna Loa Volcano (Figure 1). Known as Ka`u, the region encompasses forest lands protected by Kamehameha Schools, The Nature Conservancy, Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (HVNP), and the State of Hawai'i's Ka`u Forest Reserve, Kapapala Forest Reserve and Kapapala Cooperative Game Management Area,. Together these lands support one of three main concentrations of native forest birds on the Hawai`i Island (the other two being centered on the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge and Kulani-Keauhou area in the north and central windward part of the island, respectively.) Because this region harbors important populations of native and endangered forest birds in some of the best remaining forest habitat on the island, it has been a focus of forest bird surveys since the 1970s. The Ka`u region was first quantitatively surveyed in 1976 by the Hawaii Forest Bird Survey (Scott et al. 1986). Surveys were conducted by State of Hawai`i Division of Forestry and Wildlife in 1993 and 2002 and by the U.S. National Park Service and the U.S. Geological Survey in 2004 and 2005. In this report, we present analyses of the density, distribution and trends of native and introduced forest bird within the Ka`u region of Hawai`i Island. The analyses cover only those species with sufficient detections to model detection

  12. Recent plant eradications on the islands of Maui County, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penniman, Teya M.; Buchanan, Lori; Loope, Lloyd L.; Veitch, C.R.; Clout, Mike N.; Towns, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    The state of Hawai'i (USA) has few regulations to limit plant introductions. A network of interagency islandbased invasive species committees has evolved over the past decade to address this vulnerability, with the aim of stopping invasions before they threaten natural areas. On Maui, Moloka‘i, and Lāna‘i, which comprise three of the four islands of Maui County, single-island eradications have been achieved for 12 plant species and eradication is likely imminent for an additional eight species. The islands vary in size, population, and land ownership. We explore the relative importance of those variables in achieving successful eradications along with target species selection, detection strategies, and public support

  13. Two Decades of Degassing at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i: Perspectives on Island Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, T.; Sutton, A. J.

    2003-12-01

    The ongoing eruption of Kilauea provides an opportunity to examine how volcanic emissions impact the natural and human environment of the island of Hawai`i. Kilauea has released ˜ 13 megatons of SO2 gas into the troposphere since the current eruption began in 1983, more than any single anthropogenic source in the U.S. During prevailing trade wind conditions, measurements of SO2 gas, aerosol mass, and aerosol acidity downwind of Kilauea document the conversion of SO2 to acid aerosol as the plume propagates to the leeward side of the island. Lidar measurements suggest a gas-to-particle conversion rate (t1/2) of 6 hours. When trade winds are disrupted, ambient SO2 and particle measurements in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park have shown episodes of particle concentrations of ˜ 100 μ g/m3 and SO2 concentrations in excess of 4000 ppb. Federal health standards and WHO guidelines for SO2 have been exceeded repeatedly at this near-source location. Documented effects from volcanic emissions on the island of Hawai`i include the rapid corrosion of metal objects, degradation of domestic water quality, agricultural crop damage, and adverse impacts on human respiratory and pulmonary function. Other impacts may include decreases in local rainfall and increased mortality of asthmatics. For the period 1986 to 1993, after the eruption became continuous, deaths from asthma on the island of Hawai`i increased by a factor of ten. Three current health studies seek to investigate the relationship between exposure to volcanic pollution and health effects. In addition to measuring gas and particle exposures, these studies examine lung development in children around the island, disease prevalence in adults residing in communities downwind of volcanic degassing sources, and acute effects in asthmatic children and healthy children and adults. In the absence of conclusive evidence linking exposure and health effects, the USGS, in collaboration with the National Park Service, has developed a

  14. Biomass energy opportunities on former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, V.D.; Tvedten, A.E.; Lu, W.

    1995-11-01

    Electricity produced from burning sugarcane bagasse has provided as much as 10 percent of Hawaii`s electricity supply in the past. As sugarcane production has ceased on the islands of Oahu and Hawaii and diminished on Maui and Kauai, the role of biomass energy will be reduced unless economically viable alternatives can be identified. An empirical biomass yield and cost system model linked to a geographical information system has been developed at the University of Hawaii. This short-rotation forestry decision support system was used to estimate dedicated biomass feedstock supplies and delivered costs of tropical hardwoods for ethanol, methanol, and electricity production. Output from the system model was incorporated in a linear programming optimization model to identify the mix of tree plantation practices, wood processing technologies, and end-products that results in the highest economic return on investment under given market situations. An application of these decision-support tools is presented for hypothetical integrated forest product systems established at two former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii. Results indicate that the optimal profit opportunity exists for the production of medium density fibreboard and plywood, with annual net return estimates of approximately $3.5 million at the Hamakua plantation on the island of Hawaii and $2.2 million at the Waialua plantation on Oahu. Sensitivity analyses of the effects of different milling capacities, end-product market prices, increased plantation areas, and forced saw milling were performed. Potential economic credits for carbon sequestration and wastewater effluent management were estimated. While biofuels are not identified as an economical viable component, energy co-products may help reduce market risk via product diversification in such forestry ventures.

  15. Rare earth elements in soils from selected areas on the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, W.M.; Halbig, J.B.

    1985-07-01

    Fifty soil samples for the wet, windward (east) side and dry, leeward (west) side of the Island of Hawaii were analyzed for La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Yb, and Lu by neutron activation/gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis. Data on concentrations in each sample are listed and analyzed statistically for soil samples collected from the western slope of Kohala Mountain, the western coastal plain of Mauna Kea, and the Northeastern coastal plain of Maunal Loa. Rare earth element (REE) concentrations are two to six times greater in soils from the western, dry side of the island, and good statistical correlation is exhibited among the samples for pairs of individual REEs. In the organic-rich soils of the east side, correlations are poor but are markedly improved when sample weights are adjusted for weight due to organic matter and water in soil colloids. If the mean compositions of selected rock samples from the Hawaii Reference Suite are representative of the compositions of the parent materials, REEs in the soils are moderately enriched (up to two times, based on oven-dry weights). Rare earth element concentrations in the island's western soils are as much as two times greater than the mean REE values of common sedimentary rocks worldwide; however, they are well within the concentration ranges of soils of continental origin. The eastern soils tend to have less La and Ce, but similar amounts of the middle and heavy REEs.

  16. Distribution and prevalence of knemidokoptic mange in Hawai`i `Amakihi on the island of Hawaii.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaudioso, Jacqueline; LaPointe, Dennis; Atkinson, Carter T.; Apelgren, Chloe

    2014-01-01

    Knemidokoptic mange was first observed on two Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) mist netted in Manuka Natural Area Reserve (NAR) on the Island of Hawai‘i in June 2007. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings from lesions of the infested individuals revealed the scaley-leg mite, Knemidokoptes jamaicensis. Continued surveillance at Manuka NAR (2007-2009) documented a 24% (15/63) prevalence of mange among Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi distributed from coastal habitat to 1,500 m above sea level (asl). From 2012-2014, we conducted an island-wide survey of wild passerine birds from several leeward sites (Manuka NAR, Kahuku Unit of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO), Pu‘u Wa‘awa‘a Forest Bird Sanctuary, and Kipahoehoe NAR) and windward sites (Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, ‘Ᾱinahou Ranch of HAVO, Malama Ki Forest Reserve, and Keauohana Forest Reserve) to determine the current distribution and host range of knemidokoptic mange. We also determined the prevalence of malaria in Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi populations where mange was present and treated a subset of infested Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi mange with a single, topical dose of moxidectin. We mist netted and examined a total of 1,734 passerines, including 738 Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi. Mange was present in Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi at Manuka NAR (595 and 305 m asl), Kahuku Ranch Unit of HAVO (Glover site: 1,201 m asl and Kipuka Akala site: 1,532 m asl), Malama Ki Forest Reserve and Keauohana Forest Reserve (293 m asl). No other passerine birds (n = 995) were infected. Mange prevalence ranged from a high of 69% (40/58) in Keauohana Forest Reserve to a low of 2% (1/65) in the Kahuku Ranch Unit of HAVO (Kipuka Akala). At Manuka NAR prevalence had decreased from 26% in 2010 to 10% (7/81) in 2012–2014. We found no significant relationship between the prevalence of mange and the prevalence of avian malaria in mesic habitats at Manuka NAR (P = 0.59 (FET, n = 81)), but there was a significant association between the

  17. Climate stabilization wedges in action: a systems approach to energy sustainability for Hawaii Island.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeremiah; Chertow, Marian

    2009-04-01

    Pacala and Socolow developed a framework to stabilize global greenhouse gas levels for the next fifty years using wedges of constant size representing an increasing use of existing technologies and approaches for energy efficiency, carbon free generation, renewables, and carbon storage. The research presented here applies their approach to Hawaii Island, with modifications to support local scale analysis and employing a "bottom-up" methodology that allows for wedges of various sizes. A discretely bounded spatial unit offers a testing ground for a holistic approach to improving the energy sector with the identification of local options and limitations to the implementation of a comprehensive energy strategy. Nearly 80% of total primary energy demand across all sectors for Hawaii Island is currently met using petroleum-based fuels.The Sustainable Energy Plan scenario included here presents an internally consistent set of recommendations bounded by local constraints in areas such as transportation efficiency, centralized renewable generation (e.g., geothermal, wind), reduction in transmission losses, and improved building efficiency. This scenario shows thatthe demand for primary energy in 2030 could be reduced by 23% through efficiency measures while 46% could be met by renewable generation, resulting in only 31% of the projected demand being met by fossil fuels. In 2030, the annual releases of greenhouse gases would be 3.2 Mt CO2-eq/year under the Baseline scenario, while the Sustainable Energy Plan would reduce this to 1.2 Mt CO2-eq/year--an annual emissions rate 40% below 2006 levels and 10% below 1990 levels. The total for greenhouse gas emissions during the 24-year study period (2007 to 2030) is 59.9 Mt CO2-eq under the Baseline scenario and 32.5 Mt CO2-eq under the Sustainable Energy Plan scenario. Numerous combinations of efficiency and renewable energy options can be employed in a manner that stabilizes the greenhouse gas emissions of Hawaii Island.

  18. Climate stabilization wedges in action: a systems approach to energy sustainability for Hawaii Island.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeremiah; Chertow, Marian

    2009-04-01

    Pacala and Socolow developed a framework to stabilize global greenhouse gas levels for the next fifty years using wedges of constant size representing an increasing use of existing technologies and approaches for energy efficiency, carbon free generation, renewables, and carbon storage. The research presented here applies their approach to Hawaii Island, with modifications to support local scale analysis and employing a "bottom-up" methodology that allows for wedges of various sizes. A discretely bounded spatial unit offers a testing ground for a holistic approach to improving the energy sector with the identification of local options and limitations to the implementation of a comprehensive energy strategy. Nearly 80% of total primary energy demand across all sectors for Hawaii Island is currently met using petroleum-based fuels.The Sustainable Energy Plan scenario included here presents an internally consistent set of recommendations bounded by local constraints in areas such as transportation efficiency, centralized renewable generation (e.g., geothermal, wind), reduction in transmission losses, and improved building efficiency. This scenario shows thatthe demand for primary energy in 2030 could be reduced by 23% through efficiency measures while 46% could be met by renewable generation, resulting in only 31% of the projected demand being met by fossil fuels. In 2030, the annual releases of greenhouse gases would be 3.2 Mt CO2-eq/year under the Baseline scenario, while the Sustainable Energy Plan would reduce this to 1.2 Mt CO2-eq/year--an annual emissions rate 40% below 2006 levels and 10% below 1990 levels. The total for greenhouse gas emissions during the 24-year study period (2007 to 2030) is 59.9 Mt CO2-eq under the Baseline scenario and 32.5 Mt CO2-eq under the Sustainable Energy Plan scenario. Numerous combinations of efficiency and renewable energy options can be employed in a manner that stabilizes the greenhouse gas emissions of Hawaii Island. PMID

  19. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar...

  20. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar...

  1. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar...

  2. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar...

  3. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar...

  4. Toward a comprehensive information system to assist invasive species management in Hawaii and Pacific Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fornwall, M.; Loope, L.

    2004-01-01

    The need for coordinated regional and global electronic databases to assist prevention, early detection, rapid response, and control of biological invasions is well accepted. The Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN), a node of the National Biological Information Infrastructure, has been increasingly engaged in the invasive species enterprise since its establishment in 2001. Since this time, PBIN has sought to support frontline efforts at combating invasions, through working with stakeholders in conservation, agriculture, forestry, health, and commerce to support joint information needs. Although initial emphasis has been on Hawaii, cooperative work with other Pacific islands and countries of the Pacific Rim is already underway and planned.

  5. Drilling, construction, caliper-log, and specific-conductance data for well 3-3406-12, Twin Bridge Road deep monitor well, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, T.K.; Oki, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Twin Bridge Road deep monitor well (State well number 3-3406-12) was drilled about 2,000 feet northeast of Weed Circle in the town of Haleiwa. The well is on agricultural land. The well penetrates through the freshwater lens and into the freshwater-saltwater transition zone of the Waialua ground-water area to an elevation of -596 feet below mean sea level. Well-construction data, logs of drilling notes, geologic descriptions for the samples, caliper-log, and specific-conductance data are presented for the well. The well is one of 12 exploratory wells drilled in the north- central Oahu area between July 1993 and May 1994 in cooperation with the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

  6. Drilling, construction, caliper-log, and specific-conductance data for well 3-3604-01, Kawailoa deep monitor well, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, T.K.; Oki, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Kawailoa deep monitor well (State well number 3-3604-01) was drilled about 1.9 miles east- northeast of the town of Haleiwa. The well is on agricultural land in the Kawailoa ground-water area. The well penetrates through the freshwater lens and into the freshwater-saltwater transition zone to an elevation of -392 feet below mean sea level. Well-construction data, logs of drilling notes, geologic descriptions for the samples, specific-conductance and caliper-log data are presented for the well. The well is one of 12 exploratory wells drilled in the north-central Oahu area between July 1993 and May 1994 in cooperation with the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

  7. Drilling, construction, and aquifer-test data from wells 3-3307-20 and -21, Thompson Corner exploratory wells I and II, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, T.K.; Oki, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Thompson Corner exploratory wells I and II (State well numbers 3-3307-20 and -21) were drilled near Thompson Corner, about 2.2 miles south-southwest of the town of Haleiwa. The wells are located on agricultural land in the Waialua ground-water area. The wells are about 50 feet apart and penetrate about 90 feet into the ground water. Aquifer tests were conducted using well 3-3307-20 as a pumping well and well 3-3307-21 as an observation well. Well-construction data, logs of drilling notes, geologic descriptions for the samples, and aquifer-test data are presented for the wells. The wells are two of twelve exploratory wells drilled in the north-central Oahu area between July 1993 and May 1994 in cooperation with the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

  8. Hawaii and Beyond: Volcanic Islands as Model Systems for Biogeochemical and Human Ecodynamic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, O.

    2012-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands provide an excellent natural lab for understanding geochemical and ecosystem processes. The most important features are: a) increasing volcano age with distance from the hotspot, b) asymmetric rainfall distribution imposed by the northeasterly trade winds and orographic processes, creating wet windward and dry leeward landscapes, c) an impoverished vegetation assemblage allowing the same species to grow in strongly varying climate and soil conditions, d) the ability to hold topography relatively constant over long time scales by sampling on volcanic shield remnants that are preserved even on the oldest high island, Kauai, and e) a long-term topographic evolution that carves the gently sloping shield surfaces into steep-sided, amphitheater headed, relatively flat floored valleys. Although deeply incised valleys are well represented in Kauai, the later stages of volcanic island evolution are not well expressed in the exposed Hawaiian Islands. Therefore, I also consider examples from the Society and Gambier Islands in French Polynesia to demonstrate the biogeochemical and human ecodynamic impacts of valley expansion and subsidence leading to drowning of all but the highest elevation interfluves. In Hawaii, I and many colleagues have characterized the details of biogeochemical processes such as: a) variations in oxygen isotopes in soil water and soil minerals, b) changing nutrient sources using Sr, Ca, and Mg isotopes, c) mineral - carbon sorption and its implications for carbon storage in soils and for mineral ripening, and d) the development of leaching and redox driven pedogenic thresholds. Here, I address how these biogeochemical features influence human land-use decisions in prehistoric Hawaii and elsewhere in the Pacific. Polynesian radiation into the eastern Pacific occurred rapidly after 1300 y bp. Although they carried with them a kitchen garden each new island presented a different environmental challenge. They were sensitive to

  9. Assessing community vulnerabilities to natural hazards on the Island of Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Chris; Delparte, Donna

    2010-05-01

    The island of Hawaii is susceptible to numerous natural hazards such as tsunamis, flooding, lava flow, earthquakes, hurricanes, landslides, wildfires and storm surge. The impact of a natural disaster on the island's communities has the potential to endanger peoples' lives and threaten critical infrastructure, homes, businesses and economic drivers such as tourism. A Geographic Information System (GIS) has the ability to assess community vulnerabilities by examining the spatial relationships between hazard zones, socioeconomic infrastructure and demographic data. By drawing together existing datasets, GIS was used to examine a number of community vulnerabilities. Key areas of interest were government services, utilities, property assets, industry and transportation. GIS was also used to investigate population dynamics in hazard zones. Identification of community vulnerabilities from GIS analysis can support mitigation measures and assist planning and response measures to natural hazards.

  10. Modeling volcano growth on the Island of Hawaii: deep-water perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, Peter W.; Calvert, Andrew T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent ocean-bottom geophysical surveys, dredging, and dives, which complement surface data and scientific drilling at the Island of Hawaii, document that evolutionary stages during volcano growth are more diverse than previously described. Based on combining available composition, isotopic age, and geologically constrained volume data for each of the component volcanoes, this overview provides the first integrated models for overall growth of any Hawaiian island. In contrast to prior morphologic models for volcano evolution (preshield, shield, postshield), growth increasingly can be tracked by age and volume (magma supply), defining waxing alkalic, sustained tholeiitic, and waning alkalic stages. Data and estimates for individual volcanoes are used to model changing magma supply during successive compositional stages, to place limits on volcano life spans, and to interpret composite assembly of the island. Volcano volumes vary by an order of magnitude; peak magma supply also varies sizably among edifices but is challenging to quantify because of uncertainty about volcano life spans. Three alternative models are compared: (1) near-constant volcano propagation, (2) near-equal volcano durations, (3) high peak-tholeiite magma supply. These models define inconsistencies with prior geodynamic models, indicate that composite growth at Hawaii peaked ca. 800–400 ka, and demonstrate a lower current rate. Recent age determinations for Kilauea and Kohala define a volcano propagation rate of 8.6 cm/yr that yields plausible inception ages for other volcanoes of the Kea trend. In contrast, a similar propagation rate for the less-constrained Loa trend would require inception of Loihi Seamount in the future and ages that become implausibly large for the older volcanoes. An alternative rate of 10.6 cm/yr for Loa-trend volcanoes is reasonably consistent with ages and volcano spacing, but younger Loa volcanoes are offset from the Kea trend in age-distance plots. Variable magma flux

  11. Greenhouse gas flux under warm-season perennial C4 grasses across different soil and climate gradients on the Islands of Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlowski, M. N.; Crow, S. E.; Sumiyoshi, Y.; Wells, J.; Kikkawa, H. R.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural soils can serve as either a sink or a source for atmospheric carbon (C) and other greenhouse gases (GHG). This is particularly true for tropical soils where influences from climate and soil gradients are wide ranging. Current estimates of GHG flux from soil are often under or overestimated due to high variability in sample sites and inconsistencies in land use and vegetation type, making extrapolation to new study systems difficult. This work aimed to identify patterns of trace fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) across two soil types and three species of warm season perennial C4 grasses: Pennisetum purpureum (Napier grass), Panicum maximum (Guinea grass) and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane) on the islands of Oahu and Maui in Hawaii. Multiple static vented chambers were installed into replicate plots for each species; flux measurements were made during the growth, fertilization and harvest cycles at set time intervals for one hour and analyzed by gas chromatography. Initial results from Oahu indicate no significant differences in CO2 flux between the P. maximum and P. purpureum species after fertilization or at full growth. We observed an average flux of 143 mg m-2 h-1 and 155 mg m-2 h-1 for P. maximum and P. purpureum respectively at full growth for CO2 and 1.7 μg m-2 h-1and 0.3 μg m-2 h-1 for N2O. Additionally, N2O rates sampled after a typical fertilizer application were significantly greater than at full growth (p=0.0005) with flux rates of 25.2 μg m2h-1 and 30.3 μg m2h-1 for P. maximum and P. purpureum respectively. With a global warming potential of 310 for N2O, even short-term spikes following fertilizer application can cause long lasting effects of GHG emission from agricultural soils. CH4 flux was negligible for all species on the Oahu plots during these sample periods. Globally, water limitation is a major factor influencing the potential productivity of agricultural crops and the sustainability of

  12. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... them; (iii) Public vessels of the United States. (2) When vessels are conducting loading or unloading... anchor light and any aircraft warning lights to be displayed by the vessel at night. (4) When, in the... pollution, such oil transfer operations shall be immediately terminated until such time as the...

  13. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... them; (iii) Public vessels of the United States. (2) When vessels are conducting loading or unloading... anchor light and any aircraft warning lights to be displayed by the vessel at night. (4) When, in the... pollution, such oil transfer operations shall be immediately terminated until such time as the...

  14. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... them; (iii) Public vessels of the United States. (2) When vessels are conducting loading or unloading... anchor light and any aircraft warning lights to be displayed by the vessel at night. (4) When, in the... pollution, such oil transfer operations shall be immediately terminated until such time as the...

  15. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... them; (iii) Public vessels of the United States. (2) When vessels are conducting loading or unloading... anchor light and any aircraft warning lights to be displayed by the vessel at night. (4) When, in the... pollution, such oil transfer operations shall be immediately terminated until such time as the...

  16. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... them; (iii) Public vessels of the United States. (2) When vessels are conducting loading or unloading... anchor light and any aircraft warning lights to be displayed by the vessel at night. (4) When, in the... pollution, such oil transfer operations shall be immediately terminated until such time as the...

  17. Streamflow and Erosion Response to Prolonged Intense Rainfall of November 1-2, 2000, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, Richard A.; Hill, Barry R.

    2002-01-01

    A combination of several meteorologic and topographic factors produced extreme rainfall over the eastern part of the island of Hawaii on November 1-2, 2000. Storm rainfall was concentrated in two distinct areas, the Waiakea and Kapapala areas, where maximum rainfall totals of 32.47 and 38.97 inches were recorded. Resultant flooding caused damages in excess of 70 million dollars, among the highest totals associated with flooding in the State's history. Storm rainfall had recurrence intervals that ranged from 10 years or less for maximum 1-hour totals to 100 years or more for maximum 24-hour totals As part of this study, peak flow and/or erosion data were collected at 41 sites. Analyses of these data indicated that peak discharges of record occurred at 6 of 12 sites where historic data were available. Peak flows with estimated recurrence intervals from 50 to over 100 years were recorded at 4 of 11 sites. Peak flows were poorly correlated with total storm rainfall. Critical rainfall durations associated with peak flows ranged from 1 to 12 hours and were about 3 hours at most sites. Rainfall-runoff computations and field observations indicated that infiltration-excess overland flow alone was not sufficient to have caused the observed flood peaks and therefore saturation-excess overland flow and subsurface flow probably contributed to peak flows at most sites Most hillslope erosion associated with the storm took place along or near the Kaoiki Pali in the Kapapala area. Hillslope erosion was predominately caused by overland flow.

  18. Sea level higher than present 3500 years ago on the northern main Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Eric E.; Fletcher, Charles H., III

    1998-04-01

    New data from an emerged coastal bench and associated fossil beach on Kapapa Island (Oahu), Hawaii, preserve a detailed history of middle to late Holocene sea level. These include 29 new calibrated radiocarbon ages and elevations indicating mean sea level reached a maximum position of 2.00 ± 0.35 m ca. 3500 yr B.P. These results correlate with additional evidence from Hawaii and other Pacific islands and provide constraints on Oahu's long-term uplift rate (0.03 0.07 mm/yr), previously based solely on Pleistocene age shorelines. Our sea-level reconstruction is consistent with geophysical model predictions of Earth's geoid response to the last deglaciation and with observations of increased Antarctic ice volume during the late Holocene.

  19. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  20. Drilling, construction, and caliper-log data for wells 3-3406-14 and -15, Helemano exploratory wells I and II, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, T.K.; Oki, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Helemano exploratory wells I and II (State well numbers 3-3406-14 and -15) were drilled near Weed Circle, about 3,000 feet south of the town of Haleiwa. The wells are located on agricultural land in the Waialua ground-water area. The wells penetrate through sedimentary deposits (caprock) and into a basalt aquifer. Both wells have short open intervals cased with well screen at the bottom of the hole, and are cased and sealed through the caprock and basalt to the well screen. The shallow well, Helemano exploratory well I, penetrates about 10 feet into the basalt aquifer below the contact of the caprock and basalt. The deep well, Helemano exploratory well II, penetrates about 210 feet into the basalt aquifer. The deep well has a 20-foot open interval at the bottom. Well construction data, logs of drilling notes, geologic descriptions for drill samples, and caliper-log data are presented for the wells. The wells are two of twelve exploratory wells drilled in the north-central Oahu area between July 1993 and May 1994 in cooperation with the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

  1. Radon-222 from the island of hawaii: deep soils are more important than lava fields or volcanoes.

    PubMed

    Wilkening, M H

    1974-02-01

    The mean flux of radon-222 atoms from the island of Hawaii is 0.45 atom per square centimeter per second. Lava fields occupy 50 percent of the land area, but their radon flux is only 1 percent of that from deep volcanic soils. The island yields approximately 10 curies of radon-222 per hour to the air surrounding it. The radon-222 contribuition of volcanoes is negligible.

  2. 78 FR 27124 - Pacific Ocean Off the Kekaha Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; Danger Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; Danger Zone AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION... amend its regulations to establish a new danger zone in waters of the Pacific Ocean off the Kekaha Range... INFORMATION: Executive Summary The purpose of this regulatory action is to establish a new danger zone...

  3. 78 FR 39198 - Pacific Ocean Off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; Danger Zone AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD... proposing to amend an existing danger zone in waters of the Pacific Ocean off the Pacific Missile Range..., and increased threat conditions. The proposed amendment would expand the existing danger zone...

  4. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... information by contacting one of the Service regional offices, the addresses of which are listed at 50 CFR 2.2... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2014-10-01 2013-10-01 true Critical habitat; plants on the islands of...) Interagency Cooperation (Continued) § 17.99 Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau,...

  5. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... information by contacting one of the Service regional offices, the addresses of which are listed at 50 CFR 2.2... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat; plants on the islands of...) Interagency Cooperation (Continued) § 17.99 Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau,...

  6. Numerical Simulation of Regional Changes in Ground-Water Levels and in the Freshwater-Saltwater Interface Induced by Increased Pumpage at Barbers Point Shaft, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Souza, William R.; Meyer, William

    1995-01-01

    The effect on the regional ground-water system of southern Oahu from increased pumpage at Barbers Point shaft was estimated by a numerical ground-water model developed for the Oahu Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis (RASA) study. The RASA model was updated by revising pumping and ground-water recharge data. Pumpage data used in the new simulations were based on the allocated pumping rates for 1995 as set by the State Commission on Water Resource Management. On the basis of numerical simulation, Barbers Point shaft can sustain a withdrawal rate of 4.34 million gallons per day without adversely affecting wells in the Waianae aquifer. From results of numerical simulations, it is estimated that, as a result of increasing pumpage in Barbers Point shaft by 2 million gallons per day above the 1995-allocated rate of 2.337 million gallons per day, regional declines in ground-water levels will be about 0.4 to 0.7 feet throughout the Waianae aquifer and about 0.8 ft at the shaft. The corresponding rise of the freshwater-saltwater interface, as a result of declines in ground-water levels, is estimated to be about 20 to 30 feet. Numerical simulation also indicates that changes in ground-water levels greater than about 0.1 feet do not extend across either the Waianae-Koolau unconformity or the south Schofield barrier. The model-estimated position of the freshwater-saltwater interface, as a result of additional pumpage, ranges from 500 to 860 feet below sea level in the southern and northern parts of the aquifer, respectively, and about 540 feet below sea level at the shaft. On the basis of an estimate of the thickness of the transition-zone, the freshwater lens would remain about 240 feet thick below the shaft. In addition, the estimated declines in ground-water levels throughout the aquifer are small compared with the thickness of the freshwater lens and these declines would not be expected to affect the yields of other wells in terms of quantity. Chloride concentrations in the

  7. A multi-tracer approach for determining the sources and spatial variability of groundwater-delivered nutrients to coastal waters: Maunalua Bay, Oahu, Hawai'i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, C. M.; Dulaiova, H.; Whittier, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient pollution of coastal waters commonly arises from terrestrial non-point sources of N and P such as on-site disposal systems (OSDS) and fertilizer leachate. Elevated nutrient loading of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been documented in the western edge of Maunalua Bay, Oahu, an area with high OSDS density. We examined coastal groundwater and nearshore marine water quality in two adjacent aquifers (Waialae West and Waialae East) within the study region with differing land-use and hydrogeological characteristics to better understand 1) the spatial variability of SGD nutrient and water fluxes and 2) the reasons for this spatial variability. Nutrient concentrations and NO3- stable isotope ratios were measured in coastal and terrestrial groundwater as well as nearshore marine water and integrated with SGD flux, land-use, and recharge data to examine potential nutrient sources in each aquifer. Regionally-elevated NO3- concentrations (169 µM) and δ15N-NO3- values (10.9 ‰) were apparent in SGD in the Waialae West Aquifer where OSDS density is highest. Coastal sites sampled in the neighboring Waialae East Aquifer exhibited significantly lower values for these parameters, with δ15N-NO3- values ranging from 5.7 - 5.9‰ and NO3- concentrations from 43 - 69 µM. The isotopic composition of NO3- in SGD originating from the Waialae West Aquifer was primarily influenced by mixing of a wastewater source, with wastewater effluent accounting for nearly 4.4% of total recharge and 79 - 97% of total N and P loads within the aquifer. These findings illustrate the utility of synthesizing nutrient concentrations and stable isotope parameters together with SGD flux determination, and aquifer-scale land-use and recharge data in determining the contribution of terrestrial sources to coastal nutrient loading via SGD.

  8. Energy for water and water for energy on Maui Island, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubert, Emily A.; Webber, Michael E.

    2015-06-01

    Energy and water systems are interconnected. This work first characterizes 2010 primary energy demand for direct water services and local freshwater demand for energy on Maui Island, Hawaii, then investigates scenarios for future changes in these demands. The goal of this manuscript is to dissect the relationship and trends of energy-water connections to inform policymaking decisions related to water and energy planning. Analysis proceeds by inventorying water and energy flows and adjusting to a 2010 base year, then applying intensity factors for energy or water used at a given stage for a given sector to determine absolute energy and water demands for the isolated system of Maui Island. These bottom-up, intensity-based values are validated against published data where available. Maui consumes about 0.05% of its freshwater for energy (versus >6% for the US on average) and about 32% of its electricity (19% of its on-island primary energy) for direct water services (versus 8% of primary energy for the US on average). These values could change with policy choices like increased instream flows, higher wastewater treatment standards, electricity fuel mix changes, desalination, or increased biofuels production. This letter contributes a granular assessment of both energy for water and water for energy in a single isolated system, highlighting opportunities to address energy-water interdependencies in a context that could be relevant in other communities facing similar choices.

  9. Geology and ground-water resources of the island of Molokai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stearns, Harold T.; Macdonald, Gordon A.

    1947-01-01

    The island of Molokai is the fifth largest of the Hawaiian Islands, with an area of 250 square miles. It lies 25 miles southeast of Oahu, and 8.5 miles northwest of Maui. It consists of two principal parts, each a major volcanic mountain. East Molokai rises to 4,970 feet altitude. It is built largely of basaltic lavas, with a thin cap of andesites and a little trachyte. The volcanic rocks of East Molokai are named the East Molokai volcanic series, the basaltic part being separated as the lower member of the series, and the andesites and trachytes as the upper member. Large cinder cones and bulbous domes are associated with the lavas of the upper member. Thin beds of ash are present locally in both members. The lavas of the lower member are cut by innumerable dikes lying in two major rift zones trending eastward and northwestward. A large caldera, more than 4 miles long, and a smaller pit 0.8 mile across existed near the summit of the volcano. The rocks formed in and under the caldera are separated on plate 1 as the caldera complex. Stream erosion has cut large amphitheater-headed valleys into the northern coast of East Molokai, exposing the dikes and the caldera complex.West Molokai is lower than East Molokai, rising to 1,380 feet altitude. It was built by basaltic lavas erupted along rift zones trending southwestward and northwestward. Many of the flows were unusually fluid. The volcanic rocks of West Molokai Volcano are named the West Molokai volcanic series. Along its eastern side, the mountain is broken by a series of faults along which its eastern edge has been dropped downward. West Molokai Volcano became extinct earlier than East Molokai Volcano, and its flank is partly buried beneath lavas of East Molokai.Both volcanic mountains were built upward from the sea floor probably during Tertiary time. Following the close of volcanic activity stream erosion cut large canyons on East Molokai, but accomplished much less on drier West Molokai. Marine erosion attacked

  10. Bathymetry of the west-central slope of the island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chadwick, William W.; Moore, James G.; Fox, Christopher G.

    1994-01-01

    This map shows the topography of a small part of the subaerial western part of the Island of Hawaii as well as modern multibeam bathymetry of the west submarine flank, which covers a total area of about 8,500 km2 ( see index map). The map area includes part of the submerged flanks of the active Mauna Loa and Hualalai Volcanoes, which last erupted in 1984 and 1801 respectively. The steep and irregular submarine slope is shaped by several giant submarine landslides. They were first identified during surveys from the U.S. Geological Survey research vessel S.P. Lee in 1976 and 1978 (Normark and others, 1979) and later mapped in more detail during a swath-sonar survey (GLORIA) of the United States Hawaiian Exclusive Economic Zone in 1986 to 1991 (Lipman and others, 1988; Moore and others, 1989) as part of a cooperative venture of the U.S. Geological Survey and the British Institute of Oceanographic Sciences.

  11. The 7.2 magnitude earthquake, November 1975, Island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1976-01-01

    It was centered about 5 km beneath the Kalapana area on the southeastern coast of Hawaii, the largest island of the Hawaiian chain (Fig. 1) and was preceded by numerous foreshocks. The event was accompanied, or followed shortly, by a tsunami, large-scale ground movemtns, hundreds of aftershocks, an eruption in the summit caldera of Kilauea Volcano. The earthquake and the tsunami it generated produced about 4.1 million dollars in property damage, and the tsumani caused two deaths. Although we have some preliminary findings about the cause and effects of the earthquake, detailed scientific investigations will take many more months to complete. This article is condensed from a recent preliminary report (Tillings an others 1976)

  12. Age of -360-m reef terrace, Hawaii, and the rate of late Pleistocene subsidence of the island.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.; Moore, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    Observations from a manned submersible vehicle indicate that the -360-m reef terrace northwest of the island of Hawaii is a drowned coral reef. The preferred uranium-series age of coralline algae collected from the reef face is 120 ka. This age agrees with the notion that the reef was drowned during the sea-level rise following the major lowstand of the sea that occurred at 145 ka (oxygen isotope stage 6). Estimated average subsidence of the reef site off northwest Hawaii is 2.7 mm/yr since final drowning of the -360-m reef. -from Authors

  13. Groundwater quality in the Columbia Plateau, Snake River Plain, and Oahu basaltic-rock and basin-fill aquifers in the Northwestern United States and Hawaii, 1992-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frans, Lonna M.; Rupert, Michael G.; Hunt, Charles D.; Skinner, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    Oahu and the Columbia Plateau had some of the highest percentages of soil fumigant detections in groundwater in the United States. Soil fumigants are volatile organic compounds (VOCs) used as pesticides, which are applied to soils to reduce populations of plant parasitic nematodes (harmful rootworms), weeds, fungal pathogens, and other soil-borne microorganisms. They are used in Oahu and the Columbia Plateau on crops such as pineapple and potatoes. All three areas (Columbia Plateau, Snake River Plain, and Oahu) had fumigant concentrations exceeding human-health benchmarks for drinking water.

  14. Earthquakes and related catastrophic events, Island of Hawaii, November 29, 1975; a preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilling, Robert I.; Koyanagi, R.Y.; Lipman, P.W.; Lockwood, J.P.; Moore, J.G.; Swanson, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    The largest earthquake in over a century--magnitude 7.2 on the Richter Scale--struck Hawaii the morning of November 29, 1975, at 0448. It was centered about 5 km beneath the Kalapana area on the southeastern coast of the island at 19? 20.1 ' N., long 155? 01.4 ' W.). The earthquake was preceded by numerous foreshocks, the largest of which was a 5.7-magnitude jolt at 0336 the same morning, and was accompanied, or closely followed, by a tsunami seismic sea wave), massive ground movements, hundreds of aftershocks, and a volcanic eruption. The tsunami reached a height of 12.2-14.6 m above sea level on the southeastern coast about 25 km west of the earthquake center, elsewhere generally 8 m or less. The south flank of Kilauea Volcano, which forms the southeastern part of the island, was deformed by dislocations along old and new faults along a 25-km long zone. Downward and seaward fault displacements resulted in widespread subsidence, locally as much as 3.5 m, leaving coconut palms standing in the sea and nearly submerging a small, near-shore island. A brief, small-volume volcanic eruption, triggered by the earthquake and associated ground movements occurred at Kilauea's summit about three-quarters of an hour later. The earthquake, together with the tsunami it generated, locally caused severe property damage in the southeastern part of the island; the tsunami also caused two deaths. Damage from the earthquake and related catastrophic events is estimated by the Hawaii Civil Defense Agency at about $4.1 million. The 1975 Kalapana earthquake and accompanying events represent the latest events in a recurring pattern of behavior for Kilauea. A large earthquake of about the same magnitude, tsunami, subsidence, and eruption occurred at Kilauea in 1868, and a less powerful earthquake and similar related processes are believed to have occurred in 1823. Indeed, the geologic evidence suggests that such events have been repeated many times in Kilauea's past and will continue. The

  15. 76 FR 52966 - Kawailoa Wind Energy Generation Facility, Oahu, HI; Draft Habitat Conservation Plan and Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... Lingle announced in October 2008 a comprehensive alternative energy agreement between the State of Hawaii... energy. The State seeks to move Hawaii toward having 70 percent of its energy use coming from alternative... Fish and Wildlife Service Kawailoa Wind Energy Generation Facility, Oahu, HI; Draft...

  16. Hydroelectric power in Hawaii: a reconnaissance survey

    SciTech Connect

    1981-02-01

    The major conclusion of this study is that hydropower resources in the State of Hawaii are substantial, and they offer the potential for major increases in hydropower generating capacity. Hydropower resources on all islands total about 50 megawatts of potential generating capacity. Combined with the 18 megawatts of existing hydropower capacity, hydropower resources potentially could generate about 307 million kilowatt-hours of electric energy annually. This represents about 28% of the present combined electricity needs of the Neighbor Islands - Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and the Big Island. Hydropower resources on Kauai equal 72% of that island's electricity needs; on Molokai, 40%; on the Big Island, 20%; and on Maui, 18%. The island of Oahu, however, has only small hydropower resources, and could only generate a negligible portion of its electricity needs from this energy source. Existing and future (potential) hydropower capacities are summarized, and annual outputs for each island are estimated. Future hydropower facilities are subdivided into two categories, which show how much of the potential capacity is being actively considered for development, and how much is only tentatively proposed at the time.

  17. Ground-water yield and potential for irrigated agriculture in the area of the Naval Magazine and Radio Transmitting Facility, Lualualei, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shade, P.J.; Takasaki, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    An estimated additional 2 million gallons per day (mgd) of fresh and slightly brackish water can be developed in Lualualei Valley , Hawaii, for the agricultural outleasing project. Several of these wells could be located in the volcanic aquifer which presently produces water of excellent quality. A secondary line of wells designed to develop water from the Coralline aquifer would capture the flow not captured by the wells in the volcanic aquifer. The chloride concentration of the water pumped from these wells is expected to range between 500 and 1,500 mg/L. The amount of acreage devoted to crops would depend primarily on the water quality and quantity requirements of the type of crops cultivated and on the type of irrigation system employed. The remaining acreage could be allocated for pasture to graze beef cattle. (Author 's abstract)

  18. Age of -360-m reef terrace, Hawaii, and the rate of late Pleistocene subsidence of the island

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, B.J.; Moore, J.G.

    1986-11-01

    Observations from a manned submersible vehicle indicate that the -360-m reef terrace northwest of the island of Hawaii is a drowned coral reef. The preferred uranium-series age of coralline algae collected from the reef face is 120 +/- 5 ka. This age agrees with the notion that the reef was drowned during the sea-level rise following the major lowstand of the sea that occurred at 145 ka (oxygen isotope stage 6). This drowning pattern is similar to the previously determined radiocarbon age of 13 ka for drowning of the -150-m reef off west Hawaii, which drowned during the sea-level rise following the last major lowstand of the sea at 18 ka (oxygen isotope stage 2). Estimated average subsidence of the reef site off northwest Hawaii is 2.7 mm/yr since final drowning of the -360-m reef.

  19. Native Hawaiian Profile: State Of Hawaii 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alu Like, Inc., Honolulu, HI.

    This work summarizes statistics from previous reports on native Hawaiians done for the four counties in Hawaii. The data provided were extracted from the Office of Economic Opportunity's 1975 Census Update Surveys of Oahu, Hawaii, and Maui and from the 1974 Kauai Socio-Economic Profile done by the Center for Non-Metropolitan Studies of the…

  20. Fine-scale population genetic structure of a wildlife disease vector: The southern house mosquito on the island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keyghobadi, N.; LaPointe, D.; Fleischer, R.C.; Fonseca, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    The southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, is a widespread tropical and subtropical disease vector. In the Hawaiian Islands, where it was introduced accidentally almost two centuries ago, it is considered the primary vector of avian malaria and pox. Avian malaria in particular has contributed to the extinction and endangerment of Hawaii's native avifauna, and has altered the altitudinal distribution of native bird populations. We examined the population genetic structure of Cx. quinquefasciatus on the island of Hawaii at a smaller spatial scale than has previously been attempted, with particular emphasis on the effects of elevation on population genetic structure. We found significant genetic differentiation among populations and patterns of isolation by distance within the island. Elevation per se did not have a limiting effect on gene flow; however, there was significantly lower genetic diversity among populations at mid elevations compared to those at low elevations. A recent sample taken from just above the predicted upper altitudinal distribution of Cx. quinquefasciatus on the island of Hawaii was confirmed as being a temporary summer population and appeared to consist of individuals from more than one source population. Our results indicate effects of elevation gradients on genetic structure that are consistent with known effects of elevation on population dynamics of this disease vector. ?? 2006 The Authors.

  1. Effects of Gear Restriction on the Abundance of Juvenile Fishes along Sandy Beaches in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Mary K; Friedlander, Alan M; Usseglio, Paolo; Goodell, Whitney; Iglesias, Ily; Schemmel, Eva M; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A; Filous, Alexander; Giddens, Jonatha; Kamikawa, Keith; Koike, Haruko; McCoy, Kaylyn; Wall, Christopher B

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, due to growing concerns of declines in nearshore fisheries in Hawai'i, a ban on gillnets was implemented in designated areas around the island of O'ahu in the main Hawaiian Islands. Utilizing a 17 year time-series of juvenile fish abundance beginning prior to the implementation of the gillnet ban, we examined the effects of the ban on the abundance of juveniles of soft-bottom associated fish species. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) sampling design, we compared the abundance of targeted fishery species in a bay where gillnet fishing was banned (Kailua, O'ahu), and an adjacent bay where fishing is still permitted (Waimānalo, O'ahu). Our results show that when multiple juvenile fish species were combined, abundance declined over time in both locations, but the pattern varied for each of the four species groups examined. Bonefishes were the only species group with a significant BACI effect, with higher abundance in Kailua in the period after the gillnet ban. This study addressed a need for scientific assessment of a fisheries regulation that is rarely possible due to lack of quality data before enactment of such restrictions. Thus, we developed a baseline status of juveniles of an important fishery species, and found effects of a fishery management regulation in Hawai'i.

  2. Effects of Gear Restriction on the Abundance of Juvenile Fishes along Sandy Beaches in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Mary K; Friedlander, Alan M; Usseglio, Paolo; Goodell, Whitney; Iglesias, Ily; Schemmel, Eva M; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A; Filous, Alexander; Giddens, Jonatha; Kamikawa, Keith; Koike, Haruko; McCoy, Kaylyn; Wall, Christopher B

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, due to growing concerns of declines in nearshore fisheries in Hawai'i, a ban on gillnets was implemented in designated areas around the island of O'ahu in the main Hawaiian Islands. Utilizing a 17 year time-series of juvenile fish abundance beginning prior to the implementation of the gillnet ban, we examined the effects of the ban on the abundance of juveniles of soft-bottom associated fish species. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) sampling design, we compared the abundance of targeted fishery species in a bay where gillnet fishing was banned (Kailua, O'ahu), and an adjacent bay where fishing is still permitted (Waimānalo, O'ahu). Our results show that when multiple juvenile fish species were combined, abundance declined over time in both locations, but the pattern varied for each of the four species groups examined. Bonefishes were the only species group with a significant BACI effect, with higher abundance in Kailua in the period after the gillnet ban. This study addressed a need for scientific assessment of a fisheries regulation that is rarely possible due to lack of quality data before enactment of such restrictions. Thus, we developed a baseline status of juveniles of an important fishery species, and found effects of a fishery management regulation in Hawai'i. PMID:27171404

  3. Rainfall, Streamflow, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, Halawa Stream Drainage Basin, Oahu, Hawaii, July 1, 2006 to June 30, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Stacie T.M.; Jamison, Marcael T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Storm runoff water-quality samples were collected as part of the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program. This program is designed to assess the effects of highway runoff and urban runoff on Halawa Stream. For this program, rainfall data were collected at two stations, continuous streamflow data at three stations, and water-quality data at five stations, which include the two continuous streamflow stations. This report summarizes rainfall, streamflow, and water-quality data collected between July 1, 2006 and June 30, 2007. A total of 13 samples was collected over two storms during July 1, 2006 to June 30, 2007. The goal was to collect grab samples nearly simultaneously at all five stations and flow-weighted time-composite samples at the three stations equipped with automatic samplers. Samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, nutrients, chemical oxygen demand, and selected trace metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc). Additionally, grab samples were analyzed for oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, fecal coliform, and biological oxygen demand. Quality-assurance/quality-control samples were also collected during storms and during routine maintenance to verify analytical procedures and check the effectiveness of equipment-cleaning procedures.

  4. Rainfall, Streamflow, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, Halawa Stream Drainage Basin, Oahu, Hawaii, July 1, 2004 to June 30, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Stacie T.M.; Ball, Marcael T.J.

    2005-01-01

    Storm runoff water-quality samples were collected as part of the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program. This program is designed to assess the effects of highway runoff and urban runoff on Halawa Stream. For this program, rainfall data were collected at two stations, continuous streamflow data at two stations, and water-quality data at five stations, which include the two continuous streamflow stations. This report summarizes rainfall, streamflow, and water-quality data collected between July 1, 2004 and June 30, 2005. A total of 15 samples was collected over three storms during July 1, 2004 to June 30, 2005. In general, an attempt was made to collect grab samples nearly simultaneously at all five stations and flow-weighted time-composite samples at the three stations equipped with automatic samplers. However, all three storms were partially sampled because either not all stations were sampled or not all composite samples were collected. Samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, nutrients, chemical oxygen demand, and selected trace metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc). Chromium and nickel were added to the analysis starting October 1, 2004. Grab samples were additionally analyzed for oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, fecal coliform, and biological oxygen demand. Quality-assurance/quality-control samples were also collected during storms and during routine maintenance to verify analytical procedures and check the effectiveness of equipment-cleaning procedures.

  5. Rainfall, Streamflow, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, Halawa Stream Drainage Basin, Oahu, Hawaii, July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, Todd K.; Jamison, Marcael T.J.; Young-Smith, Stacie T. M.

    2006-01-01

    Storm runoff water-quality samples were collected as part of the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program. This program is designed to assess the effects of highway runoff and urban runoff on Halawa Stream. For this program, rainfall data were collected at two stations, continuous discharge data at one station, continuous streamflow data at two stations, and water-quality data at five stations, which include the continuous discharge and streamflow stations. This report summarizes rainfall, discharge, streamflow, and water-quality data collected between July 1, 2005 and June 30, 2006. A total of 23 samples was collected over five storms during July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2006. The goal was to collect grab samples nearly simultaneously at all five stations, and flow-weighted time-composite samples at the three stations equipped with automatic samplers; however, all five storms were partially sampled owing to lack of flow at the time of sampling at some sites, or because some samples collected by the automatic sampler did not represent water from the storm. Samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, nutrients, chemical oxygen demand, and selected trace metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc). Additionally, grab samples were analyzed for oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, fecal coliform, and biological oxygen demand. Quality-assurance/quality-control samples were also collected during storms and during routine maintenance to verify analytical procedures and check the effectiveness of equipment-cleaning procedures.

  6. Rainfall, Streamflow, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, Halawa Stream Drainage Basin, Oahu, Hawaii, July 1, 2003 to June 30, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Stacie T.M.; Ball, Marcael T.J.

    2004-01-01

    Storm runoff water-quality samples were collected as part of the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program. This program is designed to assess the effects of highway runoff and urban runoff on Halawa Stream. For this program, rainfall data were collected at two sites, continuous streamflow data at three sites, and water-quality data at five sites, which include the three streamflow sites. This report summarizes rainfall, streamflow, and water-quality data collected between July 1, 2003 and June 30, 2004. A total of 30 samples was collected over four storms during July 1, 2003 to June 30, 2004. In general, an attempt was made to collect grab samples nearly simultaneously at all five sites, and flow-weighted time-composite samples were collected at the three sites equipped with automatic samplers. However, all four storms were partially sampled because either not all stations were sampled or only grab samples were collected. Samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, nutrients, chemical oxygen demand, and selected trace metals (cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc). Grab samples were additionally analyzed for oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, fecal coliform, and biological oxygen demand. Quality-assurance/quality-control samples, collected during storms and during routine maintenance, were also collected to verify analytical procedures and check the effectiveness of equipment-cleaning procedures.

  7. Water Quality in the Halawa, Haiku, and Kaneohe Drainage Basins Before, During, and After H-3 Highway Construction, Oahu, Hawaii, 1983-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Selected water-quality data collected before, during, and after construction of the H-3 Highway at 13 water-quality stations were compared to the State of Hawaii Department of Health water-quality standards to determine the effects of highway construction on the water quality of the affected streams. Highway construction had no effect on the high concentrations of total nitrogen and nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen observed except for increased nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen concentrations at one station on Hooleinaiwa Stream. Exceedences of the 10- and 2-percent-of-the-time concentration standards for total phosphorus, total suspended solids, and turbidity, all constituents associated with sediment, occurred more commonly and at more stations during construction than either before or after. These exceedences may be, in part, due to land disturbance caused by highway construction. Highway construction had no effect on the physical water-quality properties of pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and specific conductance except at North Halawa and Kuou Streams, where specific-conductance values increased throughout the study period, most likely due to highway construction. No effects on selected trace metals and organic chemical compounds were observed due to highway construction. No effects due to highway construction were observed in the water quality of Waimaluhia Reservoir. Runoff from areas of urban land use in the Kaneohe drainage basin contributed more to the higher loads of selected water-quality constituents than did runoff from areas affected by highway construction.

  8. The effects of storm-drains with periodic flows on intertidal algal assemblages in 'Ewa Beach (O'ahu), Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Cox, T E; Foster, M S

    2013-05-15

    Storm-water drainage systems have potential to collect and focus nutrient enriched runoff into coastal systems. Storm-drain effluent could support macroalgal production and result in altered communities. To test this hypothesis, we assessed species composition and percent cover of native and non-native benthic macroalgae at eight intertidal sites along 'Ewa Beach, Hawai'i. Three sites contain storm-drainage outlets (drain 16-52 acres) that deliver effluent into the intertidal zone whereas five sites were located ≥ 100 m away and served as comparisons to determine differences related to the presence of storm-water. Results revealed lush and diverse macroalgal assemblages, similar at all sites. Furthermore, the abundance of non-native species (Acanthophora spicifera, Hypnea musciformis) was not related to presence of storm-drains. The finding that macroalgal assemblages are not related to storm-waters is contrary to an earlier investigation in the same location and underscores the importance of sampling design and habitat variation when assessing impacts.

  9. Rainfall, Streamflow, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, Halawa Stream Drainage Basin, Oahu, Hawaii, July 1, 2002 to June 30, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Stacie T.M.; Ball, Marcael T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Storm runoff water-quality samples were collected as part of the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program. This program is designed to assess the effects of highway runoff and urban runoff on Halawa Stream. For this program, rainfall data was collected at two sites, continuous streamflow data at three sites, and water-quality data at five sites, which include the three streamflow sites. This report summarizes rainfall, streamflow, and water-quality data collected between July 1, 2002 to June 30, 2003. A total of 28 samples were collected over five storms during July 1, 2002 to June 30, 2003. For two of the five storms, five grab samples and three flow-weighted timecomposite samples were collected. Grab samples were collected nearly simultaneously at all five sites, and flow-weighted timecomposite samples were collected at the three sites equipped with automatic samplers. The other three storms were partially sampled, where only flow-weighted time-composite samples were collected and/or not all stations were sampled. Samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, nutrients, chemical oxygen demand, and selected trace metals (cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc). Grab samples were additionally analyzed for oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, fecal coliform, and biological oxygen demand. Quality-assurance/qualitycontrol samples, collected during storms and during routine maintenance, were also collected to verify analytical procedures and insure proper cleaning of equipment.

  10. Rainfall, Streamflow, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, Halawa Stream Drainage Basin, Oahu, Hawaii, July 1, 2001 to June 30, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, Todd K.

    2002-01-01

    The State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program was implemented on January 1, 2001. The program includes the collection of rainfall, streamflow, and water-quality data at selected sites in the Halawa Stream drainage basin. Rainfall data were collected at two sites, and streamflow data were collected at 3 sites for the year July 1, 2001 to June 30, 2002. Water-quality data were collected at five sites, which include the three streamflow sites. Six storms were sampled during the year July 1, 2001 to June 30, 2002, for a total of 44 samples. For each storm event, grab samples were collected nearly simultaneously at all five sites, and flow-weighted, time-composite samples were collected at the three sites equipped with automatic samplers. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, trace metals, oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, fecal coliform, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, and total dissolved solids. Quality assurance samples were also collected to verify analytical procedures and insure proper cleaning of equipment.

  11. Alien dominance of the parasitoid wasp community along an elevation gradient on Hawai'i Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, R.W.; Banko, P.C.; Schwarzfeld, M.; Euaparadorn, M.; Brinck, K.W.

    2008-01-01

    Through intentional and accidental introduction, more than 100 species of alien Ichneumonidae and Braconidae (Hymenoptera) have become established in the Hawaiian Islands. The extent to which these parasitoid wasps have penetrated native wet forests was investigated over a 1,765 m elevation gradient on windward Hawai'i Island. For >1 year, malaise traps were used to continuously monitor parasitoid abundance and species richness in nine sites over three elevations. A total of 18,996 individuals from 16 subfamilies were collected. Overall, the fauna was dominated by aliens, with 44 of 58 species foreign to the Hawaiian Islands. Ichneumonidae was dominant over Braconidae in terms of both diversity and abundance, comprising 67.5% of individuals and 69.0% of species collected. Parasitoid abundance and species richness varied significantly with elevation: abundance was greater at mid and high elevations compared to low elevation while species richness increased with increasing elevation, with all three elevations differing significantly from each other. Nine species purposely introduced to control pest insects were found, but one braconid, Meteorus laphygmae, comprised 98.0% of this assemblage, or 28.3% of the entire fauna. Endemic species, primarily within the genera Spolas and Enicospilus, were collected almost exclusively at mid- and high-elevation sites, where they made up 22.1% and 36.0% of the total catch, respectively. Overall, 75.9% of species and 96.0% of individuals are inferred to parasitize Lepidoptera larvae and pupae. Our results support previous data indicating that alien parasitoids have deeply penetrated native forest habitats and may have substantial impacts on Hawaiian ecosystems. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. Bioaccessible arsenic in soils of former sugar cane plantations, Island of Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Cutler, William G; Brewer, Roger C; El-Kadi, Aly; Hue, Nguyen V; Niemeyer, Patrick G; Peard, John; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2013-01-01

    Arsenical herbicides were used extensively for emergent weed control in Hawaiian sugar cane cultivation from 1913 to about 1950. As a result, surface soil arsenic concentrations average 280 mg kg(-1) across more than 60 km(2) of former sugar plantation land in the eastern portion of the Island of Hawaii. This study was conducted to elucidate the relationship between soil properties and arsenic bioaccessibility in the iron-rich volcanic soils. Soils are predominantly Andisols, formed by weathering of basaltic lava and tephra, with pedogenic solid phases consisting of short-range order iron oxyhydroxides, allophane-like aluminosilicates, and metal-humus compounds. These reactive solid phases strongly adsorb oxyanions, such as phosphate and arsenite/arsenate. High arsenic sorption capacity limits desorption and vertical migration within the soil column and prevents contamination of the underlying groundwater aquifer, despite high arsenic loading and precipitation rates. In vitro arsenic bioaccessibility, as measured by the SBRC gastric-phase test, ranges from 2% to 35% and averages 9% of total arsenic. Bioaccessible arsenic is higher in less weathered soils (Udifolists, Typic and Lithic Hydrudands) and lower in more weathered ash-dominant soils (Acrudoxic Hydrudands). Soil weathering indicators, such as reactive iron content, are strong predictors of arsenic bioaccessibility. Based on evidence from soil mineralogy, geochemistry and arsenic speciation, as well as limited soil arsenic bioavailability/bioaccessibility comparisons, risks to human health from direct contact (soil ingestion) are significantly reduced by low arsenic bioaccessibility. Nonetheless, some soils within former sugar cane cultivation areas contain bioaccessible arsenic concentrations exceeding Hawaii Department of Health risk-based action levels, and will require mitigating actions. Even higher levels of soil arsenic contamination have been identified at former pesticide storage and mixing areas

  13. Polynesian land use decisions in Hawai`i and Rapa Nui (Easter Island) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladefoged, T. N.; Chadwick, O.; Haoa, S.; Stevenson, C.; Vitousek, P.

    2009-12-01

    Over the span of several centuries ancient Hawaiians and Rapanui (Easter Islanders) developed a range of intensive agricultural systems in their volcanic homelands. In leeward Kohala (Hawai`i) people targeted relatively young geologic substrates that were naturally enriched soil nutrient zones to construct a 60 km2 intensive rain-fed field system. A series of earthen and rock embankments and trails were built to facilitate sweet potato and dryland taro production and distribution. By comparing nutrient levels under embankments of different ages it has been possible to document significant nutrient depletion over approximately 150 years of pre-European gardening. On the wet windward side of Kohala leaching driven by high rainfall depleted soil nutrients in upland areas naturally, to levels unsuitable for intensive rain-fed agriculture. As an alternative, people exploited colluvial and alluvial zones for intensive rain-fed and irrigated agriculture, respectively. Analyses from Pololu in Kohala and Halawa on Moloka`i suggests that soil nutrient levels within colluvial zones were rejuvenated by erosion and deposition from fresh bedrock. In alluvial areas, soil nutrient levels were enhanced through the deposition of soluble elements via weathering of minerals along the flowpath between rainfall and delivery of irrigation water to Hawaiian crops. On Rapa Nui the lack of perennial streams meant that people were reliant on intensive rain-fed systems for their subsistence and surplus needs. In response to the matrix of geologic substrate ages and rainfall levels several innovative agricultural strategies were employed. Basalt outcrops were intentionally broken apart and large quantities of rock were distributed over the barren landscape. In places these “rock gardens” consisted of boulder concentrations and/or smaller rock veneers, whereas in other zones rocks were mulched into the soil to a depth of 30 cm to create growing medium. The advantages of these techniques

  14. Emerging coral diseases in Kāne'ohe Bay, O'ahu, Hawai'i (USA): two major disease outbreaks of acute Montipora white syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aeby, Greta S; Callahan, Sean; Cox, Evelyn F; Runyon, Christina; Smith, Ashley; Stanton, Frank G; Ushijima, Blake; Work, Thierry M

    2016-05-26

    In March 2010 and January 2012, we documented 2 widespread and severe coral disease outbreaks on reefs throughout Kāne'ohe Bay, Hawai'i (USA). The disease, acute Montipora white syndrome (aMWS), manifested as acute and progressive tissue loss on the common reef coral M. capitata. Rapid visual surveys in 2010 revealed 338 aMWS-affected M. capitata colonies with a disease abundance of (mean ± SE) 0.02 ± 0.01 affected colonies per m of reef surveyed. In 2012, disease abundance was significantly higher (1232 aMWS-affected colonies) with 0.06 ± 0.02 affected colonies m(-1). Prior surveys found few acute tissue loss lesions in M. capitata in Ka¯ne'ohe Bay; thus, the high number of infected colonies found during these outbreaks would classify this as an emerging disease. Disease abundance was highest in the semi-enclosed region of south Kāne'ohe Bay, which has a history of nutrient and sediment impacts from terrestrial runoff and stream discharge. In 2010, tagged colonies showed an average tissue loss of 24% after 1 mo, and 92% of the colonies continued to lose tissue in the subsequent month but at a slower rate (chronic tissue loss). The host-specific nature of this disease (affecting only M. capitata) and the apparent spread of lesions between M. capitata colonies in the field suggest a potential transmissible agent. The synchronous appearance of affected colonies on multiple reefs across Kāne'ohe Bay suggests a common underlying factor. Both outbreaks occurred during the colder, rainy winter months, and thus it is likely that some parameter(s) associated with winter environmental conditions are linked to the emergence of disease outbreaks on these reefs. PMID:27225202

  15. Volcanic air pollution over the Island of Hawai'i: Emissions, dispersal, and composition. Association with respiratory symptoms and lung function in Hawai'i Island school children

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tam, Elizabeth K.; Miike, Rei; Labrenz, Susan; Sutton, Andrew; Elias, Tamar; Davis, James A.; Chen, Yi-Leng; Tantisira, Kelan; Dockery, Douglas; Avol, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Environmental data suggested 4 different vog exposure zones with SO2, PM2.5, and particulate acid concentrations (mean ± s.d.) as follows: 1) Low (0.3 ± 0.2 ppb, 2.5 ± 1.2 μg/m3, 0.6 ± 1.1 nmol H +/m3), 2) Intermittent (1.6 ± 1.8 ppb, 2.8 ± 1.5 μg/m3, 4.0 ± 6.6 nmol H +/m3), 3) Frequent (10.1 ± 5.2 ppb, 4.8 ± 1.9 μg/m3, 4.3 ± 6.7 nmol H +/m3), and 4) Acid (1.2 ± 0.4 ppb, 7.2 ± 2.3 μg/m3, 25.3 ± 17.9 nmol H +/m3). Participants (1957) in the 4 zones differed in race, prematurity, maternal smoking during pregnancy, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, presence of mold in the home, and physician-diagnosed asthma. Multivariable analysis showed an association between Acid vog exposure and cough and strongly suggested an association with FEV1/FVC < 0.8, but not with diagnosis of asthma, or chronic persistent wheeze or bronchitis in the last 12 months. Conclusions: Hawai'i Island's volcanic air pollution can be very acidic, but contains few co-contaminants originating from anthropogenic sources of air pollution. Chronic exposure to acid vog is associated with increased cough and possibly with reduced FEV1/FVC, but not with asthma or bronchitis. Further study is needed to better understand how volcanic air pollution interacts with host and environmental factors to affect respiratory symptoms, lung function, and lung growth, and to determine acute effects of episodes of increased emissions.

  16. Geology and ground-water resources of the islands of Lanai and Kahoolawe, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stearns, Harold T.; Macdonald, Gordon Andrew; Swartz, Joel Howard

    1940-01-01

    Lanai lies 59 miles southeast of Honolulu, Oahu, has an area of 141 square miles, and is 3,370 feet high. (See fig. 1 and pl. 1.) Lanai City is the only town of importance. The island produces pineapples and cattle. The surface above about 1,200 feet is generally covered with lateritic soil, which reaches a maximum depth of about 50 feet. Below this level the island is partly devoid of vegetation and is strewn with boulders, the result of having been once submerged by the ocean to this depth. Traces of various emerged and submerged shore lines are described, the highest fossiliferous marine deposits being 1,070 feet above sea level. Lanai is an eroded extinct basaltic volcano built during one period of activity. No secondary eruptions occurred as on most of the other islands. It has three rift zones and a summit caldera. The summit plateau has resulted from collapse along the northwest rift zone. Elsewhere there is much evidence of faulting. About 100 faults and 275 dikes were recorded, but they are so close together in places that it was not possible to show them all on the map.The climate is semitropical, the mean annual temperature of Lanai City, altitude 1,620 feet, being 68° F. Because Lanai lies to the lee of Maui Island it is dry. The mean annual rainfall ranges from 38 inches on the summit to less than 10 inches on the coast. The windward (northeast) side is carved by streams into deep canyons. Maunalei Gulch has the only perennial stream, and it does not reach the sea. Ground water, the lifeblood of Lanai is scarce. Lanai City obtains some of its water supply by a tunnel from gravel in Maumalei Gulch. This water apparently rises from the dike complex in this gulch. The rest of the supply comes from a recently constructed shaft tapping the dike complex not far downstream. The total quantity of high-level ground water discharged by springs and tunnels ranges from about 600,000 gallons a day in wet weather to about 250,000 gallons a day in dry weather. The

  17. Geology and ground-water resources of the islands of Lanai and Kahoolawe, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stearns, Harold T.; Macdonald, Gordon Andrew; Swartz, Joel Howard

    1940-01-01

    Lanai lies 59 miles southeast of Honolulu, Oahu, has an area of 141 square miles, and is 3,370 feet high. (See fig. 1 and pl. 1.) Lanai City is the only town of importance. The island produces pineapples and cattle. The surface above about 1,200 feet is generally covered with lateritic soil, which reaches a maximum depth of about 50 feet. Below this level the island is partly devoid of vegetation and is strewn with boulders, the result of having been once submerged by the ocean to this depth. Traces of various emerged and submerged shore lines are described, the highest fossiliferous marine deposits being 1,070 feet above sea level. Lanai is an eroded extinct basaltic volcano built during one period of activity. No secondary eruptions occurred as on most of the other islands. It has three rift zones and a summit caldera. The summit plateau has resulted from collapse along the northwest rift zone. Elsewhere there is much evidence of faulting. About 100 faults and 275 dikes were recorded, but they are so close together in places that it was not possible to show them all on the map.The climate is semitropical, the mean annual temperature of Lanai City, altitude 1,620 feet, being 68° F. Because Lanai lies to the lee of Maui Island it is dry. The mean annual rainfall ranges from 38 inches on the summit to less than 10 inches on the coast. The windward (northeast) side is carved by streams into deep canyons. Maunalei Gulch has the only perennial stream, and it does not reach the sea. Ground water, the lifeblood of Lanai is scarce. Lanai City obtains some of its water supply by a tunnel from gravel in Maumalei Gulch. This water apparently rises from the dike complex in this gulch. The rest of the supply comes from a recently constructed shaft tapping the dike complex not far downstream. The total quantity of high-level ground water discharged by springs and tunnels ranges from about 600,000 gallons a day in wet weather to about 250,000 gallons a day in dry weather. The

  18. Bibliography of marine turtles in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, S.F.

    1981-07-01

    Information on the organisms at proposed Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) sites is required to assess the potential impacts of OTEC power plant operations. This bibliography is the product of a literature survey on marine turtles at two proposed OTEC sites in Hawaii. The OTEC sites are located off Keahole Point, Hawaii and Kahe Point, Oahu. The references included in this bibliography provide information on the distribution, ecology and biology of marine turtles in Hawaii.

  19. Spatial and temporal patterns of coral health and disease along leeward Hawai'i Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couch, C. S.; Garriques, J. D.; Barnett, C.; Preskitt, L.; Cotton, S.; Giddens, J.; Walsh, W.

    2014-09-01

    Ecological processes including disease, competition for space, and predation strongly influence coral reef health from the colony to reef level. The leeward/west coast of the island of Hawai'i consists of the largest expanse of intact reefs in the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI), yet little is known about the health of its coral communities. We measured prevalence of coral diseases and non-disease conditions at nine regions across two depths in the summer and winter months between 2010 and 2011. We also assessed long-term changes in coral cover (2003-2011). Mean prevalence of chronic diseases was 5-21 times greater than previously reported for the MHI. Coral health varied minimally across survey months with mild seasonality only detected in algal overgrowth (ALOG). Coral health varied considerably by depth and site, and was primarily driven by the most prevalent and common conditions: Porites growth anomalies (13.7 ± 0.82 %), Porites trematodiasis (9.5 ± 0.90 %), discoloration (5.6 ± 0.33 %), ALOG (9.9 ± 0.54 %), and gastropod predation (2.4 ± 0.23). While several conditions were significantly elevated in shallow zones, unique site × depth interactions suggest that specific site-level factors are driving prevalence. At the coast-wide level, percentage of coral cover did not change significantly between 2003 and 2011, but decreased significantly at two sites and increased at one site. Based on coral cover decline and high prevalence of certain coral health conditions, we identified four regions of concern (Puakō, Mauna Lani, Ka'ūpūlehu, and Hōnaunau). The high spatial variation in coral health not only advances our understanding of coral disease ecology, but also supports reef resilience planning by identifying vulnerable areas that would benefit most from targeted conservation and management efforts.

  20. Three-dimensional Magnetotelluric Modeling of the Pohukuloa Training Area, Hawaii Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D. M.; Lienert, B. R.; Wallin, E.

    2015-12-01

    We report the results of 3D modeling of magnetotelluric (MT) data collected in the Pohakuloa Training Area (PTA) on the saddle between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea volcanoes on Hawaii Island. We have previously used lower frequency MT data to construct 1D and 2D resistivity profiles in this area and confirmed the presence of a low-resistivity region at depths of about 2 km. One of our drill holes in PTA had previously encountered temperatures of 150 C at a similar depth. However, our 1D and 2D models were unable to fit features of the data that we suspected were due to 3D variations in subsurface resistivity. For the 3D modeling, we reprocessed the higher frequency data (1 kHz sampling rate) which were available at all 20 sites. We were then able to obtain complex impedances at frequencies of 0.5-500 Hz to use for the 3D inversion. We used Siripunvaraporn's 3D inversion method to obtain resistivities in a rectangular array of 0.5x0.5x0.25 km blocks spanning the areal extent of the stations down to a depth of 2.5 km. The results confirmed that much of the anomalous data could be explained by near-surface 3D variations in resistivity. The underlying conductor of 5-10 ohm-m at 2 km depth now appears to extend over the entire survey area.

  1. Preliminary Results of a Magnetotelluric Survey in the Center of Hawaii Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lienert, B. R.; Thomas, D. M.; Wallin, E.

    2014-12-01

    From 2013 up to the present we have been recording magnetotelluric (MT) data at 25 sites in a 35x25 km region (elev. 1943 m) on the saddle between the active volcano of Mauna Loa (4169 m) and the dormant volcano of Mauna Kea (4205 m) on Hawai'i Island. The MT data, particularly the electric fields, are frequently contaminated by spurious components that are not due to the plane-wave magnetic signals required for derivation of the MT impedance tensor. We therefore developed interactive graphical software (MTPlot) to plot and analyze the MT signals in the field. MTPlot allows us to quickly examine records in both the time and frequency domain to in order to judge their quality. It also transforms the data into estimates of apparent resistivity and their error in the frequency range 0.001-500 Hz. This has proved very useful for selecting suitable records for subsequent analysis. We then use multi-taper remote reference processing to obtain our final apparent resistivity estimates and their errors. We present preliminary results of one and two dimensional modeling of these estimates to obtain the three-dimensional distribution of subsurface resistivities down to depths of 5 km. The results are compared to temperatures and properties of cores obtained when we drilled a research hole to a depth of 1760 m in this same region. We shall discuss how our results relate to the extent of the fresh-water and geothermal energy reservoirs that we discovered during drilling.

  2. Plant phenology in a cloud forest on the island of Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berlin, Kim E.; Pratt, T.K.; Simon, John C.; Kowalsky, James R.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    We recorded the times of flowering, fruiting, and leafing of ten native canopy and subcanopy trees and shrubs (monthly from December 1994 through December 1997) in a montane cloud forest with relatively aseasonal rainfall on the island of Maui, Hawaii. These species represented the great majority of individual woody plants at the site. Flowers and fruits were available in the community year-round; however, all species exhibited annual patterns of flowering, and four species showed annual patterns of fruiting while the rest fruited in supra-annual patterns. Many species had protracted flowering or fruiting peaks, and some bore small numbers of flowers or fruit year-round. Most species flowered in a monthly peak mainly between May and August, corresponding to the period of greatest solar irradiance and marginally higher temperatures. Fruit ripening followed at varying intervals. In contrast, the heaviest flowering occurred between November and March, resulting from bloom of the dominant tree, Metrosideros polymorpha. At the highest elevations, Metrosideros flowering was heaviest during September, but peak flowering of lower elevation trees occurred in late fall and winter. Two varieties of this species differed in their temporal and spatial patterns of flowering. For M. polymorpha var. polymorpha and var. incana, bloom peaked annually between November and January; however, for M. polymorpha var. glaberrima, flowering peaked from April through July, with a possible earlier secondary peak in January.

  3. Biogeography of planktonic and benthic cyanobacteria in coastal waters of the Big Island, Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Samuel D; Kaplan, Katherine A; Modanu, Maria; Sirianni, Katherine M; Annandale, Senifa; Hewson, Ian

    2014-07-01

    Cyanobacteria are biogeochemically significant constituents of coral reef ecosystems; however, little is known about biotic and abiotic factors influencing the abundance and composition of cyanobacterial communities in fringing coral reef waters. To understand the patterns of cyanobacterial biogeography in relation to coastal environmental factors, we examined the diversity of planktonic and benthic cyanobacteria at 12 sites along the west coast of Hawaii's Big Island. We found distinct cyanobacterial communities in sediments compared to the water column. In both sediments and water, community structure was strongly related to overall biomass (chlorophyll a concentration), although both these communities corresponded to different sets of biotic/abiotic variables. To examine the influence of freshwater input on planktonic cyanobacterial communities, we conducted a mesocosm experiment where seawater was amended with freshwater from two sources representing high- and low-human population influence. Planktonic cyanobacterial abundance decreased over time in mesocosms, although chlorophyll a concentration significantly increased with time, indicating cyanobacteria were likely outcompeted by other phytoplankton in incubations. Our results show that cyanobacterial community structure may be affected by runoff from terrestrial habitats, but that the composition of cyanobacterial communities inhabiting these locations is also structured by factors not measured in this study.

  4. Effects of ungulate management on vegetation at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawai'i Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, S.C.; Jeffrey, J.J.; Pratt, L.W.; Ball, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    We compiled and analysed data from 1987-2004 on vegetation monitoring during feral ungulate management at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, a tropical montane rainforest on the island of Hawai'i All areas in the study had previously been used by ungulates, but cattle (Bos taurus) were removed and feral pig (Sus scrofa) populations were reduced during the study period. We monitored six line-intercept transects, three in previously high ungulate use areas and three in previously low ungulate use areas. We measured nine cover categories with the line-intercept method: native ferns; native woody plants; bryophytes; lichens; alien grasses; alien herbs; litter; exposed soil; and coarse woody debris. Vegetation surveys were repeated four times over a 16-year period. Vegetation monitoring revealed a strong increase in native fern cover and slight decreases in cover of bryophytes and exposed soil. Mean cover of native plants was generally higher in locations that were formerly lightly grazed, while alien grass and herb cover was generally higher in areas that were heavily grazed, although these effects were not statistically significant. These responses may represent early serai processes in forest regeneration following the reduction of feral ungulate populations. In contrast to many other Hawaiian forests which have become invaded by alien grasses and herbs after ungulate removal, HFNWR has not experienced this effect.

  5. Rainfall, discharge, and water-quality data during stormwater monitoring, H-1 storm drain, Oahu, Hawaii, July 1, 2009, to June 30, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, Todd K.; Jamison, Marcael T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Storm runoff water-quality samples were collected as part of the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program. The program is designed to assess the effects of highway runoff and urban runoff collected by the H-1 storm drain on the Manoa-Palolo Drainage Canal. This report summarizes rainfall, discharge, and water-quality data collected between July 1, 2009, and June 30, 2010. As part of this program, rainfall and continuous discharge data were collected at the H-1 storm drain. During the year, sampling strategy and sample processing methods were modified to improve the characterization of the effects of discharge from the storm drain on the Manoa-Palolo Drainage Canal. During July 1, 2009, to February 1, 2010, samples were collected from only the H-1 storm drain. Beginning February 2, 2010, samples were collected simultaneously from the H-1 storm drain and the Manoa-Palolo Drainage Canal at a location about 50 feet upstream of the discharge point of the H-1 storm drain. Three storms were sampled during July 1, 2009, to June 30, 2010. All samples were collected using automatic samplers. For the storm of August 12, 2009, grab samples (for oil and grease, and total petroleum hydrocarbons) and a composite sample were collected. The composite sample was analyzed for total suspended solids, nutrients, and selected dissolved and total (filtered and unfiltered) trace metals (cadmium, chromium, nickel, copper, lead, and zinc). Two storms were sampled in March 2010 at the H-1 storm drain and from the Manoa-Palolo Drainage Canal. Two samples were collected during the storm of March 4, 2010, and six samples were collected during the storm of March 8, 2010. These two storms were sampled using the modified strategy, in which discrete samples from the automatic sampler were processed and analyzed individually, rather than as a composite sample, using the simultaneously collected samples from the H-1 storm drain and from the Manoa-Palolo Drainage

  6. Potential effects of the Hawaii Geothermal Project on ground-water resources on the island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, M.L.; Colvard, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, the State of Hawaii proposed the Hawaii Geothermal Project for the development of as much as 500 MW of electric power from the geothermal system in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano. This report uses data from 31 wells and 8 springs to describe the properties of the ground-water system in and adjacent to the East Rift Zone. Potential effects of this project on ground-water resources are also discussed. Data show differences in ground-water chemistry and heads within the study area that appear to be related to mixing of waters of different origins and ground-water impoundment by volcanic dikes. East of Pahoa, the ground-water system within the rift is highly transmissive and receives abundant recharge from precipitation; therefore, the pumping of freshwater to support geothermal development in that part of the rift zone would have a minimal effect on ground-water levels. To the southwest of Pahoa, dike impoundment reduces the transmissivity of the ground-water system to such an extent that wells might not be capable of supplying sufficient fresh water to support geothermal operations. Contamination of ground-water resources by accidental release of geothermal fluids into shallow aquifers is possible because of corrosive conditions in the geothermal wells, potential well blowouts, and high ground-water velocities in parts of the region. Hydrologic monitoring of water level, temperature, and chemistry in observation wells should continue throughout development of geothermal resources for the Hawaii Geothermal Project for early detection of leakage and migration of geothermal fluids within the groundwater system.

  7. Examination of Environmental Trends in Hawaii Based on the Trace Element Distributions in Cores of the Kiawe tree (Prosopis pallida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, Y. S.; de Carlo, E. H.; Spengler, S. R.

    2003-12-01

    Annual growth rings of trees have the potential for providing a chronology of bioavailable contaminants extant in the environment in which the trees grow. Recent studies have documented a significant correlation between concentrations of metals in atmospheric particulate matter and those observed in surface and groundwater. The Kiawe (Prosopis pallida), a hardwood tree commonly found in Hawaii, represents a potential environmental tape recorder because of its life span on the order of multiple decades. Because the Kiawe is phreatophytic and has high transpiration rates, it may be ideally suited to examine past (temporal) and current (spatial) variability in the quality of groundwater where these trees grow. Because of the potential correlation between airborne and groundwater pollution we hypothesize that growth rings of Kiawe may yield clues to help unravel recent (50-100 yrs) changes in contamination patterns in Hawaii. We will present concentrations of trace elements (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sb, and Pb) in cores of Kiawe trees growing on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Oahu, the locus of more than 80 percent of the population of the State of Hawaii, is heavily urbanized, but other land uses include agriculture, conservation (rainforest), and military reservations, where live-fire military training activities over the past 60 years have raised public concern about potential contamination of natural resources. Preliminary analyses indicate that trace element concentrations in Kiawe wood range from a less than one to tens of micrograms per kilogram, depending on the element and the provenance of the tree.

  8. UV Responses in Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders and Asians Residing in Hawai'i and in Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Colmenares, Leticia U.; Coelho, Sergio; Miller, Sharon A.; Boomer, KB; Beer, Janusz Z.

    2013-01-01

    Background UV exposure causes a wide range of skin damage including cutaneous melanoma. The mechanisms of cellular and molecular damage as well as erythemal and pigmentation responses to UV exposure have largely been studied in the White population. Methods This study systematically investigates responses to UV exposure in the Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) and Asian populations living in Hawai'i (A/HI) as well as in Asians living in Maryland (A/MD). Results Our analyses indicate that the NHPI population is less sensitive to UV exposure than the A/HI population. Comparisons between the two Asian groups suggest that, despite slightly but not statistically different baseline constitutive pigmentation (pre-UV exposure), the A/HI and A/MD had similar UV sensitivity, measured as minimal erythemal dose (MED). However, the A/MD population had higher levels of oxy-hemoglobin at doses of 2.0, 2.8 and 4.0 MED. Unexpectedly the A/MD subjects retained higher levels of pigmentation 2 weeks post UV exposure. Conclusion This study provides insight into UV responses of the inhabitants of Hawai'i and shows that such responses are statistically significant for relatively small samples of Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders, and for Asians living in Hawai'i and Asians living in Maryland. PMID:23651272

  9. Map and Data for Quaternary Faults and Fault Systems on the Island of Hawai`i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Eric C.; Burgmann, Roland; Crone, Anthony J.; Machette, Michael N.; Dart, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    and catalog of data, both in Adobe Acrobat PDF format. The senior authors (Eric C. Cannon and Roland Burgmann) compiled the fault data as part of ongoing studies of active faulting on the Island of Hawai`i. The USGS is responsible for organizing and integrating the State or regional products under their National Seismic Hazard Mapping project, including the coordination and oversight of contributions from individuals and groups (Michael N. Machette and Anthony J. Crone), database design and management (Kathleen M. Haller), and digitization and analysis of map data (Richard L. Dart). After being released an Open-File Report, the data in this report will be available online at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/qfaults/, the USGS Quaternary Fault and Fold Database of the United States.

  10. Imaging Structure, Stratigraphy and Groundwater with Ground-Penetrating Radar on the Big Island, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, S. R.; Tchakirides, T. F.; Brown, L. D.

    2004-12-01

    A series of exploratory ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were carried out on the Big Island, Hawaii in March of 2004 to evaluate the efficacy of using GPR to address hydrological, volcanological, and tectonic issues in extrusive basaltic materials. Target sites included beach sands, nearshore lava flows, well-developed soil covers, lava tubes, and major fault zones. Surveys were carried out with a Sensors and Software T Pulse Ekko 100, which was equipped with 50, 100, and 200 MHz antennae. Both reflection profiles and CMP expanding spreads were collected at most sites to provide both structural detail and in situ velocity estimation. In general, the volcanic rocks exhibited propagation velocities of ca 0.09-0.10 m/ns, a value which we interpret to reflect the large air-filled porosity of the media. Penetration in the nearshore area was expectedly small (less than 1 m), which we attribute to seawater infiltration. However, surveys in the volcanics away from the coast routinely probed to depths of 10 m or greater, even at 100 MHz. While internal layering and lava tubes could be identified from individual profiles, the complexity of returns suggests that 3D imaging is required before detailed stratigraphy can be usefully interpreted. A pilot 3D survey over a lava tube complex supports this conclusion, although it was prematurely terminated by bad weather. Although analysis of the CMP data does not show a clear systematic variation in radar velocity with age of flow, the dataset is too limited to support any firm conclusions on this point. Unusually distinct, subhorizontal reflectors on several profiles seem to mark groundwater. In one case, the water seems to lie within a lava tube with an air-filled roof zone. Surveys over part of the controversial Hilana fault zone clearly image the fault as a steeply dipping feature in the subsurface, albeit only to depths of a few meters. The results suggest, however, that deeper extensions of the faults could be mapped by

  11. Implementation Plan for the Hawaii Geothermal Project Environmental Impact Statement (DOE Review Draft:)

    SciTech Connect

    1992-09-18

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) that identifies and evaluates the environmental impacts associated with the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP), as defined by the State of Hawaii in its 1990 proposal to Congress (DBED 1990). The location of the proposed project is shown in Figure 1.1. The EIS is being prepared pursuant to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as implemented by the President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508) and the DOE NEPA Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021), effective May 26, 1992. The State's proposal for the four-phase HGP consists of (1) exploration and testing of the geothermal resource beneath the slopes of the active Kilauea volcano on the Island of Hawaii (Big Island), (2) demonstration of deep-water power cable technology in the Alenuihaha Channel between the Big Island and Mau, (3) verification and characterization of the geothermal resource on the Big Island, and (4) construction and operation of commercial geothermal power production facilities on the Big Island, with overland and submarine transmission of electricity from the Big Island to Oahu and possibly other islands. DOE prepared appropriate NEPA documentation for separate federal actions related to Phase 1 and 2 research projects, which have been completed. This EIS will consider Phases 3 and 4, as well as reasonable alternatives to the HGP. Such alternatives include biomass coal, solar photovoltaic, wind energy, and construction and operation of commercial geothermal power production facilities on the Island of Hawaii (for exclusive use on the Big Island). In addition, the EIs will consider the reasonable alternatives among submarine cable technologies, geothermal extraction, production, and power generating technologies; pollution control technologies; overland and submarine power transmission routes; sites reasonably suited to support

  12. Geohydrology and Numerical Simulation of the Ground-Water Flow System of Kona, Island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    1999-01-01

    Prior to the early 1990's, ground-water in the Kona area, which is in the western part of the island of Hawaii, was withdrawn from wells located within about 3 mi from the coast where water levels were less than 10 feet above sea level. In 1990, exploratory drilling in the uplands east of the existing coastal wells first revealed the presence of high water levels (greater than 40 feet above sea level) in the Kona area. Measured water levels from 16 wells indicate that high water levels exist in a zone parallel to and inland of the Kona coast, between Kalaoa and Honaunau. Available hydrologic and geophysical evidence is generally consistent with the concept that the high ground-water levels are associated with a buried dike complex. A two-dimensional (areal), steady-state, freshwater-saltwater, sharp-interface ground-water flow model was developed for the Kona area of the island of Hawaii, to enhance the understanding of (1) the distribution of aquifer hydraulic properties, (2) the conceptual framework of the ground-water flow system, and (3) the regional effects of ground-water withdrawals on water levels and coastal discharge. The model uses the finite-difference code SHARP. To estimate the hydraulic characteristics, average recharge, withdrawals, and water-level conditions for the period 1991-93 were simulated. The following horizontal hydraulic-conductivity values were estimated: (1) 7,500 feet per day for the dike-free volcanic rocks of Hualalai and Mauna Loa, (2) 0.1 feet per day for the buried dike complex of Hualalai, (3) 10 feet per day for the northern marginal dike zone (north of Kalaoa), and (4) 0.5 feet per day for the southern marginal dike zone between Palani Junction and Holualoa. The coastal leakance was estimated to be 0.05 feet per day per foot. Measured water levels indicate that ground water generally flows from inland areas to the coast. Model results are in general agreement with the limited set of measured water levels in the Kona area. Model

  13. Study of Hydrothermal Mineralization in 2013 Drill Core from Hawaii Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautze, N. C.; Calvin, W. M.; Moore, J.; Haskins, E.; Thomas, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Humu'ula Groundwater Research Project (HGRP) drilled a continuously-cored hole to nearly 2 km depth near the Saddle Road between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea volcanoes on Hawaii Island in March of 2013. Temperatures at the bottom of the hole were unexpectedly high and reached over 100 C. A study is underway to characterize hydrothermal (secondary) mineralization in the core at depths below ~ 1 km. Secondary mineralization can indicate the presence, chemistry, and temperature of hydrothermal fluids, therein helping to characterize a present and/or past geothermal system. To date, the study is two pronged. In collaboration with University Nevada Reno (UNR) we used an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) FieldSpec instrument to obtain nearly 800 spectra from core depths spanning 3190 to 5785 feet. This device has a 2 cm contact probe that measures from 0.4 to 2.5 mm, and has been used successfully by UNR to identify depth-associated changes in alteration mineralogy and zoning in drill core from other pilot studies. The spectra indicate that rocks above a depth of ~1 km are only weakly altered. At greater depths to the base of the well, chlorite, possibly with some mica, and zeolites are common. The majority of zeolites are spectrally similar to each other at these wavelengths, however analcime and natrolite are uniquely identified in some sections. Epidote was not observed. The secondary mineral assemblages suggest that the alteration was produced by moderate temperature neutral pH fluids. Here, we used the spectral data as a survey tool to help identify and select over 20 sections of core for sampling and more detailed mineralogical analysis using traditional X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and petrographic techniques, conducted in collaboration with University of Utah. This presentation will include mineral maps with depth and results of the petrographic analyses.

  14. Early recovery of a Hawaiian lowland rainforest following clearcutting at Kalapana on the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The recovery of lowland rainforest vegetation on the Island of Hawaii was evaluated 2 years after clearcutting. Rainforest quality was assessed with regeneration success associated with the environmental changes. Sixty-three percent of the 57 vascular species in the forest were native to the Hawaiian rainforest. Phanerophytes were the most important life form. The presence of Psidium cattleianum and other alien species demonstrated disturbances had occurred in selected areas prior to the clearcutting. Two years after clearcutting (1987), only 24% of the 101 species coming into the clearcut area were native. The shrubs, micro- and nano-phanerophyte, were the dominant life forms, represented by Pipturus albidus, a native rainforest shrub or tree, and four non-native shrub species. Metrosideros polymorpha, the dominant tree in the native forest, was successfully regenerating from seed across the clear-cut area. The forest seedbank analysis also demonstrated that Metrosideros, along with the seeds of important exotic species colonizing the clearcut area were presented in the forest soils. The forest and clearcut species had a high rate of correlation with the elevation gradient. The underlying lava flows strong influenced past and present vegetation associations. In the clearcut area, the degree of compaction and distance from the forest were critical factors determining the composition of recovering vegetation. The microclimate variables of soils, significantly altered due to the effects of clearcutting, and competition from weeds probably lead to poor germination and growth of native rainforest species. This native forest is not pristine, but unique in stature, in complex of cohort stands, and in position on the landscape. It is extremely prone to species composition shift following perturbation, due to the presence of the weed seedbank in the forest seedbank as demonstrated in the dominance of these species across the clearcut area.

  15. Qualification Plan for Phase One of True-MidPacific Geothermal Venture: James Campbell - Kahaualea Project, Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    1981-06-01

    The objective of this project is to develop the geothermal resources of the James Campbell Estate, comprising acres in the Puna District of the Island of Hawaii. The geothermal resource is assumed to exist in the vicinity of the East Rift of the Kilauea volcano. The location of the proposed geothermal well field and the geothermal-electric power plant are shown on Dwg. No. E-04-001. Access to the project area will be provided by a new road extension from the boundary road south from Glenwood on Highway 11.

  16. Principal Aquifers of the 48 Conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    This map layer contains the shallowest principal aquifers of the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, portrayed as polygons. The map layer was developed as part of the effort to produce the maps published at 1:2,500,000 in the printed series "Ground Water Atlas of the United States". The published maps contain base and cultural features not included in these data. This is a replacement for the July 1998 map layer called Principal Aquifers of the 48 Conterminous United States.

  17. An Engineering Technology Skills Framework that Reflects Workforce Needs on Maui and the Big Island of Hawai'i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seagroves, S.; Hunter, L.

    2010-12-01

    The Akamai Workforce Initiative (AWI) is an interdisciplinary effort to improve science/engineering education in the state of Hawai'i, and to train a diverse population of local students in the skills needed for a high-tech economy. In 2009, the AWI undertook a survey of industry partners on Maui and the Big Island of Hawai'i to develop an engineering technology skills framework that will guide curriculum development at the U. of Hawai'i - Maui (formerly Maui Community College). This engineering skills framework builds directly on past engineering-education developments within the Center for Adaptive Optics Professional Development Program, and draws on curriculum development frameworks and engineering skills standards from the literature. Coupling that previous work with reviews of past Akamai Internship projects and information from previous conversations with the local high-tech community led to a structured-interview format where engineers and managers could contribute meaningful commentary to this framework. By incorporating these local high-tech companies' needs for entry-level engineers and technicians, a skills framework emerges that is unique and illuminating. Two surprising features arise in this framework: (1) "technician-like" skills of making existing technology work are on similar footing with "engineer-like" skills of creating new technology; in fact, both engineers and technicians at these workplaces use both sets of skills; and (2) project management skills are emphasized by employers even for entry-level positions.

  18. Hydroelectric power in Hawaii. A report on the statewide survey of potential hydroelectric sites

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, C. A.

    1981-02-01

    An assessment was made of the hydropower potential in Hawaii. The major conclusion of this study is that hydropower resources in the State of Hawaii are substantial, and they offer the potential for major increases in hydropower generating capacity. Hydropower resources on all islands total about 50 MW of potential generating capacity. Combined with the 18 MW of existing hydropower capacity, hydropower resources potentially could generate about 307 million kWh of electric energy annually. This represents about 28% of the present combined electricity needs of the Neighbor Islands, Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and the Big Island. Hydropower resources on Kauai equal 72% of that island's electricity needs; on Molokai, 40%, on the Big Island, 20%; and on Maui, 18%. The island of Oahu, however, has only small hydropower resources, and could only generate a negligible portion of its electricity needs from this energy source. A summary of existing and future (potential) hydropower capacities and estimated annual outputs for each island is presented. How much of the potential capacity is being actively considered for development and how much is only tentatively proposed at the time is indicated. The economics of hydropower at specific sites were analyzed. The major conclusion of this analysis is that hydropower development costs vary widely among the different sites, but that generally the cost of hydroelectric power is either less than or comparable to the cost of oil-fired power.

  19. Water in the Kahuku area, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takasaki, K.J.; Valenciano, Santos

    1969-01-01

    The Kahuku area comprises the north end of the Koolau Range and its bordering coastal plain. This part of the range is less deeply eroded than oth3r parts, and except for long, narrow valleys and cliffs near the shore, it has retained the general shape of the original volcanic dome. A 21/2-mile-wide dike zone of parallel and subparallel dikes along the crest is the remnant of the fissure zone of eruption. Outcrops are mostly permeable lava flows of the Koolau Volcanic Series, which are intruded by dikes inside the dike zone and are free of dikes outside it. The lava flows constitute main aquifers, and water bodies in them are called dike water inside the dike zone and basal water outside it. Dikes, because they are less permeable than the lava flows they intrude, impound ground water, thereby controlling its movement, discharge, and storage. The top of the dike-impounded water is at an altitude of at least 1,000 feet near the south end of the Kahuku area. Dike water is discharged as leakage, the amount of which fluctuates in response to changes in storage, as flow into streams, where they intersect saturated rock, and as underflow to the basal-water body. Basal water occurs on either side of the dike zone, which forms both a structural and hydrologic boundary. It is artesian on the windward side wherever it underlies the coastal plain, and the altitude of water levels ranges from 7 to 22 feet. Leeward of the dike zone, basal water occurs only under water-table conditions because of the near absence of a coastal plain, and the altitude of water levels ranges from less than 1 foot to about 3 feet. The quality of dike water is excellent except near the north end. where it is slightly contaminated by infiltration of irrigation water that contains as much as 1,200 mg/1 (milligrams per liter) chloride. Irrigation water is also a source of contamination of the basal-water body. The major contaminant, however, is sea water, which underlies the basal-water body. In the Kahuku subarea--where pumpage from the basal-water body is greatest--sea-water contamination is a major concern. Natural contamination by encroaching sea water extends more than 2 miles inland in the Waimea-Kawela subarea and generally precludes development of large quantities of basal water. At low altitudes where the perennial flow is small, all streams are intermittent except Kaluanui and Kamananui. Some streams are perennial in their upper reaches because of persistent rainfall, and some are perennial in their middle reaches owing to the discharge of dike water; however, most flows are small in the lower reaches because most of the flow has infiltrated into the ground-water reservoir. For these reasons, streamflow cannot be economically developed and is not a reliable source of water supply. Average rainfall is about 240 mgd (million gallons per day). Of this amount, about 220 mgd is in the mountains. On .the basis of a rainfall input of 220 mgd and estimates of stream runoff and evapotranspiration, ground-water flow is estimated to be 85 mgd, a figure which compares favorably with estimates based on analyses of pumping-test data. Of this amount, an average of 30 mgd is discharged by wells and the remaining 55 mgd is eventually discharged to the sea by underflow or to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. The most promising areas for developing basal water are in the Hauula and Laie subareas, where draft is low and ground-water flow is high. The Waimea-Kawela subarea is not promising owing 'to low ground-water flow even though draft is low. Least promising for development is in the Kahuku subarea where an overdeveloped condition prevails in which draft for sugarcane irrigation exceeds the ground-water flow. The development of dike water is promising in the Waimea-Kawela subarea where ground-water flow greatly exceeds the draft.

  20. Dacite Melt at the Puna Geothermal Venture Wellfield, Big Island of Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teplow, W. J.; Marsh, B. D.; Hulen, J.; Spielman, P.; Kaleikini, M.; Fitch, D. C.; Rickard, W.

    2008-12-01

    A dacite melt was encountered during routine commercial drilling operations of injection well KS-13 at the Puna Geothermal Venture wellfield, Big Island of Hawaii. The KS-13 drill hole, drilled in 2005, is located along a segment of the Kilauea Lower East Rift Zone which erupted basalt flows from rift-parallel fissures in 1955. During the drilling of KS-13 a 75-meter interval of microdiorite containing brown glass inclusions was penetrated at a depth of 2415 m. At a depth of 2488 m a melt of dacitic composition was encountered. The melt flowed up the wellbore and was repeatedly redrilled over a depth interval of ~8 m, producing several kilograms of clear, colorless vitric cuttings at the surface. The drill bit, when recovered at the surface, was missing several carbide insert teeth. Presumably the inserts were plucked cleanly from their sintered cone sockets due to differential thermal expansion under extreme heat conditions. The dacitic glass cuttings have a perlitic texture, a silica content of 67 wgt.%, are enriched in alkalis and nearly devoid of mafic minerals with the exception of rare pyroxene phenocrysts and minor euhedral to amorphous magnetite. The melt zone is overlain by an interval of strong greenschist facies metamorphism in basaltic and dioritic dike rock. The occurrence of an anhydrous dacite melt indicates a rock temperature of approximately 1050° (1922°F) and sufficient residence time of underlying basaltic magma to generate a significant volume of differentiated material. The dacite, with an inferred temperature of 1050 °C, is separated by 526 m of rock from the deepest overlying permeable zone in KS-13 at a temperature of 356 °C. The thermal gradient through this impermeable rock section is ~700°C/526 m = 1.331 °C/m. The calculated conductive heat flux from the magma upward into the deepest zone of hydrothermal circulation is given by k×(dT/dZ)=2.9 × 1.33 = 3.83 W/m2 = 3830 mW/m2 (thermal conductivity k=2.9 W m-1 °C-1 for basalt). This

  1. Spaceport Hawaii - Environmental issues

    SciTech Connect

    Hayward, T.B. )

    1992-03-01

    The geographical, economic, and infrastructural factors of the Island of Hawaii make this island an ideal site for a privately owned and operated commercial launching facility for launching small- to medium-sized payloads into both equatorial and polar orbits. This paper describes the preparation of an environmental impact statement, which was initiated as a prelude to the eventual construction and operation of the commercial launching facility on the Island of Hawaii and which follows the Hawaii State law and the National Environmental Policy Act. The issues discussed are the regional characteristics of the Island of Hawaii, the candidate launch vehicles, the flight safety considerations, the spaceport development issues, and the potential impact of the future spaceport on the Mauna Kea Observatory on the Island of Hawaii.

  2. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 3 -- Greenfield options: Prospects for LNG use

    SciTech Connect

    Breazeale, K.; Fesharaki, F.; Fridley, D.; Pezeshki, S.; Wu, K.

    1993-12-01

    This paper begins with an overview of the Asia-Pacific LNG market, its major players, and the likely availability of LNG supplies in the region. The discussion then examines the possibilities for the economic supply of LNG to Hawaii, the potential Hawaiian market, and the viability of an LNG project on Oahu. This survey is far from a complete technical assessment or an actual engineering/feasibility study. The economics alone cannot justify LNG`s introduction. The debate may continue as to whether fuel diversification and environmental reasons can outweigh the higher costs. Several points are made. LNG is not a spot commodity. Switching to LNG in Hawaii would require a massive, long-term commitment and substantial investments. LNG supplies are growing very tight in the Asia-Pacific region. Some of the environmental benefits of LNG are not entirely relevant in Hawaii because Hawaii`s air quality is generally excellent. Any air quality benefits may be more than counterbalanced by the environmental hazards connected with large-scale coastal zone construction, and by the safety hazards of LNG carriers, pipelines, etc. Lastly, LNG is not suitable for all energy uses, and is likely to be entirely unsuitable for neighbor island energy needs.

  3. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Climate, Ambient Air Quality, and Noise (DRAFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Hamilton, C.B.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 withdrawing its Notice of Intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate and air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui, and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of hydrogen sulfide. the scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  4. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Climate, ambient air quality, and noise

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Reed, R.M.; Hamilton, C.B.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate add air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of sulfide. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  5. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Cultural environment and aesthetic resources

    SciTech Connect

    Trettin, L.D.; Petrich, C.H.; Saulsbury, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on the cultural environment and aesthetic resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The cultural environment in the Geothermal Resource Zone (GRZ) and associated study area consists of Native Hawaiian cultural and religious practices and both Native Hawaiian and non-Native Hawaiian cultural resources. This report consists of three sections: (1) a description of Native Hawaiian cultural and religious rights, practices, and values; (2) a description of historic, prehistoric, and traditional Native Hawaiian sites; and (3) a description of other (non-native) sites that could be affected by development in the study area. Within each section, the level of descriptive detail varies according to the information currently available. The description of the cultural environment is most specific in its coverage of the Geothermal Resource Subzones in the Puna District of the island of Hawaii and the study area of South Maui. Ethnographic and archaeological reports by Cultural Advocacy Network Developing Options and International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc., respectively, supplement the descriptions of these two areas with new information collected specifically for this study. Less detailed descriptions of additional study areas on Oahu, Maui, Molokai, and the island of Hawaii are based on existing archaeological surveys.

  6. Effect of mesoscale orography on tropical cyclones near Hawai'i's Big Island and in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Christopher R. S.

    This dissertation presents the results of numerical modeling studies of two contrasting examples of tropical cyclones interacting with topography. The first example investigates the effect of the Big Island of Hawai'i on nearby tropical cyclones. The second example investigates the formation of near-equatorial Typhoon Vamei (2001) in the South China Sea. The Big Island simulations produce topographically forced phenomena that occur primarily because the island is strongly rooted in a flow splitting regime caused by its high and broad mountains, and by its shape. Blocking of lower-tropospheric flow leads to a slowing of movement when storms approach from the east. Southward track deviations occur if storms enter enhanced northeasterly flow south of the island. On close southeasterly approach axisymmetrization of core convection and winds occurs primarily because of blocking of the stronger easterly flow to the north of the storm. It is hypothesized that this led to the unexpected eye formation of Hurricane Flossie (2007) as it approached the Big Island. Storms that pass south of the island, deviate northward if they interact with the strong westerly steering anomaly associated with the island wake. The Hurricane Dot simulations suggest that this effect contributed to the deviation to the north that led to its eventual Kauai landfall. Stronger intensities can occur as a storm interacts with the island wake where there is a tendency for weakened vertical wind shear. Landfall produces large intensity decreases as the lower-level circulation is disrupted. Sharp northward track deviations can occur close to the island as the northerly flow west of the storm center is blocked by the island. In the simulation of Typhoon Vamei, strong northerly flow interacts with the regional landmasses to produce regional scale cyclonic flow near the equator. Mesoscale convective vortices develop along the southeastern flank of the northerly surge in a region of strong horizontal shear

  7. Distribution and abundance of forest birds in low-altitude habitat on Hawai'i Island: Evidence for range expansion of native species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spiegel, C.S.; Hart, P.J.; Woodwort, B.L.; Tweed, E.J.; Leburn, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    The Hawaiian honeycreepers are thought to be limited primarily to middle- and high-altitude wet forests due to anthropogenic factors at lower altitudes, especially introduced mosquitotransmitted avian malaria. However, recent research has demonstrated that at least one native species, the Hawai'i 'Amakihi (Hemignathus virens virens), is common in areas of active malaria transmission. We examined the current distribution and abundance of native and exotic forest birds within approximately 640 km2 of low-altitude (0-326 m) habitat on south-eastern Hawai'i Island, using roadside variable circular plot (VCP) at 174 stations along eight survey transects. We also re-surveyed 90 stations near sea level that were last surveyed in 1994-1995. Overall, introduced species were more abundant than natives; 11 exotic species made up 87% of the total individuals detected. The most common exotic passerines were Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonicus), House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) and Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Two native species, Hawai'i 'Amakihi and 'Apapane (Himatione sanguina), comprised 13% of the bird community at low altitudes. Hawai'i 'Amakihi were the most common and widespread native species, being found at 47% of stations at a density of 4.98 birds/ha (95% CI 3.52-7.03). Amakihi were significantly associated with 'ohi'a (Metrosideros polymorpha)-dominated forest. 'Apapane were more locally distributed, being found at only 10% of stations. Re-surveys of 1994-1995 transects demonstrated a significant increase in 'Amakihi abundance over the past decade. This work demonstrates a widespread recovery of Hawai'i 'Amakihi at low altitude in southeastern Hawai'i. The changing composition of the forest bird community at low-altitudes in Hawai'i has important implications for the dynamics of avian malaria in low-altitude Hawai'i, and for conservation of Hawai'i's lowland forests. ?? 2006 BirdLife International.

  8. The Hawaii-Navajo Exchange Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Kenneth, Comp.; And Others

    The 1969-70 Leeward Cultural Exchange program described in this report involved a 2-week exchange between 20 grade-5 students of Leeward Oahu, Hawaii, and 24 grade-5 students from the Toyei Boarding School on the Navajo Indian Reservation in northern Arizona. In the report, the program objectives are listed along with a statement of organizational…

  9. Confronting Oahu's Water Woes: Identifying Scenarios for a Robust Evaluation of Policy Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rees, C. B.; Garcia, M. E.; Alarcon, T.; Sixt, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Pearl Harbor aquifer is the most important freshwater resource on Oahu (Hawaii, U.S.A), providing water to nearly half a million people. Recent studies show that current water use is reaching or exceeding sustainable yield. Climate change and increasing resident and tourist populations are predicted to further stress the aquifer. The island has lost huge tracts of freshwater and estuarine wetlands since human settlement; the dependence of many endemic, endangered species on these wetlands, as well as ecosystem benefits from wetlands, link humans and wildlife through water management. After the collapse of the sugar industry on Oahu (mid-1990s), the Waiahole ditch--a massive stream diversion bringing water from the island's windward to the leeward side--became a hotly disputed resource. Commercial interests and traditional farmers have clashed over the water, which could also serve to support the Pearl Harbor aquifer. Considering competing interests, impending scarcity, and uncertain future conditions, how can groundwater be managed most effectively? Complex water networks like this are characterized by conflicts between stakeholders, coupled human-natural systems, and future uncertainty. The Water Diplomacy Framework offers a model for analyzing such complex issues by integrating multiple disciplinary perspectives, identifying intervention points, and proposing sustainable solutions. The Water Diplomacy Framework is a theory and practice of implementing adaptive water management for complex problems by shifting the discussion from 'allocation of water' to 'benefit from water resources'. This is accomplished through an interactive process that includes stakeholder input, joint fact finding, collaborative scenario development, and a negotiated approach to value creation. Presented here are the results of the initial steps in a long term project to resolve water limitations on Oahu. We developed a conceptual model of the Pearl Harbor Aquifer system and identified

  10. Centipede envenomation: bringing the pain to Hawai'i and Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Fenderson, Joshua L

    2014-11-01

    Scolopendra subspinipes is the only clinically significant centipede found in Hawai'i. Envenomation typically leads to extreme localized pain, erythema, induration, and tissue necrosis and possible lymphedema or lymphangitis. Mortality is uncommon and results from secondary infection or anaphylaxis. Management is supportive and includes wound care, pain control, and treatment with topical or oral antihistamines and anti-inflammatory medications.

  11. Report from Hawai'i: The Rising Tide of Arts Education in the Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The establishment of Maui Arts & Cultural Center (MACC), a community arts facility that prioritizes education at the top of its mission, has been a significant factor in the growth of arts education in Hawai'i. This article describes the role such a facility can play in the kind of educational reform that people envision, and the author's belief…

  12. Centipede envenomation: bringing the pain to Hawai'i and Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Fenderson, Joshua L

    2014-11-01

    Scolopendra subspinipes is the only clinically significant centipede found in Hawai'i. Envenomation typically leads to extreme localized pain, erythema, induration, and tissue necrosis and possible lymphedema or lymphangitis. Mortality is uncommon and results from secondary infection or anaphylaxis. Management is supportive and includes wound care, pain control, and treatment with topical or oral antihistamines and anti-inflammatory medications. PMID:25478303

  13. General geology and ground-water resources of the island of Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stearns, Harold T.; Macdonald, Gordon Andrew

    1942-01-01

    Maui, the second largest island in the Hawaiian group, is 48 miles long, 26 miles wide, and covers 728 square miles. The principal town is Wailuku. Sugar cane and pineapples are the principal crops. Water is used chiefly for irrigating cane. The purpose of the investigation was to study the geology and the ground-water resources of the island.Maui was built by two volcanoes. East Maui or Haleakala Volcano is 10,025 feet high and famous for its so-called crater, which is a section of Hawaii National Park. Evidence is given to show that it is the head of two amphitheater-headed valleys in which numerous secondary eruptions have occurred and that it is not a crater, caldera, or eroded caldera. West Maui is a deeply dissected volcano 5,788 feet high. The flat Isthmus connecting the two volcanoes was made by lavas from East Maui banking against the West Maui Mountains. Plate 1 shows the geology, wells, springs, and water-development tunnels. Plate 2 is a map and description of points of geologic interest along the main highways. Volcanic terms used in the report are briefly defined. A synopsis of the climate is included and a record of the annual rainfall at all stations is given also. Puu Kukui, on West Maui, has an average annual rainfall of 389 inches and it lies just six miles from Olowalu where only 2 inches of rain fell in 1928, the lowest ever recorded in the Hawaiian Islands. The second rainiest place in the Territory is Kuhiwa Gulch on East Maui where 523 inches fell during 1937. Rainfall averages 2,360 million gallons daily on East Maui and 580 on West Maui. Ground water at the point of use in months of low rainfall is worth about $120 per million gallons, which makes most undeveloped supplies valuable.The oldest rocks on East Maui are the very permeable primitive Honomanu basalts, which were extruded probably in Pliocene and early Pleistocene time from three rift zones. These rocks form a dome about 8,000 feet high and extend an unknown distance below sea

  14. Stereo Pair, Honolulu, Oahu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Honolulu, on the island of Oahu, is a large and growing urban area. This stereoscopic image pair, combining a Landsat image with topography measured by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), shows how topography controls the urban pattern. This color image can be viewed in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the image pair, and viewing them with a stereoscope.

    Features of interest in this scene include Diamond Head (an extinct volcano near the bottom of the image), Waikiki Beach (just above Diamond Head), the Punchbowl National Cemetary (another extinct volcano, near the image center), downtown Honolulu and Honolulu harbor (image left-center), and offshore reef patterns. The slopes of the Koolau mountain range are seen in the right half of the image. Clouds commonly hang above ridges and peaks of the Hawaiian Islands, but in this synthesized stereo rendition appear draped directly on the mountains. The clouds are actually about 1000 meters (3300 feet) above sea level.

    This stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with a Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image collected at the same time as the SRTM flight. The topography data were used to create two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the

  15. White rice sold in Hawaii, Guam, and Saipan often lacks nutrient enrichment.

    PubMed

    Leon Guerrero, Rachael T; Gebhardt, Susan E; Holden, Joanne; Kretsch, Mary J; Todd, Karen; Novotny, Rachel; Murphy, Suzanne P

    2009-10-01

    Rice is a commonly consumed food staple for many Asian and Pacific cultures thus, nutrient enrichment of rice has the potential to increase nutrient intakes for these populations. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of enrichment nutrients (ie, thiamin, niacin, iron, and folic acid) in white rice found in Guam, Saipan (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands), and Oahu (Hawaii). The proportion of white rice that was labeled "enriched" varied by type, bag size, and location. Most long-grain rice was labeled as enriched and most medium-grain rice was not. Bags of either type weighing >10 lb were seldom labeled as enriched in Hawaii or Saipan. Samples of various types of rice were collected on these three islands (n=19; 12 of which were labeled as enriched) and analyzed for their content of enrichment nutrients. Rice that was labeled as enriched in Hawaii and Guam seldom met the minimum enrichment standards for the United States. For comparison, three samples of enriched rice from California were also analyzed, and all met the enrichment standards. Food and nutrition professionals who are planning or evaluating diets of these Pacific island populations cannot assume that rice is enriched.

  16. Use of precipitation and groundwater isotopes to interpret regional hydrology on a tropical volcanic island: Kilauea volcano area, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, M.A.; Ingebritsen, S.E.; Janik, C.J.; Kauahikaua, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Isotope tracer methods were used to determine flow paths, recharge areas, and relative age for groundwater in the Kilauea volcano area of the Island of Hawaii. A network of up to 66 precipitation collectors was emplaced in the study area and sampled twice yearly for a 3-year period. Stable isotopes in rainfall show three distinct isotopic gradients with elevation, which are correlated with trade wind, rain shadow, and high- elevation climatological patterns. Temporal variations in precipitation isotopes are controlled more by the frequency of storms than by seasonal temperature fluctuations. Results from this study suggest that (1) sampling network design must take into account areal variations in rainfall patterns on islands and in continental coastal areas and (2) isotope/elevation gradients on other tropical islands may be predictable on the basis of similar climatology. Groundwater was sampled yearly in coastal springs, wells, and a few high-elevation springs. Areal contrasts in groundwater stable isotopes and tritium indicate that the volcanic rift zones compartmentalize the regional groundwater system, isolating the groundwater south of Kilauea's summit and rift zones. Part of the Southwest Rift gone appears to act as a conduit for water from higher elevation, but there is no evidence for downrift flow in the springs and shallow wells sampled in the lower East Rift Zone.

  17. General geology and ground-water resources of the island of Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stearns, Harold T.; Macdonald, Gordon Andrew

    1942-01-01

    Maui, the second largest island in the Hawaiian group, is 48 miles long, 26 miles wide, and covers 728 square miles. The principal town is Wailuku. Sugar cane and pineapples are the principal crops. Water is used chiefly for irrigating cane. The purpose of the investigation was to study the geology and the ground-water resources of the island.Maui was built by two volcanoes. East Maui or Haleakala Volcano is 10,025 feet high and famous for its so-called crater, which is a section of Hawaii National Park. Evidence is given to show that it is the head of two amphitheater-headed valleys in which numerous secondary eruptions have occurred and that it is not a crater, caldera, or eroded caldera. West Maui is a deeply dissected volcano 5,788 feet high. The flat Isthmus connecting the two volcanoes was made by lavas from East Maui banking against the West Maui Mountains. Plate 1 shows the geology, wells, springs, and water-development tunnels. Plate 2 is a map and description of points of geologic interest along the main highways. Volcanic terms used in the report are briefly defined. A synopsis of the climate is included and a record of the annual rainfall at all stations is given also. Puu Kukui, on West Maui, has an average annual rainfall of 389 inches and it lies just six miles from Olowalu where only 2 inches of rain fell in 1928, the lowest ever recorded in the Hawaiian Islands. The second rainiest place in the Territory is Kuhiwa Gulch on East Maui where 523 inches fell during 1937. Rainfall averages 2,360 million gallons daily on East Maui and 580 on West Maui. Ground water at the point of use in months of low rainfall is worth about $120 per million gallons, which makes most undeveloped supplies valuable.The oldest rocks on East Maui are the very permeable primitive Honomanu basalts, which were extruded probably in Pliocene and early Pleistocene time from three rift zones. These rocks form a dome about 8,000 feet high and extend an unknown distance below sea

  18. Geology and ground-water resources of the island of Kauai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macdonald, Gordon A.; Davis, Dan A.; Cox, Doak C.

    1960-01-01

    Kauai is one of the oldest, and is structurally the most complicated, of the Hawaiian Islands. Like the others, it consists principally of a huge shield volcano, built up from the sea floor by many thousands of thin flows of basaltic lava. The volume of the Kauai shield was on the order of 1,000 cubic miles. Through much of its growth it must have resembled rather closely the presently active shield volcano Mauna Loa, on the island of Hawaii. When the Kauai volcano started its growth is not known with certainty, but it is believed that activity started late in the Tertiary period, possibly in the early or middle part of the Pliocene epoch. Growth of the shield was rapid and probably was completed before the end of the Pliocene.Toward the end of the growth of the shield, its summit collapsed to form a broad caldera, the largest that has been found in the Hawaiian Islands. Like the calderas of Kilauea and Mauna Loa, that of Kauai volcano had boundaries that were, in part, rather indefinite. The principal depression was bordered by less depressed fault blocks, some of which merged imperceptibly with the outer slopes of the volcano. Elsewhere the caldera rim was low, and flows spilled over it onto the outer slopes. The well-defined central depression of the Kauai caldera was approximately 10 to 12 miles across.At about the same time as the formation of the major caldera, another, smaller caldera was formed by collapse around a minor eruptive center on the southeastern side of the Kauai shield. Lavas accumulated in the calderas, gradually filling them and burying banks of talus that formed along the foot of the boundary cliffs. The caldera-filling lavas differed from those that built the major portion of the shield in being much thicker and more massive as a result of ponding in the depressions. The petrographic types for the most part are the same throughout. Both the flank flows that built most of the shield and the flows that filled the calderas are predominantly

  19. Reoccurrence of 'Öma'o in leeward woodland habitat and their distribution in alpine habitat on Hawai'i Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Judge, Seth W.; Gaudioso, Jacqueline M.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Camp, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The endemic solitaire, 'Ōma'o (Myadestes obscurus), is common in windward forests of Hawai'i Island, but has been historically extirpated from leeward forests. The last detections of Ōma'o on the leeward side of the island were in woodland habitat on the western flank of Mauna Loa in 1978. 'Ōma'o were detected in woodland habitat in relatively low densities during a 2010 forest bird survey of Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. The source of the population is unknown. It is probable they originated from a documented but unsurveyed population of Ōma'o in scrub alpine lava. Alternatively, the birds may have persisted undetected for nearly 35 years, or expanded from windward mesic forests on southeast Mauna Loa. There is no evidence 'Ōma'o recolonized the wet mesic forests of leeward Mauna Loa. The 'Ōma'o can occupy diverse native habitats compared to other species in the Hawai'i Myadestes genus, of which most species are now extinct. The connectivity of each population is not understood but we assume there are significant geographic, physiological, and behavioral barriers for scrub alpine and wet mesic forest populations. The expansion of 'Ōma'o to leeward woodlands is encouraging as the species is Hawai'i Island's last native frugivore capable of dispersing small and medium sized seeds of rare angiosperms, and could have an important role in re-establishing ecosystem function.

  20. Genetic analysis of an ephemeral intraspecific hybrid zone in the hypervariable tree, Metrosideros polymorpha, on Hawai'i Island.

    PubMed

    Stacy, E A; Johansen, J B; Sakishima, T; Price, D K

    2016-09-01

    Intraspecific hybrid zones involving long-lived woody species are rare and can provide insights into the genetic basis of early-diverging traits in speciation. Within the landscape-dominant Hawaiian tree, Metrosideros polymorpha, are morphologically distinct successional varieties, incana and glaberrima, that dominate new and old lava flows, respectively, below 1200 me on volcanically active Hawai'i Island, with var. glaberrima also extending to higher elevations and bogs. Here, we use morphological measurements on 86 adult trees to document the presence of an incana-glaberrima hybrid zone on the 1855 Mauna Loa lava flow on east Hawai'i Island and parent-offspring analysis of 1311 greenhouse seedlings from 71 crosses involving 72 adults to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations among vegetative traits. Both the variation in adult leaf pubescence at the site and the consistency between adult and offspring phenotypes suggest the presence of two hybrid classes, F1s and var. incana backcrosses, as would be expected on a relatively young lava flow. Nine nuclear microsatellite loci failed to distinguish parental and hybrid genotypes. All four leaf traits examined showed an additive genetic basis with moderate to strong heritabilities, and genetic correlations were stronger for the more range-restricted var. incana. The differences between varieties in trait values, heritabilities and genetic correlations, coupled with high genetic variation within but low genetic variation between varieties, are consistent with a multi-million-year history of alternating periods of disruptive selection in contrasting environments and admixture in ephemeral hybrid zones. Finally, the contrasting genetic architectures suggest different evolutionary trajectories of leaf traits in these forms.

  1. Genetic analysis of an ephemeral intraspecific hybrid zone in the hypervariable tree, Metrosideros polymorpha, on Hawai'i Island.

    PubMed

    Stacy, E A; Johansen, J B; Sakishima, T; Price, D K

    2016-09-01

    Intraspecific hybrid zones involving long-lived woody species are rare and can provide insights into the genetic basis of early-diverging traits in speciation. Within the landscape-dominant Hawaiian tree, Metrosideros polymorpha, are morphologically distinct successional varieties, incana and glaberrima, that dominate new and old lava flows, respectively, below 1200 me on volcanically active Hawai'i Island, with var. glaberrima also extending to higher elevations and bogs. Here, we use morphological measurements on 86 adult trees to document the presence of an incana-glaberrima hybrid zone on the 1855 Mauna Loa lava flow on east Hawai'i Island and parent-offspring analysis of 1311 greenhouse seedlings from 71 crosses involving 72 adults to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations among vegetative traits. Both the variation in adult leaf pubescence at the site and the consistency between adult and offspring phenotypes suggest the presence of two hybrid classes, F1s and var. incana backcrosses, as would be expected on a relatively young lava flow. Nine nuclear microsatellite loci failed to distinguish parental and hybrid genotypes. All four leaf traits examined showed an additive genetic basis with moderate to strong heritabilities, and genetic correlations were stronger for the more range-restricted var. incana. The differences between varieties in trait values, heritabilities and genetic correlations, coupled with high genetic variation within but low genetic variation between varieties, are consistent with a multi-million-year history of alternating periods of disruptive selection in contrasting environments and admixture in ephemeral hybrid zones. Finally, the contrasting genetic architectures suggest different evolutionary trajectories of leaf traits in these forms. PMID:27301333

  2. Hawaii Beach Monitoring Program: Beach Profile Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Hillman, Kindra P.

    2001-01-01

    Coastal erosion is widespread and locally severe in Hawaii and other low-latitude areas. Typical erosion rates in Hawaii are in the range of 15 to 30 cm/yr (0.5 to 1 ft/yr; Hwang, 1981; Sea Engineering, Inc., 1988; Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc.,1991). Recent studies on Oahu (Fletcher et al., 1997; Coyne et al., 1996) have shown that nearly 24%, or 27.5 km (17.1 mi) of an original 115 km (71.6 mi) of sandy shoreline (1940's) has been either significantly narrowed (17.2 km; 10.7 mi) or lost (10.3 km; 6.4 mi). Nearly one-quarter of the islands' beaches have been significantly degraded over the last half-century and all shorelines have been affected to some degree. Oahu shorelines are by far the most studied, however, beach loss has been identified on the other islands as well, with nearly 13 km (8 mi) of beach likely lost due to shoreline hardening on Maui (Makai Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc., 1991). Causes of coastal erosion and beach loss in Hawaii are numerous but, unfortunately, poorly understood and rarely quantified. Construction of shoreline protection structures limits coastal land loss, but does not alleviate beach loss and may actually accelerate the problem by prohibiting sediment deposition in front of the structures. Other factors contributing to beach loss include: a) reduced sediment supply; b) large storms; and, c) sea-level rise. Reduction in sand supply, either from landward or seaward (primarily reef) sources, can have a myriad of causes. Obvious causes such as beach sand mining and emplacement of structures that interrupt natural sediment transport pathways or prevent access to backbeach sand deposits, remove sediment from the active littoral system. More complex issues of sediment supply can be related to reef health and carbonate production which, in turn, may be linked to changes in water quality. Second, the accumulated effect of large storms is to transport sediment beyond the littoral system. Third

  3. Bibliography of documents and related materials collected for the Hawaii Geothermal Project Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, F.M.; Boston, C.R.; Burns, J.C.; Hagan, C.W. Jr.; Saulsbury, J.W.; Wolfe, A.K.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive information developed during preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. On May 17, 1994, the USDOE published a notice in the Federal Register withdrawing its Notice of Intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This report provides a bibliography of documents, published papers, and other reference materials that were obtained or used. The report provides citations for approximately 642 documents, published papers, and other reference materials that were gathered to describe the potentially affected environment on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, and Oahu. The listing also does not include all the reference materials developed by support subcontractors and cooperating agencies who participated in the project. This listing does not include correspondence or other types of personal communications. The documents listed in this report can be obtained from original sources or libraries.

  4. Characteristics of Offshore Hawai';i Island Seismicity and Velocity Structure, including Lo';ihi Submarine Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, D. K.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.; Thurber, C. H.

    2013-12-01

    The Island of Hawai';i is home to the most active volcanoes in the Hawaiian Islands. The island's isolated nature, combined with the lack of permanent offshore seismometers, creates difficulties in recording small magnitude earthquakes with accuracy. This background offshore seismicity is crucial in understanding the structure of the lithosphere around the island chain, the stresses on the lithosphere generated by the weight of the islands, and how the volcanoes interact with each other offshore. This study uses the data collected from a 9-month deployment of a temporary ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) network fully surrounding Lo';ihi volcano. This allowed us to widen the aperture of earthquake detection around the Big Island, lower the magnitude detection threshold, and better constrain the hypocentral depths of offshore seismicity that occurs between the OBS network and the Hawaii Volcano Observatory's land based network. Although this study occurred during a time of volcanic quiescence for Lo';ihi, it establishes a basis for background seismicity of the volcano. More than 480 earthquakes were located using the OBS network, incorporating data from the HVO network where possible. Here we present relocated hypocenters using the double-difference earthquake location algorithm HypoDD (Waldhauser & Ellsworth, 2000), as well as tomographic images for a 30 km square area around the summit of Lo';ihi. Illuminated by using the double-difference earthquake location algorithm HypoDD (Waldhauser & Ellsworth, 2000), offshore seismicity during this study is punctuated by events locating in the mantle fault zone 30-50km deep. These events reflect rupture on preexisting faults in the lower lithosphere caused by stresses induced by volcano loading and flexure of the Pacific Plate (Wolfe et al., 2004; Pritchard et al., 2007). Tomography was performed using the double-difference seismic tomography method TomoDD (Zhang & Thurber, 2003) and showed overall velocities to be slower than

  5. Analysis of fractures intersecting Kahi Puka Well 1 and its relation to the growth of the island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project, Kahi Puka Well 1 penetrated about 275 m of Mauna Loa basalts overlying a sequence of Mauna Kea flow units as it was drilled and cored to a total depth of 1053 m below land surface. A borehole televiewer (BHTV) was run in most of the well in successive stages prior to casing in order to obtain magnetically oriented acoustic images of the borehole wall. A total of 283 individual fractures were identified from this log and characterized in terms of strike and dip. These data are divided into three vertical sections based upon age and volcanic source, and lower hemisphere stereographic plots identify two predominant, subparallel fracture subsets common to each section. Assuming that most of the steeply dipping fractures observed in the BHTV log are tensile features generated within basalt flows during deposition and cooling, this fracture information can be combined with models of the evolution of the island of Hawaii to investigate the depositional history of these Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea basalts over the past 400 kyr. The directions of high-angle fractures appear to be generally parallel to topography or to the coastline at the time of deposition, as is supported by surface mapping of modern flows. Consequently, an overall counterclockwise rotation of about 75?? in the strike of these fractures from the bottom to the top of the well represents a systematic change in depositional slope direction over time. We attribute the observed rotation in the orientations of the two predominant fracture subsets over the past 400 kyr to changes in the configurations of volcanic sources during shield building and to the structural interference of adjacent volcanoes that produces shifts in topographic patterns.

  6. White rice sold in Hawaii, Guam, and Saipan often lacks nutrient enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardt, Susan E.; Holden, Joanne; Kretsch, Mary J.; Todd, Karen; Novotny, Rachel; Murphy, Suzanne P.

    2009-01-01

    Rice is a commonly consumed food staple for many Asian and Pacific cultures; thus nutrient enrichment of rice has the potential to increase nutrient intakes for these populations. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of enrichment nutrients (thiamin, niacin, iron, and folic acid) in white rice found in Guam, Saipan (CNMI), and Oahu (Hawaii). The proportion of white rice that was labeled enriched varied by type, bag size, and location. Most long-grain rice was labeled enriched, while most medium-grain rice was not. Bags of either type weighing over 10 pounds were seldom labeled enriched in Hawaii or Saipan. Samples of various types of rice were collected on these three islands (n=19, 12 of which were labeled enriched) and analyzed for their content of the enrichment nutrients. Rice that was labeled enriched in Hawaii and Guam seldom met the minimum enrichment standards for the US. For comparison, three samples of enriched rice from California were also analyzed, and all met the enrichment standards. Nutritionists who are planning or evaluating the diets of these Pacific island populations cannot assume that rice is enriched. PMID:19782173

  7. New record for Woldstedtius flavolineatus (Ichneumonidae: Diplazontinae), a hymenopteran parasitoid of syrphid flies in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cappadonna, Justin; Euaparadorn, Melody; Peck, Robert W.; Banko, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Woldstedtius flavolineatus (Gravenhorst) (Ichneumonidae) attacks the larvae of syrphid flies (Syrphidae). Woldstedtius flavolineatus was collected in Hawaii for the first time during an extensive malaise trap-based survey of parasitoids in Hawaiian forests. Since its initial collection on Hawaii Island in January 2006, it has been collected at five additional sites on Hawaii Island and at one site each on Maui and Oahu. Malaise trap results from Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge showed a strong seasonal pattern of abundance, with peak population levels reached during July–September. Rearing of its host, Allograpta obliqua (Say), collected from koa (Acacia koa Gray) at Hakalau over two days, revealed a parasitism rate of approximately 95%. Broader impacts of this alien wasp are unknown, but a reduction in host syrphid abundance could result in an increase in numbers of psyllids and aphids (Homoptera) that are preyed upon by syrphid larvae. Furthermore, a reduction in adult syrphids could impact the reproductive success of some of the plants they pollinate.

  8. Project Management Plan for the Hawaii Geothermal Project Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.M.; Saulsbury, J.W.

    1993-06-01

    In 1990, Congress appropriated $5 million (Pu 101-514) for the State of Hawaii to use in Phase 3 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP). As defined by the State in its 1990 proposal to Congress, the HGP would consist of four phases: (1) exploration and testing of the geothermal resource associated with the Kilauea Volcano on the Island of Hawaii (the Big Island), (2) demonstration of deep-water power transmission cable technology in the Alenuihaha Channel between the Big Island and Maui, (3) verification and characterization of the geothermal resource on the Big Island, and (4) construction and operation of commercial geothermal power production facilities on the Big Island, with overland and submarine transmission of electricity from the Big Island to Oahu and possibly other islands (DBED 1990). Because it considered Phase 3 to be research and not project development or construction, Congress indicated that allocation of this funding would not be considered a major federal action under NEPA and would not require an EIS. However, because the project is highly visible, somewhat controversial, and involves a particularly sensitive environment in Hawaii, Congress directed in 1991 (House Resolution 1281) that ''...the Secretary of Energy shall use such sums as are necessary from amounts previously provided to the State of Hawaii for geothermal resource verification and characterization to conduct the necessary environmental assessments and/or environmental impact statement (EIS) for the geothermal initiative to proceed''. In addition, the U.S. District Court of Hawaii (Civil No. 90-00407, June 25, 1991) ruled that the federal government must prepare an EIS for Phases 3 and 4 before any further disbursement of funds was made to the State for the HGP. This Project Management Plan (PMP) briefly summarizes the background information on the HGP and describes the project management structure, work breakdown structure, baseline budget and schedule, and reporting procedures

  9. Bitentaculate Cirratulidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the northwestern Pacific Islands with description of nine new species.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Wagner F; Bailey-Brock, Julie H

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen cirratulid species from the Hawaiian, Mariana and Marshall Islands are described. Nine species are new to science: Aphelochaeta arizonae sp. nov., Aphelochaeta honouliuli sp. nov., Caulleriella cordiformia sp. nov., Chaetozone michellae sp. nov., Chaetozone ronaldi sp. nov., Monticellina anterobranchiata sp. nov., Monticellina hanaumaensis sp. nov., and Tharyx tumulosa sp. nov., from Oahu, Hawaii and Aphelochaeta saipanensis sp. nov., from Saipan in the Mariana Islands. Dodecaceria fewkesi and Monticellina nr. cryptica are newly recorded from the Hawaiian Islands. Dodecaceria laddi is widely distributed in the western Pacific and material collected from the Hawaiian, Mariana and Marshall islands is described. We provide SEM photographs for all species in addition to line drawings and methyl green staining pattern photographs for the new species.

  10. Mortality in Laysan ducks (Anas alysanensis) by emaciation complicated by Echinuria uncinata on Laysan Island, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Meteyer, C.U.; Cole, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    In November 1993, unusual mortality occurred among endangered Laysan ducks on Laysan Island, one of the remote refugia of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge (USA). Ten live ducks were emaciated, and blood samples documented anemia, heterophilia, and eosinophilia. Pathology in 13 duck carcasses revealed emaciation, marked thickening of the proventricular wall, abundant mucus, and nodules in the gastrointestinal tract. Histology revealed granulomata associated with nematodes in the proventriculus, small intestines, and body walls of nine of 10 ducks examined on histology. We suspect that low rainfall and low food abundance that year contributed to enhanced pathogenicity of parasite infection, either through increased exposure or decreased host resistance. Because the Laysan duck is found only on Laysan island and is critically endangered, translocation of this species to other islands is being considered. Given that we have not seen pathology associated with Echinuria spp. in native waterfowl on other Hawaiian Islands and given the parasitea??s potential to cause significant lesions in Laysan ducks, it will be important to prevent the translocation of Echinuria spp.

  11. Geologic guide to the island of Hawaii: A field guide for comparative planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    With geological data available for all inner planets except Venus, we are entering an era of true comparative planetary geology, when knowledge of the differences and similarities for classes of structures (e.g., shield volcanoes) will lead to a better understanding of general geological processes, regardless of planet. Thus, it is imperative that planetologists, particularly those involved in geological mapping and surface feature analysis for terrestrial planets, be familiar with volcanic terrain in terms of its origin, structure, and morphology. One means of gaining this experience is through field trips in volcanic terrains - hence, the Planetology Conference in Hawaii. In addition, discussions with volcanologists at the conference provide an important basis for establishing communications between the two fields that will facilitate comparative studies as more data become available.

  12. Deposit from a giant wave on the Island of Lanai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.G.; Moore, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    Limestone-bearing gravel, the newly named Hulopoe Gravel, blankets the coastal slopes on Lanai. The deposit, which reaches a maximum altitude of 326 meters, formerly was believed to have been deposited along several different ancient marine strandlines, but dated submerged coral reefs and tide-gauge measurements indicate that the southeastern Hawaiian Islands sink so fast that former worldwide high stands of the sea now lie beneath local sea level. Evidence indicates that the Hulopoe Gravel and similar deposits on nearby islands were deposited during the Pleistocene by a giant wave generated by a submarine landslide on a sea scarp south of Lanai.

  13. Deposit from a giant wave on the island of lanai, hawaii.

    PubMed

    Moore, J G; Moore, G W

    1984-12-14

    Limestone-bearing gravel, the newly named Hulopoe Gravel, blankets the coastal slopes on Lanai. The deposit, which reaches a maximum altitude of 326 meters, formerly was believed to have been deposited along several different ancient marine strandlines, but dated submerged coral reefs and tide-gauge measurements indicate that the southeastern Hawaiian Islands sink so fast that former worldwide high stands of the sea now lie beneath local sea level. Evidence indicates that the Hulopoe Gravel and similar deposits on nearby islands were deposited during the Pleistocene by a giant wave generated by a submarine landslide on a sea scarp south of Lanai. PMID:17832630

  14. Emplacement mechanisms of the South Kona slide complex, Hawaii Island: Sampling and observations by remotely operated vehicle Kaiko

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yokose, H.; Lipman, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    Emplacement of a giant submarine slide complex, offshore of South Kona, Hawaii Island, was investigated in 2001 by visual observation and in-situ sampling on the bench scarp and a megablock, during two dives utilizing the Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Kaiko and its mother ship R/V Kairei. Topography of the bench scarp and megablocks were defined in 3-D perspective, using high-resolution digital bathymetric data acquired during the cruise. Compositions of 34 rock samples provide constraints on the landslide source regions and emplacement mechanisms. The bench scarp consists mainly of highly fractured, vesiculated, and oxidized a-a lavas that slumped from the subaerial flank of ancestral Mauna Loa. The megablock contains three units: block facies, matrix facies, and draped sediment. The block facies contains hyaloclastite interbedded with massive lava, which slid from the shallow submarine flank of ancestral Mauna Loa, as indicated by glassy groundmass of the hyaloclastite, low oxidation state, and low sulfur content. The matrix facies, which directly overlies the block facies and is similar to a lahar deposit, is thought to have been deposited from the water column immediately after the South Kona slide event. The draped sediment is a thin high-density turbidite layer that may be a distal facies of the Alika-2 debris-avalanche deposit; its composition overlaps with rocks from subaerial Mauna Loa. The deposits generated by the South Kona slide vary from debris avalanche deposit to turbidite. Spatial distribution of the deposits is consistent with deposits related to large landslides adjacent to other Hawaiian volcanoes and the Canary Islands. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

  15. Ethnic Variations in Prevalence of High-Risk Sexual Behaviors Among Asian and Pacific Islander Adolescents in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Kameoka, Velma A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined ethnic variations in high-risk sexual behaviors among Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents in comparison with White adolescents. Methods. We obtained data from the 2003 Hawaii Youth Risk Behavior Survey on 4953 students in grades 9 through 12. We conducted χ2 and logistic regression analyses on these data to examine the prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among Japanese, Filipino, Native Hawaiian, and White adolescents. Results. We found significant ethnic variation in prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among API adolescents. Relative to White adolescents, Native Hawaiian adolescents were most likely to engage in lifetime sexual intercourse, recent sexual intercourse, and sexual initiation before age 13 years; Japanese adolescents were least likely to engage in these behaviors. Filipino adolescents were least likely to use substances before last sexual intercourse and condoms during last sexual intercourse. Conclusions. Our findings suggest divergent patterns of risk among API ethnic groups, underscoring the heterogeneity of API subgroups and emphasizing the need for health disparities research on disaggregated API ethnic groups. The findings of such research should be used to design ethnically relevant interventions aimed at mitigating the negative health consequences of high-risk sexual behaviors. PMID:19106424

  16. SNP markers identify widely distributed clonal lineages of Phytophthora colocasiae in Vietnam, Hawaii and Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sandesh; Hu, Jian; Fryxell, Rebecca Trout; Mudge, Joann; Lamour, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is an important food crop, and taro leaf blight caused by Phytophthora colocasiae can significantly affect production. Our objectives were to develop single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for P. colocasiae and characterize populations in Hawaii (HI), Vietnam (VN) and Hainan Island, China (HIC). In total, 379 isolates were analyzed for mating type and multilocus SNP profiles including 214 from HI, 97 from VN and 68 from HIC. A total of 1152 single nucleotide variant (SNV) sites were identified via restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing of two field isolates. Genotyping with 27 SNPs revealed 41 multilocus SNP genotypes grouped into seven clonal lineages containing 2-232 members. Three clonal lineages were shared among countries. In addition, five SNP markers had a low incidence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) during asexual laboratory growth. For HI and VN, >95% of isolates were the A2 mating type. On HIC, isolates within single clonal lineages had A1, A2 and A0 (neuter) isolates. The implications for the wide dispersal of clonal lineages are discussed.

  17. SNP markers identify widely distributed clonal lineages of Phytophthora colocasiae in Vietnam, Hawaii and Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sandesh; Hu, Jian; Fryxell, Rebecca Trout; Mudge, Joann; Lamour, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is an important food crop, and taro leaf blight caused by Phytophthora colocasiae can significantly affect production. Our objectives were to develop single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for P. colocasiae and characterize populations in Hawaii (HI), Vietnam (VN) and Hainan Island, China (HIC). In total, 379 isolates were analyzed for mating type and multilocus SNP profiles including 214 from HI, 97 from VN and 68 from HIC. A total of 1152 single nucleotide variant (SNV) sites were identified via restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing of two field isolates. Genotyping with 27 SNPs revealed 41 multilocus SNP genotypes grouped into seven clonal lineages containing 2-232 members. Three clonal lineages were shared among countries. In addition, five SNP markers had a low incidence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) during asexual laboratory growth. For HI and VN, >95% of isolates were the A2 mating type. On HIC, isolates within single clonal lineages had A1, A2 and A0 (neuter) isolates. The implications for the wide dispersal of clonal lineages are discussed. PMID:24895424

  18. Status and population trends of Hawaii's native waterbirds, 1977-1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engilis, Andrew; Pratt, Thane K.

    1993-01-01

    Status and population trends of Hawaiis ’ native waterbirds were examined from 1977 through 1987. Waterbird population fluctuations were analyzed in relation to rainfall and land use dynamics. Numbers of Hawaiian Duck (Koloa) (Anus wyvilliana) and Hawaiian Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus sandvicensis) appeared stable over time; however, surveys were limited. Increase in Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorux nycticorux) abundance appeared linked to expansion of aquaculture, particularly on Oahu, and not to climatic events. Annual rainfall patterns help explain and predict population fluctuations and anomalous distribution patterns involving Hawaiian American Coots (Fulica americana alai), moorhens, and Hawaiian Black-necked Stilts (Himantopus mexicanus knudseni). Coot, stilt, and moorhen populations fluctuated with climatic events, and intraisland dispersal to ephemeral wetlands occurred. Stilts exhibited regular inter-island migratory behavior, but coots dispersed in relation to major rainfall events. Seasonal fluctuation recorded for coots by past observers is the result of survey techniques not accounting for seasonal dispersal patterns.

  19. Age and petrology of the Kalaupapa Basalt, Molokai, Hawaii ( geochemistry, Sr isotopes).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    The post-erosional Kalaupapa Basalt on East Molokai, Hawaii, erupted between 0.34 and 0.57 million years ago to form the Kalaupapa Peninsula. The Kalaupapa Basalt ranges in composition from basanite to lava transitional between alkalic and tholeiitic basalt. Rare-earth and other trace-element abundances suggest that the Kalaupapa Basalt could be generated by 11-17% partial melting of a light-REE-enriched source like that from which the post-erosional lavas of the Honolulu Group on Oahu were generated by 2-11% melting. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the lavas range from 0.70320 to 0.70332, suggesting that the variation in composition mainly reflects variation in the melting process rather than heterogeneity of sources. The length of the period of volcanic quiescence that preceded eruption of post-erosional lavas in the Hawaiian Islands decreased as volcanism progressed from Kauai toward Kilauea. - Authors

  20. Geology and ground-water resources of the island of Niihau, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stearns, Harold T.; Macdonald, Gordon A.

    1947-01-01

    Niihau lies 171/2 miles southwest of Kauai. Its area is 72 square miles, and its highest point has an altitude of 1,281 feet. The population is about 180, chiefly Hawaiians. The annual rainfall at Kiekie, the ranch headquarters, generally ranges between 18 and 26 inches. The chief industries are the raising of sheep and cattle and production of honey. The island is privately owned.The main mass of the island is composed of a deeply weathered remnant of a basalt dome of Tertiary age, cut by a dike complex trending NE-SW. These Tertiary rocks are herein named the Paniau volcanic series. The central vent lay about 2 miles out to sea to the east of the present island. The dome, after deep gulches were cut into it by stream erosion and it was cliffed all around by the sea, was partly submerged. During Pleistocene time a broad wave-cut platform on the north, west, and south sides was built above sea level and widened by the eruption of lavas and tuffs, from 9 vents now visible and other vents now buried, to form a low coastal plain. These Pleistocene volcanic rocks are named the Kiekie volcanic series. Ash from Lehua Island, a Pleistocene tuff cone, has been drifted into duties on the north end of Niihau. Lithified dunes that extend below sea level, and the small outcrops of emerged fossiliferous limestone above sea level, indicate the plus 100-foot, minus 60-foot, plus 25-foot, and plus 5-foot eustatic stands of the sea correlative with changes in the volume of the polar ice caps and concurrent changes in the configuration of ocean basins.Calcareous dune and beach deposits, short stretches of nullipore reef and beach rock, and playa and alluvial deposits constitute the Recent rocks.No perennial streams exist on the island but about a dozen playa lakes, fresh or brackish during rainy weather, lie on the plain. The domestic water supply is rain caught from roofs. Only three wells on the island yield water with less than 25 grains of salt per gallon (260 parts per million

  1. Aerial observations of Hawaii`s wake

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.B.; Grubisic, V.

    1993-11-01

    Under the influence of the east-northeasterly trade winds, the island of Hawaii generates a wake that extends about 200 km to the west-southwest. During the Hawaiian Rain Band Project (NCAR) Electra. The patterns of wind aerosol concentration revealed by these flights suggest that Hawaii`s wake consists of two large quasi-steady conterrotating eddies. The southern clockwise-rotating eddy carries a heavy aerosol load due to input from the Kilauea volcano. At the eastern end of the wake, the eddies are potentially warmer and more humid than the surrounding trade wind air. Several other features are discussed: sharp shear lines near the northern and southern tips of the island, dry and warm air bands along the shear lines, a small embedded wake behind the Kohala peninsula, wake centerline clouds, hydraulic jumps to the north and south of the island, a descending inversion connected with accelerating trade winds, and evidence for side-to-side wake movement.

  2. Characteristics of Marshallese with Type 2 Diabetes on Oahu: A Pilot Study to Implement a Community-Based Diabetic Health Improvement Project

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Ravi; Shehata, Cherie; Smith, Garrett

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To determine the feasibility of a resident physician-based, culturally appropriate method of decreasing the disease burden of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) in a group of Pacific Islanders, Marshallese living in Hawai’i. Methods Thirty one Marshallese with diabetes who live on the island of Oahu, Hawaii were recruited. Baseline health status of the participants was characterized. Health parameters included HgbA1c, random blood sugar (RBS), lipid panels, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and medical history, along with qualitative information. A focus group was held with participants prior to beginning the curriculum to determine cultural views on diabetes, health, treatment, and to identify potential obstacles to health improvement. A DM2 educational curriculum culturally relevant to Marshallese populations was then started, including instruction in lifestyle modification, adherence to medication regimens, and planned quarterly assessment of health improvement. Results Baseline quantitative analysis revealed Marshallese with diabetes to be obese and hyperglycemic, with average BMI of 30 kg/m2, RBS of 285, and HgbA1c of 9.3. Qualitative analysis revealed that nearly half the participants admitted to symptoms of severe hyperglycemia. The initial focus group had a substantial turnout. Attendance rapidly declined, becoming so low that classes were eventually terminated. However, in two participants who attended more than three classes there was evidence of major improvements in HgbA1c, cholesterol, and qualitative markers, which were sustained after one year. Conclusions This pilot study of Marshallese with diabetes on Oahu showed that the majority had poor glycemic control with secondary co-morbid conditions. Although many barriers exist for successful implementation of a diabetes health improvement project in this group, the groundwork for translation of this project to the Republic of Marshall Islands (RMI) has been laid; curriculum translation and

  3. Effects of nutrient subsidies from groundwater to nearshore marine ecosystems off the island of Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollar, S. J.; Atkinson, M. J.

    1992-10-01

    Nonconservative fluxes of dissolved nutrients (Si, N and P) in groundwater and nearshore ocean water off two golf courses (Keauhou and Waikoloa) on the west coast of Hawaii were estimated using a one-dimensional mixing model. Groundwater flowing under the Keauhou course discharges into a semi-enclosed embayment with restricted circulation. Leaching of 10% of the N from golf course fertilizer accounted for an increase in groundwater N flux to the bay of 116%; leaching of 1% of the P from fertilizer accounted for an increase in groundwater P flux of 22%. Uptake of Si, N and P was not measurable within the bay; a buoyant surface layer (1 m thick) did not come into contact with benthic communities, and nutrient uptake by plankton was limited to no greater than 2% of the N and P delivered by groundwater flux. At Waikoloa, leaching of N and P from golf course fertilizers accounted for an increase in groundwater nutrient flux to brackish ponds near the coastline of 229% and 400%, respectively. Waikoloa is located on an exposed coastline with substantial turbulent mixing throughout the water column. Nutrient subsidies from golf course fertilizers were not distinguishable from natural groundwater input, and uptake of N in the nearshore zone equaled 80% of the groundwater flux at the shoreline. On a mass delivery basis, natural and anthropogenic nutrient fluxes to the nearshore ocean appear sufficient to cause alteration to community function and structure. Such effects, however, are not solely responses to nutrient loading. Consideration of physical processes, along with use of conservative tracers can provide a practical method for quantifying these effects of man's activities on the ocean.

  4. Youngest volcanism about 1 million years ago at Kahoolawe Island, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sano, H.; Sherrod, D.R.; Tagami, Takahiro

    2006-01-01

    Young volcanic deposits in Kahoolawe Island, cutting up through the caldera-filling lava, colluvium and talus in the west wall of Kanapou Bay, had long been stratigraphically considered the rejuvenated-stage products. New K-Ar ages, combined with magnetic polarity data, show that young volcanism was at about 0.98-1.04 Ma and indicate no substantial quiescence between the filling of the caldera and the young volcanism. This result, and the tholeiitic characteristics of the young deposits, suggest they are a component of late shield-stage volcanism. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hawaii Play Fairway Analysis: Hawaiian Place Names

    SciTech Connect

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-11-15

    Compilation of Hawaiian place names indicative of heat. Place names are from the following references: Pukui, M.K., and S.H. Elbert, 1976, Place Names of Hawaii, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, HI 96822, 289 pp. ; Bier, J. A., 2009, Map of Hawaii, The Big Island, Eighth Edition, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, HI  96822, 1 sheet.; and Reeve, R., 1993, Kahoolawe Place Names, Consultant Report No. 16, Kahoolawe Island Conveyance Commission, 259 pp.

  6. Modeling of the 2011 Tohoku-oki Tsunami and its Impacts on Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Roeber, V.; Lay, T.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-oki great earthquake (Mw 9.0) generated a destructive tsunami along the entire Pacific coast of northeastern Japan. The tsunami, which registered 6.7 m amplitude at a coastal GPS gauge and 1.75 m at an open-ocean DART buoy, triggered warnings across the Pacific. The waves reached Hawaii 7 hours after the earthquake and caused localized damage and persistent coastal oscillations along the island chain. Several tide gauges and a DART buoy west of Hawaii Island recorded clear signals of the tsunami. The Tsunami Observer Program of Hawaii State Civil Defense immediately conducted field surveys to gather runup and inundation data on Kauai, Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii Island. The extensive global seismic networks and geodetic instruments allows evaluation and validation of finite fault solutions for the tsunami modeling. We reconstruct the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami using the long-wave model NEOWAVE (Non-hydrostatic Evolution of Ocean WAVEs) and a finite fault solution based on inversion of teleseismic P waves. The depth-integrated model describes dispersive waves through the non-hydrostatic pressure and vertical velocity, which also account for tsunami generation from time histories of seafloor deformation. The semi-implicit, staggered finite difference model captures flow discontinuities associated with bores or hydraulic jumps through the momentum-conserved advection scheme. Four levels of two-way nested grids in spherical coordinates allow description of tsunami evolution processes of different time and spatial scales for investigation of the impacts around the Hawaiian Islands. The model results are validated with DART data across the Pacific as well as tide gauge and runup measurements in Hawaii. Spectral analysis of the computed surface elevation reveals a series of resonance modes over the insular shelf and slope complex along the archipelago. Resonance oscillations provide an explanation for the localized impacts and the persistent wave activities in the

  7. Annotated bibliography, seismicity of and near the island of Hawaii and seismic hazard analysis of the East Rift of Kilauea

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, F.W.

    1994-03-28

    This bibliography is divided into the following four sections: Seismicity of Hawaii and Kilauea Volcano; Occurrence, locations and accelerations from large historical Hawaiian earthquakes; Seismic hazards of Hawaii; and Methods of seismic hazard analysis. It contains 62 references, most of which are accompanied by short abstracts.

  8. Hawaii Geothermal Project annotated bibliography: Biological resources of the geothermal subzones, the transmission corridors and the Puna District, Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.E.; Burgett, J.M.

    1993-10-01

    Task 1 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project Interagency Agreement between the Fish and Wildlife Service and the Department of Energy-Oak Ridge National Laboratory (DOE) includes an annotated bibliography of published and unpublished documents that cover biological issues related to the lowland rain forest in Puna, adjacent areas, transmission corridors, and in the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP). The 51 documents reviewed in this report cover the main body of biological information for these projects. The full table of contents and bibliography for each document is included along with two copies (as requested in the Interagency Agreement) of the biological sections of each document. The documents are reviewed in five main categories: (1) geothermal subzones (29 documents); (2) transmission cable routes (8 documents); (3) commercial satellite launching facility (Spaceport; 1 document); (4) manganese nodule processing facility (2 documents); (5) water resource development (1 document); and (6) ecosystem stability and introduced species (11 documents).

  9. Quantifying effects of humans and climate on groundwater resources through modeling of volcanic-rock aquifers of Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotzoll, K.; Izuka, S. K.; Nishikawa, T.; Fienen, M. N.; El-Kadi, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    The volcanic-rock aquifers of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui are heavily developed, leading to concerns related to the effects of groundwater withdrawals on saltwater intrusion and streamflow. A numerical modeling analysis using the most recently available data (e.g., information on recharge, withdrawals, hydrogeologic framework, and conceptual models of groundwater flow) will substantially advance current understanding of groundwater flow and provide insight into the effects of human activity and climate change on Hawaii's water resources. Three island-wide groundwater-flow models were constructed using MODFLOW 2005 coupled with the Seawater-Intrusion Package (SWI2), which simulates the transition between saltwater and freshwater in the aquifer as a sharp interface. This approach allowed relatively fast model run times without ignoring the freshwater-saltwater system at the regional scale. Model construction (FloPy3), automated-parameter estimation (PEST), and analysis of results were streamlined using Python scripts. Model simulations included pre-development (1870) and current (average of 2001-10) scenarios for each island. Additionally, scenarios for future withdrawals and climate change were simulated for Oahu. We present our streamlined approach and preliminary results showing estimated effects of human activity on the groundwater resource by quantifying decline in water levels, reduction in stream base flow, and rise of the freshwater-saltwater interface.

  10. Long-term Patterns of Climate, Tree Growth, and Tree Mortality in Permanent Forest Plots of Hawaii Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostertag, R.; Buckley, W.; Cordell, S.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Giardina, C. P.; Inman-Narahari, F.; Litton, C. M.; Nullet, M.; Sack, L.; Sibley, A.; VanDeMark, J.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term permanent vegetation plots provide opportunities for in-depth examinations of forest dynamics and climate. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish 4-ha forest dynamics plots in two contrasting climates on Hawaii Island. We established a montane wet forest dynamics plot in a site with 1150 m elevation, mean annual temperature (MAT) of 16.0 C, and mean annual precipitation (MAP) of 3440 mm. A second plot was established in a lowland dry forest site at 240 m elevation, 20.0 C MAT, and 835 mm MAP. The lowland wet forest site averaged only one month per year with < 100 mm rainfall (considered a dry season month), while the lowland dry forest had 12 dry season months. All trees greater or equal to 1 cm diameter were tagged, mapped, and followed from 2008/2009 to 2013/2014 as part of a 5-year census, and a subset of trees were measured annually. Climate variables measured were shortwave and longwave radiation, air temperature, photosynthetically active radiation, relative humidity, windspeed, soil moisture, and rainfall. At both sites, rainfall was the best predictor of annual growth rates. Rainfall and soil moisture were the two variables that demonstrated the greatest interannual variation; coefficients of variation were 36.7% and 61.6% for rainfall at the montane wet forest and lowland dry forest sites, respectively, and 13.4% and 66.1% for soil moisture at the two sites. Preliminary results from the five-year resurvey demonstrate that Hawaiian trees grow slowly, averaging 0.05 cm/y among 19 species in the montane wet forest, at much slower rates for the 15 species in the lowland dry forest plot. Preliminary mortality rates are 11.8% in the montane wet forest and 14.5% in the lowland dry forest. Forest dynamics appear highly related to water availability, even in wet forests, and are likely to be sensitive to climate change, under which reduced rainfall is predicted for much of the Hawaiian Islands.

  11. Hawaii Solar Integration Study: Solar Modeling Developments and Study Results; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Orwig, K.; Corbus, D.; Piwko, R.; Schuerger, M.; Matsuura, M.; Roose, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Hawaii Solar Integration Study (HSIS) is a follow-up to the Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study completed in 2010. HSIS focuses on the impacts of higher penetrations of solar energy on the electrical grid and on other generation. HSIS goes beyond the island of Oahu and investigates Maui as well. The study examines reserve strategies, impacts on thermal unit commitment and dispatch, utilization of energy storage, renewable energy curtailment, and other aspects of grid reliability and operation. For the study, high-frequency (2-second) solar power profiles were generated using a new combined Numerical Weather Prediction model/ stochastic-kinematic cloud model approach, which represents the 'sharp-edge' effects of clouds passing over solar facilities. As part of the validation process, the solar data was evaluated using a variety of analysis techniques including wavelets, power spectral densities, ramp distributions, extreme values, and cross correlations. This paper provides an overview of the study objectives, results of the solar profile validation, and study results.

  12. Shear-wave velocity characterization of the USGS Hawaiian strong-motion network on the Island of Hawaii and development of an NEHRP site-class map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Ivan G.; Stokoe, Kenneth; Cox, Brady R.; Yuan, Jiabei; Knudsen, Keith L.; Terra, Fabia; Okubo, Paul G.; Lin, Yin-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    To assess the level and nature of ground shaking in Hawaii for the purposes of earthquake hazard mitigation and seismic design, empirical ground-motion prediction models are desired. To develop such empirical relationships, knowledge of the subsurface site conditions beneath strong-motion stations is critical. Thus, as a first step to develop ground-motion prediction models for Hawaii, spectral-analysis-of-surface-waves (SASW) profiling was performed at the 22 free-field U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) strong-motion sites on the Big Island to obtain shear-wave velocity (VS) data. Nineteen of these stations recorded the 2006 Kiholo Bay moment magnitude (M) 6.7 earthquake, and 17 stations recorded the triggered M 6.0 Mahukona earthquake. VS profiling was performed to reach depths of more than 100 ft. Most of the USGS stations are situated on sites underlain by basalt, based on surficial geologic maps. However, the sites have varying degrees of weathering and soil development. The remaining strong-motion stations are located on alluvium or volcanic ash. VS30 (average VS in the top 30 m) values for the stations on basalt ranged from 906 to 1908 ft/s [National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classes C and D], because most sites were covered with soil of variable thickness. Based on these data, an NEHRP site-class map was developed for the Big Island. These new VS data will be a significant input into an update of the USGS statewide hazard maps and to the operation of ShakeMap on the island of Hawaii.

  13. Status and trends of native birds in the Keauhou and Kilauea forest, Hawai`i Island.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richard J.; Jacobi, James D.; Pratt, Thane K.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Rubenstein, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    A Safe Harbor Agreement (SHA) is a voluntary arrangement between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and non-Federal landowners to promote the protection, conservation, and recovery of listed species without imposing further land use restrictions on the landowners. Kamehameha Schools is considering entering into a SHA for their Keauhou and Kīlauea Forest lands on the island of Hawai′i. Bird surveys were conducted in 2008 to determine the current occurrence and density of listed species for the Keauhou and Kīlauea Forest, a prerequisite for establishing an agreement. Because of different management practices in the proposed SHA area we stratified the survey data into intact and altered forest strata. The listed passerines—′Akiapōlā′au (Hemignathus munroi), Hawai′i Creeper (Oreomystis mana), and Hawai′i ′Ākepa (Loxops coccineus)—occur in both strata but at low densities. The endangered ′Io (Hawaiian Hawk; Buteo solitarius) also occurs within both strata at low densities. This report was prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Kamehameha Schools to provide information they can use to establish baseline levels for the SHA. In addition, we describe the status and trends of the non-listed native birds.

  14. Thorn-like prickles and heterophylly in Cyanea: adaptations to extinct avian browsers on Hawaii?

    PubMed Central

    Givnish, T J; Sytsma, K J; Smith, J F; Hahn, W J

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of thorn-like structures in plants on oceanic islands that lack mammalian and reptilian herbivores is puzzling, as is their tendency toward juvenile-adult leaf dimorphism. We propose that these traits arose in Cyanea (Campanulaceae) on Hawaii as mechanical and visual defenses against herbivory by flightless geese and goose-like ducks that were extirpated by Polynesians within the last 1600 years. A chloroplast DNA phylogeny indicates that thorn-like prickles evolved at least four times and leaf dimorphism at least three times during the last 3.7 million years. The incidence of both traits increases from Oahu eastward toward younger islands, paralleling the distribution of avian species apparently adapted for browsing. The effectiveness of visual defenses against avian browsers (once dominant on many oceanic islands, based on the vagility of their ancestors) may provide a general explanation for insular heterophylly: the other islands on which this previously unexplained phenomenon is marked (New Zealand, New Caledonia, Madagascar, Mascarene Islands) are exactly those on which one or more large flightless avian browsers evolved. Images PMID:11607469

  15. Lithospheric flexure revealed by Pleistocene emerged marine terraces on the southern Hawaiian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A.T. . Dept. of Oceanography)

    1992-01-01

    New field and geochronological data from emerged marine deposits in the southern Hawaiian Islands suggest uplift of the islands of Molokai, Lanai and Oahu. Corals from these islands were dated by ESR. The accumulated dose for aragonitic coral at ESR signal, g = 2.0007, was determined by the additive dose method. The environmental dose rate was estimated from the Uranium concentration in corals and by using an estimate of 2.5 rad/a for the cosmic ray dose. The ESR ages of the highest terraces on Molokai are 290 [+-] 31 ka (30 m), on Lanai 217 [+-] 19 ka (50 m) and on Oahu 468 [+-] 36 ka (28 m). The age and elevation of the marine terraces are interpreted to imply uplift during the Late Quaternary. Lithospheric flexure combined with horizontal plate motion is proposed as a mechanism to describe the pattern of uplifted terraces on these islands. Using two-dimensional elastic plate models, the height of maximum bulge is approximately 4% to 7% of the maximum deflection for a continuous or broken plate model. Drowned reefs off Hawaii indicate subsidence of 1 km since 340 ka. Thus, the magnitude of observed uplift (30--50 m) is consistent with theoretical maximum bulge heights derived from numerical results.

  16. Assessing the need to disinfect Hawaii`s groundwater sources under the groundwater disinfection rule

    SciTech Connect

    Fujioka, R.; Borthakur, P.; Yoneyama, B.

    1996-11-01

    The Honolulu Board of Water Supply (BWS) is the public water supplier for the island of Oahu which comprises approximately 80% of the population in the state of Hawaii. Today, nearly 100% of the approximately 150 mgd of water provided by the BWS is categorized as groundwater. Historically and up to 1990, the BWS was able to meet the existing coliform drinking water standard even while distributing groundwater to the public without routine disinfection. There has never been any evidence of water borne disease transmission by the distribution system. In fact, one of the major complaints of the public concerns the chlorine taste of the drinking water following spot chlorination during pipe repairs or in reservoir tanks that occasionally become positive for coliform. The most likely source of coliform contamination of reservoir tanks was determined to be the vents of the tanks which are required to allow the water level to rise and fall but which represent sites where external contamination (dust, insects) could enter the tank. It has been a tradition of the BWS to serve safe, good tasting, unchlorinated water to its consumers.

  17. Hawaii geothermal project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamins, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii's Geothermal Project is investigating the occurrence of geothermal resources in the archipelago, initially on the Island of Hawaii. The state's interest in geothermal development is keen, since it is almost totally dependent on imported oil for energy. Geothermal development in Hawaii may require greater participation by the public sector than has been true in California. The initial exploration has been financed by the national, state, and county governments. Maximization of net benefits may call for multiple use of geothermal resources; the extraction of by-products and the application of treated effluents to agricultural and aquacultural uses.

  18. Results of Laboratory Testing for Diphacinone in Seawater, Fish, Invertebrates, and Soil Following Aerial Application of Rodenticide on Lehua Island, Kauai County, Hawaii, January 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orazio, Carl E.; Tanner, Michael J.; Swenson, Chris; Herod, Jeffrey J.; Dunlevy, Peter; Gale, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2009, rodenticide bait (Ramik Green pellets) containing the active ingredient diphacinone was aerially applied to Lehua Island. Reported herein are the results of laboratory analyses to determine diphacinone concentrations in samples of seawater, fillet of fish, soft tissue of limpets (opihi), whole-body crabs, and soil collected from Lehua Island, Kauai County, Hawaii, after aerial application of the rodenticide bait. Diphacinone was specifically chosen because of its low toxicity to nontarget organisms. Its use on Lehua Island is the second time it has ever been used for an aerial application to eradicate rodents. Testing of the Lehua Island samples for diphacinone utilized high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. No detectable concentrations of diphacinone were found in any of the samples from Lehua Island. The limits of detection for diphacinone were 0.4 nanograms per milliliter (parts per billion) seawater, 15 nanograms per gram (dry weight) soil, 20 nanograms per gram (parts per billion) fish fillet, 13 nanograms per gram whole crab, and 34 nanograms per gram soft tissue limpet.

  19. Volcanology in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Decker, R.; Decker, B.

    1988-01-01

    J.D. Dana, a geologist with a United states exploring expedition in the 1840's, was the first to write about the increase in age of the Hawaiian Islands to the northwest. He noted that weathering of the lavas, erosional destruction of the islands by waves and streams and the growth of reeds around the islands progressively increased away from the Island of Hawaii. He correctly established the islands' relative ages, but absolute ages had to wait for over 120 years until radioactive age-dating techniques became available. 

  20. Results of preliminary reconnaissance trip to determine the presence of wetlands in wet forest habitats on the Island of Hawaii as part of the Hawaii Geothermal Project, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeley, J.S.; Sprecher, S.W.; Lichvar, R.

    1994-02-25

    In October 1993, the authors sampled soils, vegetation, and hydrology at eight sites representing a range of substrates, elevations, soil types, and plant community types within rainforest habitats on the Island of Hawaii. Their purpose was to determine whether any of these habitats were wetlands according to the 1987 Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual. None of the rainforest habitats they sampled was wetland in its entirety. However, communities established on pahoehoe lava flows contained scattered wetlands in depressions and folds in the lava, where water could accumulate. Therefore, large construction projects, such as that associated with proposed geothermal energy development in the area, have the potential to impact a significant number and/or area of wetlands. To estimate those impacts more accurately, they present a supplementary scope of work and cost estimate for additional sampling in the proposed geothermal project area.

  1. Geologic Map of the State of Hawai`i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.; Sinton, John M.; Watkins, Sarah E.; Brunt, Kelly M.

    2007-01-01

    1983 and the Universal Transverse Mercator system projection to zone 4. 'This digital statewide map allows engineers, consultants, and scientists from many different fields to take advantage of the geologic database,' said John Sinton, a geology professor at the University of Hawai`i, whose new mapping of the Wai`anae Range (West O`ahu) appears on the map. Indeed, when a testing version was first made available, most requests came from biologists, archaeologists, and soil scientists interested in applying the map's GIS database to their ongoing investigations. Another area newly depicted on the map, in addition to the Wai`anae Range, is Haleakala volcano, East Maui. So too for the active lava flows of Kilauea volcano, Island of Hawai`i, where the landscape has continued to evolve in the ten years since publication of the Big Island's revised geologic map. For the other islands, much of the map is compiled from mapping published in the 1930-1960s. This reliance stems partly from shortage of funding to undertake entirely new mapping but is warranted by the exemplary mapping of those early experts. The boundaries of all map units are digitized to show correctly on modern topographic maps.

  2. Genetic Diversity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Hawaiian Islands: Implications for an Introduction Pathway Into California.

    PubMed

    Barr, Norman B; Ledezma, Lisa A; Leblanc, Luc; San Jose, Michael; Rubinoff, Daniel; Geib, Scott M; Fujita, Brian; Bartels, David W; Garza, Daniel; Kerr, Peter; Hauser, Martin; Gaimari, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Population genetic diversity of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), on the Hawaiian islands of Oahu, Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii (the Big Island) was estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. In total, 932 flies representing 36 sampled sites across the four islands were sequenced for a 1,500-bp fragment of the gene named the C1500 marker. Genetic variation was low on the Hawaiian Islands with >96% of flies having just two haplotypes: C1500-Haplotype 1 (63.2%) or C1500-Haplotype 2 (33.3%). The other 33 flies (3.5%) had haplotypes similar to the two dominant haplotypes. No population structure was detected among the islands or within islands. The two haplotypes were present at similar frequencies at each sample site, suggesting that flies on the various islands can be considered one population. Comparison of the Hawaiian data set to DNA sequences of 165 flies from outbreaks in California between 2006 and 2012 indicates that a single-source introduction pathway of Hawaiian origin cannot explain many of the flies in California. Hawaii, however, could not be excluded as a maternal source for 69 flies. There was no clear geographic association for Hawaiian or non-Hawaiian haplotypes in the Bay Area or Los Angeles Basin over time. This suggests that California experienced multiple, independent introductions from different sources. PMID:26309285

  3. Ages, rare-earth element enrichment, and petrogenesis of tholeiitic and alkalic basalts from Kahoolawe Island, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fodor, R.V.; Frey, F.A.; Bauer, G.R.; Clague, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Kahoolawe Island, Hawaii (18??11 km), is a basaltic shield volcano with caldera-filling lavas, seven identified postshield vents, and at least two occurrences of apparent rejuvenated-stage eruptive. We examined 42 samples that represent all stages of Kahoolawe volcano stratigraphy for their petrography, whole-rock major-and trace-element contents, mineral compositions, and K-Ar ages. The two oldest shield samples have an average age of 1.34??0.08 Ma, and four postshield samples (3 are alkalic) average 1.15??0.03 Ma; ages of 1.08 and 0.99 Ma for two additional tholeiitic samples probably are minimum ages. Whole-rock major- and trace-element and mineral compositions of Kahoolawe shield and caldera-fill laves are generally similar to the lavas forming Kilauea and Mauna Loa tholeiitic shields, but in detail, Kahoolawe shield lavas have distinctive compositions. An unusual aspect of many postshield Ka-hoolawe lavas is anomalously high REE and Y abundances (up to 200 ppm La and 175 ppm Y) and negative Ce anomalies. These enrichments reflect surficial processes, where weathering and soil development promoted REE-Y transport at the weathering front. Major element abundances (MgO, 10-6 wt.%) for shield and caldera-fill basalts are consistent with fractionation of ol+px+pl in frequently replenished magma reservoirs. In general, tholeiitic basalts erupted from late vents are higher in SiO2 than the shield lavas, and temporal differences in parental magma compositions are the likely explanation. Alkalic basalts that erupted from vents are comparable in composition to those at other Hawaiian volcanoes. Trace-element abundance ratios indicate that alkalic basalts represent either relatively lower degrees of melting of the shield source or a distinct source. Apparent rejuvenated-stage basalts (i.e., emplaced after substantial Kahoolawe erosion) are tholeiitic, unlike the rejuvenated-stages at other Hawaiian volcanoes (alkalic). Kahoolawe, like several other Hawaiian volcanoes

  4. Hawaii: Lava or Leave It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Railton, Esther P., Ed.; Railton, Edward, Ed.

    In cooperation with the Hawaii 2000 Outdoor Education Center, a summer ecology course for teachers on the Island of Hawaii developed and conducted an environmental school in Hawaiian outdoor education for 18 children between the ages of 9 and 13. Thirteen teachers enrolled in a California State University field course in environmental education…

  5. Composition of water and suspended sediment in streams of urbanized subtropical watersheds in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Carlo, E. H.; Beltran, V.L.; Tomlinson, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Urbanization on the small subtropical island of Oahu, Hawaii provides an opportunity to examine how anthropogenic activity affects the composition of material transferred from land to ocean by streams. This paper investigates the variability in concentrations of trace elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ba, Co, As, Ni, V and Cr) in streams of watersheds on Oahu, Hawaii. The focus is on water and suspended particulate matter collected from the Ala Wai Canal watershed in Honolulu and also the Kaneohe Stream watershed. As predicted, suspended particulate matter controls most trace element transport. Elements such as Pb, Zn, Cu, Ba and Co exhibit increased concentrations within urbanized portions of the watersheds. Particulate concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms owing to input of road runoff containing elevated concentrations of elements associated with vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. Enrichments of As in samples from predominantly conservation areas are interpreted as reflecting agricultural use of fertilizers at the boundaries of urban and conservation lands. Particulate Ni, V and Cr exhibit distributions during storm events that suggest a mineralogical control. Principal component analysis of particulate trace element concentrations establishes eigenvalues that account for nearly 80% of the total variance and separates trace elements into 3 factors. Factor 1 includes Pb, Zn, Cu, Ba and Co, interpreted to represent metals with an urban anthropogenic enrichment. Factor 2 includes Ni, V and Cr, elements whose concentrations do not appear to derive from anthropogenic activity and is interpreted to reflect mineralogical control. Another, albeit less significant, anthropogenic factor includes As, Cd and U and is thought to represent agricultural inputs. Samples collected during a storm derived from an offshore low-pressure system suggest that downstream transport of upper watershed material during tradewind-derived rains results in a 2

  6. Towards the Establishment of the Hawaii Integrated Seismic Network for Tsunami, Seismic, and Volcanic Hazard Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiro, B. R.; Koyanagi, S. K.; Okubo, P. G.; Wolfe, C. J.

    2006-12-01

    magnitude determination will be improved due to the better station coverage. More advanced seismic analysis techniques such as rapid characterization of the earthquake source will also be possible with HISN broadband data. Anticipated products from upgraded strong motion monitoring include ShakeMaps and earthquake rupture models. The HISN will ultimately consist of the following three types of stations: 12 broadband stations built to ANSS (Advanced National Seismic System) standards using STS-2 broadband seismometers and strong motion accelerometers, 15 new strong motion accelerometer stations, and at least 12 NSMP stations upgraded to real time digital communications. Combined with other existing broadband, short-period, and strong motion stations throughout Hawai`i, the HISN will greatly enhance seismic monitoring capabilities throughout the region. Although most seismicity in Hawai`i occurs under the Island of Hawai`i, large earthquakes do happen further up the island chain. Therefore, stations will be located on all major islands in order to optimize coverage. PTWC is currently finalizing site selection for new sites located on the islands of Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Lana`i, Maui, and Hawai`i. PTWC has begun installation of new stations and expects to have the entire HISN completed by late 2007 or early 2008.

  7. Ambient air quality effects of the 2008-2009 Halema`uma`u eruption on the Island of Hawai`i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, T.; Sutton, A. J.; Kauahikaua, J. P.; Ray, J. D.; Babb, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    While the Halema`uma`u eruption has enlivened volcanologists with the rare opportunity to observe eruptive processes at Kilauea’s summit, it has also caused significant environmental impact on the Island of Hawai`i. Since the beginning of 2008, the combined SO2 emissions from the east rift zone (ERZ) and summit of Kilauea have increased by ~40% as compared to the 2003-2007 long-term average. However, emissions from Kilauea’s summit have increased ~6-fold, averaging 850 t/d during January 2008-August 2009. Although average emissions from the ERZ during this period have been 1-2 times that of the summit, the relative impact of summit emissions is disproportionately large due to the location of the vent and the plume dispersal pattern to downwind communities. Ambient air quality data show that federal standards have been exceeded frequently in various communities on the south half of the island. Between April 2008 and August 2009, primary health standards for SO2 and PM2.5 were exceeded on 41 and 19 occasions respectively in Pahala, located ~30 km downwind of the Kilauea summit under prevailing trade wind conditions. Pahala, which exceeded the SO2 annual standard for 2008, had not exceeded standards prior to the opening of the Halema`uma`u vent in March 2008. In July 2008, the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture designated Hawai`i County a primary natural disaster area due to agricultural losses from volcanic emissions. Many growers of exotic flower crops in the Ka`u district suffered irrecoverable losses. Coffee and macadamia nut farmers also reported damage to their fields. While some livestock farmers reported eye irritation in cattle, more significant damage was observed in the accelerated deterioration of galvanized fencing, gates, pipelines and other infrastructure. The increase in volcanic pollution has spurred health concerns. A rise in respiratory emergencies for visitors to Kilauea caldera in early 2008 led Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park to close areas

  8. Rainfall, Discharge, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, July 1, 2007, to June 30, 2008; Halawa Stream Drainage Basin and the H-1 Storm Drain, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, Todd K.; Jamison, Marcael T.J.; Young, Stacie T.M.

    2008-01-01

    Storm runoff water-quality samples were collected as part of the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program. The program is designed to assess the effects of highway runoff and urban runoff on Halawa Stream and to assess the effects from the H-1 storm drain on Manoa Stream. For this program, rainfall data were collected at three stations, continuous discharge data at four stations, and water-quality data at six stations, which include the four continuous discharge stations. This report summarizes rainfall, discharge, and water-quality data collected between July 1, 2007, and June 30, 2008. A total of 16 environmental samples were collected over two storms during July 1, 2007, to June 30, 2008, within the Halawa Stream drainage area. Samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, nutrients, chemical oxygen demand, and selected trace metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc). Additionally, grab samples were analyzed for oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, fecal coliform, and biological oxygen demand. Some samples were analyzed for only a partial list of these analytes because an insufficient volume of sample was collected by the automatic samplers. Three additional quality-assurance/quality-control samples were collected concurrently with the storm samples. A total of 16 environmental samples were collected over four storms during July 1, 2007, to June 30, 2008 at the H-1 Storm Drain. All samples at this site were collected using an automatic sampler. Samples generally were analyzed for total suspended solids, nutrients, chemical oxygen demand, oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and selected trace metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc), although some samples were analyzed for only a partial list of these analytes. During the storm of January 29, 2008, 10 discrete samples were collected. Varying constituent concentrations were detected for the samples collected

  9. Bacterial communities of two parthenogenetic aphid species cocolonizing two host plants across the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ryan T; Bressan, Alberto; Greenwell, April M; Fierer, Noah

    2011-12-01

    Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) have been the focus of several studies with respect to their interactions with inherited symbionts, but bacterial communities of most aphid species are still poorly characterized. In this research, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial communities in aphids. Specifically, we examined the diversity of bacteria in two obligately parthenogenetic aphid species (the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, and the cardamom aphid, Pentalonia caladii) cocolonizing two plant species (taro, Colocasia esculenta, and ginger, Alpinia purpurata) across four Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, and Oahu). Results from this study revealed that heritable symbionts dominated the bacterial communities for both aphid species. The bacterial communities differed significantly between the two species, and A. gossypii harbored a more diverse bacterial community than P. caladii. The bacterial communities also differed across aphid populations sampled from the different islands; however, communities did not differ between aphids collected from the two host plants. PMID:21965398

  10. Rainfall, Discharge, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, July 1, 2008, to June 30, 2009 - Halawa Stream Drainage Basin and the H-1 Storm Drain, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, Todd K.; Jamison, Marcael T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Storm runoff water-quality samples were collected as part of the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program. The program is designed to assess the effects of highway runoff and urban runoff on Halawa Stream, and to assess the effects from the H-1 storm drain on Manoa Stream. For this program, rainfall data were collected at three stations, continuous discharge data at five stations, and water-quality data at six stations, which include the five continuous discharge stations. This report summarizes rainfall, discharge, and water-quality data collected between July 1, 2008, and June 30, 2009. Within the Halawa Stream drainage area, three storms (October 25 and December 11, 2008, and February 3, 2009) were sampled during July 1, 2008, to June 30, 2009. A total of 43 environmental samples were collected during these three storms. During the storm of October 25, 2009, 31 samples were collected and analyzed individually for metals only. The other 12 samples from the other two storms were analyzed for some or all of the following analytes: total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, nutrients, chemical oxygen demand, and selected trace metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc). Additionally, grab samples were analyzed for some or all of the following analytes: oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, fecal coliform, and biological oxygen demand. Some grab and composite samples were analyzed for only a partial list of these analytes, either because samples could not be delivered to the laboratory in a timely manner, or an insufficient volume of sample was collected by the automatic samplers. Two quality-assurance/quality-control samples were collected after cleaning automatic sampler lines to verify that the sampling lines were not contaminated. Four environmental samples were collected at the H-1 Storm Drain during July 1, 2008, to June 30, 2009. An oil and grease sample and a composite sample were collected during the

  11. 78 FR 76060 - Pacific Ocean off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... Kauai, Hawaii. The proposed rule was published in the July 1, 2013 issue of the Federal Register (78 FR... closure schedule on its official Navy Web site, http://www.cnic.navy.mil/PMRF/ , and Facebook page, http://www.facebook.com/PacificMissileRangeFacility . The danger zone closure schedule may also be...

  12. MBARI's 2001 Hawaii Expedition using the R/V Western Flyer and ROV Tiburon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clague, D. A.; Paull, C. K.; Greene, H. G.; Jordahl, K.; Davis, A. S.

    2001-12-01

    The MBARI research vessel Western Flyer with the Tiburon remotely operated vehicle (ROV) spent 36 days at sea doing mainly geologic investigations offshore the Hawaiian Islands during March to May 2001. During these operational days we conducted 57 dives at depths ranging from 150 m to 3820 m and collected 1198 volcanic and carbonate rock samples; 185 sediment samples using sediment scoops, push-cores and short vibracores; and assorted megafauna. We occupied 32 closely spaced heat flow stations, and collected 167 water filtration samples for radium analysis. We also recorded about 280 hours of digital beta format video of the bottom. Heat flow and in-situ thermal conductivity was measured on the northwest flank of Oahu. The radium samples were collected during all of the dives east of Oahu by filtering about 200 liters of seawater on the ROV using a new pump/filtration system. The dives addressed a range of research topics that can be roughly subdivided into four groups. Volcanologic observations and petrologic sampling of constructional volcanic features were done on eruptive fissures on the Kohala terrace west of Hawaii, cones on Kilauea's Puna Ridge and the west rift of Kahoolawe, rejuvenated stage cones and flat-topped cones offshore Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau, and postshield stage cones offshore Niihau. The analyzed lavas from the Puna Ridge are tholeiitic basalts with 4.8-6.4% MgO. The samples from the west rift of Kahoolawe are submarine-erupted, high-SiO2, tholeiitic basalt and tuff. The analyzed rejuvenated and postshield stage lavas and tuffs are alkalic and submarine erupted. The subsidence history of the islands and paleoclimatic history were addressed by sampling old shoreline feature such as drowned coral reefs and drowned beaches. Dives with this objective were done on six terraces on the Kohala terrace, one on East Kohala, four south and southwest of Lanai, one north of Molokai, one south of Oahu, one on the Kaena Ridge, and one northwest of Niihau. We

  13. Understanding the scale of Marine protection in Hawai'i: from community-based management to the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Alan M; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A; Kittinger, John N; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Tissot, Brian N

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Hawaiians developed a sophisticated natural resource management system that included various forms of spatial management. Today there exists in Hawai'i a variety of spatial marine management strategies along a range of scales, with varying degrees of effectiveness. State-managed no-take areas make up less than 0.4% of nearshore waters, resulting in limited ecological and social benefits. There is increasing interest among communities and coastal stakeholders in integrating aspects of customary Hawaiian knowledge into contemporary co-management. A network of no-take reserves for aquarium fish on Hawai'i Island is a stakeholder-driven, adaptive management strategy that has been successful in achieving ecological objectives and economic benefits. A network of large-scale no-take areas for deepwater (100-400m) bottomfishes suffered from a lack of adequate data during their initiation; however, better technology, more ecological data, and stakeholder input have resulted in improvements and the ecological benefits are becoming clear. Finally, the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM) is currently the single largest conservation area in the United States, and one of the largest in the world. It is considered an unqualified success and is managed under a new model of collaborative governance. These case studies allow an examination of the effects of scale on spatial marine management in Hawai'i and beyond that illustrate the advantages and shortcomings of different management strategies. Ultimately a marine spatial planning framework should be applied that incorporates existing marine managed areas to create a holistic, regional, multi-use zoning plan engaging stakeholders at all levels in order to maximize resilience of ecosystems and communities. PMID:25358300

  14. Understanding the scale of Marine protection in Hawai'i: from community-based management to the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Alan M; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A; Kittinger, John N; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Tissot, Brian N

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Hawaiians developed a sophisticated natural resource management system that included various forms of spatial management. Today there exists in Hawai'i a variety of spatial marine management strategies along a range of scales, with varying degrees of effectiveness. State-managed no-take areas make up less than 0.4% of nearshore waters, resulting in limited ecological and social benefits. There is increasing interest among communities and coastal stakeholders in integrating aspects of customary Hawaiian knowledge into contemporary co-management. A network of no-take reserves for aquarium fish on Hawai'i Island is a stakeholder-driven, adaptive management strategy that has been successful in achieving ecological objectives and economic benefits. A network of large-scale no-take areas for deepwater (100-400m) bottomfishes suffered from a lack of adequate data during their initiation; however, better technology, more ecological data, and stakeholder input have resulted in improvements and the ecological benefits are becoming clear. Finally, the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM) is currently the single largest conservation area in the United States, and one of the largest in the world. It is considered an unqualified success and is managed under a new model of collaborative governance. These case studies allow an examination of the effects of scale on spatial marine management in Hawai'i and beyond that illustrate the advantages and shortcomings of different management strategies. Ultimately a marine spatial planning framework should be applied that incorporates existing marine managed areas to create a holistic, regional, multi-use zoning plan engaging stakeholders at all levels in order to maximize resilience of ecosystems and communities.

  15. Surface Water in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    2003-01-01

    Surface water in Hawaii is a valued resource as well as a potential threat to human lives and property. The surface-water resources of Hawaii are of significant economic, ecologic, cultural, and aesthetic importance. Streams supply more than 50 percent of the irrigation water in Hawaii, and although streams supply only a few percent of the drinking water statewide, surface water is the main source of drinking water in some places. Streams also are a source of hydroelectric power, provide important riparian and instream habitats for many unique native species, support traditional and customary Hawaiian gathering rights and the practice of taro cultivation, and possess valued aesthetic qualities. Streams affect the physical, chemical, and aesthetic quality of receiving waters, such as estuaries, bays, and nearshore waters, which are critical to the tourism-based economy of the islands. Streams in Hawaii pose a danger because of their flashy nature; a stream's stage, or water level, can rise several feet in less than an hour during periods of intense rainfall. Streams in Hawaii are flashy because rainfall is intense, drainage basins are small, basins and streams are steep, and channel storage is limited. Streamflow generated during periods of heavy rainfall has led to loss of property and human lives in Hawaii. Most Hawaiian streams originate in the mountainous interiors of the islands and terminate at the coast. Streams are significant sculptors of the Hawaiian landscape because of the erosive power of the water they convey. In geologically young areas, such as much of the southern part of the island of Hawaii, well-defined stream channels have not developed because the permeability of the surface rocks generally is so high that rainfall infiltrates before flowing for significant distances on the surface. In geologically older areas that have received significant rainfall, streams and mass wasting have carved out large valleys.

  16. Archaeology in the Kilauea East Rift Zone: Part 2, A preliminary sample survey, Kapoho, Kamaili and Kilauea geothermal subzones, Puna District, Hawaii island

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, M.T.K.; Burtchard, G.C.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes a preliminary sample inventory and offers an initial evaluation of settlement and land-use patterns for the Geothermal Resources Subzones (GRS) area, located in Puna District on the island of Hawaii. The report is the second of a two part project dealing with archaeology of the Puna GRS area -- or more generally, the Kilauea East Rift Zone. In the first phase of the project, a long-term land-use model and inventory research design was developed for the GRS area and Puna District generally. That report is available under separate cover as Archaeology in the Kilauea East Rift Zone, Part I: Land-Use Model and Research Design. The present report gives results of a limited cultural resource survey built on research design recommendations. It offers a preliminary evaluation of modeled land-use expectations and offers recommendations for continuing research into Puna`s rich cultural heritage. The present survey was conducted under the auspices of the United States Department of Energy, and subcontracted to International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc. (IARII) by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. The purpose of the archaeological work is to contribute toward the preparation of an environmental impact statement by identifying cultural materials which could be impacted through completion of the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project.

  17. Giant blocks in the South Kona landslide, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.G.; Bryan, W.B.; Beeson, M.H.; Normark, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    A large field of blocky sea-floor hills, up to 10km long and 500 high, are gigantic slide blocks derived from the west flank of Mauna Loa volcano on the island of Hawaii. These megablocks are embedded in the toe of the south Kona landslide, which extends ~80km seaward from the present coastline to depths of nearly 5km. A 10-15km-wide belt of numerous, smaller, 1-3 km-long slide blocks separates the area of giant blocks from two submarine benches at depths of 2600 and 3700m depth that terminate seaward 20 to 30km from the shoreline. Similar giant blocks are found on several other major submarine Hawaiian landslides, including those north of Oahu and Molokai, but the South Kona blocks are the first to be examined in detail using high-resolution bathymetry, dredging, and submersible diving. Dredging of two of the giant blocks brought up pillowed tholeiitic lava. Megablocks were carried by a late Pleistocene giant landslide 40-80km west from the ancestral shoreline of Mauna Loa volcano before growth of the midslope benches by later slump movement. -from Authors

  18. The history of mammal eradications in Hawai`i and the United States associated islands of the Central Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, S.C.; Jacobi, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Many eradications of mammal taxa have been accomplished on United States associated islands of the Central Pacific, beginning in 1910. Commonly eradicated species are rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), rats (Rattus spp.), feral cats (Felis catus), and several feral ungulates from smaller islands and fenced natural areas on larger Hawaiian Islands. Vegetation and avifauna have demonstrated dramatic recovery as a direct result of eradications. Techniques of worldwide significance, including the Judas goat method, were refined during these actions. The land area from which ungulates have been eradicated on large Hawaiian Islands is now greater than the total land area of some smaller Hawaiian Islands. Large multi-tenure islands present the greatest challenge to eradication because of conflicting societal interests regarding introduced mammals, mainly sustained-yield hunting. The difficulty of preventing reinvasion poses a persistent threat after eradication, particularly for feral pigs (Sus scrofa) on multi-tenure islands. Larger areas and more challenging species are now under consideration for eradication. The recovery of endangered Hawaiian birds may depend on the creation of large predator-proof exclosures on some of the larger islands. Large scale eradications of small Indian mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus) would be beneficial to ground-nesting birds such as nēnē (Branta sandvicensis), but this has been achieved only in small exclosures.

  19. Impact Aid and the Establishment of United States Department of Defense Schools in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Karen W. F.

    Findings of a study that examined the feasibility of transferring certain public schools in Hawaii to the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) are presented in this document. A state legislative resolution to transfer was adopted in response to two concerns--the dissatisfaction of some military families with the quality of public schools on Oahu, and…

  20. The Need to Consider Ethnocultural Context in Prevention Programming: A Case Example from Hawai'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Susana; Baker, Charlene K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This article highlights the importance of incorporating ethnocultural contexts in prevention research and programming. We provide a case example from our research in youth violence prevention in Hawai'i. Methods: Data were collected in multiethnic communities on O'ahu. Focus groups were conducted with high school-aged youths of Native…

  1. Science Update on the Hawaii Undersea Research Lab's Deep Submergence Operations in 2006 and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. R.; Wiltshire, J. C.; Orange, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    The Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory (HURL), the NOAA Undersea Research Program (NURP) Center for Hawaii and the Western Pacific, is one of six regional NURP Centers specializing in providing scientists with the tools and expertise they need to investigate the undersea environment, including HOVs, ROVs, and other cutting edge technologies. Established at the University of Hawaii 26 years ago, HURL's mission is to study deep water marine processes in the Pacific Ocean through a competitive proposal and review process. The dual Pisces IV and Pisces V 2000-meter HOV, an RCV-150 900-meter ROV, and multibeam equipped support ship R/V Ka`imikai-o-Kanaloa (KoK) have been continuously upgraded and adapted to carry out cutting edge scientific expeditions. Following a successful far ranging five month program to the South Pacific in 2005, a complete overhaul for Pisces IV was carried out in the first half of 2006 with science dives in the main Hawaiian Islands taking place from August to December. Sixty Pisces dives are being performed for over 25 principal investigators and senior scientists in 10 projects. These projects include studies of deep-water benthic algae, the ecology of submarine canyons, paleo-sea level study, explosive volcanism on Loihi Seamount, drowned reefs off the northeastern coast of the Big Island of Hawaii, followed by several dive series with multiple biological, reef, and fisheries PIs working off Oahu, Molokai, Maui, and Lanai on bottomfish, artificial reef, precious coral, and invasive species assessments. Complete overhaul of Pisces V will be done in 2007, after which a fall program in the newly designated Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument is expected. Following that, preparations will begin in earnest for the FY 2008 expedition to the North Pacific. This expedition is anticipated to be six months in length and involve over 80 HOV dives. It will cover the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Emperor Seamounts, and the coasts of

  2. Determination of Diphacinone in Sea Water, Vertebrates, Invertebrates, and Bait Pellet Formulations Following Aerial Broadcast on Mokapu Island, Molokai, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; Tanner, Michael; Orazio, Carl E.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine diphacinone concentrations in samples of sea water and in fillet samples of fish and in limpets from the ocean adjacent to Mokapu Island and from reference samples from Molokai, Hawai'i; concentrations of the active ingredient (diphacinone) were also determined in samples of the Ramik Green bait pellets used for the broadcast study. After preparation, diphacinone concentrations were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. No detectable concentrations of diphacinone were found in the fish, limpets, or sea-water samples from Mokapu Island or from the reference sites. The limit of detection for diphacinone in sea water was 18 nanograms per milliliter (parts per billion); the limit of detection in fish fillets was 10 nanograms per gram (parts per billion); and the limit of detection in limpets was 17 nanograms per gram. The average concentration of diphacinone in the Ramik Green bait pellets was 45 micrograms per gram (parts per million), which represents 90 percent of the nominal concentration stated for the product by the manufacturer.

  3. New Insights into the Influence of Structural Controls Affecting Groundwater Flow and Storage Within an Ocean Island Volcano, Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D. M.; Haskins, E.; Wallin, E.; Pierce, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Humu'ula Groundwater Research Project was undertaken on the Island of Hawaii in an effort to characterize the hydrologic structures controlling groundwater movement and storage within Saddle region between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea volcanoes. In 2013, the project drilled a 1764 m, continuously-cored, borehole from an elevation of 1946 m amsl near the center of the Saddle, and has now completed a second borehole at an elevation of 1645 m on the western edge of the Saddle. Although the stratigraphy of the rocks is similar, dominantly pahoehoe lava flows with somewhat fewer a'a lavas and occasional dike rock intervals, the hydrologic character of the formation in the latter is distinctly different from the former. Whereas the former test hole encountered a few high elevation perched aquifers that were underlain by an inferred regional, dike-impounded, water table at an elevation of 1390 m amsl, the latter bore encountered a sequence of confined aquifers with heads substantially higher than depth of entry. The shallowest of the confined aquifers was encountered at an elevation of 1340 m and showed a hydrostatic head of >160 m when the capping formation was breached. Deeper confined aquifers showed initial heads of > 400 m although none had heads sufficient to discharge at the surface. Most of the confined aquifers were associated with clay-rich ash beds that mantled the more permeable lavas however one of the deeper confined zones, that showed the highest head, was associated with a highly compacted breccia zone that has tentatively been ascribed to an explosive deposit. Chemical analysis of the clasts within this layer is underway to determine whether this deposit is associated with explosive activity of Mauna Kea or with another volcano on the island. Previous geophysical surveys have suggested that these confined aquifers may extend well down the leeward slopes of Mauna Kea. Evidence of multiple confining layers within the flanks of Mauna Kea suggest that its

  4. Evaluation of factors contributing to the achievement of students participating in a culturally responsive curriculum in Hawai`i public schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowditch, Scott A.

    This research explored the effectiveness of Ka Hana 'Imi Na 'auao, a culturally responsive science curriculum developed for Hawaiian and other students in Hawai'i high schools. An instrument, The Culturally Responsive Science Perception (CRSP) inventory was developed to measure students' (a) perceptions of their science self-efficacy, (b) perceived frequency of behaviors valued by members of the Hawaiian community and (c) frequency of perceptions of behaviors conducive to learning. Initial validation for the three-factor construct was obtained using Exploratory Factor Analysis and further validated utilizing Confirmatory Factor Analysis with an oblique rotation and 24 items were found to measure the three aspects with a multicultural group of 332 students on Oahu and Hawai'i island. A multi-level analysis was conducted by (a) testing for internal consistency and growth patterns over time utilizing Confirmatory Factor Analysis, (b) developing a 2-level model using a Growth Curve Modeling approach as the final method of measuring growth over time and analyzing the differences between treatment and control groups. Results indicated a significant change ( p < .05) in science self-efficacy and frequency of pono behaviors (p <.05), as well as significant gains in overall GPA (p < .01) in the treatment group. These positive findings suggest that when curriculum developers in Hawai'i are more culturally conscious, it may benefit all learners.

  5. Bring Mars Data Into Hawaii's Classrooms: An Exercise in Cultural Adaptation, Inclusivity and Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, B. C.; Fagents, S. A.

    2006-12-01

    Through a NASA Education and Public Outreach grant linked to a Mars Fundamental Research Program proposal, we are developing standards-based, hands-on 5-12th grade Mars science curricula that are culturally relevant to Hawaii. Our approach is both to develop new curricula based on authentic Mars data as well as to tailor existing curricula to make the content and teaching methodologies culturally relevant. Although we believe our curricula will benefit all of Hawaii`s students, we are specifically targeting Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI), who have among the poorest educational performance when compared to other ethnic and racial groups in Hawaii. One of our curriculum projects is an eight-lesson unit entitled Life in Hawaii, Life on Mars, currently being developed in partnership with 5th and 6th grade teachers at Laie and Makaha Elementary Schools in rural O`ahu. Both schools have high NHPI enrollment, so establishing cultural relevance during the introductory sessions is a high priority. We plan on beginning the unit with Life in Hawaii, an examination of what people and plants need to live, followed by Hawaiians as Space Explorers, which draws parallels with Polynesian voyaging tradition. The next four sessions, in which students analyze Mars data and conduct laboratory experiments, are aimed at determining how people could survive on Mars. Topics include: Is There Water on Mars?, Building biospheres (double-session), and Choosing a Biosphere Location on Mars. The final two sessions involve student-scientist interaction. In Meet the Mars Scientists, scientists give feedback as students share their biospheres and ideas of where to put them. In the final lesson, You can be a research scientist!, students help scientists with their research by taking simple planimetric measurements of volcanic features on Mars. Our ultimate goal is to interest all (but particularly NHPI) students in a science career. We believe the successful features of this program

  6. Vertical Motions of the Hawaiian Islands during the last 400 ka and their Implications for Plate-Plume Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, S.; Watts, A. B.

    2001-12-01

    Radiometric dating on drowned coral reefs and sub-aerial lavas including those from the Hilo scientific drilling hole [e.g., Lipman and Moore, 1996] indicates that Hawaii has subsided for ~1.2 km in the last 450 ka. Studies by Grigg and Jones [1997] of elevated coral deposits on Lanai and Molokai, which are located ~250 km from Hawaii, indicate up to ~60-80 meters uplift in the last 300 ka for these islands. Similar studies show that Oahu which is ~340 km from Hawaii has experienced smaller amount of uplift during approximately the same period. The observed patterns of vertical motions have been attributed to the flexural effects of loading of Hawaii on an elastic plate overlying an inviscid substratum. Such a model, however, is time-invariant and does not take into account any changes that may occur in the subsidence and uplift history during loading. We have therefore formulated a viscoelastic model to investigate the vertical motion induced by the loading of Hawaii. The viscosity structure is determined from thermal age and a Newtonian flow law with activation energy 120 KJ/mol and reference viscosity 1020 Pa s [Watts and Zhong, 2000]. A feature of the model is that at the time-scales appropriate to loading at Hawaii a significant portion of the lithosphere with viscosity greater than 1022 Pa s may still support stresses, which results in a larger apparent elastic thickness than has been deduced from flexural loading studies. Our studies show that while a viscoelastic model with a variable loading history can explain the subsidence at Hawaii, it fails to account for the uplift that is observed at Lanai and Molokai. One possibility is that these islands have been influenced by dynamic uplift due to an ascending plume beneath Hawaii. Our 3-D convection calculations show that the 10 cm/year motion of the Pacific plate causes the topography induced by a plume to peak "downstream" of Hawaii in the region of Lanai and Molokai. The vertical motion of the Hawaiian

  7. Strategy to control the invasive alien tree Miconia calvescens in Pacific islands: Eradication, containment or something else?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, Jean-Yves; Loope, Lloyd; Goarant, Anne-Claire; Veitch, C.R.; Clout, M.N.; Towns, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae) is a notorious plant invader in the tropical islands of French Polynesia, Hawaii and New Caledonia. A small tree native to Central and South America, it was first introduced as an ornamental in private botanic gardens in Tahiti (1937), Honolulu (1961), and Nouméa (1970s) where it escaped, became naturalised, and formed dense monospecific stands. More than 80,000 ha are currently invaded in French Polynesia, 10,000 ha in the Hawaiian Islands and 140 ha in New Caledonia. Control programmes have been under way in the Hawaiian Islands (Oahu, Maui, Hawaii, Kauai) and French Polynesia (Raiatea, Tahaa, Nuku Hiva, Fatu Hiva) since the early 1990s, and in New Caledonia (Province Sud) since 2006. Despite more than 15 years of intensive control efforts and millions of plants destroyed, eradication has not been achieved in any of these islands, mainly because the species has multiple features that thwart its elimination (e.g., prolific seed production, active dispersal by alien and native frugivorous birds, large and persistent soil seed bank, shade-tolerance), combined with the difficulty of detecting and destroying plants on rough terrain and steep slopes, insufficient control frequency, and limited financial and human resources. Miconia’s life cycle requires at least four years growth from seedling to fruiting. Consequently, prevention of fruit production may be an effective management strategy for small populations. This “juvenilization” process may allow the eradication of small populations when carefully conducted over a quarter century. 

  8. Helminth parasites of intermingling axis deer, wild swine and domestic cattle from the island of Molokai, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, M E; Davidson, W R

    1989-04-01

    Helminth infections of axis deer (Cervus axis), wild swine (Sus scrofa) and domestic cattle (Bos taurus) were studied among intermingling herds on the Puu-O-Hoku Ranch, Molokai, Hawaii. Twenty-four species of helminths were collected from the 10 deer, 10 swine and 10 cattle. Capillaria bovis, Cooperia punctata, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus axei infected both axis deer and cattle, whereas Gongylonema pulchrum infected both axis deer and wild swine. None of the species of helminths occurred in both wild swine and cattle nor was any species found in all three hosts. Wild swine and domestic cattle supported separate and distinct helminth communities. In contrast, the helminth community of axis deer appeared to be derived from the helminth communities of cattle and wild swine and consisted only of those species capable of parasitizing either a broad range of ruminants or many mammalian taxa.

  9. Hawaii Space Grant Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Luke P.

    2005-01-01

    The Hawai'i Space Grant Consortium is composed of ten institutions of higher learning including the University of Hawai'i at Manoa, the University of Hawai'i at Hilo, the University of Guam, and seven Community Colleges spread over the 4 main Hawaiian islands. Geographic separation is not the only obstacle that we face as a Consortium. Hawai'i has been mired in an economic downturn due to a lack of tourism for almost all of the period (2001 - 2004) covered by this report, although hotel occupancy rates and real estate sales have sky-rocketed in the last year. Our challenges have been many including providing quality educational opportunities in the face of shrinking State and Federal budgets, encouraging science and technology course instruction at the K-12 level in a public school system that is becoming less focused on high technology and more focused on developing basic reading and math skills, and assembling community college programs with instructors who are expected to teach more classes for the same salary. Motivated people can overcome these problems. Fortunately, the Hawai'i Space Grant Consortium (HSGC) consists of a group of highly motivated and talented individuals who have not only overcome these obstacles, but have excelled with the Program. We fill a critical need within the State of Hawai'i to provide our children with opportunities to pursue their dreams of becoming the next generation of NASA astronauts, engineers, and explorers. Our strength lies not only in our diligent and creative HSGC advisory board, but also with Hawai'i's teachers, students, parents, and industry executives who are willing to invest their time, effort, and resources into Hawai'i's future. Our operational philosophy is to FACE the Future, meaning that we will facilitate, administer, catalyze, and educate in order to achieve our objective of creating a highly technically capable workforce both here in Hawai'i and for NASA. In addition to administering to programs and

  10. Development and implementation of a food system intervention to prevent childhood obesity in rural Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Rachel; Vijayadeva, Vinutha; Ramirez, Vicky; Lee, Soo Kyung; Davison, Nicola; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents details the Healthy Foods Hawai'i (HFH) intervention trial, aimed to improve children's dietary behavior to prevent child obesity, by modifying the food environment with community-selected foods. Four communities were selected by ethnic composition, income level, two on O'ahu and one neighbor island. On each island one community was randomly assigned to intervention and one to control. The intervention was implemented through food stores in the intervention communities. HFH was designed to strengthen the network between local food producers, food distributors, storeowners and consumers, to increase the availability of healthier less energy dense foods for children in underserved rural communities of Hawai'i. The intervention includes phases: healthier beverages, snacks, condiments, and family meals. Moderate to high fidelity was achieved for educational materials (shelf labels, posters and educational displays). The number of educational displays varied by intervention phase and community. Posters were found in place 100% of the time. Shelf labels were found intact in the correct location. Low to moderate fidelity was achieved for distributors, with some products not stocked. In the intervention communities, 6-8 week phases focused on target foods with 40 food demonstrations. A total of 1582 food related samples were distributed. A high to moderate dose and reach of the overall intervention was achieved in delivery of the cooking demonstrations. A high to moderate dose and reach of the intervention was achieved overall; fidelity to the intervention protocol was moderate. To improve healthy local food availability in stores in rural communities in Hawai'i, agricultural producers reported needing additional support to sell and transport product to local stores, rather than to centralized distributors.

  11. Spatial and temporal variation in enterococcal abundance and its relationship to the microbial community in Hawaii beach sand and water.

    PubMed

    Cui, Henglin; Yang, Kun; Pagaling, Eulyn; Yan, Tao

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies have reported high levels of fecal indicator enterococci in marine beach sand. This study aimed to determine the spatial and temporal variation of enterococcal abundance and to evaluate its relationships with microbial community parameters in Hawaii beach sand and water. Sampling at 23 beaches on the Island of Oahu detected higher levels of enterococci in beach foreshore sand than in beach water on a mass unit basis. Subsequent 8-week consecutive samplings at two selected beaches (Waialae and Kualoa) consistently detected significantly higher levels of enterococci in backshore sand than in foreshore/nearshore sand and beach water. Comparison between the abundance of enterococci and the microbial communities showed that enterococci correlated significantly with total Vibrio in all beach zones but less significantly with total bacterial density and Escherichia coli. Samples from the different zones of Waialae beach were sequenced by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to determine the microbial community structure and diversity. The backshore sand had a significantly more diverse community and contained different major bacterial populations than the other beach zones, which corresponded to the spatial distribution pattern of enterococcal abundance. Taken together, multiple lines of evidence support the possibility of enterococci as autochthonous members of the microbial community in Hawaii beach sand. PMID:23563940

  12. Evaluation of the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Data-Collection Program in Hawaii, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, Stephen S.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey ground-water data-collection program in the State of Hawaii consisted of 188 wells distributed among the islands of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, and Hawaii. Water-level and water-quality (temperature, specific conductance, and chloride concentration) data were collected from observation wells, deep monitoring wells that penetrate the zone of transition between freshwater and saltwater, free-flowing wells, and pumped wells. The objective of the program was to collect sufficient spatial and temporal data to define seasonal and long-term changes in ground-water levels and chloride concentrations induced by natural and human-made stresses for different climatic and hydrogeologic settings. Wells needed to meet this objective can be divided into two types of networks: (1) a water-management network to determine the response of ground-water flow systems to human-induced stresses, such as pumpage, and (2) a baseline network to determine the response of ground-water flow systems to natural stresses for different climatic and hydrogeologic settings. Maps showing the distribution and magnitude of pumpage and the distribution of proposed pumped wells are presented to identify areas in need of water-management networks. Wells in the 1992 U.S. Geological Survey ground-water data-collection program were classified as either water-management or baseline network wells. In addition, locations where additional water-management network wells are needed for water-level and water-quality data were identified.

  13. 78 FR 25243 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 15 Species on Hawaii Island as Endangered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    .... DATES: The comment period for the proposed rule published October 17, 2012, at 77 FR 63928, is reopened... in the Federal Register on October 17, 2012 (77 FR 63928), our draft economic analysis of the.... On October 17, 2012, we published a proposal (77 FR 63928) to list 15 species on the island of...

  14. The quality of our Nation's waters: groundwater quality in the Columbia Plateau and Snake River Plain basin-fill and basaltic-rock aquifers and the Hawaiian volcanic-rock aquifers, Washington, Idaho, and Hawaii, 1993-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Hunt, Charles D.; Skinner, Kenneth D.; Frans, Lonna M.; Mahler, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    The Columbia Plateau, Snake River Plain, and Hawaii are large volcanic areas in the western United States and mid-Pacific ocean that contain extensive regional aquifers of a hard, gray, volcanic rock called basalt. Residents of the Columbia Plateau, the Snake River Plain, and the island of Oahu depend on groundwater as their primary source of drinking water. Although the depth to the water table can be several hundred feet, the groundwater is highly vulnerable to contamination because the permeable sediments and rocks allow contaminants to move readily down to the water table. Intense agricultural and urban activities occur above the drinking-water supply and are increasing in some areas. Contaminants, such as nitrate, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds, associated with agricultural and urban activities, have adversely affected groundwater quality.

  15. Volcano-tectonic implications of 3-D velocity structures derived from joint active and passive source tomography of the island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Park, J.; Morgan, J.K.; Zelt, C.A.; Okubo, P.G.

    2009-01-01

    We present a velocity model of the onshore and offshore regions around the southern part of the island of Hawaii, including southern Mauna Kea, southeastern Hualalai, and the active volcanoes of Mauna Loa, and Kilauea, and Loihi seamount. The velocity model was inverted from about 200,000 first-arrival traveltime picks of earthquakes and air gun shots recorded at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). Reconstructed volcanic structures of the island provide us with an improved understanding of the volcano-tectonic evolution of Hawaiian volcanoes and their interactions. The summits and upper rift zones of the active volcanoes are characterized by high-velocity materials, correlated with intrusive magma cumulates. These high-velocity materials often do not extend the full lengths of the rift zones, suggesting that rift zone intrusions may be spatially limited. Seismicity tends to be localized seaward of the most active intrusive bodies. Low-velocity materials beneath parts of the active rift zones of Kilauea and Mauna Loa suggest discontinuous rift zone intrusives, possibly due to the presence of a preexisting volcanic edifice, e.g., along Mauna Loa beneath Kilauea's southwest rift zone, or alternatively, removal of high-velocity materials by large-scale landsliding, e.g., along Mauna Loa's western flank. Both locations also show increased seismicity that may result from edifice interactions or reactivation of buried faults. New high-velocity regions are recognized and suggest the presence of buried, and in some cases, previously unknown rift zones, within the northwest flank of Mauna Loa, and the south flanks of Mauna Loa, Hualalai, and Mauna Kea. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. A multivariate assessment of the coral ecosystem health of two embayments on the lee of the island of Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Michael L; Walsh, William J; Settlemier, Chelsie J; White, Darla J; Ballauer, Josh M; Ayotte, Paula M; Osada, Kara M; Carman, Brent

    2008-06-01

    Four coral-dominated coastal sites within two embayments (Kealakekua Bay and Honokōhau Bay) on the lee of the island of Hawai'i were studied to assess evidence of anthropogenic impacts in these relatively pristine locales. Nutrient-loading parameters were analyzed in relation to benthic composition data. Statistically, there were significant positive relationships between nitrate+nitrite, silicate, and ammonium with the abundance of macroalgae, coralline algae, and dead coral, and between delta(15)N and dead coral abundance. The north outside site of Kealakekua Bay and the south outside site of Honokōhau Bay appear to be most impacted by nutrient-loading factors in each bay, respectively. Comparisons with past nutrient data indicate that nutrient inputs have increased to the two bays, and that early impacts of these increased loadings are evident. It is predicted that at current nutrient-loading rates, the north sites of Kealakekua Bay and the south sites of Honokōhau Bay will exhibit evidence of further degradation in future years. PMID:18456287

  17. Patterns of energy use, energy cost increases, and their impacts on crop production on the Big Island of Hawaii: a linear-programming approach

    SciTech Connect

    Koffi-Tessio, E.N.

    1982-01-01

    This study examines the interrelationship between the energy sector and the production of three agricultural crops (sugar, macadamia nut, and coffee) by small growers on the Big Island of Hawaii. Specifically, it attempts: to explore the patterns of energy use in agriculture; to determine the relative efficiency of fuel use by farm size among the three crops; and to investigate the impacts of higher energy costs on farmers' net revenues under three output-price and three energy-cost scenarios. To meet these objectives, a linear-programming model was developed. The objective function was to maximize net revenues subject to resource availability, production, marketing, and non-negativity constraints. The major conclusions emerging are: higher energy costs have not significantly impacted on farmers' net revenues, but do have a differential impact depending on the output price and resource endowments of each crop grower; farmers are faced with many constraints that do not permit factor substitution. For policy formulation, it was observed that policy makers are overly concerned with the problems facing growers at the macro level, without considering their constraints at the micro level. These micro factors play a dominant role in resource allocation. They must, therefore, be incorporated into a comprehensive energy and agricultural policy at the county and state level.

  18. Project Ahupua'a: Solar meteorological field measurements on the Island of Hawaii, summer 1978. 3: Trade wind interactions with local winds in South Kohala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, T. A.

    1980-02-01

    Instrumented vans monitored meteorological elements related to solar energy in the leeward South Kohala district of the Island of Hawaii between 23 and 28 June 1978. This phase of Project Ahupua'a concentrated on sea breeze circulations and their interactions with synoptic scale winds. Supplementary data were collected as in previous phases. In addition, visual observations were made from Anaehoomalu Beach and from an automobile traversing the transect. Daily weather conditions were documented by ground-based photography. The study period was characterized by abnormally high tropospheric moisture content and passage of significant tradewind disturbances. Local weather variability was greater than in earlier phases of project Ahupua'a. Sea breeze intrusion was frequent below 300 m MSL, but occurred at higher elevations only in response to significant synoptic systems. Diurnal variations of measured parameters were strong and reflected diminished sea breeze influence above 300 m. Heating of lava surfaces drives local circulations through two opposing physical processes. Surface pressure gradients support sea breeze development while vertical transport of horizontal (trade wind) momentum creates intense downslope flows.

  19. Report on Hawaii Geothermal Power Plant Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The report describes the design, construction, and operation of the Hawaii Geothermal Generator Project. This power plant, located in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii, produces three megawatts of electricity from the steam phase of a geothermal well. (ACR)

  20. Dengue fever, Hawaii, 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Effler, Paul V; Pang, Lorrin; Kitsutani, Paul; Vorndam, Vance; Nakata, Michele; Ayers, Tracy; Elm, Joe; Tom, Tammy; Reiter, Paul; Rigau-Perez, José G; Hayes, John M; Mills, Kristin; Napier, Mike; Clark, Gary G; Gubler, Duane J

    2005-05-01

    Autochthonous dengue infections were last reported in Hawaii in 1944. In September 2001, the Hawaii Department of Health was notified of an unusual febrile illness in a resident with no travel history; dengue fever was confirmed. During the investigation, 1,644 persons with locally acquired denguelike illness were evaluated, and 122 (7%) laboratory-positive dengue infections were identified; dengue virus serotype 1 was isolated from 15 patients. No cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever or shock syndrome were reported. In 3 instances autochthonous infections were linked to a person who reported denguelike illness after travel to French Polynesia. Phylogenetic analyses showed the Hawaiian isolates were closely associated with contemporaneous isolates from Tahiti. Aedes albopictus was present in all communities surveyed on Oahu, Maui, Molokai, and Kauai; no Ae. aegypti were found. This outbreak underscores the importance of maintaining surveillance and control of potential disease vectors even in the absence of an imminent disease threat.

  1. Shoreline Change in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romine, B. M.; Fletcher, C. H.; Barbee, M.; Frazer, L.; Anderson, T. R.

    2010-12-01

    Historical shoreline studies aid the coastal management community in identifying and managing coastal areas facing an increased risk of future beach erosion, assuming historical trends of shoreline change have a relationship to future shoreline changes. Beaches around the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui are investigated for chronic beach erosion, defined as shoreline change occurring over 10’s to 100 years. Historical shoreline positions are mapped from orthorectified aerial photographs and topographic survey charts. Positional uncertainty is calculated for each historical shoreline using data from seasonal beach profile measurements and from the mapping process. Shoreline movement through time is measured along 244 km of beach at 12,203 transects spaced every 20 m along the shore. Shoreline change rates are calculated using two methods of weighted least-squares regression, providing cross-validation of model results and identification of statistically significant shoreline trends. Rates are calculated for long (full time series) and short (1940’s-) time series allowing rudimentary investigation into whether rates may be changing with time. Shoreline change behavior is spatially variable along Hawaii beaches with cells of erosion and accretion often separated by only a few hundred meters on a continuous beach, or by short headlands that separate the coast into many small embayments and pocket beaches. Twenty-one km or 9% of the total length of beach studied was completely lost to erosion over the time-span of available data. The remaining beaches of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui are erosional over the long and short term with an average long-term rate of all transects of -0.061 ± 0.005 m/yr and average short-term rate of -0.023 ± 0.008 m/yr. The majority of the shoreline on the three islands (61% long-term, 54% short-term) has a significant trend of erosion or is more likely erosional than accretional. Looking at the islands individually, Kauai beaches are

  2. Structure and stress state of Hawaiian island basalts penetrated by the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project deep core hole

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.; Wilkens, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP), an exploratory hole was drilled in 1993 to a depth of 1056 meters below sea level (mbsl) and a deeper hole was drilled to 3098 mbsl in 1999. A set of geophysical well logs was obtained in the deeper hole that provides fundamental information regarding the structure and the state of stress that exist within a volcanic shield. The acoustic televiewer generates digital, magnetically oriented images of the borehole wall, and inspection of this log yields a continuous record of fracture orientation with depth and also with age to 540 ka. The data depict a clockwise rotation in fracture strike through the surficial Mauna Loa basalts that settles to a constant heading in the underlying Mauna Kea rocks. This behavior reflects the depositional slope directions of lavas and the locations of volcanic sources relative to the drill site. The deviation log delineates the trajectory of the well bore in three-dimensional space. This path closely follows changes in fracture orientation with depth as the drill bit is generally prodded perpendicular to fracture strike during the drilling process. Stress-induced breakouts observed in the televiewer log identify the orientations ot the maximum and minimum horizontal principal stresses to be north-south and east-west, respectively. This stress state is attributed to the combination of a sharp break in onshore-offshore slope that reduces stress east-west and the emergence of Kilauea that increases stress north-south. Breakouts are extensive and appear over approximately 30% of the open hole. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Retired and former asbestos workers in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier-Massey, G.; Wong, G.; Hall, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    In 1979, a pilot survey defined respiratory status and unmet health care needs of retired and former male asbestos workers in Hawaii. Of 1,401 identified subjects, 741 were contacted and 411 were interviewed. Forty-five subjects were between 39 and 54 years of age; 208, between 55 and 64; and 158, age 65 or more. They represented the main ethnic groups--Caucasian, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian and part-Hawaiian, and Japanese--on Oahu. Most subjects had had significant exposure to asbestos in a shipyard, and 83% were current nonsmokers (160 had never smoked, and 111 were ex-smokers for ten years or more). Taking age and ethnicity into account, our group had more chronic respiratory and gastrointestinal problems than the comparable male population of Oahu in 1979, but fewer such problems than active shipyard workers elsewhere. These problems related primarily to current smoking status and secondarily to the length of asbestos exposure. Health care was available, but former workers used it less than retirees, despite having more symptoms. Very few abnormalities were reported by the subjects on their chest X-rays, pulmonary function tests, and sputum cytology performed elsewhere. These findings are compared to those of other shipyards, and support the hypothesis that the biological effects of asbestos exposure are generally mild in Hawaii.

  4. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  5. Reproductive biology of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas) at Tern Island, French Frigate Shoals, Hawai`i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niethammer, K.R.; Balazs, G.H.; Hatfield, J.S.; Nakai, G.L.; Megyesi, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    We monitored nesting of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus) on Tern Island, French Frigate Shoals, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands from 1986 through 1991. Egg oviposition occurred between 26 April and 20 October. Nesting peaked between mid-June and early August. Hatchlings emerged between mid-August and early October. Mean incubation period was 66.0 (range 53-97) days. Mean clutch size was 92.4 (range 33-150) eggs. Mean hatching success was 78.6% when averaged over success of individual nests and 81.1% when calculated as percentage of total number of eggs. Natural hatchling emergence was 71.1%, based on percentage of total number of eggs. Live and dead hatchlings were found when nests were excavated and accounted for 10.0% of the eggs. Incubation periods tended to be longer in early and later portions of the season than in midseason, and incubation periods tended to decrease the farther inland the nest was situated from the high tide line. Maximum hatching success occurred at an incubation length of 66.7 days. Other trends indicated that nesting peaked near 5 July when conditions produced a near optimal incubation period for yielding maximum hatching success.

  6. Reconnaissance Assessment of the Potential for Roadside Dry Wells to Affect Water Quality on the Island of Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.; Senter, Craig A.; Johnson, Adam G.

    2009-01-01

    The County of Hawai'i Department of Public Works (DPW) uses dry wells to dispose of stormwater runoff from roads. Recently, concern has been raised that water entering the dry wells may transport contaminants to groundwater and affect the quality of receiving waters. The DPW operates 2,052 dry wells. Compiling an inventory of these dry wells and sorting it on the basis of presence or absence of urbanization in the drainage area, distance between the bottom of the dry well and the water table, and proximity to receiving waters helps identify the dry wells having greatest potential to affect the quality of receiving waters so that future studies or mitigation efforts can focus on a smaller number of dry wells. The drainage areas of some DPW dry wells encompass urbanized areas, which could be a source of contaminants. Some dry wells penetrate close to or through the water table, eliminating or substantially reducing opportunities for contaminant attenuation between the ground surface and water table. Dry wells that have drainage areas that encompass urbanization, penetrate to near the water table, and are near the coast have the highest potential to affect the quality of coastal waters (this study did not consider specific sections of coastline that may be of greater concern than others). Some DPW dry wells, including a few that have drainage areas that encompass urbanization, lie within the areas contributing recharge (ACR) to drinking-water wells. Numerical groundwater modeling studies by previous investigators indicate that water infiltrating those dry wells could eventually be pumped at drinking-water wells. Dry wells that have a high potential for affecting coastal receiving waters or drinking-water wells can be the focus of studies to further understand the effect of the dry wells on the quality of receiving waters. Possible study approaches include sampling for contaminants at the dry well and receiving water, injecting and monitoring the movement of tracers

  7. Archaeology in the Kilauea East Rift Zone: Part 1, Land-use model and research design, Kapoho, Kamaili and Kilauea Geothermal Subzones, Puna District, Hawaii Island

    SciTech Connect

    Burtchard, G.C.; Moblo, P.

    1994-07-01

    The Puna Geothermal Resource Subzones (GRS) project area encompasses approximately 22,000 acres centered on the Kilauea East Rift Zone in Puna District, Hawaii Island. The area is divided into three subzones proposed for geothermal power development -- Kilauea Middle East Rift, Kamaili and Kapoho GRS. Throughout the time of human occupation, eruptive episodes along the rift have maintained a dynamic landscape. Periodic volcanic events, for example, have changed the coastline configuration, altered patterns of agriculturally suitable sediments, and created an assortment of periodically active, periodically quiescent, volcanic hazards. Because of the active character of the rift zone, then, the area`s occupants have always been obliged to organize their use of the landscape to accommodate a dynamic mosaic of lava flow types and ages. While the specific configuration of settlements and agricultural areas necessarily changed in response to volcanic events, it is possible to anticipate general patterns in the manner in which populations used the landscape through time. This research design offers a model that predicts the spatial results of long-term land-use patterns and relates them to the character of the archaeological record of that use. In essence, the environmental/land-use model developed here predicts that highest population levels, and hence the greatest abundance and complexity of identifiable prehistoric remains, tended to cluster near the coast at places that maximized access to productive fisheries and agricultural soils. With the possible exception of a few inland settlements, the density of archaeological remains expected to decrease with distance from the coastline. The pattern is generally supported in the regions existing ethnohistoric and archaeological record.

  8. A community engagement process identifies environmental priorities to prevent early childhood obesity: the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) program for remote underserved populations in the US Affiliated Pacific Islands, Hawaii and Alaska.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie Kainoa; DeBaryshe, Barbara; Bersamin, Andrea; Nigg, Claudio; Leon Guerrero, Rachael; Rojas, Gena; Areta, Aufa'i Apulu Ropeti; Vargo, Agnes; Belyeu-Camacho, Tayna; Castro, Rose; Luick, Bret; Novotny, Rachel

    2014-12-01

    Underserved minority populations in the US Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI), Hawaii, and Alaska display disproportionate rates of childhood obesity. The region's unique circumstance should be taken into account when designing obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this paper is to (a), describe the community engagement process (CEP) used by the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program for remote underserved minority populations in the USAPI, Hawaii, and Alaska (b) report community-identified priorities for an environmental intervention addressing early childhood (ages 2-8 years) obesity, and (c) share lessons learned in the CEP. Four communities in each of five CHL jurisdictions (Alaska, American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, Hawai'i) were selected to participate in the community-randomized matched-pair trial. Over 900 community members including parents, teachers, and community leaders participated in the CEP over a 14 month period. The CEP was used to identify environmental intervention priorities to address six behavioral outcomes: increasing fruit/vegetable consumption, water intake, physical activity and sleep; and decreasing screen time and intake of sugar sweetened beverages. Community members were engaged through Local Advisory Committees, key informant interviews and participatory community meetings. Community-identified priorities centered on policy development; role modeling; enhancing access to healthy food, clean water, and physical activity venues; and healthy living education. Through the CEP, CHL identified culturally appropriate priorities for intervention that were also consistent with the literature on effective obesity prevention practices. Results of the CEP will guide the CHL intervention design and implementation. The CHL CEP may serve as a model for other underserved minority island populations.

  9. Hawaii Rifts

    SciTech Connect

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Rifts mapped through reviewing the location of dikes and vents on the USGS 2007 Geologic Map of the State of Hawaii, as well as our assessment of topography, and, to a small extent, gravity data. Data is in shapefile format.

  10. Petrogenesis of the Crystal Vitric Tuffs recovered 300 km Northeast of Oahu, from ODP Leg 200: Pyroclastic or Landslide Deposit?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, S. B.; Garcia, M. O.

    2003-12-01

    Hawaiian volcanoes frequently experience flank failure that generate landslides, debris flows, and turbidity currents. The largest landslide known to have occurred on the Hawaiian islands is the Nuuanu landslide. The Nuuanu landslide resulted from the collapse of Koolau volcano on the island of Oahu, Hawaii approximately 2 million years ago where 40% of the Koolau volcano was removed. An ancillary objective of ODP Leg 200 was to drill the distal facies of the deposits emplaced during the Nuuanu landslide. The actual date and the mechanics of this landslide had not been well constrained. It is not known whether the landslide occurred as a single catastrophic event or as a series of collapses. One of the justifications for drilling the Nuuanu landslide deposit was thus to better understand how this and other similar landslides occur. Because they are relatively common events on volcanic islands such an understanding is highly desirable. In addition, there are major potential hazards associated with landslides, e.g., tsunami generation and as in the case of Mt. St. Helens, explosive eruptions. The location of site 1223a is 300 km northeast of Oahu on the crest of the Hawaiian arch. The depth of the hole reaches 41 meters below the seafloor (mbsf) and 23.5 m of core was recovered (61% recovery). Three main types of lithologies were recovered: unconsolidated clays and volcaniclastic turbidites, consolidated volcaniclastic siltstones and claystones, and lithified crystal vitric tuffs. Only 12.7 mbsf was drilled before encountering an ˜ 3 m thick bed of lithified crystal vitric tuff. A second 4 m thick crystal vitric tuff was recovered at 33 mbsf. The main components of both of the crystal vitric tuffs, in order of abundance, are volcanic glass, mineral fragments (the majority are olivine and plagioclase with minor amounts of pyroxene) clay and zeolites, predominantly phillopsite. The volcaniclastic siltstones and claystones contain the same components. Chlorite is found

  11. Honolulu, Hawaii Radar Image, Wrapped Color as Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic radar image shows the city of Honolulu, Hawaii and adjacent areas on the island of Oahu. Honolulu lies on the south shore of the island, right of center of the image. Just below the center is Pearl Harbor, marked by several inlets and bays. Runways of the airport can be seen to the right of Pearl Harbor. Diamond Head, an extinct volcanic crater, is a blue circle along the coast right of center. The Koolau mountain range runs through the center of the image. The steep cliffs on the north side of the range are thought to be remnants of massive landslides that ripped apart the volcanic mountains that built the island thousands of years ago. On the north shore of the island are the Mokapu Peninsula and Kaneohe Bay. High resolution topographic data allow ecologists and planners to assess the effects of urban development on the sensitive ecosystems in tropical regions.

    This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Each cycle of colors (from pink through blue back to pink) represents an equal amount of elevation difference (400 meters, or 1300 feet) similar to contour lines on a standard topographic map. This image contains about 2400 meters (8000 feet) of total relief.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA

  12. Palaeomagnetic intensities from 14C-dated lava flows on the Big Island, Hawaii: 0-21 kyr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pressling, Nicola; Laj, Carlo; Kissel, Catherie; Champion, Duane E.; Gubbins, David

    2006-01-01

    Thellier–Thellier experiments were carried out on 216 lava samples collected by the USGS on the Big Island. 35 individual flows from the Kilauea, Mauna Loa and Hualalai volcanoes are represented and independent radiocarbon dating of the flows yields absolute ages ranging from 290 to 20,240 yrs old. The palaeomagnetic analysis was carried out at the Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement in Gif-sur-Yvette, France, in two custom built, large capacity furnaces that have been specifically designed to minimise oxidation. The temperature steps were adapted to accommodate the characteristic loss of magnetisation at low temperatures seen in the Curie balance results and the use of half-size samples allowed secondary experiments to be carried out where necessary. The strict PICRIT-03 selection criteria were rigorously applied to the data and a high success rate of 53% has been achieved on a sample level. The flow averaged results almost double the existing 14C-dated palaeointensity dataset for this time window and confirm a period of high intensity over the past 4 kyr preceded by a period in which the dipole moment was weaker. However, the values attained in this study are on average higher than previously published data; reliability of these values is discussed.

  13. Epidemiology of ocean sports-related injuries in Hawaii: 'Akahele O Ke Kai'.

    PubMed

    Hartung, G H; Goebert, D A; Taniguchi, R M; Okamoto, G A

    1990-02-01

    Before attempting to prevent ocean activity injuries, as well as to improve treatment strategies, more information is needed regarding the numbers of injuries that are geographic and activity specific and the identification of persons at risk for such injury. Data on 276 injuries that occurred during ocean sports activities on the islands of Oahu and Hawaii over a 10-month period are presented. The injuries were mainly related to swimming and board-surfing, although serious injuries were found for almost all types of sports activities. The majority of those injured were young adult men who were local residents. Over 10% of the injuries required hospitalization, including 4 fatalities due to drowning and 5 spinal cord injuries due to trauma or to SCUBA-related, decompression incidents. Our study identifies the need for determining an estimate of the number of persons engaging in ocean sports, establishes the need for a single reporting system for injuries, determines potential risk factors, and suggests targets for prevention.

  14. Three new species of Fancy Case caterpillars from threatened forests of Hawaii (Lepidoptera, Cosmopterigidae, Hyposmocoma).

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The endemic Hawaiian moth genus Hyposmocoma includes 348 described species and perhaps twice as many that remain undescribed. The genus is unusual within Lepidoptera in that its larvae create distinctive silk cases in which they perambulate while protected and camouflaged. An extraordinary diversity of case types exists, and to date more than ten different types have been identified, each corresponding roughly to a separate evolutionary lineage. In this study, we describe three new species of Hyposmocoma: Hyposmocoma ipohapuusp. n. from Big Island, Hyposmocoma makawaosp. n. from Makawao Forest Reserve in Mauiand Hyposmocoma tantalasp. n. from Mt. Tantalus, Oahu, all of which produce tubular purse cases during their larval stage. We also describe the female of Hyposmocoma inversella Walsingham, which was previously undescribed, and re-describe two closely related species, Hyposmocoma auropurpurea Walsingham and Hyposmocoma nebulifera Walsingham, neither which have been formally described in recent years. We present for the first time, primer sequences for a 705 bp fragment of CAD, designed for Hyposmocoma and relatives. The molecular phylogeny based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci demonstrates that all are distinct species. The discovery of a new, endemic species from Mt. Tantalus, an area with many invasive species, suggests that even relatively degraded areas in Hawaii would be worthy of active conservation efforts.

  15. Quantifying Atmospheric Fallout of Fukushima-derived Radioactive Isotopes in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Trista; Dulai, Henrietta

    2016-04-01

    On March 11, 2011, several reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered damage and released the radioisotopes iodine-131, cesium-134, and cesium-137 into the atmosphere. A week later, these isotopes were detected in aerosols over the state of Hawaii and in milk samples analyzed from the Big Island. Because the detected levels were significantly below levels of health concern, the state did not attempt to quantify the deposition of these nuclides on the islands. This study estimated the magnitude of atmospheric fallout of cesium and iodine, and examined the patterns of cesium wet deposition with precipitation observed in March 2011. Mushroom and soil samples were collected along precipitation gradients on Oahu and the island of Hawaii and analyzed for cesium isotopes using gamma spectrometry. Fukushima-derived fallout was differentiated from historic nuclear weapons testing fallout by the presence of Cs-134, which has a shorter half-life of 2.06 years and the fact that Cs-134 and 137 were released from the severed power plant nearly in parity. We found that Fukushima-derived cesium was present in both mushrooms and soil and the soil inventories ranged 2.2-60.9 Bq/m2 for Cs-137 and 16.1-445.8 Bq/m2 for I-131. Additionally, we found that Fukushima-derived cesium inventories in soils were correlated with precipitation gradients. This research confirmed and quantified the presence of Fukushima-derived fallout in Hawaii, however the activities detected were orders of magnitude lower than fallout associated with the nuclear weapons testing in the Pacific.

  16. Cruise report, RV ocean alert cruise A1-98-HW; January 30 through February 23, 1998, Honolulu to Honolulu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, James V.; Hughes-Clarke, John E.

    1998-01-01

    The major objective of cruise A1-98 was to map portions of the insular slopes of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, and Hawaii and to survey in detail US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) ocean dumping sites using a Simrad EM300 high-resolution multibeam mapping system. The cruise was a jointly funded project between the US Army Corps of Engineers (USCOE), USEPA, and the US Geological Survey (USGS). The USACOE and EPA are interested in these areas because of a series of ocean dump sites off Oahu, Kauai, Maui, and Hawaii (Fig. 1) that require high-resolution base maps for site monitoring purposes. The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program has several on-going projects off Oahu and Maui that lack high-precision base maps for a variety of ongoing geological studies. The cruise was conducted under a Cooperative Agreement between the USGS and the Ocean Mapping Group, University of New Brunswick, Canada.

  17. Logistic regression modeling to assess groundwater vulnerability to contamination in Hawaii, USA.

    PubMed

    Mair, Alan; El-Kadi, Aly I

    2013-10-01

    Capture zone analysis combined with a subjective susceptibility index is currently used in Hawaii to assess vulnerability to contamination of drinking water sources derived from groundwater. In this study, we developed an alternative objective approach that combines well capture zones with multiple-variable logistic regression (LR) modeling and applied it to the highly-utilized Pearl Harbor and Honolulu aquifers on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Input for the LR models utilized explanatory variables based on hydrogeology, land use, and well geometry/location. A suite of 11 target contaminants detected in the region, including elevated nitrate (>1 mg/L), four chlorinated solvents, four agricultural fumigants, and two pesticides, was used to develop the models. We then tested the ability of the new approach to accurately separate groups of wells with low and high vulnerability, and the suitability of nitrate as an indicator of other types of contamination. Our results produced contaminant-specific LR models that accurately identified groups of wells with the lowest/highest reported detections and the lowest/highest nitrate concentrations. Current and former agricultural land uses were identified as significant explanatory variables for eight of the 11 target contaminants, while elevated nitrate was a significant variable for five contaminants. The utility of the combined approach is contingent on the availability of hydrologic and chemical monitoring data for calibrating groundwater and LR models. Application of the approach using a reference site with sufficient data could help identify key variables in areas with similar hydrogeology and land use but limited data. In addition, elevated nitrate may also be a suitable indicator of groundwater contamination in areas with limited data. The objective LR modeling approach developed in this study is flexible enough to address a wide range of contaminants and represents a suitable addition to the current subjective approach.

  18. Logistic regression modeling to assess groundwater vulnerability to contamination in Hawaii, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mair, Alan; El-Kadi, Aly I.

    2013-10-01

    Capture zone analysis combined with a subjective susceptibility index is currently used in Hawaii to assess vulnerability to contamination of drinking water sources derived from groundwater. In this study, we developed an alternative objective approach that combines well capture zones with multiple-variable logistic regression (LR) modeling and applied it to the highly-utilized Pearl Harbor and Honolulu aquifers on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Input for the LR models utilized explanatory variables based on hydrogeology, land use, and well geometry/location. A suite of 11 target contaminants detected in the region, including elevated nitrate (> 1 mg/L), four chlorinated solvents, four agricultural fumigants, and two pesticides, was used to develop the models. We then tested the ability of the new approach to accurately separate groups of wells with low and high vulnerability, and the suitability of nitrate as an indicator of other types of contamination. Our results produced contaminant-specific LR models that accurately identified groups of wells with the lowest/highest reported detections and the lowest/highest nitrate concentrations. Current and former agricultural land uses were identified as significant explanatory variables for eight of the 11 target contaminants, while elevated nitrate was a significant variable for five contaminants. The utility of the combined approach is contingent on the availability of hydrologic and chemical monitoring data for calibrating groundwater and LR models. Application of the approach using a reference site with sufficient data could help identify key variables in areas with similar hydrogeology and land use but limited data. In addition, elevated nitrate may also be a suitable indicator of groundwater contamination in areas with limited data. The objective LR modeling approach developed in this study is flexible enough to address a wide range of contaminants and represents a suitable addition to the current subjective approach.

  19. Modal Interfaces in Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. Alvey

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii, an archipelago where transportation distances are short but the interfaces are many, seeks elimination of modal changes by totally-submerged hydrofoil craft operating at the water surface directly between tourist resort destinations, by dual mode rapid transit vehicles operating directly between the deplaning bridges at Honolulu International Airport and hotel porte-cochere at Waikiki, by demand responsive vehicles for collection and distribution operating on fixed guideways for line haul, and by roll-on/roll-off inter-island ferries for all models of manually operated ground vehicles. The paper also describes facilitation of unavoidable interfaces by innovative sub-systems.

  20. Astronomy in Hawaii: Telescopes, Research, and Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. K.

    2012-08-01

    Since early Polynesian way-finding combined observations of sky and ocean and allowed voyagers to locate and se ttle the far-flung islands of the Pacific, astronomy has impacted the islands of Hawaii. The Twentieth Century saw telescope development on both Haleakala on Maui and Mauna Kea on Hawaii Island. These complexes have developed libraries and information services to support and enhance their research. The University of Hawaii established the Institute for Astronomy (IfA). The IfA Library serves researchers and instrument developers at each of its three locations. Canada-France-Ha waii Telescope, the Joint Astronomy Center, the W. M. Keck Observatory, Gemini Northern Telescope and Subaru Telescope have each developed library services to respond to their unique needs. The librarians at these organizations have formed Astronomy Libraries of HAwaii (A LOHA) to share resources. As electronic research has developed, each library has responded to capitalize on these new capabilities. In coming years, projects such as the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope on Maui and the Thirty Meter Telescope on Hawaii Island have the promise of enlarging our understanding of the Universe. Astronomy libraries in Hawaii will con tinue to enhance their expertise to match the evolution of astronomy technologies and maximize research impact.

  1. Latest Megatsunami Deposits from Giant Submarine Landslides Found at Ka Lae (South Point), Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurtry, G. M.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Dasilveira, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Megatsunami deposits in the Hawaiian Islands have remained controversial because of their astounding implications of gigantic wave heights and runup (>100 m) and their confusion by some investigators with raised reef deposits on land. We have discovered evidence for very late Pleistocene megatsunamis in deposits at Ka Lae (South Point) on the Island of Hawaii. Hawaii island, like all the islands located southeast of Oahu, has undergone subsidence over the past 500 k.y., so upraised reefs are not possible. Here we report several layers of reworked Pahala Ash containing basalt and calcareous sand and shell, with rounded to subangular basalt cobbles and boulders to >1 m in diameter. Exposures facing the fossil -150 m low-stand reef on the Mauna Loa SW Rift contain abundant coral clasts and marine shell, and contain at least four main layers representing separate wave events. Total deposit thickness is >2 m, with inland extent to >100 m from the present coast. The nearest likely reef source is located about 4 km offshore. Calculated runups are >150 m from sea level at the event time, which is between 12 and 14 ka BP based upon radiocarbon dating of the youngest overlying Pahala Ash and the most recent U-series age of corals recovered by submersible from the drowned low-stand reef offshore. Dark gray soot-containing ash overlies the tsunami deposits in places, which may result from wildfires induced by hot ash falls after the megatsunami event. If the ash falls result from magma depressurization, then the suggested Kilauea source has been influenced by giant submarine landslides on the flanks of adjacent Mauna Loa, in this case the Ka Lae East or West giant submarine landslides immediately offshore. The timing of this event and an earlier one at Ka Lae suggested by large boulders buried under the Pahala Ash and resting upon the Kahuku Basalt cliff (Marques, Hildenbrand and McMurtry, Trans. Am. Geophys. Un., in press) reinforce the suggestion that a changing climate may

  2. Plantation medicine in Hawaii 1840 to 1964: a patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Goodell, L M

    1995-11-01

    The first contract laborers arrived from China in 1852, but little attention was paid to their medical needs. In 1886 a physician from Japan arrived to minister to the health and medical needs of the Japanese immigrants. After 1900 most physicians caring for immigrant plantation workers were Western trained from the Mainland. Many advances in medicine were started on plantations such as the second x-ray machine in Hawaii. The 1950s brought rapid changes in plantation medicine with the closing of plantation facilities on Oahu. The author describes her personal experience as a patient in the plantation medical system. PMID:8586550

  3. Hawai'i: The Aloha State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Edward F.

    2009-01-01

    August 21, 2009, marks the 50th anniversary of the entry of the 50th state into the United States of America. All the states have their stories, but as a string of islands in the vast Pacific Ocean, more than 2,000 miles from any other land mass, Hawai'i has a story that is unique in many ways. Consider, for example, that Hawai'i has two official…

  4. Thorium-230 ages of corals and duration of the last interglacial sea-level high stand on Aohu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.; Ludwig, K. R.; Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.

    1994-01-01

    Thorium-230 ages of emergent marine deposits on Oahu, Hawaii, have a uniform distribution of ages from ~114,000 to ~131,000 years, indicating a duration for the last interglacial sea-level high stand of ~17,000 years, in contrast to a duration of ~8000 years inferred from the orbitally tuned marine oxygen isotope record. Sea level on Oahu rose to ??? 1 to 2 meters higher than present by 131,000 years ago or ~6000 years earlier than inferred from the marine record. Although the latter record suggests a shift back to glacial conditions beginning at ~119,000 years ago, the Oahu coral ages indicate a near present sea level until ~114,000 years ago.

  5. Feasibility of using benthic invertebrates as indicators of stream quality in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolff, Reuben H.

    2005-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates were collected from 19 sites on 14 streams on the island of Oahu and from 9 sites on 7 streams on the island of Kauai to evaluate associations between macroinvertebrate assemblages and environmental variables and to determine whether or not it would be feasible, in future studies, to develop macroinvertebrate metrics that would indicate stream quality based on the macroinvertebrate assemblages and/or components of the assemblages. The purpose of applying rapid bioassessment techniques is to identify stream quality problems and to document changes in stream quality. Samples were collected at 10 sites in 1999, 3 sites in 2000, and 5 sites in 2003 on Oahu and at 9 sites on Kauai in 2003. Additionally, multiple year and multiple reach samples were collected at 1 site on Oahu. Macroinvertebrates were collected primarily from boulder/cobble riffles or from the fastest flowing habitat when riffles were absent. Although most streams in Hawaii originate in mountainous, forested areas, the lower reaches often drain urban, agricultural, or mixed land-use areas. The macroinvertebrate community data were used to identify metrics that could best differentiate between sites according to levels of environmental impairment. Environmental assessments were conducted using land-use/land-cover data, bed-sediment and fish-tissue contaminant data, and reach-level environmental data using a calibration set of 15 sites. The final scores of the environmental assessments were used to classify the sites into three categories of impairment: mild, moderate or severe. A number of invertebrate metrics were then tested and calibrated to the environmental assessments scores. The individual metrics that were the best at discerning environmental assessments among the sites were combined into a multimetric benthic index of biotic integrity (BIBI). These metrics were: total invertebrate abundance, taxa richness, insect relative abundance, amphipod abundance, crayfish presence or

  6. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  7. Analysis of microsatellite DNA markers reveals no genetic differentiation between wild and hatchery populations of Pacific threadfin in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Pan, Gang; Yang, Jinzeng

    2010-01-01

    Pacific threadfin, Polydactylus sexfilis, is popular fish in recreational fishing, as well as aquaculture in Hawaii. Its natural population has been continuously declining in the past several decades. Microsatellite DNA markers are useful DNA-based tool for monitoring Pacific threadfin populations. In this study, fifteen Microsatellite (MS) DNA markers were identified from a partial genomic Pacific threadfin DNA library enriched in CA repeats, and six highly-polymorphic microsatellite loci were employed to analyze genetic similarity and differences between the wild population and hatchery population in Oahu Island. A total of 37 alleles were detected at the six MS loci in the two populations. Statistical analysis of fixation index (F(ST)) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed no genetic differentiation between the wild and hatchery populations (F(ST) = 0.001, CI(95%) = -0.01-0.021). Both high genetic diversity (H(o) = 0.664-0.674 and H(e) = 0.710-0.715) and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed in the wild and hatchery populations. Results of genetic bottleneck analysis indicated that the hatchery was founded with sufficient numbers of brooders as inbreeding coefficient is very low (F(IS) = 0.052-0.072) in both wild and hatchery populations. Further studies are needed for comprehensive determinations of genetic varieties of primary founder broodstocks and successive offspring of the hatchery and wild populations with increased number of Pacific threadfin sample collections.

  8. Coinfection and vertical transmission of Brucella and Morbillivirus in a neonatal sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) in Hawaii, USA.

    PubMed

    West, Kristi L; Levine, Gregg; Jacob, Jessica; Jensen, Brenda; Sanchez, Susan; Colegrove, Kathleen; Rotstein, David

    2015-01-01

    The viral genus Morbillivirus and the bacterial genus Brucella have emerged as important groups of pathogens that are known to affect cetacean health on a global scale, but neither pathogen has previously been reported from endangered sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus). A female neonate sperm whale stranded alive and died near Laie on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, US, in May of 2011. Congestion of the cerebrum and enlarged lymph nodes were noted on the gross necropsy. Microscopic findings included lymphoid depletion, chronic meningitis, and pneumonia, suggesting an in utero infection. Cerebrum, lung, umbilicus, and select lymph nodes (tracheobronchial and mediastinal) were positive for Brucella by PCR. Brucella sp. was also cultured from the cerebrum and from mediastinal and tracheobronchial lymph nodes. Twelve different tissues were screened for Morbillivirus by reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR and select tissues by immunohistochemistry, but only the tracheobronchial lymph node and spleen were positive by RT-PCR. Pathologic findings observed were likely a result of Brucella, but Morbillivirus may have played a key role in immune suppression of the mother and calf. The in utero infection in this individual strongly supports vertical transmission of both pathogens.

  9. Coinfection and vertical transmission of Brucella and Morbillivirus in a neonatal sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) in Hawaii, USA.

    PubMed

    West, Kristi L; Levine, Gregg; Jacob, Jessica; Jensen, Brenda; Sanchez, Susan; Colegrove, Kathleen; Rotstein, David

    2015-01-01

    The viral genus Morbillivirus and the bacterial genus Brucella have emerged as important groups of pathogens that are known to affect cetacean health on a global scale, but neither pathogen has previously been reported from endangered sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus). A female neonate sperm whale stranded alive and died near Laie on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, US, in May of 2011. Congestion of the cerebrum and enlarged lymph nodes were noted on the gross necropsy. Microscopic findings included lymphoid depletion, chronic meningitis, and pneumonia, suggesting an in utero infection. Cerebrum, lung, umbilicus, and select lymph nodes (tracheobronchial and mediastinal) were positive for Brucella by PCR. Brucella sp. was also cultured from the cerebrum and from mediastinal and tracheobronchial lymph nodes. Twelve different tissues were screened for Morbillivirus by reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR and select tissues by immunohistochemistry, but only the tracheobronchial lymph node and spleen were positive by RT-PCR. Pathologic findings observed were likely a result of Brucella, but Morbillivirus may have played a key role in immune suppression of the mother and calf. The in utero infection in this individual strongly supports vertical transmission of both pathogens. PMID:25390763

  10. Modeling the Glacial-Interglacial Impact of the Pacific Trade Wind Inversion on the Geomorphology and Hydrology of the Big Island of Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D.; Galewsky, J.

    2011-12-01

    The interaction of the subsiding, subtropical limb of the Hadley circulation and the easterly North Pacific trade winds establishes a persistent thermal inversion about halfway up the eastern flank of the Big Island of Hawaii. This restricts convective rainfall to the lower elevations, resulting in stream channels that cross an order-of-magnitude rainfall gradient, active ephemerally above the inversion and perennially below it. Above the inversion-capped cloud layer, precipitation is on the order of 400 mm/yr, and the landscape features thin, weakly-developed soils, gentle hillslopes, and ephemeral, shallowly incised bedrock streams and grassland gullies. Below the inversion, where rainfall is >3000 mm/yr, the perennial streams run through 50- to 100-m-deep gulches, with steep forested walls covered by thick tropical soils that are prone to landsliding. Meter- to 50-meter waterfalls are common downstream of the inversion layer, and incision of the deep gulches may proceed by upstream migration of these knickpoints from the coast. The positions of these knickpoints likely reflect the history of lava flows in these catchments, base level changes due to landsliding at the coast, and the statistics of water and sediment discharge above and below the trade inversion and through time. This landscape has evolved entirely in the last 0.3 Ma, and thus under conditions of glacial-interglacial climate oscillations. During glacial periods, the inversion's average elevation was likely depressed, although the magnitude of this depression is not well-constrained. An ice cap that was present on Mauna Kea altered the hydrology of the upper slopes of the mountain, providing a continuous source of meltwater to channels that, in the modern setting, are active only during winter storms and rare hurricane strikes. The frequency and intensity of such storms during glaciations are also not well-known. To quantify these effects, we would like to use climate models to inform landscape

  11. Workforce: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Employment in Hawaii (including hourly and salaried jobs and self-employment) is projected to grow by 14 percent from 2002 to 2012, adding over 78,000 new jobs to the state's economy and growing the workforce from 558,220 to 636,480. The rate of growth is slightly lower than the 15 percent increase projected for the nation as a whole. Over the…

  12. Characterizing a Foraging Hotspot for Short-Finned Pilot Whales and Blainville's Beaked Whales Located off the West Side of Hawai'i Island by Using Tagging and Oceanographic Data.

    PubMed

    Abecassis, Melanie; Polovina, Jeffrey; Baird, Robin W; Copeland, Adrienne; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Domokos, Reka; Oleson, Erin; Jia, Yanli; Schorr, Gregory S; Webster, Daniel L; Andrews, Russel D

    2015-01-01

    Satellite tagging data for short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) and Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) were used to identify core insular foraging regions off the Kona (west) Coast of Hawai'i Island. Ship-based active acoustic surveys and oceanographic model output were used in generalized additive models (GAMs) and mixed models to characterize the oceanography of these regions and to examine relationships between whale density and the environment. The regions of highest density for pilot whales and Blainville's beaked whales were located between the 1000 and 2500 m isobaths and the 250 and 2000 m isobaths, respectively. Both species were associated with slope waters, but given the topography of the area, the horizontal distribution of beaked whales was narrower and located in shallower waters than that of pilot whales. The key oceanographic parameters characterizing the foraging regions were bathymetry, temperature at depth, and a high density of midwater micronekton scattering at 70 kHz in 400-650 m depths that likely represent the island-associated deep mesopelagic boundary community and serve as prey for the prey of the whales. Thus, our results suggest that off the Kona Coast, and potentially around other main Hawaiian Islands, the deep mesopelagic boundary community is key to a food web that supports insular cetacean populations.

  13. Characterizing a Foraging Hotspot for Short-Finned Pilot Whales and Blainville's Beaked Whales Located off the West Side of Hawai'i Island by Using Tagging and Oceanographic Data.

    PubMed

    Abecassis, Melanie; Polovina, Jeffrey; Baird, Robin W; Copeland, Adrienne; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Domokos, Reka; Oleson, Erin; Jia, Yanli; Schorr, Gregory S; Webster, Daniel L; Andrews, Russel D

    2015-01-01

    Satellite tagging data for short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) and Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) were used to identify core insular foraging regions off the Kona (west) Coast of Hawai'i Island. Ship-based active acoustic surveys and oceanographic model output were used in generalized additive models (GAMs) and mixed models to characterize the oceanography of these regions and to examine relationships between whale density and the environment. The regions of highest density for pilot whales and Blainville's beaked whales were located between the 1000 and 2500 m isobaths and the 250 and 2000 m isobaths, respectively. Both species were associated with slope waters, but given the topography of the area, the horizontal distribution of beaked whales was narrower and located in shallower waters than that of pilot whales. The key oceanographic parameters characterizing the foraging regions were bathymetry, temperature at depth, and a high density of midwater micronekton scattering at 70 kHz in 400-650 m depths that likely represent the island-associated deep mesopelagic boundary community and serve as prey for the prey of the whales. Thus, our results suggest that off the Kona Coast, and potentially around other main Hawaiian Islands, the deep mesopelagic boundary community is key to a food web that supports insular cetacean populations. PMID:26605917

  14. Radiological survey of the Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard and Environs, Honolulu, Hawaii. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Callis, R.S.

    1987-06-01

    This report presents results of the survey conducted by the Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility personnel to assess levels of environmental radioactivity resulting from maintenance and operation of nuclear-powered warships at the Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard and Environs on the Hawaiian Island of Oahu.

  15. Hawaii success story in phytosanitary irradiation due to researcher-industry-regulator partnership

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hawaii is a pioneer in the use of phytosanitary irradiation. Irradiation is an approved treatment to control quarantine insect pests in 17 fruits and 7 vegetables for export from Hawaii to the U.S. mainland. Since 2000, the commercial x-ray irradiation facility, Hawaii Pride LLC, on the Big Island h...

  16. 33 CFR 80.1480 - Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1480 Section 80.1480 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1480 Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. A line...

  17. 33 CFR 80.1480 - Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1480 Section 80.1480 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1480 Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. A line...

  18. 33 CFR 80.1480 - Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1480 Section 80.1480 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1480 Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. A line...

  19. 33 CFR 80.1470 - Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1470 Section 80.1470 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1470 Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii,...

  20. 33 CFR 80.1470 - Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1470 Section 80.1470 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1470 Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii,...

  1. 33 CFR 80.1480 - Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1480 Section 80.1480 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1480 Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. A line...

  2. 33 CFR 80.1470 - Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1470 Section 80.1470 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1470 Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii,...

  3. 33 CFR 80.1470 - Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1470 Section 80.1470 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1470 Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii,...

  4. 33 CFR 80.1480 - Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1480 Section 80.1480 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1480 Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. A line...

  5. 33 CFR 80.1470 - Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1470 Section 80.1470 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1470 Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii,...

  6. Causes of owl mortality in Hawaii, 1992 to 1994.

    PubMed

    Work, T M; Hale, J

    1996-04-01

    Eighty-one barn owls (Tyto alba) and five Hawaiian owls or pueo (Asio flammeus sandwichensis) from Kauai, Oahu, Lanai, Molokai, Maui and Hawaii (USA) were evaluated for cause of death, November 1992 through August 1994. The most common cause of death in barn owls was trauma (50%) followed by infectious disease (28%) and emaciation (22%). Most traumas apparently resulted from vehicular collisions. Trichomoniasis was the predominant infectious disease and appeared to be a significant cause of death in barn owls in Hawaii. Pasteurellosis and aspergillosis were encountered less commonly. No predisposing cause of emaciation was detected. Stomach contents from 28 barn owls contained mainly insects (64%) of the family Tetigoniidae and Gryllidae, and rodents (18%); the remainder had mixtures of rodents and insects or grass. Three pueo died from trauma and one each died from emaciation and pasteurellosis. We found no evidence of organochlorine, organophosphorus, or carbamate pesticides as causes of death in pueo or barn owls. PMID:8722264

  7. Causes of owl mortality in Hawaii, 1992-1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Hale, J.

    1996-01-01

    Eighty-one barn owls (Tyto alba) and five Hawaiian owls or pueo (Asio flammeus sandwichensis) from Kauai, Oahu, Lanai, Molokai, Maui and Hawaii (USA) were evaluated for cause of death, November 1992 through August 1994. The most common cause of death in barn owls was trauma (50%) followed by infectious disease (28%) and emaciation (22%). Most traumas apparently resulted from vehicular collisions. Trichomoniasis was the predominant infectious disease and appeared to be a significant cause of death in barn owls in Hawaii. Pasteurellosis and aspergillosis were encountered less commonly. No predisposing cause of emaciation was detected. Stomach contents from 28 barn owls contained mainly insects (64%) of the family Tetigoniidae and Gryllidae, and rodents (18%); the remainder had mixtures of rodents and insects or grass. Three pueo died from trauma and one each died from emaciation and pasteurellosis. We found no evidence of organochlorine, organophosphorus, or carbamate pesticides as causes of death in pueo or barn owls.

  8. Causes of owl mortality in Hawaii, 1992 to 1994.

    PubMed

    Work, T M; Hale, J

    1996-04-01

    Eighty-one barn owls (Tyto alba) and five Hawaiian owls or pueo (Asio flammeus sandwichensis) from Kauai, Oahu, Lanai, Molokai, Maui and Hawaii (USA) were evaluated for cause of death, November 1992 through August 1994. The most common cause of death in barn owls was trauma (50%) followed by infectious disease (28%) and emaciation (22%). Most traumas apparently resulted from vehicular collisions. Trichomoniasis was the predominant infectious disease and appeared to be a significant cause of death in barn owls in Hawaii. Pasteurellosis and aspergillosis were encountered less commonly. No predisposing cause of emaciation was detected. Stomach contents from 28 barn owls contained mainly insects (64%) of the family Tetigoniidae and Gryllidae, and rodents (18%); the remainder had mixtures of rodents and insects or grass. Three pueo died from trauma and one each died from emaciation and pasteurellosis. We found no evidence of organochlorine, organophosphorus, or carbamate pesticides as causes of death in pueo or barn owls.

  9. Variability in the CO2-carbonic Acid System Parameters Across Coral Reef Settings in Hawaii: Perspectives from Multi-year Records from NOAA/PMEL MAPCO2 Buoys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Carlo, E. H.; Drupp, P. S.; Thompson, R. W.; Mackenzie, F. T.; Muscielewicz, S.; Jones, S. M.; Feely, R. A.; Sabine, C. L.

    2012-12-01

    A series of MAP-CO2 buoys deployed in the coastal waters of Hawaii have produced multiyear high temporal resolution CO2 records in four different coral reef environments of the island of Oahu, Hawaii. This study is part of an integrated effort to understand the factors that influence the dynamics of CO2-carbonic acid system parameters in waters bathing Pacific high island coral reef ecosystems and subject to differing natural and anthropogenic stresses. The MAP-CO2 buoys are located in backreef, lagoonal, and fringing reef sites, and measure CO2 and O2 in seawater and in the atmosphere. Other sensors on the buoys record physical and biogeochemical parameters (CTD, chl-a, turbidity, pH, nitrate). The buoy records, when combined with data from synoptic spatial sampling, have allowed us to examine the interplay between biological cycles of productivity/respiration and calcification/dissolution and biogeochemical and physical forcing on hourly to inter-annual time scales, including those of land runoff. Our data demonstrate that coral reefs are subject to a wide range of pCO2, both on short and long time scales, and significant differences in the CO2-carbonic acid system dynamics across these various settings. We report that coral communities currently thrive in areas where the concentrations of CO2 can range from extremes as low as 200 ppm to as high as 1000 ppm and can fluctuate by ~500 ppm on any given day. The data provide evidence that net ecosystem calcification currently occurs in the presence of levels of CO2 predicted to occur well into the next century, although these coral reef ecosystems are only exposed to the extremes for short periods of time each day.

  10. Participant-Observation and Pile Sorting: Methods for Eliciting Local Understandings and Valuations of Plants as a First Step towards Informed Community Participation in Environment and Health Initiatives in Hawai'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollin, Lisa X.; McMillen, Heather; Wilcox, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Semistructured interviews were conducted to explore local, lay perceptions and valuations of native and nonnative flora in order to better understand and anticipate community perceptions of, and potential participation in revegetation or eradication conservation efforts in multiethnic communities of Oahu, Hawai'i. The authors detail the…

  11. Two Additional Invasive Scarabaeoid Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of dynastine scarab beetles are reported for the first time on the island of Hawaii: the Pasadena masked chafer, Cyclocephala pasadenae (Casey)(Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini) and the Temnorhynchus retusus (Fabricius)(Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Pentodontini). The Pasadena mask...

  12. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for analysis of population differentiation in the tree legume Acacia koa (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) in the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Fredua-Agyeman, Rudolph; Adamski, Daniel; Liao, Richard Junfu; Morden, Clifford; Borthakur, Dulal

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this research was to develop and use microsatellite markers to characterize the high-value timber tree Acacia koa (koa), which is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. Genomic DNA fragments of 300-1000 bp were cloned and sequenced following enrichment for microsatellite motifs by PCR using 7 oligonucleotide repeat primers in separate reactions. Among 96 sequences analyzed, 63 contained unique microsatellite motifs flanked by variable sequences. A dual PCR method involving a primer walking step was used to develop 15 primer pairs. Another 16 primer pairs were developed directly from the variable sequences on both sides of the microsatellite motifs. These 31 primer pairs were tested on 172 koa plants representing 11 populations collected from 4 of the major Hawaiian Islands. Nine of the primers that identified polymorphic microsatellite loci and 3 that detected unique alleles exclusively in some populations were used for genetic diversity studies of koa. Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling of the allelic phenotype data revealed that koa from Kauai formed a distinct group separate from koa of the neighboring islands of Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii. The oldest of the four islands, Kauai, also had the most diverse populations of koa.

  13. Retrospective pathology survey of green turtles Chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis in the Hawaiian Islands, 1993-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Rameyer, R.A.; Morris, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    We necropsied 255 stranded green turtles Chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis (FP) from the Hawaiian Islands, North Pacific, from August 1993 through May 2003. Of these, 214 (84%) were euthanized due to advanced FP and the remainder were found dead in fresh condition. Turtles were assigned a standardized tumor severity score ranging from 1 (lightly tumored) to 3 (heavily tumored). Tumors were counted and measured and categorized as external, oral, or internal and tissues evaluated by light microscopy. Turtles in tumor score 2 and 3 categories predominated, and tumor score 3 turtles were significantly larger than the other 2 categories. More juveniles stranded than subadults or adults. Total cross-sectional area of tumors increased significantly with straight carapace length (SCL). Frequency distribution of total number of external tumors per turtle was significantly skewed to the right, and there were significantly more tumors at the front than rear of turtles. Eighty percent of turtles had oral tumors, and 51% of turtles with oral tumors had tumors in the glottis. Thirty-nine percent of turtles had internal tumors, most of them in the lung, kidney and heart. Fibromas predominated in lung, kidney and musculoskeletal system whereas myxofibromas were more common in intestines and spleen. Fibrosarcomas of low-grade malignancy were most frequent in the heart, and heart tumors had a predilection for the right atrium. Turtles with FP had significant additional complications including inflammation with vascular flukes, bacterial infections, poor body condition, and necrosis of salt gland. Turtles with oral tumors were more likely to have secondary complications such as pneumonia. Most turtles came from the island of Oahu (74%) followed by Maui (20%), Hawaii, Molokai, and Lanai (<3% each). On Oahu, significantly more turtles we necropsied stranded along the northwestern and northeastern shores.

  14. Report on Hawaii geothermal power plant project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The Hawaii Geothermal Generator Project is the first power plant in the State of Hawaii to be powered by geothermal energy. This plant, which is located in the Puna District on the Island of Hawaii, produces three (3) megawatts of electricity utilizing the steam phase from the geothermal well. This project represents the climax of the geophysical research efforts going on for two decades in the Hawaiian Islands which resulted in the discovery of a significant reservoir of geothermal energy which could be put to practical use. In 1978 the Department of Energy, in conjunction with the State of Hawaii, entered into negotiations to design and build a power plant. The purpose and objective of this plant was to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing and operating a geothermal power plant located in a remote volcanically active area. A contract was signed in mid 1978 between the Research Corporation of the University of Hawaii (RCUH) and the Department of Energy (DOE). To date, the DOE has provided 8.3 million dollars with the State of Hawaii and others contributing 2.1 million dollars. The cost of the project exceeded its original estimates by approximately 25%. These increases in cost were principally contributed to the higher cost for construction than was originally estimated. Second, the cost of procuring the various pieces of equipment exceed their estimates by 10 to 20 percent, and third, the engineering dollar per man hour rose 20 to 25 percent.

  15. Hawaii's geothermal program

    SciTech Connect

    Zorpette, G.

    1992-02-01

    This paper reports that in a forest on the island of Hawaii, legal and regulatory activity has postponed the start-up of a small new power plant and imperilled the design and construction of several facilities like it. The same old story Hardly. The power plants at stake are not nuclear or coal- or even oil-fired, but geothermal, widely considered one of the more environmentally benign ways of generating electricity. In a further twist, the opposition is coming not only from the usual citizens; and environmental groups, but also from worshippers of a native good and, it has been alleged, growers of marijuana, a lucrative local crop. The clash occurs just as geothermal power sources have finally proven commercially viable, experts say, adding that technological advances and industry trends in the United States and elsewhere seem to factor great expansion in its use.

  16. Tsunami Warning in the Near Field: the Approach in Hawai'i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, G. J.; Hirshorn, B.; McCreery, C. S.; Cessaro, R. K.; Weinstein, S. A.

    2005-12-01

    Hawai`i could suffer an earthquake so slow that, like Nicaragua 1992, not even residents on the immediate coast would be alarmed. With so little time for warning, we cannot wait for water-level confirmation of a tsunami. All shallow (<20 km) Hawaiian earthquakes larger than MW=6.5 are thrust events on or near a volcano's basal décollement. These will be tsunamigenic if close to the shoreline. If we assume a thrust mechanism, tsunami warning will require only epicenter and magnitude information and a crude depth determination (is the hypocenter shallower or deeper than 20 km?). By far the most reliable rapid magnitude measurement is MWP, made from the initial few tens of seconds of the P-arrival on broadband seismographs. For a large Kona earthquake, however, the sole broadband station on Hawai`i will be clipped, forcing us to measure MWP from the severely-restricted range perspective provided by the only other broadband stations: on `Oahu. To rectify this situation, broadband seismometers are being installed on all the major islands. With the new network, warnings (initially made assuming shallow depth) will be possible within two minutes of earthquake origin time. By combining information from co-located accelerometers and an expanding short-period network, our goal is to reduce the time-to-warning to 90 seconds for any earthquake within the Hawaiian Islands. With Mauna Loa slowly awakening and the possibility that volcano inflation might drive a great basal-slip earthquake, our target is to achieve 90-second warning within two years.

  17. History of Aedes mosquitoes in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Jonathan C; Kapan, Durrell D

    2013-06-01

    As a geographically isolated island chain with no native mosquitoes, Hawaii is a model for examining the mechanisms behind insect vector invasions and their subsequent interactions with each other and with human populations. The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and the Asian tiger mosquito, Ae. albopictus, have been responsible for epidemics of dengue in Hawaii. As one of the world's earliest locations to be invaded by both species, Hawaii's history is particularly relevant because both species are currently invading new areas worldwide and are implicated in outbreaks of emergent or reemergent pathogens such as dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. Here we analyze the historical records of mosquito introductions in order to understand the factors that have led to the current distribution of these 2 mosquitoes in the Hawaiian Islands.

  18. Wellhead treatment costs for groundwater contaminated with pesticides: A preliminary analysis for pineapple in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon-Guerrero, Ephraim D.; Loague, Keith; Green, Richard E.

    1994-01-01

    In Hawaii, trace concentrations of pesticides used in the production of pineapple were found in the groundwater supplies of Mililani Town in the Pearl Harbor Basin on the island of Oahu. Groundwater serves as the major source of drinking water and residents pay for wellhead treatment of the contaminated water, via their monthly water bill. The agricultural chemical users within the Pearl Harbor Basin do not include these wellhead treatment costs in their production costs. The agricultural industry benefits from using pesticides but does not pay the entire societal cost of using these chemicals. In this study we evaluate the specific financial cost of wellhead treatment, and not the economic value of groundwater. While wellhead treatment costs could conceivably be shared by several parties, this study focuses on the financial impact of the pineapple industry alone. This study factors annual wellhead treatment costs into annual pineapple production costs to measure the effect on annual financial return from pineapple production. Wellhead treatment costs are calculated from the existing granulated activated carbon (GAC) water treatment facility for Millilani Wells I and II. Pineapple production costs are estimated from previous cost of production studies. The inclusion of wellhead treatment costs produces different production-cost results, depending on the scale of analysis. At the local scale, the Mililani wellhead treatment costs can be factored into the production costs of the pineapple fields, which were probably responsible for contamination of the Mililani Wells, without causing a deficit in economic return. At the larger regional scale, however, the return from all of the pineapple grown in the Pearl Harbor Basin can not sustain the cost of wellhead treatmentfor the entire water supply of the basin. Recommendations point to the prevention of groundwater contamination as more cost-effective measure than wellhead treatment.

  19. El Nino influence on Holocene reef accretion in Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rooney, J.; Fletcher, C.; Grossman, E.; Engels, M.; Field, M.

    2004-01-01

    New observations of reef accretion from several locations show that in Hawai'i accretion during early to middle Holocene time occurred in areas where today it is precluded by the wave regime, suggesting an increase in wave energy. Accretion of coral and coralline algae reefs in the Hawaiian Islands today is largely controlled by wave energy. Many coastal areas in the main Hawaiian Islands are periodically exposed to large waves, in particular from North Pacific swell and hurricanes. These are of sufficient intensity to prevent modern net accretion as evidenced by the antecedent nature of the seafloor. Only in areas sheltered from intense wave energy is active accretion observed. Analysis of reef cores reveals patterns of rapid early Holocene accretion in several locations that terminated by middle Holocene time, ca. 5000 yr ago. Previous analyses have suggested that changes in Holocene accretion were a result of reef growth "catching up" to sea level. New data and interpretations indicate that the end of reef accretion in the middle Holocene may be influenced by factors in addition to sea level. Reef accretion histories from the islands of Kaua'i, O'ahu, and Moloka'i may be interpreted to suggest that a change in wave energy contributed to the reduction or termination of Holocene accretion by 5000 yr ago in some areas. In these cases, the decrease in reef accretion occurred before the best estimates of the decrease in relative sea-level rise during the mid-Holocene high stand of sea level in the main Hawaiian Islands. However, reef accretion should decrease following the termination of relative sea-level rise (ca. 3000 yr ago) if reef growth were "catching up" to sea level. Evidence indicates that rapid accretion occurred at these sites in early Holocene time and that no permanent accretion is occurring at these sites today. This pattern persists despite the availability of hard substrate suitable for colonization at a wide range of depths between -30 m and the

  20. Piliwaiwai: Problem Gambling in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Robin-Marie

    2016-03-01

    Gambling is illegal in Hawai'i, but it is accessible through technology (eg, the internet), inexpensive trips to Las Vegas, and illegal gaming such as lottery sales, internet gambling, and sports betting. Where there are opportunities to gamble, there is a probability that problem gambling exists. The social costs of gambling are estimated to be as high as $26,300,000 for Hawai'i. Because no peer-reviewed research on this topic exists, this paper has gathered together anecdotal accounts and media reports of illegal gambling in Hawai'i, the existence of Gamblers Anonymous meetings operating on some of the islands, and an account of workshops on problem gambling that were provided by the author on three Hawaiian Islands. Through these lenses of gambling in Hawai'i, it is suggested that there are residents in Hawai'i who do experience problem gambling, yet it is unknown to what extent. Nonetheless, this paper argues that research and perhaps a public health initiative are warranted. PMID:27011888

  1. 76 FR 2095 - Notice of Public Scoping Meetings for the Hawai'i Interisland Renewable Energy Program: ’Wind...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... of Public Scoping Meetings for the Hawai'i Interisland Renewable Energy Program: 'Wind Programmatic... Islands to receive comments on the scope of the Hawai`i Interisland Renewable Energy Program: Wind... under the Hawai`i Interisland Renewable Energy Program (HIREP) and the range of reasonable...

  2. Forecasting the role of renewables in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathaye, J.; Ruderman, H.

    1980-11-01

    Alternative future energy supply systems for Hawaii were investigated. Other elements of the study examined future demand for energy, what indigeneous resources are available, what technologies will be sufficiently developed to exploit them, and what will be their social, economic, and environmental consequences. Each of the four counties in the state appear to have sufficient natural resources to supply nearly all of their energy needs. The island is in the belt of the northeast trade winds, has extensive high temperature geothermal resources, enjoys a higher average insolation than the mainland states, and the large temperature gradients and absence of a continental shelf make Hawaii a prime location for OTEC.

  3. Population structure and comparative phylogeography of jack species (Caranx ignobilis and C. melampygus) in the high Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Santos, Scott R; Xiang, Yu; Tagawa, Annette W

    2011-01-01

    Members of the family Carangidae are top-level predators and highly prized food and sport fishes. Although ecologically and economically important, little is known about the biology of numerous species in the family. This is particularly true of the jacks Caranx ignobilis and C. melampygus, which have experienced recent population reductions around the high Hawaiian Islands due to overfishing. Previous studies have documented territorial tendencies as well as cases of long-distance excursions in both species, suggesting populations may exhibit a range of structure at the genetic level. To explore this possibility, mitochondrial DNA ATPase6 and ATPase8 gene sequence variation was assessed from 91 individuals (33 C. ignobilis and 58 C. melampygus) spanning the islands of Kaua'i, O'ahu, Moloka'i, Maui, and Hawai'i. Although a total of 20 distinct haplotypes (8 for C. ignobilis; 12 for C. melampygus) were recovered, no evidence of population structure was found for either species across the examined geographic range. However, distinct demographic patterns were identified, implying differing evolutionary histories and/or population dynamics. Additionally, ∼ 6% of the examined C. ignobilis were C. ignobilis × C. melampygus hybrids because they harbored mitochondrial haplotypes typical of C. melampygus. These hybrids contribute to measurable gene flow between the species and may play a significant role in the evolution of the genus.

  4. Disparate Rates of Utilization and Progression to Combined Heart Failure and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease among Asians and Pacific Islanders in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Davis, James; Tam, Elizabeth; Taira, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of the study were to compare ethnic differences in the rates of emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations, and to examine ethnic differences in how quickly patients with either chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or congestive heart failure (CHF) developed both diseases. A large health plan in Hawai.i provided administrative data (2007 to 2010) on patients of Native Hawaiian, Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, and White race/ethnicity. The study found distinct patterns of health risks among the multi-ethnic population of patients with COPD, CHF, or both conditions. Native Hawaiians had the highest rates of ED visits and hospitalizations. Japanese, the largest ethnic group and relatively low health risks, were selected as the reference population. In adjusted regression models, Filipino patients with CHF developed COPD the most rapidly; 71% faster than Japanese patients. Compared to Japanese, Native Hawaiians with COPD transitioned to CHF 68% faster. The study highlights ethnic disparities in adverse events and disease progression in patients with COPD and CHF, with important implications for clinical practice. Health care providers may want to inform patients of ways to mitigate the risks. PMID:27563499

  5. Overview of Proposed Geothermal Development in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    1990-02-15

    During the four hours of the public meeting held by the State Department of Business and Economic Development (DBED) in Maui in November 1989, not one of the 200 persons present spoke in favor of geothermal development on the Big Island to supply power to Oahu. However, we were all sure after the meeting that the State would proceed on its course to develop the project in spite of any public concerns. This situation we find incredible considering there are many unanswered questions on a subject of paramount importance to the economic and environmental well being of all of us. Our concerns are well expressed in the editorial of The Maui News, December 10, 1989 . We wish to set the record straight with some facts from an economic, financial and utility planning viewpoint, recognizing also the potentially serious social, health and other environmental impacts.

  6. Full Vector Analyses of the Short-Term Behavior Recorded in Long Volcanic Sequences in Hawaii, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Bervera, E.

    2007-05-01

    The Hawaiian volcanoes, in principle, offer the opportunity of observing the geomagnetic field behavior from present back to 5.72 Ma (from the Big Island of Hawaii to the island of Kauai). Thus, new paleomagnetic measurements coupled with radioisotopic dating are revolutionizing our understanding of the geodynamo by providing terrestrial lava records of the short-term behavior of the paleomagnetic field. As part of our investigations of some of these Hawaiian volcanoes, we have sampled long volcanic sequences of the Waianae, Koolau (island of O'ahu) and Mauna Loa (Big Island of Hawaii) volcanoes. These volcanic edifices have collapsed in the past leaving highly dissected lava sequences ideal for paleomagnetic sampling. We have sampled and studied in detail the directional characteristics and their respective absolute paleointensities of three successive reversals, namely, Gilbert-Gauss, Lower and Upper Mammoth polarity transitions recorded on Waianae lavas, Cryptochron C2r.2r-1 (ca. 2.514 +/- 0.030 Ma) as well as the Kaena Subchron recorded in the Koolau Volcano and the Laschamp and Pringle Falls excursions recorded on lavas from the Mauna Loa volcano (Big Island of Hawaii). The records of the three successive Gilbert-Gauss, Lower and Upper Mammoth reversals confirm that large oscillations of directions precede or follow the reversals, which reminds waveforms typical of paleosecular variation with their amplitude being considerably amplified by the decrease of the dipole. Determinations of absolute paleointensity were attempted on more than 750 samples. Special care was taken at selecting data obtained from segments covering more than 50% of the remanent magnetization of the samples. This procedure limited the success rate to 13% for the Waianae lavas, 70% for the Cryptochron flows and 25% for the Kaena samples but provided consistent and reliable paleointensities. In addition to other time intervals, the results document the field variations surrounding the five

  7. Submarine Groundwater Discharge and Fate Along the Coast of Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Island of Hawai`i; Part 3, Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Nearshore Waters and Coastal Groundwater Plumes, December 2003-April 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, Eric E.; Logan, Joshua B.; Presto, M. Katherine; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2010-01-01

    During seven surveys between December 2003 and April 2006, 1,045 depth profiles of surface water temperature and salinity were collected to examine variability in water column properties and the influence of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) on the nearshore waters and coral reef complex of Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Island of Hawai`i. This effort was made to characterize the variability in nearshore water properties with seasonality and hydrodynamic forcing (tides, winds, and waves) and to determine the spatial and vertical extent of influence of SGD plumes on the Park's marine biological resources. The results of this study reveal that nearshore waters of the Park were persistently influenced by plumes of submarine groundwater discharge that are generally colder, less saline, and more concentrated in nutrients than the surrounding seawater. These plumes extended between 100 and 1,000 m offshore to depths ranging between 1 and 5 m and often contained several million to hundreds of millions of gallons of brackish water. In essence, the Park's nearshore, like much of the arid west coast of Hawai`i, is estuarine. Although the groundwater plumes were persistent over the years studied, their spatial extent and volume varied tidally, seasonally, and annually. In one season, April 2004, an inverse relation of decreasing salinity with increasing temperature was found in the upper 5 m of the water column, unlike the other seasons, when surface water temperature and salinity were positively correlated. These data provide the first comprehensive record of nearshore water column properties within the Park boundaries and a baseline for detecting and assessing future conditions. Various resort, industrial, and municipal developments, either planned or under construction around the Park, will require significant groundwater supplies and will likely alter groundwater quantity and quality. The flux and quality of groundwater through the National Park are

  8. Inventory of Anchialine Pools in Hawaii's National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, David

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND Anchialine (?near the sea?) pools are rare and localized brackish waters along coastal lava flows that exhibit tidal fluctuations without a surface connection with the ocean (Fig. 1). In Hawai`i, these pools were frequently excavated or otherwise modified by Hawaiians to serve as sources of drinking water, baths and fish ponds. National Parks in Hawai`i possess the full spectrum of pool types, from walled fish ponds to undisturbed pools in collapsed lava tubes, cracks and caves. Pools contain relatively rare and unique fauna threatened primarily by invasive species and habitat loss. In collaboration with the National Park Service?s Inventory and Monitoring Program, the U.S. Geological Survey?s Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center undertook inventories of these unique ecosystems in two National Parks on the island of Hawai`i: Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park.

  9. The Response of the Iao Aquifer to Ground-Water Development, Rainfall, and Land-Use Practices Between 1940 and 1998, Island of Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, William; Presley, Todd K.

    2001-01-01

    Ground water pumped from the Iao aquifer has been used for agricultural purposes since 1948, and domestic purposes since 1955. In 1990, the Hawaii State Commission on Water Resource Management established a value of 20 million gallons per day for the sustainable yield of the aquifer. Water-level data from observation wells throughout the aquifer and information on the depth to and thickness of the transition zone between freshwater and saltwater at the Waiehu deep monitor well indicate that pumping rates near the sustainable yield value of 20 million gallons per day could result in salt-water intrusion in some pumped wells. Since the introduction of pumpage in 1948 and the reduction of recharge in 1980, water levels have declined, chloride concentrations of the pumped water have increased, and the transition zone between freshwater and saltwater has risen. Water levels declined by about 18 feet between 1940 and 1998 in the area near Iao Stream, and by as much as 6 feet between 1977 and 1997 in the vicinity of the major well fields near Waiehu Stream. Chloride concentrations of pumped water have risen at all the well fields, but are presently below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended standard of 250 milligrams per liter. The chloride concentration of water pumped from Mokuhau 2, however, was 460 milligrams per liter in late 1996 when pumping was halted at this well. The midpoint of the transition zone, as measured at the Waiehu deep monitor well, rose by about 108 feet between 1985 and 1998.

  10. Translational research education and training needs in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle R; Inouye, Jillian; Seto, Todd B; Braun, Kathryn L

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this needs assessment was to identify the translational research education and training needs of researchers and administrators working in Hawai'i's communities and to use the finding to develop an education and training plan. The assessment was led by a community advisory board with members from community health centers, social agencies, hospitals, and academia on O'ahu. The survey, developed with input of the community advisory board, was sent to 94 administrators and researchers involved or affiliated with research being conducted in Hawai'i. Forty-one respondents (43%) completed the survey. Respondents wanted education and training in research processes, specific research-related skills, and facilitating interactions between community and academic researchers. Sixty-one percent were interested in training related to community-engaged research and yearly seminars on "collaborative mentoring." Popular topics of interest were related to data monitoring, networking with different cultural groups, statistics, and human subjects review. A majority of respondents wanted to attend workshops, seminars, and presentations rather than take a class. Approximately 50% of the respondents wanted to gain information through on-line training. Findings guided the development of a translational research education and training plan for the University of Hawai'i National Institute of Health (NIH) Research Centers in Minority Institutions Multidisciplinary and Translational Research Infrastructure Expansion (RMATRIX) grant.

  11. Sandia-Power Surety Task Force Hawaii foam analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, Annie

    2010-11-01

    The Office of Secretary of Defense (OSD) Power Surety Task Force was officially created in early 2008, after nearly two years of work in demand reduction and renewable energy technologies to support the Warfighter in Theater. The OSD Power Surety Task Force is tasked with identifying efficient energy solutions that support mission requirements. Spray foam insulation demonstrations were recently expanded beyond field structures to include military housing at Ft. Belvoir. Initial results to using the foam in both applications are favorable. This project will address the remaining key questions: (1) Can this technology help to reduce utility costs for the Installation Commander? (2) Is the foam cost effective? (3) What application differences in housing affect those key metrics? The critical need for energy solutions in Hawaii and the existing relationships among Sandia, the Department of Defense (DOD), the Department of Energy (DOE), and Forest City, make this location a logical choice for a foam demonstration. This project includes application and analysis of foam to a residential duplex at the Waikulu military community on Oahu, Hawaii, as well as reference to spray foam applied to a PACOM facility and additional foamed units on Maui, conducted during this project phase. This report concludes the analysis and describes the utilization of foam insulation at military housing in Hawaii and the subsequent data gathering and analysis.

  12. Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies.

  13. Predicting Cigarette Use among Hawai'i Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Else, Iwalani R. N.; Hishinuma, Earl S.; Goebert, Deborah A.; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Baker, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine rates and correlates and to predict cigarette use for Hawaiian and non-Hawaiian adolescents in Hawai'i. Data were collected on a multi-ethnic adolescent sample of 7,317 students in five high schools from three islands in the state of Hawai'i from 1992-1996. Psychopathology symptoms, school measures,…

  14. Notes from the Field: Outbreak of Locally Acquired Cases of Dengue Fever--Hawaii, 2015.

    PubMed

    Johnston, David; Viray, Melissa; Ushiroda, Jenny; Whelen, A Christian; Sciulli, Rebecca; Gose, Remedios; Lee, Roland; Honda, Eric; Park, Sarah Y

    2016-01-22

    On October 21, 2015, the Hawaii Department of Health (HDOH) was notified of a positive dengue immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody result in a woman residing on Hawaii Island (also known as the Big Island). The patient had no history of travel off the island, and other family members reported having similar signs and symptoms, which consisted of fever, headache, myalgias and arthralgias, and a generalized erythematous rash. HDOH initiated an investigation to identify any additional cases and potential exposure sources. On October 24, HDOH received report of a group of mainland U.S. visitors who had traveled together on Hawaii Island, including several who had developed a febrile illness. Additionally, on October 27, HDOH was notified of an unrelated person, also on Hawaii Island, with a positive dengue IgM result. As of November 26, 2015, HDOH had identified 107 laboratory-confirmed cases of dengue fever, with dates of onset ranging from September 11 to November 18, 2015.

  15. Ingestion of plastic debris by Laysan albatrosses and wedge-tailed shearwaters in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fry, D.M.; Fefer, S.I.; Sileo, L.

    1987-01-01

    Surveys of Laysan Albatross and Wedge-tailed Shearwaters on Midway and Oahu Island, Hawaii, identified a high proportion of birds with plastic in the upper gastrointestinal tract, representing hazards to the health of adult birds and their chicks. Fifty Laysan Albatross chicks were examined for plastic items lodged within the upper digestive tract. Forty-five (90%) contained plastic, including 3 chicks having proventricular impactions or ulcerative lesions. Plastic items in 21 live albatross chicks weighed a mean of 35.7 g chicka??1 (range 1a??175 g). Four dead birds contained 14a??175 g (mean 76.7 g). Two of four adult albatross examined contained plastic in the gut. Laysan albatross chicks have the highest reported incidence and amount of ingested plastic of any seabird species. Twelve of 20 adult Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (60%) contained plastic particles 2a??4 mm in diameter. Impaction did not appear to be a significant hazard for adult shearwaters. Shearwater chicks were not examined. Chemical toxicity of plastic polymers, plasticizers and antioxidant additives is low, although many pigments are toxic and plastics may serve as vehicles for the adsorption of organochlorine pollutants from sea water, and the toxicity of plastics is unlikely to pose significant hazard compared to obstruction and impaction of the gut.

  16. Ground-water status report, Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).

  17. High-energy deposits newly recognized in Hawaii Island (South Point): a catastrophic tsunami generated by South Kona or Kalae flank collapse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, F. O.; Hildenbrand, A.; McMurtry, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    Most of the population and economic activity on Earth is concentrated in coastal areas. Tsunamis, in particular, represent a major threat, because they can travel great distances and impact the far surrounding shorelines within a few hours and cause considerable damage. Two main geological processes can generate destructive tsunamis: (1) high-magnitude earthquakes within the oceans, mostly along active margins, which can generate long-wavelength, low amplitude waves; and (2) giant mass-movements, such as catastrophic flank failure at oceanic volcanoes, which can instantaneously mobilize great amounts of material (several hundreds of km3) and generate high amplitude, medium-wavelength tsunamis. The Hawaiian volcanic chain has been affected by the largest landslides on Earth. Big Island, especially, has faced several catastrophic episodes of flank destabilization, the number, the amplitude and the age of which remain controversial. Knowing that there were flank collapses in South Kona and Kalae, we went to South Point to look for onland evidence of the collapse(s) and related tsunami(s), and found a deposit composed of polygenetic clasts, from mm3 to several m3 in size, mostly angular to sub-rounded, with a sandy to silty matrix. The deposit is covered by pyroclasts (the Pahala ash?), which seem to have been locally remobilized to fill in the spaces in the underlying conglomeratic deposit. The absence of a continuous indurate cement precludes an inland origin for the sedimentary deposit. Moreover, the South Point deposit lies on a flat platform far from the main topographic relief of the Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes. Emplacement of the ash layers covering the deposits requires a highly explosive eruption, which we attribute to pressure release driven by the collapse. Presently the deposit is lying at an altitude of ca. 10 m, but in the past it was higher, since the island has experienced significant ongoing subsidence. From previous estimates of the age of the

  18. Melanoma and Hawaii's youth.

    PubMed

    Williams, Laura

    2004-03-01

    Hawaii's sandy beaches, warm crystal waters, and mild climate attract tourists and residents alike to enjoy hours of outdoor activities under the sun. As frequent participants of these sun related activities, Hawaii's youth are exposed to high levels and duration of ultraviolet radiation throughout their early lives. This study aims to define occurrence trends of cutaneous malignant melanoma in Hawaii in correlation to increased childhood ultraviolet exposure. This paper addresses trends in melanoma incidence during 1979-2002 for Hawaii residents < 25 years of age. Data obtained from this review were analyzed by age group and ethnicity. Results show that although the incidence of melanoma is increasing for Hawaii residents over 25 years of age, the rate of melanoma occurrence in Hawaii's youth (< 25 years) is not increasing. PMID:15124743

  19. 33 CFR 165.1407 - Security Zones; Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... defined in 33 CFR 110.235(a). (3) Kalihi Channel and Keehi Lagoon, Oahu. All waters of Kalihi Channel and..., MARSEC Level 2 or Maritime Security Level 2 means, as defined in 33 CFR 101.105, the level for which... heightened risk of a transportation security incident. (c) Regulations. (1) Under 33 CFR 165.33, entry...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1407 - Security Zones; Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... defined in 33 CFR 110.235(a). (3) Kalihi Channel and Keehi Lagoon, Oahu. All waters of Kalihi Channel and..., MARSEC Level 2 or Maritime Security Level 2 means, as defined in 33 CFR 101.105, the level for which... heightened risk of a transportation security incident. (c) Regulations. (1) Under 33 CFR 165.33, entry...